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Sample records for parents completed baseline

  1. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  2. Barriers to Participation in Parenting Programs: The Relationship between Parenting Stress, Perceived Barriers, and Program Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Whitney L; Moreland, Angela D; Valle, Linda Anne; Chaffin, Mark J

    2018-04-01

    Families experiencing child maltreatment or risk factors for child maltreatment often receive referrals to interventions focused on changing parenting practices. Compliance with specific parenting programs can be challenging as many of the stressors that place families at-risk may also interfere with program participation. Because families may receive limited benefit from programs they do not fully receive, it is critical to understand the relationship between parenting stress and barriers to program completion. We used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among parenting stress, perceived barriers to program participation, and program completion in two datasets involving low-income parents. Data were collected at two time points from a sample of parents involved with child welfare services and a sample of parents considered at-risk of future involvement (total study n = 803). Direct paths from parenting stress at time 1 to barriers to participation and parenting stress at time 2, and from parenting stress at time 2 to program completion were significant. Interestingly, increased barriers to participation were related to increased parenting stress at time 2, and greater parenting stress was related to increased program completion. Results suggest that with increasing levels of parenting stress, parents have an increased likelihood of completing the program. Assessing and addressing the influence of perceived barriers and parenting stress on program participation may decrease the likelihood of treatment attrition.

  3. Parental Homework Completion and Treatment Knowledge during Group Parent-Child Interaction Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosmary; Graziano, Paulo A.; Hart, Katie C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how parental homework completion, session attendance, and treatment knowledge influenced parenting practices and confidence in using learned skills during behavioral parent training (BPT). Parents of 54 preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 5.07, 82% Hispanic/Latino) with externalizing behavior problems…

  4. The pediatric resident training on tobacco project: baseline findings from the Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymowitz, Norman; Schwab, Joseph; Haddock, Christopher keith; Pyle, Sara; Moore, Glenisha; Meshberg, Sarah

    2005-07-01

    Pediatricians have an important and unique role to play in the anti-tobacco arena. They may prevent relapse to smoking in women who stopped smoking during pregnancy, encourage parents to protect infants and young children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), prevent the onset of smoking in children and adolescents, and help patients and parents who smoke or use other forms of tobacco to quit. Unfortunately, few pediatricians intervene on tobacco use or ETS, and few pediatric residency training programs prepare residents to address tobacco. The Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project is a 4-year randomized prospective study of the effectiveness of training pediatric residents to intervene on tobacco in patients and parents. In this paper, we present findings from the Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey. Fifteen pediatric residency training programs participated in the Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project, and they were assigned randomly to special and standard training conditions. The Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey was administered to 1770 participants, a minimum of 100 from each site. The Parent/Guardian Survey was designed to describe the population under study. It addressed demographic information, family tobacco use, rules concerning smoking in the home and elsewhere, smoking behavior and beliefs, and parent/guardian reports of resident intervention on tobacco. Data analyses described the population served by Continuity Clinics associated with the pediatric residency training programs and determined the degree to which residents addressed tobacco in parents/guardians. The parents/guardians were primarily low-income African American and Hispanic females. Approximately 20% reported that they smoked cigarettes, and about 60% prohibited smoking in their home. Seventy percent of the parents reported that the resident asked about cigarette smoking, and about half indicated that the resident talked with them about ETS. However, only

  5. Effects of Parental Divorce or a Father's Death on High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapharas, Nicole K.; Estell, David B.; Doran, Kelly A.; Waldron, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Associations between parental loss and high school (HS) completion were examined in data drawn from 1,761 male and 1,689 female offspring born in wedlock to mothers participating in a nationally representative study. Multiple logistic regression models were conducted predicting HS completion by age 19 among offspring whose parents divorced or…

  6. Parental stress, pediatric quality of life, and behavior at baseline and one-year follow-up: Results from the FEBSTAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnar, Ruth C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Hesdorffer, Dale C; O'Hara, Kathryn; Conklin, Terrie; Cornett, Karen Mohler; Miazga, Diana; Sun, Shumei

    2017-04-01

    Febrile status epilepticus is a serious and frightening event in the life of the child and parent. It is regarded as a medical emergency with potential long lasting consequences. The purpose of this study was to look at the immediate and long term effects of such an event on parental stress and parents' perception of their child's physical and psychosocial wellbeing. From 2003 to 2010, 199 subjects, age 1 month to 5 years, were recruited as part of a prospective, multicenter study (FEBSTAT) of consequences of febrile status epilepticus (FSE). At one month and one year after the episode of FSE, parents were asked to complete the Parenting Stress Index, short form (PSI/SF), the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). In addition to PedsQL and CBCL in the FEBSTAT subjects only, a comparison was made between Columbia Study of First Febrile Seizures subjects with a first simple febrile seizure (SFS) and the FEBSTAT group, including 15 subjects with FSE from the Columbia group, in the area of parental stress which was administered at the same time intervals in both studies. At baseline, the PSI/SF was statistically significantly higher for SFS versus FSE on the parent-child dysfunctional score and the total raw score, however at one year this difference resolved. In the FSE group, significantly higher parental stress over one year was reported in children with abnormal versus normal prior development (p= 0.02). Prior abnormal development was a risk factor at 1 year for lower total PEDSQL (p=0.01) versus prior normal development. Mean scores on the CBCL at baseline and 1 year were within the normal range for both empirically based scales and major risk factors. Parents of children experiencing a SFS experienced more stress at baseline than those with FSE. Families of children in the FEBSTAT cohort with identified development problems at baseline that continued, or progressed over the one year period, reported decreasing QOL

  7. Effects of Family Functioning and Parenting Style on Early Entrants' Academic Performance and Program Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Erron L.; Sayler, Michael F.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the predictive nature of parenting style and overall family environment on the academic performance and program completion of early college entrants. Furthermore, gender and family form were examined as possible moderators to these relationships. A total of 88 early college entrants participated in…

  8. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  9. The internal structure of foster-parent completed SDQ for school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Stine; Bøe, Tormod; Breivik, Kyrre

    2017-01-01

    Mental health problems are common in foster-children, and tools to measure the mental health of these children are needed. One candidate instrument is the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a measure of child psychological adjustment that is increasingly being employed by Child Protection services. The aim of the current study was to examine the structural validity of the foster parent completed SDQ in a sample of 237 school aged foster children. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the foster parent completed SDQ data to a five-factor model (CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.05, 90% CI [0.04, 0.06]), thus confirming the structural validity of the five-factor model for the parent-version of the SDQ in Norwegian foster children. Measurement invariance analyses indicated that boys had lower thresholds for fighting with or bullying other children than girls. Girls were on their side more likely to be rated as less popular than boys with a similar level of peer problems.

  10. Parent-completed developmental screening in premature children: a valid tool for follow-up programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Flamant

    Full Text Available Our goals were to (1 validate the parental Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ as a screening tool for psychomotor development among a cohort of ex-premature infants reaching 2 years, and (2 analyse the influence of parental socio-economic status and maternal education on the efficacy of the questionnaire. A regional population of 703 very preterm infants (<35 weeks gestational age born between 2003 and 2006 were evaluated at 2 years by their parents who completed the ASQ, by a pediatric clinical examination, and by the revised Brunet Lezine psychometric test with establishment of a DQ score. Detailed information regarding parental socio-economic status was available for 419 infants. At 2 years corrected age, 630 infants (89.6% had an optimal neuromotor examination. Overall ASQ scores for predicting a DQ score ≤85 produced an area under the receiver operator curve value of 0.85 (95% Confidence Interval:0.82-0.87. An ASQ cut-off score of ≤220 had optimal discriminatory power for identifying a DQ score ≤85 with a sensitivity of 0.85 (95%CI:0.75-0.91, a specificity of 0.72 (95%CI:0.69-0.75, a positive likelihood ratio of 3, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.21. The median value for ASQ was not significantly associated with socio-economic level or maternal education. ASQ is an easy and reliable tool regardless of the socio-economic status of the family to predict normal neurologic outcome in ex-premature infants at 2 years of age. ASQ may be beneficial with a low-cost impact to some follow-up programs, and helps to establish a genuine sense of parental involvement.

  11. Establishing Baseline Data: Using Institutional Data to Learn More about Completion Factors at One New Zealand University

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    Clark, Austina; van der Meer, Jacques; van Koten, Chikako

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses demographic and study-related factors that contribute to completion of degrees in one university in New Zealand. Although much can be learned from nationwide and cross-institutional studies, it is important that each institution comes to an understanding of its own particular student population and the factors that impact on…

  12. Adolescents and parental caregivers as lay health advisers in a community-based risk reduction intervention for youth: baseline data from Teach One, Reach One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Dave, Gaurav; Carthron, Dana L.; Isler, Malika Roman; Blumenthal, Connie; Wynn, Mysha; Odulana, Adebowale; Lin, Feng-Chang; Akers, Aletha Y.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to describe the demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics of adolescent and caregiver lay health advisers (LHAs) participating in an intervention designed to reduce risk behaviors among rural African-American adolescents. Teach One, Reach One integrates constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory. It acknowledges that changing the sexual behaviors of African-American adolescents requires changing one's knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs about the behavior of peers, and self-efficacy regarding adolescent sexual behavior, parent–teen communication about sex, and healthy dating relations among adolescents. Study participants completed baseline questionnaires assessing demographics and psychosocial determinants (knowledge, attitudes, perceived social norms, and self-efficacy) of sexual behaviors. Sixty-two adolescent and caregiver dyads participated. Caregivers included biological parents, legal guardians, or other parental figures. Strengths and areas in need of improvement were determined using median splits. Few adolescents had initiated sex. Their strengths included high levels of open parent–teen communication; positive attitudes and normative beliefs regarding both sex communication and healthy dating relationships; and high knowledge and self-efficacy for healthy dating behaviors. Areas needing improvement included low knowledge, unfavorable attitudes, poor normative beliefs, and low self-efficacy regarding condom use. Caregiver strengths included positive attitudes, normative beliefs, and self-efficacy for sex communication; positive attitudes and self-efficacy for condom use; and low acceptance of couple violence. Areas needing improvement included low levels of actual communication about sex and low knowledge about effective communication strategies and condom use. The current study highlights the value of assessing baseline characteristics of LHAs prior to

  13. Cardiac patients who completed a longitudinal psychosocial study had a different clinical and psychosocial baseline profile than patients who dropped out prematurely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Versteeg, Henneke; Serruys, Patrick W

    2013-01-01

    drop-outs may have a different cardiovascular risk. We studied a cohort of 1132 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). At baseline, all patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Type D Scale (DS14). At 12 months follow-up, 70.8% (n...... cardiovascular medications, including calcium antagonists and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, as compared with completers. Drop-outs more often had depression, anxiety, and negative affectivity, as compared with completers (all p-values......Non-response is a serious threat to the external validity of longitudinal psychosocial studies. Little is known about potential systematic differences between patients with coronary artery disease who complete a psychosocial study and those who drop out prematurely due to non-response, or whether...

  14. A deep learning classifier for prediction of pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy from baseline breast DCE-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Kavya; Braman, Nathaniel; Janowczyk, Andrew; Madabhushi, Anant

    2018-02-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is routinely used to treat breast tumors before surgery to reduce tumor size and improve outcome. However, no current clinical or imaging metrics can effectively predict before treatment which NAC recipients will achieve pathological complete response (pCR), the absence of residual invasive disease in the breast or lymph nodes following surgical resection. In this work, we developed and applied a convolu- tional neural network (CNN) to predict pCR from pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) scans on a per-voxel basis. In this study, DCE-MRI data for a total of 166 breast cancer pa- tients from the ISPY1 Clinical Trial were split into a training set of 133 patients and a testing set of 33 patients. A CNN consisting of 6 convolutional blocks was trained over 30 epochs. The pre-contrast and post-contrast DCE-MRI phases were considered in isolation and conjunction. A CNN utilizing a combination of both pre- and post-contrast images best distinguished responders, with an AUC of 0.77; 82% of the patients in the testing set were correctly classified based on their treatment response. Within the testing set, the CNN was able to produce probability heatmaps that visualized tumor regions that most strongly predicted therapeutic response. Multi- variate analysis with prognostic clinical variables (age, largest diameter, hormone receptor and HER2 status), revealed that the network was an independent predictor of response (p=0.05), and that the inclusion of HER2 status could further improve capability to predict response (AUC = 0.85, accuracy = 85%).

  15. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  16. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2 Methods: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3 Results: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050. Of the respondents (n = 969, 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173, attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471, believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755, perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child’s health (OR = 1.547, believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816, and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950. Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523. (4 Conclusions: A home smoking

  17. Youth Sport-Related Concussions: Perceived and Measured Baseline Knowledge of Concussions Among Community Coaches, Athletes, and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanos, Katherine N; Franco, John M; Larson, Dirk; Mara, Kristin; Laskowski, Edward R

    2017-12-01

    To assess concussion knowledge of athletes, coaches, and parents/guardians in a community setting and to understand trends/gaps in knowledge among subgroups to tailor efforts toward creating educational interventions. This prospective cross-sectional study involved 262 individuals (142 [55%] female): 115 athletes participating in noncontact and contact sports (ages 13-19 years), 15 coaches, and 132 parents. Recruitment occurred from August 30, 2015, through August 30, 2016, at 3 local high schools. Participants completed a questionnaire developed by the investigators to assess concussion experience and basic knowledge. Females, health care employees, and parents showed stronger concern for potential long-term sequelae of concussion, whereas athletes were most concerned about not being able to return to sport. Those with higher perceived concussion knowledge were slightly older (median age, 42.5 vs 33 years), more educated (college or higher: 42 [70%] vs 100 [50%]), and more likely to be health care workers (22 [37.9%] vs 34 [17.7%]) and scored higher on knowledge questions (average correct: 75.5% vs 60%). Most participants could identify potential concussion sequelae, but only 86 (34.3%) identified a concussion as a brain injury. Of the subgroups, coaches scored highest on knowledge questions. Those with a concussion history tended to consider themselves more knowledgeable but were also less concerned about sequelae. Overall, those with a concussion history scored slightly higher on knowledge questions (average correct: 69.8% vs 61.9%). Participants involved in contact sports were more likely to have had a concussion vs those in noncontact sports (57 [26%] vs 4 [10.3%]). Significant differences in perceived and actual concussion knowledge across different subgroups of study participants involved in high school sports were identified. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The baseline characteristics of parents and African American girls in an online obesity prevention program: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this paper was to identify the relationships and associations between child and parent characteristics with child fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in an online obesity prevention program for 8-10 year old African American girls. Girls and a parent (n=342 child-parent pairs) in t...

  19. Parenting goals: predictors of parent involvement in disease management of children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elizabeth M; Iannotti, Ronald J; Schneider, Stefan; Nansel, Tonja R; Haynie, Denise L; Sobel, Douglas O

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of diabetes-specific parenting goals for parents of children with type 1 diabetes and to examine whether parenting goals predict a change in parenting involvement in disease management. An independent sample of primary caretakers of 87 children aged 10 to 16 years with type 1 diabetes completed the measure of parenting goals (diabetes-specific and general goals); both parent and child completed measures of parent responsibility for diabetes management at baseline and 6 months. Parents ranked diabetes-specific parenting goals as more important than general parenting goals, and rankings were moderately stable over time. Parenting goals were related to parent responsibility for diabetes management. The relative ranking of diabetes-specific parenting goals predicted changes in parent involvement over 6 months, with baseline ranking of goals predicting more parental involvement at follow-up. Parenting goals may play an important role in family management of type 1 diabetes.

  20. Baseline Depressive Symptoms, Completion of Study Assessments, and Behavior Change in a Long-Term Dietary Intervention Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie B; Pierce, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Flatt, Shirley W; Madanat, Hala; Newman, Vicky A; Nichols, Jeanne F; Natarajan, Loki

    2015-12-01

    Depressive symptoms can lower adherence and change in dietary studies. Behavioral activation may reduce these effects. This study aims to assess relationships among depressive symptoms on adherence and dietary change in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study Secondary analyses from the WHEL Study, which achieved major dietary change in breast cancer survivors (N = 2817), were conducted. Logistic regressions were undertaken of baseline depressive symptoms (six-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) with (1) completion of 1- and 4-year study assessments and (2) validated change in dietary behavior in the intervention group. In the comparison group (vs. intervention), depressive symptoms lowered completion of dietary recalls and clinic visits [4 years: odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-3.0]. The behaviorally oriented intervention achieved major change in those furthest from study targets, although changes were lower in those with depressive symptoms: fruit/vegetable (+37.2 %), fiber (+49.0 %), and fat (-22.4 %). Behavioral activation in dietary change interventions can overcome the impact of depressive symptoms.

  1. Improving Homework Completion and Motivation of Middle School Students through Behavior Modification, Graphing, and Parent Communication

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    Hein, Dawn L.; Wimer, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    An action research project report was complete to discuss how homework completion and motivation is an ongoing issue and debate within the public schools. This is especially true in the middle school setting. The teacher researchers of this project chose to conduct a study in order to increase homework completion and motivation of middle school…

  2. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  3. Completing the surrogate motherhood process: parental order reporters' attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements, role ambiguity and role conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Satvinder; Crawshaw, Marilyn; van den Akker, Olga

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of parental order reporters (PORs) towards their work with surrogacy arrangements and their experiences of role conflict and role ambiguity. A questionnaire was used to assess PORs' perceptions of their role in parental order [PO] applications, attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements and the legal process and the influence of role ambiguity or conflict. Questionnaires were distributed to all PORs employed by the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service in England. Thirty-three PORs participated (response rate 46%) who, on average, had each completed five PO applications (range 1-40). Positive attitudes towards surrogacy and the child's needs for openness about origins were found. Concerns about the inadequacy of preparation and assessment arrangements, overseas arrangements and non-regulation of surrogacy agencies were evident. PORs with high-role ambiguity were more likely to report less positive attitudes towards the emotional consequence of surrogacy on offspring. High scores on role ambiguity and role conflict were reflected in less positive attitudes towards the parties' preparation towards parenthood. These results have implications for training, policy and practice in this area.

  4. Predictors of Substance Abuse Assessment and Treatment Completion for Parents Involved with Child Welfare: One State's Experience in Matching across Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Dorian E; He, Amy S; Zhu, Limei; Scalise, Christine; Richardson, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the effect of interagency collaboration on substance abuse assessment ity of Southern California and treatment completion for parents who are involved in child welfare. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) describe a statewide, interagency collaborative program aimed at providing targeted substance abuse assessment and treatment to parents engaged in the child welfare system; (2) document the specialized assessment and treatment outcomes for parents engaged through this collaborative program; and (3) determine factors related to successful treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. This is a retrospective study of an open cohort of 13,829 individuals admitted to the New Jersey Child Protection Substance Abuse Initiative (CPSAI) program from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. Data were drawn from two unique administrative data sources. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to explore factors related to successfil treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. Trend analysis for the total sample in the CPSAI program revealed that, of the 10,909 individuals who received a CPSAI assessment, 59% were referred to treatment. Of those referred to treatment, 40% enrolled in a treatment program. Once enrolled in a treatment program, 55% completed or were in the process of completing substance abuse treatment. These findings suggest that when adequate screening and treatment is available through a streamlined process, many of the ethnic and gender disparities present among other populations of individuals seeking treatment are minimized. Utilizing inherent child welfare case factors appears to be an important motivating element that aids parents during the assessment and treatment process.

  5. "Daughter and son: a completely different story”? Gender as a moderator of the relationship between sexism and parental attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lipowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background During childhood, parents are the first and most important individuals who form the base of the content of gender stereotypes in children. A parent’s expectations about the extent a child’s behaviour should be line with gender stereotypes also depends on the intensity of a parent’s sexism. A parent’s sexism may be exhibited in parental attitudes. Hence, in our study we analysed the relationship between parental ambivalent sexism and parental attitudes within dyads of mothers and fathers with a special focus on the role of the gender of both parents and children. Participants and procedure Two hundred and ninety-four couples of parents of five-year-olds (153 girls, 141 boys participated. The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI was used to measure levels of sexism, and the Parental Attitudes Scale (SPR was used to assess parental attitudes. Results In terms of the profile of parental attitudes, regardless of the child’s sex, mothers and fathers scored highest for inconsequent and demanding attitudes, and lowest for overprotective and autonomy attitudes. The child’s sex is also not important for the overall levels of parents’ sexism – fathers exhibit higher levels of hostile sexism in comparison to mothers. Only the mothers’ education level is important for levels of sexism – women with higher education exhibited the lowest levels of hostile sexism. The child’s sex moderates relationships between parents’ sexism and parental attitudes. In the case of mothers of sons, the intensity of benevolent sexism is negatively related to overprotective and demanding attitudes. The more educated the mothers of sons, the more demanding they were. For fathers of sons, the inconsequence attitude increases under the influence of both hostile and benevolent sexism. Among fathers of daughters, hostile sexism strengthens the overprotective attitude, while levels of both benevolent and hostile sexism as well as education influence the

  6. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  7. Anticipated acceptance of HPV vaccination at the baseline of implementation: a survey of parental and adolescent knowledge and attitudes in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhall, Sarah C; Lehtinen, Matti; Verho, Tiina; Huhtala, Heini; Hokkanen, Mari; Kosunen, Elise

    2007-05-01

    We evaluated acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination by adolescents and their parents, 83% and 86% of whom accepted vaccination. Improving knowledge and awareness of HPV, and addressing parental concerns about vaccinating adolescents, most notably on vaccinating against a sexually transmitted disease, should help tackle factors associated with being resistant to accepting HPV vaccination.

  8. Ages & Stages Questionnaires[R], Third Edition (ASQ-3[TM]): A Parent-Completed Child-Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Jane; Bricker, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Now enhanced and updated based on extensive user feedback and a new, unparalleled research sample of more than 12,000 children, ASQ-3 is the most accurate, cost-effective, and parent-friendly way to identify children from one month to 5 1/2 years with developmental delays. ASQ-3 offers more than any other screening system: (1) Recommended by the…

  9. Obesogenic dietary intake in families with 1-year-old infants at high and low obesity risk based on parental weight status: baseline data from a longitudinal intervention (Early STOPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Viktoria; Sobko, Tanja; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Ekbom, Kerstin; Johansson, Elin; Nowicka, Paulina; Westerståhl, Maria; Riserus, Ulf; Marcus, Claude

    2016-03-01

    To compare dietary intake in 1-year-old infants and their parents between families with high and low obesity risk, and to explore associations between infant dietary intake and relative weight. Baseline analyses of 1-year-old infants (n = 193) and their parents participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention (Early STOPP) were carried out. Dietary intake and diet quality indicators were compared between high- and low-risk families, where obesity risk was based on parental weight status. The odds for high diet quality in relation to parental diet quality were determined. Associations between measured infant relative weight and dietary intake were examined adjusting for obesity risk, socio-demographics, and infant feeding. Infant dietary intake did not differ between high- and low-risk families. The parents in high-risk families consumed soft drinks, French fries, and low-fat spread more frequently, and fish and fruits less frequently (p dietary intake, obesity risk, or early feeding patterns. At the age of one, dietary intake in infants is not associated with family obesity risk, nor with parental obesogenic food intake. Milk cereal drink consumption but no other infant dietary marker reflects relative weight at this young age.

  10. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...... the family is associated with a standard rule and we show that if the latter obeys some properties reflecting principles of impartiality, priority and solidarity, the former obeys them too....

  11. Exploring Facilitators and Barriers to Initiation and Completion of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Series among Parents of Girls in a Safety Net System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Sean T; Lockhart, Steven; Barnard, Juliana; Furniss, Anna; Dickinson, Miriam; Dempsey, Amanda F; Stokley, Shannon; Federico, Steven; Bronsert, Michael; Kempe, Allison

    2018-01-23

    Objective: To assess, among parents of predominantly minority, low-income adolescent girls who had either not initiated (NI) or not completed (NC) the HPV vaccine series, attitudes and other factors important in promoting the series, and whether attitudes differed by language preference. Design/Methods: From August 2013-October 2013, we conducted a mail survey among parents of girls aged 12-15 years randomly selected from administrative data in a Denver safety net system; 400 parents from each group (NI and NC) were targeted. Surveys were in English or Spanish. The response rate was 37% (244/660; 140 moved or gone elsewhere; 66% English-speaking, 34% Spanish-speaking). Safety attitudes of NIs and NCs differed, with 40% NIs vs. 14% NC's reporting they thought HPV vaccine was unsafe ( p HPV vaccine before, but now I am" (English-speaking, 23%, Spanish-speaking, 50%). Items rated as very important among NIs in the decision regarding vaccination included: more information about safety (74%), more information saying it prevents cancer (70%), and if they knew HPV was spread mainly by sexual contact (61%). Conclusions : Safety concerns, being unaware of the need for multiple doses, and low perceived risk of infection remain significant barriers to HPV vaccination for at-risk adolescents. Some parents' safety concerns do not appear until initial vaccination.

  12. Latino Parents' Awareness and Receipt of the HPV Vaccine for Sons and Daughters in a State with Low Three-Dose Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Bodson, Julia; Warner, Echo L; Mooney, Kathi

    2015-12-01

    Latinos suffer a disproportionate burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-preventable cancers, yet uptake and completion of the HPV vaccine among Latinos is below recommendations. Reasons for low HPV vaccine uptake among Latinos in Utah are unknown. We surveyed Latino parents of HPV vaccine age-eligible adolescents (N=118). Univariable analyses identified sociodemographic characteristics associated with HPV vaccine awareness, interest, and uptake for daughter(s) and/or son(s) using chi-square tests or Fisher's exact tests. More parents who had lived in the USA for 15 years or more had vaccinated their daughter (43.6 vs. 32.5%, p=0.035) compared to those living in the USA for shorter time periods. Parents born in Mexico reported their son had not received the HPV vaccine (74.6 vs. 58.3%, p=0.049) more than those born elsewhere. Parents with Mexican birthplace and ancestry reported not knowing about the HPV vaccine as the main barrier to vaccinating daughters (47.1 vs. 5.9%, p=0.002 for both) and sons (birthplace 38.3 vs. 10.3%, p=0.007; ancestry 37.1 vs. 11.1%, p=0.013) compared to those born or descending elsewhere. Non-acculturated parents with a son were more likely to report not knowing about the HPV vaccine as the main barrier to vaccine receipt (47.6 vs. 12.5%, pLatinos in an understudied region and complement prior research in other regions. This study may have implications for designing culturally tailored interventions to improve uptake of the HPV vaccine among the growing population of Latinos in Utah, and other states in the Intermountain West.

  13. Differential effects of baseline drinking status : Effects of an alcohol prevention program targeting students and/or parents (PAS) among weekly drinking students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ina M.; Lugtig, Peter; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of an intervention designed to prevent onset of weekly drinking in non drinking students (PAS) were investigated in the group of students that was already drinking at baseline. A cluster randomized trial was used including 3,490 Dutch early adolescents (M age. =. 12.66, SD=. 0.49)

  14. Adaptation from Paper-Pencil to Web-Based Administration of a Parent-Completed Developmental Questionnaire for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovanoff, Paul; Squires, Jane; McManus, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Adapting traditional paper-pencil instruments to computer-based environments has received considerable attention from the research community due to the possible administration mode effects on obtained measures. When differences due to mode of completion (i.e., paper-pencil, computer-based) are present, threats to measurement validity are posed. In…

  15. Exploring Facilitators and Barriers to Initiation and Completion of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV Vaccine Series among Parents of Girls in a Safety Net System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean T. O’Leary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess, among parents of predominantly minority, low-income adolescent girls who had either not initiated (NI or not completed (NC the HPV vaccine series, attitudes and other factors important in promoting the series, and whether attitudes differed by language preference. Design/Methods: From August 2013–October 2013, we conducted a mail survey among parents of girls aged 12–15 years randomly selected from administrative data in a Denver safety net system; 400 parents from each group (NI and NC were targeted. Surveys were in English or Spanish. Results: The response rate was 37% (244/660; 140 moved or gone elsewhere; 66% English-speaking, 34% Spanish-speaking. Safety attitudes of NIs and NCs differed, with 40% NIs vs. 14% NC’s reporting they thought HPV vaccine was unsafe (p < 0.0001 and 43% NIs vs. 21% NCs that it may cause long-term health problems (p < 0.001. Among NCs, 42% reported they did not know their daughter needed more shots (English-speaking, 20%, Spanish-speaking 52% and 39% reported that “I wasn’t worried about the safety of the HPV vaccine before, but now I am” (English-speaking, 23%, Spanish-speaking, 50%. Items rated as very important among NIs in the decision regarding vaccination included: more information about safety (74%, more information saying it prevents cancer (70%, and if they knew HPV was spread mainly by sexual contact (61%. Conclusions: Safety concerns, being unaware of the need for multiple doses, and low perceived risk of infection remain significant barriers to HPV vaccination for at-risk adolescents. Some parents’ safety concerns do not appear until initial vaccination.

  16. An evaluation of the Parents Plus-Parenting When Separated programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adele; Sharry, John; Murphy, Michelle; Rooney, Brendan; Carr, Alan

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the Parents Plus-Parenting when Separated Programme, an intervention specifically designed to address the needs of separated parents in an Irish context. In a randomized control trial, 82 separated parents with young children were assigned to the Parents Plus-Parenting when Separated Programme treatment group and 79 to a waiting-list control group. They were assessed on measures of client goals, parenting satisfaction, child and parental adjustment and interparental conflict at baseline (Time 1) and 6 weeks later (Time 2), after the treatment group completed the Parents Plus-Parenting when Separated Programme. From Time 1 to 2, significant goal attainment, increases in parenting satisfaction and decreases in child behaviour problems, parental adjustment problems and interparental conflict occurred in the Parents Plus-Parenting when Separated Programme group, but not in the control group. These results supported the effectiveness of Parents Plus-Parenting when Separated Programme, which should be made more widely available to separated parents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Parent-administered computer-assisted tutoring targeting letter-sound knowledge: Evaluation via multiple-baseline across three preschool students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Matthew R; Volpe, Robert J; Burns, Matthew K; Hoffman, Jessica A

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of letters sounds has been identified as a primary objective of preschool instruction and intervention. Despite this designation, large disparities exist in the number of letter sounds children know at school entry. Enhancing caregivers' ability to teach their preschool-aged children letter sounds may represent an effective practice for reducing this variability and ensuring that more children are prepared to experience early school success. This study used a non-concurrent multiple-baseline-across-participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of caregivers (N=3) delivering a computer-assisted tutoring program (Tutoring Buddy) targeting letter sound knowledge to their preschool-aged children. Visual analyses and effect size estimates derived from Percentage of All Non-Overlapping Data (PAND) statistics indicated consistent results for letter sound acquisition, as 6weeks of intervention yielded large effects for letter sound knowledge (LSK) across all three children. Large effect sizes were also found for letter sound fluency (LSF) and nonsense word fluency (NWF) for two children. All three caregivers rated the intervention as highly usable and were able to administer it with high levels of fidelity. Taken together, the results of the present study found Tutoring Buddy to be an effective, simple, and usable way for the caregivers to support their children's literacy development. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  19. Improved parent-reported mobility and achievement of individual goals on activity and participation level after functional power-training in young children with cerebral palsy: a double-baseline controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene A; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2018-03-07

    In children with cerebral palsy (CP), strength training programs to improve walking capacity and participation in activities of daily living are commonly used in clinical practice, despite lacking evidence of its effectiveness. It has been suggested that strength training with high movement velocity could be more effective than traditional resistance training to improve functional abilities such as walking. In a recently published study, we have demonstrated the positive effects of functional high-velocity resistance (power) training on muscle strength and walking capacity in young children with CP. Whether this type of training is also effective in achieving individual predefined goals in daily activities and self-reported mobility limitations, has not yet been described however. To evaluate the effect of functional power-training on parent-reported mobility and achievement of individual goals on activity and participation level in young children with CP. A double-baseline design was used to compare a 14-week period usual care with a 14-week period of functional power-training (3 times a week) and a follow-up period of 14-weeks. Twenty-two children with spastic CP (13 bilateral, GMFCS level I (N=10) and level II (N=12), mean age 7.5 years (SD 1.8, range 4-10 y)) and their parents participated. Outcome measures were goal attainment scaling (GAS) of individual daily activity related treatment goals, mobility performance as measured using the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS-5m, 50m and 500m), and the parent-reported Mobility Questionnaire (MobQues). After power-training, 86% of children achieved or exceeded their goal, compared with 14% in the usual care period (pfunctional power-training was 10 times higher, compared with the usual care period (Relative Risk=10.0 with 95%CI 1.4 - 71.3). No changes were found in the FMS-5m and FMS-50m categories. Improvement on the MobQues was significantly greater after power-training compared with usual care (7.9% (95% CI 2.7 - 13

  20. A longitudinal investigation of parenting stress in caregivers of children with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Lu; Russell, Kathryn M; Brennan, Rachel; Wilson, Matthew W; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Phipps, Sean

    2017-04-01

    Retinoblastoma is typically diagnosed in young children and may present unique parenting challenges. Qualitative research suggests that parents experience distress related to the initial diagnosis and treatment that subsequently resolves. The objectives were to systematically assess parenting stress over time in parents of young children with retinoblastoma and to examine associations between parenting stress and child outcomes. Parents of children with retinoblastoma completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) during serial psychological assessments scheduled based on the child's age (6 months to 5 years). Caregivers of 92 patients (85.9% mothers) completed the assessments. Child outcomes included developmental functioning and parent-reported adaptive functioning. At baseline and age 5, all subscales on the PSI were within normal limits, and most were significantly below normative means (i.e., demonstrating low levels of stress). All domains remained relatively stable over time. Associations between parenting stress and child outcomes were much stronger at age 5 than at baseline. Child-directed parenting stress was a small but significant contributor to declines in child functioning over time. Parents of children with retinoblastoma report normal levels of parenting stress while their children are young. However, baseline parenting stress appears to contribute to changes in child functioning over time. Future studies should assess illness-related aspects of adjustment to further understand the parenting experience of young children with cancer and/or having a visually impaired child. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of a Workplace Intervention on Parent-Child Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M; Davis, Kelly D; Green, Kaylin; Casper, Lynne; Kan, Marni L; Kelly, Erin L; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Okechukwu, Cassandra

    2016-02-01

    This study tested whether effects of a workplace intervention, aimed at promoting employees' schedule control and supervisor support for personal and family life, had implications for parent-adolescent relationships; we also tested whether parent-child relationships differed as a function of how many intervention program sessions participants attended. Data came from a group randomized trial of a workplace intervention, delivered in the information technology division of a Fortune 500 company. Analyses focused on 125 parent-adolescent dyads that completed baseline and 12-month follow-up home interviews. Results revealed no main effects of the intervention, but children of employees who attended 75% or more program sessions reported more time with their parent and more parent education involvement compared to adolescents whose parents attended less than 75% of sessions, and they tended to report more time with parent and more parental solicitation of information about their experiences compared to adolescents whose parents were randomly assigned to the usual practice condition.

  2. [A PhD completed 7. Just add positivity? Dental caries, obesity and problem behaviour in children: the role of parents and family -relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong-Lenters, M

    2016-11-01

    In this doctoral research project the relationship between, on the one hand, parenting and the functioning of families, and, on the other, child dental health were measured on the basis of interviews, questionnaires and observations of parent-child interaction. The groups studied consisted of children with and without caries and a variety of socio-economic backgrounds. The analyses revealed a distinct and significant difference between children with and children without caries with respect to parenting style and parent-child interaction. Positive parenting skills, such as positive involvement, positive reinforcement and problem-solving ability, correlate less often with children with caries. The study also revealed that children of parents with a parenting style that involved coercion and strict type of discipline, combined with the expression of little warmth, had a greater likelihood of developing caries. No relationship was found between an unhealthy high Body Mass Index (BMI) and the presence of dental caries. There was a significant relationship between behavioural problems and the presence of dental caries, which may be explained by an underlying influence of the family factors that were measured.

  3. Predicting success in an online parenting intervention: the role of child, parent, and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Cassandra K; Farruggia, Susan P; Palmer, Melanie L; Sanders, Matthew R; Keown, Louise J

    2014-04-01

    The present study involved an examination of the extent to which a wide range of child, parent, family, and program-related factors predicted child behavior and parenting outcomes after participation in an 8-session online version of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Participants were mothers and fathers of 97 children aged between 3 and 8 years displaying elevated levels of disruptive behavior problems. For both mothers and fathers, poorer child behavior outcomes at postintervention were predicted by the number of sessions of the intervention completed by the family. For mothers, postintervention child behavior was also predicted by the quality of the mother-child relationship at baseline; for fathers, baseline child behavior severity was an additional predictor. Mothers' postintervention ineffective parenting was predicted by session completion and preintervention levels of ineffective parenting, whereas the only predictor of fathers' ineffective parenting at postintervention was preintervention levels of ineffective parenting. Socioeconomic risk, parental adjustment, and father participation in the intervention were not significant predictors of mother- or father-reported treatment outcomes. The implications of the findings for the provision of online parenting support are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Screening Accuracy of the Parent-Completed Ages and Stages Questionnaires--Second Edition as a Broadband Screener for Motor Problems in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Van Schuerbeeck, Lise; Braeken, Marijke A. K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders are at risk for motor problems. However, this area is often overlooked in the developmental evaluation in autism diagnostic clinics. An alternative can be to identify children who should receive intensive motor assessment by using a parent-based screener. The aim of this study was to examine whether the Ages…

  5. [Which Factors Affect Weight Maintenance? A Qualitative Study with Adolescents and their Parents who have Completed a Ten-months Intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemetek, U; Ernert, A; Wiegand, S; Bau, A-M

    2015-11-01

    The alarming increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity is recognised as a major public health concern. Currently, structured multi-modal therapy programmes present the gold standard of therapy strategies for obese children and adolescents. However, effects of these treatments are still a matter of discussion. Failure to isolate and understand the external and internal factors contributing to successful, long-term weight reduction may well be contributing to the ineffectiveness of current treatment interventions. A qualitative approach was chosen in order to identify subjectively perceived resources and barriers to weight maintenance after previous weight reduction. The research question focused on how these resources and barriers affect success of participants. Additionally the question arose as to how and to what extent parents should and could be involved in the therapy process. The results can deliver important starting points for the development of therapy programmes and future research. 7 participants of a weight reduction and maintenance programme and 7 of their parents were interviewed on their personal experiences during and after the treatment. The interviews were analysed based on the qualitative content analysis. Continuous motivation, especially after the initial weight reduction phase, was identified as the strongest predictor of successful weight maintenance. Successful weight maintainers generally showed characteristics of higher self-efficacy, internal motivation concerning physical activity and flexible self-control concerning food intake. Unsuccessful weight gainers stated a lack of motivation concerning physical activity and lost control over their eating habits. Concerning the role of parents in the therapy process, the results show that higher parental involvement does not predict greater success. The general relationship between parents and their children seems to be more significant, especially concerning the issues of responsibility

  6. Predicting parental distress among children newly diagnosed with craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rachel K; Ashford, Jason M; Scott, Sarah M; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Bradley, Julie A; Merchant, Thomas E; Conklin, Heather M

    2018-06-22

    Childhood brain tumor diagnoses are stressful for families. Children diagnosed with craniopharyngioma (Cp) present with particularly challenging medical and cognitive problems due to tumor location and associated biophysiologic comorbidities. This study examined parental distress in a sample of families of patients with Cp treated with proton beam therapy to identify factors for targeting psychological intervention. Prior to (n = 96) and 1 year after (n = 73) proton therapy, parents of children diagnosed with Cp (9.81 ± 4.42 years at baseline; 49% male) completed a self-report measure of distress, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Children completed cognitive assessment measures at baseline; medical variables were extracted from the study database. At baseline, t-tests revealed parents reported higher levels of distress than normative expectations on Anxiety, Depression, Global Severity, and Positive Symptom Distress BSI scales (P < 0.05). Linear mixed effects models revealed parent report measures of child executive dysfunction and behavioral issues were more predictive of parental distress than patients' cognitive performance or medical status (P < 0.05). Models also revealed a significant reduction only in Anxiety over time (t = -2.19, P < 0.05). Extensive hypothalamic involvement at baseline predicted this reduction (P < 0.05). Parents experience significant distress before their child begins adjuvant therapy for Cp, though parental distress appears largely unrelated to medical complications and more related to parent perceptions of child cognitive difficulties (vs. child performance). Importantly, this may be explained by a negative parent reporting style among distressed parents. Knowledge of socio-emotional functioning in parents related to patient characteristics is important for optimization of psychological intervention. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Feasibility of Internet-based Parent Training for Low-income Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoron, Lucy; Hvizdos, Erica; Bocknek, Erika L; Montgomery, Erica; Ondersma, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    Parent training programs promote positive parenting and benefit low-income children, but are rarely used. Internet-based delivery may help expand the reach of parent training programs, although feasibility among low-income populations is still unclear. We examined the feasibility of internet-based parent training, in terms of internet access/use and engagement, through two studies. In Study 1, 160 parents recruited from Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) centers completed a brief paper survey regarding internet access and use (all parents received government aid). We found high levels of access, openness, and comfort with the internet and internet-enabled devices. In Study 2, a pilot study, we assessed use of an online parenting program in a project with a sample of 89 predominately low-income parents (75% received government aid). Parents learned about a new, online parenting program (the "5-a-Day Parenting Program") and provided ratings of level of interest and program use 2-weeks and 4-weeks later. Local website traffic was also monitored. At baseline, parents were very interested in using the web-based program, and the majority of parents (69.6%) reported visiting the website at least once. However, in-depth use was rare (only 9% of parents reported frequent use of the online program). Results support the feasibility of internet-based parent training for low-income parents, as most parent were able to use the program and were interested in doing so. However, results also suggest the need to develop strategies to promote in-depth program use.

  8. Parenting style, parent-youth conflict, and medication adherence in youth with type 2 diabetes participating in an intensive lifestyle change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletsky, Ronald D; Trief, Paula M; Anderson, Barbara J; Rosenbaum, Paula; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2014-06-01

    Parenting behaviors and family conflict relate to type 1 diabetes outcomes in youth. Our purpose was to understand these relationships in parents and youth with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The TODAY (Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth) trial enrolled youth (10-17 years) with T2DM and parent/guardian. For this ancillary study, we enrolled a sample of youth-parent pairs (N = 137) in 1 study arm (metformin plus lifestyle intervention). They completed questionnaires measuring parenting style related to normative (e.g., completing homework) and diabetes self-care (e.g., testing blood glucose) tasks, and parent-youth verbal conflict (baseline, 6, and 12 months). Parenting style was consistent across normative and diabetes tasks, with gradual increases in autonomy perceived by youth. Conversations were generally calm, with greater conflict regarding normative than diabetes tasks at baseline (youth: p parent: p = .01), 6 months (youth: p = .02, parent: p > .05), and 12 months (youth: p > .05., parent: p = .05). A permissive parenting style toward normative tasks and a less authoritarian style toward diabetes tasks, at baseline, predicted better medication adherence (8-12 months) (normative: adjusted R2 = 0.48, p Parent-youth conflict did not predict medication adherence. Youth with T2DM who perceive more autonomy (less parental control) in day-to-day and diabetes tasks are more likely to adhere to medication regimens. It may be valuable to assess youth perceptions of parenting style and help parents understand youths' needs for autonomy.

  9. Associations between child emotional eating and general parenting style, feeding practices, and parent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Abby; Rhee, Kyung; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-09-01

    Emotional eating is the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions. Prior research has identified a relationship between parenting style and child emotional eating, but this has not been examined in clinical samples. Furthermore, the relationship between specific parenting practices (e.g., parent feeding practices) and child emotional eating has not yet been investigated. The current study examined relationships between child emotional eating and both general and specific parenting constructs as well as maternal symptoms of depression and binge eating among a treatment-seeking sample of overweight children. Participants included 106 mother-child dyads who attended a baseline assessment for enrollment in a behavioral intervention for overeating. Ages of children ranged from 8 to 12  years old. Mothers completed self-report measures of their child's emotional eating behavior, their own feeding practices, and symptoms of depression and binge eating. Children completed a self-report measure of their mothers' general parenting style. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify the parent variable that was most strongly related to child emotional eating, controlling for child age and gender. Emotional feeding behavior (i.e., a tendency to offer food to soothe a child's negative emotions) was the parent factor most significantly related to child emotional eating. Findings suggest that emotional feeding practices in parents may be related to emotional eating in children. Treatment with overweight children who engage in emotional eating may be improved by targeting parent feeding practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parenting Beliefs, Parental Stress, and Social Support Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee

    2012-01-01

    The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…

  11. Association between parent attitudes and receipt of human papillomavirus vaccine in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Bendixsen, Casper G; Vickers, Elizabeth R; Stokley, Shannon; McNeil, Michael M; Gee, Julianne; Belongia, Edward A; McLean, Huong Q

    2017-10-02

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage rates remain low. This is believed to reflect parental hesitancy, but few studies have examined how changes in parents' attitudes impact HPV vaccine uptake. This study examined the association between changes in parents' vaccine attitudes and HPV vaccine receipt in their adolescent children. A baseline and 1-year follow-up survey of HPV vaccine attitudes was administered to parents of 11-17 year olds who had not completed the HPV vaccine series. Changes in attitudinal scores (barriers, harms, ineffectiveness, and uncertainties) from the Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Scale were assessed. Two outcomes were measured (in parents' adolescent children) over an 18-month period and analyzed using multivariable regression; receipt of next scheduled HPV vaccine dose and 3-dose series completion. There were 221 parents who completed the baseline survey (11% response rate) and 164 with available follow-up data; 60% of their adolescent children received a next HPV vaccine dose and 38% completed the vaccine series at follow-up. Decrease in parents' uncertainties was a significant predictor of vaccine receipt, with each 1-point reduction in uncertainties score associated with 4.9 higher odds of receipt of the next vaccine dose. Higher baseline harms score was the only significant predictor of lower series completion. Reductions in parents' uncertainties appeared to result in greater likelihood of their children receiving the HPV vaccine. Only baseline concerns about vaccine harms were associated with lower series completion rate. Education for parents should emphasize the HPV vaccine's safety profile.

  12. Program reference schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  13. Long Baseline Observatory (LBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  14. Do Parents Know Best? Examining the Relationship Between Parenting Profiles, Prevention Efforts, and Peak Drinking in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E; Stapleton, Jerod; Abar, Caitlin; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Tollison, Sean; Grossbard, Joel; Larimer, Mary E

    2011-12-01

    The study examined parent profiles among high school athletes transitioning to college and their association with high-risk drinking in a multi-site, randomized trial. Students ( n = 587) were randomized to a control or combined parent-based and brief motivational intervention condition and completed measures at baseline and at 5- and 10-month follow-ups. Four parent profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, indifferent) were observed among participants. Findings indicated control participants with authoritarian parenting were at the greatest risk for heavy drinking. Alternately, students exposed to permissive or authoritarian parenting reported lower peak drinking when administered the combined intervention, compared to controls. Findings suggest the combined intervention was efficacious in reducing peak alcohol consumption among high-risk students based on athlete status and parenting profiles.

  15. Screening accuracy of the parent-completed Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition as a broadband screener for motor problems in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Van Schuerbeeck, Lise; Braeken, Marijke Aka

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders are at risk for motor problems. However, this area is often overlooked in the developmental evaluation in autism diagnostic clinics. An alternative can be to identify children who should receive intensive motor assessment by using a parent-based screener. The aim of this study was to examine whether the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition may be used to identify gross and fine motor problems in children. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 43, 22-54 m) participated in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated by comparing the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition scores to the developmental evaluation of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale - second edition. The results revealed that both the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition gross and fine motor domain may be used to identify children without motor problems. In contrast, sensitivity analyses revealed the likelihood of under screening motor problems in this population. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition met only the criteria of a fair to good accuracy to identify poor gross motor (sensitivity = 100%) and below-average fine motor development (sensitivity = 71%) in this sample. Hence, the capacity of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition to identify motor problems in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder appears to be limited. It is recommended to include a formal standardized motor test in the diagnostic procedure for all children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Parental quality-of-life impacts following children's dento-alveolar trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, Jenny M; Rodd, Helen D; Baker, Sarah R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the impacts of children's dental injuries on parents and explore how demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics influence parental adaptation to dental injuries over time. A total of 244 families attending a UK-based Dental Hospital, for management of their child's traumatized permanent teeth, were invited to participate. Clinical information relating to the child's injury was collected from patient notes. Self-report questionnaires collected baseline information on children's oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL), parental satisfaction with dental treatment and parental health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and worry. Parental outcomes were assessed again at a six-month follow up. 108 children and 113 parents participated in the baseline study (44% and 46% response rates), and of this group, a total of 73 parents completed follow-up questionnaires (65% response rate). Parents reported improved HRQoL at follow up; however, parental worry did not decrease over time. Parental satisfaction with treatment and children's OHRQoL were the only significant predictors of parental HRQoL at the six-month follow up. The findings highlight the inter-relationship between child and parental outcomes following their children's dental injuries and the importance of the dental team delivering a family-centred approach for the management of their children's dental injuries. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  18. Enabling parents who smoke to prevent their children from initiating smoking: results from a 3-year intervention evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christine; Dickinson, Denise

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate effects of a home-based antismoking socialization program on the initiation of smoking among children whose parents smoke. Three-year randomized controlled trial. Parents who were current smokers and had a child in the third grade who had not tried smoking were eligible; 873 parents-offspring pairs met these criteria, completed baseline interviews, and were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition; 776 children (89%) completed an interview 3 years after baseline and were included in the study. During 3 months, the intervention group (n = 371) received 5 printed activity guides, parenting tip sheets, child newsletters, and incentives; this group also received a booster activity guide 1 year later. The control group (n = 405) received fact sheets about smoking. Initiation of smoking (first instance of puffing on a cigarette) was reported by 12% vs 19% of children in the intervention vs control groups. Logistic regression analysis indicated that children in the control condition had twice the odds of reporting initiation of smoking as children in the intervention condition (adjusted odds ratio, 2.16; Pparent sex, parent race, parent educational achievement, child's best friends' smoking, parent smoking rate at baseline, and parent cessation status. Children in the pre-initiation phase of smoking who receive antismoking socialization from their parents are less likely to initiate smoking, even if their parents smoke.

  19. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  20. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  1. Pilot randomized controlled trial of Tuning Relationships with Music: Intervention for parents with a trauma history and their adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Vivienne M; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Jacobsen, Stine L

    2018-05-01

    For parents who have experienced childhood interpersonal trauma, the challenges of parenting an adolescent may trigger memories of abuse, intensifying conflict, resulting in negative cycles of relating and poorer responsiveness to emotions when parenting. This study examined whether Tuning Relationships with Music, a dyadic therapy for parents and adolescents, increased responsive parent-adolescent interactions and parent emotion coaching whilst reducing conflict and adolescent mental health difficulties. Twenty-six parent-adolescent dyads were recruited if parents had a trauma history and the dyad were currently having high levels of conflict. Dyads were randomly allocated into intervention or wait-list control and completed questionnaires and observation assessments at baseline and 4-month post-baseline follow-up. Those allocated to the intervention condition participated in 8 sessions of Tuning Relationships with Music. ANZCTR: 12615000814572. Parents and adolescents reported significant reductions in conflict. Parents in the intervention condition were observed to significantly improve their nonverbal communication, emotional responsiveness and non-reactivity toward their adolescent. Although parents reported they were less dismissive and punitive, and more encouraging of their adolescent's emotions, and both parents and adolescents reported improvements in the adolescent's mental health, these were not statistically significant. Findings suggest Tuning Relationships with Music may assist parents with a history of childhood interpersonal trauma and their adolescent to reduce conflict and increase responsive ways of relating that may positively impact the young person's mental health. Future trials with a larger sample are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  3. Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A. Oenema (Anke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8. years. One parent completed

  4. Depressed parents' attachment: effects on offspring suicidal behavior in a longitudinal family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Erica K; Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John

    2014-08-01

    To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992-2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Parental avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (P = .083). Parental anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (P = .961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .034) and, in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (P = .045) and lethality of attempts (P = .003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .025) and major depressive disorder (P = .012). Parental avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (P = .048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (P = .003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parental attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  5. Persistently obese youth: interactions between parenting styles and feeding practices with child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Zeller, Meg H

    2013-12-01

    To assess the interaction of parent and child characteristics with feeding practices and mealtime functioning. Longitudinal, predictive study comparing baseline characteristics with follow-up assessments. The caregivers of 52 persistently obese youth and 32 nonoverweight comparison youth completed measurements of child temperament, parental feeding practices, parenting styles, and interactions during mealtimes. Adolescents with persistent obesity were significantly more likely to be parented using problematic feeding practices when parents also reported difficult child temperaments. Additionally, adolescents with persistent obesity and difficult temperaments were significantly more likely to have lower levels of positive mealtime interactions. Persistently obese youth are at increased risk for problematic parental feeding practices and mealtime functioning, particularly when youth are described as having difficult temperaments. These results indicate that further investigations are needed to better understand the mechanisms linking parent and child characteristics with health-related behaviors for adolescents with obesity.

  6. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Sheryl O.; Power, Thomas G.; O’Connor, Teresia M.; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (...

  7. Brief Report: Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Parent-Reported Autism Symptoms in School-Age Children with High-Functioning Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Dyke, Marilyn; Decker, Kelly; Fujii, Cori; Bahng, Christie; Renno, Patricia; Hwang, Wei-Chin; Spiker, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study tested the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on parent-reported autism symptoms. Nineteen children with autism spectrum disorders and an anxiety disorder (7?11?years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or a waitlist condition. The CBT program emphasized in vivo exposure supported by parent training and school consultation to promote social communication and emotion regulation skills. Parents completed a standardized autism symptom checklist at baselin...

  8. 2017 Annual Technology Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [Formerly NREL; O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-03-26

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually provides an organized and centralized set of such cost and performance data. The ATB uses the best information from the Department of Energy national laboratories' renewable energy analysts as well as information from the Energy Information Administration for fuel-based technologies. The ATB has been reviewed by experts and it includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind, offshore wind, utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), commercial-scale solar PV, residential-scale solar PV, concentrating solar power, geothermal power, hydropower, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and conventional biopower. This webinar presentation introduces the 2017 ATB.

  9. Baseline and Multimodal UAV GCS Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    complete a computerized version of the NASA - TLX assessment of perceived mental workload. 2.3 Results The baseline condition ran smoothly and with...System MALE Medium-altitude, Long-endurance NASA - TLX NASA Task Load Index SA Situation Awareness TDT Tucker Davis Technologies UAV Uninhabited Aerial

  10. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  11. Examining Multiple Parenting Behaviors on Young Children's Dietary Fat Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo"…

  12. What matters most - what parents model or what parents eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Martin, Chantel L; Ward, Dianne S

    2018-03-28

    Parents have a strong influence on their children's eating habits; however, researchers struggle to identify which food parenting practices to recommend. This study examined the influence of parents modeling of healthy eating ("parent role modeling") and parents' actual food intake ("parent dietary intake") on child diet quality, and explored whether these practices work together to influence children's diets. Baseline data from a larger intervention trial were used for this analysis. The sample included parents of preschool-age children from households with at least one overweight parent. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire was used to assess parent modeling of healthy eating ("healthy modeling"). Three days of dietary recalls were used to collect parents' report of their own intake and their children's intake (excluding food at child care). Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent intake of healthy and unhealthy foods were explored using Pearson correlations. Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score on child HEI score were examined with linear regression. Additionally, the interaction between parent healthy modeling and HEI score on child HEI score was tested. Parent healthy modeling was significantly correlated with parent intake of healthy foodsLinear regression showed a significant association between parent modeling and child HEI score, even after controlling for parent diet (β = 3.08, SE = 0.87, p parents had high parent healthy modeling scores had higher HEI scores (mean = 61.5 ± 10.4) regardless of parent HEI score. We did not find evidence that parent healthy modeling and diet quality interact to influence child diet quality. Parents' healthy modeling is an important practice in influencing children's diet quality, possibly more so than the quality of parents' diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Baseline conditions at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The main purpose of this report is to establish a reference point - defined as the data collected up until the end of year 2002 - for the coming phases of the Finnish spent nuclear fuel disposal programme. The focus is: to define the current surface and underground conditions at the site, both as regards the properties for which a change is expected and for the properties which are of particular interest for long-term safety or environmental impact; to establish, as far as possible, the natural fluctuation of properties that are potentially affected by construction of the underground laboratory, the ONKALO, and to provide references to data on parameters or use in model development and testing and to use models to assist in understanding and interpreting the data. The emphasis of the baseline description is on bedrock characteristics that are relevant to the long-term safety of a spent fuel repository and, hence, to include the hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, rock mechanical, tectonic and seismic conditions of the site. The construction of the ONKALO will also affect some conditions on the surface, and, therefore, a description of the main characteristics of the nature and the man-made constructions at Olkiluoto is also given. This report is primarily a road map to the available information on the prevailing conditions at the Olkiluoto site and a framework for understanding of data collected. Hence, it refers to numerous available background reports and other archived information produced over the past 20 years or more, and forms a recapitulation and revaluation of the characterisation data of the Olkiluoto site. (orig.)

  14. Antiepileptic drug behavioral side effects and baseline hyperactivity in children and adolescents with new onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Follansbee-Junger, Katherine; Smith, Aimee W; Combs, Angela; Ollier, Shannon; Hater, Brooke; Modi, Avani C

    2018-01-01

    To examine baseline psychological functioning and antiepileptic drug (AED) behavioral side effects in new onset epilepsy and determine, by age, whether baseline psychological functioning predicts AED behavioral side effects 1 month following AED initiation. A retrospective chart review was conducted between July 2011 and December 2014 that included youths with new onset epilepsy. As part of routine interdisciplinary care, caregivers completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition: Parent Rating Scale to report on baseline psychological functioning at the diagnostic visit and the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire to identify AED behavioral side effects at the 1-month follow-up clinic visit following AED initiation. Children (age = 2-11 years) and adolescents (age = 12-18 years) were examined separately. A total of 380 youths with new onset epilepsy (M age  = 8.9 ± 4.3 years; 83.4% Caucasian; 34.8% focal epilepsy, 41.1% generalized epilepsy, 23.7% unclassified epilepsy) were included. Seventy percent of youths had at-risk or clinically elevated baseline psychological symptoms. Children had significantly greater AED behavioral side effects (M = 25.08 ± 26.36) compared to adolescents (M = 12.36 ± 17.73), regardless of AED. Valproic acid demonstrated significantly greater behavioral side effects compared to all other AEDs, with the exception of levetiracetam. Higher hyperactivity/impulsivity at baseline significantly predicted higher AED behavioral side effects 1 month after AED initiation in both age groups. Younger children seem to be more prone to experience behavioral side effects, and these are likely to be higher if youths with epilepsy have baseline hyperactivity/impulsivity. Baseline psychological screening, specifically hyperactivity, can be used as a precision medicine tool for AED selection. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Parents' daily time with their children: a workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly D; Lawson, Katie M; Almeida, David M; Kelly, Erin L; King, Rosalind B; Hammer, Leslie; Casper, Lynne M; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Hanson, Ginger; McHale, Susan M

    2015-05-01

    In the context of a group randomized field trial, we evaluated whether parents who participated in a workplace intervention, designed to increase supervisor support for personal and family life and schedule control, reported significantly more daily time with their children at the 12-month follow-up compared with parents assigned to the Usual Practice group. We also tested whether the intervention effect was moderated by parent gender, child gender, or child age. The Support-Transform-Achieve-Results Intervention was delivered in an information technology division of a US Fortune 500 company. Participants included 93 parents (45% mothers) of a randomly selected focal child aged 9 to 17 years (49% daughters) who completed daily telephone diaries at baseline and 12 months after intervention. During evening telephone calls on 8 consecutive days, parents reported how much time they spent with their child that day. Parents in the intervention group exhibited a significant increase in parent-child shared time, 39 minutes per day on average, between baseline and the 12-month follow-up. By contrast, parents in the Usual Practice group averaged 24 fewer minutes with their child per day at the 12-month follow-up. Intervention effects were evident for mothers but not for fathers and for daughters but not sons. The hypothesis that the intervention would improve parents' daily time with their children was supported. Future studies should examine how redesigning work can change the quality of parent-child interactions and activities known to be important for youth health and development. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…

  17. Comparison of child-parent and parent-only cognitive-behavioral therapy programs for anxious children aged 5 to 7 years: short- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Suneeta; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Tanha, Azadeh; Owens, Mary; Young, Arlene

    2015-02-01

    Childhood anxiety disorders (AD) are prevalent, debilitating disorders. The most effective treatment approach for children less than 8 years old requires further investigation. The study's primary objective was to compare 2 cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group programs. CBT was delivered to children 5 to 7 years old and their parents (child-parent) or only to parents (parent-only), whereas children attended group sessions but did not receive CBT. Using a prospective, repeated measures, longitudinal study design, 77 children (29 male, mean age = 6.8 years; SD = 0.8 year) with AD and their parents participated in either a 12-week child-parent or parent-only CBT group treatment after a 3-month no-treatment wait-time. Well-validated treatment outcome measures were completed at 5 assessment time points: initial assessment, pretreatment, immediately posttreatment, 6 months, and 12 months posttreatment. A mixed models analysis was used to assess change in AD severity and global functioning improvements from baseline within each treatment and between treatments. No significant changes were noted in child-parent or parent-only treatment during the 3-month no-treatment wait time. Both treatments saw significant improvements posttreatment and at longer-term follow-up with significant reductions in AD severity measured by clinician and parent report and increases in global functioning. Significantly greater improvements were observed in the child-parent compared to the parent-only treatment. This study suggests that both parent-only and child-parent group CBT improves AD severity in children 5 to 7 years old. Study results suggest that involvement of both children and parents in treatment is more efficacious than working with parents alone. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The California Baseline Methane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rafiq, T.; Bue, B. D.; Prasad, K.; Mccubbin, I.; Miller, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The California Baseline Methane Survey is the first systematic, statewide assessment of methane point source emissions. The objectives are to reduce uncertainty in the state's methane budget and to identify emission mitigation priorities for state and local agencies, utilities and facility owners. The project combines remote sensing of large areas with airborne imaging spectroscopy and spatially resolved bottom-up data sets to detect, quantify and attribute emissions from diverse sectors including agriculture, waste management, oil and gas production and the natural gas supply chain. Phase 1 of the project surveyed nearly 180,000 individual facilities and infrastructure components across California in 2016 - achieving completeness rates ranging from 20% to 100% per emission sector at < 5 meters spatial resolution. Additionally, intensive studies of key areas and sectors were performed to assess source persistence and variability at times scales ranging from minutes to months. Phase 2 of the project continues with additional data collection in Spring and Fall 2017. We describe the survey design and measurement, modeling and analysis methods. We present initial findings regarding the spatial, temporal and sectoral distribution of methane point source emissions in California and their estimated contribution to the state's total methane budget. We provide case-studies and lessons learned about key sectors including examples where super-emitters were identified and mitigated. We summarize challenges and recommendations for future methane research, inventories and mitigation guidance within and beyond California.

  19. Sexual Risk Behaviors in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: Prospective Associations with Parents' Personality and Externalizing Behavior in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijjar, Rami; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2016-10-01

    We recently reported that adolescent and young adult offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), relative to control offspring, were more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). The present prospective study aimed to determine the contribution of parents' personality and offspring behaviour problems in middle childhood to offspring SRBs 10 years later. We hypothesized that offspring externalizing problems in childhood would mediate the relationship between parents' personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness and adolescent SRBs. Furthermore, we expected these associations to be more robust among the OBD than controls. At baseline, 102 offspring (52 OBD and 50 controls) aged between 4 and 14 years were assessed along with their parents, who completed a self-report personality measure and child behavior rating. Behaviour ratings were also obtained from the children's teachers. Ten years later the offspring completed an interview assessing SRBs. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping revealed that, after controlling for age and presence of an affective disorder, externalizing behaviors served as a pathway through which high parental neuroticism, low parental agreeableness, and low parental extraversion were related to SRBs in offspring. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between parental neuroticism and childhood externalizing problems was stronger for OBD than controls. These findings add to our previous results showing parents' personality contributes to intergenerational risk transfer through behavioral problems in middle childhood. These results carry implications for optimal timing of preventative interventions in the OBD.

  20. Online group course for parents with mental illness: development and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Rianne A P; Speetjens, Paula A M; Arntz, Karlijn S E; Onrust, Simone A

    2010-12-19

    Children of parents with mental illness (COPMI) are at greater risk of developing mental disorders themselves. Since impaired parenting skills appear to be a crucial factor, we developed a facilitated 8-session preventative group course called KopOpOuders (Chin Up, Parents) delivered via the Internet to Dutch parents with psychiatric problems. The goal was to promote children's well-being by strengthening children's protective factors via their parents. To reach parents at an early stage of their parenting difficulties, the course is easily accessible online. The course is delivered in a secure chat room, and participation is anonymous. This paper reports on (1) the design and method of this online the group course and (2) the results of a pilot study that assessed parenting skills, parental sense of competence, child well-being, and course satisfaction. The pilot study had a pre/post design. Parenting skills were assessed using Laxness and Overreactivity subscales of the Parenting Scale (PS). Sense of parenting competence was measured with the Ouderlijke Opvattingen over Opvoeding (OOO) questionnaire, a Dutch scale assessing parental perceptions of parenting using the Feelings of Incompetence and Feelings of Competence subscales. Child well-being was assessed with the total problem score, Emotional Problems, and Hyperactivity subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Paired samples t tests were performed, and Cohen's d was used to determine effect sizes. Intention-to-treat analyses and analyses of completers only were both performed. Course satisfaction was evaluated using custom-designed questionnaires. The sample comprised 48 parents with mental illness. The response rate was 100% (48/48) at pretest and 58% (28/48) at posttest. Significant improvements were found on PS Laxness and Overreactivity subscales (P children were not in the clinical range at both pretest and posttest. The mean course satisfaction score was 7.8 on a 10-point scale

  1. Relationships among Parenting Practices, Parental Stress, Child Behaviour, and Children's Social-Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…

  2. Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request template is used to document changes to scope, cost, schedule, or operational performance metrics for SSA's Major...

  3. Parenting and restrictions in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Scherphof, C.; Carpay, J.A.; Augustijn, P.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Deković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: From the overprotection literature, the predictive and interactional (moderation) effects of controlling and indulgent parenting on restrictions in children with epilepsy were examined. Methods: Parents of 73 children with epilepsy completed questionnaires on parenting, restrictions, and

  4. Pilot Evaluation of a Palliative and End-of-Life Communication Intervention for Parents of Children With a Brain Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L; Pradhan, Kamnesh; Shih, Chie-Schin; Gauvain, Karen M; Kane, Javier R; Liu, Jingxia; Haase, Joan E

    Providing timely palliative and end-of-life care (PC/EOL) information to parents of children with a serious illness is a national health care priority. The goals of this study were to determine feasibility, acceptability, and parent responses related to a PC/EOL communication intervention, titled "Communication Plan: Early through End of Life (COMPLETE)" to parents of children with a brain tumor. The study was a 2-site prospective, single-group pilot study targeting parents' stress and coping outcomes. The sample included 13 parents of 11 children (ie, 11 families). During the first 6 months postdiagnosis, we evaluated parent outcomes at 4 time points (baseline and 3 post-sessions). Our findings included significant decline in decision regret ( P = .0089); strong, significantly increased hope ( P ≤ .0001); and significantly decreased uncertainty ( P = .04). Over time, more than half of the parents (61.5%) preferred to receive information about their child's current condition and PC/EOL options. Our findings provide evidence to suggest that the COMPLETE intervention is feasible and acceptable and produces promising effects on 3 parent outcomes (ie, decision regret, hope, and uncertainty) in parents of children with a brain tumor. Further research is indicated to evaluate COMPLETE with a larger sample of parents of children with cancer and with a control group.

  5. Effectiveness of a universal health-promoting parenting program: a randomized waitlist-controlled trial of All Children in Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfsdotter, Malin; Enebrink, Pia; Lindberg, Lene

    2014-10-18

    Parenting programs have been highlighted as a way of supporting and empowering parents. As programs designed to promote children's health and well-being are scarce, a new health-promotion program, All Children in Focus, has been developed. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the program in promoting parental self-efficacy and child health and development, as well as to investigate possible moderators of these outcomes. A multicenter randomized waitlist-controlled trial was conducted. The trial included 621 parents with children aged 3-12 years. Parents were randomized to receive the intervention directly or to join a waitlist control group. Parents completed questionnaires at baseline, 2 weeks after the intervention, and 6 months post-baseline. To evaluate potential effects of the program, as well as any moderating variables, multilevel modeling with a repeated-measures design was applied. Parents in the intervention group reported that their self-efficacy (p parents in the control group. One variable was found to moderate both outcomes: parents' positive mental health. Furthermore, parents' educational level and number of children moderated parental self-efficacy, while the children's age moderated child health and development. Having a poor positive mental health, a university-level education, more than one child in the family, and older children, made the families benefit more. In the first randomized controlled trial of All Children in Focus, we found that the program appears to promote both parental self-efficacy and children's health and development in a general population. Additionally, we found that families may benefit differently depending on their baseline characteristics. This contributes to an existing understanding of the advantages of offering universal parenting programs as a public health approach to strengthening families. However, further research is needed to investigate long-term effects and mediating

  6. Longitudinal evaluation of the importance of homework assignment completion for the academic performance of middle school students with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Molitor, Stephen J; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Smith, Zoe; Schultz, Brandon K; Evans, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    The primary goal of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the homework assignment completion patterns of middle school age adolescents with ADHD, their associations with academic performance, and malleable predictors of homework assignment completion. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 104 middle school students comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD and followed for 18 months. Multiple teachers for each student provided information about the percentage of homework assignments turned in at five separate time points and school grades were collected quarterly. Results showed that agreement between teachers with respect to students assignment completion was high, with an intraclass correlation of .879 at baseline. Students with ADHD were turning in an average of 12% fewer assignments each academic quarter in comparison to teacher-reported classroom averages. Regression analyses revealed a robust association between the percentage of assignments turned in at baseline and school grades 18 months later, even after controlling for baseline grades, achievement (reading and math), intelligence, family income, and race. Cross-lag analyses demonstrated that the association between assignment completion and grades was reciprocal, with assignment completion negatively impacting grades and low grades in turn being associated with decreased future homework completion. Parent ratings of homework materials management abilities at baseline significantly predicted the percentage of assignments turned in as reported by teachers 18 months later. These findings demonstrate that homework assignment completion problems are persistent across time and an important intervention target for adolescents with ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Parenting children with down syndrome: An analysis of parenting styles, parenting dimensions, and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B Allyson; Conners, Frances; Curtner-Smith, Mary Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Effective parenting is vital for a child's development. Although much work has been conducted on parenting typically developing children, little work has examined parenting children with Down syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to compare the parenting styles and dimensions in mothers of children with DS and mothers of TD children. Thirty-five mothers of children with DS and 47 mothers of TD children completed questionnaires about parenting, parental stress, child behavior problems, and child executive function. We found that mothers of children with DS use an authoritative parenting style less and a permissive parenting style more than mothers of TD children. Additionally, we found that mothers of children with DS use reasoning/induction and verbal hostility less and ignoring misbehavior more than mothers of TD children. All of these differences, except for those of reasoning/induction, were at least partially accounted for by the higher levels of parental stress in the DS group. Parenting interventions should be focused on reducing parental stress and training mothers to parent under stress in an effort to improve parenting techniques, which would, in theory, improve long-term child outcomes for children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship between parent feeding styles and general parenting with loss of control eating in treatment-seeking overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Brittany E; Camacho, Casandra; Peterson, Carol B; Rhee, Kyung E; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy L; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2015-11-01

    To examine differences in parent feeding behaviors and general parenting of overweight children with and without loss of control (LOC) eating. One-hundred-and-eighteen overweight and obese children (10.40 ± 1.35 years; 53% female; 52% Caucasian; BMI-z: 2.06 ± 0.39) and their parents (42.42 ± 6.20 years; 91% female; 70% Caucasian; BMI: 31.74 ± 6.96 kg/m(2) ) were seen at a baseline assessment visit for a behavioral intervention that targeted overeating. The Eating Disorder Examination, adapted for children (ChEDE) was administered to assess for LOC eating. Parents completed the Parental Feeding Styles Questionnaire (PFSQ) and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess parent feeding styles and behaviors. Children also completed a self-report measure of general parenting (Child Report of Parent Behavior Inventory, CRPBI-30). Forty-three children (36.40%) reported at least one LOC eating episode in the month prior to assessment. Parents who reported greater restriction and higher levels of pressure to eat were more likely to have children that reported LOC eating (ps Parents who utilized more instrumental feeding and prompting/encouragement to eat techniques were less likely to have children that reported LOC eating (ps parenting behaviors were unrelated to child LOC eating (ps > 0.05). Parent feeding styles and behaviors appear to be differentially and uniquely related to LOC eating in treatment-seeking overweight and obese children. Future research is needed to determine if implementing interventions that target parent feeding behaviors may reduce LOC eating, prevent full-syndrome eating disorders, and reduce weight gain in youth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335

  10. DairyBISS Baseline report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, N.N.; Berhanu, Tinsae; Murutse, Girmay; Vugt, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are

  11. Engaging Parents Who Quit Smoking in Antismoking Socialization of Children: A Novel Approach to Relapse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kim A.; Dickinson, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Data from a randomized controlled trial designed primarily to test the effect of an antismoking socialization parenting program on child initiation of smoking were used to test the subsidiary hypothesis that providing antismoking socialization to children would lower the odds of relapse within a sub-sample of parents who had recently quit smoking. Methods: Over 13 months, 11 state Quitlines provided contact information for callers who were parents of 8- to 10-year-old children. Of 1604 parents enrolled in the trial, 689 (344 treatment; 345 control) had quit smoking cigarettes for at least 24 hours after calling a Quitline. Their data were used to test for group differences in 30-day abstinence measured using telephone interviews conducted 7 and 12 months post-baseline. Analyses of parents with complete follow-up data and intent-to-treat analyses incorporating parents lost to follow-up are presented. Results: Among 465 parents with complete follow-up data, treatment group parents had twice the odds of being abstinent 12 months post-baseline (adjusted OR = 2.01; P = .001) relative to controls. Intent-to-treat analysis with all 689 parents, in which those lost to follow-up were coded as having relapsed, showed a smaller though significant treatment effect on 30-day abstinence at 12 months (adjusted OR = 1.58; P = .017). Conclusions: This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. Additional research is needed to replicate this finding and to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying the observed effect. Implications: There is a clear the need for research to develop new relapse prevention strategies. This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. PMID:26416824

  12. Effects of a dyadic music therapy intervention on parent-child interaction, parent stress, and parent-child relationship in families with emotionally neglected children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Stine L; McKinney, Cathy H; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Work with families and families at risk within the field of music therapy have been developing for the last decade. To diminish risk for unhealthy child development, families with emotionally neglected children need help to improve their emotional communication and develop healthy parent-child interactions. While some researchers have investigated the effect of music therapy on either the parent or the child, no study has investigated the effect of music therapy on the observed interaction between the parent and child within the field of child protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a dyadic music therapy intervention on observed parent-child interaction (mutual attunement, nonverbal communication, emotional parental response), self-reported parenting stress, and self-reported parent-child relationship in families at risk and families with emotionally neglected children, ages 5-12 years. This was a randomized controlled trial study conducted at a family care center in Denmark. Eighteen parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to receive 10 weekly music therapy sessions with a credentialed music therapist (n = 9) or treatment as usual (n = 9). Observational measures for parent-child interaction, self-reported measures for parenting stress and parent-child relationship were completed at baseline and 4 months post-baseline assessment. Results of the study showed that dyads who received music therapy intervention significantly improved their nonverbal communication and mutual attunement. Similarly, parents who participated in dyadic music therapy reported themselves to be significantly less stressed by the mood of the child and to significantly improve their parent-child relationship in terms of being better at talking to and understanding their children than parents who did not receive music therapy. Both groups significantly improved in terms of increased positive and decreased negative emotional parental response, parenting stress and

  13. Parental Employment and Child Behaviors: Do Parenting Practices Underlie These Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Renata; Magee, Christopher A.; Robinson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether hours of parental employment were associated with child behaviors via parenting practices. The sample included 2,271 Australian children aged 4-5 years at baseline. Two-wave panel mediation models tested whether parenting practices that were warm, hostile, or characterized by inductive reasoning linked parent's hours of…

  14. Using Newsletters to Improve Parents' Communication with Their Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Jodi; Gonzalez, Chris; Gengler, Colleen; Olson, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Two sets of newsletters designed to improve parent-teen communication were distributed at two different time points to 71 parents of seventh and eighth graders across five states. At both points, parents completed an evaluation assessing parent-child communication, parenting practices, the emotional experience of parenting, other parent education…

  15. Parental overprotection predicts the development of functional somatic symptoms in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Karin A M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2009-06-01

    To examine whether parental overprotection contributes to the development of functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in young adolescents. In addition, we aimed to study whether this potential effect of parental overprotection is mediated by parenting distress and/or moderated by the adolescent's sex. FSS were measured in 2230 adolescents (ages 10 to 12 years from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self Report at baseline and at follow-up 2 1/2 years later. Parental overprotection as perceived by the child was assessed by means of the EMBU-C (Swedish acronym for my memories of upbringing-child version). Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index. Linear regression analyses were performed adjusted for FSS at baseline and sex. Parental overprotection was a predictor of the development of FSS in young adolescents (beta = 0.055, P overprotection was a predictor of the development of FSS in girls (beta = 0.085, P overprotection was a predictor of the development of FSS in boys (beta = 0.072, P overprotection and FSS was found. Parental overprotection may play a role in the development of FSS in young adolescents.

  16. Program Baseline Change Control Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This procedure establishes the responsibilities and process for approving initial issues of and changes to the technical, cost, and schedule baselines, and selected management documents developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This procedure implements the OCRWM Baseline Management Plan and DOE Order 4700.1, Chg 1. It streamlines the change control process to enhance integration, accountability, and traceability of Level 0 and Level I decisions through standardized Baseline Change Proposal (BCP) forms to be used by the Level 0, 1, 2, and 3 Baseline Change Control Boards (BCCBs) and to be tracked in the OCRWM-wide Configuration Information System (CIS) Database.This procedure applies to all technical, cost, and schedule baselines controlled by the Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) BCCB (Level 0) and, OCRWM Program Baseline Control Board (PBCCB) (Level 1). All baseline BCPs initiated by Level 2 or lower BCCBs, which require approval from ESAAB or PBCCB, shall be processed in accordance with this procedure. This procedure also applies to all Program-level management documents controlled by the OCRWM PBCCB

  17. Summer Treatment Program for Preschoolers with Externalizing Behavior Problems: a Preliminary Examination of Parenting Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Ros, Rosmary; Hart, Katie C; Slavec, Janine

    2017-11-07

    Within an at-risk sample of preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP), the current study examined the initial promise of a multimodal intervention, the Summer Treatment Program for Pre-Kindergarteners (STP-PreK), in improving parenting outcomes. Using an open trial design, 154 parents and their preschool children (73% male; M age  = 5.06 years; 82% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP (57% of which were referred by schools or mental health/medical professionals) completed a baseline and post-treatment assessment. A subsample of 90 families completed a follow-up assessment approximately 6 to 9 months after treatment completion. Parental measures of parenting stress and discipline strategies were collected across all three assessments. Observational data were also collected across all assessments during a 5-min standardized child-led play situation and a 5-min parent-led clean up task. The parenting component of the STP-PreK included a School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP) of which the behavioral management component was implemented via a Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) adaptation (8 weekly group sessions with 15-20 parents in each group, lack of requirement of "mastery" criteria). All parenting outcomes (both ratings and observed) significantly improved after the intervention (Cohen's d mean effect size across measures 0.89) with all effects being maintained at the 6-9 month follow-up. These findings highlight the initial promise of our SRPP's PCIT adaptation in targeting multiple aspects of parenting while yielding comparable parenting skills acquisition compared to traditional individual PCIT.

  18. Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-27

    PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).

  19. The parenting attitudes and the stress of mothers predict the asthmatic severity of their children: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Jun; Kakuta, Chikage; Motomura, Chikako; Odajima, Hiroshi; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Nishima, Sankei; Kubo, Chiharu

    2010-10-07

    To examine relationships between a mother's stress-related conditions and parenting attitudes and their children's asthmatic status. 274 mothers of an asthmatic child 2 to 12 years old completed a questionnaire including questions about their chronic stress/coping behaviors (the "Stress Inventory"), parenting attitudes (the "Ta-ken Diagnostic Test for Parent-Child Relationship, Parent Form"), and their children's disease status. One year later, a follow-up questionnaire was mailed to the mothers that included questions on the child's disease status. 223 mothers (81%) responded to the follow-up survey. After controlling for non-psychosocial factors including disease severity at baseline, multiple linear regression analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis found chronic irritation/anger and emotional suppression to be aggravating factors for children aged types of parental stress/coping behaviors and parenting styles may differently predict their children's asthmatic status, and such associations may change as children grow.

  20. Exploring the relationship between parental worry about their children's health and usage of an internet intervention for pediatric encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C; Ritterband, Lee M; Thorndike, Frances P; Cox, Daniel J; Borowitz, Stephen M

    2009-06-01

    To investigate whether parental worry about their children's health predicts usage of a pediatric Internet intervention for encopresis. Thirty-nine families with a child diagnosed with encopresis completed a national clinical trial of an Internet-based intervention for encopresis (www.ucanpooptoo.com). Parents rated worry about their children's health, encopresis severity, current parent treatment for depression, and parent comfort with the Internet. Usage indicators were collected while participants utilized the intervention. Regression analyses showed that parents who reported higher baseline levels of worry about their children's health showed greater subsequent intervention use (beta =.52, p =.002), even after accounting for other plausible predictors. Exploratory analyses indicated that this effect may be stronger for families with younger children. Characteristics of individuals using Internet-based treatment programs, such as parental worry about their children's health, can influence intervention usage, and should be considered by developers of Internet interventions.

  1. Warm Parenting Associated with Decreasing or Stable Child BMI during Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2016-04-01

    While authoritative parenting, which includes high levels of warmth and behavioral control, has been associated with lower risk of obesity, little is known about how general parenting impacts child weight loss during treatment. Our goal was to examine the relationship between several general parenting dimensions and 'decreasing /stable' child BMI during a 16-week family-based behavioral weight control program. Forty-four overweight parent-child dyads (child age 8 to 12 years) enrolled in the program. Families were videotaped at baseline eating dinner in their home. Using the General Parenting Observational Scale (GPOS), meals were coded for several general parenting dimensions. Primary outcome was percent of children whose BMI 'decreased or stayed the same.' Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between general parenting and decreasing/stable child BMI. Forty families (91%) completed the program. Children had a mean BMI change of -0.40 (SD 1.57), which corresponds to a -0.15 (SD 0.20) change in BMI z-score (BMI-Z); 75% of children had decreasing/stable BMI. In the unadjusted models, lower parent BMI, higher parent education, and higher levels of parental warmth were significantly associated with decreasing/stable child BMI. In the multivariable model, only higher level of warmth was associated with increased odds of decreasing/stable child BMI (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.62). Baseline parental warmth may influence a child's ability to lower/maintain BMI during a standard family-based behavioral weight control program. Efforts to increase parent displays of warmth and emotional support towards their overweight child may help to increase the likelihood of treatment success.

  2. Reducing Children's Susceptibility to Alcohol Use: Effects of a Home-Based Parenting Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christine; Ennett, Susan T; Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Hayes, Kim A; Dickinson, Denise M; Choi, Seulki; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-07-01

    This 4-year efficacy trial tested whether a home-based, self-administered parenting program could have a long-term effect on children's cognitive susceptibility to alcohol use, and it tested hypothesized moderators and mediators of any such program effect. Using a two-group randomized controlled design, 1076 children (540 treatment; 536 control; mean age of 9.2 years at baseline) completed telephone interviews prior to randomization and follow-up interviews 12, 24, 36, and 48 months post-baseline. Mothers of children randomized to treatment received a 5-month-long parenting program during year 1, followed by two 1-month-long boosters in years 2 and 3. Exposure to the program was significantly inversely associated with susceptibility to alcohol use 48 months post-baseline (b = -0.03, p = .04), with no variation in program effects by parental alcohol use or mother's race/ethnicity or education, suggesting broad public health relevance of the parenting program. Path analyses of simple indirect effects through each hypothesized mediator showed that program exposure positively influenced parental communication to counter pro-drinking influences in the family and media domains and parental rule setting 36 months post-baseline; these variables, in turn, predicted reduced susceptibility to alcohol use 48 months post-baseline. Parallel (multiple) mediation analysis showed that the program had a significant indirect effect on susceptibility through parental rule setting. Together, the findings indicate that internalization of protective alcohol-related expectancies and intentions is possible among children whose mothers provide early exposure to alcohol-specific socialization. Additional research is needed to link alcohol-specific socialization during childhood with adolescent drinking outcomes.

  3. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  4. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  5. Association between parent attitudes and receipt of human papillomavirus vaccine in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. VanWormer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine coverage rates remain low. This is believed to reflect parental hesitancy, but few studies have examined how changes in parents’ attitudes impact HPV vaccine uptake. This study examined the association between changes in parents’ vaccine attitudes and HPV vaccine receipt in their adolescent children. Methods A baseline and 1-year follow-up survey of HPV vaccine attitudes was administered to parents of 11–17 year olds who had not completed the HPV vaccine series. Changes in attitudinal scores (barriers, harms, ineffectiveness, and uncertainties from the Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Scale were assessed. Two outcomes were measured (in parents’ adolescent children over an 18-month period and analyzed using multivariable regression; receipt of next scheduled HPV vaccine dose and 3-dose series completion. Results There were 221 parents who completed the baseline survey (11% response rate and 164 with available follow-up data; 60% of their adolescent children received a next HPV vaccine dose and 38% completed the vaccine series at follow-up. Decrease in parents’ uncertainties was a significant predictor of vaccine receipt, with each 1-point reduction in uncertainties score associated with 4.9 higher odds of receipt of the next vaccine dose. Higher baseline harms score was the only significant predictor of lower series completion. Conclusions Reductions in parents’ uncertainties appeared to result in greater likelihood of their children receiving the HPV vaccine. Only baseline concerns about vaccine harms were associated with lower series completion rate. Education for parents should emphasize the HPV vaccine’s safety profile.

  6. Baseline restoration using current conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, A.M.L.S.; Simoes, J.B.; Correia, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A good performance of high resolution nuclear spectrometry systems, at high pulse rates, demands restoration of baseline between pulses, in order to remove rate dependent baseline shifts. This restoration is performed by circuits named baseline restorers (BLRs) which also remove low frequency noise, such as power supply hum and detector microphonics. This paper presents simple circuits for baseline restoration based on a commercial current conveyor (CCII01). Tests were performed, on two circuits, with periodic trapezoidal shaped pulses in order to measure the baseline restoration for several pulse rates and restorer duty cycles. For the current conveyor based Robinson restorer, the peak shift was less than 10 mV, for duty cycles up to 60%, at high pulse rates. Duty cycles up to 80% were also tested, being the maximum peak shift 21 mV. The peak shift for the current conveyor based Grubic restorer was also measured. The maximum value found was 30 mV at 82% duty cycle. Keeping the duty cycle below 60% improves greatly the restorer performance. The ability of both baseline restorer architectures to reject low frequency modulation is also measured, with good results on both circuits

  7. Parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at meals and snacks is associated with children's adequate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxten, Michelle; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Friend, Sarah; Flattum, Colleen F; Schow, Robin

    2014-07-01

    Research has shown that parental role modeling of healthful eating behaviors is positively correlated to children's dietary intake and fruit and vegetable (F&V) preferences. The purpose of this study is to (1) examine associations between parent and child report of parental role modeling of F&V consumption at snacks and dinner and (2) determine whether parental role modeling is associated with children meeting daily F&V recommendations. Parent-child dyads (N = 160) participating in the HOME Plus study completed baseline surveys on parental role modeling of F&V at snacks and dinner. Children also completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Spearman correlations and chi-square/Fisher's exact tests were used to examine relationships between parent and child report of parental role modeling of F&V at snacks and dinner and whether children met daily recommendations. On average, children consumed less than three daily servings of F&V with only 23% consuming the recommended servings. Statistically significant correlations were seen between parent and child report of parental role modeling fruit at dinner and green salad at dinner. Children who reported parental role modeling of vegetables at snack and salad at dinner were significantly more likely, than those who did not, to meet daily F&V recommendations. Parents who reported role modeling fruit at snack were significantly more likely to have children who met daily F&V recommendations. Results indicate that children are aware of their parents' eating behaviors and on occasion report this behavior similarly to their parents. Parents should be encouraged to utilize the opportunity to role model healthful dietary intake, especially at snacks, where consumption of F&V appears low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbo Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998, and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965. The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.

  9. Cardiac Vagal Tone and Quality of Parenting Show Concurrent and Time-Ordered Associations That Diverge in Abusive, Neglectful, and Non-Maltreating Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Benjamin, Lorna Smith; Pincus, Aaron L.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent and lagged maternal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was monitored in the context of parenting. One hundred and forty-one preschooler-mother dyads—involved with child welfare as documented perpetrators of child abuse or neglect, or non-maltreating (non-CM)—were observed completing a resting baseline and joint challenge task. Parenting behaviors were coded using SASB (Benjamin, 1996) and maternal RSA was simultaneously monitored, longitudinally-nested within-person (WP), and subje...

  10. Mainland Chinese Parenting Styles and Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu; Zeng, Qiang; Yu, Lidong; Cai, Beiying

    2005-01-01

    Parenting styles and mother-child interaction were examined with 97 Mainland Chinese mothers (M age = 29.64 years, SD = 3.64) and their young children (M = 24.30 months, SD = 4.57). Mothers completed questionnaires about their parenting styles, orientation to Chinese cultural values, perceived parenting stress, and sources of social support. The…

  11. Parenting Ideals and (Un-)Troubled Parent Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widding, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how some Swedish parents constructed meanings of parenthood. The parents had completed a state-sponsored parenting programme and were interviewed about their experiences of the programme, their everyday lives, their need for support, ideas about the societal context, and their understandings of "good" and…

  12. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H.C.G.; Alink, Lenneke R.A.; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J.M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of

  13. Parenting Style and Parental Involvement: Relations with Adolescent Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty ninth-grade students completed questionnaires regarding their parents' demandingness, responsiveness, school involvement, and commitment to achievement. Boys' reports of both maternal and paternal parenting significantly predicted their achievement, with parental values toward achievement significantly predicting achievement in boys above…

  14. Do Parental Stressors and Avoidance Coping Mediate between Parental Depression and Offspring Depression? A 23-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Christine; Cronkite, Ruth C.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether parents' stressors and avoidance coping when offspring were children helped to explain associations between parent depression at baseline and offspring's avoidance coping and depression in adulthood. Self-report data were collected at baseline and 1 year from parents (N = 326) and at 23 years from adult offspring (N = 326).…

  15. Developing RESRAD-BASELINE for environmental baseline risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jing-Jy.

    1995-01-01

    RESRAD-BASELINE is a computer code developed at Argonne developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform both radiological and chemical risk assessments. The code implements the baseline risk assessment guidance of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1989). The computer code calculates (1) radiation doses and cancer risks from exposure to radioactive materials, and (2) hazard indexes and cancer risks from exposure to noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic chemicals, respectively. The user can enter measured or predicted environmental media concentrations from the graphic interface and can simulate different exposure scenarios by selecting the appropriate pathways and modifying the exposure parameters. The database used by PESRAD-BASELINE includes dose conversion factors and slope factors for radionuclides and toxicity information and properties for chemicals. The user can modify the database for use in the calculation. Sensitivity analysis can be performed while running the computer code to examine the influence of the input parameters. Use of RESRAD-BASELINE for risk analysis is easy, fast, and cost-saving. Furthermore, it ensures in consistency in methodology for both radiological and chemical risk analyses

  16. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  17. Parental perceptions of child vulnerability, overprotection, and parental psychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M

    1998-01-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that these constructs are independent. Distinct parental psychological characteristics were hypothesized for each construct. The parents of 871 children, ages 22-72 months, completed a four-part protocol (clinical background data, Child Vulnerability Scale, Parent Protection Scale, and Brief Symptom Inventory). A distinct parent symptom profile was found for perceived child vulnerability (somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, and anxiety). Overprotection was associated with phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and paranoid ideation. These findings provide further support for the differentiation of these constructs.

  18. An Examination of Fluoxetine for the Treatment of Selective Mutism Using a Nonconcurrent Multiple-Baseline Single-Case Design Across 5 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barterian, Justin A; Sanchez, Joel M; Magen, Jed; Siroky, Allison K; Mash, Brittany L; Carlson, John S

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the utility of fluoxetine in the treatment of 5 children, aged 5 to 14 years, diagnosed with selective mutism who also demonstrated symptoms of social anxiety. A nonconcurrent, randomized, multiple-baseline, single-case design with a single-blind placebo-controlled procedure was used. Parents and the study psychiatrist completed multiple methods of assessment including Direct Behavior Ratings and questionnaires. Treatment outcomes were evaluated by calculating effect sizes for each participant as an individual and for the participants as a group. Information regarding adverse effects with an emphasis on behavioral disinhibition and ratings of parental acceptance of the intervention was gathered. All 5 children experienced improvement in social anxiety, responsive speech, and spontaneous speech with medium to large effect sizes; however, children still met criteria for selective mutism at the end of the study. Adverse events were minimal, with only 2 children experiencing brief occurrences of minor behavioral disinhibition. Parents found the treatment highly acceptable.

  19. Depressed parents' attachment: effects on offspring suicidal behavior in a longitudinal, family study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Erica K.; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K.; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. Method 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992–2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Results Parent avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (p=0.083). Parent anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (p=0.961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (p=0.034), and in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (p=0.045) and lethality of attempts (p=0.003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (p=0.025) and major depressive disorder (p=0.012). Parent avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (p=0.048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (p=0.003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parent attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring, and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. PMID:25098943

  20. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  1. Parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour before and after a parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Linda; Kendall, Sally

    2012-10-01

    To explore whether changes in parenting self-efficacy after attending a parenting programme are related to changes in parenting stress and child behaviour. Adverse parenting is a risk factor in the development of a range of health and behavioural problems in childhood and is predictive of poor adult outcomes. Strategies for supporting parents are recognised as an effective way to improve the health, well-being and development of children. Parenting is influenced by many factors including the behaviour and characteristics of the child, the health and psychological well-being of the parent and the contextual influences of stress and support. Parenting difficulties are a major source of stress for parents, and parenting self-efficacy has been shown to be an important buffer against parenting stress. In all, 63 parents who had a child under the age of 10 years took part in the research. Of those, 58 returned completed measures of parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour at the start of a parenting programme and 37 at three-month follow-up. Improvements in parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress were found at follow-up, but there was less evidence for improvements in child behaviour. The findings clearly suggest a relationship between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress; parents who are feeling less efficacious experience higher levels of stress, whereas greater parenting self-efficacy is related to less stress. This study adds to the evidence that parent outcomes may be a more reliable measure of programme effectiveness than child outcomes at least in the short term.

  2. Mom Power: preliminary outcomes of a group intervention to improve mental health and parenting among high-risk mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Maria; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Alfafara, Emily A; Schuster, Melisa M; Miller, Nicole M; Waddell, Rachel M; Stanton Kohler, Emily

    2015-06-01

    Maternal psychopathology and traumatic life experiences may adversely impact family functioning, the quality of the parent-child relationship and the attachment bond, placing the child's early social-emotional development at risk. Attachment-based parenting interventions may be particularly useful in decreasing negative outcomes for children exposed to risk contexts, yet high risk families frequently do not engage in programs to address mental health and/or parenting needs. This study evaluated the effects of Mom Power (MP), a 13-session parenting and self-care skills group program for high-risk mothers and their young children (age parenting competence, and engagement in treatment. Mothers were referred from community health providers for a phase 1 trial to assess feasibility, acceptability, and pilot outcomes. At baseline, many reported several identified risk factors, including trauma exposure, psychopathology, poverty, and single parenthood. Ninety-nine mother-child pairs were initially recruited into the MP program with 68 women completing and providing pre- and post-self-report measures assessing demographics and trauma history (pre-assessment only), maternal mental health (depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)), parenting, and intervention satisfaction. Results indicate that MP participation was associated with reduction in depression, PTSD, and caregiving helplessness. A dose response relationship was evident in that, despite baseline equivalence, women who attended ≥70 % of the 10 groups (completers; N = 68) improved on parenting and mental health outcomes, in contrast to non-completers (N = 12). Effects were most pronounced for women with a mental health diagnosis at baseline. The intervention was perceived as helpful and user-friendly. Results indicate that MP is feasible, acceptable, and holds promise for improving maternal mental health and parenting competence among high-risk dyads. Further research is warranted to evaluate

  3. Medical homes for at-risk children: parental reports of clinician-parent relationships, anticipatory guidance, and behavior changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Catherine S; Higman, Susan M; Sia, Calvin; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Duggan, Anne K

    2005-01-01

    ' perceptions of behavior changes were positively associated with trust (beta = .018, SE = .006). Analyses were adjusted for potential confounding by randomized, controlled trial group assignment, receipt of >or=5 well-child visits, and baseline attributes. Among at-risk families, we found an association between parental ratings of the medical home and parental reports of the completeness of anticipatory guidance regarding selected injury and illness prevention topics. Parents' trust of the clinician was associated with parent-reported behavior changes for discussed topics.

  4. Long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I will review briefly the experimental results which established the existence of neutrino mixing, the current generation of long baseline accelerator experiments, and the prospects for the future. In particular I will focus on the recent analysis of the MINOS experiment. (author)

  5. Baseline Report on HB2320

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Staff provides this baseline report as a summary of its preliminary considerations and initial research in fulfillment of the requirements of HB2320 from the 2015 session of the General Assembly. Codified as § 23-7.4:7, this legislation compels the Education Secretary and the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) Director, in…

  6. Improving Diabetes-Related Parent-Adolescent Communication With Individualized Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Dana K K; Ellis, Deborah A; Cano, Annmarie; Dekelbab, Bassem

    2017-11-01

    To pilot a brief individualized feedback intervention to improve the communication skills of parents with an adolescent with type 1 diabetes. Parent-adolescent dyads (N = 79) discussed a diabetes-related problem, while an interventionist rated the parent's communication skills to give feedback to the parents. Parents were then randomized to a brief feedback session to target person-centered communication skills or an educational session. Dyads discussed another diabetes care problem to assess for change in communication skills. Independent raters coded parent communication skills from video recordings to rate behaviors in the service of examining possible changes in communication skills. Dyads completed ratings of perceived closeness and empathy after each conversation. Controlling for overall positive communication at baseline, parents who received feedback showed more improvement in specific person-centered communication skills than parents in the control group. Adolescents in the feedback group reported greater increases in parental empathy and intimacy from pre- to postmanipulation than the control. The feedback intervention showed preliminary efficacy for increasing person-centered communication skills and perceived empathy and intimacy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Relations among school/daycare functioning, fear of hypoglycaemia and quality of life in parents of young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Linda J; Clary, Lauren; Owen, Victoria; Monaghan, Maureen; Alvarez, Vanessa; Streisand, Randi

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the type 1 diabetes-related school/daycare experiences of parents of young children and to examine the relationship among child school/daycare functioning, parent fear of hypoglycaemia and parent type 1 diabetes-related quality of life. Parents of young children who attend school/daycare must rely on others for daily type 1 diabetes management. Worry about school/daycare type 1 diabetes management may cause parental distress and contribute to diminished parent quality of life. Parental concerns about type 1 diabetes management in young children in the school/daycare setting have not been well described in the literature. Descriptive correlational and cross-sectional parent report of questionnaires design. As part of a randomised controlled trial for parents of young children with type 1 diabetes, 134 parents completed self-report measures at baseline. Data included demographic, school/daycare, and medical information, parent reports of child school/daycare functioning, parent fear of hypoglycaemia and parent type 1 diabetes-related quality of life. Parents of younger children, children on a more intensive medical regimen and children who had experienced type 1 diabetes-related unconsciousness or seizures had more school/daycare concerns. Parents who perceived their children had higher school/daycare functioning had less fear about hypoglycaemia and reported better type 1 diabetes-related quality of life. School/daycare functioning and fear of hypoglycaemia were significantly associated with parent type 1 diabetes-related quality of life. Parents' concerns about school/daycare functioning and fear of hypoglycaemia play an important role in parents' type 1 diabetes-related quality of life. Members of the healthcare team should be aware of concerns related to children attending school/daycare and provide additional support as warranted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Parenting stress in parents of children with cochlear implants: relationships among parent stress, child language, and unilateral versus bilateral implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarant, Julia; Garrard, Philippa

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been focused on stress levels of parents of children with cochlear implants (CIs). This study examined the stress experience of 70 parents of children with CIs by comparing stress levels in this group of parents to those in parents of children without disabilities, identifying primary stressors, examining the relationship between parent stress and child language, and comparing stress in parents of children with bilateral and unilateral CIs. Parents completed a parent stress questionnaire, and the receptive vocabulary and language abilities of the children were evaluated. Results indicated that these parents had a higher incidence of stress than the normative population. Parent stress levels and child language outcomes were negatively correlated. Child behavior and lack of spousal and social support were the prime causes of parent stress. Parents of children with bilateral CIs were significantly less stressed than were parents of children with unilateral CIs.

  9. Effects of Triple P parenting intervention on child health outcomes for childhood asthma and eczema: Randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Mitchell, Amy E; Burgess, Scott; Fraser, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Childhood chronic health conditions have considerable impact on children. We aimed to test the efficacy of a brief, group-based parenting intervention for improving illness-related child behaviour problems, parents' self-efficacy, quality of life, parents' competence with treatment, and symptom severity. A 2 (intervention vs. care as usual) by 3 (baseline, post-intervention, 6-month follow-up) design was used, with random group assignment. Participants were 107 parents of 2- to 10-year-old children with asthma and/or eczema. Parents completed self-report questionnaires, symptom diaries, and home observations were completed. The intervention comprised two 2-h group discussions based on Triple P. Parents in the intervention group reported (i) fewer eczema-related, but not asthma-related, child behaviour problems; (ii) improved self-efficacy for managing eczema, but not asthma; (iii) better quality of life for parent and family, but not child; (iv) no change in parental treatment competence; (v) reduced symptom severity, particularly for children prescribed corticosteroid-based treatments. Results demonstrate the potential for brief parenting interventions to improve childhood chronic illness management, child health outcomes, and family wellbeing. Effects were stronger for eczema-specific outcomes compared to asthma-specific outcomes. Effects on symptom severity are very promising, and further research examining effects on objective disease severity and treatment adherence is warranted. ACTRN12611000558921. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parental Problem-Solving Abilities and the Association of Sickle Cell Disease Complications with Health-related Quality of Life for School-age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Lamia P.; Daniel, Lauren C.; Smith, Kelsey; Robinson, M. Renée; Patterson, Chavis A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The current analysis sought to explore parent problem-solving abilities/skills as a moderator between SCD complications and HRQOL to evaluate applicability to pediatric SCD. At baseline, 83 children ages 6–12 years and their primary caregiver completed measures of the child HRQOL. Primary caregivers also completed a measure of social problem-solving. A SCD complications score was computed from medical record review. Parent problem-solving abilities significantly moderated the association of SCD complications with child self-report psychosocial HRQOL (p = .006). SCD complications had a direct effect on parent proxy physical and psychosocial child HRQOL. Enhancing parent problem-solving abilities may be one approach to improve HRQOL for children with high SCD complications; however, modification of parent perceptions of HRQOL may require direct intervention to improve knowledge and skills involved in disease management. PMID:24222378

  11. Parenting Role's Tasks as Parents of Healthy and Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the

  12. Externalizing symptoms moderate associations among interpersonal skills, parenting, and depressive symptoms in adolescents seeking mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents' interpersonal skills are associated with fewer teen depressive symptoms and more positive parenting, but little is known about how teens' externalizing problems moderate these relationships. This study examines links among teens' interpersonal skills, parenting, and withdrawn-depressed symptoms in adolescents seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment with elevated or non-elevated externalizing problems. Adolescents (N = 346; 42 % female; 61 % African-American) ages 12-19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and parents completed assessments at baseline and 6 months. At baseline parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed and externalizing symptoms, and were observed interacting to assess teen interpersonal skills. At 6 months adolescents reported on parenting, and parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed symptoms. Structural equation modeling tested two models (one with teen reported symptoms and one with parent reported symptoms). Model fit was better for youth with elevated externalizing problems regardless of reporter. For youth with elevated externalizing problems, baseline teen positive interpersonal skills were not directly associated with 6-month withdrawn-depressed symptoms, but more positive parenting was associated with fewer withdrawn-depressed symptoms. In the teen report model, more positive teen interpersonal skills were associated with more positive parenting, and there was a trend for parenting to indirectly account for the relationship between interpersonal skills and withdrawn-depressed symptoms. The findings extend research on the role of externalizing problems in teens' depression risk. Interventions for depression that target interpersonal skills may be particularly effective in youth with elevated externalizing problems.

  13. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  14. Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina C Kunseler

    Full Text Available This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243 participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25% experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success. Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline, but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood.

  15. Preventive interventions in families with parental depression: children's psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantaus, Tytti; Paavonen, E Juulia; Toikka, Sini; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2010-12-01

    The aim is to document the effectiveness of a preventive family intervention (Family Talk Intervention, FTI) and a brief psychoeducational discussion with parents (Let's Talk about the Children, LT) on children's psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour in families with parental mood disorder, when the interventions are practiced in psychiatric services for adults in the finnish national health service. Patients with mood disorder were invited to participate with their families. Consenting families were randomized to the two intervention groups. The initial sample comprised 119 families and their children aged 8-16. Of these, 109 completed the interventions and the baseline evaluation. Mothers and fathers filled out questionnaires including standardized rating scales for children's symptoms and prosocial behaviour at baseline and at 4, 10 and 18 months post-intervention. The final sample consisted of parental reports on 149 children with 83 complete data sets. Both interventions were effective in decreasing children's emotional symptoms, anxiety, and marginally hyperactivity and in improving children's prosocial behaviour. The FTI was more effective than the LT on emotional symptoms particularly immediately after the intervention, while the effect of the LT emerged after a longer interval. The study supports the effectiveness of both interventions in families with depressed parents. The FTI is applicable in cultural settings other than the USA. Our findings provide support for including preventive child mental health measures as part of psychiatric services for mentally ill parents.

  16. Acceptability and feasibility of an e-mental health intervention for parents of childhood cancer survivors: "Cascade".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Claire E; Sansom-Daly, Ursula M; McGill, Brittany C; Ellis, Sarah J; Doolan, Emma L; Robertson, Eden G; Mathur, Sanaa; Cohn, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of "Cascade": an online, group-based, cognitive behavioral therapy intervention, delivered "live" by a psychologist, to assist parents of children who have completed cancer treatment. Forty-seven parents were randomized to Cascade (n = 25) or a 6-month waitlist (n = 22). Parents completed questionnaires at baseline, 1-2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. Thirty parents completed full evaluations of the Cascade program (n = 21 randomized to Cascade, n = 9 completed Cascade post-waitlist). Ninety-six percent of Cascade participants completed the intervention (n = 24/25). Eighty percent of parents completed every questionnaire (mean completion time 25 min (SD = 12)). Cascade was described as at least "somewhat" helpful by all parents. None rated Cascade as "very/quite" burdensome. Parents reported that the "online format was easy to use" (n = 28, 93.3 %), "I learnt new skills" (n = 28, 93.3 %), and "I enjoyed talking to others" (n = 29, 96.7 %). Peer-to-peer benefits were highlighted by good group cohesion scores. Cascade is highly acceptable and feasible. Its online delivery mechanism may address inequities in post-treatment support for parents, a particularly acute concern for rural/remote families. Future research needs to establish the efficacy of the intervention. ACTRN12613000270718, https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12613000270718.

  17. Relations among Positive Parenting, parent-child Relationship, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic......,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent-child...... parent-child relationship....

  18. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Terrell, Stefanie M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts.

  19. Environmental Baseline File National Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.

    1999-01-01

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics addressed include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions

  20. Baseline atmospheric program Australia 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francey, R.J.; Dick, A.L.; Derek, N.

    1996-01-01

    This publication reports activities, program summaries and data from the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in Tasmania, during the calendar year 1993. These activities represent Australia's main contribution to the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN), part of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The report includes 5 research reports covering trace gas sampling, ozone and radon interdependence, analysis of atmospheric dimethylsulfide and carbon-disulfide, sampling of trace gas composition of the troposphere, and sulfur aerosol/CCN relationship in marine air. Summaries of program reports for the calendar year 1993 are also included. Tabs., figs., refs

  1. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements

  2. 41 CFR 109-1.5202 - Establishment of a personal property holdings baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personal property holdings baseline. 109-1.5202 Section 109-1.5202 Public Contracts and Property Management...-1.5202 Establishment of a personal property holdings baseline. (a) If the contractor is a new... baseline or may perform a complete physical inventory of all personal property. This physical inventory is...

  3. Feasibility and Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Victims of Domestic Violence: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschell, Amy D; Scudder, Ashley B; Schaffner, Kristen F; Slagel, Leslie A

    2017-01-01

    Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an evidence-based treatment for young children (aged 2.5 to 7 years) with externalizing behavior problems. Since its development, PCIT has been applied to a wide array of childhood problems and has a significant evidence base for families with histories of child physical abuse. The current study extended the existing literature by testing the effectiveness and feasibility of PCIT in an urban domestic violence shelter with community-based clinicians delivering the treatment. Seven clinicians implemented PCIT with parent-child dyads which included 21 preschool ( M = 4.57 years; SD = 1.50) children. Families completed assessments at baseline, mid-treatment, and post-treatment. Nine families completed PCIT (43%). Completion of PCIT was associated with improved child behavior, parenting practices, and mental health symptoms. Considerations for treatment delivery and future directions are discussed.

  4. The role of co-parenting alliance as a mediator between trait anxiety, family system maladjustment, and parenting stress in a sample of non-clinical Italian parents

    OpenAIRE

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Sciandra, Andrea; Finos, Livio; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Riso, Daniela Di

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of co-parenting alliance in mediating the influence of parents’ trait anxiety on family system maladjustment and parenting stress. A sample of 1606 Italian parents (803 mothers and 803 fathers) of children aged one to thirteen years completed measures of trait anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory - Y), co-parenting alliance (Parenting Alliance Measure), family system maladjustment (Family Assessment Measure - III), and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Inve...

  5. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  6. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  7. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) ... Moreover, some applications of these results in group algebras are .... A linear subspace S(G) of L1(G) is said to be a Segal algebra, if it satisfies the.

  8. Structure of a traditional baseline data system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    Research was conducted to determine whether appropriate data exist for the development of a comprehensive statistical baseline data system on the human environment in the Athabasca oil sands region of Alberta. The existing data sources pertinent to the target area were first reviewed and discussed. Criteria were selected to assist the evaluation of data, including type of data collected, source, degree of detail, geographic identification, accessibility, and time frame. These criteria allowed assessing whether the data would be amenable to geographically-coded, continuous monitoring systems. It was found that the Statistics Canada Census provided the most detail, the most complete coverage of the target area, the smallest statistical areas, the greatest consistency in data and data collection, and the most regular collection. The local agency collection efforts were generally oriented toward specific goals and the data intended primarily for intra-agency use. The smallest statistical units in these efforts may be too large to be of value to a common small-area system, and data collection agencies did not generally use coterminous boundaries. Recommendations were made to give primary consideration to Statistics Canada data in the initial development of the baseline data system. Further development of such a system depends on the adoption by local agencies of a common small-area system for data collection. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Proband Mental Health Difficulties and Parental Stress Predict Mental Health in Toddlers at High-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle

    2016-10-01

    Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were assessed for ASD at 3-years. Parent stress and proband mental health difficulties predicted concurrent toddler mental health difficulties at 2-years, but only baseline proband internalising problems continued to predict toddler internalising problems at 3-years; high-risk status did not confer additional risk. Baseline toddler mental health difficulties robustly predicted later difficulties, while high-risk status and diagnostic outcome conferred no additional risk. A family systems perspective may be useful for understanding toddler mental health difficulties.

  10. Parental Catastrophizing Partially Mediates the Association between Parent-Reported Child Pain Behavior and Parental Protective Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Shelby L.; Romano, Joan M.; Mancl, Lloyd; Levy, Rona L.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to model and test the role of parental catastrophizing in relationship to parent-reported child pain behavior and parental protective (solicitous) responses to child pain in a sample of children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and their parents (n = 184 dyads). Parents completed measures designed to assess cognitions about and responses to their child's abdominal pain. They also rated their child's pain behavior. Mediation analyses were performed using regression-based techn...

  11. Parenting Intervention for Prevention of Behavioral Problems in Elementary School-Age Filipino-American Children: A Pilot Study in Churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Joyce R; Coffey, Dean M; Schrager, Sheree M; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Miranda, Jeanne

    This study aims to test an evidence-based parenting program offered in churches among Filipino-American parents and estimate effect size for a fully powered trial. Twenty-two parents of children aged 6 to 12 years were randomly assigned to either an intervention or a waiting-list control group. Parents' perceptions of child behavior, parenting practices, and parenting stress were obtained at baseline. Parents in the experimental group attended The Incredible Years School Age Program, which consisted of 12 weekly 2-hour sessions. A follow-up assessment was performed after the intervention and 12 weeks later. The intervention was subsequently repeated with the control group. Satisfaction was assessed with a 40-item measure. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the intervention group postintervention versus the control group. Paired t-tests compared mean parenting practices, parenting stress, and child behavior outcomes. Satisfaction was assessed descriptively. Twenty-two parents completed all assessments and the intervention. Analysis of variance comparing intervention and control groups with repeated measures (pre- and post-test measures) revealed that the program has a positive impact on parenting stress, parenting practices (physical punishment, positive verbal discipline), and parent's perception of their child's behavior (internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and number of problematic behaviors). Analyses of all participants comparing pre- and post intervention revealed improvements in parenting stress, positive verbal discipline, and child externalizing and total problem behaviors. Families reported high satisfaction with the content and format of the intervention. Results support the feasibility of providing an evidence-based parenting program to Filipino parents in churches to prevent future behavioral health problems.

  12. Enhancing Parent-Child Communication and Parental Self-Esteem With a Video-Feedback Intervention: Outcomes With Prelingual Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam-Cassettari, Christa; Wadnerkar-Kamble, Meghana B; James, Deborah M

    2015-07-01

    Evidence on best practice for optimizing communication with prelingual deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children is lacking. This study examined the effect of a family-focused psychosocial video intervention program on parent-child communication in the context of childhood hearing loss. Fourteen hearing parents with a prelingual DHH child (Mage = 2 years 8 months) completed three sessions of video interaction guidance intervention. Families were assessed in spontaneous free play interactions at pre and postintervention using the Emotional Availability (EA) Scales. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale was also used to assess parental report of self-esteem. Compared with nontreatment baselines, increases were shown in the EA subscales: parental sensitivity, parental structuring, parental nonhostility, child responsiveness, and child involvement, and in reported self-esteem at postintervention. Video-feedback enhances communication in families with prelingual DHH children and encourages more connected parent-child interaction. The results raise implications regarding the focus of early intervention strategies for prelingual DHH children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  14. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  15. Child dental anxiety, parental rearing style and dental history reported by parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.B.; van Wijk, A.J.; ten Cate, J.M.; Veerkamp, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between self-reported parental rearing style, parent's assessment of their child's dental anxiety and the dental history of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parents of primary school children were asked to complete questionnaires about their parenting style, using

  16. 78 FR 36642 - Proposed Information Collection (Statement of Dependency of Parent(s)) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ...-0089'' in any correspondence. During the comment period, comments may be viewed online through the FDMS... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Statement of Dependency of Parent(s), VA Form 21... injuries and depends on his or her parent(s) for support complete VA Form 21-509 to report income and...

  17. 75 FR 61251 - Proposed Information Collection (Statement of Dependency of Parent(s)) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... No. 2900-0089'' in any correspondence. During the comment period, comments may be viewed online... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Statement of Dependency of Parent(s), VA Form 21... injuries and depends on his or her parent(s) for support complete VA Form 21-509 to report income and...

  18. The Relationship of Parental Warm Responsiveness and Negativity to Emerging Behavior Problems Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L.; Cassedy, Amy; Walz, Nicolay C.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting behaviors play a critical role in the child's behavioral development, particularly for children with neurological deficits. This study examined the relationship of parental warm responsiveness and negativity to changes in behavior following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children relative to an age-matched cohort of children with orthopedic injuries (OI). It was hypothesized that responsive parenting would buffer the adverse effects of TBI on child behavior, whereas parental negativity would exacerbate these effects. Children, ages 3–7 years, hospitalized for TBI (n = 80) or OI (n = 113), were seen acutely and again 6 months later. Parent–child dyads were videotaped during free play. Parents completed behavior ratings (Child Behavior Checklist; T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) at both visits, with baseline ratings reflecting preinjury behavior. Hypotheses were tested using multiple regression, with preinjury behavior ratings, race, income, child IQ, family functioning, and acute parental distress serving as covariates. Parental responsiveness and negativity had stronger associations with emerging externalizing behaviors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms among children with severe TBI. Findings suggest that parenting quality may facilitate or impede behavioral recovery following early TBI. Interventions that increase positive parenting may partially ameliorate emerging behavior problems. PMID:21244154

  19. Modifying the 'Positive Parenting Program' for parents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazemakers, I; Deboutte, D

    2013-07-01

    Many parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) want and/or need professional guidance and support to learn skills and strategies to prevent and manage child behaviour problems. However, the available support is rarely suitable, and suitable support is rarely available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a popular mainstream parenting training programme, known as 'Group Triple P' (Positive Parenting Program), could be successfully modified for this parent group. A pilot study was undertaken to determine whether a modified version of Group Triple P would engage and retain parents with ID. A non-experimental, pre-test post-test study, involving a total of 30 parents with ID, was then undertaken to obtain preliminary efficacy data. Parent engagement and participation levels were high. No parent 'dropped out' of the programme. After completing the modified Group Triple P programme, parents reported a decrease in psychological distress, maladaptive parenting and child conduct problems. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the information and support they received. Research-informed adaptation of mainstream behavioural family interventions, such as Group Triple P, could make 'suitable support' more readily available, and more engaging for parents with ID. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  20. Behavior Management Style of Single Parents and Intact Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas K.; And Others

    Studies examining the behavior management styles of parents as a function of family intactness and parent employment status are lacking. To assess parental style of behavior management, the Parental Management Questionnaire (PMQ) was completed by 1,957 parents of elementary school children (50% response rate). The PMQ is based on Aronfreed's…

  1. Parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at meals and snacks is associated with children’s adequate consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxten, Michelle; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Friend, Sarah; Flattum, Colleen F.; Schow, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Parental role modeling of healthful eating behaviors has been shown to be positively correlated to children’s dietary intake and preference for fruits and vegetables. However, no study to date has utilized both parent and child report of parental role modeling and assessed role modeling at snacks and dinner. The purpose of this study is to 1) examine associations between parent and child report of parental role modeling of fruit and vegetable consumption at snacks and dinner and 2) determine whether parental role modeling is associated with children meeting daily fruit and vegetable recommendations. Parent-child dyads (N=160) participating in the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study completed baseline surveys that included questions regarding parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at dinner and snacks. Children also completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Spearman correlations and chi-square/Fisher’s exact test were used to examine relationships between parent and child report of parental role modeling of fruit and vegetable consumption at snacks and dinner and whether children met daily recommended servings of fruits and vegetables. On average, children consumed less than three servings of fruits and vegetables per day with only 23% of children consuming the recommended four daily servings. Similarities between parent and child reports of parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at snacks and dinner varied by food type (e.g., fruit versus green salad) and whether the role modeling behavior was at snack or dinner. Statistically significant correlations were seen between parent and child report of parental role modeling consumption of fruit at dinner and green salad at dinner. Children who reported parental role modeling of vegetable consumption at snack and green salad at dinner were significantly more likely, than those who did not, to meet the daily fruit and vegetable consumption recommendations. Parents who

  2. Correlates of Resource Empowerment among Parents of Children with Overweight or Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Junghyun; Davison, Kirsten K; Jurkowski, Janine M; Horan, Christine M; Orav, E John; Kamdar, Neil; Fiechtner, Lauren G; Taveras, Elsie M

    2017-02-01

    Few studies have examined correlates of resource empowerment among parents of children with overweight or obesity. We studied baseline data of 721 parent-child pairs participating in the Connect for Health randomized trial being conducted at six pediatric practices in Massachusetts. Parents completed the child weight management subscale (n = 5 items; 4-point response scale) of the Parent Resource Empowerment Scale; items were averaged to create a summary empowerment score. We used linear regression to examine the independent effects of child (age, sex, and race/ethnicity), parent/household characteristics (age, education, annual household income, BMI category, perceived stress, and their ratings of their healthcare quality), and neighborhood median household income, on parental resource empowerment. Mean (SD) child age was 7.7 years (2.9) and mean (SD) BMI z-score was 1.9 (0.5); 34% of children were white, 32% black, 22% Hispanic, 5% Asian, and 6% multiracial/other. The mean parental empowerment score was 2.95 (SD = 0.56; range = 1-4). In adjusted models, parents of older children [β -0.03 (95% CI: -0.04, -0.01)], Hispanic children [-0.14 (-0.26, -0.03)], those with annual household income less than $20,000 [-0.16 (-0.29, -0.02)], those with BMI ≥30.0 kg/m 2 [-0.17 (-0.28, -0.07)], and those who reported receiving lower quality of obesity-related care [-0.05 (-0.07, -0.03)] felt less empowered about resources to support their child's healthy body weight. Parental resource empowerment is influenced by parent and child characteristics as well as the quality of their obesity-related care. These findings could help inform equitable, family-centered approaches to improve parental resource empowerment.

  3. Validity of the toddler feeding questionnaire for measuring parent authoritative and indulgent feeding practices which are associated with stress and health literacy among Latino parents of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerman, William J; Lounds-Taylor, Julie; Mitchell, Stephanie; Barkin, Shari L

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the contribution of parental feeding practices to childhood obesity among Latino children is a solution-oriented approach that can lead to interventions supporting healthy childhood growth and lowering rates of obesity. The purpose of this study was to confirm the reliability and validity of the Toddler Feeding Questionnaire (TFQ) to measure parental feeding practices among a sample of Spanish-speaking parent-preschool child pairs (n = 529), and to test the hypothesis that parent characteristics of body mass index (BMI), stress, and health literacy are associated with more indulgent and less authoritative feeding practices. Standardized parent-report questionnaires were completed during baseline interviews in a randomized controlled trial of an obesity prevention intervention. The TFQ includes subscales for indulgent practices (11 items), authoritative practices (7 items), and environmental influences (6 items) with response options scored on a 5-point Likert scale and averaged. Factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure. Internal consistency was good for indulgent (α = 0.66) and authoritative (α = 0.65) practices but lower for environmental (α = 0.48). Spearman correlation showed indulgent practices and environmental influences were associated with unhealthy child diet patterns, whereas authoritative practices were associated with a healthier child diet. Multivariate linear regression showed higher parent stress was associated with higher indulgent and lower authoritative scores; higher parent health literacy was positively associated with indulgent scores. These results indicate the TFQ is a valid measure of authoritative and indulgent parent feeding practices among Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children and that stress and health literacy, potentially modifiable parent characteristics, could be targeted to support healthy feeding practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogeology baseline study Aurora Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A baseline hydrogeologic study was conducted in the area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine in order to develop a conceptual regional hydrogeologic model for the area that could be used to understand groundwater flow conditions. Geologic information was obtained from over 2,000 coreholes and from data obtained between 1980 and 1996 regarding water level for the basal aquifer. A 3-D numerical groundwater flow model was developed to provide quantitative estimates of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed mining operations on the groundwater flow system. The information was presented in the context of a regional study area which encompassed much of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, and a local study area which was defined by the lowlands of the Muskeg River Basin. Characteristics of the topography, hydrology, climate, geology, and hydrogeology of the region are described. The conclusion is that groundwater flow in the aquifer occurs mostly in a westerly direction beneath the Aurora Mine towards its inferred discharge location along the Athabasca River. Baseflow in the Muskeg River is mostly related to discharge from shallow surficial aquifers. Water in the river under baseflow conditions was fresh, of calcium-carbonate type, with very little indication of mineralization associated with deeper groundwater in the Aurora Mine area. 44 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  5. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  6. Predicting dietary intake among children classified as overweight or at risk for overweight: Independent and interactive effects of parenting practices and styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Seburg, Elisabeth; JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Levy, Rona L

    2017-03-01

    Using baseline data from a randomized controlled pediatric obesity prevention trial, this study sought to examine general parenting style as a potential moderator of the association between feeding-specific parenting practices and child dietary intake. Four hundred and twenty-one parent-child dyads served as participants (49% girls and 93% mothers). Children were, on average, 6.6 years old and either overweight or at-risk for overweight (mean BMI percentile = 84.9). Data were collected in participants' homes. Study staff measured children's height and weight. Parents completed questionnaires designed to assess general parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) and child feeding practices (restriction and monitoring). Child dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h recall system. Outcomes were daily servings of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and unhealthy snacks. Results were as follows: Permissive parenting was inversely associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, and parental monitoring was inversely associated with SSB consumption. There were no other main effects of parenting style or feeding practice on child dietary consumption. Authoritarian parenting moderated the association between restriction and SSB intake (a marginally significant effect after correcting for multiple comparisons). Restriction was inversely associated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was high but unassociated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was low. Findings indicate that the parenting practice of monitoring child dietary intake was associated with more healthful consumption regardless of parenting style; interventions may thus benefit from encouraging parental monitoring. The parenting strategy of restricting child dietary intake, in contrast, was associated with lower SSB intake in the context of higher parental authoritarianism but inconsequential in the context of lower parental authoritarianism. This exploratory

  7. Predicting Dietary Intake among Children Classified as Overweight or at Risk for Overweight: Independent and Interactive Effects of Parenting Practices and Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L.; Seburg, Elisabeth; JaKa, Meghan M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Levy, Rona L.

    2017-01-01

    Using baseline data from a randomized controlled pediatric obesity prevention trial, this study sought to examine general parenting style as a potential moderator of the association between feeding-specific parenting practices and child dietary intake. Four hundred and twenty-one parent-child dyads served as participants (49% girls and 93% mothers). Children were, on average, 6.6 years old and either overweight or at-risk for overweight (mean BMI percentile = 84.9). Data were collected in participants’ homes. Study staff measured children’s height and weight. Parents completed questionnaires designed to assess general parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) and child feeding practices (restriction and monitoring). Child dietary intake was assessed using a 24-hour recall system. Outcomes were daily servings of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and unhealthy snacks. Results were as follows: Permissive parenting was inversely associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, and parental monitoring was inversely associated with SSB consumption. There were no other main effects of parenting style or feeding practice on child dietary consumption. Authoritarian parenting moderated the association between restriction and SSB intake (a marginally significant effect after correcting for multiple comparisons). Restriction was inversely associated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was high but unassociated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was low. Findings indicate that the parenting practice of monitoring child dietary intake was associated with more healthful consumption regardless of parenting style; interventions may thus benefit from encouraging parental monitoring. The parenting strategy of restricting child dietary intake, in contrast, was associated with lower SSB intake in the context of higher parental authoritarianism but inconsequential in the context of lower parental authoritarianism. This

  8. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  9. The impact of the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Liberia on parent preferences for harsh discipline practices: a quasi-experimental, pre-post design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eric; Chase, Rhea M; Zayzay, John; Finnegan, Amy; Puffer, Eve S

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses data from a cohort of parents and guardians of young children living in Monrovia, Liberia collected before and after the 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) to estimate the impact of EVD exposure on implicit preferences for harsh discipline. We hypothesized that parents exposed to EVD-related sickness or death would exhibit a stronger preference for harsh discipline practices compared with non-exposed parents. The data for this analysis come from two survey rounds conducted in Liberia as part of an intervention trial of a behavioral parenting skills intervention. Following a baseline assessment of 201 enrolled parents in July 2014, all program and study activities were halted due to the outbreak of EVD. Following the EVD crisis, we conducted a tracking survey with parents who completed the baseline survey 12 months prior. In both rounds, we presented parents with 12 digital comic strips of a child misbehaving and asked them to indicate how they would react if they were the parent in the stories. Parents from households with reported EVD sickness or death became more 'harsh' (Glass's delta = 1.41) in their hypothetical decision-making compared with non-exposed parents, t (167)=-2.3, p   <  0.05. Parents from households that experienced EVD-related sickness or death not only reported significantly more household conflict and anxiety, but also reported that their child exhibited fewer difficulties. Results support the need for family-based interventions, including strategies to help parents learn alternatives to harsh punishment.

  10. Internet-Delivered Parenting Program for Prevention and Early Intervention of Anxiety Problems in Young Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy J; Rapee, Ronald M; Salim, Agus; Goharpey, Nahal; Tamir, Elli; McLellan, Lauren F; Bayer, Jordana K

    2017-05-01

    The Cool Little Kids parenting group program is an effective intervention for preventing anxiety disorders in young children who are at risk because of inhibited temperament. The program has six group sessions delivered by trained psychologists to parents of 3- to 6-year-old children. An online adaptation (Cool Little Kids Online) has been developed to overcome barriers to its wide dissemination in the community. This study tested the efficacy of Cool Little Kids Online in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 433 parents of a child aged 3 to 6 years with an inhibited temperament were randomized to the online parenting program or to a 24-week waitlist. The online program has 8 interactive modules providing strategies that parents can implement with their child to manage their child's avoidant coping, reduce parental overprotection, and encourage child independence. Parents were provided telephone consultation support with a psychologist when requested. Parents completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks after baseline. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement over time in child anxiety symptoms compared to the control group (d = 0.38). The intervention group also showed greater reductions in anxiety life interference (ds = 0.33-0.35) and lower rates of anxiety disorders than the control group (40% versus 54%), but there were minimal effects on broader internalizing symptoms or overprotective parenting. Results provide empirical support for the efficacy of online delivery of the Cool Little Kids program. Online dissemination may improve access to an evidence-based prevention program for child anxiety disorders. Clinical trial registration information-Randomised Controlled Trial of Cool Little Kids Online: A Parenting Program to Prevent Anxiety Problems in Young Children; http://www.anzctr.org.au/; 12615000217505. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc

  11. Authoritative Parenting, Parenting Stress, and Self-Care in Pre-Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning. PMID:22350495

  12. Authoritative parenting, parenting stress, and self-care in pre-adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R; Streisand, Randi

    2012-09-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning.

  13. Prematurity and parental self-efficacy: the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Claire; Whittingham, Koa; Boyd, Roslyn; Sanders, Matthew; Colditz, Paul

    2012-12-01

    There is a lack of research investigating parental self-efficacy in parents of infants born preterm as well as a paucity of parental self-efficacy measures that are domain-specific and theoretically grounded. This study aimed to compare parental self-efficacy in parents of infants born term, preterm and very preterm as well as to test whether parental self-efficacy mediates the relationship between psychological symptoms and parental competence. In order to achieve this, a new measure of parental self-efficacy and parental competence relevant for the preterm population and consistent with Bandura's (1977, 1986, 1989) conceptualisation of self-efficacy was developed. Participants included 155 parents, 83 of whom were parents of very preterm (GAparents of preterm (GAparents of term born infants. Parents completed the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist (the new measure), Family Demographic Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. This initial study indicates that the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist has adequate content validity, construct validity, internal consistency and split half reliability. Contrary to expectations, parents of very preterm infants did not report significantly lower overall levels of parental self-efficacy or significantly higher levels of psychological symptoms compared to parents of preterm and term infants. Parental self-efficacy about parenting tasks mediated the relationship between psychological symptoms and self perceived parental competence as predicted. Clinical implications of the results and suggestions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) - Webinar Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; Porro, Gian; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-13

    This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.

  15. 75 FR 66748 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ...- 000] Notice of Baseline Filings October 22, 2010. ONEOK Gas Transportation, L.L.C Docket No. PR11-68... above submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services...

  16. Alternative Education Completers: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Becky L.; Holt, Carleton R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the elements of the alternative education experience significant to successful completion of the program. This phenomenological paradigm provided the framework for all aspects of the qualitative study. Students, parents, administrators, and staff members of two alternative programs in the southeast Kansas…

  17. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  18. Contributions of Observed Parent Socialization of Coping and Skin Conductance Level Reactivity to Childhood Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Sarah; Abaied, Jamie; Wagner, Caitlin; Sanders, Wesley

    2018-03-01

    This research examined the longitudinal association between parent socialization of coping and child adjustment, as well as the moderating role of children's skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR). Participants were a community sample of children (n = 64, M age = 9.02, 54.5% females, 93.2% Caucasian) and their parent(s). Parent coping suggestions were observed while their child engaged in a stressful challenge task, during which the child's SCLR, a measure of children's physiological reactivity to stress, was also measured. Parent(s) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) at baseline and a 6-month follow-up to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Results revealed that secondary control engagement suggestions predicted fewer internalizing problems over time. In addition, disengagement suggestions predicted fewer externalizing problems over time among children with high SCLR. This study provides evidence that parent coping suggestions serve as a resource that protects youth from developing adjustment problems. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  19. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, R.J.; Cooper, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building. A total of 85 technical (100 square centimeter (cm 2 )) smears were collected from the Room 147 hoods, the Shielded Materials Facility (SMF), and the Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC). Exposure rate readings (window open and window closed) were taken at a distance of 2.5 centimeters (cm) and 30 cm from the surface of each smear. Gross beta-gamma and alpha counts of each smear were also performed. The smear samples were analyzed by gamma energy analysis (GEA). Alpha energy analysis (AEA) and strontium-90 analysis were also performed on selected smears. GEA results for one or more samples reported the presence of manganese-54, cobalt-60, silver-108m antimony-125, cesium-134, cesium-137, europium-154, europium-155, and americium-241. AEA results reported the presence of plutonium-239/240, plutonium-238/ 241 Am, curium-243/244, curium-242, and americium-243. Tables 5 through 9 present a summary by location of the estimated maximum removable and total contamination levels in the Room 147 hoods, the SMF, and the REC. The smear sample survey data and laboratory analytical results are presented in tabular form by sample in Appendix A. The Appendix A tables combine survey data documented in radiological survey reports found in Appendix B and laboratory analytical results reported in the 324 Building Physical and Radiological Characterization Study (Berk, Hill, and Landsman 1998), supplemented by the laboratory analytical results found in Appendix C.

  20. A Fully Customized Baseline Removal Framework for Spectroscopic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Stephen; Boucher, Thomas; Carey, C J; Mahadevan, Sridhar; Dyar, M Darby

    2017-07-01

    The task of proper baseline or continuum removal is common to nearly all types of spectroscopy. Its goal is to remove any portion of a signal that is irrelevant to features of interest while preserving any predictive information. Despite the importance of baseline removal, median or guessed default parameters are commonly employed, often using commercially available software supplied with instruments. Several published baseline removal algorithms have been shown to be useful for particular spectroscopic applications but their generalizability is ambiguous. The new Custom Baseline Removal (Custom BLR) method presented here generalizes the problem of baseline removal by combining operations from previously proposed methods to synthesize new correction algorithms. It creates novel methods for each technique, application, and training set, discovering new algorithms that maximize the predictive accuracy of the resulting spectroscopic models. In most cases, these learned methods either match or improve on the performance of the best alternative. Examples of these advantages are shown for three different scenarios: quantification of components in near-infrared spectra of corn and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data of rocks, and classification/matching of minerals using Raman spectroscopy. Software to implement this optimization is available from the authors. By removing subjectivity from this commonly encountered task, Custom BLR is a significant step toward completely automatic and general baseline removal in spectroscopic and other applications.

  1. Effects of gender and level of parental involvement among parents in drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cyleste C; Grella, Christine E; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2003-05-01

    Most studies of parents in drug treatment have focused exclusively on mothers, and few studies have examined the effects of parents' level of involvement with their children on the parents' drug use and psychological functioning, either before or after treatment. This study examined mothers and fathers (n = 331) who were parents of children under the age of 18; participants were sampled from 19 drug treatment programs across four types of treatment modalities in Los Angeles County. A majority of each group (57% of 214 mothers and 51% of 117 fathers) were classified as being highly involved with their children. At the baseline assessment, higher parental involvement was related to lower levels of addiction severity, psychological severity, and symptoms of psychological distress, and to higher levels of self-esteem and perception of parenting skills. In general, fathers had higher levels of alcohol and drug-use severity than did mothers, but fathers who were more involved with their children showed lower levels of addiction severity than fathers who were less involved. Parental involvement at baseline was unrelated to drug use at the 12-month follow-up, although parents who were less involved with their children reported experiencing more stressors. Given the association of parental involvement with lower levels of addiction severity and psychological distress at baseline, treatment protocols should build upon the positive relationships of parents with their children, and seek to improve those of less-involved parents.

  2. Program Baseline Change Control Board charter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this Charter is to establish the Program Baseline Change Control Board (PBCCB) for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program, and to describe its organization, responsibilities, and basic methods of operation. Guidance for implementing this Charter is provided by the OCRWM Baseline Management Plan (BMP) and OCRWM Program Baseline Change Control Procedure

  3. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Baseline determination. 1042.825... Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines § 1042.825 Baseline determination. (a) For the purpose of this... not valid. (f) Use good engineering judgment for all aspects of the baseline determination. We may...

  4. Parenting and Children's Internalizing Symptoms: How Important are Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Cathy M; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Bögels, Susan M

    Parenting behaviors are associated with children's internalizing symptoms, however, it is not often examined which factors could possibly influence this relationship. The goals of this study were twofold. One goal was to examine whether the association between parenting and children's internalizing symptoms would increase if parenting behaviors were assessed behaviorally and in a context where the child displayed specific anxious behaviors. Another goal was to examine whether this relationship was influenced by the age and gender of the child, and by possible parenting differences between mothers and fathers. These questions were examined in a sample of 211 children aged 4-12 years; 140 community children and 71 clinically referred anxious children. Parents completed questionnaires regarding children's internalizing symptoms and parenting behaviors (positive reinforcement, punishment, force, reinforcement of dependency, and modeling/reassurance). In line with expectations, more punishment and less modeling/reassurance by parents were related to more internalizing symptoms in children. Child gender, child age, parent gender and clinical anxiety status were not found to influence the relationship between parenting and children's internalizing symptoms. Our results suggest that paternal parenting is as important as maternal parenting with respect to children's internalizing symptoms, and therefore, fathers could be included in child treatment as well.

  5. Families with children with diabetes: implications of parent stress for parent and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2012-05-01

    To examine the relation of parent stress to parent mental health and child mental and physical health. We interviewed children with type 1 diabetes (n = 132; mean age 12 years) annually for 5 years and had one parent complete a questionnaire at each assessment. Parents completed measures of general life stress, stress related to caring for a child with diabetes, benefit finding, and mental health. Child outcomes were depressive symptoms, self-care behavior, and glycemic control. Multilevel modeling was used to examine concurrent and longitudinal relations. Greater parent general stress and greater parent diabetes-specific stress were associated with poorer parent mental health. Overall, greater parent general stress was associated with poorer child outcomes, whereas greater parent diabetes-specific stress was associated with better child outcomes. Families with high levels of general life stress should be identified as they are at risk for both poor parent and child health outcomes.

  6. Pediatric Primary Care-Based Obesity Prevention for Parents of Preschool Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E; JaKa, Meghan M; Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; Hayes, Marcia G; Anderson, Julie D

    2015-12-01

    The Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids Preschool (HHHK-Preschool) pilot program is an obesity prevention intervention integrating pediatric care provider counseling and a phone-based program to prevent unhealthy weight gain among 2- to 4-year-old children at risk for obesity (BMI percentile between the 50th and 85th percentile and at least one overweight parent) or currently overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI pediatric primary care clinics were randomized to: (1) the Busy Bodies/Better Bites Obesity Prevention Arm or the (2) Healthy Tots/Safe Spots safety/injury prevention Contact Control Arm. Baseline and 6-month data were collected, including measured height and weight, accelerometry, previous day dietary recalls, and parent surveys. Intervention process data (e.g., call completion) were also collected. High intervention completion and satisfaction rates were observed. Although a statistically significant time by treatment interaction was not observed for BMI percentile or BMI z-score, post-hoc examination of baseline weight status as a moderator of treatment outcome showed that the Busy Bodies/Better Bites obesity prevention intervention appeared to be effective among children who were in the overweight category at baseline relative to those who were categorized as at risk for obesity (p = 0.04). HHHK-Preschool pilot study results support the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy in already overweight children of a pediatric primary care-based obesity prevention intervention integrating brief provider counseling and parent-targeted phone coaching. What's New: Implementing pediatric primary care-based obesity interventions is challenging. Previous interventions have primarily involved in-person sessions, a barrier to sustained parent involvement. HHHK-preschool pilot study results suggest that integrating brief provider counseling and parent-targeted phone coaching is a promising approach.

  7. Disrupted physiological reactivity among children with a history of suicidal ideation: Moderation by parental expressed emotion-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kiera M; Woody, Mary L; Feurer, Cope; Kudinova, Anastacia Y; Gibb, Brandon E

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine physiological reactivity during parent-child interactions in children with and without a history of suicidal ideation (SI), a group known to be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the future. We also examined the potential moderating role of parental expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) to determine whether the presence of parental criticism may help to identify a subgroup of children with a history of SI most at risk for physiological dysregulation. Participants were 396 children (age 7-11; 54% male, 71.7% Caucasian) and their biological parent. Children's levels of high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) were assessed during a resting baseline period followed by a positive and negative discussion with their parent. Additionally, parents completed the Five-Minute Speech Sample to determine levels of EE-Crit toward their child, and children completed an interview assessing their history of SI. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that exposure to parental criticism moderated the relation between a child's history of SI and their HF-HRV reactivity to the discussions. Specifically, while most children exhibited the typical pattern of HF-HRV suppression from baseline to both interactions, the highest risk children (i.e., children with a history of SI who also had highly critical parents) did not display any change in HF-HRV across the tasks, suggesting a failure to engage a typical psychophysiological response during emotional contexts. These results suggest a specific physiological mechanism that may place these children at risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Parental fatigue and parenting practices during early childhood: an Australian community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Giallo, R; Rose, N

    2012-09-01

    Parenting behaviours are influenced by a range of factors, including parental functioning. Although common, the influence of parental fatigue on parenting practices is not known. The first aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fatigue and parenting practices. The second aim was to identify parental psychosocial factors significantly associated with fatigue. A sample of 1276 Australian parents, of at least one child aged 0-5 years, completed a survey. Demographic, psychosocial (social support, coping responses) and parental sleep and self-care information was collected. Hierarchical regression was performed to assess the contribution of fatigue (modified Fatigue Assessment Scale) to parental practices (warmth, irritability and involvement), and parenting experiences (Parenting Stress Index, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale). Hierarchical multiple regression assessed the contribution of a range of parental sleep, psychosocial (social support, coping responses) and self-care variables to fatigue when demographic characteristics were held constant. Higher fatigue was significantly associated with lower parental competence (β=-0.17, P parenting stress (β= 0.21, P parent-child interactions (β= 0.11, P parental fatigue, including inadequate social support, poorer diet, poorer sleep quality and ineffective coping styles including self-blame and behaviour disengagement. Fatigue is common, and results suggest that fatigue contributes to adverse parental practices and experiences. However, possible risk factors for higher fatigue were identified in this study, indicating opportunities for intervention, management and support for parents. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Authoritative Parenting, Parenting Stress, and Self-Care in Pre-Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting st...

  10. Comparison of parents' leadership styles: perceptions of parents and student leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, J E; Karnes, F A

    1992-06-01

    The Parent Leadership Style instrument was completed by 99 students enrolled in a leadership program and also by 129 of their parents. Data were analyzed and reported according to predominant leadership style (Telling, Selling, Participating, and/or Delegating) and effectiveness of leadership. A comparison was made between the parents' self-perceptions and how their children as student leaders perceived their parents. Some suggestions for parents are made relative to the development of leadership skills in students.

  11. Cognitive-Functional (Cog-Fun) Dyadic Intervention for Children with ADHD and Their Parents: Impact on Parenting Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Markowitz, Jeri; Berger, Itai; Manor, Iris; Maeir, Adina

    2018-03-01

    The family context of children with ADHD plays a role in intervention outcomes, especially when parents are involved in treatment. Parental participation in evidence-based treatment for ADHD may play a role in improving their own parenting self-efficacy (PSE) as well as child outcomes. This study examined the impact of Cognitive-Functional (Cog-Fun) intervention in occupational therapy (OT) for school-aged children with ADHD, on PSE. In this randomized controlled trial with crossover design, 107 children were allocated to intervention and waitlist control groups. Intervention participants (n = 50) received Cog-Fun after baseline assessment and waitlist controls (n = 49) received treatment 3 months later. Intervention participants received 3-month follow-up assessment. Treatment included 10 parent-child Cog-Fun weekly sessions. PSE was assessed with the Tool to measure Parenting Self-Efficacy (TOPSE). All children who began treatment completed it. Mixed ANOVA revealed significant Time x Group interaction effects on TOPSE scales of Play and Enjoyment, Control, Self-Acceptance, Knowledge and Learning and Total score, which showed significant improvement with moderate treatment effects for the intervention group. Results were replicated in the control group after crossover. The findings of this study suggest that Cog-Fun OT intervention may be effective for improving aspects of PSE among parents of children with ADHD.

  12. Mental health and well-being in parents of excessively crying infants: Prospective evaluation of a support package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C; Bamber, D; Long, J; Garratt, R; Brown, J; Rudge, S; Morris, T; Bhupendra Jaicim, N; Plachcinski, R; Dyson, S; Boyle, E M; St James-Roberts, I

    2018-04-17

    During the first 4 months of age, approximately 20% of infants cry a lot without an apparent reason. Most research has targeted the crying, but the impact of the crying on parents, and subsequent outcomes, need to receive equal attention. This study reports the findings from a prospective evaluation of a package of materials designed to support the well-being and mental health of parents who judge their infant to be crying excessively. The resulting "Surviving Crying" package comprised a website, printed materials, and programme of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based support sessions delivered to parents by a qualified practitioner. It was designed to be suitable for United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS) use. Parents were referred to the study by 12 NHS Health Visitor/Community Public Health Nurse teams in one UK East Midlands NHS Trust. Fifty-two of 57 parents of excessively crying babies received the support package and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 anxiety questionnaire, as well as other measures, before receiving the support package and afterwards. Significant reductions in depression and anxiety were found, with numbers of parents meeting clinical criteria for depression or anxiety halving between baseline and outcome. These improvements were not explained by reductions in infant crying. Reductions also occurred in the number of parents reporting the crying to be a large or severe problem (from 28 to 3 parents) or feeling very or extremely frustrated by the crying (from 31 to 1 parent). Other findings included increases in parents' confidence, knowledge of infant crying, and improvements in parents' sleep. The findings suggest that the Surviving Crying package may be effective in supporting the well-being and mental health of parents of excessively crying babies. Further, large-scale controlled trials of the package in NHS settings are warranted. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparison of telephone with World Wide Web-based responses by parents and teens to a follow-up survey after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivara, Frederick P; Koepsell, Thomas D; Wang, Jin; Durbin, Dennis; Jaffe, Kenneth M; Vavilala, Monica; Dorsch, Andrea; Roper-Caldbeck, Maria; Houseknecht, Eileen; Temkin, Nancy

    2011-06-01

    To identify sociodemographic factors associated with completing a follow-up survey about health status on the web versus by telephone, and to examine differences in reported health-related quality of life by method of response. Survey about child health status of 896 parents of children aged 0-17 years treated in a hospital emergency department or admitted for a traumatic brain injury or arm injury, and 227 injured adolescents aged 14-17 years. The main outcomes were characteristics of those who completed a follow-up survey on the web versus by telephone and health-related quality of life by method of response. Email addresses were provided by 76.9 percent of parents and 56.5 percent of adolescents at baseline. The survey was completed on the web by 64.9 percent of parents and 40.2 percent of adolescents through email. Parents with email access who were Blacks, Hispanics, had lower incomes, and those who were not working were less likely to choose the web mode for completing the survey. Unlike adolescents, the amount of time for parents to complete the survey online was significantly shorter than completion by telephone. Differences by survey mode were small but statistically significant in some of the six functional outcome measures examined. Survey mode was associated with several sociodemographic characteristics. Sole use of web surveys could provide biased data. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  15. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Complexities of Parental Understanding of Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibinga, Maarten S.; Friedman, C. Jack

    1971-01-01

    Parental understanding of PKU, investigated through a questionnaire, was evaluated as to completeness and with respect to distortion. Education of parents was found to be unrelated to their understanding or tendency to distort. Effectiveness of the pediatrician's communication with parents is discussed. (Author/KW)

  17. Feasibility of Implementation of a Parenting Intervention with Karen Refugees Resettled from Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jaime; Wieling, Elizabeth; Forgatch, Marion

    2018-04-01

    Parents and children exposed to war and relocation have high rates of negative relational and mental health outcomes. This study tested the feasibility of implementing an adapted evidence-based parenting intervention for contexts of trauma and relocation stress. Eleven Karen refugee caregivers from Burma participated in the intervention. Participants and a focal child completed ethnographic interviews as well as structured assessments at baseline and follow-up. Caregivers reported changes in their teaching, directions, emotional regulation, discipline, and child compliance. Children reported changes in these areas and in positive parent involvement. Caregivers reported higher mental health distress immediately after the intervention, potentially due to increased awareness. Researchers made personalized referrals for counseling services as needed. Children reported a decrease in mental health symptoms. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  18. The very-long-baseline array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, K.I.; Thompson, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    The development of radio technology in World War II opened a completely new window on the universe. When astronomers turned radio antennas to the heavens, they began to find a previously unknown universe of solar and planetary radio bursts, quasars, pulsars, radio galaxies, giant molecular clouds and cosmic masers. Not only do the radio waves reveal a new world of astronomical phenomena but also-because they are much longer than light waves-they are not as severely distorted by atmospheric turbulence or small imperfections in the telescope. About 25 years ago radio astronomers became aware that they could synthesize a resolution equivalent to that of a large aperture by combining data from smaller radio antennas that are widely separated. The effective aperture size would be about equal to the largest separation between the antennas. The technique is called synthesis imaging and is based on the principles of interferometry. Radio astronomers in the U.S. are now building a synthesis radio telescope called the Very-Long-Baseline Array, or VLBA. With 10 antennas sited across the country from the Virgin Islands to Hawaii, it will synthesize a radio antenna 8,000 kilometers across, nearly the diameter of the earth. The VLBA'S angular resolution will be less than a thousandth of an arc-second-about three orders of magnitude better than that of the largest conventional ground-based optical telescopes. Astronomers eagerly await the completion early in the next decade of the VLBA, which is expected, among other things, to give an unprecedentedly clear view into the cores of quasars and galactic nuclei and to reveal details of the processe-thought to be powered by black holes-that drive them

  19. Parent-child relationships in Type 1 diabetes: associations among child behavior, parenting behavior, and pediatric parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweenie, Rachel; Mackey, Eleanor R; Streisand, Randi

    2014-03-01

    Interactions between parents and children can influence behavioral and emotional functioning related to Type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet have been relatively unexplored during preadolescence. The present study examined associations among child problem behaviors, critical parenting behaviors, and pediatric parenting stress in a sample of preadolescent youth with T1D. Data are available from 86 preadolescent-parent dyads who participated in the initial baseline assessment of a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of an adherence promotion program. Measures included the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, the Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist, and the Pediatric Inventory for Parents. After controlling for significant demographic and medical characteristics, parents who reported their child's behavior as more problematic reported more difficulty with pediatric parenting stress, which was also associated with more child-reported critical parenting behaviors. Child problem behaviors and critical parenting behaviors were associated with one another, partially via their association with increased pediatric parenting stress. Potential clinical applications include interventions geared toward helping parents manage difficult child behaviors as well as cope with pediatric parenting stress, with the ultimate goal of improving the parent-child relationship and management of T1D.

  20. Rare variant association analysis in case-parents studies by allowing for missing parental genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yumei; Xiang, Yang; Xu, Chao; Shen, Hui; Deng, Hongwen

    2018-01-15

    The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated the identification of rare variants. Family-based design is commonly used to effectively control for population admixture and substructure, which is more prominent for rare variants. Case-parents studies, as typical strategies in family-based design, are widely used in rare variant-disease association analysis. Current methods in case-parents studies are based on complete case-parents data; however, parental genotypes may be missing in case-parents trios, and removing these data may lead to a loss in statistical power. The present study focuses on testing for rare variant-disease association in case-parents study by allowing for missing parental genotypes. In this report, we extended the collapsing method for rare variant association analysis in case-parents studies to allow for missing parental genotypes, and investigated the performance of two methods by using the difference of genotypes between affected offspring and their corresponding "complements" in case-parent trios and TDT framework. Using simulations, we showed that, compared with the methods just only using complete case-parents data, the proposed strategy allowing for missing parental genotypes, or even adding unrelated affected individuals, can greatly improve the statistical power and meanwhile is not affected by population stratification. We conclude that adding case-parents data with missing parental genotypes to complete case-parents data set can greatly improve the power of our strategy for rare variant-disease association.

  1. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  2. Parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress: a cross-illness comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Ryan, Jamie L; Fedele, David A; Rambo, Philip L; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2010-12-01

    The current study sought to investigate differences in parenting capacity variables across four disease groups. Parents (N = 425), the majority of whom were mothers, of children with either cancer, asthma, Type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis, completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress. After controlling for significant demographic variables, parents of children with cystic fibrosis and asthma reported higher perceived child vulnerability than parents of children with either diabetes or cancer, while parents of children with asthma and diabetes reported higher parenting stress than parents of children with cancer or cystic fibrosis. No differences between disease groups were found for parental overprotection. The current study provides support for an illness-specific approach to understanding parenting capacity variables in the context of childhood chronic illnesses.

  3. The Value of Screening Parents for Their Risk of Developing Psychological Symptoms After PICU: A Feasibility Study Evaluating a Pediatric Intensive Care Follow-Up Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Victoria M; Colville, Gillian A; Goodwin, Sarah; Ryninks, Kirsty; Dean, Suzanne

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess whether prospectively screening parents for psychological vulnerability would enable beneficial targeting of a subsequent follow-up clinic. Parents of children consecutively admitted to a PICU were assessed for risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder at discharge using the Posttraumatic Adjustment Scale. High-risk parents were then randomized to the intervention (follow-up clinic, 2 mo after discharge) or control condition. All parents completed Impact of Event Scale-Revised and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at 6 months. Of the 209 parents of 145 children recruited to the study, 78 (37%) were identified, on the basis of their Posttraumatic Adjustment Scale score at baseline, as being at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder, and randomized to the control or intervention condition. Follow-up data were provided by 157 of 209 parents (75%). Logistic regression analyses controlling for parent gender and child length of stay showed that high-risk control parents (n = 32) were significantly more likely to score above the clinical cutoff for all three psychological outcomes than parents deemed low risk at baseline (n = 89) (posttraumatic stress: odds ratio = 3.39; 95% CI, 1.28-8.92; p = 0.014; anxiety: odds ratio = 6.34; 95% CI, 2.55-15.76; p parents attended the follow-up clinic appointment they were offered. At follow-up, there were no statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups, but there were small effect sizes in favor of the intervention for anxiety scores (Cohen d = 0.209) and depression scores (Cohen d = 0.254) CONCLUSIONS:: Screening parents for psychological vulnerability using measures such as the Posttraumatic Adjustment Scale may enable more efficient targeting of support. However, further research is needed on how best to provide effective follow-up intervention for families.

  4. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention intervention, on parent-reported measures. Bahamian parent-youth dyads (N = 1,833) participating in the randomized control trial were assigned to receive one of four conditions. Parents were assessed longitudinally at baseline and 6 and 12 months later. Through 12 months follow-up, parents exposed to Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together showed higher knowledge of condom use skills, perceptions of improved condom use competence on the part of their youth, and perceived improved parent-child communication about sex-related information. Although youth were the targeted beneficiary, parents also benefited directly from the sexual risk reduction parenting program. Parents demonstrated improved perceptions and knowledge that would enable them to more effectively guide their child and also protect themselves from sexual risk. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.

  6. Parental adjustment and attitudes to parenting after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, F L; Ungerer, J A; Tennant, C C; Saunders, D M

    2000-03-01

    To examine the psychosocial and parenthood-specific adjustment and attitudes to parenting at 1 year postpartum of IVF parents. Prospective, controlled study. Volunteers in a teaching hospital environment. Sixty-five primiparous women with singleton IVF pregnancies and their partners, and a control group of 61 similarly aged primiparous women with no history of infertility and their partners. Completion of questionnaires and interviews. Parent reports of general and parenthood-specific adjustment and attitudes to parenting. The IVF mothers tended to report lower self-esteem and less parenting competence than control mothers. Although there were no group differences on protectiveness, IVF mothers saw their children as significantly more vulnerable and "special" compared with controls. The IVF fathers reported significantly lower self-esteem and marital satisfaction, although not less competence in parenting. Both IVF mothers and fathers did not differ from control parents on other measures of general adjustment (mood) or those more specific to parenthood (e.g., attachment to the child and attitudes to child rearing). The IVF parents' adjustment to parenthood is similar to naturally conceiving comparison families. Nonetheless, there are minor IVF differences that reflect heightened child-focused concern and less confidence in parenting for mothers, less satisfaction with the marriage for the fathers, and vulnerable self-esteem for both parents.

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALEXITHYMIA, PARENTING STYLE, AND PARENTAL CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Barberis, Nadia; Costa, Sebastiano; Larcan, Rosalba

    2015-10-01

    Research on the relationship between parental alexithymia and parenting is relatively scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parental alexithymia and three styles of parenting (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the relationships between parental alexithymia and two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The participants were 946 parents ages 29-60 years (mothers: n = 473, M age = 44.6 yr., SD = 4.7; fathers: n = 473, M age = 48.1 yr., SD = 5.1) of children ages 11-18 years. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R), and the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine whether alexithymia could predict the three parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The first model showed that alexithymia was a positive predictor of authoritative and permissive parenting and a negative predictor of authoritarian parenting in both paternal and maternal data. The second model showed that, in both paternal and maternal data, alexithymia was a positive predictor of both dependency-oriented psychological control (DPC) and achievement-oriented psychological control (APC).

  8. A Pilot Feasibility Study to Improve Food Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy M; Clair-Michaud, Mary; Melanson, Kathleen J; Tovar, Alison

    2018-03-01

    We examined the feasibility and acceptability of a novel home-based intervention to improve the food parenting practices of low-income mothers with preschool-aged children. Mother-child dyads (N = 15) were recruited from WIC in southern Rhode Island. A non-experimental, pretest-posttest design was used to assess changes in maternal food parenting practices. Dyads participated in 3 home-based sessions that included baseline measures and an evening meal video recording at session 1, a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention that included feedback on the evening meal video recording at session 2, and a satisfaction ques- tionnaire at session 3. Pretest-posttest measures included 5 subscales of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. Fifteen mother-child dyads (mothers: 32.3, SD = 4.6 years, 86.7% white; children: 3.2, SD = 0.9 years, male = 73.3%, 66.7% white) completed the study. Mothers reported improvements in food parenting practices following the home-based MI intervention. Overall, 93% of mothers 'strongly agreed' that it was worth their effort to participate in the study. A home-based MI intervention may be an effective strategy for improving maternal food parenting practices in low-income populations. Most mothers found that watching themselves was informative and applicable to their own lives.

  9. 40 CFR 74.20 - Data for baseline and alternative baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data for baseline and alternative baseline. 74.20 Section 74.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... baseline and alternative baseline. (a) Acceptable data. (1) The designated representative of a combustion...

  10. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  11. Baseline development, economic risk, and schedule risk: An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkinson, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The economic and schedule risks of Environmental Restoration (ER) projects are commonly analyzed toward the end of the baseline development process. Risk analysis is usually performed as the final element of the scheduling or estimating processes for the purpose of establishing cost and schedule contingency. However, there is an opportunity for earlier assessment of risks, during development of the technical scope and Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Integrating the processes of risk management and baselining provides for early incorporation of feedback regarding schedule and cost risk into the proposed scope of work. Much of the information necessary to perform risk analysis becomes available during development of the technical baseline, as the scope of work and WBS are being defined. The analysis of risk can actually be initiated early on during development of the technical baseline and continue throughout development of the complete project baseline. Indeed, best business practices suggest that information crucial to the success of a project be analyzed and incorporated into project planning as soon as it is available and usable

  12. Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1998-01-01

    This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility

  13. Integrated planning: A baseline development perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, L.; Chang, D.

    1994-01-01

    The FEMP Baseline establishes the basis for integrating environmental activity technical requirements with their cost and schedule elements. The result is a path forward to successfully achieving the FERMCO mission. Specific to cost management, the FEMP Baseline has been incorporate into the FERMCO Project Control System (PCS) to provide a time-phased budget plan against which contractor performance is measured with an earned value management system. The result is the Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), an important tool for keeping cost under control

  14. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...

  15. Mediational role of parenting styles in emotional intelligence of parents and aggression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Syeda Shahida; Bond, Rod

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between parents' emotional intelligence and adolescents' aggression, through the mediation of parenting styles. Two hundred and twenty five undergraduate students (113 boys & 112 girls; age 17-18 years), from four universities in Pakistan, participated with their parents. The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, & Hart, 1995), and the Scale of Emotional Intelligence (Batool & Khalid, 2011) were completed by parents. The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) was completed by their adolescent offspring. Mediational path analysis supported our hypothesised model. Results indicate that emotional intelligence of parents indirectly links to aggression among offspring, through parenting styles. It was concluded that emotional intelligence training will help parents to improve their parenting styles, and it will lower the risk of aggression in their children. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. IPCC Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset consists of population, human development, economic, water resources, land...

  17. Latino College Completion: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  18. Latino College Completion: Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  19. Coping and Well-Being in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei Wei; Goh, Tze Jui; Oei, Tian P.; Sung, Min

    2015-01-01

    This study examined psychological well-being and coping in parents of children with ASD and parents of typically developing children. 73 parents of children with ASD and 63 parents of typically developing children completed a survey. Parents of children with ASD reported significantly more parenting stress symptoms (i.e., negative parental…

  20. A Tailored Web-Based Intervention to Improve Parenting Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Problems: Postintervention Findings From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Mahtani, Shireen; Rapee, Ronald M; Nicolas, Claire; Lawrence, Katherine A; Mackinnon, Andrew; Jorm, Anthony F

    2018-01-19

    Depression and anxiety disorders in young people are a global health concern. Parents have an important role in reducing the risk of these disorders, but cost-effective, evidence-based interventions for parents that can be widely disseminated are lacking. This study aimed to examine the postintervention effects of the Partners in Parenting (PiP) program on parenting risk and protective factors for adolescent depression and anxiety, and on adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. A two-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted with 359 parent-adolescent dyads, recruited primarily through schools across Australia. Parents and adolescents were assessed at baseline and 3 months later (postintervention). Parents in the intervention condition received PiP, a tailored Web-based parenting intervention designed following Persuasive Systems Design (PSD) principles to target parenting factors associated with adolescents' risk for depression and anxiety problems. PiP comprises a tailored feedback report highlighting each parent's strengths and areas for improvement, followed by a set of interactive modules (up to nine) that is specifically recommended for the parent based on individually identified areas for improvement. Parents in the active-control condition received a standardized package of five Web-based factsheets about adolescent development and well-being. Parents in both conditions received a 5-min weekly call to encourage progress through their allocated program to completion. Both programs were delivered weekly via the trial website. The primary outcome measure at postintervention was parent-reported changes in parenting risk and protective factors, which were measured using the Parenting to Reduce Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Scale (PRADAS). Secondary outcome measures were the adolescent-report PRADAS, the parent- and child-report Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (depressive symptoms), and parent- and child-report Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

  1. Completeness, supervenience and ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, Tim W E

    2007-01-01

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen raised the issue of the completeness of the quantum description of a physical system. What they had in mind is whether or not the quantum description is informationally complete, in that all physical features of a system can be recovered from it. In a collapse theory such as the theory of Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber, the quantum wavefunction is informationally complete, and this has often been taken to suggest that according to that theory the wavefunction is all there is. If we distinguish the ontological completeness of a description from its informational completeness, we can see that the best interpretations of the GRW theory must postulate more physical ontology than just the wavefunction

  2. Completeness, supervenience and ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maudlin, Tim W E [Department of Philosophy, Rutgers University, 26 Nichol Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1411 (United States)

    2007-03-23

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen raised the issue of the completeness of the quantum description of a physical system. What they had in mind is whether or not the quantum description is informationally complete, in that all physical features of a system can be recovered from it. In a collapse theory such as the theory of Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber, the quantum wavefunction is informationally complete, and this has often been taken to suggest that according to that theory the wavefunction is all there is. If we distinguish the ontological completeness of a description from its informational completeness, we can see that the best interpretations of the GRW theory must postulate more physical ontology than just the wavefunction.

  3. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  4. Acceptance and commitment therapy in youth with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and chronic pain and their parents: A pilot study of feasibility and preliminary efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Staci; Wolters, Pamela L; Toledo-Tamula, Mary Anne; Schmitt, Shawn Nelson; Baldwin, Andrea; Starosta, Amy; Gillespie, Andrea; Widemann, Brigitte

    2016-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder affecting about 1 in 3,500 individuals. Chronic pain is commonly reported among individuals with NF1 and plexiform neurofibroma tumors (PNs). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), an empirically supported method for addressing chronic pain, helps individuals re-focus on valued relationships and activities. This pilot study investigated the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a brief ACT workshop in the NF1 population. Eligible participants included adolescents and young adults (AYA; 12-21 years) with NF1 and chronic pain that interfered with daily functioning and their parents. Patients and parents completed baseline measures of pain interference, pain intensity, functional disability, pain acceptance, depression, and anxiety. Then, AYA and parents participated separately in a 2-day small-group ACT workshop. A telephone booster session occurred 1 month post-intervention. Three-month post-treatment measures were completed by mail. Ten adolescents (4 males; M age = 16.9 years) and seven parents provided baseline and 3-month data. Mean satisfaction with the study was moderate to high (3.9 for patients and 4.6 for parents on a 1-5 scales). Patients and parents reported significant declines in patients' pain interference at 3 months post-treatment. Patient-reported pain intensity significantly declined from baseline to 3 months. Parents reported marginally greater acceptance of their child's pain. No changes emerged in functional ability or mood. Preliminary findings suggest that a brief ACT group intervention is feasible and may help AYA with NF1 and PNs cope with their chronic pain, although larger randomized studies are needed to confirm treatment efficacy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a web-based parenting skills program for young children with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Oberjohn, Karen; Burkhardt, Abby; Greenberg, Ira

    2009-01-01

    To report the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a Web-based parenting skills program to reduce behavior problems following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children. Families of 9 children between the ages of 3 and 8 years with TBI, injured less than 24 months earlier, participated in a pilot study of a Web-based parenting skills program designed to increase positive parenting skills and to improve caregiver stress management and coping. The program consisted of 10 core sessions and up to 4 supplemental sessions. Each session consisted of self-guided didactic information, video modeling skills, and exercises. Online sessions were followed by synchronous sessions providing in vivo coaching of target skills. Caregivers completed an average of 12 sessions (range 5-24). Ratings of ease of use and satisfaction were high. Paired t tests revealed significant improvements in target parenting behaviors between baseline and session 2 and between sessions 2 and 4. These improvements were maintained at follow-up. Among the 5 families who completed the follow-up assessment, there were trends for reductions in the overall number of behavior problems. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential feasibility and efficacy of an online parenting skills intervention for improving positive parenting skills and for reducing child behavior problems following early TBI.

  6. Ready, set, go! Motivation and lifestyle habits in parents of children referred for obesity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, K; Ambler, K A; Rudko, J N; Chui, N; Ball, G D C

    2015-10-01

    Parents play a fundamental role in helping children with obesity to make and maintain healthy lifestyle changes. This study aimed to characterize stages of engagement to change nutrition and physical activity habits among parents whose children with obesity were enrolled in obesity management and examine differences in parents' own nutrition and physical activity habits according to their stage of engagement. Medical records of 113 children (body mass index [BMI] ≥95th percentile) enrolled in an outpatient weight management clinic were reviewed for baseline (cross-sectional) data. Parents completed the Weight Loss Behavior-Stage of Change Scale to assess the degree of engagement in making healthy changes to their lifestyle behaviours. Latent class analysis was used to classify parents into distinct clusters by grouping individuals with similar ratings of stages of engagement regarding nutrition- and physical activity-related behaviours. Parents' engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviours varied (more engaged [n = 43]; less engaged [n = 70]). A greater proportion of parents in the more engaged group was in action and/or maintenance stages of changing their lifestyle habits. The more engaged group was less overweight than the less engaged group (BMI = 28.5 vs. 33.3 kg m(-2); P healthy changes to their lifestyle behaviours, and those categorized as more engaged already demonstrated positive lifestyle behaviours. Information regarding parents' degree of engagement in healthy behaviours can inform clinical recommendations, especially when parents represent the primary agents of change in families trying to manage paediatric obesity. © 2014 World Obesity.

  7. FAQs about Baseline Testing among Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a similar exam conducted by a health care professional during the season if an athlete has a suspected concussion. Baseline testing generally takes place during the pre-season—ideally prior to the first practice. It is important to note that some baseline ...

  8. 75 FR 74706 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings November 24, 2010. Centana Intrastate Pipeline, LLC. Docket No. PR10-84-001. Centana Intrastate Pipeline, LLC... applicants listed above submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for...

  9. 76 FR 8725 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Docket No. PR10-97-002. Transportation, L.L.C.. EasTrans, LLC Docket No. PR10-30-001... revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under section 311...

  10. 75 FR 57268 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-103-000; Docket No. PR10-104-000; Docket No. PR10-105- 000 (Not Consolidated)] Notice of Baseline Filings September 13..., 2010, and September 10, 2010, respectively the applicants listed above submitted their baseline filing...

  11. 75 FR 65010 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-1-000; Docket No. PR11-2-000; Docket No. PR11-3-000] Notice of Baseline Filings October 14, 2010. Cranberry Pipeline Docket..., 2010, respectively the applicants listed above submitted their baseline filing of its Statement of...

  12. 76 FR 5797 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-114-001; Docket No. PR10-129-001; Docket No. PR10-131- 001; Docket No. PR10-68-002 Not Consolidated] Notice of Baseline... applicants listed above submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for...

  13. 75 FR 70732 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-71-000; Docket No. PR11-72-000; Docket No. PR11-73- 000] Notice of Baseline Filings November 10, 2010. Docket No. PR11-71-000..., 2010, the applicants listed above submitted their baseline filing of their Statement of Operating...

  14. Complete Ureteral Avulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete avulsion of the ureter is one of the most serious complications of ureteroscopy. It requires open or laparoscopic intervention for repair. This case report emphasizes its management and presents recommendations for prevention in current urological practice.

  15. 100-D Area technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This document is prepared in support of the 100 Area Environmental Restoration activity at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical baseline of waste sites located at the 100-D Area. The report is based on an environmental investigation undertaken by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) History Office in support of the Environmental Restoration Engineering Function and on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings, and photographs, supplemented by site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigation or sampling was conducted. All Hanford coordinate locations are approximate locations taken from several different maps and drawings of the 100-D Area. Every effort was made to derive coordinate locations for the center of each facility or waste site, except where noted, using standard measuring devices. Units of measure are shown as they appear in reference documents. The 100-D Area is made up of three operable units: 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, and 100-DR-3. All three are addressed in this report. These operable units include liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, the 100-D and 100-DR Reactors. A fourth operable unit, 100-HR-3, is concerned with groundwater and is not addressed here. This report describes waste sites which include cribs, trenches, pits, french drains, retention basins, solid waste burial grounds, septic tanks, and drain fields. Each waste site is described separately and photographs are provided where available. A complete list of photographs can be found in Appendix A. A comprehensive environmental summary is not provided here but may be found in Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act Characterization (Cushing 1988), which describes the geology and soils, meteorology, hydrology, land use, population, and air quality of the area

  16. Baseline Architecture of ITER Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallander, A.; Di Maio, F.; Journeaux, J.-Y.; Klotz, W.-D.; Makijarvi, P.; Yonekawa, I.

    2011-08-01

    The control system of ITER consists of thousands of computers processing hundreds of thousands of signals. The control system, being the primary tool for operating the machine, shall integrate, control and coordinate all these computers and signals and allow a limited number of staff to operate the machine from a central location with minimum human intervention. The primary functions of the ITER control system are plant control, supervision and coordination, both during experimental pulses and 24/7 continuous operation. The former can be split in three phases; preparation of the experiment by defining all parameters; executing the experiment including distributed feed-back control and finally collecting, archiving, analyzing and presenting all data produced by the experiment. We define the control system as a set of hardware and software components with well defined characteristics. The architecture addresses the organization of these components and their relationship to each other. We distinguish between physical and functional architecture, where the former defines the physical connections and the latter the data flow between components. In this paper, we identify the ITER control system based on the plant breakdown structure. Then, the control system is partitioned into a workable set of bounded subsystems. This partition considers at the same time the completeness and the integration of the subsystems. The components making up subsystems are identified and defined, a naming convention is introduced and the physical networks defined. Special attention is given to timing and real-time communication for distributed control. Finally we discuss baseline technologies for implementing the proposed architecture based on analysis, market surveys, prototyping and benchmarking carried out during the last year.

  17. Towards a model of contemporary parenting: the parenting behaviours and dimensions questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Carly A Y; Roberts, Lynne D; Roberts, Clare M; Piek, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of parenting has been problematic due to theoretical disagreement, concerns over generalisability, and problems with the psychometric properties of current parenting measures. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound self-report parenting measure for use with parents of preadolescent children, and to use this empirical scale development process to identify the core dimensions of contemporary parenting behaviour. Following item generation and parent review, 846 parents completed an online survey comprising 116 parenting items. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a six factor parenting model, comprising Emotional Warmth, Punitive Discipline, Anxious Intrusiveness, Autonomy Support, Permissive Discipline and Democratic Discipline. This measure will allow for the comprehensive and consistent assessment of parenting in future research and practice.

  18. Towards a model of contemporary parenting: the parenting behaviours and dimensions questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly A Y Reid

    Full Text Available The assessment of parenting has been problematic due to theoretical disagreement, concerns over generalisability, and problems with the psychometric properties of current parenting measures. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound self-report parenting measure for use with parents of preadolescent children, and to use this empirical scale development process to identify the core dimensions of contemporary parenting behaviour. Following item generation and parent review, 846 parents completed an online survey comprising 116 parenting items. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a six factor parenting model, comprising Emotional Warmth, Punitive Discipline, Anxious Intrusiveness, Autonomy Support, Permissive Discipline and Democratic Discipline. This measure will allow for the comprehensive and consistent assessment of parenting in future research and practice.

  19. Brief report: parenting styles and obesity in Mexican American children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Power, Thomas G

    2010-04-01

    To assess longitudinally the relations between four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and indulgent) and child weight status in Mexican American families. Sixty-nine low-income Mexican American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers completed demographic and parenting measures. Children's body weight and height were assessed annually. Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. At baseline, 65% of children were found to be normal weight, 14% were overweight, and 21% were obese. Analyses examined how parenting styles at baseline predicted child's weight status 3 years later, controlling for initial weight status. Children of indulgent mothers were more likely to become overweight 3 years later than children of authoritative or authoritarian mothers. This study provides longitudinal evidence for the role of indulgent parenting in predicting overweight in Mexican American children. Possible mediating factors that may account for this relationship (e.g., dietary patterns, physical activity patterns, and children's self-regulation) are considered.

  20. New Parents' Facebook Use at the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Mitchell K.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Glassman, Michael; Dush, Claire M. Kamp; Sullivan, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    New parents' Facebook use was examined from a social capital perspective. Surveys regarding Facebook use and parenting satisfaction, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting stress were completed by 154 mothers and 150 fathers as part of a larger study of dual-earner, Midwestern U.S. couples making the transition to parenthood. Results indicated…

  1. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  2. Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The role of parent depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Sharp, Carla; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-09-01

    Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of young children. The aim of this study was to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles in low-income families. Questionnaires were completed by 290 African-American and Hispanic parents residing in a large urban city in the southwestern United States. Twenty-six percent of the parents reported depressive symptoms above the clinical cutoff. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles. After adjusting for potential confounding variables (e.g., ethnicity, education, age), parents with an uninvolved feeding style reported less positive affect and more parenting stress than parents showing the other three feeding styles - authoritative, authoritarian, and indulgent. Because feeding styles tend to be associated with child obesity in low income samples, the results of this study provide important information regarding the parent-child eating dynamic that may promote less optimal child eating behaviors and the development of childhood obesity. This information could be useful for prevention studies aimed at changing parent behaviors that negatively impact the socialization of child eating behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of caring for a child with cancer on single parents compared with parents from two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F; Dix, David; Papsdorf, Michael; Klaassen, Robert J; Yanofsky, Rochelle; Sung, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    It is currently unknown how the intensive and often prolonged treatment of childhood cancer impacts on the lives of single parents. Our aims were to determine whether single parents differ from parents from two-parent families in terms of caregiver demand (the time and effort involved in caregiving), and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Forty single parents and 275 parents from two-parent families were recruited between November 2004 and February 2007 from five pediatric oncology centers in Canada. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire booklet composed of items and scales to measure caregiver demand and HRQL (SF-36). The booklet also measured the following constructs: background and context factors, child factors, caregiving strain, intrapsychic factors, and coping factors. Single parents did not differ from parents from two-parent families in caregiving demand and physical and psychosocial HRQL. Compared with Canadian population norms for the SF-36, both groups reported clinically important differences (i.e., worse health) in psychosocial HRQL (effect size ≥ -2.00), while scores for physical HRQL were within one standard deviation of population norms. Our findings suggest that the impact of caregiving on single parents, in terms of caregiving demand and HRQL is similar to that of parents from two-parent families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Parental education as an indicator of socioeconomic status: improving quality of data by requiring consistency across measurement occasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarø, Leif Edvard; Flisher, Alan J; Kaaya, Sylvia; Onya, Hans; Namisi, Francis S; Wubs, Annegreet

    2009-06-01

    Adolescents' reports of parents' education are sometimes used as indicators of socioeconomic status in surveys of health behaviour. The quality of such measurements is questionable. We hypothesized that consistent reporting of parents' education across measurement occasions in prospective panel studies indicates a higher quality of data than single or inconsistent reports. A multi-site, prospective panel study (three measurement occasions) was carried out among adolescents in Cape Town and Mankweng (South Africa), and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Analyses were based on data from students participating at baseline and with a valid code for school number (n = 15,684). For Cape Town and Dar es Salaam students, the associations between parents' education and an alternative indicator of socioeconomic status (both measured at baseline) increased with increasing consistency of reports about parents' education across measurement occasions. For Cape Town, the associations of father's education with a range of behavioural and social cognition variables were significantly stronger among ;;consistent'' than among other students. The pattern was the same for mother's education, but with fewer significant interaction effects. Requiring consistency of reports across data-collection occasions may, under the right combination of circumstances, make a difference. Insignificant and "close to zero'' associations may turn out to be at least moderately strong and statistically significant. When applying indicators of socioeconomic status, such as parents' highest level of completed education, it is most advantageous to use data from prospective panel studies, and to check for consistency of answers across measurement occasions.

  5. Parent Adaptation to and Parenting Satisfaction with Children with Intellectual Disability in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukmak, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Background: This research investigated the impact that children with intellectual disability in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) may have on their families. Method: Sixty-three parents completed three scales related to parent stress, ways of coping, and parenting satisfaction. Results: There were significant relationships between emotional-focused…

  6. Pathways of Influence: Chinese Parents' Expectations, Parenting Styles, and Child Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixin; Edwards, Carolyn Pope

    2015-01-01

    This study examines relations among Chinese parents' expectations for children's development of social-emotional skills, parenting styles, and child social competence. A total of 154 parents with preschool-aged children from mainland China completed questionnaires measuring their timing of expectations for children's mastery of social-emotional…

  7. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  8. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  9. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  10. Parents' Cognitions and Expectations about Their Pre-School Children: The Contribution of Parental Anxiety and Child Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatcroft, Rebecca; Creswell, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relative associations between parent and child anxiety and parents' cognitions about their children. One hundred and four parents of children aged 3-5 years completed questionnaires regarding their own anxiety level, their child's anxiety level and their cognitions about the child, specifically parents' expectations…

  11. Successful Therapist-Parent Coaching: How In Vivo Feedback Relates to Parent Engagement in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Miya L; Niec, Larissa N; Peer, Samuel O; Jent, Jason F; Weinstein, Allison; Gisbert, Patricia; Simpson, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Although behavioral parent training is considered efficacious treatment for childhood conduct problems, not all families benefit equally from treatment. Some parents take longer to change their behaviors and others ultimately drop out. Understanding how therapist behaviors impact parental engagement is necessary to improve treatment utilization. This study investigated how different techniques of therapist in vivo feedback (i.e., coaching) influenced parent attrition and skill acquisition in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT). Participants included 51 parent-child dyads who participated in PCIT. Children (age: M = 5.03, SD = 1.65) were predominately minorities (63% White Hispanic, 16% African American or Black). Eight families discontinued treatment prematurely. Therapist coaching techniques during the first session of treatment were coded using the Therapist-Parent Interaction Coding System, and parent behaviors were coded with the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System, Third Edition. Parents who received more responsive coaching acquired child-centered parenting skills more quickly. Therapists used fewer responsive techniques and more drills with families who dropped out of treatment. A composite of therapist behaviors accurately predicted treatment completion for 86% of families. Although group membership was correctly classified for the treatment completers, only 1 dropout was accurately predicted. Findings suggest that therapist in vivo feedback techniques may impact parents' success in PCIT and that responsive coaching may be particularly relevant.

  12. Design of the FRESH study: A randomized controlled trial of a parent-only and parent-child family-based treatment for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Braden, Abby; Douglas, Jennifer M; Rhee, Kyung E; Strong, David; Rock, Cheryl L; Wilfley, Denise E; Epstein, Leonard; Crow, Scott

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 1 out of 3 children in the United States is overweight or obese. Family-based treatment (FBT) is considered the gold-standard treatment for childhood obesity, but FBT is both staff and cost intensive. Therefore, we developed the FRESH (Family, Responsibility, Education, Support, & Health) study to evaluate the effectiveness of intervening with parents, without child involvement, to facilitate and improve the child's weight status. Targeting parents directly in the treatment of childhood obesity could be a promising approach that is developmentally appropriate for grade-school age children, highly scalable, and may be more cost effective to administer. The current paper describes the FRESH study which was designed to compare the effectiveness of parent-based therapy for pediatric obesity (PBT) to a parent and child (FBT) program for childhood obesity. We assessed weight, diet, physical activity, and parenting, as well as cost-effectiveness, at baseline, post-treatment, and at 6- and 18-month follow-ups. Currently, all participants have been recruited and completed assessment visits, and the initial stages of data analysis are underway. Ultimately, by evaluating a PBT model, we hope to optimize available child obesity treatments and improve their translation into clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over 6 years: The contribution of each parent's depressive history to the other's parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen M; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E S; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-10-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents' depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. The results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent's permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. The results highlight the importance of considering both parents' depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms.

  14. Parents' concern about their children's weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Byrne, Susan M; Zubrick, Stephen R; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    Firstly, to investigate the degree of concern parents feel about their children's weight (parental concern). Secondly, to identify factors that influence this concern, and to test a model of parental concern using structural equation modeling. A total of 347 non-overweight, overweight, and obese children (aged 6-13; Mean = 9.5, SD = 1.8) and their parents. Children and their parents attended an assessment session during which they were weighed and measured. Parents were administered a structured interview, which included the Eating Disorder Examination, and completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (parent proxy), and the Children's Body Image Scale. Eighty-two percent of parents of overweight children, and 18% of parents of obese children reported little parental concern. Higher parental concern was associated with higher child Body Mass Index, less parental underestimation of child body size, and lower child health-related quality of life. Interventions targeting childhood obesity should aim to optimise parental concern by reducing parents' underestimation of child body size and increasing their awareness of the effects of overweight and obesity on children's health and quality of life.

  15. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  16. TWRS technical baseline database manager definition document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acree, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    This document serves as a guide for using the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management Systems Engineering (SE) support tool in performing SE activities for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This document will provide a consistent interpretation of the relationships between the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management software and the present TWRS SE practices. The Database Manager currently utilized is the RDD-1000 System manufactured by the Ascent Logic Corporation. In other documents, the term RDD-1000 may be used interchangeably with TWRS Technical Baseline Database Manager

  17. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.

    2018-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. This document identifies many specific physical quantities that define life support systems, serving as a general reference for spacecraft life support system technology developers.

  18. Factors associated with parent concern for child weight and parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Karissa L; Welk, Gregory; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Yang, Shu; Kim, Jae-Kwang

    2015-06-01

    A parent's perception about their child's overweight status is an important precursor or determinant of preventative actions. Acknowledgment of, and concern for, overweight may be moderated by the parent's own weight status whereas engaging in healthy behaviors at home may promote healthy weight status. It is hypothesized that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and acknowledge overweight in their own children whereas heavier parents may report more concern about child weight. A total of 1745 parents of first- through fifth-grade students completed a questionnaire assessing reactions to a school BMI report and perceptions about BMI issues. Specific items included perceptions of child's weight status, concern for child weight status, and preventive practices. Parents also provided information about their own weight status. Relationships between measured child weight, perceived child weight, parent weight, parent concern, and healthy behaviors were examined. Overweight parents were more likely to identify overweight in their child and report concern about their child's weight. Concern was higher for parents of overweight children than of normal weight children. Normal weight parents and parents of normal weight children reported more healthy behaviors. Results support the hypothesis that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and that overweight parents are more likely to report concern about child weight. However, overweight parents are also more likely to acknowledge overweight status in their own child. Future research should examine links between parent concern and actual pursuit of weight management assistance.

  19. Effect of computer game playing on baseline laparoscopic simulator skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Fredrik H; Cvancarova, Milada; Fosse, Erik; Mjåland, Odd

    2013-08-01

    Studies examining the possible association between computer game playing and laparoscopic performance in general have yielded conflicting results and neither has a relationship between computer game playing and baseline performance on laparoscopic simulators been established. The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between previous and present computer game playing and baseline performance on a virtual reality laparoscopic performance in a sample of potential future medical students. The participating students completed a questionnaire covering the weekly amount and type of computer game playing activity during the previous year and 3 years ago. They then performed 2 repetitions of 2 tasks ("gallbladder dissection" and "traverse tube") on a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator. Performance on the simulator were then analyzed for association to their computer game experience. Local high school, Norway. Forty-eight students from 2 high school classes volunteered to participate in the study. No association between prior and present computer game playing and baseline performance was found. The results were similar both for prior and present action game playing and prior and present computer game playing in general. Our results indicate that prior and present computer game playing may not affect baseline performance in a virtual reality simulator.

  20. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  1. Associations between general parenting styles and specific food-related parenting practices and children's food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Legiest, Erwin; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Explore the impact of general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices on children's dietary habits. Cross-sectional study of sixth graders and their parents. Data were gathered (in 2003) in 69 of 100 randomly selected elementary schools in Belgium. All sixth graders (N = 1957) were invited to participate; 82.4% of their parents gave consent and completed questionnaires, resulting in 1614 parent-child pairs. Children's consumption of breakfast, fruit, vegetables, soft drinks, and sweets was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Parents completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, general parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, or neglecting) and specific food-related parenting practices (pressure, reward, encouragement through negotiation, catering on children's demands, permissiveness, avoiding negative modeling, and praise). Logistic regression analyses were performed, with general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices as predictors and dietary habits as dependent variables, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and children's weight status. General parenting style did not show any significant impact on dietary habits. In contrast, the food-related parenting practice "encouragement through negotiation" showed a significant positive impact, whereas "pressure," "catering on demand," and "permissiveness" were practices with an unhealthy impact. Nutrition education programs that guide parents in firm but not coercive food parenting skills are likely to have a positive impact upon children's dietary habits.

  2. Parental Understanding of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Pauline; Donald, Kirsten A; Schlegel, Birgit; Wilmshurst, Jo M

    2015-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder with multisystem involvement that poses significant challenges to the affected child and family. Caregiver knowledge in the South African population has not previously been reported. A prospective study of the parents of 21 children with tuberous sclerosis complex was undertaken. Median parental age was 38 (interquartile range 34.5-45) years. Parents were randomly allocated to receive written information about the condition, or to receive verbal counseling already established in clinic. A significant difference (P = .001) was observed in the change in the mean knowledge scores for the parent group that received written information (34.2 at baseline, 51.7 at the second visit. This impact was higher in parents with an education level of at least grade 8 (P = .003). Parental understanding of tuberous sclerosis complex can be improved by provision of written information and should be routinely available in a readily understandable format. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  4. Complete Rerouting Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a new protection method: Complete Rerouting. This is the most capacity e cient protection method for circuit switched networks and it is, to the best of our knowledge, the first time it has been described. We implement a column generation algorithm and test the performance...

  5. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  6. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wisniewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we continue our study on discrete abstractions of dynamical systems. To this end, we use a family of partitioning functions to generate an abstraction. The intersection of sub-level sets of the partitioning functions defines cells, which are regarded as discrete objects. The union of cells makes up the state space of the dynamical systems. Our construction gives rise to a combinatorial object - a timed automaton. We examine sound and complete abstractions. An abstraction is said to be sound when the flow of the time automata covers the flow lines of the dynamical systems. If the dynamics of the dynamical system and the time automaton are equivalent, the abstraction is complete. The commonly accepted paradigm for partitioning functions is that they ought to be transversal to the studied vector field. We show that there is no complete partitioning with transversal functions, even for particular dynamical systems whose critical sets are isolated critical points. Therefore, we allow the directional derivative along the vector field to be non-positive in this work. This considerably complicates the abstraction technique. For understanding dynamical systems, it is vital to study stable and unstable manifolds and their intersections. These objects appear naturally in this work. Indeed, we show that for an abstraction to be complete, the set of critical points of an abstraction function shall contain either the stable or unstable manifold of the dynamical system.

  7. Dual completion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, N Ya; Kadymova, K S; Dzhafarov, Sh T

    1963-10-28

    One type of dual completion method utilizes a single tubing string. Through the use of the proper tubing equipment, the fluid from the low-productive upper formation is lifted by utilizing the surplus energy of a submerged pump, which handles the production from the lower stratum.

  8. A complete woman

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    treated me like a son in the way he encouraged my education, while my mother ... cine gives me a lot of satisfaction when I see my patients getting cured. Teaching ... thing in life as a complete woman in different roles – daughter, wife, mother ...

  9. Hanford Site technical baseline database. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report lists the Hanford specific files (Table 1) that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. Table 2 includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 0 of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. This information is being managed and maintained on the Hanford RDD-100 System, which uses the capabilities of RDD-100, a systems engineering software system of Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC). This revision of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database uses RDD-100 version 3.0.2.2 (see Table 3). Directories reflect those controlled by the Hanford RDD-100 System Administrator. Table 4 provides information regarding the platform. A cassette tape containing the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database is available

  10. Parental monitoring protects against the effects of parent and adolescent depressed mood on adolescent drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lourah M; Becker, Sara J; Spirito, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    Parental monitoring is a well-established protective factor for adolescent drinking. This study examined whether parental monitoring protected against three common risk factors for alcohol use in a sample of high-risk adolescents: parental depressed mood, adolescent depressed mood, and parental alcohol use. Participants included 117 adolescents (mean age=15.5; 52% female) who presented to the hospital emergency department due to an alcohol-related event and their primary parent/guardian. Adolescents completed self-report measures of alcohol use frequency, depressed mood, and parental monitoring, while parents completed self-report measures of problematic alcohol use and depressed mood. Hierarchical regression confirmed that parental monitoring was associated with lower frequency of adolescent alcohol use, even after controlling for the three risk factors. Significant interactions were found between parental monitoring and both adolescent and parental depressed mood. Parental monitoring had significant protective effects against drinking frequency among adolescents with higher levels of depressed mood, but not among adolescents with lower levels of depressed mood. By contrast, parental monitoring only had protective effects among those parents with lower levels of depressed mood. Parental problematic alcohol use did not affect the relationship between parental monitoring and adolescent alcohol use. Our results suggest that adolescents with high levels of depressed mood may be more likely to benefit from parental monitoring, whereas parents with high levels of depressed mood may be less likely to monitor effectively. Interventions targeting parental monitoring in high-risk adolescents should take into account the influence of both adolescent and parental depressed mood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility of teaching motivational interviewing to parents of young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeerdijk, Maarten; Keet, René; de Haan, Lieuwe; Barrowclough, Christine; Linszen, Don; Schippers, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the feasibility of providing motivational interviewing (MI) training to parents of young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use. The training was offered in a mental health care setting as part of a family motivational intervention (FMI). Ninety-seven parents were randomly assigned to either FMI or routine family support (RFS). To obtain a measure of parent's MI skills at baseline and 3 months after they completed FMI, their role-play interactions with an actor portraying their child were coded. The coding method had satisfactory inter-rater reliability and internal consistency. At follow-up, parents in FMI showed significantly greater adherence to (p=.03) and competence in (p=.04) MI than parents in RFS. Parents in FMI also demonstrated significantly greater increases in expressing empathy (p=.01). These results demonstrate that FMI is a feasible method for increasing MI skills in parents. Additional research is needed to better understand the unique application of MI to parent-child interactions. © 2014.

  12. THE US LONG BASELINE NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT STUDY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BISHAI,M.

    2007-08-06

    The US Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment Study was commissioned jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) to investigate the potential for future U.S. based long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments using MW class conventional neutrino beams that can be produced at FNAL. The experimental baselines are based on two possible detector locations: (1) off-axis to the existing FNAL NuMI beamline at baselines of 700 to 810 km and (2) NSF's proposed future Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at baselines greater than 1000km. Two detector technologies are considered: a megaton class Water Cherenkov detector deployed deep underground at a DUSEL site, or a 100kT Liquid Argon Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) deployed on the surface at any of the proposed sites. The physics sensitivities of the proposed experiments are summarized. We find that conventional horn focused wide-band neutrino beam options from FNAL aimed at a massive detector with a baseline of > 1000km have the best sensitivity to CP violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy for values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} down to 2{sup o}.

  13. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparing childhood meal frequency to current meal frequency, routines, and expectations among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Flattum, Colleen Freeh; Draxten, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the continuation of family meals from childhood to parenthood. This study aims to examine associations between parents' report of eating family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study, a randomized controlled trial with a program to promote healthful behaviors and family meals at home. Participants (160 parent/child dyads) completed data collection in 2011-2012 in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Parents were predominately female (95%) and white (77%) with a mean age of 41.3 years. General linear modeling examined relationships between parents' report of how often they ate family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations as parents, controlling for parent age, education level, and race. Parental report of eating frequent family meals while growing up was positively and significantly associated with age, education, and self-identification as white (all p meals less than three times/week or four to five times/week, parents who ate six to seven family meals/week while growing up reported significantly more frequent family meals with their current family (4.0, 4.2 vs. 5.3 family meals/week, p = .001). Eating frequent family meals while growing up was also significantly and positively associated with having current regular meal routines and meal expectations about family members eating together (both p meals with children may have long-term benefits over generations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Expectant Fathers’ Intuitive Parenting: Associations with Parent Characteristics and Postpartum Positive Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Altenburger, Lauren E.; Settle, Theresa A.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Sullivan, Jason M.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior, its correlates, and its associations with fathers’ postpartum positive engagement. One hundred eighty-two expectant couples completed the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play in the third trimester of pregnancy. Coders rated expectant fathers’ and mothers’ intuitive parenting behavior during this procedure. Expectant parents also completed surveys regarding their psychological and demographic characteristics. At 3 months postpartum, fathers completed time diaries that assessed the time they spent in developmentally appropriate positive engagement activities with their infants. Examination of correlates of expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior revealed that expectant fathers showed lower levels of these behaviors than expectant mothers, that intuitive parenting behavior was moderately positively associated for mothers and fathers, and that individual differences in expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior were associated with parent demographic and psychological characteristics. In particular, expectant fathers showed greater intuitive parenting behavior when they had greater human capital and more progressive beliefs about parent roles, and when their partners had lower parenting self-efficacy. Findings also indicated that expectant fathers’ greater intuitive parenting behavior was predictive of fathers’ greater subsequent engagement in developmentally appropriate activities at 3 months postpartum, but only when expectant mothers demonstrated low levels of intuitive parenting behavior. PMID:25798492

  16. The complete cosmicomics

    CERN Document Server

    Calvino, Italo

    2014-01-01

    The definitive edition of Calvino’s cosmicomics, bringing together all of these enchanting stories—including some never before translated—in one volume for the first time. In Italo Calvino’s cosmicomics, primordial beings cavort on the nearby surface of the moon, play marbles with atoms, and bear ecstatic witness to Earth’s first dawn. Exploring natural phenomena and the origins of the universe, these beloved tales relate complex scientific concepts to our common sensory, emotional, human world. Now, The Complete Cosmicomics brings together all of the cosmicomic stories for the first time. Containing works previously published in Cosmicomics, t zero, and Numbers in the Dark, this single volume also includes seven previously uncollected stories, four of which have never been published in translation in the United States. This “complete and definitive collection” (Evening Standard) reconfirms the cosmicomics as a crowning literary achievement and makes them available to new generations of reader...

  17. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  18. LEAR construction completed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    In July 1982, LEAR construction was completed, the individual systems had been dry-tested. On 16 July, the first 50 MeV (309 MeV/c) protons from Linac 1 were injected and circulated. On 11 October, the first antiprotons from the AA, decelerated in the PS to 609 MeV/c, were injected. Also in 1982, acceleration, deceleration and stochastic cooling were successfully tested. See 9007366 for a more detailed description. See also 8201061, 8204131, 8309026.

  19. SHIVA laser: nearing completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.A.; Godwin, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    Construction of the Shiva laser system is nearing completion. This laser will be operating in fall 1977 and will produce over 20 terawatts of focusable power in a subnanosecond pulse. Fusion experiments will begin early in 1978. It is anticipated that thermonuclear energy release equal to one percent that of the incident light energy will be achieved with sub-millimeter deuterium-tritium targets. From other experiments densities in excess of a thousand times that of liquid are also expected

  20. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  1. Intergenerational transmission of family meal patterns from adolescence to parenthood: longitudinal associations with parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Miller, Jonathan; Watts, Allison; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-02-01

    The present study examined longitudinal associations between four family meal patterns (i.e. never had regular family meals, started having regular family meals, stopped having regular family meals, maintained having regular family meals) and young adult parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being. In addition, family meal patterns of parents were compared with those of non-parents. Analysis of data from the longitudinal Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults) study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between family meal patterns and parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being. School and in-home settings. At baseline (1998; EAT-I), adolescents (n 4746) from socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse households completed a survey and anthropometric measurements at school. At follow-up (2015; EAT-IV), participants who were parents (n 726) and who were non-parents with significant others (n 618) completed an online survey. Young adult parents who reported having regular family meals as an adolescent and as a parent ('maintainers'), or who started having regular family meals with their own families ('starters'), reported more healthful dietary, weight-related and psychosocial outcomes compared with young adults who never reported having regular family meals ('nevers'; Pfamily meal starters than non-parents. Results suggest that mental and physical health benefits of having regular family meals may be realized as a parent whether the routine of regular family meals is carried forward from adolescence into parenthood, or if the routine is started in parenthood.

  2. Radiologic science students' perceptions of parental involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Cheryl; Barymon, Deanna; Vanderford, Virginia; Hensley, Chad; Shaver, Gary

    2014-01-01

    A new generation of students is in the classroom, and they are not always alone. Helicopter parents, those who hover around the student and attempt to ease life's challenges, are accompanying the students to radiologic science programs across the nation. To determine radiologic science students' perception regarding their parents' level of involvement in their lives. A survey focused on student perceptions of parental involvement inside and outside of the academic setting was completed by 121 radiologic science students at 4 institutional settings. The analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationships between student sex, age, marital status, and perceived level of parental involvement. In addition, as financial support increases, students' perception of the level of parental involvement also increases. Radiologic science students want their parents to be involved in their higher education decisions. Research indicates that students with involved parents are more successful, and faculty should be prepared for increased parental involvement in the future. Radiologic science students perceive their parents to be involved in their academic careers. Ninety-five percent of respondents believe that the financial support of their parent or parents contributes to their academic success. Sixty-five percent of participants are content with their parents' current level of involvement, while 11% wish their parents were more involved in their academic careers.

  3. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.

  4. Parenting stress, anxiety, and depression in mothers with visually impaired infants: a cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkalou, Elena; Sakki, Hanna; O'reilly, Michelle A; Salt, Alison T; Dale, Naomi J

    2018-03-01

    This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of parenting stress, adult anxiety, and depression in mothers of children with profound or severe visual impairment (PVI or SVI) at 1 year and 2 years of age. Mothers of a national longitudinal cohort (OPTIMUM Project) of infants with congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system and PVI (light perception at best) or SVI (basic 'form' vision of non-light reflecting objects) participated. Infant age at baseline (T 1 ) was 8 to 16 months. Mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at T 1 (n=79) and at follow-up 12 months later (T 2 ) (n=73). Mothers of the total group had higher parenting stress levels (34.6% in clinical range) than community normative data at T 1 (p=0.017). Mothers of infants in the PVI subgroup had elevated stress at T 1 (p=0.014) and T 2 (p=0.009). The PVI subgroup was also elevated in the Difficult Child subscale at T 2 (p=0.001). Within-sample differences in parenting stress between the visual impairment subgroups were found at T 2 only: the PVI subgroup scored higher than the SVI subgroup (p=0.029). Adult anxiety and depression in the total group were not elevated compared with community normative data at T 1 and T 2 ; however, higher parenting stress was related to raised adult anxiety and depression levels at T 1 and T 2 (p=0.001). Regression analysis found parenting stress and lower child vision level (T 1 ) predicted parenting stress (T 2 ) (p=0.001; 42% variance). Mothers of 1-year-old infants with visual impairment showed raised risk for parenting stress, which continued to be elevated for children with PVI and those perceived as 'difficult' at 2 years. This was also a psychological risk, with greater adult anxiety and depression in those mothers with raised parenting stress. The clinical significance is that identification of parenting stress and targeted parenting, and behavioural support of the child in

  5. Parental Power and Adolescents' Parental Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acock, Alan C.; Yang, Wen Shan

    1984-01-01

    Combines McDonald's social power of parental identification with sex-linked models of parental identification to account for the identification of daughters (N=199) and sons (N=147) with their parents. Found that because of a halo effect, a gain in identification with one parent is not at the other parent's expense. (JAC)

  6. Parent Predictors of Changes in Child Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were col...

  7. A long baseline global stereo matching based upon short baseline estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Hong; Li, Zigang; Gu, Feifei; Zhao, Zixin; Ma, Yueyang; Fang, Meiqi

    2018-05-01

    In global stereo vision, balancing the matching efficiency and computing accuracy seems to be impossible because they contradict each other. In the case of a long baseline, this contradiction becomes more prominent. In order to solve this difficult problem, this paper proposes a novel idea to improve both the efficiency and accuracy in global stereo matching for a long baseline. In this way, the reference images located between the long baseline image pairs are firstly chosen to form the new image pairs with short baselines. The relationship between the disparities of pixels in the image pairs with different baselines is revealed by considering the quantized error so that the disparity search range under the long baseline can be reduced by guidance of the short baseline to gain matching efficiency. Then, the novel idea is integrated into the graph cuts (GCs) to form a multi-step GC algorithm based on the short baseline estimation, by which the disparity map under the long baseline can be calculated iteratively on the basis of the previous matching. Furthermore, the image information from the pixels that are non-occluded under the short baseline but are occluded for the long baseline can be employed to improve the matching accuracy. Although the time complexity of the proposed method depends on the locations of the chosen reference images, it is usually much lower for a long baseline stereo matching than when using the traditional GC algorithm. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is examined by experiments based on benchmark datasets. The results show that the proposed method is superior to the traditional GC method in terms of efficiency and accuracy, and thus it is suitable for long baseline stereo matching.

  8. Protective Effects of Parent-College Student Communication During the First Semester of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Meg L.; Morgan, Nicole; Abar, Caitlin; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Recent studies suggest that parents maintain influence as their adolescents transition into college. Advances in communication technology make frequent communication between parents and college students easy and affordable. This study examines the protective effect of parent-college student communication on student drinking behaviors, estimated peak blood alcohol concentration (eBAC), and serious negative consequences of drinking. Participants Participants were 746 first-year, first-time, full-time students at a large university in the U.S. Methods Participants completed a baseline and 14 daily web-based surveys. Results The amount of time spent communicating with parents on weekend days predicted the number of drinks consumed, heavy drinking, and peak eBAC consistent with a protective within-person effect. No association between communication and serious negative consequences was observed. Conclusions Encouraging parents to communicate with their college students, particularly on weekend days, could be a relatively simple, easily implemented protective process to reduce dangerous drinking behaviors. PMID:21660810

  9. Parental monitoring, parental warmth, and minority youths' academic outcomes: exploring the integrative model of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Katie; Dotterer, Aryn M

    2013-09-01

    Guided by the integrative model of parenting, the present study investigated the relationship between parental monitoring and racial/ethnic minority adolescents' school engagement and academic motivation as a function of parental warmth, and explored whether these associations varied for boys and girls. Participants (60 % female) were 208 sixth through eighth grade students (63 % African American, 19 % Latino, 18 % Multiracial) from an urban middle school in the Midwestern United States. Youth completed an in-school survey with items on parenting (parental monitoring, mothers'/fathers' warmth), cognitive engagement (school self-esteem), behavioral engagement (school trouble), and academic motivation (intrinsic motivation). As hypothesized, mothers' warmth enhanced the association between parental monitoring and youths' engagement and motivation. No gender differences in these associations emerged. Fathers' warmth strengthened the negative association between parental monitoring and school trouble, and this association was stronger for boys. Implications regarding the importance of sustaining a high level of monitoring within the context of warm parent-adolescent relationships to best support academic outcomes among minority youth are discussed.

  10. Complete pancreas traumatic transsection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hodžić

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of a twenty-year old male with complete pancreas breakdown in the middle of its corpus, which was caused by a strong abdomen compression, with injuries of the spleen, the firstjejunumcurve,mesocolon transversum, left kidney, and appereance of retroperitoneal haemathoma. Surgical treatment started 70 minutes after the injury. The treatment consisted of left pancreatectomy with previous spleenectomy, haemostasis of ruptured mesocolon transversum blood vessels, left kidney exploration, suturing of the firstjejunumcurvelession and double abdomen drainage. Posttraumatic pancreatitis which appeared on the second postoperative day and prolonged drain secretion were successfully solved by conservative treatment.

  11. Complete rerouting protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Protection of communication against network failures is becoming increasingly important and in this paper we present the most capacity efficient protection method possible, the complete rerouting protection method, when requiring that all communication should be restored in case of a single link...... network failure. We present a linear programming model of the protection method and a column generation algorithm. For 6 real world networks, the minimal restoration overbuild network capacity is between 13% and 78%. We further study the importance of the density of the network, derive analytical bounds...

  12. Completion of treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The outline of the lecture included the following topics: entering prescription; plan printout; print and transfer DDR; segment BEV; export to R and V; physician approval; and second check. Considerable attention, analysis and discussion. The summary is as follows: Treatment planning completion is a very responsible process which requires maximum attention; Should be independently checked by the planner, physicist, radiation oncologist and a therapist; Should not be done in a last minute rush; Proper communication between team members; Properly set procedure should prevent propagation of an error by one individual to the treatment: the error should be caught by somebody else. (P.A.)

  13. TestComplete cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Alpaev, Gennadiy

    2013-01-01

    A practical cookbook, with a perfect package of simple, medium, and advanced recipes targeted at basic programmers as well as expert software testers, who will learn to create, manage, and run automated tests. It is packed with problem-solving recipes that are supported by simple examples.If you are a software tester or a programmer who is involved with testing automation using TestComplete, this book is ideal for you! You will be introduced to the very basics of using the tool, as well as polish any previously gained knowledge in using the tool. If you are already aware of programming basics,

  14. Early Parenting Moderates the Association between Parental Depression and Neural Reactivity to Rewards and Losses in Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Kujawa, Autumn; Proudfit, Greg H.; Laptook, Rebecca; Klein, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    Children of parents with depression exhibit neural abnormalities in reward processing. Examining contributions of parenting could provide insight into the development of these abnormalities and to the etiology of depression. We evaluated whether early parenting moderates the effects of parental depression on a neural measure of reward and loss processing in mid-late childhood. Parenting was assessed when children were preschoolers. At age nine, children completed an event-related potential as...

  15. Associations between baseline allergens and polysensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B.C.; Menne, T.; Johansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Identification of patients at risk of developing polysensitization is not possible at present. An association between weak sensitizers and polysensitization has been hypothesized. Objectives: To examine associations of 21 allergens in the European baseline series to polysensitization....... Patients/Methods: From a database-based study with 14 998 patients patch tested with the European baseline series between 1985 and 2005, a group of 759 (5.1%) patients were polysensitized. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the relative contribution of each allergen to polysensitization. Results...... denominator for the association between the allergens and the polysensitization was apparent, and any association, whether positive or negative, was relatively low. Based on these results, sensitization to specific baseline allergens cannot be used as risk indicators for polysensitization Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  16. Associations between baseline allergens and polysensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at risk of developing polysensitization is not possible at present. An association between weak sensitizers and polysensitization has been hypothesized. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of 21 allergens in the European baseline series to polysensitization....... PATIENTS/METHODS: From a database-based study with 14 998 patients patch tested with the European baseline series between 1985 and 2005, a group of 759 (5.1%) patients were polysensitized. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the relative contribution of each allergen to polysensitization. RESULTS...... denominator for the association between the allergens and the polysensitization was apparent, and any association, whether positive or negative, was relatively low. Based on these results, sensitization to specific baseline allergens cannot be used as risk indicators for polysensitization....

  17. Complete atrioventricular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Raffaele; Limongelli, Giuseppe

    2006-04-05

    Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC), also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification). CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months) but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators) plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  18. Complete atrioventricular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limongelli Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC, also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification. CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  19. Barnett shale completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schein, G. [BJ Services, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Fractured shales yield oil and gas in various basins across the United States. A map indicating these fractured shale source-reservoir systems in the United States was presented along with the numerous similarities and differences that exist among these systems. Hydrocarbons in the organic rich black shale come from the bacterial decomposition of organic matter, primary thermogenic decomposition of organic matter or secondary thermogenic cracking of oil. The shale may be the reservoir or other horizons may be the primary or secondary reservoir. The reservoir has induced micro fractures or tectonic fractures. This paper described the well completions in the Barnett Shale in north Texas with reference to major players, reservoir properties, mineralogy, fluid sensitivity, previous treatments, design criteria and production examples. The Barnett Shale is an organic, black shale with thickness ranging from 100 to 1000 feet. The total organic carbon (TOC) averages 4.5 per cent. The unit has undergone high rate frac treatments. A review of the vertical wells in the Barnett Shale was presented along with the fracture treatment schedule and technology changes. A discussion of refracturing opportunities and proppant settling and transport revealed that additional proppant increases fluid recovery and enhances production. Compatible scale inhibitors and biocides can be beneficial. Horizontal completions in the Barnett Shale have shown better results than vertical wells, as demonstrated in a production comparison of 3 major horizontal wells in the basin. tabs., figs.

  20. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  1. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  2. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.K.; Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-01

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  3. Chinese Parenting in Hong Kong: Links among Goals, Beliefs and Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S. M.; Bowes, J.; Wyver, S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among parental goals, parental beliefs and parenting styles. Questionnaires were completed during interviews with 189 Hong Kong-Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years. Results indicated that these mothers embraced Chinese parental beliefs (guan) and Chinese parental goals of…

  4. The parenting attitudes and the stress of mothers predict the asthmatic severity of their children: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Nobuyuki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To examine relationships between a mother's stress-related conditions and parenting attitudes and their children's asthmatic status. Methods 274 mothers of an asthmatic child 2 to 12 years old completed a questionnaire including questions about their chronic stress/coping behaviors (the "Stress Inventory", parenting attitudes (the "Ta-ken Diagnostic Test for Parent-Child Relationship, Parent Form", and their children's disease status. One year later, a follow-up questionnaire was mailed to the mothers that included questions on the child's disease status. Results 223 mothers (81% responded to the follow-up survey. After controlling for non-psychosocial factors including disease severity at baseline, multiple linear regression analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis found chronic irritation/anger and emotional suppression to be aggravating factors for children aged Conclusions Different types of parental stress/coping behaviors and parenting styles may differently predict their children's asthmatic status, and such associations may change as children grow.

  5. The First-aid Advice and Safety Training (FAST) parents programme for the prevention of unintentional injuries in preschool children: a protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Julie A; Towner, Elizabeth Ml; Kendrick, Denise; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Emond, Alan; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Peter S; Powell, Jane; Mulvaney, Caroline; Thomas, James; Deave, Toity; Potter, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of preventable death in children in the UK, and 0-4-year-olds frequently attend emergency departments following injuries in the home. Parenting programmes designed to support parents, promote behaviour change and enhance parent-child relationships have been shown to improve health outcomes in children. It is not known whether group-based parenting programmes have the potential to prevent unintentional injuries in preschool children. A study to develop a group-based parenting programme to prevent unintentional home injuries in preschool children, and assess the feasibility of evaluation through a cluster-randomised controlled trial. The intervention, designed for parents of children who have sustained a medically attended injury, will be developed with two voluntary sector organisations. The feasibility study will assess ability to recruit parents, deliver the programme and follow-up participants. Participants will complete questionnaires at baseline, 3 months and 6 months, and report injuries in their preschool children using a tool designed and validated for this study. Qualitative methods will assess user and deliverer perceptions of the programme. This study will develop the first group-based parenting programme to prevent injuries in preschool children, and design tools for parent-reported injury outcomes. A key challenge will be to recruit parents to participate in a manner that is non-stigmatising, and does not result in feelings of guilt or belief that they are perceived to be a bad parent. The findings will be used to prepare a trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention.

  6. Parenting narcissus: what are the links between parenting and narcissism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Robert S; Bleau, Geoff; Drwecki, Brian

    2006-04-01

    Previous theorizing by clinical psychologists suggests that adolescent narcissism may be related to parenting practices (Kernberg, 1975; Kohut, 1977). Two studies investigated the relations between parenting dimensions (i.e., warmth, monitoring, and psychological control) and narcissism both with and without removing from narcissism variance associated with trait self-esteem. Two hundred and twenty-two college students (Study 1) and 212 high school students (Study 2) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, a trait self-esteem scale, and standard measures of the three parenting dimensions. Parental warmth was associated positively and monitoring was associated negatively with both types of narcissism. Psychological control was positively associated with narcissism scores from which trait self-esteem variance had been removed. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed, limitations are addressed, and future research directions are suggested.

  7. Parental self-confidence, parenting styles, and corporal punishment in families of ADHD children in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Applequist, Kimberly F; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2007-05-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental self-confidence, warmth, and involvement, and corporal punishment in families of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The diagnosis of ADHD was established through clinical interviews with the parents, children, and teachers, according the criteria in DSM-IV-TR. This diagnosis was also established by having the parents complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale, and the teachers complete the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale. Two groups of Iranian parents, one group with children who have ADHD (N=130) and a control group (N=120), completed questionnaires measuring parental self-confidence and parenting styles. Parents of children with ADHD were found to have lower self-confidence and less warmth and involvement with their children, and used corporal punishment significantly more than the parents of control children. The study provides strong evidence that children with ADHD are at considerable risk of abuse by their parents. Rather than focusing only on the child's ADHD, treatment may also need to address the parents' functioning.

  8. Parenting stress in parents of children with refractory epilepsy before and after vagus nerve stimulation implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Tse Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate parenting stress in parents of children with refractory epilepsy before and after their children received vagus nerve stimulation (VNS implantation. Methods: Parents of children with refractory epilepsy completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI under a psychologist's assessment before and at least 12 months after their children received VNS implantation. The PSI questionnaire measures parenting stress in two domains; a parent domain with seven subscales, and a child domain with six. Age, gender, epilepsy comorbidity, VNS implantation date, seizure frequency, and anticonvulsant history before and after VNS implantation were obtained from reviews of medical charts. Results: In total, 30 parents completed the first and follow-up PSI questionnaires. Seventeen of their children (56.7% were boys. The children aged from 1 to 12 years (7.43 ± 3.59 years, mean ± SD. After VNS implantation, the mean total parenting stress scores decreased from 282.1 ± 38.0 to 272.4 ± 42.9. A significant decrease was found on the spouse subscale of the parent domain. For the parents of boys, the mean total parenting stress scores decreased significantly. The mean total parenting stress scores also decreased significantly for parents of epileptic children without autism and who did not taper off the number of different anticonvulsants used after VNS. Conclusions: VNS is an advisable choice to treat refractory epilepsy. Our study showed that 12 months or more after VNS implantation, seizure frequency and parenting stress typically decreased. However, in some special cases the parenting stress may increase, and external help may be required to support these patients and their parents. Key Words: children, refractory epilepsy, parenting stress, vagus nerve stimulation

  9. Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Parental Concern and Concordance Between Parent and Adolescent Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Elon; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Arghira, Adriana Cristina; Zhou, Chuan; McCarty, Carolyn A

    We investigated which adolescent health risk behaviors are of concern to parents generally, according to adolescent age, gender, and in the context of perceived risk. We compared adolescent and parent reports of the presence of health-risk behaviors and factors predicting agreement. Three hundred adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (mean, 14.5 years; 52% female) who presenting for well care completed an electronic screening tool used to assess health-risk behaviors. Parents completed parallel measures of their child's behavior and parental concern. Adolescent and parent reports were compared using McNemar test. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine predictors of agreement. High parental concern was most commonly reported for screen time and diet. When parents identified their adolescent as at-risk, high parental concern was near universal for mental health but less commonly reported for substance use. There were no differences in parental concern according to adolescent gender. Parents of older adolescents expressed more concern regarding physical activity and alcohol. Compared with adolescents, parents were more likely to report risk regarding anxiety, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity, and less likely to report risk regarding screen time, sleep, and marijuana use. Younger adolescent age and higher family relationship quality were predictive of stronger parent-adolescent agreement. Parents in well-care visits commonly have concerns about adolescent lifestyle behaviors. Although parents are more likely to report concern when they know about a behavior, parental concern is not always aligned with parental awareness of risk, particularly for substance use. Parent report of higher prevalence of some risk behaviors suggests their input might assist in risk identification. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Localizing gravitational wave sources with single-baseline atom interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Peter W.; Jung, Sunghoon

    2018-02-01

    Localizing sources on the sky is crucial for realizing the full potential of gravitational waves for astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology. We show that the midfrequency band, roughly 0.03 to 10 Hz, has significant potential for angular localization. The angular location is measured through the changing Doppler shift as the detector orbits the Sun. This band maximizes the effect since these are the highest frequencies in which sources live for several months. Atom interferometer detectors can observe in the midfrequency band, and even with just a single baseline they can exploit this effect for sensitive angular localization. The single-baseline orbits around the Earth and the Sun, causing it to reorient and change position significantly during the lifetime of the source, and making it similar to having multiple baselines/detectors. For example, atomic detectors could predict the location of upcoming black hole or neutron star merger events with sufficient accuracy to allow optical and other electromagnetic telescopes to observe these events simultaneously. Thus, midband atomic detectors are complementary to other gravitational wave detectors and will help complete the observation of a broad range of the gravitational spectrum.

  11. GOGOL: ACADEMIC AND COMPLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Mann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing international interest to Gogol explains the necessity of publishing a new edition of his works. The present Complete Collection of Gogol’s Works and Letters is an academic edition prepared and published by the A. M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It draws on rich experience of studying and publishing Gogol’s heritage in Russia but at the same time questions and underscores Gogol’s relevance for the modern reader and his place in the world culture of our time. It intends to fill in the gaps left by the previous scholarly tradition that failed to recognize some of Gogol’s texts as part of his heritage. Such are, for example, dedicatory descriptions in books and business notes. The present edition accounts not only for the completeness of texts but also for their place within the body of Gogol’s work, as part of his life-long creative process. By counterpoising different editions, it attempts to trace down the dynamics of Gogol’s creative thought while at the same time underscores the autonomy and relevance of each period in his career. For example, this collection publishes two different versions (editions of the same work: while the most recent version has become canonical at the expense of the preceding one, the latter still preserves its meaning and historical relevance. The present edition has the advantage over its predecessors since it has an actual, physical opportunity to erase the gaps, e.g. to publish the hitherto unpublished texts. However, the editors realize that new, hitherto unknown gaps may appear and the present edition will become, in its turn, outdated. At this point, there will be a necessity in the new edition.

  12. Adolescent and parent motivation for change affects psychotherapy outcomes among youth with poorly controlled diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Deborah A; Berio, Heidi; Carcone, April Idalski; Naar-King, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Investigate effect of baseline motivation for change on treatment fidelity, therapeutic alliance, treatment dose, and treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of family therapy for youth with poorly controlled diabetes. Seventy-four adolescents and caregivers completed measures of motivation for change. Measures of fidelity, alliance, dose, and youth health status were collected. Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect effects of motivation on treatment outcomes. Parent motivation was significantly related to alliance and fidelity. Only alliance was significantly related to posttreatment metabolic control. In adolescent models, only motivation was significantly related to alliance. In both models, motivation had a significant indirect effect on metabolic control through alliance. Findings demonstrate the importance of parent and youth initial motivational status and treatment alliance to treatment outcome among youth with poorly controlled diabetes. Additional research on treatment techniques that promote motivation for change is needed.

  13. Integrated Baseline Bystem (IBS) Version 1.03: Models guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System)(IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planning and analysis. This document is the models guide for the IBS and explains how to use the emergency related computer models. This document provides information for the experienced system user, and is the primary reference for the computer modeling software supplied with the system. It is designed for emergency managers and planners, and others familiar with the concepts of computer modeling. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other IBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary.

  14. Transforming Parent-Child Interaction in Family Routines: Longitudinal Analysis with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M; Fossett, Brenda; Bakeman, Roger; Cheremshynski, Christy; Miller, Lynn; Lohrmann, Sharon; Binnendyk, Lauren; Khan, Sophia; Chinn, Stephen; Kwon, Samantha; Irvin, Larry K

    2015-12-01

    The efficacy and consequential validity of an ecological approach to behavioral intervention with families of children with developmental disabilities was examined. The approach aimed to transform coercive into constructive parent-child interaction in family routines. Ten families participated, including 10 mothers and fathers and 10 children 3-8 years old with developmental disabilities. Thirty-six family routines were selected (2 to 4 per family). Dependent measures included child problem behavior, routine steps completed, and coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. For each family, a single case, multiple baseline design was employed with three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. Visual analysis evaluated the functional relation between intervention and improvements in child behavior and routine participation. Nonparametric tests across families evaluated the statistical significance of these improvements. Sequential analyses within families and univariate analyses across families examined changes from baseline to intervention in the percentage and odds ratio of coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. Multiple baseline results documented functional or basic effects for 8 of 10 families. Nonparametric tests showed these changes to be significant. Follow-up showed durability at 11 to 24 months postintervention. Sequential analyses documented the transformation of coercive into constructive processes for 9 of 10 families. Univariate analyses across families showed significant improvements in 2- and 4-step coercive and constructive processes but not in odds ratio. Results offer evidence of the efficacy of the approach and consequential validity of the ecological unit of analysis, parent-child interaction in family routines. Future studies should improve efficiency, and outcomes for families experiencing family systems challenges.

  15. Waste management project technical baseline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project

  16. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  17. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    This publication has been prepared by GBP, IOI, CSIR-NIO and IUCN in order to serve as guidance to those who are planning to carry out a port biological baseline survey, in particular in the context of Ballast Water Management. It has been drafted...

  18. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  19. Toward Baseline Software Anomalies in NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, Lucas; Zelkowitz, Marvin; Basili, Victor; Nikora, Allen P.

    2012-01-01

    In this fast abstract, we provide preliminary findings an analysis of 14,500 spacecraft anomalies from unmanned NASA missions. We provide some baselines for the distributions of software vs. non-software anomalies in spaceflight systems, the risk ratings of software anomalies, and the corrective actions associated with software anomalies.

  20. Physics Potential of Long-Baseline Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of neutrino mixing and oscillations over the past decade provides firm evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Recently, θ13 has been determined to be moderately large, quite close to its previous upper bound. This represents a significant milestone in establishing the three-flavor oscillation picture of neutrinos. It has opened up exciting prospects for current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments towards addressing the remaining fundamental questions, in particular the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible presence of a CP-violating phase. Another recent and crucial development is the indication of non-maximal 2-3 mixing angle, causing the octant ambiguity of θ23. In this paper, I will review the phenomenology of long-baseline neutrino oscillations with a special emphasis on sub-leading three-flavor effects, which will play a crucial role in resolving these unknowns. First, I will give a brief description of neutrino oscillation phenomenon. Then, I will discuss our present global understanding of the neutrino mass-mixing parameters and will identify the major unknowns in this sector. After that, I will present the physics reach of current generation long-baseline experiments. Finally, I will conclude with a discussion on the physics capabilities of accelerator-driven possible future long-baseline precision oscillation facilities.

  1. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Delivered to At-Risk Families in the Home Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Rachel; Self-Brown, Shannon; Valente, Jessica R.; Dorsey, Shannon; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Bertuglia-Haley, Michelle; Prieto, Metta

    2012-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted for 83 parent-child dyads who participated in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) delivered in-home by community agency therapists. Data included self-report measures and therapist observations at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated significant positive changes in child/parent behavior and parent attitudes…

  2. Identifying Moderators of the Link Between Parent and Child Anxiety Sensitivity: The Roles of Gender, Positive Parenting, and Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rebecca A; Weems, Carl F

    2015-07-01

    A substantial body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity is a risk factor for the development of anxiety problems and research has now begun to examine the links between parenting, parent anxiety sensitivity and their child's anxiety sensitivity. However, the extant literature has provided mixed findings as to whether parent anxiety sensitivity is associated with child anxiety sensitivity, with some evidence suggesting that other factors may influence the association. Theoretically, specific parenting behaviors may be important to the development of child anxiety sensitivity and also in understanding the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. In this study, 191 families (n = 255 children and adolescents aged 6-17 and their parents) completed measures of child anxiety sensitivity (CASI) and parenting (APQ-C), and parents completed measures of their own anxiety sensitivity (ASI) and their parenting (APQ-P). Corporal punishment was associated with child anxiety sensitivity and the child's report of their parent's positive parenting behaviors moderated the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. The child's gender was also found to moderate the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity, such that there was a positive association between girls' and their parents anxiety sensitivity and a negative association in boys. The findings advance the understanding of child anxiety sensitivity by establishing a link with corporal punishment and by showing that the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity may depend upon the parenting context and child's gender.

  3. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  4. Information sharing during diagnostic assessments: what is relevant for parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sheryl; Wynn, Kerry; Ray, Lynne; Demeriez, Lori; LaBerge, Patricia; Pei, Jacqueline; St Pierre, Cherie

    2011-05-01

    ABSTRACT This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended questionnaire to describe parent information provision. Parents from 9 families completed in-depth parent interviews following clinic attendance to discuss perceptions of information received. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by related themes. Parents did not perceive the information in the way professionals expected. Parents acknowledged receipt of comprehensive information relevant to the diagnosis but indicated that not all their needs were met. During the interviews, parents described the assessment process, preassessment information, and "steps in their journey." They noted that a strength-based approach and a focus on parental competency would support their coping efforts. Results underscore the need for professionals to be attentive to parents' individualized needs.

  5. Accelerated Best Basis Inventory Baselining Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The baselining effort was recently proposed to bring the Best-Basis Inventory (BBI) and Question No.8 of the Tank Interpretive Report (TIR) for all 177 tanks to the current standards and protocols and to prepare a TIR Question No.8 if one is not already available. This plan outlines the objectives and methodology of the accelerated BBI baselining task. BBI baselining meetings held during December 2000 resulted in a revised BBI methodology and an initial set of BBI creation rules to be used in the baselining effort. The objectives of the BBI baselining effort are to: (1) Provide inventories that are consistent with the revised BBI methodology and new BBI creation rules. (2) Split the total tank waste in each tank into six waste phases, as appropriate (Supernatant, saltcake solids, saltcake liquid, sludge solids, sludge liquid, and retained gas). In some tanks, the solids and liquid portions of the sludge and/or saltcake may be combined into a single sludge or saltcake phase. (3) Identify sampling events that are to be used for calculating the BBIs. (4) Update waste volumes for subsequent reconciliation with the Hanlon (2001) waste tank summary. (5) Implement new waste type templates. (6) Include any sample data that might have been unintentionally omitted in the previous BBI and remove any sample data that should not have been included. Sample data to be used in the BBI must be available on TWINS. (7) Ensure that an inventory value for each standard BBI analyte is provided for each waste component. Sample based inventories for supplemental BBI analytes will be included when available. (8) Provide new means and confidence interval reports if one is not already available and include uncertainties in reporting inventory values

  6. Mercury baseline levels in Flemish soils (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tack, Filip M.G.; Vanhaesebroeck, Thomas; Verloo, Marc G.; Van Rompaey, Kurt; Ranst, Eric van

    2005-01-01

    It is important to establish contaminant levels that are normally present in soils to provide baseline data for pollution studies. Mercury is a toxic element of concern. This study was aimed at assessing baseline mercury levels in soils in Flanders. In a previous study, mercury contents in soils in Oost-Vlaanderen were found to be significantly above levels reported elsewhere. For the current study, observations were extended over two more provinces, West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen. Ranges of soil Hg contents were distinctly higher in the province Oost-Vlaanderen (interquartile range from 0.09 to 0.43 mg/kg) than in the other provinces (interquartile ranges from 0.7 to 0.13 and 0.7 to 0.15 mg/kg for West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen, respectively). The standard threshold method was applied to separate soils containing baseline levels of Hg from the data. Baseline concentrations for Hg were characterised by a median of 0.10 mg Hg/kg dry soil, an interquartile range from 0.07 to 0.14 mg/kg and a 90% percentile value of 0.30 mg/kg. The influence of soil properties such as clay and organic carbon contents, and pH on baseline Hg concentrations was not important. Maps of the spatial distribution of Hg levels showed that the province Oost-Vlaanderen exhibited zones with systematically higher Hg soil contents. This may be related to the former presence of many small-scale industries employing mercury in that region. - Increased mercury levels may reflect human activity

  7. Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis

    2011-01-01

    This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…

  8. Becoming a parent: a model of parents' post-partum experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine de Montigny

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving oneself as parent is a key challenge during the transition to parenthood. The importance of health professionals in determining perceived efficacy in parents upon the birth of their child is few explored. The objective of this study is to analayze the relations between the first time parents' perceived efficacy and their perceptions of nurses' help-giving and critical events during post-partum period. SAMPLE AND METHOD: One hundred sixty couples participated in a correlational study by completing questionaires after the birth of their first child. RESULTS: A model of parents' postpartum experience was established where nurses' collaboration and help-giving practices contribute directly and indirectly to the parents' perception of control and perceptions of events. They contribute indirectly to parent's perceived self-efficacy. IMPLICATIONS: The help given by health professionals, especially nurses, to parents following the birth of a child makes a major positive difference in the parents' experiences.

  9. Concurrent predictors of dysfunctional parenting and maternal confidence: implications for parenting interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, A; Sanders, M R

    2007-11-01

    The often intense nature of the conflict between parents and their toddlers requires better understanding of what happens during this stage of development and how difficulties can be prevented from escalating in the future. Clarification of the nature of family and parenting factors related to toddler behaviour allows better capacity for intervention development and tailoring to individual families. A total of 126 mothers of toddlers completed a self-report assessment battery, examining child behaviour, parenting style and confidence, as well as broader family adjustment measures. The study found that maternal confidence and dysfunctional parenting were interrelated and were also predicted best by parenting variables, in contrast to socio-demographic and child variables. Maternal confidence also mediated the relationships between family income and toddler behaviour. Parenting style and confidence are important modifiable factors to target in parenting interventions. The implications for the development, implementation and delivery of parenting interventions are discussed.

  10. The impact of a pilot cooking intervention for parent-child dyads on the consumption of foods prepared away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Shannon M; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Stark, Lori J

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of a parent-child dyad cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home. Eating away from home often results in consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that can contribute to excess energy consumption in children. A pre-post design to evaluate a 10-week cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home, energy intake, and improving diet quality was implemented. The intervention was delivered at an instructional kitchen on a university campus and assessments were completed at a children's academic medical center. Subjects included six parent-child dyads whom reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times/week and in which the parent was overweight based on their body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 kg/m(2). Parents were a mean age of 34.7 (SD = 3.9) years, and children were a mean age of 8.7 (SD = 2.0) years. Two-thirds of parents self-identified themselves and their children as White. Results showed the proportion of dinners consumed by parent-child dyads away from home significantly decreased (F (1,161) = 16.1, p cooking between baseline and post-treatment. A cooking intervention that involves parent-child dyads and incorporates behavior management strategies and nutrition education may be an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlates of Healthy Lifestyle Beliefs and Behaviors in Parents of Overweight or Obese Preschool Children Before and After a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Intervention With Text Messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Lisa K; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Hekler, Eric; Small, Leigh; Jacobson, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Significant gaps exist in the published literature regarding the treatment of overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children, especially in primary care settings. Parental influence plays an important factor in the development of healthy behaviors in children, yet there is no consensus about why some behavior change intervention strategies for parents of young children are more influential and effective than others. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to assess correlations among the study variables (healthy lifestyle beliefs, perceived difficulty, and healthy lifestyle behaviors) in parents of overweight/obese preschool children. A second aim explored if the parent's level of cognitive beliefs and perceived difficulty of engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors correlated with text messaging cognitive behavioral support. Fifteen preschool-parent dyads from primary care clinics completed a 7-week cognitive behavioral skills building intervention. Beck's Cognitive Theory guided the intervention content, and Fogg's Behavior Model guided the implementation. The intervention was delivered using a combination of face-to-face clinic visits and ecological momentary interventions using text messaging. Supported are the interconnected relationships among the study variables, that is, parental healthy lifestyle beliefs, thoughts, and behaviors. At baseline, parental healthy lifestyle belief scores significantly correlated with perceived difficulty (rs = 0.598, p behaviors (rs = 0.545, p cognitive behavioral skills building and tailored text messaging, the need for general support via text messaging lessened, warranting additional research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Response time scores on a reflexive attention task predict a child's inattention score from a parent report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundwall, Rebecca A; Sgro, Jordan F; Fanger, Julia

    2018-01-01

    Compared to sustained attention, only a small proportion of studies examine reflexive attention as a component of everyday attention. Understanding the significance of reflexive attention to everyday attention may inform better treatments for attentional disorders. Children from a general population (recruited when they were from 9-16 years old) completed an exogenously-cued task measuring the extent to which attention is captured by peripheral cue-target conditions. Parents completed a questionnaire reporting their child's day-to-day attention. A general linear model indicated that parent-rated inattention predicted the increase in response time over baseline when a bright cue preceded the target (whether it was valid or invalid) but not when a dim cue preceded the target. More attentive children had more pronounced response time increases from baseline. Our findings suggest a link between a basic measure of cognition (response time difference scores) and parent observations. The findings have implications for increased understanding of the role of reflexive attention in the everyday attention of children.

  13. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  14. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl O. Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children’s weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  15. Health Literacy Among Parents of Newborn Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackley, Amy; Winter, Michael; Guillen, Ursula; Paul, David A.; Locke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Health Literacy is the ability to obtain, process, and understand health information to make knowledgeable health decisions. PURPOSE To determine baseline health literacy of NICU parents at a tertiary care hospital during periods of crucial information exchange. METHODS Health Literacy of English speaking NICU parents was assessed using the Newest vital Sign (NVS) on admission (n=121) and discharge (n=59). A quasi-control group of well newborn (WBN) parents (n=24) and prenatal obstetric clinic (PRE) parents (n=18) were included. A single, Likert-style question measured nurse’s assessment of parental comprehension with discharge teaching. Suspected limited health literacy (SLHL) was defined as NVS score of ≤3. FINDINGS / RESULTS Forty-three percent of parents on NICU admission and 32% at NICU discharge had SLHL (pNICU parents and 25% of WBN parents with SLHL at time of admission/infant birth had a college education. Nurse subjective measurement of parental comprehension of discharge instructions was not correlated to the objective measurement of health literacy (p=0.26). IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE SLHL is common during peak time periods of complex health discussion in the NICU, WBN, and PRE settings. NICU providers may not accurately gauge parent’s literacy status. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH Methods for improving health communication are needed. Studies should evaluate SLHL in a larger NICU population and across different languages and cultures. PMID:27391562

  16. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sink, Kaycee M; Espeland, Mark A; Rushing, Julia; Castro, Cynthia M; Church, Timothy S; Cohen, Ronald; Gill, Thomas M; Henkin, Leora; Jennings, Janine M; Kerwin, Diana R; Manini, Todd M; Myers, Valerie; Pahor, Marco; Reid, Kieran F; Woolard, Nancy; Rapp, Stephen R; Williamson, Jeff D

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have shown beneficial relationships between exercise and cognitive function. Some clinical trials have also demonstrated improvements in cognitive function in response to moderate–high intensity aerobic exercise; however, these have been limited by relatively small sample sizes and short durations. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is the largest and longest randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity with cognitive outcomes, in older sedentary adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤7) had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs) 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001). The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the

  17. Science homework with video directions for parents: The impact on parental involvement and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Kathy L.

    The benefits of effective parental involvement in education have been well documented and can be far reaching. When educators make an effort to involve families, parental involvement can be even more meaningful. Homework is a commonly practiced and accepted connection between school and home and affords parents many opportunities to interact with their children on educational endeavors. However, parental involvement may be limited because educators do not reach out to parents, parents feel their children do not need their help, or parents are unfamiliar with the content and therefore unable to help. The purpose of this study was too develop and implement a tool to enhance parental involvement and academic achievement of fourth grade science students. The tool used in this study was a weekly science video to be viewed by parents when it accompanied science homework assignments. To begin, the researcher created six science videos for parents to watch that supplemented weekly homework assignments. Consequently, the researcher set up treatment and comparison groups to test the effectiveness of the supplemental videos in terms of parental involvement and academic achievement. A mixed methods approach was used to collect data from parents and students throughout the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data was collected throughout this study from both parents and students. Additionally, data was collected from a variety of sources including baseline, midpoint, and endpoint surveys; scores on homework assignments; and focus group interview sessions with parents and students. Data analysis revealed an overall positive impact on parental involvement and academic achievement when the videos were utilized.

  18. Treating Rural Pediatric Obesity through Telemedicine: Baseline Data from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Katherine Steiger; Davis, Ann McGrath; Malone, Brett; Landrum, Yasuko; Black, William

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe baseline characteristics of participants in a pediatric obesity intervention tailored specifically to rural families delivered via telemedicine. Methods Randomized-control trial comparing a family-based behavioral intervention to a usual care condition. Participants Fifty-eight first through fifth graders and their parents from the rural Midwest. Measures Demographic, body mass index (BMI), Actigraph activity monitor information, 24-h dietary recalls, Child Behavior Chec...

  19. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  20. Factor associated with stress among parents of children with autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahida, S.; Khurshid, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with stress among parents of children with autism. Study Design: A cross-sectional field survey study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Psychology, GC University, Lahore, from September 2012 to November 2013. Methodology: The sample consisted of 100 parents (50 mothers and 50 fathers) of children with autism. Measures of childhood autism rating, sense of coherence, parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress, and demographic data sheet were completed by the parents in outdoor units of children hospital, institutes, and at their homes. Results: Significant correlations were found between severity of impairment and parenting stress (r = .53, p < .01), between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress (r = -.35, p < .01, and between sense of coherence and parenting stress (r = -.26, p < .05). No significant gender difference emerged in terms of parenting self-efficacy, sense of coherence, and parenting stress. Results of stepwise regression partially supported our hypothesized model, as severity of child impairment, and parenting self-efficacy appeared as significant predictors of parenting stress (R2 = .35). However, there was no evidence of role of demographic variables in the parenting stress. Conclusion: The severity of child's impairment emerged as the most salient risk factor for parenting stress; however, it was concluded that parents ability and confidence in their competence of parenting a child in challenging situations may reduce their stress. (author)

  1. ANTENATAL DETERMINANTS OF PARENTAL ATTACHMENT AND PARENTING ALLIANCE: HOW DO MOTHERS AND FATHERS DIFFER?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Rita; George, Astrid; Vieux, Rachel; Spitz, Elisabeth

    2017-03-01

    Parental (parent-to-infant) attachment and parenting alliance are defined as two important components of psychoaffective adjustment to the parental role. This study aimed to build a predictive model of parental attachment and parenting alliance for mothers and fathers using partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Specifically, we were interested in assessing how adult romantic attachment, marital quality, and psychological distress influenced parental attachment (parent-to-infant) and parenting alliance. Forty heterosexual couples completed questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy and 2 months after childbirth. Results showed that adult romantic attachment, marital quality, and psychological distress were important antenatal determinants of parental attachment and parenting alliance, although they behaved differently for mothers and fathers. Hence, different predictive models were therefore proposed for mothers and fathers. Mothers' attachment to the child was influenced by internal factors as adult attachment dimensions; for fathers, it also depended on mothers' antenatal attachment to the child and on marital quality. Concerning parenting alliance, both mothers and fathers depended on own and partner's variables. Antenatal variables are important for what occurs during the transition to parenthood in terms of parenting adjustment and act differently for mothers and fathers. It thus is important to assess the psychological functioning of both mothers and fathers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Child behaviour problems, parenting behaviours and parental adjustment in mothers and fathers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Wells, Michael B; Sarkadi, Anna

    2014-11-01

    We aim to examine the relationship between child behavioural problems and several parental factors, particularly parental behaviours as reported by both mothers and fathers in a sample of preschool children in Sweden. Participants were mothers and fathers of 504 3- to 5-year-olds that were recruited through preschools. They completed a set of questionnaires including the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, Parenting Scale, Parent Problem Checklist, Dyadic Adjustment Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Correlational analyses showed that parent-reported child behaviour problems were positively associated with ineffective parenting practices and interparental conflicts and negatively related to parental competence. Regression analyses showed that, for both mothers and fathers, higher levels of parental over-reactivity and interparental conflict over child-rearing issues and lower levels of parental satisfaction were the most salient factors in predicting their reports of disruptive child behaviour. This study revealed that swedish parents' perceptions of their parenting is related to their ratings of child behaviour problems which therefore implies that parent training programs can be useful in addressing behavioural problems in Swedish children. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. Parenting Stress of Parents of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Biondic, Daniella; Grimbos, Teresa; Herbert, Monique

    2016-04-01

    This study examined parenting stress among parents of adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 138 adolescents (84 ADHD, 52 boys, 32 girls; 54 non-ADHD, 24 boys, 30 girls) age 13 to 18 and their parents. Mothers (n = 135) and fathers (n = 98) of participating teens completed the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents. Mothers and fathers of adolescents with ADHD reported more stress than parents of adolescents without ADHD with regard to their children's challenging behaviors (Adolescent domain stress). Mothers of adolescents with ADHD also reported that they experienced elevated levels of stress in terms of role restrictions, feelings of social alienation, conflict with their partner, feelings of guilt and incompetence (Parent domain stress), and relationship with their children (Adolescent-Parent Relationship domain stress; APR). The extent to which clinical levels of adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms or externalizing behavior in general were associated with parenting stress depended on the rater of these behaviors. Parenting stress was associated with higher levels of ODD and other externalizing behaviors when these behaviors were rated by parents but not when they were rated by teachers. In addition, over and above adolescent ADHD classification, mothers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with higher parenting stress in the Adolescent and Parent domains, and fathers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with lower APR stress. The results suggest directions that should be considered for addressing parenting stress when designing interventions for families of adolescents with ADHD.

  4. Parent-child relationships between Korean American adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heeseung; Kim, Minju; Park, Chang Gi; Dancy, Barbara L

    2012-09-01

    This cross-sectional correlational study examined the association between Korean American adolescents' and their parents' reports of parent-child relationships. A total of 61 Korean American families completed a questionnaire assessing parental knowledge, parental/filial self-efficacy, parent-child communication, and parent-child conflicts. T tests, Pearson's correlations, a scatter diagram, and bivariate regression were used to analyze the data. Both Korean American adolescents and their parents reported that fathers were less knowledgeable about their child's school life and less likely to communicate with their children than were mothers. Fathers reported a significantly lower level of parental self-efficacy than mothers, and adolescents also reported a significantly higher level of filial self-efficacy in mother-child relationships than in father-child relationships. Positive correlations between parents' and adolescents' reports of parent-child relationships were observed. These findings indicated a need for parent education programs or counseling services for Korean American parents of adolescents, particularly fathers with inadequate parental skills and limited communication with their children. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Examining Parents' Preferences for Group and Individual Parent Training for Children with ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Frances A; Cunningham, Charles E; Chen, Yvonne; Rimas, Heather M; Deal, Ken; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Pelham, William E

    2016-01-01

    Parent training (PT) programs have been found to reduce some behavioral impairment associated with children's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as improve parenting competence, but poor uptake and participation by parents are formidable barriers that affect service effectiveness. We used a discrete-choice experiment (DCE) to examine how parent preferences for treatment format (i.e., group vs. individual) might influence their participation in PT. Participants were 445 parents seeking mental health services for children with elevated symptoms of ADHD in Ontario, Canada. Parents completed a DCE composed of 30 choice tasks used to gauge PT format preference. Results showed that 58.7% of parents preferred individual PT; these parents were most interested in interventions that would make them feel more informed about their child's problems and in understanding-as opposed to solving-their child's problems. A minority of parents (19.4%) preferred group PT; these parents were most interested in active, skill-building services that would help them solve their child's problems. About one fifth of parents (21.9%) preferred the Minimal Information alternative (i.e., receiving neither individual or group PT); these parents reported the highest levels of depression and the most severe mental health problems in their child. Results highlight the importance of considering parent preferences for format and suggest that alternative formats to standard PT should be considered for multiply stressed families.

  6. Predicting Baseline for Analysis of Electricity Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Spurlock, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-03

    To understand the impact of new pricing structure on residential electricity demands, we need a baseline model that captures every factor other than the new price. The standard baseline is a randomized control group, however, a good control group is hard to design. This motivates us to devlop data-driven approaches. We explored many techniques and designed a strategy, named LTAP, that could predict the hourly usage years ahead. The key challenge in this process is that the daily cycle of electricity demand peaks a few hours after the temperature reaching its peak. Existing methods rely on the lagged variables of recent past usages to enforce this daily cycle. These methods have trouble making predictions years ahead. LTAP avoids this trouble by assuming the daily usage profile is determined by temperature and other factors. In a comparison against a well-designed control group, LTAP is found to produce accurate predictions.

  7. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  8. Baseline composition of solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1985-01-01

    We analyze all existing spacecraft observations of the highly variable heavy element composition of solar energetic particles (SEP) during non- 3 He-rich events. All data show the imprint of an ever-present basic composition pattern (dubbed ''mass-unbiased baseline'' SEP composition) that differs from the photospheric composition by a simple bias related to first ionization potential (FIP). In each particular observation, this mass-unbiased baseline composition is being distorted by an additional bias, which is always a monotonic function of mass (or Z). This latter bias varies in amplitude and even sign from observation to observation. To first order, it seems related to differences in the A/Z* ratio between elements (Z* = mean effective charge)

  9. Predictors of completed childhood vaccination in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osetinsky, Brianna; Gaydos, Laura M; Leon, Juan S

    This project examines how access issues, ethnicity, and geographic region affect vaccination of children by two years of age in Bolivia. Bolivia's rich variation in culture and geography results in unequal healthcare utilization even for basic interventions such as childhood vaccination. This study utilizes secondary data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey for Bolivia to examine predictors of vaccination completion in children by two years of age. Using logistic regression methods, we control for health system variables (difficulty getting to a health center and type of health center as well as demographic and socio-economic covariates). The results indicated that children whose parents reported distance as a problem in obtaining health care were less likely to have completed all vaccinations. Ethnicity was not independently statistically significant, however, in a sub-analysis, people from the Quechua ethnic group were more likely to report 'distance as a problem in obtaining healthcare.' Surprisingly, living in a rural environment has a protective effect on completed vaccinations. However, geographic region did predict significant differences in the probability that children would be fully vaccinated; children in the region with the lowest vaccination completion coverage were 80% less likely to have completed vaccination compared to children in the best performing region, which may indicate unequal access and utilization of health services nationally. Further study of regional differences, urbanicity, and distance as a healthcare access problem will help refine implications for the Bolivian health system.

  10. Examining Evidence for Autonomy and Relatedness in Urban Inuit Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.; Smylie, Janet K.; Prince, Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Inuit have experienced significant lifestyle changes in the past 50 years. Most recently, urbanization has resulted in greater numbers of Inuit living in urban centres in southern Canada. Little is known about Inuit parenting, and nothing has been published on Inuit parenting in an urban context. The present study sought to address this gap by describing the parenting of Inuit living in a large Canadian city and examining emergent themes for evidence of autonomy and relatedness. In partnership with the Tungasuvvingat Inuit Family Resource Centre, 39 Inuit parents completed an interview about their parenting experiences. Based on interviews, major parenting themes included: child characteristics; parenting behaviours and beliefs; affection and love; stressors; and responsive and respectful parenting. The majority of parenting themes linked to relatedness, although there was evidence of autonomy in both parenting behaviours and child characteristics. Results are interpreted in light of the autonomy–relatedness framework and theoretical implications of findings are discussed. PMID:23946698

  11. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout.

  12. OCRWM baseline management procedure for document identifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This procedure establishes a uniform numbering system (document identifier) for all Program and project technical, cost, and schedule baselines, and selected management and procurement documents developed for and controlled by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The document identifier defined in this procedure is structured to ensure that the relational integrity between configuration items (CIs) and their associated documentation and software is maintained, traceable, categorical, and retrievable for the life of the program

  13. Information Technology Sector Baseline Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    alternative root be economically advantageous , an actor’s ability to exploit market forces and create an alternative root would be significantly improved...conduct their operations. Therefore, a loss or disruption to Internet services would not be advantageous for the desired outcomes of these syndicates.26... eCommerce Service loss or disruption [C] Traffic Redirection [C] = Undesired consequence Information Technology Sector Baseline Risk Assessment

  14. Parenting stress in mothers of adults with an intellectual disability: parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C; Rose, J

    2009-12-01

    There is a body of evidence that indicates that the cognitions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) play an important role in influencing parental stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence about the experience of parents of adult children with ID. This study sought to apply a model of parenting stress to mothers of adults with ID. Of particular interest were the parental cognitions of parenting self-esteem and parental locus of control. Face-to face interviews were administered with 44 mothers of adults with ID. They completed the Vineland Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour Scale, the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened version of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Correlations were observed between parenting stress and the other study variables. Regression analysis revealed that parental cognitive variables predicted 61% of the variance in parenting stress. Parenting satisfaction, a subscale of the measure of parenting sense of competence, mediated the relationships between adaptive behaviour and parenting stress and between family support and parenting stress. These results indicate the importance of cognitive variables in the stress of mothers of adults with ID. Potential avenues of future research might focus on the experience of fathers and the impact of positive perceptions as a cognitive factor.

  15. Parents know best, but are they accurate? Parental normative misperceptions and their relationship to students' alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Lac, Andrew; Ehret, Phillip J; Kenney, Shannon R

    2011-07-01

    Parents often look to other parents for guidance, but how accurate are their perceptions? Expanding on existing normative literature to include parents of college students, this study first sought to determine whether parents accurately estimated the attitudes of other parents concerning their college student's alcohol-related behaviors. The effect of these (mis)perceived injunctive norms on the alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors of the parents' own children was then examined. Participants were 270 college student-parent dyadic pairs who completed independent online surveys. The student sample was 59% female; the parent sample was 78% female. A structural equation model demonstrated that parents significantly overestimated other parents' approval of alcohol use by their respective child and, further, that these misperceptions strongly influenced parental attitudes toward their own child's drinking. Parental attitudes were subsequently found to be significantly associated with their child's attitudes toward drinking but were only marginally associated with the child's actual drinking, thereby underscoring the mediational effect of the child's attitudes. This is the first study to document the influence of parental normative misperceptions regarding alcohol use by their college-age children, reinforcing the importance of parental attitudes on children's alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors in college. These findings support the need to complement student-based interventions with parent-based interventions aimed at increasing parental awareness and involvement. Further, the current findings indicate that normative interventions targeting parents offer a promising avenue by which to indirectly and positively influence college students' alcohol use.

  16. Cardiac Vagal Tone and Quality of Parenting Show Concurrent and Time-Ordered Associations That Diverge in Abusive, Neglectful, and Non-Maltreating Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Benjamin, Lorna Smith; Pincus, Aaron L.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent and lagged maternal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was monitored in the context of parenting. One hundred and forty-one preschooler-mother dyads—involved with child welfare as documented perpetrators of child abuse or neglect, or non-maltreating (non-CM)—were observed completing a resting baseline and joint challenge task. Parenting behaviors were coded using SASB (Benjamin, 1996) and maternal RSA was simultaneously monitored, longitudinally-nested within-person (WP), and subjected to MLM. Abusive and neglectful mothers displayed less positive parenting and more strict/hostile control, relative to non-CM mothers. Non-CM mothers displayed greater WP heterogeneity in variance over time in their RSA scores, and greater consistency over time in their parenting behaviors, relative to abusive or neglectful mothers. CM group also moderated concurrent and lagged WP associations in RSA and positive parenting. When abusive mothers displayed lower RSA in a given epoch, relative to their task average, they showed concurrent increases in positive parenting, and higher subsequent levels of hostile control in the following epoch, suggesting that it is physiologically taxing for abusive mothers to parent in positive ways. In contrast, lagged effects for non-CM mothers were observed in which RSA decreases led to subsequent WP increases in positive parenting and decreases in control. Reversed models were significant only for neglectful mothers: Increases in positive parenting led to subsequent increases in RSA levels, and increases in strict, hostile control led to subsequent RSA decreases. These results provide new evidence that concurrent and time-ordered coupling in maternal physiology and behavior during parenting vary in theoretically meaningful ways across CM and non-CM mothers. Implications for intervention and study limitations are discussed. PMID:24729945

  17. Cardiac Vagal Tone and Quality of Parenting Show Concurrent and Time-Ordered Associations That Diverge in Abusive, Neglectful, and Non-Maltreating Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Benjamin, Lorna Smith; Pincus, Aaron L; Van Ryzin, Mark J

    2013-06-01

    Concurrent and lagged maternal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was monitored in the context of parenting. One hundred and forty-one preschooler-mother dyads-involved with child welfare as documented perpetrators of child abuse or neglect, or non-maltreating (non-CM)-were observed completing a resting baseline and joint challenge task. Parenting behaviors were coded using SASB (Benjamin, 1996) and maternal RSA was simultaneously monitored, longitudinally-nested within-person (WP), and subjected to MLM. Abusive and neglectful mothers displayed less positive parenting and more strict/hostile control, relative to non-CM mothers. Non-CM mothers displayed greater WP heterogeneity in variance over time in their RSA scores, and greater consistency over time in their parenting behaviors, relative to abusive or neglectful mothers. CM group also moderated concurrent and lagged WP associations in RSA and positive parenting. When abusive mothers displayed lower RSA in a given epoch, relative to their task average, they showed concurrent increases in positive parenting, and higher subsequent levels of hostile control in the following epoch, suggesting that it is physiologically taxing for abusive mothers to parent in positive ways. In contrast, lagged effects for non-CM mothers were observed in which RSA decreases led to subsequent WP increases in positive parenting and decreases in control. Reversed models were significant only for neglectful mothers: Increases in positive parenting led to subsequent increases in RSA levels, and increases in strict, hostile control led to subsequent RSA decreases. These results provide new evidence that concurrent and time-ordered coupling in maternal physiology and behavior during parenting vary in theoretically meaningful ways across CM and non-CM mothers. Implications for intervention and study limitations are discussed.

  18. Parental divorce, adolescents' feelings toward parents and drunkenness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%) were obtained. Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the previous 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced and a measure of their feelings toward their parents. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the previous month, as were the high rates of negative and low rates of positive feelings toward both parents. The effect of divorce on drunkenness strongly decreased if adjusted for the affect of the adolescent toward the father, but not the mother. Our findings indicate that to keep the father positively involved after divorce might be a protective factor with regard to a higher probability of adolescent drunkenness in divorced families. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Reducing Schoolchildren With Reactive Aggression Through Child, Parent, and Conjoint Parent-Child Group Interventions: A Longitudinal Outcome Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis Lai Chu

    2017-10-10

    This study was the first to evaluate the effectiveness of three different group interventions to reduce children's reactive aggression based on the social information processing (SIP) model. In the first stage of screening, 3,734 children of Grades 4-6 completed the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) to assess their reactive and proactive aggression. Respondents with a total score of z ≥ 1 on the RPQ were shortlisted for the second stage of screening by qualitative interview. Interviews with 475 children were conducted to select those who showed reactive aggression featuring a hostile attributional bias. Finally, 126 children (97 males and 29 females) aged 8 to 14 (M = 9.71, SD = 1.23) were selected and randomly assigned to one of the three groups: a child group, a parent group, and a parent-child group. A significant Time × Intervention effect was found for general and reactive aggression. The parent-child group and child group showed a significant drop in general aggression and reactive aggression from posttest to 6-month follow-up, after controlling for baseline scores, sex, and age. However, the parent group showed no treatment effect: reactive aggression scores were significantly higher than those in the child group at 6-month follow-up. This study has provided strong evidence that children with reactive aggression need direct and specific treatment to reconstruct the steps of the SIP involving the selection and interpretation of cues. The intervention could help to prevent severe violent crimes at the later stage of a reactive aggressor. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  20. Early Parenting Moderates the Association between Parental Depression and Neural Reactivity to Rewards and Losses in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Proudfit, Greg H; Laptook, Rebecca; Klein, Daniel N

    2015-07-01

    Children of parents with depression exhibit neural abnormalities in reward processing. Examining contributions of parenting could provide insight into the development of these abnormalities and to the etiology of depression. We evaluated whether early parenting moderates the effects of parental depression on a neural measure of reward and loss processing in mid-late childhood. Parenting was assessed when children were preschoolers. At age nine, children completed an event-related potential assessment and the feedback negativity (FN) was measured following rewards and losses ( N =344). Maternal authoritative parenting moderated the effect of maternal depression; among offspring of mothers with histories of depression, low authoritative parenting predicted a blunted FN. Observed maternal positive parenting interacted with paternal depression in a comparable manner, indicating that maternal parenting may buffer the effects of paternal depression. Early parenting may be important in shaping the neural systems involved in reward processing among children at high risk for depression.

  1. Parenting Style and Only Children's School Achievement in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; And Others

    This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…

  2. A Comparison of Two Measures of Parental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Scott M.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Pieracci, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    We compared two common measures of parenting behavior, the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), evaluating their psychometric properties and predictive ability. One hundred sixty seven college students completed the CRPBI, PBI, and measures of depression and anxiety with 123…

  3. Correspondence between Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsler, A.; Madigan, A.L.; Aquilino, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate perceived similarities and differences in parenting styles between mothers and fathers in the same family. The 56 parents of 28 preschool children independently completed the parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire (PSDQ) [Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Frost Olsen, S., & Hart, C. H. (2001).…

  4. Students' Perceptions of Parental Bonding Styles and Their Academic Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyojung; Lee, Jayoung; Kim, Boyoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how parental bonding style affects academic burnout in Korean adolescents. Participants were 447 middle school students, who completed the Parental Bonding Instrument and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey. MANCOVA results confirmed that adolescents reporting the optimal bonding parental style, for both mother and…

  5. Comparing Multi-Informant Assessment Measures of Parental Monitoring and Their Links with Adolescent Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenstein, Tara M.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Daruwala, Samantha; Reyes, Shelby M.; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S.; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Parents’ poor monitoring of adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is commonly linked to adolescents’ increased engagement in delinquent behaviors. Yet, different domains of parental monitoring (parental monitoring behaviors vs. parental knowledge) and reports from multiple informants (parent vs. adolescent) may vary in their links to delinquent behavior. Design Seventy-four parental caregivers and 74 adolescents completed survey measures of parental monitoring and knowledge, and adolescents completed self-report surveys of delinquent behavior. Results We observed low-to-moderate magnitudes of correspondence between parent- and adolescent-reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge. Adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior related to parent and adolescent reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge, with adolescents who self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidencing lower levels of parental knowledge and higher levels of poor monitoring compared to adolescents who did not self-report engagement in delinquent behaviors. Adolescent self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidenced stronger links to parental monitoring when based on adolescent reports of monitoring (relative to parent reports), whereas stronger links held between adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior and parental knowledge when based on parent reports of knowledge (relative to adolescent reports). Conclusions Links between monitoring and adolescents’ delinquent behavior vary by the kind of monitoring measure completed as well as the informant completing the measure. These findings inform measurement selection in research and clinical assessments of parental monitoring and adolescent delinquent behavior. PMID:27482171

  6. Parent attitudes toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartos, Jessica; Huff, David C

    2008-01-01

    The widespread adoption of graduated driver licensing (GDL) policies has effectively reduced crash risk for young drivers; however, parents must support, reinforce, and enforce GDL for it to be effective, and research indicates that parents need better information and instruction for adhering to GDL requirements, conducting supervised practice driving, and restricting independent teenage driving. Because teenagers in most states must take driver education to enter the licensing process prior to age 18, integrating parent involvement into driver education may be an effective way to inform and instruct parents on a large scale about teen driver safety. This study assessed parent attitudes (overall and by rural status, minority status, and income level) toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education classes. In this study, 321 parents of teenagers enrolled in driver education classes across the state of Montana completed surveys about current involvement in driver education and attitudes toward required involvement. The results indicated that parents were not very involved currently in their teenagers' driver education classes, but 76% reported that parents should be required to be involved. If involvement were required, parents would prefer having written materials sent home, access to information over the Internet, or discussions in person with the instructor; far fewer would prefer to attend classes or behind-the-wheel driving instruction. There were few differences in parent attitudes by rural or minority status but many by income level. Compared to higher income parents, lower income parents were more likely to endorse required parent involvement in teenage driver education classes and to want parent information from driver education about many teen driving issues. That the majority of parents are open to required involvement in their teenagers' driver education classes is promising because doing so could better prepare parents to understand

  7. Baseline risk and marginal willingness to pay for health risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerking, Shelby; Adamowicz, Wiktor; Dickie, Mark; Veronesi, Marcella

    2017-01-01

    Empirical results presented in this paper suggest that parents' marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for a reduction in morbidity risk from heart disease is inversely related to baseline risk (i.e., the amount of risk initially faced) both for themselves and for their children. For instance, a 40% reduction from the mean of baseline risk results in an increase in MWTP by 70% or more. Thus, estimates of monetary benefits of public programs to reduce heart disease risk would be understated if the standard practice is followed of evaluating MWTP at initial risk levels and then multiplying this value by the number of cases avoided. Estimates are supported by: (1) unique quantitative information on perceptions of the risk of getting heart disease that allow baseline risk to be defined at an individual level and (2) improved econometric procedures to control for well-known difficulties associated with stated preference data.

  8. Parental Schooling and Child Development: Learning from Twin Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers' schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers' does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers' schooling has...

  9. The role of co-parenting alliance as a mediator between trait anxiety, family system maladjustment, and parenting stress in a sample of non-clinical Italian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Sciandra, Andrea; Finos, Livio; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Riso, Daniela Di

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of co-parenting alliance in mediating the influence of parents' trait anxiety on family system maladjustment and parenting stress. A sample of 1606 Italian parents (803 mothers and 803 fathers) of children aged one to 13 years completed measures of trait anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y), co-parenting alliance (Parenting Alliance Measure), family system maladjustment (Family Assessment Measure-III), and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Inventory-Short Form). These variables were investigated together comparing two structural equations model-fitting including both partners. A model for both mothers and fathers was empirically devised as a series of associations between parent trait anxiety (independent variable), family system maladjustment and parenting stress (dependent variables), mediated by co-parenting alliance, with the insertion of cross predictions between mothers and fathers and correlations between dependent variables for both parents. Results indicated that the relation between mothers and fathers' trait anxiety, family system maladjustment and parenting stress was mediated by the level of co-parenting alliance. Understanding the role of couples' co-parenting alliance could be useful during the family assessment and/or treatment, since it is an efficient and effective tool to improve the family system maladjustment and stress.

  10. The Relationship between Parental Behaviors and Children's Sugary Drink Consumption Is Moderated by a Television in the Child's Bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Henderson, Kathryn E; Luedicke, Joerg; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the link between perceived authoritative parenting behaviors and sugary drink consumption among children from low-income families who do or do not have televisions (TVs) in their bedrooms. Middle school students (N = 480) completed a baseline survey in sixth grade and a follow-up survey in seventh grade. The students were recruited from 12 schools in a low-income, predominantly black (33%) and Latino (48%), urban school district. The survey assessed the children's perception of their parents' controlling and nurturing behaviors, the presence of a TV in their bedrooms, and their level of sugary drink consumption on the previous school day. Children's report of specific controlling and nurturing parental behaviors were used to create an "authoritative parenting" score. Regression analyses were used to test the main and interactive effects of authoritative parenting behaviors and having a TV in the bedroom with sugary drink consumption in seventh grade, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, BMI, and sugary drink consumption in sixth grade. A significant interaction emerged: The authoritative parenting score predicted lower levels of sugary drink consumption in seventh grade, but this relationship was moderated by whether or not there was a TV in the child's bedroom. A TV in the child's bedroom may weaken the positive influence of authoritative parenting behaviors on limiting sugary drink consumption among middle school children from low-income families. Stronger initiatives are recommended to educate parents and help them refrain from placing TVs in their children's bedrooms.

  11. Co-Parenting Quality, Parenting Stress, and Feeding Challenges in Families with a Child Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, Matthew; Bonsall, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    113 parents of children aged 5-13 with ASD completed online surveys assessing co-parenting quality, parenting stress, and child feeding challenges. Results indicated that food selectivity was both the most frequently reported type of challenging feeding behavior and the most often reported as problematic but was also the only type of challenging…

  12. Parent Involvement and Views of School Success: The Role of Parents' Latino and White American Cultural Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Carey S.; Casas, Juan F.; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Ryalls, Brigette O.; Nero, Collette

    2010-01-01

    We examined ethnicity and cultural orientation as predictors of parents' views of and involvement in children's education, using data gathered from the Latino (n = 74) and non-Latino (17 White and 13 ethnic minority) parents of children in an elementary school's dual-language program. Parents completed a questionnaire that assessed Latino and…

  13. Unmarried parents in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Sorensen, Kia

    2010-01-01

    Noting that access to higher education has expanded dramatically in the past several decades, Sara Goldrick-Rab and Kia Sorensen focus on how unmarried parents fare once they enter college. Contrary to the expectation that access to college consistently promotes family stability and economic security, the authors argue that deficiencies in current policy lead college attendance to have adverse consequences for some families headed by unmarried parents. Although rates of college attendance have increased substantially among unmarried parents, their college completion rates are low. One explanation is inadequate academic preparation. Another is financial constraints, which can force unmarried students to interrupt their studies or increase their work hours, both of which compromise the quality of their educational experiences and the outcomes for their children. The authors point out that although many public programs offer support to unmarried parents attending college, the support is neither well coordinated nor easily accessed. Over the past three decades, loans have increasingly replaced grants as the most common form of federal and state financial aid. Confusion about what is available leads many low-income students to the two most "straightforward" sources of income--loans and work, both of which involve significant costs and can operate at cross-purposes with public forms of support. Too much work can lead to reductions in public benefits, and earnings do not always replace the lost income. A growing body of experimental evidence shows that providing social, financial, and academic supports to vulnerable community college students can improve achievement and attainment. Contextualized learning programs, for example, have enabled participants not only to move on from basic skills to credit-bearing coursework, but also to complete credits, earn certificates, and make gains on basic skills tests. Another successful initiative provided low-performing students with

  14. Parental Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Anxious Children: Parents' In-Session and Out-Session Activities and Their Relationship with Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Muris, Peter; Mendonça, Denisa; Barros, Luisa; Goes, Ana Rita; Marques, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The present study explored the role of parents' in-session and out-session involvement in CBT for anxious children. Fifty 8- to 12-year-old children with a principal DSM-IV anxiety disorder participated in a group CBT program. Parental involvement in the therapy was assessed by the clinician and the children and parents completed a standardized anxiety scale as the main therapy outcome measure, at pre- and post-intervention. In addition, the parents completed questionnaires to evaluate a number of possible correlates of parental involvement, namely, child's anxiety symptoms intensity and interference, parental beliefs about anxiety, expectancies regarding the efficacy of the intervention, and parental anxiety. The results indicated that the parents were moderately involved in the therapy and that socio-economic status and parental beliefs about anxiety were significant correlates of parental involvement. Finally, partial support was found for the idea that parents' involvement in the therapy might have a positive impact on therapy outcome.

  15. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the ...

  16. Evaluation of parental awareness regarding their child's oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghian, S; Savadi, N; Amin, M

    2017-11-01

    To determine parental awareness about their child's oral hygiene and its associated factors. In this cross-sectional study, 396 parents and their 3- to 6-year-old children were selected by randomized cluster sampling from Shiraz kindergartens in 2013. Parents completed a questionnaire on their perception of their child's oral hygiene. The children received a dental examination, and their dental cleaning status was determined using Simplified Debris Index. Parental awareness was determined by comparing parents' perception of their child's oral hygiene with the results of the dental examination. Associations between demographic factors and parental awareness were evaluated. Sixty per cent of the parents were aware of their child's teeth cleaning status. Higher percentage of parents with university degree (P parents whose child did not have a previous dental visit (P parents had lower dmft (P oral hygiene (P = 0.001) than those of unaware parents. Parents who perceived overall oral health status of their child as good (P parents were not aware of their child's oral hygiene. Educational interventions should be provided to young families to increase parental knowledge and skills that help them recognize their child's dental needs. The interventions are more necessary for low socioeconomic parents and for the parents of children with poor oral hygiene. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  18. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  19. Base-line studies for DAE establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Atomic Energy has establishments located in various regions of the country and they include front-end fuel cycle facilities, nuclear power stations, back-end fuel cycle facilities and facilities for research and societal applications. These facilities handle naturally occurring radionuclides such as uranium, thorium and a variety of man-made radionuclides. These radionuclides are handled with utmost care so that they do not affect adversely the occupational workers or the members of public residing nearby. There is safety culture of the highest standard existing in all DAE establishments and it matches with the international standards. In addition, there is a perpetual environmental monitoring program carried out by the Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) located at all DAE establishments. The environmental data generated by such program is studied regularly by experts to ensure compliance with the regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements in the country are of international standards and ensure adequate protection of workers and members of public. In addition to such continued monitoring program and studies being carried out for the ongoing projects, base-line studies are carried out for all the new projects of the DAE. The purpose of the base-line studies is to establish a detailed base-line data set for a new DAE location well before the foundation stone is laid, so that the data collected when there is no departmental activity can be compared with the data generated later by the ESL. The data so generated is site specific and it varies from place to place depending upon the location of the site, e.g., inland or coastal, the presence of water bodies and pattern of irrigation, the geological characteristics of the location, the local culture and habits of the people, population density and urban or rural background. The data to be recorded as base-line data is generated over a period of at least one year covering all the seasons

  20. Maternal Depression and Parent Management Training Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jack; McQuillin, Samuel; Butler, Ashley M; Axelrad, Marni E

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the impact of maternal depression on reductions in children's behavior problems severity following implementation of the Brief Behavioral Intervention-a brief, manualized parent management training treatment. The parents of 87 children aged 2-6 years of age received parent management training at a metropolitan hospital. Parents of participants completed measures of externalizing behavior and maternal depression. The association between pre-post treatment change in externalizing behavior and maternal depression was examined using an autoregressive cross-lagged model. Results showed that self-reported maternal depressive symptoms at pre-treatment negatively influenced the overall magnitude of reduction of reported externalizing behaviors in children following treatment. Results indicate that aspects of family functioning not specifically targeted by parent management training, such as maternal depression, significantly affect treatment outcomes. Clinicians providing parent management training may benefit from assessing for maternal depression and modifying treatment as indicated.

  1. Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations

    OpenAIRE

    MASSEY, SEAN G.; MERRIWETHER, ANN M.; GARCIA, JUSTIN R.

    2013-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child’s undesirable behavior. The parents’ sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or neg...

  2. Proactive Parent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Sharel; Backlund, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Presents examples of teacher-parent interactions designed to help teachers communicate with parents. The scenarios involve a teacher communicating with parents about a struggling student, a teacher communicating with parents about a student's behavior problems, and a teacher attempting to communicate with a confrontational parent. Teacher prompts…

  3. Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

    2003-07-01

    The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

  4. Negative parental attributions mediate associations between risk factors and dysfunctional parenting: A replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Marieke; van Berkel, Sheila R; Mesman, Judi; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2018-05-12

    The primary goal of the current study was to replicate our previous study in which was found that negative maternal attributions mediate the association between parenting stress and harsh and abusive discipline. In addition, we investigated this association in fathers, and added observational parenting data. During two home visits mothers and fathers were observed with their children (age 1.5-6.0 years), filled in questionnaires, and completed the Parental Attributions of Child behavior Task (PACT; a computerized attribution task). Similar to our previous study, negative parental attributions mediated the relation between parenting stress and self-reported harsh and abusive parenting for both mothers and fathers. For mothers, this mediation effect was also found in the relation between parenting stress and lower levels of observed supportive parenting in a challenging disciplinary task. In addition, the relation of partner-related stress and abuse risk with harsh, abusive, and (low) supportive parenting were also mediated by maternal negative attributions. When parenting stress, partner-related stress, and abuse risk were studied in one model, only parenting stress remained significant. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of targeting parental attributions for prevention and intervention purposes in families experiencing stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental distress, parenting practices, and child adaptive outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklewright, Jackie L; King, Tricia Z; O'Toole, Kathleen; Henrich, Chris; Floyd, Frank J

    2012-03-01

    Moderate and severe pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with significant familial distress and child adaptive sequelae. Our aim was to examine the relationship between parental psychological distress, parenting practices (authoritarian, permissive, authoritative), and child adaptive functioning 12-36 months following TBI or orthopedic injury (OI). Injury type was hypothesized to moderate the relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning, demonstrating a significantly stronger relationship in the TBI relative to OI group. Authoritarian parenting practices were hypothesized to mediate relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning across groups. Groups (TBI n = 21, OI n = 23) did not differ significantly on age at injury, time since injury, sex, race, or SES. Parents completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, Parenting Practices Questionnaire, and Vineland-II. Moderation and mediation hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression and a bootstrapping approach, respectively. Results supported moderation and revealed that higher parental psychological distress was associated with lower child adaptive functioning in the TBI group only. Mediation results indicated that higher parental distress was associated with authoritarian parenting practices and lower adaptive functioning across groups. Results suggest that parenting practices are an important area of focus for studies attempting to elucidate the relationship between parent and child functioning following TBI.

  6. Maternal factors and experiences associated with observed parenting behavior in mothers attending a residential parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Rogers, Susan; Matthews, Jan; Allen, Beverley

    2010-01-01

    Parents experiencing early parenting difficulties often seek support through parenting programs. Characteristics of mothers seeking parenting support and information at an early parenting center in Victoria, Australia and the relationships between these factors and parenting behavior were explored using an observational measure of parent-child interaction. Participants were 43 mothers and children attending a 5-day residential parenting program at the Queen Elizabeth Centre. Maternal and sociodemographic data as well as an observational mother-child interaction task from the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Parent Child Interaction Teaching scale were completed and scored on the first day of the program. Certain maternal factors and experiences were associated with observed parenting behavior. Poorer maternal sleeping quality, unplanned pregnancy and preterm birth were all associated with less optimal parenting behavior in certain domains. Findings are discussed with reference to the impact of past experiences around pregnancy and birth as well as the current context and well-being of mothers attending early parenting centers. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  8. Environmental Baseline File for National Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics address include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions

  9. Baseline-dependent averaging in radio interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnholds, S. J.; Willis, A. G.; Salvini, S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the applicability and benefits of baseline-dependent averaging (BDA) in modern radio interferometers and in particular the Square Kilometre Array. We demonstrate that BDA does not affect the information content of the data other than a well-defined decorrelation loss for which closed form expressions are readily available. We verify these theoretical findings using simulations. We therefore conclude that BDA can be used reliably in modern radio interferometry allowing a reduction of visibility data volume (and hence processing costs for handling visibility data) by more than 80 per cent.

  10. Spectrometer Baseline Control Via Spatial Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, M. R.; Richey, C. R.; Rinehart, S. A.; Quijada, M. A.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    An absorptive half-moon aperture mask is experimentally explored as a broad-bandwidth means of eliminating spurious spectral features arising from reprocessed radiation in an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. In the presence of the spatial filter, an order of magnitude improvement in the fidelity of the spectrometer baseline is observed. The method is readily accommodated within the context of commonly employed instrument configurations and leads to a factor of two reduction in optical throughput. A detailed discussion of the underlying mechanism and limitations of the method are provided.

  11. Neutrino physics with short baseline experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, E.D.

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino physics with low- to medium-energy beams has progressed steadily over the last several years. Neutrino oscillation searches at short baseline (defined as 2 - -> 0.1eV 2 . One positive signal, from the LSND collaboration, exists and is being tested by the MiniBooNE experiment. Neutrino cross-section measurements are being made by MiniBooNE and K2K, which will be important for reducing systematic errors in present and future oscillation measurements. In the near future, dedicated cross- section experiments will begin operating at Fermilab. (author)

  12. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...... sector, water distribution in drought periods). We introduce (and characterize) a natural class of allocation methods for this model. Any method within the class is associated with a rule in the standard rationing model, and we show that if the latter obeys some focal properties, the former obeys them...

  13. Baseline scenarios of global environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcamo, J.; Kreileman, G.J.J.; Bollen, J.C.; Born, G.J. van den; Krol, M.S.; Toet, A.M.C.; Vries, H.J.M. de; Gerlagh, R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents three baseline scenarios of no policy action computed by the IMAGE2 model. These scenarios cover a wide range of coupled global change indicators, including: energy demand and consumption; food demand, consumption, and production; changes in land cover including changes in extent of agricultural land and forest; emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors; and climate change and its impacts on sea level rise, crop productivity and natural vegetation. Scenario information is available for the entire world with regional and grid scale detail, and covers from 1970 to 2100. (author)

  14. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  15. Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers’ schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers’ does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers’ schooling has...

  16. Good partner, good parent: responsiveness mediates the link between romantic attachment and parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millings, Abigail; Walsh, Judi; Hepper, Erica; O'Brien, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving responsiveness, and parenting styles. Attachment avoidance and anxiety were both negatively associated with responsive caregiving to partner, which in turn was positively associated with authoritative (optimal) parenting styles and negatively associated with authoritarian and permissive (nonoptimal) parenting styles. Responsive caregiving mediated all links between attachment and parenting, with an additional direct association between attachment anxiety and nonoptimal parenting styles that was not explained by caregiving responsiveness. Findings are discussed with reference to attachment theory.

  17. Parental communication style and family relationships in children of bipolar parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Yvonne H; Huntley Jones, Steven; Espie, Jonathan; Bentall, Richard; Tai, Sara

    2008-09-01

    To examine relationships between parental communication styles and family environment in parents with bipolar disorder (BD) and their children (CBP). On measures of parental communication styles and family environment, 20 BD parents and their 23 children (CBP) were compared to controls. Children completed a current mood measure. BD parents endorsed more negative communication styles and were less expressive than controls. CBP presented with more current or lifetime mood disorder diagnoses than control children (CC). Current depressive mood was associated with different perceptions of family environment for both CBP and CC. This familial high risk design indicated differences in family environment, parenting style, and in children of bipolar parents' perception of their family environment as it relates to their current mood.

  18. Parents' experiences of parental groups in Swedish child health-care: Do they get what they want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Åsa; Lundqvist, Pia; Drevenhorn, Eva; Hallström, Inger

    2016-03-01

    Almost all parents in Sweden are invited to parental groups organized by the child health service (CHS) during their child's first year, but only 40% chose to attend. The aim of this study was to describe parents' experiences of participating in these parental groups. A total of 143 parents from 71 different parental groups at 27 child health-care (CHC) centres in one Swedish county completed an online questionnaire. A majority of the parents found the parental groups to be meaningful and more than 60% met someone in the group who they socialized with outside the meetings. Parents wanted a greater focus on child-related community information, existential questions, relationships and parenting in general. Group leadership seems to be of significance to how parents in a group connect and whether the parental role is affected. Making CHC nurses more aware of the topics parents desire could help them meet parents' needs. Education and training in group dynamics and group leadership could be of value in further improving the high-quality service CHC nurses already offer parents. More knowledge is needed about what would attract those parents who do not participate. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Finnish parental involvement ethos, health support, health education knowledge and participation: results from a 2-year school health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-04-01

    A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular activities. The parents of fourth-grade pupils (10-11 years at baseline) completed questionnaires before intervention in spring 2008 (N = 348) and after intervention in spring 2010 (N = 358). A two-way analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether time (2008/2010) and group (intervention/control) influenced parents' perceptions and experiences of parental involvement, health education and health support received from the school. Compared with controls, the intervention schools' parents experienced greater involvement ethos (Cohen's d = 0.57, P education (Cohen's d = 0.60, P = 0.02) and health support (Cohen's d = 0.35, P = 0.02). Health education participation among parents increased only partially during the intervention (Cohen's d = -0.12, P = 0.193). School health interventions based on schools' needs may have the potential to influence positively the relationship between home and school and increase the visibility of health education. The study was undertaken within the Schools for Health in Europe program.

  20. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Taveras, Elsie M; Geller, Alan C; Rimm, Eric B; Land, Thomas; Perkins, Meghan; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-07-21

    Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012-2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2-12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD)) for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2) or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1) almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5) or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1). Parents reported giving young children (2-5 years) more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70-0.99), celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52-0.99), or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68-0.98). Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts.

  1. Parental styles in second generation effects of genocide stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P; Om, Chariya; Kim, Thida; Vorn, Sin

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the impact of parental styles on second generation effects of trauma among adolescent offspring of survivors of the Khmer Rouge (KR) genocide in Cambodia. Two hundred high school students completed measures addressing their parents' trauma stemming from the KR regime, parental styles (role reversing, overprotective), depression and anxiety. Parents' role reversing parental style and mothers' overprotective parenting were shown to mediate the impact of their trauma symptoms on the child's depression and anxiety. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Concatenated image completion via tensor augmentation and completion

    OpenAIRE

    Bengua, Johann A.; Tuan, Hoang D.; Phien, Ho N.; Do, Minh N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel framework called concatenated image completion via tensor augmentation and completion (ICTAC), which recovers missing entries of color images with high accuracy. Typical images are second- or third-order tensors (2D/3D) depending if they are grayscale or color, hence tensor completion algorithms are ideal for their recovery. The proposed framework performs image completion by concatenating copies of a single image that has missing entries into a third-order tensor,...

  3. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  4. Long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, D.; Goodman, M.

    1994-01-01

    There is no unambiguous definition for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The term is generally used for accelerator neutrino oscillation experiments which are sensitive to Δm 2 2 , and for which the detector is not on the accelerator site. The Snowmass N2L working group met to discuss the issues facing such experiments. The Fermilab Program Advisory Committee adopted several recommendations concerning the Fermilab neutrino program at their Aspen meeting immediately prior to the Snowmass Workshop. This heightened the attention for the proposals to use Fermilab for a long-baseline neutrino experiment at the workshop. The plan for a neutrino oscillation program at Brookhaven was also thoroughly discussed. Opportunities at CERN were considered, particularly the use of detectors at the Gran Sasso laboratory. The idea to build a neutrino beam from KEK towards Superkamiokande was not discussed at the Snowmass meeting, but there has been considerable development of this idea since then. Brookhaven and KEK would use low energy neutrino beams, while FNAL and CERN would plan have medium energy beams. This report will summarize a few topics common to LBL proposals and attempt to give a snapshot of where things stand in this fast developing field

  5. Baseline response rates affect resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cook, James E; Lattal, Kennon A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of response rates on resistance to change, measured as resistance to extinction, was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, responding in transition from a variable-ratio schedule and its yoked-interval counterpart to extinction was compared with pigeons. Following training on a multiple variable-ratio yoked-interval schedule of reinforcement, in which response rates were higher in the former component, reinforcement was removed from both components during a single extended extinction session. Resistance to extinction in the yoked-interval component was always either greater or equal to that in the variable-ratio component. In Experiment 2, resistance to extinction was compared for two groups of rats that exhibited either high or low response rates when maintained on identical variable-interval schedules. Resistance to extinction was greater for the lower-response-rate group. These results suggest that baseline response rate can contribute to resistance to change. Such effects, however, can only be revealed when baseline response rate and reinforcement rate are disentangled (Experiments 1 and 2) from the more usual circumstance where the two covary. Furthermore, they are more cleanly revealed when the programmed contingencies controlling high and low response rates are identical, as in Experiment 2. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. Baseline Estimation and Outlier Identification for Halocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Schuck, T.; Engel, A.; Gallman, F.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to build a baseline model for halocarbons and to statistically identify the outliers under specific conditions. In this paper, time series of regional CFC-11 and Chloromethane measurements was discussed, which taken over the last 4 years at two locations, including a monitoring station at northwest of Frankfurt am Main (Germany) and Mace Head station (Ireland). In addition to analyzing time series of CFC-11 and Chloromethane, more importantly, a statistical approach of outlier identification is also introduced in this paper in order to make a better estimation of baseline. A second-order polynomial plus harmonics are fitted to CFC-11 and chloromethane mixing ratios data. Measurements with large distance to the fitting curve are regard as outliers and flagged. Under specific requirement, the routine is iteratively adopted without the flagged measurements until no additional outliers are found. Both model fitting and the proposed outlier identification method are realized with the help of a programming language, Python. During the period, CFC-11 shows a gradual downward trend. And there is a slightly upward trend in the mixing ratios of Chloromethane. The concentration of chloromethane also has a strong seasonal variation, mostly due to the seasonal cycle of OH. The usage of this statistical method has a considerable effect on the results. This method efficiently identifies a series of outliers according to the standard deviation requirements. After removing the outliers, the fitting curves and trend estimates are more reliable.

  7. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Wang, Xueqiu; Reeder, Shaun; Demetriades, Alecos

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines, operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry (IAGC), has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s surface or near-surface environment. The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified. In order to accomplish this long-term goal, the activities of the Task Group include: (1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies; (2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses; (3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community; (4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database; (5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization; (6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects; and (7) preparing, ultimately, a global geochemical database. This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  8. Parenting Styles or Practices? Parenting, Sympathy, and Prosocial Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; McGinley, Meredith; Hayes, Rachel; Batenhorst, Candice; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the relations among parenting styles, parental practices, sympathy, and prosocial behaviors in adolescents. The participants were 233 adolescents (M age = 16.7 years; 69% girls; mostly White) from public high schools in the Midwestern region of the United States who completed measures of prosocial…

  9. The Palin Parent Rating Scales: Parents' Perspectives of Childhood Stuttering and Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Sharon K.; Davis, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to explore the psychometric properties of the Parent Rating Scales-V1 (S. K. Millard, S. Edwards, & F. M. Cook, 2009), an assessment tool for parents of children who stutter, and to refine the measure accordingly. Method: We included 259 scales completed prior to therapy. An exploratory factor analysis…

  10. High School Students' Career Decision-Making Pattern across Parenting Styles and Parental Attachment Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya; Kirdok, Oguzhan; Isik, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this research was to investigate career decision among high school students regarding to their parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful) and parental attachment levels. Method: With this purpose, 382 (200 females; 182 males) Turkish high school students aged 14-18 completed Career…

  11. What influences parental controlling behavior? The role of parent and child trait anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bruggen, C.O.; Bögels, S.M.; Zeilst, N.

    2010-01-01

    The relative contribution of child and parent trait anxiety on paternal and maternal controlling behaviour was examined. Thirty-seven children, aged 8-11 years, completed two difficult Tangram puzzles, one with their father and one with their mother. Videotapes of the parent-child interactions were

  12. The Effect of Parental Divorce on Relationships with Parents and Romantic Partners of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; DeCuzzi, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Three-hundred-and-thirty undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential anonymous 26 item questionnaire designed to assess the effect of parental divorce/remarriage on the relationship with their respective parents and on their own romantic relationships. The data revealed several significant relationships-respondents…

  13. Head Start, 4 years After Completing the Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joo

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of the Head Start program on children's achievements in reading and math tests during their first 4 years of schooling after completing the program. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, I found large measurement error in the parental reports of Head Start attendance, which…

  14. Fathers parenting role: self-esteem, parenting styles and parental self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Mónica; Brites, Rute; Nunes, Odete; Hipólito, João

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relation between fathers parenting styles (PS), self-esteem (SE) and parental self-efficacy (PSE). Research points out the complex potential relations between SE and PSE. Although PSE has been studied in association to PS, there’s a research gap concerning the influence of fathers’ SE in this process. In a cross-sectional study a questionnaire comprising personal data, PS, SE and PSE was completed by 157men (age: M=38.41, SD=6.03) of pre-school/sc...

  15. Child dental anxiety, parental rearing style and dental history reported by parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, J B; Vanwijk, A J; Tencate, J M; Veerkamp, J S

    2013-12-01

    To examine the relationship between self-reported parental rearing style, parent's assessment of their child's dental anxiety and the dental history of children. Parents of primary school children were asked to complete questionnaires about their parenting style, using four different questionnaires. Parents also completed the Child Fear Survey Schedule Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) on behalf of their child and a questionnaire about the dental history of their child. 454 interview forms were available for analysis. Minor associations were found between dental anxiety and parenting style. Anxious parents were more permissive and less restrictive in their parenting style. Parents of children who did not visit their dentist for regular check-ups reported more laxness and less restrictiveness. Children who had a cavity at the time of investigation, children who had suffered from toothache in the past and children who did not have a nice and friendly dentist reported more dental anxiety. No clear associations between parenting style and dental anxiety were found. Known causes of dental anxiety were confirmed.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  17. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  18. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line.... Normally, the territorial sea baseline is the mean low water line along the coast of the United States...

  19. Parenting while Being Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  20. Nursemaid's Elbow (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... For Parents / Nursemaid's Elbow Print About Nursemaid's Elbow Toddlers and preschoolers are at risk for a common ...

  1. Positive Impacts of a Vegetable Cooking Skills Program among Low-Income Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcash, Francine; Ritter, Allison; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Redden, Joseph; Rendahl, Aaron; Vickers, Zata; Reicks, Marla

    2017-12-12

    To evaluate the impact of a vegetable-focused cooking skills and nutrition program on parent and child psychosocial measures, vegetable liking, variety, and home availability. Baseline and postcourse surveys collected 1-week after the course. Low-income communities in Minneapolis-St Paul. Parent-child dyads (n = 89; one third each Hispanic, African American, and white) with complete pre-post course data; flyer and e-mail recruitment. Six 2-hour-weekly sessions including demonstration, food preparation, nutrition education lessons, and a meal. Parental cooking confidence and barriers, food preparation/resource management, child self-efficacy and cooking attitudes, vegetable liking, vegetable variety, and vegetable home availability. Pre-post changes analyzed with paired t test or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results were significant at P cooking confidence (4.0 to 4.4/5.0), healthy food preparation (3.6 to 3.9/5.0), child self-efficacy (14.8 to 12.4; lower score = greater self-efficacy), parent liking of vegetables used in the course (7.8 to 8.1/10.0), vegetable variety (30 to 32/37 for parent, 22 to 24/37 for child), and home vegetable availability (16 to 18/35) (all P cooking and nutrition program for parents and children showed improvements in psychosocial factors, vegetable liking, variety, and home availability. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of obesity in children: Parent's perceived emotional barriers as predictor of change in body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Odegård, Rønnaug; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Research supports the use of family-based interventions in the treatment of obesity in children, but there is a lack of knowledge about what factors affect parents' ability to carry out the lifestyle changes necessary to reduce their child's obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine whether parents' self-efficacy, perceived emotional barriers, subjective norms, and attitudes could predict change in their children's body fat at 6 month and 2 year follow-ups after a family-based treatment of obesity. Body Mass Index Standard Deviation Scores (BMI SDS) were calculated and body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured in 99 treatment-seeking children with obesity (ages 7-12; 48 girls, 51 boys; mean BMI SDS = 2.99) at baseline, after 6 month and after 2 year follow-up. Parental cognitions regarding diet and physical activity were examined by parent-completed questionnaires. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test whether the selected health cognitions could predict treatment outcome. Parental perceived emotional barriers was a significant predictor of change in body fat at 6 month (β = -.32, p = .001) and 2 year (β = -.38, p = .002) follow-up when the initial body fat values were controlled. Self-efficacy, subjective norms and attitudes did not improve the amount of variance explained. Parents' perceived emotional barriers significantly predict change in total body fat in children treated for obesity. In order to increase treatment-efficacy, perceived emotional barriers should be addressed. © 2011 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parental discipline behaviours and beliefs about their child: associations with child internalizing and mediation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, B J; Cartwright-Hatton, S

    2009-09-01

    Internalizing disorders of childhood are a common and disabling problem, with sufferers at increased risk of subsequent psychiatric morbidity. Several studies have found associations between parenting styles and children's internalizing, although few have considered the role of parental discipline. Parental discipline style may exert an effect on children's internalizing symptoms. Anxiety and depression are reliably found to run in families and parental anxiety has been shown to effect parenting behaviour. This study set out to examine the links between parental anxiety, parental discipline style and child internalizing symptoms. Eighty-eight parents of children aged 4-10 years were recruited through primary schools. All parents completed questionnaires including measures relating to: adult anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait version, Penn State Worry Questionnaire), parental depression (Beck Depression Inventory - Fastscreen), parental discipline (The Parenting Scale), parenting-related attributions (Parenting Attitudes, Beliefs and Cognitions Scale) and child psychological morbidity (Child Behaviour Checklist 4-18 version). Significant correlations were found between both parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with ineffective discipline and negative beliefs about parenting. Particularly strong correlations were found between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with harsh discipline. Parents of anxious/withdrawn children were more likely to hold negative beliefs about their child. The link between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms was mediated by harsh discipline. The link between parental anxiety and harsh discipline was mediated by parental beliefs about the child. Discipline style may be an important factor in the relationship between parent anxiety and child internalizing symptoms.

  4. Conflict Resolution in Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relation between conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent delinquency. Questionnaires about conflict resolution styles were completed by 284 early adolescents (mean age 13.3) and their parents. Adolescents also completed a questionnaire on delinquency. Hierarchical regression analyses…

  5. Factors Associated with Parent-Child (Dis)Agreement on Child Behavior and Parenting Problems in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined familial and cultural factors predicting parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems. Immigrant Chinese parents (89.7% mothers; M age = 44.24 years) and their children (62 boys; 57.9%) between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9) completed measures of parent punitive behavior and child…

  6. Teen Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of changing diapers and taking care of the child. That’s extremely important.” What Will The Future Hold? Take heart in the fact that success stories abound. There are single teenage mothers who complete their educations and go on to carve out happy lives ...

  7. Reliability and validity of the Parenting Scale of Inconsistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Takahiro; Murase, Satomi; Murakami, Takashi; Takai, Jiro

    2006-08-01

    The purposes of the present study were to develop a Parenting Scale of Inconsistency and to evaluate its initial reliability and validity. The 12 items assess the inconsistency among parents' moods, behaviors, and attitudes toward children. In the primary study, 517 participants completed three measures: the new Parenting Scale of Inconsistency, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Depression Scale of the General Health Questionnaire. The Parenting Scale of Inconsistency had good test-retest reliability of .85 and internal consistency of .88 (Cronbach coefficient alpha). Construct validity was good as Inconsistency scores were significantly correlated with the Care and Overprotection scores of the Parental Bonding Instrument and with the Depression scores. Moreover, Inconsistency scores' relation with a dimension of parenting style distinct from Care and Overprotection suggested that the Parenting Scale of Inconsistency had factorial validity. This scale seems a potential measure for examining the relationships between inconsistent parenting and the mental health of children.

  8. Factors Underlying the Relationship Between Parent and Child Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, David J; Cipriano, Madeline R

    2017-01-01

    The death of a parent in a child's life is a significant risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. While much has been written about the surviving parent's functioning and its effects on their bereaved children, little work has been done to look into factors underlying this effect such as how the parent copes. The present study recruited 38 parent-child dyads from a community-based grief support center. Parent and child, independently, completed various measures of emotional functioning, including grief symptoms and coping such as social support and locus of control. The results indicated that parental coping did have an impact on children's grief symptoms. This represents a unique view of adaptation in bereaved children: Parental coping strategies can have an impact on the child, independent of the child's coping strategies. By focusing on parent coping, we have highlighted another possible pathway through which parental functioning affects children's grief.

  9. Child-parent shared decision making about asthma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Victoria; Smith, Joanna; Ormandy, Paula

    2016-05-09

    Aim To explore and describe child-parent shared decision making for the management of childhood asthma. Methods A qualitative, descriptive, interview-based study was undertaken. Eight children and nine parents participated. The framework approach underpinned data analysis. Findings A dynamic model of the way children and parents transfer, shift and share asthma management decisions was uncovered. Asthma management decisions between children and parents were non-linear, with responsibility transferring from parent to child under different conditions. Children made a range of decisions about their asthma, often sharing decisions with their parents. However, during acute illness episodes, children often relied on parents to make decisions about their asthma. Conclusion Neither the child nor parent has complete autonomy over asthma management decisions. Decision making is a dynamic, shifting and shared process, dependent on contextual factors and child and parent decision preferences.

  10. p-topological Cauchy completions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wig

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The duality between “regular” and “topological” as convergence space properties extends in a natural way to the more general properties “p-regular” and “p-topological.” Since earlier papers have investigated regular, p-regular, and topological Cauchy completions, we hereby initiate a study of p-topological Cauchy completions. A p-topological Cauchy space has a p-topological completion if and only if it is “cushioned,” meaning that each equivalence class of nonconvergent Cauchy filters contains a smallest filter. For a Cauchy space allowing a p-topological completion, it is shown that a certain class of Reed completions preserve the p-topological property, including the Wyler and Kowalsky completions, which are, respectively, the finest and the coarsest p-topological completions. However, not all p-topological completions are Reed completions. Several extension theorems for p-topological completions are obtained. The most interesting of these states that any Cauchy-continuous map between Cauchy spaces allowing p-topological and p′-topological completions, respectively, can always be extended to a θ-continuous map between any p-topological completion of the first space and any p′-topological completion of the second.

  11. Parental overprotection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1993-01-01

    Dimensions of parental overprotection are clarified in a critical review of the research and clinical literature. An indulgent style of parenting is distinguished from an overprotective parent-child relationship. Differential antecedents and outcomes are proposed for each of these forms of parent-child interaction. Measures of protection are reviewed. A new conceptual model of parental overprotection is presented which takes into account child, parent, family, socio-cultural, environmental and resiliency factors. Directions for future research are suggested.

  12. Associations between parental feeding practices, problem food behaviours and dietary intake in New Zealand overweight children aged 4-8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haszard, Jillian J; Skidmore, Paula M L; Williams, Sheila M; Taylor, Rachael W

    2015-04-01

    Parents report that children's eating behaviours are a major barrier to providing them with a healthy diet. Links between problem eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are not well established and have not previously been examined in overweight children. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between problem food behaviours, dietary intake and parental feeding practices of overweight children aged 4-8 years. Participants were recruited for a lifestyle intervention (n 203). At baseline, children's BMI was measured and parents completed comprehensive questionnaires about the feeding practices they used, the problem food behaviours their children exhibited and the foods their child consumed. A fussy eating scale was developed and associations were determined using correlations and regression analysis, including interactions. Dunedin, New Zealand. Overweight children aged 4-8 years. Healthy eating guidance and monitoring by parents were related to the consumption of fewer unhealthy foods (B=-0·4, P=0·001 and B=-0·4, Pfoods (B = 0·5, Pfood intake less (Pfood-restrictive parents ate more fruit and vegetables (B=2·9, Pfood environment might be beneficial for the diet and food behaviours of young overweight children.

  13. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin; Musialski, Przemyslaw; Liu, Ligang; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions

  14. A Study of the Relationship of Parenting Styles, Child Temperament, and Operatory Behavior in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Amanda K; Wilson, Stephen; Thikkurissy, S

    2018-05-11

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of the child's temperament, parenting styles, and parents' prediction of their child's behavior in the dental setting. Subjects were healthy children 4-12 years of age attending a dental clinic. A Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) was given to parents to determine their parenting style. Parents completed the Emotionality, Activity, Sociability Temperament (EAS) survey to measure their child's temperament. Parents were asked to predict their child's behavior using the Frankl Scale. Data analysis included 113 parent/child dyads. Parents accurately predicted their child's behavior 58% of the time. Significant correlations were noted between parent's predictions of behavior and emotionality (r = -.497, p behavior and emotionality (r = -.586, p Parenting style scores did not correlate to predicted or actual behavior; however, categories of PSDQ were related to parental predictions of behavior. Relationships between temperament and parenting may aid in predicting children's behavior in the operatory.

  15. Parent-child relationships in gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, H A; O'Shea, D; Lucey, J V

    2014-06-01

    To describe the relationship between parents with gender identity disorder (GID) and their child(ren) as described by the parent and to understand how being a parent affects transitioning from one gender to the other. Fourteen parents with GID underwent a semi-structured interview and completed the Index of Parental Attitudes (IPA). An IPA score of greater than 30 indicates parent–child relationship difficulties (range 0–100). The authors also conducted the SCID-I to establish other Axis I disorders. We assessed 12 male to female and two female to male parents with GID residing in Ireland. In total, 14 GID parents had 28 children. Three children had no relationship with their GID parent. The other 25 children, as reported by the parent, had good relationships with their children. In addition, these 25 children average score IPA score was 6.4 (range 0–25). Twelve GID parents (86 %) believed that being a parent had no effect on their desired level of transitioning, while two were influenced not to transition. Eleven GID parents (79 %) reported that being a parent had increased the time taken to commence transitioning, two have stopped transitioning altogether, while one cited no effect on time. Parents with GID report positive relationships or no relationship with their children and the IPA revealed no clinical problems. Being a parent can prolong transitioning time in people with GID and can affect overall achieved level of transitioning.

  16. Amblyopia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  17. When Parents Argue

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  18. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  19. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  20. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  1. Syphilis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  2. Chemotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  3. Yersiniosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  4. Amebiasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  5. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  6. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  7. Headaches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  8. Strep Throat (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  9. Tourette Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  10. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ...

  11. Sinusitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  12. Laryngoscopy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  13. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  14. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  15. Eczema (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  16. Baseline review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Review of the U.S. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Accelerator project was conducted February 23--26, 1998, at the request of Dr. John R. O'Fallon, Director, Division of High Energy Physics, Office of Energy Research, U.S. DOE. This is the first review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project. Overall, the Committee found that the U.S. LHC Accelerator project effort is off to a good start and that the proposed scope is very conservative for the funding available. The Committee recommends that the project be initially baselined at a total cost of $110 million, with a scheduled completion data of 2005. The U.S. LHC Accelerator project will supply high technology superconducting magnets for the interaction regions (IRs) and the radio frequency (rf) straight section of the LHC intersecting storage rings. In addition, the project provides the cryogenic support interface boxes to service the magnets and radiation absorbers to protect the IR dipoles and the inner triplet quadrupoles. US scientists will provide support in analyzing some of the detailed aspects of accelerator physics in the two rings. The three laboratories participating in this project are Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Committee was very impressed by the technical capabilities of the US LHC Accelerator project team. Cost estimates for each subsystem of the US LHC Accelerator project were presented to the Review Committee, with a total cost including contingency of $110 million (then year dollars). The cost estimates were deemed to be conservative. A re-examination of the funding profile, costs, and schedules on a centralized project basis should lead to an increased list of deliverables. The Committee concluded that the proposed scope of US deliverables to CERN can be readily accomplished with the $110 million total cost baseline for the project. The current deliverables should serve as

  17. Community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for parents improves health behaviors and food parenting practices among Hispanic, low-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterbach, Laura; Mena, Noereem Z; Greene, Geoffrey; Redding, Colleen A; De Groot, Annie; Tovar, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Given the current prevalence of childhood obesity among Hispanic populations, and the importance of parental feeding behaviors, we aimed to assess the impact of the evidence-based Healthy Children, Healthy Families (HCHF) intervention on responsive food parenting practices (FPPs) in a low-income Hispanic population. This community-based pilot study used a non-experimental pre/post within-subjects design. Parents ( n  = 94) of children aged 3-11 years old were recruited to participate in an 8-week, weekly group-based intervention. The intervention was delivered to nine groups of parents by trained paraprofessional educators over a two-year period. Children participated in a separate curriculum that covered topics similar to those covered in the parent intervention. Parents completed self-administered pre/post surveys, which included demographic questions, seven subscales from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire, and the 16-item HCHF Behavior Checklist. Descriptive statistics and paired samples t-tests were used to analyze data from parents that completed the intervention. Fifty-two, primarily Hispanic (93%) parents completed the intervention (39% attrition rate). For parents who completed the intervention, there was a significant increase in one of the feeding practice subscales: encouragement of balance and variety ( p  = 0.01). There were significant improvements in several parent and child diet and activity outcomes ( p  ≤ 0.01). Although attrition rates were high, parents completing the study reported enjoying and being satisfied with the intervention. For parents who completed the intervention, reported 'encouragement of balance and variety', in addition to several health behaviors significantly improved. Larger studies utilizing an experimental design, should further explore the impact of the HCHF curriculum on improving certain FPPs and health behaviors that contribute to obesity.

  18. Examining the interaction of parental involvement and parenting style in predicting adherence in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Sara E; Friedrich, Elizabeth A; Jawad, Abbas F; Miller, Victoria A

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether aspects of parenting style (specifically, warmth, autonomy support, and coercion) moderated the association between parental involvement and adherence in youth with type 1 diabetes. Children ages 8 to 16 years with type 1 diabetes and a parent completed assessments of parental involvement, parenting style, and adherence. Parent autonomy support and coercion were associated with adherence but warmth was not. Child report of more parental involvement was associated with better adherence. Warmth, autonomy support, and coercion were not moderators. The findings underscore the importance of parental involvement, operationalized as responsibility for diabetes tasks, and parenting style, specifically coercion and autonomy support, for adherence in pediatric chronic illness management. Longitudinal research is needed to better understand how and why dimensions of involvement (e.g., responsibility, monitoring, support) vary over time and whether they impact outcomes differentially. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part II. The vulnerable child syndrome and its relation to parental overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Shonkoff, J P; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C

    1995-08-01

    Parents who are excessively concerned about their child's health are often characterized as being overprotective. We hypothesized that parental overprotection is independent of parental perception of child vulnerability to illness or injury despite their presumed interchangeability. A community-based sample of 892 parents (92% white, 84% married, 88% middle-upper socioeconomic status, 90% mothers) completed a three-part protocol (clinical background data, the Child Vulnerability Scale, and the Parent Protection Scale). Correlates of high parental perception of child vulnerability included a medical condition in the child, a history of life-threatening illness or injury, and the child being seen for a sick visit. Correlates of high parental overprotection included younger age of child and parent. Only 20% of those parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective.

  20. Perceptions about parents' relationship and parenting quality, attachment styles, and young adults' intimate expectations: a cluster analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.

  1. The Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR): Initial Scale Development and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A; Murphy, Yolanda E; Brennan, Elle; D'Auria, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study. All parents (Study 1 and 2 samples) completed the Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR), a measurement tool designed to assess anxiogenic parenting. Factor analysis conducted as part of Study 1 revealed a 32-item scale consisting of five factors: conflict, overinvolvement, accommodation/beliefs, modeling, and emotional warmth/support. Four of these factors were significantly correlated with parent-report of anxiety severity. Within Study 2, the parents of children diagnosed with an anxiety or related disorder reported significantly higher levels of anxiogenic parenting practices as compared to the parents of healthy controls. The PAKRS-PR and respective subscales demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity in both the internet (Study 1) and community (Study 2) samples. The PAKRS-PR may be a beneficial multidimensional parenting scale for use among anxious youths.

  2. The parental overprotection scale: associations with child and parental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kiri; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy

    2013-11-01

    Parental overprotection has commonly been implicated in the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders. Overprotection has been assessed using questionnaire and observational methods interchangeably; however, the extent to which these methods access the same construct has received little attention. Edwards et al. (2008, 2010) developed a promising parent-report measure of overprotection (OP) and reported that, with parents of pre-school children, the measure correlated with observational assessments and predicted changes in child anxiety symptoms. We aimed to validate the use of the OP measure with mothers of children in middle childhood, and examine its association with child and parental anxiety. Mothers of 90 children (60 clinically anxious, 30 non-anxious) aged 7-12 years completed the measure and engaged in a series of mildly stressful tasks with their child. The internal reliability of the measure was good and scores correlated significantly with observations of maternal overprotection in a challenging puzzle task. Contrary to expectations, OP was not significantly associated with child anxiety status or symptoms, but was significantly associated with maternal anxiety symptoms. Participants were predominantly from affluent social groups and of non-minority status. Overprotection is a broad construct, the use of specific sub-dimensions of behavioural constructs may be preferable. The findings support the use of the OP measure to assess parental overprotection among 7-12 year-old children; however, they suggest that parental responses may be more closely related to the degree of parental rather than child anxiety. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Parental Overprotection Scale: Associations with child and parental anxiety☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kiri; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background Parental overprotection has commonly been implicated in the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders. Overprotection has been assessed using questionnaire and observational methods interchangeably; however, the extent to which these methods access the same construct has received little attention. Edwards et al. (2008, 2010) developed a promising parent-report measure of overprotection (OP) and reported that, with parents of pre-school children, the measure correlated with observational assessments and predicted changes in child anxiety symptoms. We aimed to validate the use of the OP measure with mothers of children in middle childhood, and examine its association with child and parental anxiety. Methods Mothers of 90 children (60 clinically anxious, 30 non-anxious) aged 7–12 years completed the measure and engaged in a series of mildly stressful tasks with their child. Results The internal reliability of the measure was good and scores correlated significantly with observations of maternal overprotection in a challenging puzzle task. Contrary to expectations, OP was not significantly associated with child anxiety status or symptoms, but was significantly associated with maternal anxiety symptoms. Limitations Participants were predominantly from affluent social groups and of non-minority status. Overprotection is a broad construct, the use of specific sub-dimensions of behavioural constructs may be preferable. Conclusions The findings support the use of the OP measure to assess parental overprotection among 7–12 year-old children; however, they suggest that parental responses may be more closely related to the degree of parental rather than child anxiety. PMID:23916305

  4. It Is the Family Context That Matters: Concurrent and Predictive Effects of Aspects of Parent-Child Interaction on Video Gaming-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angel Yee-Lam; Lo, Barbara Chuen-Yee; Cheng, Cecilia

    2018-06-01

    Studies have shown that children frequently experiencing poor parent-child interaction are prone to video gaming-related problems, but it is unclear which specific aspects of such an interaction play a predictive role in the problems. To extend previous research that relies primarily on the self-report method to assess parent-child interaction, we conducted a longitudinal, mixed-methods study. In a laboratory setting, three major aspects of interaction (i.e., affectivity, cohesiveness, and parental behavior) were observed in 241 parent-child dyads (Children: 43 percent female, age range = 8-15, M age  = 12.09, SD age  = 1.41; Parents: 78 percent female, age range = 27-63, M age  = 44.44, SD age  = 6.09). In addition, both parent and children participants completed questionnaires that measured children's symptoms of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and exposure to violent video games at baseline (Time 1) and 12 months later (Time 2). The results revealed that at Time 1, positive affectivity and cohesiveness were inversely associated with child-report symptoms of IGD. Also, Time 1 coerciveness (i.e., control dimension of parental behavior) was positively associated with Time 1 child-report exposure to violent video games and Time 2 child-report symptoms of IGD, respectively. Apart from main effects, the results also showed that Time 1 negative affectivity moderated the protective effects of Time 1 positive affectivity on Time 1 parent-report and Time 2 child-report exposure to violent video games, respectively. Overall, this study identifies various key aspects of parent-child interaction that may serve as concurrent or temporal predictors of video gaming-related issues.

  5. The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.

    2007-07-01

    WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)

  6. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John

    2008-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  7. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  8. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John [Idaho National laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  9. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  10. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, J; Sundell, K; ?jehagen, A; H?kansson, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. Method A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12?13?years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools ...

  11. Parental Characteristics Have a Larger Effect on Children's Health Behaviour than Their Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Erkelenz, Nanette; Wartha, Olivia; Brandstetter, Susanne; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parents take an important role in a child's development, but there is currently limited information on parental correlates with children's health behaviour. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine whether parental characteristics, such as body weight, TV consumption and sport participation, affect children's body weight and health behaviour. Methods To examine the effects of parental characteristics on children's body weight and health behaviour, baseline data of 1,118 ...

  12. Comparing Web, Group and Telehealth Formats of a Military Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    materials are available upon request: • Online questionnaire for baseline data collection (9 pages) • Online parent survey for time point 1 (69 pages...web-based parenting intervention for military families with school-aged children, we expect to strengthen parenting practices in families and...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0143 TITLE: Comparing Web, Group and Telehealth Formats of a Military Parenting Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  13. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  14. Kids and adults now! Defeat Obesity (KAN-DO): rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostbye, Truls; Zucker, Nancy L; Krause, Katrina M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Evenson, Kelly R; Peterson, Bercedis L; Bastian, Lori A; Swamy, Geeta K; West, Deborah G; Brouwer, Rebecca J N

    2011-05-01

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a public health priority. Parents influence a child's weight by modeling healthy behaviors, controlling food availability and activity opportunities, and appropriate feeding practices. Thus interventions should target education and behavioral change in the parent, and positive, mutually reinforcing behaviors within the family. This paper presents the design, rationale and baseline characteristics of Kids and Adults Now! - Defeat Obesity (KAN-DO), a randomized controlled behavioral intervention trial targeting weight maintenance in children of healthy weight, and weight reduction in overweight children. 400 children aged 2-5 and their overweight or obese mothers in the Triangle and Triad regions of North Carolina are randomized equally to control or the KAN-DO intervention, consisting of mailed family kits encouraging healthy lifestyle change. Eight (monthly) kits are supported by motivational counseling calls and a single group session. Mothers are targeted during a hypothesized "teachable moment" for health behavior change (the birth of a new baby), and intervention content addresses: parenting skills ((e.g., emotional regulation, authoritative parenting), healthy eating, and physical activity. The 400 mother-child dyads randomized to trial are 75% white and 22% black; 19% have a household income of $30,000 or below. At baseline, 15% of children are overweight (85th-95th percentile for body mass index) and 9% are obese (≥ 95th percentile). This intervention addresses childhood obesity prevention by using a family-based, synergistic approach, targeting at-risk children and their mothers during key transitional periods, and enhancing maternal self-regulation and responsive parenting as a foundation for health behavior change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  16. Impact of the parenting style of foster parents on the behaviour problems of foster children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, M J; Salas, M D; Bernedo, I M; García-Martín, M A

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have analysed the effects of the parenting style used by foster carers on children's behaviour problems. This study examines the role played by the quality of the emotional relationship with foster carers and the kind of discipline they use as regard internalizing and externalizing problems among foster children. Participants were 104 foster children (56 boys and 48 girls) and their respective foster families. The Child Behaviour Checklist, the Affect and Communication Scale, and the Rules and Demands Scale were completed by foster parents. A series of linear regression analyses were performed using the stepwise method. The main findings were as follows: an authoritarian parenting style explained the internalizing problems presented by foster children (11% of the variance); criticism/rejection, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting explained externalizing problems (37% of the variance); and criticism/rejection and authoritarian parenting explained total problems (29% of the variance). These results indicate that criticism/rejection on the part of foster parents, as well as the use of inappropriate parenting styles (authoritarian and permissive), has an important effect in relation to the behaviour problems of foster children. This highlights the key role that foster carers play in terms of tackling the behaviour problems that foster children present. The findings also suggest that preparation for fostering should focus especially on ways of helping foster parents both to acquire positive parenting strategies and to avoid authoritarian and permissive parenting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Parenting children with diabetes: exploring parenting styles on children living with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifali, Diana; Ciliska, Donna; O'Mara, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which parenting styles is associated with diabetes control in children (aged 5-12 years) with type 1 diabetes, and on child and parent quality of life. Data were collected from a total of 216 parent and child dyads, from 4 pediatric diabetes clinics in southern Ontario, using a cross-sectional survey methodology. Each parent and child independently completed the questionnaires. The study instruments included the Parenting Dimensions Inventory, Pediatric Quality of Life (diabetes specific), and chart reviews for glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) levels. The results of the study demonstrated that parenting styles were not correlated with diabetes control and were weakly correlated with quality of life. Most parents reported behaviors of authoritative or democratic parenting. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) for children in the study was slightly above optimal target range, at 8.4%. Parental education had a weak negative correlation with diabetes control. Parenting styles are not associated with diabetes control and quality of life in children with type 1 diabetes. However, further research should assess the impact of the determinants of parenting on children with type 1 diabetes and quality of life.

  18. Predicting child physical activity and screen time: parental support for physical activity and general parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-07-01

    To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, January--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design. Develop a process flow sheet simulation (PFS) model. This report summarizes the activities completed during the period December 23, 1992 through March 15, 1992. In Task 1, Baseline Design and Alternates, the following activities related to the tradeoff studies were completed: approach and basis; oxygen purity; F-T reactor pressure; wax yield; autothermal reformer; hydrocarbons (C{sub 3}/C{sub 4}s) recovery; and hydrogenrecovery. In Task 3, Engineering Design Criteria, activities were initiated to support the process tradeoff studies in Task I and to develop the environmental strategy for the Illinois site. The work completed to date consists of the development of the F-T reactor yield correlation from the Mobil dam and a brief review of the environmental strategy prepared for the same site in the direct liquefaction baseline study.Some work has also been done in establishing site-related criteria, in establishing the maximum vessel diameter for train sizing and in coping with the low H{sub 2}/CO ratio from the Shell gasifier. In Task 7, Project Management and Administration, the following activities were completed: the subcontract agreement between Amoco and Bechtel was negotiated; a first technical progress meeting was held at the Bechtel office in February; and the final Project Management Plan was approved by PETC and issued in March 1992.

  20. Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

  1. Parenting Processes and Aggression: The Role of Self-Control among Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Cok, Figen

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships between parenting processes (parental closeness, parental monitoring, and parental peer approval), low self-control, and aggression. Participants were 546 adolescents aged 14-18 attending state high schools in Turkey. Participants completed a questionnaire that included measures of…

  2. It Is Not Just Stress: Parent Personality in Raising a Deaf Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Rachael M.; Brice, Patrick J.; Reesman, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact and predictive ability of parental personality and perceived stress on behavior problems of their deaf child. One hundred and fourteen parents with a deaf child completed measures of personality, parenting stress, and child behavioral functioning. Higher parental neuroticism, which reflects a susceptibility to…

  3. Parents of Children with Asperger Syndrome or with Learning Disabilities: Family Environment and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Tali; Berger, Ornit

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the family environment and perceived social support of 33 parents with a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and 43 parents with a child with learning disability, which were compared to 45 parents of children without disabilities as a control group. Parents completed the Family Environment Scale and Social Support Scale…

  4. Children's Moral Self-Concept: The Role of Aggression and Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengsavang, Sonia; Krettenauer, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of aggressiveness and parenting in the development of children's moral self-concept. Participants were 198 elementary school children and their parents (M = 8.65 years, SD = 2.44). Participants completed a structured moral self puppet interview and a questionnaire about their relationship to parents. Parents completed…

  5. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to

  6. Vocational Aspirations of Chinese High School Students and Their Parents' Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhi-Jin; Leung, S. Alvin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the vocational aspirations and parental vocational expectations of high school students and their parents (1067 parent-child dyads). Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and an Occupations List. The Occupations List consisted of 126 occupational titles evenly distributed across the six Holland types. Parents were…

  7. Sources of Stress among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Investigation in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Mubarak S.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified differences in sources of stress between parents of male children with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen pairs of parents completed the Parent Stress Index (Abidin, 1995). Each pair of parents had a male child diagnosed with intellectual disability who either attended an institute for male children with…

  8. Parenting a Child with Phenylketonuria: An Investigation into the Factors That Contribute to Parental Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Olivia; Medford, Emma; Hare, Dougal J

    2018-04-20

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic condition that can lead to the onset of intellectual disabilities if not strictly managed through a low-protein diet. Parents are responsible for supervising their child's treatment for PKU, which may impact on their experience of distress. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the factors that contribute to distress in parents who care for a child with PKU, distinct from parents in the general population. Thirty-eight parents of children and adolescents with PKU and 32 parents in the general population completed the questionnaires measuring parental psychological resilience, child behaviour problems, perceived social support and distress. Parents of children with PKU also completed measures of their child's care dependency and behaviour related to developmental and intellectual disabilities. The findings revealed no statistically significant differences in distress between the groups, but parents of children with PKU reported more child behaviour problems. Multiple regression analysis identified that parental psychological resilience and child anxious behaviour explained 35% of the variance in distress for parents of children with PKU. By comparison, parental psychological resilience and generic child behaviour only accounted for 19% of the variance in distress for parents in the general population. This has implications for developing interventions in clinical settings that aim to reduce parents' distress by enhancing their psychological resilience and supporting them to manage child behaviour difficulties, particularly anxious behaviour. Future research should include larger, more diverse samples and use longitudinal study designs.

  9. Parenting programs during adolescence: Outcomes from universal and targeted interventions offered in real-world settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, Elin K; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Axberg, Ulf; Broberg, Anders G

    2018-04-26

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to explore short and long-term outcomes of five different group-based parenting programs offered to parents of 10 to 17-year-olds. Three hundred and fifteen parents (277 mothers and 38 fathers) who had enrolled in a parenting program (universal: Active Parenting, COPE; Connect; targeted: COMET; Leadership training for parents of teenagers [LFT]) answered questionnaires at three measurement waves (baseline, post-measurement, and one-year follow-up). The questions concerned parenting style, parental mental health, family climate and adolescent mental health. Results revealed small to moderate changes in almost all outcome variables and in all parenting programs. Overall, parents in COMET reported the largest short and long-term changes. No substantial differences in change were seen between the other programs. The results support the general effectiveness of parenting programs for parents of adolescents. © 2018 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Recall and decay of consent information among parents of infants participating in a randomized controlled clinical trial using an audio-visual tool in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboizi, Robert B; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okoye, Michael; Kampmann, Beate; Roca, Anna; Idoko, Olubukola T

    2017-09-02

    Communicating essential research information to low literacy research participants in Africa is highly challenging, since this population is vulnerable to poor comprehension of consent information. Several supportive materials have been developed to aid participant comprehension in these settings. Within the framework of a pneumococcal vaccine trial in The Gambia, we evaluated the recall and decay of consent information during the trial which used an audio-visual tool called 'Speaking Book', to foster comprehension among parents of participating infants. The Speaking Book was developed in the 2 most widely spoken local languages. Four-hundred and 9 parents of trial infants gave consent to participate in this nested study and were included in the baseline assessment of their knowledge about trial participation. An additional assessment was conducted approximately 90 d later, following completion of the clinical trial protocol. All parents received a Speaking Book at the start of the trial. Trial knowledge was already high at the baseline assessment with no differences related to socio-economic status or education. Knowledge of key trial information was retained at the completion of the study follow-up. The Speaking Book (SB) was well received by the study participants. We hypothesize that the SB may have contributed to the retention of information over the trial follow-up. Further studies evaluating the impact of this innovative tool are thus warranted.

  11. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... baseline toxics value if it can determine an applicable toxics value for every batch of gasoline produced... of gasoline batch i produced or imported between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2000, inclusive. i = Individual batch of gasoline produced or imported between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2000, inclusive. n...

  12. Pakistan, Sindh Province - Baseline Indicators System : Baseline Procurement Performance Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This document provides an assessment of the public procurement system in Sindh province using the baseline indicators system developed by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD-DAC). This assessment, interviews and discussions were held with stakeholders from the public and private sectors as well as civil society. Developing...

  13. Examining the impact of differential cultural adaptation with Latina/o immigrants exposed to adapted parent training interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Cardona, J Rubén; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M; Rodríguez, Melanie M Domenech; Dates, Brian; Tams, Lisa; Bernal, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical studies aimed at examining the impact of differential cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical and prevention interventions. This prevention study consisted of a randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing the impact of 2 differentially culturally adapted versions of the evidence-based parenting intervention known as Parent Management Training, the Oregon Model (PMTOR). The sample consisted of 103 Latina/o immigrant families (190 individual parents). Each family was allocated to 1 of 3 conditions: (a) a culturally adapted PMTO (CA), (b) culturally adapted and enhanced PMTO (CE), and (c) a wait-list control. Measurements were implemented at baseline (T1), treatment completion (T2) and 6-month follow up (T3). Multilevel growth modeling analyses indicated statistically significant improvements on parenting skills for fathers and mothers (main effect) at 6-month follow-up in both adapted interventions, when compared with the control condition. With regard to parent-reported child behaviors, child internalizing behaviors were significantly lower for both parents in the CE intervention (main effect), compared with control at 6-month follow-up. No main effect was found for child externalizing behaviors. However, a Parent × Condition effect was found indicating a significant reduction of child externalizing behaviors for CE fathers compared with CA and control fathers at posttest and 6-month follow-up. Present findings indicate the value of differential cultural adaptation research designs and the importance of examining effects for both mothers and fathers, particularly when culturally focused and gender variables are considered for intervention design and implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Blaine

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012–2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2–12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2 or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1 almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5 or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1. Parents reported giving young children (2–5 years more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p < 0.001, keep quiet (1.0 vs. 0.5, p < 0.001, and celebrate achievements (1.7 vs. 1.0, p < 0.001 than parents of older children (6–12 years. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios, which indicated reduced child adherence to dietary recommendations when parents offered snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.70–0.99, celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52–0.99, or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68–0.98. Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts.

  15. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Taveras, Elsie M.; Geller, Alan C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Land, Thomas; Perkins, Meghan; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012–2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2–12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD)) for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2) or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1) almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5) or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1). Parents reported giving young children (2–5 years) more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p parents of older children (6–12 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios, which indicated reduced child adherence to dietary recommendations when parents offered snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70–0.99), celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52–0.99), or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68–0.98). Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:26197335

  16. [Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegel, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), a manualized evidence-based intervention, was originally developed to treat disruptive behavior problems in children aged 2–6 years. It is also considered to be an evidence-based intervention for physical abuse among children. Moreover, PCIT has proved to be effective for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and depression. Thus, it could become the first evidence-based, transdiagnostic intervention method for 2–6-year-old children. PCIT is based on attachment theory as well as learning theory, combining aspects of play therapy and behavior therapy. It consists of two treatment phases: child-directed interaction (CDI) and parent-directed interaction (PDI). In both phases parents are taught special skills. When interacting with their child parents practice these skills and are live coached by the therapist. CDI aims at improving the parent-child relationship and is the basis for PDI. In CDI, parents learn to follow their child’s lead as long as the child shows appropriate behavior. In PDI, parents practice effectively taking the lead wherever necessary. On average, it takes about 15–20 sessions to complete PCIT, which can be terminated as soon as the parents demonstrate a mastery of the skills, when child disruptive behavior has been reduced to clearly normal levels, and when the parents have become confident in managing child behavior on their own.

  17. Validation of the modified Parenting Strategies for Eating and Physical Activity Scale-Diet (PEAS-Diet) in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra C; Arredondo, Elva M; Horton, Lucy A; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2016-03-01

    Research shows that Latino parenting practices influence children's dietary and weight outcomes. Most studies use parent-reported data, however data from children may provide additional insight into how parents influence their children's diet and weight outcomes. The Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) has been validated in Latino adults, but not in children. This study evaluated the factor structure and concurrent and predictive validity of a modified version of the PEAS (PEAS-Diet) among Latino children. Data were collected from 361 children ages 7-13 from Imperial County, California, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating. The PEAS-Diet included 25 candidate items targeting six parenting practices pertaining to children's eating behaviors: (a) monitoring; (b) disciplining; (c) control; (d) permissiveness; (e) reinforcing; and (f) limit-setting. Children were on average ten years old (±2), 50% boys, 93% self-identified as Latino, 81% were US-born, and 55% completed English versus Spanish-language interviews. Using varimax rotation on baseline data with the total sample, six items were removed due to factor loadings .32 on more than one component). Parallel analysis and interpretability suggested a 5-factor solution explaining 59.46% of the variance. The subscale "limit-setting" was removed from the scale. The final scale consisted of 19 items and 5 subscales. Internal consistency of the subscales ranged from α = .63-.82. Confirmatory factor analyses provided additional evidence for the 5-factor scale using data collected 4 and 6 months post-baseline among the control group (n = 164, n = 161, respectively). Concurrent validity with dietary intake was established for monitoring, control, permissiveness, and reinforcing subscales in the expected directions. Predictive validity was not established. Results indicated that with the reported changes, the interview-administered PEAS-Diet is valid among Latino

  18. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Birdi, Gurkiran; Cooke, Richard; Knibb, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population complet...

  19. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  20. Parent Education for Dialogic Reading: Online and Face-to-Face Delivery Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschorner, Beth; Hutchison, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of a parent education program and the contextual factors that influenced the experiences of families in the program. Seventeen parents completed a 9-week, face-to-face program and 15 parents completed a similar online program. This study was designed as a multiple case study and utilized multimethods for data…