WorldWideScience

Sample records for parents banned indoor

  1. Compliance with indoor tanning bans for minors among businesses in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Courtney C; Cartmel, Brenda; Clare, Rachel A; Ferrucci, Leah M

    2017-12-01

    Indoor tanning is a known risk factor for skin cancer and is especially dangerous for adolescents. Some states have passed indoor tanning bans for minors, but business compliance with the bans is not well understood. Thus far, studies have assessed ban compliance in one or two states at a time. This study aimed to assess compliance with indoor tanning bans for minors and knowledge of dangers and benefits of tanning among indoor tanning businesses. Female research assistants posing as minors telephoned a convenience sample of 412 businesses in 14 states with tanning bans for minors under age 17 or 18. We evaluated differences in compliance by census region and years since ban was implemented and differences in reported dangers and benefits by compliance. Most (80.1%) businesses told the "minor" caller she could not use the tanning facilities. Businesses in the south and in states with more recent bans were less compliant. Among those (n = 368) that completed the full interview, 52.2% identified burning and 20.1% mentioned skin cancer as potential dangers. However, 21.7% said dangers were no worse than the sun and 10.3% denied any dangers. Stated benefits included vitamin D (27.7%), social/cosmetic (27.2%), and treats skin diseases (26.4%), with only 4.9% reporting no benefits. While most businesses followed the indoor tanning ban when a minor called, one-fifth did not. Many stated inaccurate health claims. Additional enforcement or education might increase compliance with indoor tanning bans and action is needed to prevent businesses from stating false health information.

  2. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  3. Is Nonsmoking Dangerous to the Health of Restaurants? The Effect of California's Indoor Smoking Ban on Restaurant Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.

    2007-01-01

    The state of California passed the Smoke-Free Workplace Act on January 1, 1995. This legislation effectively banned indoor smoking in all public and private workplaces including restaurants. Many restaurant owners, especially owners of restaurants that served alcohol, opposed the ban for fear that their businesses would be affected adversely…

  4. Evaluation of the Impact of Indoor Smoking Bans on Air Quality in Australian Licensed Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Margaret Elissa

    The quality of indoor air in Australian buildings is unknown due to limited published data. The assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in hospitality environments is of special concern because they are frequented by sensitive populations such as the elderly, children, and people with pre-existing health conditions, who may be at risk of developing adverse health reactions if the IAQ is poor. As of 2010, all Australian states and territories have introduced legalisation banning smoking in enclosed public places, including licensed clubs. This project has evaluated the impact of indoor smoking bans on air quality inside and outside of Australian licensed clubs. In doing this it has identified emerging IAQ issues in post smoking ban environments, and documented the airborne concentrations of previously unstudied air contaminants such as particulate matter with a 50% cut-point diameter of 1.0 ?m (PM1.0) and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH) in the indoor smoking areas of Australian licensed clubs. The study involved collecting approximately 400 hours of air quality data, of which 200 hours was collected before bans and 200 hrs was collected after smoking bans were introduced in licensed clubs located within two local government districts of South Eastern Australia. Clubs 1 to 7 were located in the one district and Clubs 8 to 11 in the other district. Club 4 dropped out following the pre ban monitoring, and the results were omitted from analysis. The air quality parameters measured inside include particulate matter with a 50% cut-point diameter of 2.5 mum (PM2.5), PPAH, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide mu(CO2), temperature and humidity. The air quality parameters measured outside were PM2.5, CO2, temperature and humidity. Each of the parameters were monitored for 4 hour periods on 4 occasions in each club both before, and after the introduction of indoor smoking bans. Additional monitoring of indoor concentrations of PM1.0, nicotine and PM2

  5. Change in indoor particle levels after a smoking ban in Minnesota bars and restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohac, David L; Hewett, Martha J; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Grimsrud, David T; Apte, Michael G; Gundel, Lara A

    2010-12-01

    Smoking bans in bars and restaurants have been shown to improve worker health and reduce hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction. Several studies have also reported improved indoor air quality, although these studies generally used single visits before and after a ban for a convenience sample of venues. The primary objective of this study was to provide detailed time-of-day and day-of-week secondhand smoke-exposure data for representative bars and restaurants in Minnesota. This study improved on previous approaches by using a statistically representative sample of three venue types (drinking places, limited-service restaurants, and full-service restaurants), conducting repeat visits to the same venue prior to the ban, and matching the day of week and time of day for the before- and after-ban monitoring. The repeat visits included laser photometer fine particulate (PM₂.₅) concentration measurements, lit cigarette counts, and customer counts for 19 drinking places, eight limited-service restaurants, and 35 full-service restaurants in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. The more rigorous design of this study provides improved confidence in the findings and reduces the likelihood of systematic bias. The median reduction in PM₂.₅ was greater than 95% for all three venue types. Examination of data from repeated visits shows that making only one pre-ban visit to each venue would greatly increase the range of computed percentage reductions and lower the statistical power of pre-post tests. Variations in PM₂.₅ concentrations were found based on time of day and day of week when monitoring occurred. These comprehensive measurements confirm that smoking bans provide significant reductions in SHS constituents, protecting customers and workers from PM₂.₅ in bars and restaurants. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. The Impact of a City-Wide Indoor Smoking Ban on Smoking and Drinking Behaviors Across Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cance, Jessica Duncan; Talley, Anna E; Fromme, Kim

    2016-02-01

    Almost one-third of college students report recent cigarette use, primarily as "social smoking," and often in conjunction with alcohol use. While city-wide indoor smoking bans effectively reduce the number of social opportunities to smoke (eg, bars and music clubs), little is known about how these bans may impact the smoking behaviors of college students. Furthermore, nothing is known about how indoor smoking bans may impact students' drinking behaviors. The current study aims to determine the impact of a city-wide comprehensive indoor smoking ban on smoking and alcohol behaviors among a longitudinal sample of emerging adults. Data are from a 6-year longitudinal study (10 waves of data collection) that began the summer before college enrollment. Participants (N = 2244; 60% female) reported on their past 3-month smoking and drinking behaviors using Internet-based surveys at each wave. Piecewise linear growth modeling was used to determine how a city-wide comprehensive indoor smoking ban (implemented in the Fall of 2005 between Waves 4 and 5) impacted smoking frequency, cigarette quantity, drinking frequency, and number of binge drinking episodes. Smoking and alcohol use increased from the summer before college through the semester before implementation of the city-wide smoking ban. While smoking frequency (P < .001) and cigarette quantity (P < .05) declined after the ban, drinking frequency increased (P < .001) and the number of binge drinking episodes remained stable. Current findings suggest that comprehensive indoor smoking bans can influence the smoking behaviors of emerging adults, whereas trajectories of drinking are relatively unchanged. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Parents and Students and Healthy Indoor School Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    School-aged children spend a great deal of time inside school buildings. Parents can play an important role in creating healthy indoor school environments. Parents and students alike can make a powerful case for protecting health in schools.

  8. Implementation of an indoor smoking ban and an advertising/ sponsorship ban in Lebanon: a baseline cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Chaaya; Rima Nakkash; Rima Afifi; Guillermo Adame; Nadia Fanous; Nabil Tabbal; Dahlia Saab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although the majority of countries ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, few have comprehensive smoke-free laws and compliance is not always satisfactory. In 2011, Lebanon, having among the highest smoking rates in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, passed a comprehensive tobacco control law (Law 174). This study aimed to assess compliance with Law 174 among smokers and non-smokers in Beirut (the capital), three months after the ban in ...

  9. Assessing knowledge and attitudes of owners or managers of hospitality venues regarding a policy banning indoor smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaaeddine, G; Al Kuhaimi, T; Al Assaad, R; Dany, M; Diab, R; Hanna, E; Hirmas, N; Ismail, H; Mahmassani, D; Sleiman Tellawi, R; Nakkash, R

    2013-05-01

    In response to accumulating evidence on the detrimental health effects of second-hand smoke, governments throughout the world have adopted laws prohibiting indoor smoking in public places. Lebanon has recently enacted a law prohibiting indoor smoking in all of its forms, rendered effective as of 3 September 2012. This study examined the knowledge and attitudes of owners/managers of restaurants, cafes, pubs and nightclubs in Beirut towards the ban, three months before it came into effect. Self-administered cross-sectional survey. Data were derived from a self-administered cross-sectional survey conducted in June 2012. In total, 262 hospitality venues (restaurants, cafes, pubs and nightclubs) were sampled at random to participate. The response rate was 74% (194/262). Overall, 84% of owners/managers reported that they were aware of the ban, yet the average knowledge score was only 3.43/10. A general positive attitude was noted towards customer satisfaction (44.8%), law enforcement (61.1%) and employee protection from second-hand smoke (74%), while 55% of owners/managers were concerned that their revenues would decrease. However, 83.3% expressed their willingness to implement the law. This quantitative study is the first to examine the knowledge and attitudes of owners/managers of hospitality venues regarding the indoor smoking ban in Lebanon. Civil society and government bodies should use the findings to develop a campaign to address the knowledge and attitudes of owners/managers of hospitality venues to ensure successful enforcement. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  11. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2 Methods: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3 Results: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050. Of the respondents (n = 969, 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173, attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471, believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755, perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child’s health (OR = 1.547, believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816, and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950. Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523. (4 Conclusions: A home smoking

  12. Assessing the Impact of the National Smoking Ban in Indoor Public Places in China: Evidence from Quit Smoking Related Online Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Emery, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the tremendous economic and health costs imposed on China by tobacco use, China lacks a proactive and systematic tobacco control surveillance and evaluation system, hampering research progress on tobacco-focused surveillance and evaluation studies. Methods This paper uses online search query analyses to investigate changes in online search behavior among Chinese Internet users in response to the adoption of the national indoor public place smoking ban. Baidu Index and Google Trends were used to examine the volume of search queries containing three key search terms “Smoking Ban(s),” “Quit Smoking,” and “Electronic Cigarette(s),” along with the news coverage on the smoking ban, for the period 2009–2011. Findings Our results show that the announcement and adoption of the indoor public place smoking ban in China generated significant increases in news coverage on smoking bans. There was a strong positive correlation between the media coverage of smoking bans and the volume of “Smoking Ban(s)” and “Quit Smoking” related search queries. The volume of search queries related to “Electronic Cigarette(s)” was also correlated with the smoking ban news coverage. Interpretation To the extent it altered smoking-related online searches, our analyses suggest that the smoking ban had a significant effect, at least in the short run, on Chinese Internet users’ smoking-related behaviors. This research introduces a novel analytic tool, which could serve as an alternative tobacco control evaluation and behavior surveillance tool in the absence of timely or comprehensive population surveillance system. This research also highlights the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control in China. PMID:23776504

  13. Impact of the 2011 Spanish smoking ban in hospitality venues: indoor secondhand smoke exposure and influence of outdoor smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María J; Fernández, Esteve; Pérez-Rios, Mónica; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Schiaffino, Anna; Galán, Iñaki; Moncada, Albert; Fu, Marcela; Montes, Agustín; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2013-05-01

    The Spanish tobacco control law of 2006 was modified in January 2011, banning smoking in all hospitality venues. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the 2011 Spanish smoking ban on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues, and to analyze the potential impact of outdoor smokers close to entrances on indoor SHS levels after the law came into force. Before-and-after evaluation study with repeated measures. The study was carried out in three regions of Spain (Catalonia, Galicia, and Madrid) and included a random sample of 178 hospitality venues. We measured vapor-phase nicotine and particulate matter 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter (PM2.5) as SHS markers at baseline (November-December 2010) and at follow-up (April-June 2011). We also recorded tobacco consumption variables such as the presence of butts, ashtrays, and smokers. In the posttest assessment, we also recorded the number of outdoor smokers close to the entrance. A total of 351 nicotine and 160 PM2.5 measurements were taken. Both nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations decreased by more than 90% (nicotine from 5.73 to 0.57 µg/m(3), PM2.5 from 233.38 to 18.82 µg/m(3)). After the law came into force, both nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations were significantly higher in venues with outdoor smokers close to the entrance than in those without outdoor smokers. All the observational tobacco consumption variables significantly decreased (p hospitality venues dramatically decreased after the 2011 Spanish smoking ban. SHS from outdoor smokers close to entrances seems to drift inside venues. Smoking control legislation should consider outdoor restrictions to ensure complete protection against SHS.

  14. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Stephanie K.; Rogers, Brooke G.; Webb Hooper, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and w...

  15. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Indoor Smoking Bans and Smoking-Related Knowledge in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1 the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2 the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3 geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.

  16. Perceptions of parental smoking and sociodemographic factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans among parents of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2014-08-01

    Although public smoking restrictions have been implemented, children are still exposed to household smoking. Parental smoking is the main source of children's exposure to secondhand smoke. This study was conducted to examine the factors associated with parents' adoption of home smoking bans. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 768 parents of school-aged children in Taiwan. The home smoking restriction status, parents' perceptions of smoking in the presence of children and its influences, and parents' sociodemographic characteristics were assessed. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used to determine the best-fit model. More than 80% of the parents agreed with home smoking bans, whereas only approximately 26% of the parents actually restricted smoking at home completely. The crude odds ratios showed that parents who perceived the influence of parental smoking on children to be negative were more likely to adopt home smoking bans. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans, including a higher education level and older age of parents, a family composed of nonparent adults, and opposition to parental smoking in the presence of children. Children's health is a major concern for parents considering home smoking bans. Helping parents clarify misunderstandings regarding parental smoking, emphasizing the adverse effects of children's exposure to parental smoking, suggesting healthy substitutes for smoking, and providing effective strategies for maintaining a smoke-free home can motivate families to adopt home smoking bans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [Indoor air quality and parents of asthmatic children practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larramendy Magnin, S; Desssome, B; Moret, L

    2017-09-01

    Indoor air pollution can worsen asthma in children. Better knowledge of factors determining parents' reception of recommendations to limit pollution of indoor air in the homes of asthmatic children would be helpful to improve implementation. A descriptive study evaluating practices known to have an impact on the quality of air in homes was conducted among parents of asthmatic children aged 3 to 16 years. From May to September 2013, parents answered anonymous self-administered questionnaires in waiting rooms of generalist practitioners, in the Nantes University pneumology pediatric outpatient clinic, and as part of therapeutic education sessions conducted by the Asthma-44 Network. There were 190 exploitable questionnaires: 88.2% of parents reported never smoking in the home; 48.4% used home fragrance in the living room at least once a week; 77.8% opened their children's bedroom windows more than 10minutes at least once a day; 32.6% used several cleaning products or bleach once or twice a week. Good practices concerning smoking in housing were applied less in homes where the child was monitored only by a general practitioner (OR=0.08; CI[0.02-0.34]). Good practices on the use of perfume were statistically linked to having an intermediate level occupation (OR=2.31; CI[1.01-5.32]) and being followed by the university hospital, by the asthma network or by a general practitioner if the child had already consulted a pneumo-pediatrician or an allergist (OR=0.24; CI[0.07-0.81]). Good ventilation practices forchildren's bedrooms were statistically linked to residing in a rural rather than urban setting (OR=4.72; CI[1.0-22.16]). Practices observed in parents of asthmatic children differ little from those of the general population. Recommendations on how to limit sources of chemical pollutants, with the exception of smoking, are still poorly applied. Specialist consultations and specific training for general practitioners should improve the penetration

  18. Parent's Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is air pollution, indoors or out. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, protects health, and supports the productivity of school personnel. In schools in poor repair, leaky roofs and crumbling walls have caused additional indoor air quality problems, including contamination with…

  19. Adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation from the use of indoor tanning equipment: time to ban the tan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Henry W; James, William D; Rigel, Darrell S; Maloney, Mary E; Spencer, James M; Bhushan, Reva

    2011-04-01

    The incidence of melanoma skin cancer is increasing rapidly, particularly among young women in the United States. Numerous studies have documented an association between the use of indoor tanning devices and an increased risk of skin cancer, especially in young women. Studies have shown that ultraviolet exposure, even in the absence of erythema or burn, results in DNA damage. Countries and regulatory bodies worldwide have recognized the health risks associated with indoor tanning. In the United States, 32 states have passed legislation to regulate the indoor tanning industry, but there is an urgent need to restrict the use of indoor tanning devices at the federal level. The Food and Drug Administration is currently reviewing the classification of these devices. For all of these reasons, the Food and Drug Administration should prohibit the use of tanning devices by minors and reclassify tanning devices to at least class II to protect the public from the preventable cancers and other adverse effects caused by ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S.

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background:: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design an...

  1. Test-retest repeatability of child's respiratory symptoms and perceived indoor air quality - comparing self- and parent-administered questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, Jussi; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Santalahti, Päivi; Pekkanen, Juha

    2018-02-09

    Questionnaires can be used to assess perceived indoor air quality and symptoms in schools. Questionnaires for primary school aged children have traditionally been parent-administered, but self-administered questionnaires would be easier to administer and may yield as good, if not better, information. Our aim was to compare the repeatability of self- and parent-administered indoor air questionnaires designed for primary school aged pupils. Indoor air questionnaire with questions on child's symptoms and perceived indoor air quality in schools was sent to parents of pupils aged 7-12 years in two schools and again after two weeks. Slightly modified version of the questionnaire was administered to pupils aged 9-12 years in another two schools and repeated after a week. 351 (52%) parents and 319 pupils (86%) answered both the first and the second questionnaire. Test-retest repeatability was assessed with intra-class correlation (ICC) and Cohen's kappa coefficients (k). Test-retest repeatability was generally between 0.4-0.7 (ICC; k) in both self- and parent-administered questionnaire. In majority of the questions on symptoms and perceived indoor air quality test-retest repeatability was at the same level or slightly better in self-administered compared to parent-administered questionnaire. Agreement of self- and parent administered questionnaires was generally indoor air quality. Children aged 9-12 years can give as, or even more, repeatable information about their respiratory symptoms and perceived indoor air quality than their parents. Therefore, it may be possible to use self-administered questionnaires in future studies also with children.

  2. Change over time in parents' beliefs about and reported use of corporal punishment in eight countries with and without legal bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Cappa, Claudia; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bradley, Robert H

    2017-09-01

    Stopping violence against children is prioritized in goal 16 of the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. All forms of child corporal punishment have been outlawed in 50 countries as of October 2016. Using data from 56,371 caregivers in eight countries that participated in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, we examined change from Time 1 (2005-6) to Time 2 (2008-13) in national rates of corporal punishment of 2- to 14-year-old children and in caregivers' beliefs regarding the necessity of using corporal punishment. One of the participating countries outlawed corporal punishment prior to Time 1 (Ukraine), one outlawed corporal punishment between Times 1 and 2 (Togo), two outlawed corporal punishment after Time 2 (Albania and Macedonia), and four have not outlawed corporal punishment as of 2016 (Central African Republic, Kazakhstan, Montenegro, and Sierra Leone). Rates of reported use of corporal punishment and belief in its necessity decreased over time in three countries; rates of reported use of severe corporal punishment decreased in four countries. Continuing use of corporal punishment and belief in the necessity of its use in some countries despite legal bans suggest that campaigns to promote awareness of legal bans and to educate parents regarding alternate forms of discipline are worthy of international attention and effort along with legal bans themselves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Banning Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trede, Mildred

    1991-01-01

    The "Game of Decisions" is presented to encourage students to consider the consequences of banning books and/or ideas. The game involves story writing, creating probability graphs, writing a letter protesting censorship from a chosen historical period, and examining a controversial science issue. Three thesis statements for generating group…

  4. [Parents support for the ban on television food advertising to children is particularly high in France, especially compared to the USA. This result should influence political decision-making to restrict food marketing targeting young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalon, Hélène; Cogordan, Chloé; Arwidson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Massive exposure of children to low-nutrient food advertising combined with the increasing prevalence of obesity have led to growing support for statutory regulations concerning food marketing targeting children. Food and advertising industries lobbies have nevertheless managed to stop such measures in many countries. In this context, civil society support for statutory regulation, especially by parents, is essential. The objective of this study was to describe and analyse factors associated with parents' opinion on the impact and possible banning of food TV advertisements targeting children. An online survey of 2,387 parents of children aged 3 to 17 was conducted in 2013. Associations between parents'opinion on food advertising and their socio-demographic characteristics were analysed by multivariate logistic regressions. The influence of food advertising on children' preferences was perceived by 64.7% of parents, 68.8% of parents were at least occasionally asked by their children to purchase food or beverages seen on television, 43.5% reported that their children influenced their food purchases and 73.7% supported a statutory regulation that would ban advertisements for excessively fatty, salty and sugary beverages and foods during television programmes for children or teenagers. This view was positively associated with high socio-economic status and a high perceived impact of advertising on children's food preferences. Parents support for the ban on television food advertising to children is particularly high in France, especially compared to the USA. This result should influence political decision-making to restrict food marketing targeting young people.

  5. sponsorship ban in Lebanon: a baseline cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Chaaya

    2016-05-01

    This study provided information about compliance to the smoking ban in Beirut. The advertising sector's compliance would hopefully decrease the tobacco industry’s influence on the public. Further studies aiming at understanding the underlying factors behind the lack of compliance to the indoor smoking ban and finding effective solutions in a politically unstable country with weak rule of law like Lebanon are crucial and can serve as an example for similar developing countries.

  6. Why Ban Batasuna?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2015-01-01

    and Batasuna. These parties were banned by Spanish authorities for their integration in a terrorist network led by Euskadi Ta Askatasuna. The hypotheses are that democracies ban anti-system parties a) that do not unambiguously eschew violence; b) when alternatives to proscription are not effective. and c) when...... relevant office holders, or those holding a majority in parliament, have reason to believe they will not be disadvantaged electorally for supporting the ban....

  7. Implementation and enforcement of tobacco bans in two prisons in North Carolina: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kristie L; Proescholdbell, Scott; Herndon Malek, Sally; Johnson, Jana

    2010-04-01

    Despite the national trend that 90% of prisons have smoke-free indoors policies, compliance and enforcement remain barriers to policy success. Key informant interviews about policy compliance and enforcement were conducted with 10 staff and inmates at two North Carolina prison facilities, one with a complete ban (indoors and outdoors) and one with a partial ban (indoors only). Communication of the tobacco bans was consistent and well understood in both facilities. Barriers to compliance and enforcement, especially in the complete ban facility, included policy ''buy in,'' the emerging black market for cigarettes, staff support, and access to nicotine replacement therapy. Despite these barriers, most informants reported that implementation and enforcement of complete bans is possible with adequate communication about the policy and access to cessation therapy.

  8. Voices of the Banned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2018-01-01

    of patrons as rational actors, as well as linear notions of cause and effect, this article challenges such conceptions. Instead, this article draws on actor network theory, and an understanding of banned youth as situated in networks of relations, in order to provide insights into how the effects of banning...

  9. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  10. The hasty British ban on commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1987-02-01

    While commercial surrogate parenting arrangements continue to flourish in the U.S., Britain has made it a criminal offense for third parties to benefit from surrogacy. Voluntary surrogacy, however, is still within the law. Banning commercial surrogacy while leaving voluntary surrogacy lawful seems neither logical nor fair. A more equitable solution would be to license stringently and control both commercial and nonprofit agencies to provide these services.

  11. Nuclear test ban's last chance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, F.

    1976-01-01

    It is argued that if nuclear disarmament is the aim then some arms control treaties have been counterproductive. The two great powers have conducted, albeit underground, more nuclear explosions in the 12 years since the partial test ban than they did in the preceding 18 years, 1945 to 1963. The partial test ban treaty obliges the parties to negotiate a ban on 'all test explosions of nuclear weapons for all time'. After 12 years of negotiations very little progress has been made to this end. The USA and the USSR signed a bilateral Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1974 banning 'any underground nuclear weapon tests having a yield exceeding 150 kilo-tons... beginning 31 March, 1976', a protocol describes how compliance is to be verified, and Article III requires that an agreement is to be negotiated governing peaceful nuclear explosions. From the point of view of disarmament it would be much better if the threshold test ban treaty were not ratified and a comprehensive test ban treaty were negotiated instead. The main official reason given for the failure to negotiate such a treaty is the problem of verification. However it is argued that due to recent progress in seismology there are no longer significant technical obstacles to the negotiation of a comprehensive test ban treaty. But there is lack of political will to obtain such a treaty. (U.K.)

  12. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    autism spectrum disorder. A random sample of 10 such families confirmed that the diagnoses had been made by medical professionals, in accordance with the Swedish system for monitoring children's health. An analysis of the associations between indoor environmental variables in 2000 as well as other......Potential contributions of environmental chemicals and conditions to the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders are the subject of considerable cur-rent research and speculation. The present paper describes the results of a study undertaken as part of a larger project devoted to the connection......, follow-up questionnaire (DBH-III) was distributed in 2005. The original survey collected information about the child, the family situation, practices such as smoking, allergic symptoms, type of residence, moisture-related problems, and type of flooring material, which included polyvinyl chloride (PVC...

  13. Indoor Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Carslaw, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to encapsulate the importance, ubiquity, and complexity of indoor chemistry. We discuss the many sources of indoor air pollutants and summarize their chemical reactions in the air and on surfaces. We also summarize some of the known impacts of human occupants, who act as sources...... and sinks of indoor chemicals, and whose activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, smoking) can lead to extremely high pollutant concentrations. As we begin to use increasingly sensitive and selective instrumentation indoors, we are learning more about chemistry in this relatively understudied environment....

  14. Indoor Tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proof that indoor tanning is safer than tanning outdoors. Indoor tanning systems give concentrated UV exposure regardless ... For example, it’s essential for promoting good bone health. While UV ... a tan to get that benefit. According to the Surgeon General, fair and light- ...

  15. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  16. Indoor Photography

    OpenAIRE

    Sagers, Stephen; Patterson, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Photography is the science of recording light in an artistic way to create a pleasing image. Indoor photography requires a photographer to become familiar with some of the built in functions of a camera.

  17. Clove cigar sales following the US flavoured cigarette ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Hrywna, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Following the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009, flavoured cigarettes, including clove cigarettes, were banned based on the rationale that such cigarettes appealed to youth. However, the ban on characterising flavours was not extended to cigars. This study reviewed industry documents from Kretek International, the parent company behind Djarum clove cigars, to document the changes in their marketing and production strategies following the flavour ban on cigarettes. To assess sales trends following the ban, data for clove cigar sales in the USA from 2009 to 2012 were analysed using Nielsen's Convenience Track retail scanner database. Additionally, data on tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia were obtained from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System for the years 2008-2012. In anticipation of Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) flavour ban on cigarettes and recognising the regulatory advantages of cigars, Kretek International began developing Djarum clove cigars in 2007. Immediately following the flavour ban, sales of this product increased by more than 1400% between 2009 and 2012. During this same period, tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia, a leader in clove tobacco production, shifted from cigarettes to almost exclusively cigars. Kretek International, like other tobacco manufacturers, manipulated its products following the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act as a way to capitalise on regulatory loopholes and replace its now banned clove cigarettes. As a result, consumption of the company's Djarum clove cigars increased exponentially in recent years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. The Limited Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the Limited Test Ban Treaty which came at the end of nearly five years of frustrated efforts to obtain a comprehensive test ban. Negotiations toward that end had begun in October 1958. At the same time a voluntary, informal moratorium on tests was initiated. The negotiations soon stalled over the Soviet Union's resistance to internationally supervised inspections on its soil. In April 1959 a phased ban that was to be limited at first to atmospheric tests conducted below an altitude of 50 kilometers. Such tests were thought to be easily verifiable. The Soviets rejected this idea and continued to insist that a complete test ban need not require numerous inspections. The two sides nevertheless appeared to be nearing agreement on a treaty to ban all but relatively small underground tests when, in May 1960, an U.S. U-2 reconnaissance plane was shot down over Soviet territory. After a thorough review of the U.S. position, the Kennedy administration proposed in April 1961 a draft treaty that made several concessions toward the Soviet position. Nevertheless, the Soviets, still disagreeing with the provisions for verification and with the makeup of the control organization, rejected it

  19. Copper disinfection ban causes storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Since 1 February this year, under the EU's Biocidal Products Directive, it has been illegal to sell or use water treatment systems that use elemental copper, a practice employed historically by a significant number of UK healthcare facilities to combat Legionella. Alan Lester, managing director of specialist supplier of 'environmentally-friendly' water treatment systems, Advanced Hydro, says the ban has caused 'a storm of giant proportion,' with advocates of copper ion-based treatment systems arguing that this disinfection method dates back 3,000 years to Egyptian times, making it an 'undoubtedly proven' technology. Here he explains why the ban came into force, considers why the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is seeking a derogation, looks at the ban's likely impact, and gives a personal viewpoint on the 'pros and cons' of some of the alternative treatment technologies, including a titanium dioxide-based system marketed by Advanced Hydro itself in the UK.

  20. Smoking outside: The effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The smoking ban increased the non-monetary cost of smoking by prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor workplaces. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. Using two waves of the nationally representative Slán survey, a difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employ...

  1. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  2. The Political Economy of Local Fracking Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua C. Hall; Christopher Shultz; E. Frank Stephenson

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about harmful effects arising from the increased use of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to extract underground fuel resources has led to efforts to ban the practice. Many townships in western New York, which lies above the gas-rich Marcellus shale formation, have enacted bans or moratoria. Using spatial econometric techniques, we examine factors related to townships' choice to adopt fracking bans and document the importance of spatial dependence when analyzing fracking bans. We find ...

  3. Indoor aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawska, L.; Afshari, Alireza; N. Bae, G.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by growing considerations of the scale, severity, and risks associated with human exposure to indoor particulate matter, this work reviewed existing literature to: (i) identify state-of-the-art experimental techniques used for personal exposure assessment; (ii) compare exposure levels...

  4. From BAN to AmI-BAN: micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Val; Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or in the body which provides mobile services to the user. The BAN may also communicate to remote users such as healthcare providers via external network services such as GPRS or UMTS. The generic BAN...

  5. JiaZhang Dui ErTong FaZhan TongBan GuanXi De ZuoYong (The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  6. A comprehensive nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The conclusion of a comprehensive nuclear test ban is of critical importance for the future of arms limitation and disarmament. As the 1980 report of the Secretary-General concluded, a comprehensive nuclear test ban is regarded as the first and most urgent step towards the cessation of the nuclear arms race and, in particular, of its qualitative aspects. It could serve as an important measure for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, both vertical and horizontal. It would have a major arms limitation impact in that it would make it difficult, if not impossible, to develop new designs of nuclear weapons and would also place constraints on the modification of existing weapon designs. The permanent cessation of all nuclear-weapon tests has long been sought by the world community and its achievement would be an event of great international significance

  7. The Blasphemy Ban in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassmè; Lassen, Eva Maria

    2017-01-01

    , it can seem odd why Denmark would not have followed the trend of most other European states, including those with which Denmark normally compares itself, to abolish the article. Denmark is a highly secularised society with generally a relaxed attitude towards religion. And finally, surveys indicate...... the potential to bring the ban on blasphemy back to life by bringing it into play with penal systems of other countries with blasphemy laws. The article proceeds to outline the reactions of international human rights bodies to art. 140, focussing on the statement of the UN Special Rapporteur on Religion...

  8. Banning nuclear power at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article argues that now that the East-West conflict is over, nuclear-powered vessels should be retired. Nuclear-powered ships and submarines lack military missions, are expensive to build and operate, generate large amounts of long-lived deadly nuclear waste from their normal operations and when they are decommissioned, and are subject to accidents or deliberate attack which can result in the sinking of nuclear reactors and the release of radiation. With the costs of nuclear-powered vessels mounting, the time has come to ban nuclear power at sea. (author)

  9. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  10. Ban the Hickory Stick. Issues in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Nita H.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that corporal punishment should be banned from every school as a means of classroom discipline, and presents teachers and administrators with workable alternatives to disciplining children. (BB)

  11. Study of secondhand smoke levels pre and post implementation of the comprehensive smoking ban in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Aditi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research was undertaken with the aim of assessing the indoor air quality in popular hospitality venues, as also to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide comprehensive public smoking ban. The analysis was split into two halves - baseline study taken up prior to implementation of the said ban on 2 nd October 2008, and the follow-up study after it came into effect. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five venues including five restaurants, fourteen resto-bars, two hookah (smoking water-pipe cafes and four pubs were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 measurements at these venues were made using TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. Results: The average PM 2.5 level in venues where smoking was permitted prior to implementation of ban was found to be 669.95 ΅g/m 3 in the baseline study. Post ban, the average PM 2.5 level in same test venues reduced to 240.8 ΅g/m 3 . The hookah cafes were an exception as the average PM 2.5 levels exceeded the permissible limits before as well as post ban. Conclusion: The baseline study showed that the hospitality venues had hazardous levels of PM 2.5 particles arising from second-hand smoke prior to smoking ban. These decreased by a maximum of 64% after the law took effect. A substantial improvement in air quality at these venues post implementation of the smoking ban indicated the effectiveness of the law.

  12. Responding book banning in indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, RNB; Artono; Liana, C.

    2018-01-01

    The prohibition of books conducted by the government through its apparatus without any due process of law is unfortunate. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia (MKRI) in 2010 was decided that book banning is contradictory to the 1945 Constitution (UUD 1945). The purpose of this paper is to know Indonesia, according to the Constitutional Court must absolutely carry out the function of due process of law that is law enforcement in a judicial system when it wants to prohibit printed material which is a book, whether it is a book that is considered criticism and books that teach radicalism. It would be wise for anyone who disagrees with a book, and then responds by writing through a book. The result of this article is to support and suggest that the government and its apparatus in the state of the law should not arbitrarily impose a book ban. Likewise, people should not take violence action to respond this issue. In historical records, the prohibition of books without due process of law is always followed by the withdrawal of books and make people unable to deal with differences, especially in knowledge. That’s why, the government and its apparatus must create a conducive situation and support the creation of various perspectives in the framework of the progress of science through a book. It would implicate that people can respect in any perspective and thought.

  13. From BAN to AmI-BAN : micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  14. Problems with cigarette smoking and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, W W; Ma, W; Zhu, Q; Chen, H; Tang, L

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China, as causes for failure to control smoking. Environmental monitoring and population survey. Particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements were conducted in randomly selected public places (restaurants, non-alcoholic drink shops and internet bars) and exposure-related health hazards were evaluated. University students and adult citizens were randomly selected to determine their extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitude towards the ban of smoking in public places. The collected data were used to evaluate possible causes and solutions to the smoking problem. From PM2.5 measurements, the average indoor to outdoor concentrations in non-smoking restaurants were 33.4 vs. 30.6 μg/m(3), P > 0.05; average indoor of smoking restaurants was 350.0% higher, P  0.001. From our survey of 1100 university students: 1) 17.5% and 7.5% were active male and female smokers, respectively; and 2) 57.5% of students would accept a smoke-ban policy. From 502 adult citizens: 1) 27.5% were active male smokers; 2) Approximately 40 and 60% had inadequate knowledge of health hazards from smoking and second-hand smoke exposure; and 3) >90% of them would accept a smoke-ban policy. Our data indicate that failure to ban smoking was not caused by resistance from smokers but inadequate (national and local) government effort to educate the public and to enforce existing policy. The data suggest that development of a citizen-based approach, in collaboration with willing officials, may be highly successful in the control of cigarette smoking in China. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On BAN logics for industrial security protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agray, N.; Hoek, van der W.; Vink, de E.P.; Dunin-Keplicz, B.; Nawarecki, E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on two case-studies of applying BAN logic to industrial strength security protocols. These studies demonstrate the flexibility of the BAN language, as it caters for the addition of appropriate constructs and rules. We argue that, although a semantical foundation of the formalism

  16. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  17. Indoor Environment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports progress during the year 1992 in the Indoor Environment Program in the Energy and Environment Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Studies in the following areas are reported: energy performance and ventilation in buildings; physical and chemical characterization of indoor air pollutants; indoor radon; indoor air quality; exposure to indoor air pollutants and risk analysis. Pollutants of particular interest include: radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions including environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides

  18. State Indoor Tanning Laws and Prevalence of Indoor Tanning Among US High School Students, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Holman, Dawn M; Jones, Sherry Everett; Berkowitz, Zahava; Guy, Gery P

    2018-07-01

    To examine the association between state indoor tanning laws and indoor tanning behavior using nationally representative samples of US high school students younger than 18 years. We combined data from the 2009, 2011, 2013, and 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 41 313) to analyze the association between 2 types of state indoor tanning laws (age restriction and parental permission) and the prevalence of indoor tanning during the 12 months before the survey, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and survey year, and stratified by gender. Age restriction laws were associated with a 47% (P tanning prevalence among female high school students. Parental permission laws were not found to be associated with indoor tanning prevalence among either female or male high school students. Age restriction laws could contribute to less indoor tanning, particularly among female high school students. Such reductions may reduce the health and economic burden of skin cancer.

  19. Factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act (Taiwan) was amended to more effectively restrict smoking in indoor public places and workplaces in Taiwan. However, the lack of prohibitions for smoking in private homes may place family members at increased risk for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The aim of our study was to determine the factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of children at home. Methods In 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study of factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of children at home in Taiwan using self-administered questionnaires. Quota sampling was used to select five primary schools from four different regions of Taiwan. Parents were surveyed to identify parental smokers and 307 parental smokers were selected for participation in our study. Questionnaire data regarding parental smoking in the presence of children at home and related interactions among family members were analyzed. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to determine the best-fit model for examining the relationships among the variables related to parental smoking in the presence of children at home. Results Two-thirds of parents who smoked reported smoking in the presence of their children. The results of the hierarchical logistic regression analysis identified the smokers’ compliance with their family’s antismoking responses, mutual agreement with smoking bans, daily smoking, smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day, the education level of the parental smoker, and the annual family income as determinants of smoking in the presence of children at home. Conclusions Households with smoking parents should be targeted for interventions to encourage the adoption and enforcement of home smoking bans. Educational interventions that promote smoke-free homes for children and provide support to help parents stop smoking are critical factors in reducing the frequency of children’s ETS exposure in the home. PMID

  20. Smoking ban and health at birth: Evidence from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Tamás; Hajdu, Gábor

    2018-06-13

    In 2012, smoking restrictions were extended to hospitality venues in Hungary. Women working in bars and restaurants were primarily affected by the intervention. In this research, we analyze the effect of this smoking ban on the outcomes of their pregnancies. Using individual live birth, fetal loss, and infant mortality registry data, we examine the probability of live birth, indicators of health at birth, and the probability of death in the first year of life. We apply a difference-in-differences framework and show that the smoking ban has improved health at birth. We observed birth weight to increase by 56 g (95% CI: 4.2 to 106.8) and gestation length by 0.19 weeks (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.36). Due to the ban, the probability of being born with very low and low birth weight has decreased by 1.2 and 2.2 percentage points, respectively (95% CI: -0.2 to -2.2 and 0.06 to -4.4), and we see a 0.9 percentage points reduction in the chance of being born very preterm (95% CI: -0.03 to -1.9). We also observe a decrease in the probability of being born with a low Ponderal index (decrease of 4.1 percentage points, 95% CI: -0.7 to -7.5). Performing a series of robustness and placebo tests, we provide evidence that supports the causal interpretation of our results. We also show that the ban was more beneficial for newborns of parents with low educational attainment and at the bottom of the fetal health endowment distribution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Global Evidence on the Association between POS Advertising Bans and Youth Smoking Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-03-09

    Point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising has been linked to youth smoking susceptibility and experimental smoking. However, there is limited evidence of the association between POS advertising bans and youth smoking participation. This study aims to examine how such bans are associated with current smoking, daily smoking, and regular smoking (≥ 1 cigarettes per day) participation among youth. one to two waves (primarily one wave) of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were conducted in 130 countries between 2007 and 2011. These surveys were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" data using country and year identifiers to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and smoking participation in the past month. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to analyze this association while controlling for age, gender, parents' smoking status, 6 MPOWER policy scores, and GDP per capita. We find that in countries with POS advertising bans, current smoking (OR = 0.73, p ≤ 0.1), daily smoking (OR = 0.70, p ≤ 0.1), and regular smoking (OR = 0.75, p ≤ 0.05) participation in the past month is significantly lower, suggesting that POS promotion bans can potentially reduce youth smoking. This study provides evidence to support the implementation of POS promotion regulations by the US FDA and implementation of the WHO FCTC guidelines regarding restrictions on tobacco POS promotion.

  2. Air pollution in Boston bars before and after a smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyde James N

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We quantified the air quality benefits of a smoke-free workplace law in Boston Massachusetts, U.S.A., by measuring air pollution from secondhand smoke (SHS in 7 pubs before and after the law, comparing actual ventilation practices to engineering society (ASHRAE recommendations, and assessing SHS levels using health and comfort indices. Methods We performed real-time measurements of respirable particle (RSP air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH, in 7 pubs and outdoors in a model-based design yielding air exchange rates for RSP removal. We also assessed ventilation rates from carbon dioxide concentrations. We compared RSP air pollution to the federal Air Quality Index (AQI and the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS to assess health risks, and assessed odor and irritation levels using published SHS-RSP thresholds. Results Pre-smoking-ban RSP levels in 6 pubs (one pub with a non-SHS air quality problem was excluded averaged 179 μg/m3, 23 times higher than post-ban levels, which averaged 7.7 μg/m3, exceeding the NAAQS for fine particle pollution (PM2.5 by nearly 4-fold. Pre-smoking ban levels of fine particle air pollution in all 7 of the pubs were in the Unhealthy to Hazardous range of the AQI. In the same 6 pubs, pre-ban indoor carcinogenic PPAH averaged 61.7 ng/m3, nearly 10 times higher than post-ban levels of 6.32 ng/m3. Post-ban particulate air pollution levels were in the Good AQI range, except for 1 venue with a defective gas-fired deep-fat fryer, while post-ban carcinogen levels in all 7 pubs were lower than outdoors. Conclusion During smoking, although pub ventilation rates per occupant were within ASHRAE design parameters for the control of carbon dioxide levels for the number of occupants present, they failed to control SHS carcinogens or RSP. Nonsmokers' SHS odor and irritation sensory thresholds were massively exceeded. Post-ban air pollution measurements showed 90% to 95

  3. Air pollution in Boston bars before and after a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repace, James L; Hyde, James N; Brugge, Doug

    2006-10-27

    We quantified the air quality benefits of a smoke-free workplace law in Boston Massachusetts, U.S.A., by measuring air pollution from secondhand smoke (SHS) in 7 pubs before and after the law, comparing actual ventilation practices to engineering society (ASHRAE) recommendations, and assessing SHS levels using health and comfort indices. We performed real-time measurements of respirable particle (RSP) air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), in 7 pubs and outdoors in a model-based design yielding air exchange rates for RSP removal. We also assessed ventilation rates from carbon dioxide concentrations. We compared RSP air pollution to the federal Air Quality Index (AQI) and the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) to assess health risks, and assessed odor and irritation levels using published SHS-RSP thresholds. Pre-smoking-ban RSP levels in 6 pubs (one pub with a non-SHS air quality problem was excluded) averaged 179 microg/m3, 23 times higher than post-ban levels, which averaged 7.7 microg/m3, exceeding the NAAQS for fine particle pollution (PM2.5) by nearly 4-fold. Pre-smoking ban levels of fine particle air pollution in all 7 of the pubs were in the Unhealthy to Hazardous range of the AQI. In the same 6 pubs, pre-ban indoor carcinogenic PPAH averaged 61.7 ng/m3, nearly 10 times higher than post-ban levels of 6.32 ng/m3. Post-ban particulate air pollution levels were in the Good AQI range, except for 1 venue with a defective gas-fired deep-fat fryer, while post-ban carcinogen levels in all 7 pubs were lower than outdoors. During smoking, although pub ventilation rates per occupant were within ASHRAE design parameters for the control of carbon dioxide levels for the number of occupants present, they failed to control SHS carcinogens or RSP. Nonsmokers' SHS odor and irritation sensory thresholds were massively exceeded. Post-ban air pollution measurements showed 90% to 95% reductions in PPAH and RSP respectively, differing

  4. Smoking ban in public places in Japan - adverse legacy of the 2020 Olympic Paralympic Games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Katanoda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Although Japan is a nation where the world first epidemiological evidence on the health effect of secondhand smoke was produced, no indoor smoking ban was realized on a national level. In 2013, Tokyo was selected as the city of 2020 Olympic Paralympic Games, since when the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW and various concerned parties have been working to realize smoking ban in public places. However, as of July, 2017, the legislation has been unsuccessful. We chronologically reviewed the related events to clarify underlying obstacles to the legislation. Methods Events related to the movement of the national smoking ban in Japan were extracted from the internet and public available data sources. The concerned bodies were classified into five categories (academic/medical, administration, politics, industry, and advocacy, and chronological relations were analyzed. Results Academic/medical and administrative bodies closely collaborated and effectively released scientific rationale of smoking ban in 2016. The MHLW's draft policy released in Mar. 2017 included an exception of smoking ban for restaurants and bars (allowing designated smoking rooms. However, even this partial banning policy was faced with fierce objections from the allied industry including restaurant, hotel businesses and tobacco industry. Diet members in the ruling Liberal Democratic Party acted in a coordinated manner; reportedly 90% of the Diet members attending the party committee on health, labour and welfare objected to the MHLW's draft policy. The allied industry spread a signature collecting activity earlier and much more organizationally than academic/medical and advocacy groups. The party committee of the LDP was held only twice. Although the MHLW proposed a temporary amendment, the committee failed to reach an agreement. Conclusions The series of events suggest that the tobacco lobbies are more powerful in the policy-making process in Japan

  5. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  7. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. 4 tabs.

  8. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  9. Impact of a smoking ban in public places: a rapid assessment in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Bharathi; Plumettaz, Chloé; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2011-11-01

    We assessed the impact of a smoking ban in hospitality venues in the Seychelles 9 months after legislation was implemented. Survey officers observed compliance with the smoking ban in 38 most popular hospitality venues and administered a structured questionnaire to two customers, two workers and one manager in each venue. Virtually no customers or workers were seen smoking in the indoor premises. Patrons, workers and managers largely supported the ban. The personnel of the hospitality venues reported that most smokers had no difficulty refraining from smoking. However, a third of workers did not systematically request customers to stop smoking and half of them did not report adequate training. Workers reported improved health. No substantial change in the number of customers was noted. A ban on public smoking was generally well implemented in hospitality venues but some less than optimal findings suggest the need for adequate training of workers and strengthened enforcement measures. The simple and inexpensive methodology used in this rapid survey may be a useful approach to evaluate the implementation and impact of clean air policy in low and middle-income countries.

  10. Slovak Republic, indoor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.; Daniel, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this report the annual average effective doses from indoor radon exposure were calculated for each district of Slovakia. The population-weighted arithmetic mean of indoor radon concentration was calculated for every district considering different types of houses.

  11. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  12. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  13. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  14. The impact of the Cyprus comprehensive smoking ban on air quality and economic business of hospitality venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophi Costas A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several countries, including Cyprus, have passed smoke-free legislations in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the indoor levels of particulate matter in hospitality venues in Cyprus before and after the implementation of the law on 1/1/2010, evaluate the role of enforcement, and examine the legislation’s effect on revenue and employment. Methods Several hospitality venues (n = 35 were sampled between April 2007 and January 2008, and 21 of those were re-sampled after the introduction of the smoking ban, between March and May 2010. Data on enforcement was provided by the Cyprus Police whereas data on revenue and employment within the hospitality industry of Cyprus were obtained from the Cyprus Statistical Service; comparisons were made between the corresponding figures before and after the implementation of the law. Results The median level of PM2.5 associated with secondhand smoking was 161 μg/m3 pre-ban and dropped to 3 μg/m3 post-ban (98% decrease, p  Conclusion Smoke free legislations, when enforced, are highly effective in improving the air quality and reducing the levels of indoor PM2.5. Strict enforcement plays a key role in the successful implementation of smoking bans. Even in nations with high smoking prevalence comprehensive smoking laws can be effectively implemented and have no negative effect on accommodation, food, and beverage services.

  15. Indoor multipath mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragünas, Kostas; Borre, Kai

    2010-01-01

    There are many applications that require continuous positioning in combined outdoor urban and indoor environments. GNSS has been used for a long time in outdoor environments, while indoor positioning is still a challenging task. One of the major degradations that GNSS receivers experience indoors...

  16. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  17. India and the nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    India has sought a nuclear-test ban for the last 42 years bur is now unable to sign the Comprehensive Test ban Treaty (CTBT) when it is in its final form and moved to block its transmittal from the Conference on Disarmament to the UN General assembly. The negotiating mandate for the CTBT required it to effectively contribute to the process of disarmament. It is towards this end that India proposed amendments. Nuclear disarmament is fundamental for India's strategic and security interests. The only viable solution to India's security concerns related to nuclear weapons is in pursuing total elimination of nuclear weapons from national arsenals

  18. Clerics urge ban on altering germline cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, C

    1983-06-24

    A resolution calling for a ban on genetic engineering of human reproductive cells has been signed by leaders of almost every major church group in the United States. Some of the religious leaders, while not certain that a total moratorium should be placed on altering germline cells, signed the statement in order to stimulate public debate on the issue. Legislation has recently been introduced in Congress to set up a committee to monitor genetic engineering and its human applications, but author Jeremy Rifkin, the impetus behind the church leaders' resolution, argues that such tampering threatens the gene pool and should be banned altogether.

  19. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled the crea......In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...

  20. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and the smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. Since the first version of this review in 2010, more countries have introduced national smoking legislation banning indoor smoking. To assess the effects of legislative smoking bans on (1) morbidity and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke, and (2) smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and reference lists of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; February 2015. We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans affecting populations. The minimum standard was having an indoor smoking ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. Our search included a broad range of research designs including: randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before-and-after studies, interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. One author extracted characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies and a second author checked the details. We extracted health and smoking behaviour outcomes. We did not attempt a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity in design and content of the studies included. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. There are 77 studies included in this updated review. We retained 12 studies from the original review and identified 65 new studies. Evidence from 21 countries is

  1. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  2. The impact of the Cyprus comprehensive smoking ban on air quality and economic business of hospitality venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophi, Costas A; Paisi, Martha; Pampaka, Despina; Kehagias, Martha; Vardavas, Constantine; Connolly, Gregory N

    2013-01-27

    Several countries, including Cyprus, have passed smoke-free legislations in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the indoor levels of particulate matter in hospitality venues in Cyprus before and after the implementation of the law on 1/1/2010, evaluate the role of enforcement, and examine the legislation's effect on revenue and employment. Several hospitality venues (n = 35) were sampled between April 2007 and January 2008, and 21 of those were re-sampled after the introduction of the smoking ban, between March and May 2010. Data on enforcement was provided by the Cyprus Police whereas data on revenue and employment within the hospitality industry of Cyprus were obtained from the Cyprus Statistical Service; comparisons were made between the corresponding figures before and after the implementation of the law. The median level of PM2.5 associated with secondhand smoking was 161 μg/m3 pre-ban and dropped to 3 μg/m3 post-ban (98% decrease, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, in the year following the ban, the hotel turnover rate increased by 4.1% and the restaurant revenue by 6.4%; employment increased that same year by 7.2% and 1.0%, respectively. Smoke free legislations, when enforced, are highly effective in improving the air quality and reducing the levels of indoor PM2.5. Strict enforcement plays a key role in the successful implementation of smoking bans. Even in nations with high smoking prevalence comprehensive smoking laws can be effectively implemented and have no negative effect on accommodation, food, and beverage services.

  3. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  4. Exposure to ultrafine particles in hospitality venues with partial smoking bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Schietz, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Fine particles in hospitality venues with insufficient smoking bans indicate health risks from passive smoking. In a random sample of Viennese inns (restaurants, cafes, bars, pubs and discotheques) effects of partial smoking bans on indoor air quality were examined by measurement of count, size and chargeable surface of ultrafine particles (UFPs) sized 10-300 nm, simultaneously with mass of particles sized 300-2500 nm (PM2.5). Air samples were taken in 134 rooms unannounced during busy hours and analyzed by a diffusion size classifier and an optical particle counter. Highest number concentrations of particles were found in smoking venues and smoking rooms (median 66,011 pt/cm(3)). Even non-smoking rooms adjacent to smoking rooms were highly contaminated (median 25,973 pt/cm(3)), compared with non-smoking venues (median 7408 pt/cm(3)). The particle number concentration was significantly correlated with the fine particle mass (Phospitality premises. Health protection of non-smoking guests and employees from risky UFP concentration is insufficient, even in rooms labeled "non-smoking". Partial smoking bans with separation of smoking rooms failed.

  5. Should We Ban Instant Messaging In School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texley, Sharon; DeGennaro, Donna

    2005-01-01

    This article is a brief debate on the pros and cons of allowing students to use instant messaging (IM) in school. On one hand, teenagers' desire to socialize can overcome other priorities and schools may set policies to ban instant messaging. The contrary view is that schools should embrace the IM technology being popularized by youth and find…

  6. Smoking bans and the secondhand smoking problem: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Annette; Nell, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Smoking bans are gaining widespread support in the European Union and other countries. The vast majority of these bans are partial bans given that smoking is still permitted in certain places. This article investigates the role of partial smoking bans in coping with externalities caused by the secondhand smoking problem. Although it is widely known that Pigouvian taxation is superior to a perfect ban, this result does not necessarily carry over to a partial ban because taxes cannot (easily) be differentiated according to location. We show that under an easy and intuitive condition, (1) enacting a partial smoking ban alone always improves social welfare (a) in an unregulated society and (b) even in a regulated society if externalities can be eliminated, and (2) it is ensured that a combination of Pigouvian tax and a partial smoking ban leads to a higher social optimum than implementing corrective Pigouvian taxation alone.

  7. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Contact Us Share Introduction to Indoor Air Quality Health Effects Primary Causes Identifying Problems Improving IAQ ...

  8. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  9. [Impact of the Italian smoking ban and comparison with the evaluation of the Scottish ban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Italian smoking ban entered into force on January 10th, 2005, and banned smoking from enclosed workplaces and hospitality premises (HPs), even though provided separated smoking areas. Actually, only 1-2%of HPs built these areas, while no figures are available on the prevalence of smoking rooms in workplaces other than HPs. Italians were more in favour of the law after the ban. In 2008 Italians were the Europeans most in favour of a national smoking ban (88%). Measurements of environmental nicotine and particulate matter with a diameter hospitality sector against the ban in 2004, no studies on impact of the ban on hospitality industry businesses were conducted in Italy. We used the conceptual model for the evaluation of the impact of smoke-free policies, proposed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), to compare Italian and Scottish evaluations of the bans. The Scottish evaluation was planned some years before the implementation, and was based on a network of researchers of different disciplines. The quantification of decrease in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in the general population and in hospitality workers was one of the main objectives of the Scottish evaluation. The Italian evaluation devoted more attention to distal (reduction of hospital admissions) and incidental effects of the law (trend in smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption). Qualitative studies in bars, homes, and communities recording changes in attitudes on tobacco smoking after the introduction of the ban, were conducted only in Scotland. In Italy the main problem was to develop and fund a network of researchers involved on a shared evaluation plan.

  10. Indoor ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, S.O.; Lindvall, T.; Maansson, L-G.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation in indoor air is discussed in the perspective of the effective dose equivalents from other sources of radiation. Estimates of effective doses equivalents from indoor radon and its contribution to lung cancer incidence are reviewed. Swedish experiences with cost effective remedial actions are presented. The authors present optimal strategies for screening measurements and remedial actions in cost-benefit perspective. (author.)

  11. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  12. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Methods: Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. Results: The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p p p < 0.001. Conclusions: POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  13. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  14. Indoor Climate Quality Assessment -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansaldi, Roberta; Asadi, Ehsan; Costa, José Joaquim

    This Guidebook gives building professionals useful support in the practical measurements and monitoring of the indoor climate in buildings. It is evident that energy consumption in a building is directly influenced by required and maintained indoor comfort level. Wireless technologies for measure...... for measurement and monitoring have allowed a significantly increased number of possible applications, especially in existing buildings. The Guidebook illustrates several cases with the instrumentation of the monitoring and assessment of indoor climate.......This Guidebook gives building professionals useful support in the practical measurements and monitoring of the indoor climate in buildings. It is evident that energy consumption in a building is directly influenced by required and maintained indoor comfort level. Wireless technologies...

  15. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality is rapidly becoming a major environmental concern because a significant amount of people spend a substantial amount of time in a variety of different indoor environments. Health effects from indoor pollutants fall into two categories: those that are experienced immediately after exposure and those that do not show up until years later. They are: radon, formaldehyde, asbestos, lead and household organic chemicals. The authors presented a source-by-source look at the most common indoor air pollutants, their potential health effects, and ways to reduce their levels in the home. There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: one method is source control, another is through ventilation improvements, and the third is the utilization of some sort of mechanical device such as air cleaners

  16. A Novel Brominated Triazine-based Flame Retardant (TTBP-TAZ) in Plastic Consumer Products and Indoor Dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballesteros Gomez, A.M.; de Boer, J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a novel brominated flame retardant named 2,4,6-tris(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine (TTBP-TAZ) is reported for the first time in plastic parts of consumer products and indoor dust samples. TTBP-TAZ was identified by untargeted screening and can be a replacement of the banned

  17. Core public health functions for BC : evidence review : air quality-indoor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copes, R.; Ouellette, V.; Lee, K.S.; Brauer, M. [British Columbia Ministry of Health, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    Indoor sources of pollutants can have a major impact on the health of Canadians, as pollutant concentrations are often higher indoors than outdoors. This paper assessed data compiled by public health indoor air interventions. The aim of the study was to identify the current state of evidence on the impacts of indoor pollution in order to develop performance improvement plans for public health programs in British Columbia (BC). The literature review used several databases to review interventions involving humidity control; ventilation; particulate matter; indoor allergens; and environmental tobacco smoke. Results of the review showed that improving inadequate ventilation can significantly decrease the prevalence of sick building syndrome as well as other self-reported symptoms attributed to indoor air pollution. A review of the literature also demonstrated that many building ventilation systems are not functioning to design specifications. The poor quality of studies on the health impacts of particulate matter or dust made it difficult to fully assess the benefits of particle filtration on human health. Studies investigating the impacts of controlling indoor allergens suggested that the avoidance of dust mites may benefit people with allergies. Evidence gained from studies on environmental tobacco smoke showed that banning or restricting smoking will reduce the burden of illness from pollutants in indoor air. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Core public health functions for BC : evidence review : air quality-indoor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copes, R.; Ouellette, V.; Lee, K.S.; Brauer, M.

    2006-04-01

    Indoor sources of pollutants can have a major impact on the health of Canadians, as pollutant concentrations are often higher indoors than outdoors. This paper assessed data compiled by public health indoor air interventions. The aim of the study was to identify the current state of evidence on the impacts of indoor pollution in order to develop performance improvement plans for public health programs in British Columbia (BC). The literature review used several databases to review interventions involving humidity control; ventilation; particulate matter; indoor allergens; and environmental tobacco smoke. Results of the review showed that improving inadequate ventilation can significantly decrease the prevalence of sick building syndrome as well as other self-reported symptoms attributed to indoor air pollution. A review of the literature also demonstrated that many building ventilation systems are not functioning to design specifications. The poor quality of studies on the health impacts of particulate matter or dust made it difficult to fully assess the benefits of particle filtration on human health. Studies investigating the impacts of controlling indoor allergens suggested that the avoidance of dust mites may benefit people with allergies. Evidence gained from studies on environmental tobacco smoke showed that banning or restricting smoking will reduce the burden of illness from pollutants in indoor air. 20 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  20. Associations of Bar and Restaurant Smoking Bans With Smoking Behavior in the CARDIA Study: A 25-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Stephanie L; Auchincloss, Amy H; Tabb, Loni Philip; Stehr, Mark; Shikany, James M; Schreiner, Pamela J; Widome, Rachel; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2018-06-01

    Indoor smoking bans have often been associated with reductions in smoking prevalence. However, few studies have evaluated their association with within-person changes in smoking behaviors. We linked longitudinal data from 5,105 adults aged 18-30 years at baseline from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (1985-2011) to state, county, and local policies mandating 100% smoke-free bars and restaurants by census tract. We used fixed-effects models to examine the association of smoking bans with within-person change in current smoking risk, smoking intensity (smoking ≥10 cigarettes/day on average vs. <10 cigarettes/day), and quitting attempts, using both linear and nonlinear adjustment for secular trends. In models assuming a linear secular trend, smoking bans were associated with a decline in current smoking risk and smoking intensity and an increased likelihood of a quitting attempt. The association with current smoking was greatest among participants with a bachelor's degree or higher. In models with a nonlinear secular trend, pooled results were attenuated (confidence intervals included the null), but effect modification results were largely unchanged. Findings suggest that smoking ban associations may be difficult to disentangle from other tobacco control interventions and emphasize the importance of evaluating equity throughout policy implementation.

  1. Communicating contentious health policy: lessons from Ireland's workplace smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Declan; Trench, Brian; Clancy, Luke

    2012-05-01

    The Irish workplace smoking ban has been described as possibly a tipping point for public health worldwide. This article presents the first analysis of the newspaper coverage of the ban over the duration of the policy formation process. It adds to previous studies by analyzing how health communication strategists engaged, over time, with a newsworthy topic, viewed as being culturally controversial. It analyzes a sample of media content (n = 1,154) and firsthand accounts from pro-ban campaigners and journalists (n = 10). The analysis shows that the ban was covered not primarily as a health issue: Economic, political, social, democratic, and technical aspects also received significant attention. It shows how coverage followed controversy and examines how pro-ban campaigners countered effectively the anti-ban communication efforts of influential social actors in the economic and political spheres. The analysis demonstrates that medical-political sources successfully defined the ban's issues as centrally concerned with public health.

  2. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Preventing Skin Cancer Through Reduction of Indoor Tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M.; Fox, Kathleen A.; Guy, Gery P.; Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Sampson, Blake P.; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices. PMID:23683987

  4. Japan. Human cloning ban allows some research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normile, D

    2000-12-08

    TOKYO--Japanese legislators last week approved a ban on human cloning that leaves room for the use of certain techniques in basic research. The action comes at the same time officials in two other countries--China and France--aired similar proposals that would prohibit so-called reproductive cloning while recognizing the possible importance of the technology in combating disease and improving human health.

  5. Should Selecting Saviour Siblings be Banned?

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Sally; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. \\ud \\ud This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour ...

  6. ILO to promote global asbestos ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Rory

    2006-01-01

    The International Labour Office (ILO) is to pursue a global ban on asbestos, the world's biggest ever industrial killer. The landmark decision came with the adoption of a resolution on 14 June 2006 at the ILO conference in Geneva and followed a high level union campaign. Rory O'Neill asked Jukka Takala, director of ILO's Safe Work program, what ILO will now do to help make the world asbestos-free.

  7. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kwan Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs. Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK.

  8. Banning banking in EU emissions trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Ehrhart, Karl-Martin; Hoppe, Christian; Seifert, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Admitting banking in emissions trading systems reduces overall compliance costs by allowing for inter-temporal flexibility: cost savings can be traded over time. However, unless individual EU Member States (MS) decide differently, the transfer of unused allowances from the period of 2005-2007 into the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. 2008-2012, will be prohibited. In this paper, we first explore the implications of such a ban on banking when initial emission targets are lenient. This analysis is based on a simulation which was recently carried out in Germany with companies and with a student control group. The findings suggest that a EU-wide ban on banking would lead to efficiency losses in addition to those losses which arise from the lack of inter-temporal flexibility. Second, we use simple game-theoretic considerations to argue that, under reasonable assumptions, such a EU-wide ban on banking will be the equilibrium outcome. Thus, to avoid a possible prisoners' dilemma, MS should have co-ordinated their banking decisions

  9. Towards a nuclear-test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A survey of international efforts from the partial test-ban Treaty (in atmosphere, in outer space and under water) in 1963 to the Soviet-USA negotiations on verification measures for the threshold test-ban Treaty is given. As was the case in the bilateral and trilateral negotiations, the question of adequate verification procedures has remained one of the major problems in the multilateral considerations on a comprehensive test ban. Over the years, a number of proposals have been made in order to solve the issue, in particular by Sweden and by the Soviet Union. In 1988, the four experimental data centres, situated in Canberra, Moscow, Stockholm and Washington, carried out separate and joint experiments in analysis methodology. Communication techniques between the four international data centres and a number of national seismological stations were also tested. In addition, a global data-gathering experiment was conducted, resulting in the creation of an initial research data base at the experimental data centre in Canberra. Further technical experiments are planned for 1989, an in 1990 a large-scale experiment in data exchange and analysis, involving up to a hundred seismological stations globally and lasting several months, is foreseen

  10. An indoor chemical cocktail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorovski, Sasho; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2018-02-01

    In the past 50 years, many of the contaminants and chemical transformations that occur in outdoor waters, soils, and air have been elucidated. However, the chemistry of the indoor environment in which we live most of the time—up to 90% in some societies—is not nearly as well studied. Recent work has highlighted the wealth of chemical transformations that occur indoors. This chemistry is associated with 3 of the top 10 risk factors for negative health outcomes globally: household air pollution from solid fuels, tobacco smoking, and ambient particulate matter pollution (1). Assessments of human exposure to indoor pollutants must take these reactive processes into consideration.

  11. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  12. Indoor environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Environmental Health (IEH) is a comprehensive term that includes the effects of quantity of air, light and noise in a space and the physical, physiological and psychological aspects from colours, aesthetics, services, outdoor climate...

  13. Indoor environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, SA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Environmental Health (IEH) is a comprehensive term that includes the effects of quantity of air, light and noise in a space and the physical, physiological and psychological aspects from colours, aesthetics, services, outdoor climate...

  14. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  15. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-06-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  16. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  17. Towards Mobile Information Systems for Indoor Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Internet of things (IOT and indoor positioning technologies such as Wi-Fi and RFID, indoor mobile information systems have become a new research hotspot. Based on the unique features of indoor space and urgent needs on indoor mobile applications, in this paper we analyze some key issues in indoor mobile information systems, including positioning technologies in indoor environments, representation models for indoor spaces, query processing techniques for indoor moving objects, and index structures for indoor mobile applications. Then, we present an indoor mobile information management system named IndoorDB. Finally, we give some future research topics about indoor mobile information systems.

  18. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  19. A Qualitative Study Among Mexican Americans to Understand Factors Influencing the Adoption and Enforcement of Home Smoking Bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Lara S; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Hovell, Melbourne F; Escoffrey, Cam; Fernandez, Maria E; Jones, Jennifer A; Cavazos, Jazmine; Gutierrez Monroy, Jo Ann A; Kegler, Michelle C

    2017-11-07

    gender roles, unique contexts of multigenerational households, and language preferences. Our work confirms previous research among Latinos regarding importance of common cultural constructs, such as respeto (deference), simpatia (courtesy and agreeability), and familismo (family attachment), which inform behaviors that may impede or facilitate adopting and enforcing home smoking bans. Decision-making gender imbalances, high regard for head-of-household and guest smokers, and less sensitivity to the health of nonsmoker adults compared with children may lead to permission to smoke indoors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  1. Can a smoking ban save your heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzonna, Fabrizio; Salari, Paola

    2018-06-04

    This paper evaluates the causal effect of environmental tobacco exposure on health by exploiting the time and geographical variation in public-place smoking bans implemented in Switzerland between 2007 and 2011. We use administrative data on hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, which allow to measure the short-run effects of the policy on an objective metric of health. We show that the incidence of acute myocardial infarction decreases by approximately 8% immediately after implementation of the law with large heterogeneity across regions. Our results indicate that the policy was effective in reducing the negative externality of smoking with potential spillovers on health inequality. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Burqa Ban, Freedom of Religion and ‘Living Together’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the French 2010 law banning face-covering clothing in public spaces, the so-called burqa ban, did not violate the right to freedom of religion. Due to the ‘wide margin of appreciation’, the Court deemed the ban proportionate...... to the French state’s legitimate aim with the ban of preserving the conditions of ‘living together’. The paper analyses and provides an internal criticism of the Court’s justification for this judgement focusing on the aim of living together and the right to freedom of religion. The Court’s justification...

  3. Equity Options During the Shorting Ban of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusret Cakici

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Securities and Exchange Commission’s 2008 emergency order introduced a shorting ban of some 800 financials traded in the US. This paper provides an empirical analysis of the options market around the ban period. Using transaction level data from OPRA (The Options Price Reporting Authority, we study the options volume, spreads, pricing measures and option trade volume informativeness during the ban. We also consider the put–call parity relationship. While mostly statistically significant, economic magnitudes of our results suggest that the impact of the ban on the equity options market was likely not as dramatic as initially thought.

  4. Effect of British hunting ban on fox numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip J; Harris, Stephen; Webbon, Charlotte C

    2002-09-05

    Pressure to ban the hunting of foxes with hounds in Britain has fuelled debate about its contribution to the control of fox populations. We took advantage of a nationwide one-year ban on fox-hunting during the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001 to examine this issue and found that the ban had no measurable impact on fox numbers in randomly selected areas. Our results argue against suggestions that fox populations would increase markedly in the event of a permanent ban on hunting.

  5. A View Indoors, Indoor Environment Division's e-Article Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Environments Division has created partnership with public and private sector entities to help encourage the public to take action to minimize their risk and mitigate indoor air quality problems.

  6. Implementation of a campus-wide Irish hospital smoking ban in 2009: prevalence and attitudinal trends among staff and patients in lead up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    We report the evidence base that supported the decision to implement the first campus-wide hospital smoking ban in the Republic of Ireland with effect from 1 January 2009. Three separate data sources are utilized; surveillance data collected from patients and staff in 8 surveys between 1997 and 2006, a 1-week observational study to assess smoker behaviour in designated smoking shelters and an attitudinal interview with 28 smoker patients and 30 staff on the implications of the 2004 indoors workplace smoking ban, conducted in 2005. The main outcome measures were trends in prevalence of smoking over time according to age, sex and occupational groups and attitudes to the 2004 ban and a projected outright campus ban. Smoking rates among patients remained steady, 24.2% in 1997\\/98 and 22.7% in 2006. Staff smoking rates declined from 27.4% to 17.8%, with a strong occupational gradient. Observational evidence suggested a majority of those using smoking shelters in 2005 were women and health-care workers rather than patients. Attitudes of patients and staff were positive towards the 2004 ban, but with some ambivalence on the effectiveness of current arrangements. Staff particularly were concerned with patient safety issues associated with smoking outdoors. The 2004 ban was supported by 87.6% of patients and 81.3% of staff in 2006 and a majority of 58.6% of patients and 52.4% of staff agreed with an outright campus ban being implemented. These findings were persuasive in instigating a process in 2007\\/08 to go totally smoke-free by 2009, the stages for which are discussed.

  7. Towards a nuclear-test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In 1986 and again in 1987 the General Assembly adopted resolutions by which it called on States conducting nuclear-test explosions to notify the Secretary-General, within one week of each explosion, of the time, place, yield and site characteristics of the test and also invited all other States to provide any such data on nuclear explosions that they might have. Over the years, in the Conference on Disarmament, members of the Group of 21 (mostly neutral and non-aligned countries) have continued to attach the utmost importance to the urgent conclusion of a comprehensive test-ban treaty as a significant contribution to the aim of ending the qualitative refinement of nuclear weapons and the development of new types of such weapons as well as of reversing the nuclear-arms race and achieving nuclear disarmament. In 1995 a conference will be convened to decide whether the non-proliferation Treaty will continue in force indefinitely, or will be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Many States support the view that a comprehensive test ban would be a significant contribution to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; and some believe that, without a cessation of nuclear testing, it may not be possible to extend the NPT well beyond 1995. Other States, however, are of the opinion that the NPT, independently, offers benefits for the security of all States and, by its extension, will continue to do so

  8. Are bans on kidney sales unjustifiably paternalistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Erik

    2014-03-01

    This paper challenges the view that bans on kidney sales are unjustifiably paternalistic, that is, that they unduly deny people the freedom to make decisions about their own bodies in order to protect them from harm. I argue that not even principled anti-paternalists need to reject such bans. This is because their rationale is not hard paternalism, which anti-paternalists repudiate, but soft paternalism, which they in principle accept. More precisely, I suggest that their rationale is what Franklin Miller and Alan Wertheimer call 'group soft paternalism'. Group soft paternalistic policies restrict the freedom of autonomous individuals, not for their own good (hard paternalism), but as an unavoidable consequence of seeking to protect other, non-autonomous individuals from harms that they have not voluntarily chosen (soft paternalism). Group soft paternalism supports prohibiting kidney sales on three conditions: (1) that such sales are potentially harmful to vendors, (2) that many vendors would suffer impaired autonomy, and (3) that distinguishing between autonomous and non-autonomous vendors and interfering only with the latter is unfeasible. I provide reasons for thinking that these conditions will often hold. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Indoor Tanning Is Not Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sun is by using these tips for skin cancer prevention. Indoor tanning is not a safe way to get vitamin ... to previous findings on the association between indoor tanning and skin cancer. Only a small number of people reported ...

  10. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  11. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  12. Indoor combustion and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W

    2008-08-01

    Indoor combustion produces both gases (eg, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide) and particulate matter that may affect the development or exacerbation of asthma. Sources in the home include both heating devices (eg, fireplaces, woodstoves, kerosene heaters, flued [ie, vented] or nonflued gas heaters) and gas stoves for cooking. This article highlights the recent literature examining associations between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma development and severity. Since asthma is a chronic condition affecting both children and adults, both age groups are included in this article. Overall, there is some evidence of an association between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma, particularly asthma symptoms in children. Some sources of combustion such as coal stoves have been more consistently associated with these outcomes than other sources such as woodstoves.

  13. Indoor wayfinding and navigation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Due to the widespread use of navigation systems for wayfinding and navigation in the outdoors, researchers have devoted their efforts in recent years to designing navigation systems that can be used indoors. This book is a comprehensive guide to designing and building indoor wayfinding and navigation systems. It covers all types of feasible sensors (for example, Wi-Fi, A-GPS), discussing the level of accuracy, the types of map data needed, the data sources, and the techniques for providing routes and directions within structures.

  14. Graph Model Based Indoor Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin

    2009-01-01

    The tracking of the locations of moving objects in large indoor spaces is important, as it enables a range of applications related to, e.g., security and indoor navigation and guidance. This paper presents a graph model based approach to indoor tracking that offers a uniform data management...

  15. BAN-Based m-health Services: Experiences and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarda, Marianne; Jones, Valerie M.; Stemerding, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    The University of Twente and partners are developing and prototyping Body Area networks (BANs) for healthcare. We define a BAN as a network of devices worn on or around the body which communicate amongst themselves and perform a set of services for the user. Our work began with the European

  16. The Operational Impact of the U.S. Assassination Ban

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berg, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    ... banned its use regardless of the nature of the conflict or the status of the leader. The United States should eliminate the assassination ban. As potentially one of the most effective and efficient means for combating and deterring aggression from rogue states and terrorists, assassination or at least the credible threat of assassination, should be an option available to the United States.

  17. The Impact of the Workplace Smoking Ban in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Beomsoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    A full work area smoking ban reduced the current smoking rate by 9.6 percentage points among males and the average daily consumption among smokers by 24 percent relative to no smoking ban. Secondhand smoke showed a dramatic decrease of 88 percent from the sample mean among males. The public anti-smoking campaign did not show any significant impact on smoking behavior.

  18. Book Banning in the High Schools, 1975-81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John Anthony

    1982-01-01

    Describes recent cases of high school book banning illustrating patterns of censorship in the United States. The author examines reasons for book banning, the motivations behind this kind of censorship, and the ideological orientation of groups responsible for it. A bibliography of information on censorship is included. (AM)

  19. Internationalization of Oman Fisheries Firms After the European Union Ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zaibet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of the l998 ban on Oman fish exports to the EU markets and ensuing the internationalization of Oman fish companies. The ban raises two concerns that the paper intends to answer: (i how firms have responded to surmount the ban, and (ii which strategies are more effective in the process of internationalization. The paper distinguishes three sets of actions: during the ban and immediate actions; short term actions; and long term actions. Besides government support for the implementation of international norms of quality and safety control, firms have responded individually to the EU ban. The actions subsequently undertaken by firms in response to the ban were selected: identification of new markets (alternatives; implementation of the required regulations and needed support to continue exporting to traditional European markets (competence; and long term business and marketing strategies (strategic thinking. These actions or steps represent the internationalization process or approach followed by the fisheries firms in Oman. All these actions have been undertaken after the EU ban, which leads to the conclusion that the ban has indeed worked as a driving force to internationalize, i.e. to develop the requisites of international markets.

  20. Impact of Presence of Children on Indoor Tobacco Restrictions in Households of Urban and Rural Adult Tobacco Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Benjamin T; Hinton, Alice; Lu, Rong; Cooper, Sarah; Nagaraja, Haikady; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2018-04-10

    Secondhand smoke exposure in children is changing as a result of new public policy and electronic nicotine products (e-cigarettes). We examined factors related to self-imposed indoor household tobacco restrictions, with emphasis on children in the household and associations with combustible and noncombustible product use. A cross-sectional survey of urban and rural Ohio adult tobacco users classified participants as exclusive combustible users, smokeless tobacco (SLT) users, e-cigarette users, or dual users. They were further stratified according to combustible or noncombustible product use and the presence of indoor tobacco use restrictions. Multiple logistic regression determined factors associated with indoor tobacco restrictions. A total of 1210 tobacco users participated, including 25.7% with children living in the home. Half allowed combustible and two thirds allowed noncombustible tobacco use indoors. Urban location (odds ratio [OR] = 1.58), younger age (OR = 0.88 per 5 year), male sex (OR = 1.40), college education (OR = 1.40), household income of more than $15,000 (OR = 1.78), and being married (OR = 2.43) were associated with a higher likelihood of banning combustible products indoors. SLT (OR = 8.12) and e-cigarette (OR = 5.85) users were more likely to have indoor bans compared to combustible users. Children in the household (OR = 1.89), older age (OR = 1.12 per 5 years), and nonwhite race (OR = 1.68) were associated with a higher likelihood of banning noncombustible products indoors. Combustible (OR = 4.54) and e-cigarette (OR = 3.04) users were more likely than SLT users to have indoor bans. Indoor restrictions on tobacco use remain infrequent in homes with children and are associated with user type and socioeconomic factors. Public policy should target modifiable risk factors for in-home secondhand smoke exposure. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Global Banning of a Diffused Controversial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurses, Kerem; Giones, Ferran; Mehta, Kandarpkumar

    2017-01-01

    We study the deinstitutionalization of a controversial practice that had previously reached a level of international diffusion. We draw on international diffusion and deinstitutionalization theory to study the emergence and diffusion of the third-party ownership practice in the soccer industry. We...... use an inductive case study combining archival and interview data to study the determinants of the international diffusion of a controversial practice at a global scale, the contestation, and finally the deinstitutionalization process that resulted from the ban of the practice. We find...... that the opacity of the practice can be a diffusion driver, locally and at the international level, nevertheless the opacity also may lead to different meaning creation attempts and potential discursive battles between actors, and eventually to deinstitutionalization of the practice. This article advances our...

  2. Should selecting saviour siblings be banned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Wilkinson, S

    2004-12-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour siblings would be treated as commodities; (b) a slippery slope argument, which suggests that this practice will lead to the creation of so-called "designer babies"; and (c) a child welfare argument, according to which saviour siblings will be physically and/or psychologically harmed.

  3. Experience of Japan in Achieving a Total Ban on Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugio Furuya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the process through which a total ban on asbestos was achieved in Japan. We reconstructed the process, analyzed the roles of involved parties/events, and drew lessons from the Japanese experience of achieving the ban. In Japan, a bill to phase out asbestos was proposed in 1992 but rejected without deliberation. Wide support for such a ban subsequently grew, however, largely due to the actions of trade unions and civil societies in establishing a coalition, raising awareness, organizing asbestos victims and their families, and propagating information on international developments. A governmental decision towards a ban was made in 2002 based on several national and international factors. A huge asbestos scandal in 2005 preponed the achievement of a total ban and led to the establishment of comprehensive measures to tackle asbestos issues. However, challenges remain for the elimination of asbestos-related diseases.

  4. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Indoor Air Pollution - Danger at Home. N Pon Saravanan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  5. Indoor Tanning (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re treating more and more young patients for skin cancer. Indoor Tanning vs. Sunlight The sun's rays contain two types ... and put yourself at even greater risk for skin cancer. What Tanning Salons Don't Tell You Studies show that ...

  6. Modeling indoor air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepper, D. W; Carrington, David B

    2009-01-01

    ... and ventilation from the more popular textbooks and monographs. We wish to especially acknowledge Dr. Xiuling Wang, who diligently converted many of our old FORTRAN codes into MATLAB files, and also developed the COMSOL example files. Also we thank Ms. Kathryn Nelson who developed the website for the book and indoor air quality computer codes. We are grateful to ...

  7. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  8. Indoor air quality research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The various types of pollutant found in indoor air are introduced and the effects on the health of the occupants of buildings summarized. The ''sick'' building syndrome is described in detail and the need for further investigation into its causes and remedies is stressed. 8 tabs

  9. To ban or not to ban: direct-to-consumer advertising and human rights analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Wellington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues surrounding Direct-To-Consumer Advertising of pharmaceuticals are ripe for scrutiny through the lens of Human Rights analysis. Among the human rights most decisively engaged by DTCA is the right to autonomy in health-related decision making, which in turn incorporates right of access to health-related information. The latter incorporates, in part, right of access to reliable and beneficial information through the avenues of commercial speech among others. Another crucial human right is the right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence. The most commonly invoked policy options in the context of DTCA are either an outright ban or strengthening regulatory oversight in combination with voluntary guidelines. Banning Direct-To-Consumer Advertising risks being both over inclusive and under inclusive as a policy option. A wholesale ban risks being over inclusive in that it could deprive consumers of information about medications with a positive benefit-risk profile, ones that could enhance their quality of health and well being. Thus it risks being overly paternalistic. Banning DTCA, by itself, is under inclusive in that it is insufficient to address the ways that unadvertised drugs can pose significant risks to consumers. Other policy measures would be most optimal to deal with the very serious deficits in the processes by which prescription drugs undergo clinical trials, and garner regulatory approval prior to their promotion in the marketplace. A more finely tuned approach to regulatory oversight is endorsed, one involving a proactive and precautionary approach reliant upon prior approval. Such an approach could help to address the very serious concerns about potential infringements of the human right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence.

  10. Banning the bulb: Institutional evolution and the phased ban of incandescent lighting in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, Nicholas A.A.; Rosenow, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Much academic attention has been directed at analysing energy efficiency investments through the lens of ‘behavioural failure’. These studies have challenged the neoclassical framing of regulation which emphasises the efficiency benefits of price based policy, underpinned by the notion of rational individual self-mastery. The increasing use of a regulatory ban on electric lamps in many countries is one of the most recent and high profile flash points in this dialectic of ‘freedom-versus-the-state’ in the public policy discourse. This paper interrogates this debate through a study of electric lamp diffusion in Germany. It is argued that neoclassical theory and equilibrium analysis is inadequate as a tool for policy analysis as it takes the formation of market institutions, such as existing regulations, for granted. Further still, it may be prone to encourage idealistic debates around such grand narratives which may in practice simply serve those who benefit most from the status quo. Instead we argue for an evolutionary approach which we suggest offers a more pragmatic framing tool which focuses on the formation of market institutions in light of shifting social norms and political goals—in our case, progress towards energy efficiency and environmental goals. - Highlights: • Empirical data on the ban of incandescent lamps in Germany is presented. • The political debate on the ban is positioned within key bodies of theory. • Discourse was found to have positively influenced diffusion of efficient lighting. • Tools for the reframing of political debate are proposed for policy makers

  11. The effect of e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael T; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the effect of county-level e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes using United States birth record data for 7 million pregnant women living in places already comprehensively banning the indoor use of traditional cigarettes. We use both cross-sectional and panel data to estimate our difference-in-difference models. Our panel model results suggest that adoption of a comprehensive indoor vaping restriction increased prenatal smoking by 2.0 percentage points, which is double the estimate obtained from a cross-sectional model. We also document heterogeneity in effect sizes along lines of age, education, and type of insurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of the indoor biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura J; Adams, Rachel I; Bateman, Ashley; Bik, Holly M; Hawks, John; Hird, Sarah M; Hughes, David; Kembel, Steven W; Kinney, Kerry; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Levy, Gabriel; McClain, Craig; Meadow, James F; Medina, Raul F; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Moreau, Corrie S; Munshi-South, Jason; Nichols, Lauren M; Palmer, Clare; Popova, Laura; Schal, Coby; Täubel, Martin; Trautwein, Michelle; Ugalde, Juan A; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Few biologists have studied the evolutionary processes at work in indoor environments. Yet indoor environments comprise approximately 0.5% of ice-free land area--an area as large as the subtropical coniferous forest biome. Here we review the emerging subfield of 'indoor biome' studies. After defining the indoor biome and tracing its deep history, we discuss some of its evolutionary dimensions. We restrict our examples to the species found in human houses--a subset of the environments constituting the indoor biome--and offer preliminary hypotheses to advance the study of indoor evolution. Studies of the indoor biome are situated at the intersection of evolutionary ecology, anthropology, architecture, and human ecology and are well suited for citizen science projects, public outreach, and large-scale international collaborations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. FCTC followed by accelerated implementation of tobacco advertising bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton

    2017-07-01

    We sought to evaluate changes in countries' enacting advertising bans after the effect of ratifying the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We compared adoption of advertising bans on five areas (TV and radio, print media, billboards, point-of-sale, sponsorship) in countries that did versus did not ratify the FCTC, accounting for years since the ratification of the Convention. On average, passage of complete advertising bans accelerated after FCTC ratification. The development was strongest among lower middle-income countries. Lack of state capacity was associated with lower likelihood of countries implementing complete advertising bans. Implementation of complete advertising bans slowed after 2007. Implementation of FCTC Article 13 was followed by increased progress towards complete advertising bans, but progress is incomplete, especially among low-income countries. Low-income countries need comprehensive support to implement FCTC as part of a broad effort to reinvigorate progress on global implementation of the FCTC. Enforcing complete bans requires constant monitoring and attacking of tobacco industry efforts to circumvent them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. The Case for a Global Ban on Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Castleman, Barry; Frank, Arthur; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Morris; Huff, James; Joshi, Tushar Kant; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lemen, Richard; Myers, Jonny; Soffritti, Morando; Soskolne, Colin L.; Takahashi, Ken; Teitelbaum, Daniel; Terracini, Benedetto; Watterson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background All forms of asbestos are now banned in 52 countries. Safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with it. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products, and in those that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called “controlled use” of chrysotile asbestos is often exempted from the ban. In fact, chrysotile has accounted for > 95% of all the asbestos used globally. Objective We examined and evaluated the literature used to support the exemption of chrysotile asbestos from the ban and how its exemption reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. Discussion All forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, are proven human carcinogens. All forms cause malignant mesothelioma and lung and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Illnesses and deaths from asbestos exposure are entirely preventable. Conclusions All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban the mining, manufacture, and use of all forms of asbestos. An international ban is urgently needed. There is no medical or scientific basis to exempt chrysotile from the worldwide ban of asbestos. PMID:20601329

  15. Italy and Austria before and after study: second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality premises before and after 2 years from the introduction of the Italian smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, G; Moshammer, H; Sbrogiò, L; Gasparrini, A; Nebot, M; Neuberger, M; Tamang, E; Lopez, M J; Galeone, D; Serrahima, E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare nicotine concentration in 28 hospitality premises (HPs) in Florence and Belluno, Italy, where a smoking ban was introduced in 2005, and in 19 HPs in Vienna, Austria, where no anti-smoking law entered into force up to now. Airborne nicotine concentrations were measured in the same HPs in winter 2002 or 2004 (pre-ban measurements) and winter 2007 (post-ban measurements). In Florence and Belluno, medians decreased significantly (P hospitality workers of 11.81 and 14.67 per 10,000, respectively. Lifetime excess lung cancer mortality risks for bar and disco-pub workers were 10-20 times higher than that calculated for restaurant workers, both in Italy and Austria. In winter 2007, it dropped to 0.01 per 10,000 in Italy, whereas in Austria it remained at the same levels. The drop of second-hand smoke exposure indicates a substantial improvement in air quality in Italian HPs even after 2 years from the ban. The nation-wide smoking ban introduced in Italy on January 10, 2005, resulted in a drop in second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality premises, whereas in Austria, where there is no similar nation-wide smoking ban, the exposure to second-hand smoke in hospitality premises remains high. Given that second-hand smoke is considered a group 1 carcinogen according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification, the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control strongly recommends the implementation of nation-wide smoke-free policies in order to improve the indoor air quality of hospitality premises and workplaces. Results from our study strongly supports this recommendation.

  16. INDOOR SUBSPACING TO IMPLEMENT INDOORGML FOR INDOOR NAVIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to an increasing demand for indoor navigation, there are great attempts to develop applicable indoor network. Representation for a room as a node is not sufficient to apply complex and large buildings. As OGC established IndoorGML, subspacing to partition the space for constructing logical network is introduced. Concerning subspacing for indoor network, transition space like halls or corridors also have to be considered. This study presents the subspacing process for creating an indoor network in shopping mall. Furthermore, categorization of transition space is performed and subspacing of this space is considered. Hall and squares in mall is especially defined for subspacing. Finally, implementation of subspacing process for indoor network is presented.

  17. Indoor Subspacing to Implement Indoorgml for Indoor Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    According to an increasing demand for indoor navigation, there are great attempts to develop applicable indoor network. Representation for a room as a node is not sufficient to apply complex and large buildings. As OGC established IndoorGML, subspacing to partition the space for constructing logical network is introduced. Concerning subspacing for indoor network, transition space like halls or corridors also have to be considered. This study presents the subspacing process for creating an indoor network in shopping mall. Furthermore, categorization of transition space is performed and subspacing of this space is considered. Hall and squares in mall is especially defined for subspacing. Finally, implementation of subspacing process for indoor network is presented.

  18. Creating XML/PHP Interface for BAN Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Vasileios; Katzis, Konstantinos; Despotou, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in medical and electronic technologies have introduced the use of Body Area Networks as a part of e-health, for constant and accurate monitoring of patients and the transmission as well as processing of the data to develop a holistic Electronic Health Record. The rising global population, different BAN manufacturers and a variety of medical systems pose the issue of interoperability between BANs and systems as well as the proper way to propagate medical data in an organized and efficient manner. In this paper, we describe BANs and propose the use of certain web technologies to address this issue.

  19. Indoor radon II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the growing interest in and public concern about indoor radon, APCA, in April 1987, sponsored the Second International Specialty Conference on Indoor Radon. This book is the proceedings of this conference and includes discussions on: A current assessment of the nature of the problem; Issues related to health effects and risk assessment; The development of public and private sector initiatives; Research into methods of control and prevention; International perspectives; and Measurement methods and programs. The material is intended for the technically oriented and for those responsible for developing programs and initiatives to address this important public health issue. Contributors include federal, state, and provincial program officials and members of the academic and private sectors

  20. The Automobiles as Indoors.

    OpenAIRE

    Songul Acar Vaizoglu; Bekir Kaplan; Cagatay Guler

    2010-01-01

    In this review we aimed to attract attention to toxic chemicals in cars and their effect on health. People spend most of their times in indoors such as houses, workplaces, malls, sport centers, train, transportation vehicles (train, plane, cars). In US, citizens spend nearly 100 minutes in cars per day. There are safety problems in cars except than seatbelt and airbag. Some of these are seats, furnishing, cushions for arm and head, floor covering, accessories and plastic parts. In a study con...

  1. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk R. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  2. Natural radiation exposure indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Cliff, K.D.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the state of knowledge of indoor natural radiation exposure in the U.K. and the current survey work the N.R.P.B. is carrying out in this field. Discussion is limited in this instance to the improvement in estimation of population exposure and the identification of areas and circumstances in which high exposure occur, rather than the study of properties of a building and methods of building affecting exposure to radiation. (U.K.)

  3. Indoor navigation by image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Io Teng; Leong, Chi Chong; Hong, Ka Wo; Pun, Chi-Man

    2017-07-01

    With the progress of smartphones hardware, it is simple on smartphone using image recognition technique such as face detection. In addition, indoor navigation system development is much slower than outdoor navigation system. Hence, this research proves a usage of image recognition technique for navigation in indoor environment. In this paper, we introduced an indoor navigation application that uses the indoor environment features to locate user's location and a route calculating algorithm to generate an appropriate path for user. The application is implemented on Android smartphone rather than iPhone. Yet, the application design can also be applied on iOS because the design is implemented without using special features only for Android. We found that digital navigation system provides better and clearer location information than paper map. Also, the indoor environment is ideal for Image recognition processing. Hence, the results motivate us to design an indoor navigation system using image recognition.

  4. Law and psychiatry: regulating psychotherapy or restricting freedom of speech? California's ban on sexual orientation change efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    California's new law banning sexual orientation change efforts by licensed therapists for patients under 18 immediately provoked court challenges. Therapists, parents, and patients argued that the statute infringed constitutional rights to freedom of speech and parental rights to select treatments for their children. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit rejected all of these claims in a unanimous decision upholding the law. However, the decision evokes concerns that other forms of psychotherapy could be subject to similar regulation. Tort remedies may provide less intrusive means for discouraging use of ineffective and potentially harmful therapies.

  5. Perception of Stakeholders to the Proposed Ban on Cow Hide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Cow hide consumption, cow hide value chain, ponmo .... value chain;. 2. identify sources of information of the respondents on the proposed ban; ..... the health risk associated with the consumption of ponmo may favour its proposed.

  6. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global.

  7. Why ban the sale of cigarettes? The case for abolition

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Robert N

    2013-01-01

    The cigarette is the deadliest artefact in the history of human civilisation. Most of the richer countries of the globe, however, are making progress in reducing both smoking rates and overall consumption. Many different methods have been proposed to steepen this downward slope, including increased taxation, bans on advertising, promotion of cessation, and expansion of smoke-free spaces. One option that deserves more attention is the enactment of local or national bans on the sale of cigarett...

  8. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  9. [Acceptance of a total smoking ban in schools: students' attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, M; Wiborg, G; Hanewinkel, R

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure students' attitudes towards a total smoking ban in schools and towards impositions in cases of violation. Cross-sectional survey of 1 738 students of 12 public schools in Schleswig-Holstein (grades 7-13, age 11-20 years). Data were collected by means of written questionnaires administered during class time. The following variables were assessed: attitude towards smoking ban, attitude towards impositions, age, sex, citizenship, perceived school climate, current smoking, lifetime smoking; for smokers, and additionally, the "Heaviness of Smoking Index". 76.5% of all students agreed with a total smoking ban, 66.4% agreed with the punishment of violations. Higher acceptance rates were found among girls, young students (11-15 years of age), for never-smokers, and for students who feel comfortable at school. Acceptance of the smoking ban is closely related to current smoking status: 93% of the non-smoking students, but only 14% of the daily smoking students agreed with the regulations. Refusal of the ban increased with increasing physical dependence. The intensification of the smoking ban in public schools meets approval by the majority of students. Smoking students should be more strongly involved in the implementation process, e.g., by supplemental cessation programmes.

  10. Indoor air quality: The hidden side of the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bluyssen, P.M.; Clausen, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The physical environment can be defined and understood in manv different ways, both from its nature, e.g., thermal, accoustic, etc., or its dimension, e.g., global, local, urban, indoors. The indoor environment is much more than the space or the light effects; it is the result of a complex

  11. Healthy indoors : achieving healthy indoor environments in Canada : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    A large proportion of the lives of Canadians is spent indoors, whether in vehicles, restaurants, shopping malls, offices or houses. The health of people working and living in those indoor settings might be damaged a a result, despite best efforts. Indoor pollution has been identified as one of the most serious risks to human health, according to numerous leading authorities, among them the American Lung Association, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). A large number of cancer deaths are attributed to indoor pollution each year in the United States, as well as respiratory health problems. A causal link between certain indoor exposures and the development and provocation of asthma was established recently in a report on asthma and indoor air quality published by the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine. Exposure to indoor pollutants has also resulted in thousands of children experiencing elevated blood lead levels. Not enough attention is paid in Canada to pollution in buildings by government agencies, corporations and other non-governmental organizations and citizens. Not much seems to have changed in the past thirty years. An ambitious strategy by Pollution Probe was described in this document, listing the initial goals and measures required to achieve those goals. The creation of Healthy Indoors Partnership (HIP) was proposed to regroup all the stakeholders under the same umbrella. refs., tabs

  12. [Secondhand smoke in hospitality venues. Exposure, body burden, economic and health aspects in conjunction with smoking bans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Kuhn, J; Bolte, G

    2009-04-01

    Secondhand smoke was classified by national and international organisations as a known cause of cancer in humans and has many adverse health effects, especially cardiovascular diseases and lung tumours. Global studies have clearly shown that hospitality venues have the highest levels of indoor air pollution containing different substances that are clearly carcinogenic--such as tobacco-related chemicals--compared with other, smoke-free indoor spaces. Data from the human biomonitoring of non-smoking employees in the food service industry confirm this high exposure level. Non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke in these environments are at increased risk for adverse health effects. The consistent protection of non-smokers in public places such as restaurants and bars through a smoking ban results in a significant reduction of the pollutants in the air (mostly > 90%) and clearly reduces the internal body burden for users and employees. Furthermore, health complaints by non-smoking employees are reduced and the higher risk for lung tumours of employees in the food service industry compared with the general population can be effectively reduced as well. According to current standards of knowledge, other measures such as spatial separation of smoking areas or the use of mechanical venting systems do not achieve a comparably high and effective pollutant reduction under field conditions. Studies concerning the economic effects of prohibiting smoking in public places conducted in various countries have shown that beverage-focused gastronomic enterprises experience a short-term down trend but that food-focused gastronomic enterprises do not experience any negative or even positive effects. The positive effects of a ban on smoking in public places on the general population are a decline in cigarette consumption and the reduction of secondhand smoke exposure by non-smokers. Smoking bans in hospitality venues are not necessarily linked with a shift of the tobacco consumption to

  13. Cardiorespiratory hospitalisation and mortality reductions after smoking bans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Röösli, Martin; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Schindler, Christian; Perez, Laura

    2017-01-19

    Smoking bans are considered one of the most effective policies to reduce population exposure to tobacco smoke and prevent adverse health outcomes. However, evidence on the effect of contextual variables on the effectiveness of smoking bans is still lacking. The patchwork of cantonal smoke-free laws in Switzerland was used as a quasi-experimental setting to assess changes after their introduction in: hospitalisations and mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases in adults; total hospitalisations and hospitalisations due to respiratory disorders in children; and the modifying effects of contextual factors and the effectiveness of the laws. Using hospital and mortality registry data for residents in Switzerland (2005-2012), we conducted canton-specific interrupted time-series analyses followed by random effects meta-analyses to obtain nationwide smoking ban estimates by subgroups of age, sex and causes of hospitalisation or death. Heterogeneity of the impact caused by strictness of the ban and other smoking-related characteristics of the cantons was explored through meta-regression. Total hospitalisation rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases did not significantly change after the introduction of the ban. Post-ban changes were detected in ischaemic heart disease hospitalisations, with a 2.5% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI)] -6.2 to 1.3%) for all ages and 5.5% (95% CI -10.8 to -0.2%) in adults 35-64 years old. Total mortality due to respiratory diseases decreased by 8.2% (95% CI -15.2 to -0.6%) over all ages, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality decreased by 14.0% (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5%) in adults ≥65 years old. Cardiovascular mortality did not change after the introduction of the ban, but there was an indication of post-ban reductions in mortality due to hypertensive disorders (-5.4%, 95% CI -12.6 to 2.3%), and congestive heart failure (-6.0%, 95% CI -14.5 to 3.4%). No benefits were observed for hospitalisations due to

  14. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Residential Indoor Temperature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heaney, Mike [Arrow Electronics, Centennial, CO (United States); Brown, David [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Norton, Paul [Norton Energy Research and Development, Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, Chris [Ingersoll-Rand Corp., Dublin (Ireland)

    2017-04-07

    In this study, we are adding to the body of knowledge around answering the question: What are good assumptions for HVAC set points in U.S. homes? We collected and analyzed indoor temperature data from US homes using funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America (BA) program, due to the program's reliance on accurate energy simulation of homes. Simulations are used to set Building America goals, predict the impact of new building techniques and technologies, inform research objectives, evaluate home performance, optimize efficiency packages to meet savings goals, customize savings approaches to specific climate zones, and myriad other uses.

  16. Indoor Positioning System using Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Sahil Puri

    2015-01-01

    This Paper on Bluetooth Indoor Positioning System is the intersection of Bluetooth Technology and Indoor Positioning Systems. Almost every smartphone today is Bluetooth enabled, making the use of the technology more flexible. We aim at using the RSSI value of Bluetooth signals to track the location of a device.

  17. Psychotropic substances in indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia; Patriarca, Claudia; Balducci, Catia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of drugs in outdoor air has been established, but few investigations have been conducted indoors. This study focused on psychotropic substances (PSs) at three schools, four homes and one office in Rome, Italy. The indoor drug concentrations and the relationships with the outdoor atmosphere were investigated. The optimised monitoring procedure allowed for the determination of cocaine, cannabinoids and particulate fractions of nicotine and caffeine. In-field experiments were performed during the winter, spring and summer seasons. Psychotropic substances were observed in all indoor locations. The indoor concentrations often exceeded those recorded both outdoors at the same sites and at the atmospheric pollution control network stations, indicating that the drugs were released into the air at the inside sites or were more persistent. During winter, the relative concentrations of cannabinol, cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol depended on site and indoor/outdoor location at the site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on models for radon, which are developed not only to describe the behavior of radon and daughters since the moment that radon is created in natural sources by the alpha decay of 226 Ra up to the point that doses to humans are estimated based on the inhalation of radon and its progeny. The objective of a model should be determinant in defining the model structure and boundaries. Modeling indoors radon is particularly useful when the 226 Ra concentration in building materials and soils can be known before a house will be built with such 226 Ra bearing materials and over 226 Ra rich soils. The reported concentrations of 226 Ra in building materials range from 0.3 Bq · kg -1 in wood to about 2.6 x 10 3 Bq · kg -1 in aerated concrete based on alum shale. 30 In addition, when a house is built on a soil containing a high 226 Ra concentration, radon exhalation from the soil contributes to increase radon concentration indoors. The reported radon exhalation from soils range from 3.4 Bq · m -2 · s -1 in latosolic soil from Osaka, Japan to about 53 mBq · m -2 · s -1 in chernozemic soil from Illinois

  19. Indoor Location Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the special challenges posed by accurately pinpointing a location indoors, this volume reflects the distance we have come in the handful of decades since the germination of GPS technology. Not only can we locate a signal to within a meter’s accuracy, but we now have this technology in the most basic mobile phone. Tracing recent practical developments in positioning technology and in the market it supplies, the author examines the contributions of the varied research—in silicon, signal and image processing, radio communications and software—to a fast-evolving field. The book looks forward to a time when, in addition to directing your road journey, positioning systems can peer indoors and guide you to an available photocopier in your office building. Featuring standalone chapters each dealing with a specific aspect of the subject, including treatments of systems such as Zebra, Awarepoint, Aeroscout, IEEE 802.11, etc. This study has all the detail needed to get up to speed on a key modern techn...

  20. Evaluation of a smoke-free law on indoor air quality and on workers' health in Portuguese restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Joana; Mendes, Ana; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Workplace bans on smoking are interventions to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) to try to prevent harmful health effects. The Portuguese Government on January 1, 2008, introduced the first national law banning smoking in public workplaces, including restaurants. The main aim of this study was to examine the impact of this law on indoor air quality (IAQ) in restaurants and on the respiratory and sensory health of restaurant workers. Concentrations of respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in 10 restaurants were measured and compared before and after the ban. Benzene (C6H6) concentrations were also measured in all restaurants. Fifty-two and twenty-eight restaurant workers, respectively, answered questionnaires on exposure to SHS, and respiratory and sensory symptoms in the pre- and post-ban phases. There was a statistically significant decrease in RSP, CO, TVOC, and C6H6 concentrations after the ban. Additionally, in both phases the monitored CO2 concentrations greatly exceeded 1800 mg x m(-3), suggesting inefficient ventilation of the indoor spaces. Between pre- and post-ban phases a significant reduction in self-reported workplace SHS exposure was also observed after the enforcement of the law, as well as a significant marked reduction in dry, itching, irritated, or watery eyes, nasal problems, sore or dry throat, cough, wheeze, and headache. This study provides, in a single investigation, comparison of IAQ and respiratory health in Portugal before and after the introduction of the smoke-free law, the first data reported in the literature to our knowledge. Our findings suggest that a total workplace smoking ban results in a significant reduction in indoor air pollution and an improvement in the respiratory health of restaurant workers. These observations may have implications for policymakers and legislators currently considering the nature and extent of their

  1. Prevalence and predictors of home and automobile smoking bans and child environmental tobacco smoke exposure: a cross-sectional study of U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanic women with young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegler Michelle C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detrimental effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure on child health are well documented. Because young children's primary exposure to ETS occurs in homes and automobiles, voluntary smoking restrictions can substantially reduce exposure. We assessed the prevalence of home and automobile smoking bans among U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanics in the southwestern United States, and examined the influence of mother's country of birth and smoking practices on voluntary smoking bans and on child ETS exposure. Methods U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanic mothers of children aged 2 through 12 years were systematically sampled from health clinics in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In-person interviews were conducted with 269 mothers (75.4% response rate to obtain information on main study outcomes (complete versus no/partial home and automobile smoking bans; child room and automobile ETS exposure and risk factors (mother's country of birth, maternal and household smoking behaviors. Data were analyzed with chi square tests and logistic regression models. Results Three-fourths (74–77% of U.S.-born and 90–95% of Mexico-born mothers reported complete automobile and home smoking bans. In multivariate analyses, mother's U.S nativity, mother's current smoking, and presence of other adult smokers in the home were associated with significantly increased odds of not having a complete home or automobile smoking ban. Mother's smoking was associated with child ETS exposure both indoors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.31 and in automobiles (OR = 2.97. Children of U.S.-born mothers had increased odds of exposure to ETS indoors (OR = 3.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37–7.69, but not in automobiles. Having complete smoking bans was associated with substantially reduced odds of child ETS exposure both indoors (OR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.04–0.27 and in automobiles (OR = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.36. Conclusion This study of Hispanic mothers in the southwestern U

  2. Respirable particles and carcinogens in the air of delaware hospitality venues before and after a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repace, James

    2004-09-01

    How do the concentrations of indoor air pollutants known to increase risk of respiratory disease, cancer, heart disease, and stroke change after a smoke-free workplace law? Real-time measurements were made of respirable particle (RSP) air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), in a casino, six bars, and a pool hall before and after a smoking ban. Secondhand smoke contributed 90% to 95% of the RSP air pollution during smoking, and 85% to 95% of the carcinogenic PPAH, greatly exceeding levels of these contaminants encountered on major truck highways and polluted city streets. This air-quality survey demonstrates conclusively that the health of hospitality workers and patrons is endangered by tobacco smoke pollution. Smoke-free workplace laws eliminate that hazard and provide health protection impossible to achieve through ventilation or air cleaning.

  3. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  4. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized

  5. Editorial input for the right price: tobacco industry support for a sheet metal indoor air quality manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard; Balbach, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Following legal action in the 1990s, internal tobacco industry documents became public, allowing unprecedented insight into the industry's relationships with outside organizations. During the 1980s and 1990s, the National Energy Management Institute (NEMI), established by the Sheet Metal Workers International Association and the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association, (SMACNA) received tobacco industry funding to establish an indoor air quality services program. But the arrangement also required NEMI to serve as an advocate for industry efforts to defeat indoor smoking bans by arguing that ventilation was a more appropriate solution to environmental tobacco smoke. Drawing on tobacco industry documents, this paper describes a striking example of the ethical compromises that accompanied NEMI's collaboration with the tobacco industry, highlighting the solicitation of tobacco industry financial support for a SMACNA indoor air quality manual in exchange for sanitizing references to the health impact of environmental tobacco smoke prior to publication.

  6. Sediments indicate the continued use of banned antifouling compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egardt, Jenny; Nilsson, Per; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2017-12-15

    Antifouling paints are widely used to avoid organisms settling on boat hulls. The active ingredients in the paints have differed over the years where lead, TBT, irgarol and diuron have been deemed too harmful to non-target organisms and subsequently been banned within the EU. Most of these compounds however are persistent in the environment and can cause problems long after they are deposited. We have examined if present-day and banned substances used in antifouling paints can be found in sediments in a national park on the Swedish west coast. Sampled locations include waterways, natural harbours and small marinas for leisure crafts to investigate if number of visiting boats affect the concentration of antifouling compounds in sediments. Few significant differences were found when comparing the different locations types, suggesting that overall boat presence is more important than specific mooring sites, however, several banned antifouling compounds were found in the surface sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environment Canada defends decision to ban PCB waste exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The position of Environment Canada in banning the export of PCB waste to the United States was defended as falling within their jurisdiction under provisions of the the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The United States had previously banned the import of Canadian PCBs, but when it reversed its decision Environment Canada posted an Interim Order, upholding the ban. The decision to do so was based on protection of the large investment that was made to develop the Canadian PCB incineration facility in Swan Lake, Alberta. Canada also had an obligation under the Basel Convention to reduce it cross boundary movement of hazardous waste and provide adequate destruction facilities in Canada. Legal implications of PCB exports and the uncertainty of continuing access to American facilities were also cited as reasons for issuing the Interim Order

  8. Current Indoor Air Quality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Hideto

    2016-01-01

    People spend more than two thirds of their daily time indoors. Hence, maintaining a healthy indoor environment is indispensable for the prevention of building related illness. In Japan, guidelines for indoor air quality have been established for 13 volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs). These guidelines are now under revision by the Committee on Sick House Syndrome: Indoor Air Pollution. In order to gain information on the current indoor air pollutants and their levels, we carried out a nation-wide survey of VOCs and aldehydes in indoor residential air during 2012-2013. In this review, I concisely summarized the current indoor air quality of Japan.

  9. Indoor environment; Binnenmilieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogeling, J.J.N.M.; Van Weele, A.M. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Boerstra, A.C. [BBA Boerstra Binnenmilieu Advies, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cox, C.W.J. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands); Kurvers, S.R. [Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Thierauf, I. [Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelofsen, C.P.G. [Grontmij Technical Management, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    This issue is dedicated to several aspects of the indoor environment in buildings: air quality, thermal climate, noise, light and view or panorama. [Dutch] De kwaliteit van het binnenmilieu wordt bepaald door de factoren als binnenluchtkwaliteit, thermisch binnenklimaat, geluid, daglicht, kunstlicht en uitzicht. De gemiddelde Nederlander brengt 80 tot 90% van zijn tijd binnen door. Het is dan ook van het grootste belang dat het binnenmilieu in gebouwen van een dusdanige kwaliteit is dat gebouwgebruikers zich gezond en comfortabel voelen. Het binnenmilieu omvat alle fysische (temperatuur, vochtigheid, geluid, licht), chemische en biologische factoren in een gebouw die van invloed zijn op gezondheid en welzijn van de gebruikers. Binnenmilieu is onder te verdelen in de aspecten thermisch binnenklimaat, luchtkwaliteit, geluid, licht en uitzicht. Soms vallen ook elektromagnetische velden psychologische aspecten als privacy en groenbeleving eronder. Deze ThemaTech staat geheel in het teken van binnenluchtkwaliteit, het thermische binnenklimaat, geluid, daglicht, kunstlicht en uitzicht.

  10. Indoor biological pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    2000-01-01

    Inside buildings - besides the umpteen toxic substances emanating from materials and appliances used daily for the most assorted activities - there are may be a number of different pathogenic micro-organisms able to cause diseases and respiratory system infections. Indoor pollution caused by biological agents may be due not only to living microorganisms, but also to dead ones or to the produce of their metabolism as well as to allergens. The most efficient precautionary measure against biological agents is to ventilate the rooms one lives in. In case of air-conditioning, it's good rule to keep air pipes dry and clean, renewing filters at regular intervals in order to avoid fungi and bacteria from settling in [it

  11. Sustainable indoor lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Mercatelli, Luca; Farini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Encompassing a thorough survey of the lighting techniques applied to internal illumination characterized by high efficiency, optimized color and architectural integration, a consolidated summary of the latest scientific, technical and architectural research is presented in order to give the reader an overview of the different themes with their interactions and mutual effects.   This book describes light principles, methodologies and realisations for indoor illumination at low consumption. Power efficiency, color characteristics and architectural aspects are analyzed in terms of their  practical application, with the interactions between scientific, technological and architectural features considered in order to supply a complete overview, which can be read both at technical level and at user level. Introducing photometric and radiometric quantities and laws, the book first discusses tests and measurements assessing lighting and color characteristics before examining in detail artificial light sources with p...

  12. Indoor Positioning Using GPS Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik; Godsk, Torben

    2010-01-01

    It has been considered a fact that GPS performs too poorly inside buildings to provide usable indoor positioning. We analyze results of a measurement campaign to improve on the understanding of indoor GPS reception characteristics. The results show that using state-of-the-art receivers GPS...... low signal-to-noise ratios, multipath phenomena or bad satellite constellation geometry. We have also measured the indoor performance of embedded GPS receivers in mobile phones which provided lower availability and accuracy than state-of-the-art ones. Finally, we consider how the GPS performance...

  13. Indoor radon and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghatelyan, E.; Petrosyan, L.; Aghbalyan, Yu.; Baburyan, M.; Araratyan, L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time on the basis of the Spitak earthquake of December 1988 (Armenia, December 1988) experience it is found out that the earthquake causes intensive and prolonged radon splashes which, rapidly dispersing in the open space of close-to-earth atmosphere, are contrastingly displayed in covered premises (dwellings, schools, kindergartens) even if they are at considerable distance from the earthquake epicenter, and this multiplies the radiation influence on the population. The interval of splashes includes the period from the first fore-shock to the last after-shock, i.e. several months. The area affected by radiation is larger vs. Armenia's territory. The scale of this impact on population is 12 times higher than the number of people injured in Spitak, Leninakan and other settlements (toll of injured - 25 000 people, radiation-induced diseases in people - over 300 000). The influence of radiation directly correlates with the earthquake force. Such a conclusion is underpinned by indoor radon monitoring data for Yerevan since 1987 (120 km from epicenter) 5450 measurements and multivariate analysis with identification of cause-and-effect linkages between geo dynamics of indoor radon under stable and conditions of Earth crust, behavior of radon in different geological mediums during earthquakes, levels of room radon concentrations and effective equivalent dose of radiation impact of radiation dose on health and statistical data on public health provided by the Ministry of Health. The following hitherto unexplained facts can be considered as consequences of prolonged radiation influence on human organism: long-lasting state of apathy and indifference typical of the population of Armenia during the period of more than a year after the earthquake, prevalence of malignant cancer forms in disaster zones, dominating lung cancer and so on. All urban territories of seismically active regions are exposed to the threat of natural earthquake-provoked radiation influence

  14. Banned prints in the National and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Švent

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formation and operation of the D-collection (a special collection of banned prints in the National and University Library (NUL. The functioning of the collection was constantly faced with different complications caused either by legislation or by librarians themselves, due to a too strict adherence to some unwritten rules ("better one more then one less". In the 50-years period, a unique collection of at that tirne banned prints was formed,complemented by over 17000 articles indexed from different periodicals.

  15. The effects of taxes and bans on passive smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome Adda; Francesca Cornaglia

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of excise taxes and bans on smoking in public places on the exposure to tobacco smoke of non-smokers. We use a novel way of quantifying passive smoking: we use data on cotinine concentration- a metabolite of nicotine- measured in a large population of non-smokers over time. Exploiting state and time variation across US states, we reach two important conclusions. First, excise taxes have a significant effect on passive smoking. Second, smoking bans have on avera...

  16. The Effect of Taxes and Bans on Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Adda; Francesca Cornaglia

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of excise taxes and bans on smoking in public places on the exposure to tobacco smoke of non-smokers. We use a novel way of quantifying passive smoking: we use data on cotinine concentration- a metabolite of nicotine- measured in a large population of non-smokers over time. Exploiting state and time variation across US states, we reach two important conclusions. First, excise taxes have a significant effect on passive smoking. Second, smoking bans have on avera...

  17. In pursuit of a nuclear test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalberger, T.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this guide is to focus on the political issues in the test ban debate in the conference of Disarmament, and to produce a guide providing diplomats, researchers, and the interested public with background information. Such a complex negotiating process requires a selection of proposals, comments and technical details. The criterion from selecting material was based upon the importance for present negotiations. The first part of this guide provides a historical perspective on the arguments used for and against nuclear testing, and on the record of negotiating activities on this subject. The second part examines the test ban debate in the Conference on Disarmament during the past ten years. Figs

  18. Paraquat use among farmers in Korea after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ye Jin; Kim, Jaeyoung; Lee, Won Jin

    2017-07-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine the proportion of paraquat use among farmers and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics after the paraquat ban in 2012. We interviewed 249 farmers in Korea in 2014. Approximately 20% of the farmers reported using paraquat in 2014. Farmers with longer farming experience, longer pesticide application years, and upland farming reported an increased risk of paraquat use although the trend was not statistically significant. The majority of the farmers used preexisting paraquat (85.7%), but some farmers purchased it illegally (14.3%). Farmers who used paraquat perceived paraquat as a dangerous chemical; however, they disagreed with the necessity of the paraquat ban.

  19. Indoor Air Quality and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cincinelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, Indoor Air Quality (IAQ has received increasing attention from the international scientific community, political institutions, and environmental governances for improving the comfort, health, and wellbeing of building occupants.[...

  20. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  1. Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events

  2. The comprehensive test ban treaty negotiations: a view from Geneva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Michael.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom- one of the alliance's three nuclear powers is fully and actively involved in the search for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which would play an important role in both non-proliferation and disarmament objectives. This article considers how the negotiations are proceeding and assesses the prospects in a number of key areas. (author)

  3. Verification methods for treaties limiting and banning nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests and treaty on world banning of nuclear tests contribute to and accompany the process of nuclear disarmament. Test ban in three (Moscow treaty of 1963) as well as the Threshold Test Ban up to 1991 was controlled only with national means. But since 1991 nuclear test threshold of 150 kt has been measured with hydrodynamic and tele seismic methods and checked by the inspection. Distinctive feature of this control is that control is that it is bilateral. This conforms to Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests signed by two countries - USA and USSR. The inspection at the place of tests requires monitoring of the test site of the party conducting a test and geological information of rock in the area of explosion. In the treaty of the World Nuclear Test Ban the following ways of international control are provided for: - seismologic measurements; - radionuclide measurements; - hydro-acoustics measurements; - infra-sound measurements; - inspection at the place of the tests conduction

  4. Effects of New Jersey's cell phone and text ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Since March 1, 2008 there has been a ban on wireless telephone and electronic : communication devices in New Jersey while operating a motor vehicle. But from general : observation on any roadway, it appears that there are still drivers who are talkin...

  5. Autonomous Operation of Super-Regenerative Receiver in BAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyanasundaram, P.; Huang, L.; Dolmans, G.; Imamura, K.

    2012-01-01

    Super-regenerative receiver is one of the potential candidates to achieve ultra low power wireless communication in body area network (BAN). The main limitations of the super-regenerative receiver include the difficulty in choosing a good quench waveform to optimize its sensitivity and selectivity,

  6. Referendum 1978 - Nuclear power plant ban Act 1978 - legal consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudinger, F.

    1981-10-01

    This paper discusses the legal consequences of the 1978 Act banning nuclear power production. It provides a summary outline of the relevant rules of the Austrian Constitution and reviews the legal basis for the organisation of the national electricity system. (NEA) [fr

  7. The Impact of Affirmative Action Bans in Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether bans on affirmative action across four states-- Texas (during "Hopwood v. State of Texas"), California (with Proposition 209), Washington (with Initiative 200), and Florida (with One Florida Initiative)--have reduced the enrollment rates of underrepresented students of color in graduate studies and in a…

  8. Ban the Book Report: Promoting Frequent and Enthusiastic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Teachers recognize that frequent independent reading increases student knowledge on a wide range of topics, enhances vocabulary, and improves comprehension. "Ban the Book Report" inspires teachers to go beyond narrow and analytical book reports by exploring the potential of book talks, alternate book covers, identifying features of informational…

  9. Banning Corporal Punishment: A Crucial Step toward Preventing Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelis, Cindy S.

    1988-01-01

    Banning school corporal punishment is supported as a step towards gradually eliminating all violent actions toward children. The 39 states that allow corporal punishment are encouraged to outlaw it, to teach children that it is not socially acceptable behavior and to set an example for families' child-rearing attitudes and practices. (JDD)

  10. Consumer groups call for ban on internet pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmaise, David

    2004-08-01

    A number of consumer groups have called on the Canadian government to ban internet pharmacies, claiming that the industry is putting the health of Canadians at risk. The groups say that the impact will escalate if the problem is not addressed.

  11. Recreating big Ban to learn more about universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A multi-nation effort at Gemeva-based CERN laboratory to recreate conditions existing just after the Big Ban could give vital clues to the creation of the universe and help overcome prejudices against this widely held scientific theory, an eminent science writer said in Kolkata on Tuesday

  12. Overturn of the proposed alcohol advertising ban in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukštė, Ernesta; Liutkutė, Vaida; Stelemėkas, Mindaugas; Goštautaitė Midttun, Nijolė; Veryga, Aurelijus

    2014-05-01

    In response to the dramatic increase in alcohol-related problems in Lithuania, policy measures, including alcohol advertising and availability restrictions combined with taxation increase, were implemented in 2007-08. Simultaneously, a full alcohol advertising ban was adopted to take effect from 1 January 2012. Therefore, the alcohol industry responded with extensive lobbying aiming to revoke this ban, and ultimately they succeeded at the end of December 2011. To document and analyse actions of stakeholders and events during the alcohol advertising ban cancellation process in Lithuania. Policy analysis includes a development of event time-line, description of key stakeholders' actions and a review of policy context. The alcohol industry in Lithuania used similar tactics as the tobacco industry globally, such as creating strong and diverse opposing groups. The industry successfully exerted pressure to change alcohol control legislation, while non-governmental organizations had the important role of a watchdog, blunting industry's efforts. Unequal power distribution made it difficult to withstand combined local and international lobbying to cancel the ban. Given the global nature of the alcohol industry, there is a need for international regulation to limit the influence of vested interests on national lawmaking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. The Automobiles as Indoors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Acar Vaizoglu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review we aimed to attract attention to toxic chemicals in cars and their effect on health. People spend most of their times in indoors such as houses, workplaces, malls, sport centers, train, transportation vehicles (train, plane, cars. In US, citizens spend nearly 100 minutes in cars per day. There are safety problems in cars except than seatbelt and airbag. Some of these are seats, furnishing, cushions for arm and head, floor covering, accessories and plastic parts. In a study conducted in Japan, more than 160 volatile organic compounds (VOC had been determined in new cars and a three years old car. Some of the pollutants are formaldehyde, toluen, xylene, ethylbenzene and styrene. Also Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, which may be degradated by sunshine in hot seasons are measured within the outomobiles. There is a big gap of studies about the pollutants in cars and researches have to be conducted. Manufacturers should use nonhazardous material or less toxic chemicals to reduce exposure of VOCs, PBDEs and phthalates. Drivers can reduce the these chemicals by using solar reflectors and avoiding to park under sunlight. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 665-672

  14. Banning Corporal Punishment in Taiwan: A Narrative Exploration of Teacher Change and Critical Examination of the Legal Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Employing narrative ways of inquiry, this study interrogated how a reform action--legal banning corporal punishment in schools, which was intentionally introduced into Taiwanese society by advocates as a social movement strategy at a time when the incidence rate of school corporal punishment was high--could contribute to ending educators' use of…

  15. 16 CFR 1500.86 - Exemptions from classification as a banned toy or other banned article for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toy or other banned article for use by children. 1500.86 Section 1500.86 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... employee of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and shall permit such officer or employee to inspect and... horizontal plane of the ball when it is suspended by the cord. Clacker balls where the mass of each ball is...

  16. Label it or ban it? Public perceptions of nano-food labels and propositions for banning nano-food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Agnes S. F.; Leong, Alisius D.; Cummings, Christopher L.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2018-02-01

    The future of nano-food largely hinges on public perceptions and willingness to accept this novel technology. The present study utilizes the scientific literacy model and psychometric paradigm as the key theoretical frameworks to examine the factors influencing public support for labeling and banning of nano-food in Singapore. Using data collected from a nationally representative survey of 1001 respondents, the findings demonstrated that attitudes toward technology, preference for natural product, science knowledge, and risk perception were found to substantially affect public support for both labeling and banning of nano-food. Conversely, attention to food safety news on traditional media and attention to nano-news on new media were only associated with public support for labeling of nano-food. Similarly, benefit perception was only significantly associated with public support for banning of nano-food. Theoretically, these findings support the growing body of literature that argues for the significant role played by predispositions, media use, science knowledge, and risk and benefit perceptions on attitude formation toward nano-food. It serves as the pioneering piece to address the aspect of banning in the field of nano-food. Practically, insights drawn from this study could aid relevant stakeholders in enlisting effecting strategies to convey the benefits of nano-food while mitigating the risk perceptions among the public.

  17. Breaking Habits: The Effect of The French Vending Machine Ban on School Snacking and Sugar Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of the 2005 vending machine ban in French secondary schools on nutrient intakes and on the frequency of morning snacking at school. Using data before and after the ban, and exploiting the discontinuity associated with the age-dependent exposure to the ban, we specify a difference-in-differences regression…

  18. 76 FR 79678 - City of Banning, CA; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... through the ETC Pass-through Clause contained in Banning's TO Tariff; (3) accept revisions to Appendix I to Banning's TO Tariff to reflect Banning's revised TRBAA, forcasted calendar year 2012 ETC costs... lieu of paper using the ``eFiling'' link at http://www.ferc.gov . Persons unable to file electronically...

  19. Teachers' Perceptions and Concerns on the Banning of Corporal Punishment and Its Alternative Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwo, Lwun-syin Laurence; Yuan, You-Shi

    2011-01-01

    Corporal punishment (CP) has been officially banned since December 2006 in Taiwan. It would be useful to explore the perceptions and concerns of elementary school teachers on the issue of banning CP and on alternative methods of discipline in 2008, two years since the ban took effect. In this study, 323 teachers were stratified randomly and drawn…

  20. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing

  1. Indoor air radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothern, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas.172 references

  2. Enabling Indoor Location-Based Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura

    Indoor spaces have always attracted interest from different scientific disciplines. Relatively recent interest in indoor settings by computer scientists is driven in part by the increasing use of smartphones, which serve as a platform for service delivery and can generate extensive volumes...... of trajectory data that can be used to study how people actually use indoor spaces. In this dissertation, we contribute partial solutions that address challenges in indoor positioning and indoor trajectory management and analysis. The key enabler of indoor location-based services and indoor movement analysis...... is a well-functioning positioning system that can be easily deployed in most public places. Different technologies are able to provide indoor positioning with different accuracy and coverage, but it is difficult to find a technology that by itself can provide good positioning in the many different layouts...

  3. Cooperative Agreement Funding for Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Environments Division has created partnership with public and private sector entities to help encourage the public to take action to minimize their risk and mitigate indoor air quality problems.

  4. Antimicrobial Treatments of Indoor Mold and Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological contaminants especially mold in buildings are known to act as sources of indoor air pollution, discomfort, asthma and pulmonary disease to building occupants. Sick buildings are evidence of extremely problematic indoor air quality (IAQ), often resulting from unacceptab...

  5. Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality (CIAQ), which meets three times a year, was established by Congress to coordinate the activities of the Federal Government on issues relating to Indoor Air Quality.

  6. Fatigability in basic indoor mobility in nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Ekmann, Anette; Thinggaard, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and associated health factors of indoor mobility-related fatigability in nonagenarians.......To evaluate the prevalence and associated health factors of indoor mobility-related fatigability in nonagenarians....

  7. Varnostni vidiki spletnega bančništva : diplomsko delo univerzitetnega študija

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Banke imajo, kot osrednje finančne institucije, veliko zaslug za hiter razvoj informacijske tehnologije. Če je bila še pred približno 15 leti tehnologija bank skrita pred očmi javnosti, je danes preko elektronskega bančništva povezana s komitenti bank, saj se je v zadnjem desetletju elektronsko bančništvo izkazalo za eno najbolj dobičkonosnih spletnih storitev. Spletno bančništvo je del elektronskega bančništva in omogoča opravljanje bančnih poslov preko interneta ob vseh urah dneva, hkrat...

  8. Manual on indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues

  9. Manual on indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  10. The neglected repercussions of a physician advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Although the adverse implications of physician advertising are the subject of a fierce and sustained debate, there is almost no scholarly discussion on the ethical repercussions of physician advertising bans. The present paper draws attention to these repercussions as they exist today in most of the world, with particular focus on three serious implications for the public: (a) uncertainty about the physician's interests, namely, that patients must trust the physician to put patient wellbeing ahead of possible gains when taking medical decisions; (b) uncertainty about alternative treatments, namely, that patients must trust in the physician's treatment decisions; and (c) uncertainty about the exclusive patient-physician relationship, namely, that patients must develop and maintain a good relationship with one physician. Physician advertising bans continue to tell the public in most of the modern world that these are irrelevant or inappropriate issues, meaning that they are effectively left to the public to resolve.

  11. The impact of tobacco advertising bans on consumption in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan

    2008-07-01

    Tobacco advertising bans have become commonplace in developed nations but are less prevalent in developing countries. The importance of advertising bans as part of comprehensive tobacco control strategies has been emphasised by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control which calls for comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising. The empirical literature suggests that comprehensive advertising bans have played a role in reducing consumption in developed countries but that limited policies have not. This paper extends this analysis to include 30 developing countries and finds that bans do play an important role in reducing tobacco consumption in these countries. It finds that both comprehensive as well as limited policies are effective in reducing consumption although comprehensive bans have a far greater impact than limited ones. Furthermore, it finds that advertising bans may be even more effective in the developing world than they are in the developed world.

  12. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-11-25

    This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13-25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56-70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.

  13. Economic and environmental impacts of a hypothetical global GMO ban

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, Harrison H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the global economic and greenhouse gas emission impacts of GMO crops. This is done by modeling two counterfactual scenarios and evaluating them apart and in combination. The first scenario models the impact of a global GMO ban. The second scenario models the impact of increased GMO penetration. The focus is on the price and welfare impacts, and land use change greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with GMO technologies. Much of the prior work on...

  14. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory authorities have consulted on the option of banning embedded sales commissions for Canadian financial advisors. Such an action would create more problems than it would solve. It would have serious ramifications for Canadians’ access to financial advice and raise issues of choice, industry concentration and price transparency for clients seeking advice on investments and retirement. Financial advisors have much greater knowledge of investments than their clients, who rightly expect ...

  15. For or against the smoking ban in restaurants?

    OpenAIRE

    Marinakou, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    A considerable number of countries have applied laws for the ban of smoking in public places. Furthermore, the separate area for smokers and non-smokers customers in private places such as restaurants and bars, is a significant change that has caused positive or negative attitudes. The different views of customers and restaurant owners have created a legal and social debate. The findings suggest that on the one hand, the majority of the restaurant owners impose the law, but not actively. On t...

  16. Pengujian Alat Konversi Ban Bekas Menjadi Bahan Bakar

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Imron Aryadi; Arijanto, Arijanto

    2017-01-01

    Pirolisis dapat didefinisikan sebagai dekomposisi thermal material organik pada suasana inert (tanpa kehadiran oksigen) dan suhu tinggi sehingga terurai menjadi molekul yang lebih kecil. Pirolisis merupakan bentuk penghematan energi karena dapat menyuling bahan bakar atau bahan kimia yang berguna dari limbah padat. Produk pirolisis berupa gas, cair dan padat. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk menguji alat konversi ban bekas menjadi bahan bakar, mengetahui jumlah minyak yang dihasilkan pada pr...

  17. 9 CFR 3.102 - Facilities, indoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.102 Section 3... Marine Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.102 Facilities, indoor. (a) Ambient temperature. The air and water temperatures in indoor facilities shall be sufficiently regulated by heating or...

  18. Multi-dimensional indoor location information model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Zlatanova, S.; Huang, L.; Zhou, Y.; Du, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the increasing requirements of seamless indoor and outdoor navigation and location service, a Chinese standard of Multidimensional Indoor Location Information Model is being developed, which defines ontology of indoor location. The model is complementary to 3D concepts like CityGML and

  19. Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2008-01-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments, redistributing from their original sources to all indoor surfaces. Exposures resulting from their indoor presence contribute to detectable body burdens of diverse SVOCs, including pesticides, plasticizers, and flame ret...... remarkably well with levels measured in dermal hand wipes for SVOCs possessing a wide range of octanol-air partition coefficients....

  20. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  1. Climate change consequences for the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, M.B.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists warn us about climate change and its effects on the outdoor environment. These effects can have significant consequences for the indoor environment, also in the Netherlands. Climate changes will affect different aspects of the indoor environment as well as the stakeholders of that indoor

  2. Why ban the sale of cigarettes? The case for abolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert N

    2013-05-01

    The cigarette is the deadliest artefact in the history of human civilisation. Most of the richer countries of the globe, however, are making progress in reducing both smoking rates and overall consumption. Many different methods have been proposed to steepen this downward slope, including increased taxation, bans on advertising, promotion of cessation, and expansion of smoke-free spaces. One option that deserves more attention is the enactment of local or national bans on the sale of cigarettes. There are precedents: 15 US states enacted bans on the sale of cigarettes from 1890 to 1927, for instance, and such laws are still fully within the power of local communities and state governments. Apart from reducing human suffering, abolishing the sale of cigarettes would result in savings in the realm of healthcare costs, increased labour productivity, lessened harms from fires, reduced consumption of scarce physical resources, and a smaller global carbon footprint. Abolition would also put a halt to one of the principal sources of corruption in modern civilisation, and would effectively eliminate one of the historical forces behind global warming denial and environmental obfuscation. The primary reason for abolition, however, is that smokers themselves dislike the fact they smoke. Smoking is not a recreational drug, and abolishing cigarettes would therefore enlarge rather than restrict human liberties. Abolition would also help cigarette makers fulfil their repeated promises to 'cease production' if cigarettes were ever found to be causing harm.

  3. Indoor radon concentration and outdoor/indoor pressure difference correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Fronka, A.; Moucka, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the current approach to the radon issue, the radon risk for people living in a building is estimated based on the average indoor radon concentration. Short-term measurements as usually applied fail to reflect the wide range of radon variations arising from ventilation, radon supply and, in particular, human activities in the building. For this reason, efforts are made to find a new approach to the assessment of the quality of a building as a radon barrier, independent of the weather conditions and residential habits. A simple model of radon volume activity entering the building at a constant rate and simultaneously ventilated at a constant rate is applicable to this task. The rate of radon ingress can be regarded as a parameter making it possible to quantify the leakage of structures provided the barrier against the radon in a soil gas. The ventilation rate, on the other hand, characterizes the leakage of the whole building envelope at a given outdoor/indoor pressure difference. A unique measuring technique called the blower door exists whereby a defined pressure difference between the indoor and outdoor atmosphere can be established. Under such conditions both the ventilation rate and the rate of radon ingress can be measured and expressed as a function of the pressure difference. An analysis of the model of a room with a constant ventilation and constant radon supply is presented and the relationship between radon supply and ventilation rate can be assumed. Some experimental results show how the model can be utilized. The real indoor-outdoor air pressure differences, the indoor-soil air pressure differences, and some effects of different ventilation regimes are given. Other experiments, which have been done by using the blower door method, illustrate the possible effects and some restrictions for a routine application are discussed

  4. Contribution to the discussion on the banning of corporal punishment of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simović Darko Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the arguments pro et contra banning of corporal punishment of children, in light of existing comparative legal solutions, experience from foreign countries and results of scientific research on the effects of this method of child discipline. According to the current state of knowledge, the fact that corporal punishment of children does not produce long-lasting positive changes in behavior, but likely produces several detrimental consequences; implies that this child discipline method should be abandoned and substituted by alternative ones. The experience of countries where the corporal punishment of children has been outlawed for decades tells us this may be achieved primarily through awareness raising activities and measures aimed at empowering parents and caregivers. A tendency to equate corporal punishment with physical abuse may turn out to be ineffective in suppression of inadequate child discipline practices if the focus of societal reaction is predominantely put on punishment and stigmatization of parents and caregivers instead on their proper training and empowering, and activities aimed at raising public awareness on the rights of children.

  5. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-11-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure.

  6. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of R and D on radon in the indoor environment at SCK-CEN is to (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions; to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps. Progress and main achievements in 1997 are reported on

  7. Indoor environmental health in schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, B.M. [Envirodesic Certification Program, Stouffville, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Indoor health is a concern today because unhealthy environments can cause adverse health effects, poor learning and teaching and increased costs. The holistic view of the environment and human health links sick kids, absenteeism, teacher illness, education costs and mouldy schools. An historical perspective is provided on the problem and its treatment referring to: 1962 and chemical susceptibility, 1975 and open systems theory, 1978 and high risk groups, 1985 and pollution and education in Toronto, 1987 and health environments for Canadians, 1995 and the National Education Association in the U.S., 1997 and a U.S. Executive Order, 1998 and the Texas Dept. of Health, 1998 and the U.S. EPS website 'IAQ Tools for Schools', and 1998 and 'The air children breathe.' It is known that pollutants adversely affect health, that children are highly susceptible, that the role in schools has being known for decades, and that information is now available worldwide through the Internet. The reasons why mould is a problem are listed, and the effects of an unhealthy indoor environment are referred to. The benefits of a healthy indoor environment are listed, and the various means of creating a healthy indoor environment are outlined. New developments are referred to including: fresh air, building envelope, building leakage, airtightness of buildings, tight envelope and air supply, low-emission materials, maintenance and cleaning, strategy and financing, collaboration, and the possibility of healthy schools.

  8. How indoor environment affects performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyon, David Peter; Wargocki, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    , in the form of answers to 40 frequently asked questions. Our answers are based on the results of behavioral experiments conducted to date. We offer no opinions on long-term health effects of indoor environmental quality. We provide some references to relevant sources, but there is not enough space for all...

  9. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  10. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  11. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  12. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history,…

  13. INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATION UNIT CONVERSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migration of volatile chemicals from the subsurface into overlying buildings is called vapor intrusion (VI). Volatile organic chemicals in contaminated soils or groundwater can emit vapors, which can migrate through subsurface soils and may enter the indoor air of overlying buil...

  14. Ventilation influence upon indoor air radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Deyuan

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level. Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition, although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level. Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level. Therefore, the total indoor air Rn levels are normal > ventilation > exhaust or in-draft > exhaust plus in-draft

  15. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory authorities have consulted on the option of banning embedded sales commissions for Canadian financial advisors. Such an action would create more problems than it would solve. It would have serious ramifications for Canadians’ access to financial advice and raise issues of choice, industry concentration and price transparency for clients seeking advice on investments and retirement. Financial advisors have much greater knowledge of investments than their clients, who rightly expect value from their advisors’ services. Advisors may also face conflicts of interest when they make recommendations about a financial product whose manufacturer might be paying the advisor for selling its products. Banning sales commissions from the manufacturers and having the client pay the advisor directly instead brings its own problems. This is because financial advice is a good with peculiar characteristics. Firstly, financial advice has three fundamental components – the alpha, beta and gamma factors. Together, they define the roles financial advisors play: (alpha asset or portfolio manager, (beta asset allocator (rebalancing a client’s portfolio, and (gamma coach with regard to savings discipline and financial planning. Financial advice has value thanks to the interplay between the three factors. Studies of the issue which have focused on one factor at a time, usually the alpha, produce results that are skewed; however, when studies measure all three factors, the evidence shows that financial advice has significant value, greater than the usual cost charged to clients. Secondly, financial advice is an “experience good”, meaning that clients don’t know ahead of time how good financial advice is until they see how it works out. Assessing the value of financial advice may take many years. Since they can’t immediately measure what they’re paying for, clients with modest incomes or wealth are usually willing only to pay low fees, or not pay

  16. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  17. Driver Cellphone and Texting Bans in the United States: Evidence of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T.; Kidd, David G.; Teoh, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all U.S. states have laws limiting drivers’ cellphone use. The evidence suggests that all-driver bans on hand-held phone conversations have resulted in long-term reductions in hand-held phone use, and drivers in ban states reported higher rates of hands-free phone use and lower overall phone use compared with drivers in non-ban states. Bans on all phone use by teenage drivers have not been shown to reduce their phone use. The effects of texting bans on the rates of drivers’ texting are unknown. With regard to the effects of bans on crashes, 11 peer-reviewed papers or technical reports of all-driver hand-held phone bans and texting bans were reviewed. Some were single-state studies examining crash measures before and after a state ban; other national or multi-state studies compared crashes in states with and without bans over time. The results varied widely. The lack of appropriate controls and other challenges in conducting strong evaluations limited the findings of some studies. Thus, despite the proliferation of laws limiting drivers’ cellphone use, it is unclear whether they are having the desired effects on safety. Priorities for future research are suggested. PMID:24776230

  18. Indoor house pollution: appliance emissions and indoor ambient concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, T [Univ. of Santiago, Chile; Soto, H; Lissi, E; Cisternas, R

    1983-01-01

    Emissions rates for CO, NO, NO/sub 2/ adn CH/sub 2/O from several unvented gas and kerosene heaters frequently employed in domestic heating have been measured. The indoor concentrations generated by these emissions are evaluated and compared to those determined in typical houses. It is found that both the predicted and measured values exceed the short term air quality standards accepted in most countries.

  19. Global evidence on the effect of point-of-sale display bans on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyun; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-01-13

    Since Iceland became the first country to impose a ban on point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays in 2001, 20 countries have implemented POS display bans as of 2016. This study examined the effect that POS display bans have on smoking prevalence. Data were sourced from Euromonitor International and the WHO MPOWER package for 2007-2014 from 77 countries worldwide. generalised linear models with country and year fixed effects were estimated to analyse the effect of POS display bans on smoking prevalence. Having a POS display ban reduced overall adult daily smoking, male smoking and female smoking by about 7%, 6% and 9%, respectively. Having a POS display ban is likely to reduce smoking prevalence and generate public health benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Bans on electronic cigarette sales to minors and smoking among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouk, Rahi; Adams, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Many states have banned electronic cigarette sales to minors under the rationale that using e-cigarettes leads to smoking traditional combustion cigarettes. Such sales bans would be counterproductive, however, if e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes are substitutes, as bans might push teenagers back to smoking the more dangerous combustion cigarettes. We provide evidence that these sales bans reduce the incidence of smoking conventional cigarettes among high school seniors. Moreover, we provide evidence suggesting that sales bans reduced e-cigarette usage as well. This evidence suggests that not only are e-cigarettes and smoking regular cigarettes positively related and not substitutes for young people, banning retail sales to minors is an effective policy tool in reducing tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Engaging Moms on Teen Indoor Tanning Through Social Media: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry L; Baker, Katie; Griffith, Julia; Oleski, Jessica L; Palumbo, Ashley; Walkosz, Barbara J; Hillhouse, Joel; Henry, Kimberly L; Buller, David B

    2016-11-29

    Indoor tanning elevates the risk for melanoma, which is now the most common cancer in US women aged 25-29. Public policies restricting access to indoor tanning by minors to reduce melanoma morbidity and mortality in teens are emerging. In the United States, the most common policy restricting indoor tanning in minors involves parents providing either written or in person consent for the minor to purchase a tanning visit. The effectiveness of this policy relies on parents being properly educated about the harms of indoor tanning to their children. This randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of a Facebook-delivered health communication intervention targeting mothers of teenage girls. The intervention will use health communication and behavioral modification strategies to reduce mothers' permissiveness regarding their teenage daughters' use of indoor tanning relative to an attention-control condition with the ultimate goal of reducing indoor tanning in both daughters and mothers. The study is a 12-month randomized controlled trial comparing 2 conditions: an attention control Facebook private group where content will be relevant to teen health with 25% focused on prescription drug abuse, a topic unrelated to tanning; and the intervention condition will enter participants into a Facebook private group where 25% of the teen health content will be focused on indoor tanning. A cohort of 2000 mother-teen daughter dyads will be recruited to participate in this study. Only mothers will participate in the Facebook groups. Both mothers and daughters will complete measures at baseline, end of intervention (1-year) and 6 months post-intervention. Primary outcomes include mothers' permissiveness regarding their teenage daughters' use of indoor tanning, teenage daughters' perception of their mothers' permissiveness, and indoor tanning by both mothers and daughters. The first dyad was enrolled on March 31, 2016, and we anticipate completing this study by October 2019

  2. Engaging Moms on Teen Indoor Tanning Through Social Media: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Katie; Griffith, Julia; Oleski, Jessica L; Palumbo, Ashley; Walkosz, Barbara J; Hillhouse, Joel; Henry, Kimberly L; Buller, David B

    2016-01-01

    Background Indoor tanning elevates the risk for melanoma, which is now the most common cancer in US women aged 25-29. Public policies restricting access to indoor tanning by minors to reduce melanoma morbidity and mortality in teens are emerging. In the United States, the most common policy restricting indoor tanning in minors involves parents providing either written or in person consent for the minor to purchase a tanning visit. The effectiveness of this policy relies on parents being properly educated about the harms of indoor tanning to their children. Objective This randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of a Facebook-delivered health communication intervention targeting mothers of teenage girls. The intervention will use health communication and behavioral modification strategies to reduce mothers’ permissiveness regarding their teenage daughters’ use of indoor tanning relative to an attention-control condition with the ultimate goal of reducing indoor tanning in both daughters and mothers. Methods The study is a 12-month randomized controlled trial comparing 2 conditions: an attention control Facebook private group where content will be relevant to teen health with 25% focused on prescription drug abuse, a topic unrelated to tanning; and the intervention condition will enter participants into a Facebook private group where 25% of the teen health content will be focused on indoor tanning. A cohort of 2000 mother-teen daughter dyads will be recruited to participate in this study. Only mothers will participate in the Facebook groups. Both mothers and daughters will complete measures at baseline, end of intervention (1-year) and 6 months post-intervention. Primary outcomes include mothers’ permissiveness regarding their teenage daughters’ use of indoor tanning, teenage daughters’ perception of their mothers’ permissiveness, and indoor tanning by both mothers and daughters. Results The first dyad was enrolled on March 31, 2016, and we

  3. National security and the comprehensive test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landauer, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    For nearly three years now, the US, UK, and USSR have been working on the draft of a treaty that would ban all nuclear explosions (both peaceful applications and weapon tests) and institute verification and monitoring provisions to ensure compliance with the treaty. The status of the draft treaty is summarized. The question, Is a CTBT really in the interest of US national security. is analyzed with arguments used by both proponents and opponents of the CTBT. It is concluded that there are arguments both for and against a CTBT, but, for those whose approach to national security can be expressed as peace through preparedness, the arguments against a CTBT appear persuasive

  4. Sweden goes back on its decision to ban nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of 2009 the centre-right Swedish government has announced that the law on the progressive banning of nuclear energy and the law on the interdiction of building new nuclear power plants are going to be abolished. Moreover licenses will be given for the replacement of current operating reactors when they reach their time limit. The center party has not changed its mind concerning nuclear energy but is now deeply convinced that nuclear energy will be indispensable in the energy mix of tomorrow. A recent opinion poll has showed that almost half of the population favor the construction of new nuclear power plants. (A.C.)

  5. Primerjalna analiza slovenskih bančnih portalov

    OpenAIRE

    Podpečan, Vanja

    2016-01-01

    Živimo v dobi, v kateri se pojmi kot so internet, elektronsko poslovanje in elektronsko bančništvo uporabljajo vsakodnevno. Podjetja morajo v poslovnem okolju nuditi informacije, ki so za poslovanje nujno potrebni element. Le-te pa so najlažje dostopne preko interneta, brez katerega večina podjetij danes več ne more uspešno poslovati. Če uporabnik zna iz ogromnega števila informacij izluščiti najboljše, so le-te lahko zelo uporabne. Zato pa »prave« informacije predstavljajo velik element konk...

  6. The organisation of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The author presents the international control system implemented by the CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) organisation to permanently control the globe and to detect any indicator of a nuclear explosion from war or civil origin or seismic activities. He briefly indicates how many countries are members of this organisation, and positions of some others. He describes how a North-Korean explosion has been detected in January 2016. He evokes the existence of validation techniques, and comments the relationship between the European Union and this organisation. He outlines the role played by France, and outlines the need for a world-based control system

  7. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: options before nuclear Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanaik, Smruti S.

    1998-01-01

    The post-nuclear period has rendered Pakistan's strategic calculations more vulnerable. The decision to go nuclear after seventeen days of debate have started proving costly to Pakistan. This is revealed by the economic crisis resulting out of the foreign currency shortage, leading the country to default on the payment of debts. The pressure imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank and their patrons to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) have exposed Pakistan's economic vulnerability. Under this growing pressure, many have started questioning the decision to go nuclear

  8. Indoor plants as air cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Christensen, Jan H.; Müller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Plants have been used decoratively indoors for centuries. For the last 25-30 years, their beneficial abilities to reduce the levels of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the indoor air have also been investigated. Previous studies have shown that VOCs are removed by the plant itself...... experiments is not directly transferrable to real life settings. The largest problem is the use of closed chambers where there is no air exchange. This also results in a declining VOC concentration over time. Due to this limitation, we constructed a new experimental system which among others can allow for air...... exchange and a constant VOC concentration. With the new system it was found that removal rates obtained in chambers with air exchange and constant VOC concentration were significantly higher than removal rates obtained in closed chambers. This means that removal rates obtained in closed chambers may...

  9. The indoor air we breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  10. Indoor air problems in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    Respiratory disease and mortality due to indoor air pollution are amongst the greatest environmental threats to health in the developing countries of Asia. World-wide, acute respiratory infection is the cause of death of at least 5 million children under the age of 5 every year. The World Bank has claimed that smoke from biomass fuels resulted in an estimated 4 million deaths annually amongst infants and children. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries. Combustion in its various forms must head the list of pollution sources in Asia. Combustion of various fuels for domestic heating, lighting and cooking comprises the major source of internally generated pollutants and combustion in industrial plants, power generation and transportation is the major cause of externally generated pollutants. The products of pyrolysis and combustion include many compounds with well-known adverse health effects. These include gases such as CO, CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 , volatile organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and nitroamines as well as respirable particulates of variable composition. The nature and magnitude of the health risks posed by these materials vary with season, climate, location housing, method of ventilation, culture and socio-economic status. The most important cause of lung cancer in non-smokers in Northern Asia is the domestic combustion of smoky coal. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning is common in many Asian countries. Roads traffic exhaust pollution is worse in the major cities of South East Asia than almost anywhere else in the world and this externally generated air pollution forms the indoor air for the urban poor. Despite all these major problems there has been a tendency for international agencies to focus attention and resources on the more trivial problems of indoor air encountered in the affluent countries of the West. Regulatory agencies in Asia have been too frequently persuaded that their problems of indoor air pollution are

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Austin sediments after a ban on pavement sealers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMott, R.P.; Gauthier, T.D.; Wiersema, J.M.; Crenson, G. [ENVIRON International, Tampa, FL (USA)

    2010-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were measured in stream sediments collected before and after a municipal ban on the use of coal-tar-based pavement sealers in Austin, Texas. Samples were collected in October 2005, prior to the ban, and again in April, 2008, approximately 2 years after the ban. Differences in total PAH concentrations between samples collected before and after the ban show no net change in PAH levels in Austin stream sediments. Results of hydrocarbon fingerprinting reveal subtle differences in PAH profiles that appear to reflect the effects of weathering rather than a change in PAH sources.

  12. The opinion of catering sector about the smoking ban and the evaluation of establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Sibel; Çelik, Deniz; İnönü Köseoğlu, Handan; Etikan, Ilker; Çetin, İlhan

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the knowledge and perspective of employees/employers in the catering sector in our city regarding the smoking ban, as well as to determine the changes in the number of customers and income after the bans implementation. In this two phased cross-sectional study 337 and 310 adults were evaluated respectively. Before the smoking ban was implemented we visited 84 workplaces in city center, after 18 months later 97 workplaces were visited in the same region. In both phases, the participants' opinions about the necessity/applicability of the ban were evaluated. In the second phase, they were also asked whether they had any changes in their income. In both phases, participants' general characteristics were similar. When all participants were evaluated, we determined that their knowledge and belief in the necessity/applicability of the ban did not change over time. It was determined that non-smokers more strongly believed in the necessity/applicability of the ban. Thirty-eight participants were included in both phases; 44.7% of them reported a decrease in the number of customers, and 60% of employers reported an increase in their income. The smokers were less convinced about the applicability/necessity of this ban than non-smokers. According to our results it could be said that smoking can also adversely affect implementation of the related ban. Employers should be informed that the ban will not affect their income.

  13. Internet cigarette vendor compliance with credit card payment and shipping bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-02-01

    Most Internet cigarette sales have violated taxation and youth access laws, leading to landmark 2005 agreements with credit card companies, PayPal, and private shippers (United Parcel Service, Federal Express, DHL) to cease participation in these transactions. Despite their promise at the time, loopholes allowed for check payment and U.S. Postal Service (USPS) shipping. This study assessed actual vendor compliance with the payment and shipping bans using a purchase survey. In late 2007 and early 2008, an adult buyer attempted to order cigarettes from the 97 most popular Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) using banned payment and shipping methods. When banned payment or shipping methods were unavailable, purchases were attempted with alternate methods (e.g., checks, e-checks, USPS). Twenty-seven of 100 orders were placed with (banned) credit cards; 23 were successfully received. Seventy-one orders were placed with checks (60 successfully received). Four orders were delivered using banned shippers; 79 of 83 successfully received orders were delivered by the USPS. About a quarter of ICVs violated the payment ban, others adapted by accepting checks. Most vendors complied with the shipping ban, perhaps because USPS was an easy substitute shipping option. Better enforcement of the bans is needed; the 2009 Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act closed the USPS loophole by making cigarettes nonmailable material; evaluation of enforcement efforts and adaptations by vendors are needed. These sorts of bans are a promising approach to controlling the sale of restricted goods online.

  14. Perceptions of the solarium ban in Australia: 'Fake it, don't bake it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Ivanka; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wilson, Carlene; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Rayner, Joanne; Makin, Jen

    2015-08-01

    The causal link between ultraviolet radiation from solarium use and skin cancer is well established. In 2012 and 2013, state governments across Australia announced plans to ban commercial solarium use from 31 December 2014. The present study examined the responses of solarium and non-solarium users to the ban on commercial solariums in Australia. Participants (n = 488; 388 females, 100 males; mean age = 26.02, s.d. = 9.95) completed an online questionnaire during the summer prior to the ban relating to solarium usage and their opinions about the ban. Overall, 49% (n = 237) of participants were aware of the impending ban; 17% (n = 83) had used a solarium at some point in their life. The response to the solarium ban was positive; however, some current solarium users intended post-ban to use privately owned sunbeds and or spend a greater amount of time sun-tanning. These findings indicate a high level of public support for the solarium ban, which has removed a risky source of ultraviolet radiation in Australia. SO WHAT? Further steps are now needed to monitor the tanning behaviours of previous solarium users post-ban and their access to private sunbed use and other potentially dangerous methods of tanning (e.g. tanning injections).

  15. Patron Banning in the Nightlife Entertainment Districts: A Key Informant Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Curtis, Ashlee; Palmer, Darren; Warren, Ian; McFarlane, Emma

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol-related harm in and around licensed venues is associated with substantial costs. Many interventions have been introduced in an effort to combat these harms, and one such intervention is known as patron banning. Patron banning involves prohibiting patrons who have been violent or disorderly in a licensed venue in an attempt to reduce alcohol-related harm. It can be implemented by the venue, by members of police, or by liquor accords. This study aimed to obtain key informant perspectives on the benefits of patron banning as well as on the effectiveness of patron banning in reducing alcohol-related harm. Thirty-six key informants provided perspectives on patron banning through in-depth interviews that were part of a larger study. Key informants were supportive of patron banning for reducing alcohol-related harm, noting that it had many benefits including increased venue safety, general risk management, and deterrence of antisocial behavior. Although processes for banning were not always consistent, identification scanners were generally recognized as a way to ensure that patron banning was enforced. Key informants viewed patron banning as an effective measure for increasing patron safety and reducing alcohol-related harms.

  16. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Jagielak, J.; Rosinski, S.W.; Sosinka, A.; Bysiek, M.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  17. EML indoor radon workshop, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Lowder, W.; Fisenne, I.; Knutson, E.O.; Hinchliffe, L.

    1983-07-01

    A workshop on indoor radon, held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) on November 30 and December 1, 1982, covered recent developments in radon daughter research and development. Thirty papers were presented dealing with standardization and quality assurance measurement methods, surveys, measurements strategy, physical mechanisms of radon and radon daughter transport and development of guidance standards for indoor exposures. The workshop concluded with a planning session that identified the following needs: (1) national and international intercomparisons of techniques for measuring radon and radon daughter concentrations, working level and radon exhalation flux density; (2) development and refinement of practical measurement techniques for thoron and its daughter products; (3) quantitative definition of the sources of indoor radon and the mechanisms of transport into structures; (4) better knowledge of the physical properties of radon daughters; (5) more complete and accurate data on the population exposure to radon, which can only be met by broadly based surveys; and (6) more international cooperation and information exchange among countries with major research programs

  18. Indoor Air Quality and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous contaminants in indoor air and their potential to cause or exacerbate asthma continue to be a subject of public health concern. Many agents are causally associated with or can exacerbate asthma, particularly in children. For formaldehyde, an established respiratory irritant based on numerous studies, the evidence for an association with asthma is still considered only limited or suggestive. However, there is no evidence that indicates increased sensitivity to sensory irritation to formaldehyde in people often regarded as susceptible such as asthmatics. Acrolein, but not formaldehyde, was significantly associated with asthma in a large cohort of children. This prompted an evaluation of this highly irritating chemical that had never previously been considered in the context of the indoor air/childhood asthma issue. Because acrolein is more potent than formaldehyde as a respiratory irritant and ubiquitous in indoor air, it is plausible that previous studies on potential risk factors and childhood asthma may be confounded by formaldehyde acting as an unrecognized proxy for acrolein.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in indoor and outdoor air in an eight-home study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jane C.; Mack, Gregory A.; Kuhlman, Michael R.; Wilson, Nancy K.

    A pilot field study was performed in Columbus, OH, during the winter of 1986/1987. The objectives were to determine the feasibility of the use of a newly developed quiet sampler in indoor air sampling for particles and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) and to measure the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in air in selected residences. Eight homes were chosen for sampling on the basis of these characteristics: electric/gas heating system, electric/gas cooking appliances, and the absence/presence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The indoor sampler was equipped with a quartz-fiber filter to collect particles followed by XAD-4 resin to trap SVOC. A PS-1 sampler with a similar sampling module was used outdoors. The indoor air was sampled in the kitchen and living room areas over two consecutive 8-h periods. The outdoor air was sampled concurrently with the indoor samples over a 16-h period. Fifteen PAH, five nitro-PAH, five oxygenated PAH, and three nitrogen heterocyclic compounds were determined in these samples. The most abundant PAH found indoors was naphthalene. The indoor concentrations of PAH derivatives were lower than those of their parent compounds. Average concentrations of all but three target compounds (naphthalene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, pyrene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, and 2-nitrofluoranthene) were higher indoors than outdoors. Environmental tobacco smoke was the most significant influence on indoor pollutant levels. Homes with gas heating systems had higher indoor pollutant levels than homes with electric heating systems. However, the true effects of heating and cooking systems were not characterized as accurately as the effects of ETS because of the small sample sizes and the lack of statistical significance for most pollutant differences in the absence of ETS. The concentrations of PAH marker compounds (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) correlated well with the concentrations

  20. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.; Sexton, K.

    1983-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  1. The Isprs Benchmark on Indoor Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshelham, K.; Díaz Vilariño, L.; Peter, M.; Kang, Z.; Acharya, D.

    2017-09-01

    Automated generation of 3D indoor models from point cloud data has been a topic of intensive research in recent years. While results on various datasets have been reported in literature, a comparison of the performance of different methods has not been possible due to the lack of benchmark datasets and a common evaluation framework. The ISPRS benchmark on indoor modelling aims to address this issue by providing a public benchmark dataset and an evaluation framework for performance comparison of indoor modelling methods. In this paper, we present the benchmark dataset comprising several point clouds of indoor environments captured by different sensors. We also discuss the evaluation and comparison of indoor modelling methods based on manually created reference models and appropriate quality evaluation criteria. The benchmark dataset is available for download at: html"target="_blank">http://www2.isprs.org/commissions/comm4/wg5/benchmark-on-indoor-modelling.html.

  2. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  3. Residential indoor air quality guideline : carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a tasteless, odourless, and colourless gas that can be produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, but is most often formed during the incomplete combustion of organic materials. In the indoor environment, CO occurs directly as a result of emissions from indoor sources or as a result of infiltration from outdoor air containing CO. Studies have shown that the use of specific sources can lead to increased concentrations of CO indoors. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined the factors influencing the introduction, dispersion and removal of CO indoors. The health effects of exposure to low and higher concentrations of CO were discussed. Residential maximum exposure limits for CO were presented. Sources and concentrations in indoor environments were also examined. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Assessment of external dose indoors in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilkyte, L.; Butkus, D.; Morkunas, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was an assessment of external exposure indoors and its dependence on construction materials and indoor radon concentrations in Lithuanian living houses. Relationship of absorbed dose rate in air indoors and activity indexes of the most commonly used construction materials (wood, concrete and bricks) have been studied using results received in measurements done in >4700 rooms in 1995-2005. Possible connections of dose rate indoors with indoor radon concentrations are also discussed. Findings of this study helped to make an assessment of the mean value of effective dose of Lithuanian population due to external exposure indoors which is equal to 0.58 mSv y -1 . The received data might also be used in improvement of quality of personal dosimetric measurements done in premises constructed of different construction materials. (authors)

  5. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O 3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O 3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O 3 , depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O 3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O 3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O 3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O 3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  6. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM, Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  7. Accurate estimation of indoor travel times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Stisen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The ability to accurately estimate indoor travel times is crucial for enabling improvements within application areas such as indoor navigation, logistics for mobile workers, and facility management. In this paper, we study the challenges inherent in indoor travel time estimation, and we propose...... the InTraTime method for accurately estimating indoor travel times via mining of historical and real-time indoor position traces. The method learns during operation both travel routes, travel times and their respective likelihood---both for routes traveled as well as for sub-routes thereof. InTraTime...... allows to specify temporal and other query parameters, such as time-of-day, day-of-week or the identity of the traveling individual. As input the method is designed to take generic position traces and is thus interoperable with a variety of indoor positioning systems. The method's advantages include...

  8. Smoking in Correctional Settings Worldwide: Prevalence, Bans, and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Anne C; Eldridge, Gloria D; Chico, Cynthia E; Morisseau, Nancy; Drobeniuc, Ana; Fils-Aime, Rebecca; Day, Carolyn; Hopkins, Robyn; Jin, Xingzhong; Chen, Junyu; Dolan, Kate A

    2018-06-01

    Smoking tobacco contributes to 11.5% of deaths worldwide and, in some countries, more hospitalizations than alcohol and drugs combined. Globally in 2015, 25% of men and 5% of women smoked. In the United States, a higher proportion of people in prison smoke than do community-dwelling individuals. To determine smoking prevalence in prisons worldwide, we systematically reviewed the literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines; we also examined whether prisons banned smoking or treated smokers. We searched databases for articles published between 2012 and 2016 and located 85 relevant articles with data representing 73.5% of all incarcerated persons from 50 countries. In 35 of 36 nations (97%) with published prevalence data, smoking for the incarcerated exceeded community rates 1.04- to 62.6-fold. Taking a conservative estimate of a 2-fold increase, we estimated that, globally, 14.5 million male and 26,000 female smokers pass through prisons annually. Prison authorities' responses include permitting, prohibiting, or treating tobacco use. Bans may temporarily improve health and reduce in-prison health care costs but have negligible effect after prison release. Evidence-based interventions for smoking cessation effective outside prisons are effective inside; effects persist after release. Because smoking prevalence is heightened in prisons, offering evidence-based interventions to nearly 15 million smokers passing through yearly would improve global health.

  9. Compliance with the workplace-smoking ban in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Rijswijk, Pieter C P; de Vries, Hein; Knibbe, Ronald A

    2013-02-01

    In 2004 the Dutch government instituted a workplace-smoking ban. This study focuses on differences in compliance over time and between occupational sectors, and describes the background variables. Telephone interviews were conducted with company employees across industry, public and service sectors in 2004 (n=705), 2006 (n=2201) and 2008 (n=2034). The questions concerned smoking policy, aspects of awareness and motivation to implement this ban. Compliance rates increased between 2006 (83%) and 2008 (96%) after an initial stagnation in the rate of compliance between 2004 and 2006. The increase in compliance was accompanied by a less negative attitude and an increase in confidence in one's ability to comply (self-efficacy). Differences in compliance between sectors with the highest compliance (public sector) and the lowest compliance (industry) decreased from about 20% to nearly 4%. Simultaneously, in the industry there was a stronger increase for risk perception of enforcement, social influence and self-efficacy. The initial stagnation in increase of compliance might be due to the lack of a (new) coherent package of policy measures to discourage smoking. Over the entire period there was a stronger increase in compliance in the industry sector, probably due to the intensification of enforcement activities and additional policy like legislation, which might increase awareness and social support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Indoor Tanning Dependence in Young Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Atkins, Michael B; Ahn, Jaeil; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2017-11-01

    Background: There is mounting evidence that young people can develop a dependence on indoor tanning, but research on factors associated with indoor tanning dependence remains limited. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated factors associated with indoor tanning dependence in a community sample of 389 non-Hispanic white young adult women ages 18 to 30 who had indoor tanned ≥1 time in the past year. Participants completed measures of indoor tanning dependence, including the modified CAGE and modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV psychiatric screening assessments, indoor tanning behavior and beliefs, and behavioral and psychiatric comorbidity. Results: Overall, 22.6% of the sample screened positive for indoor tanning dependence. In multivariable analyses, indoor tanning dependence was associated with younger age of indoor tanning initiation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79; P = 0.017], indoor tanning ≥20 times in the past year (aOR = 3.03; P = 0.015), stronger beliefs about the benefits of tanning (aOR = 2.15; P = 0.004), greater perceived susceptibility to indoor tanning risks (aOR = 2.72; P tanning dependence among young, non-Hispanic white women is associated with behaviors that increase the risk of skin cancer, beliefs favoring the perceived benefits of tanning, and comorbid risks such as stronger beliefs about physical appearance and depressed mood. Impact: Comprehensive skin cancer prevention efforts should address indoor tanning dependence among young women and its leading risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1636-43. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Internet-Based Indoor Navigation Services

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinalipour-Yazti, Demetrios; Laoudias, Christos; Georgiou, Kyriakos

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone advances are leading to a class of Internet-based Indoor Navigation services. IIN services rely on geolocation databases that store indoor models, comprising floor maps and points of interest, along with wireless, light, and magnetic signals for localizing users. Developing IIN services creates new information management challenges - such as crowdsourcing indoor models, acquiring and fusing big data velocity signals, localization algorithms, and custodians' location privacy. Here, ...

  12. Indoor air quality: a UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadge, A.

    1995-01-01

    Outdoor air quality has generally improved in the UK over the last 2 decades but during this period changing conditions within the home have tended to reduce ventilation and increase the opportunity for accumulation of undesirable levels of indoor air pollutants. Information obtained from laboratory and epidemiological studies suggest that indoor air pollutants are an important cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality in the UK. This paper reviews the major indoor air pollutants of concern in the UK and considers some of the special issues relevant to indoor environment. (author) 3 figs., 37 refs

  13. Capturing Hotspots For Constrained Indoor Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Finding the hotspots in large indoor spaces is very important for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation and guidance. The tracking data coming from indoor tracking are huge in volume and not readily available for finding hotspots. This paper presents a graph......-based model for constrained indoor movement that can map the tracking records into mapping records which represent the entry and exit times of an object in a particular location. Then it discusses the hotspots extraction technique from the mapping records....

  14. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with incidental high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia on the indoor climate and

  15. The tobacco endgame in Hong Kong: public support for a total ban on tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Wang, Xin; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco endgame policies are increasingly advocated to end tobacco use. This study investigated public support for a total ban on tobacco sales, use and possession in Hong Kong. A telephone survey was conducted among 1537 randomly selected residents in 2012 to assess their support for a total ban on tobacco sales, usage and possession. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and second hand smoke exposure were collected. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with support for a total ban. Most of the never smokers (75.3%), ex-smokers (63.9%), and nearly half of current smokers (48.9%) backed some form of a total ban on tobacco. A total ban on tobacco sales was the most popular option among the three groups, with over half (64.8%) of all respondents supporting a ban within 10 years. Current smoking and higher educational attainment were associated with less support for a total ban on tobacco sales. Among current smokers, having quit intentions and attempts to quit were associated with support for a total ban. A total ban on tobacco sales was supported by most respondents. Ex-smokers and current smokers also voiced substantial support, although less than never smokers. A total ban on tobacco sales before 2022 should be the goal as it is supported by most of the respondents. Interim tobacco control measures, such as tax increases, expansion of smoking cessation services and plain packaging should be implemented to help current smokers quit and reduce smoking initiation before implementation of the ban. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Characterization of indoor bioaerosols from a hospital ward in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of indoor bioaerosols from a hospital ward in a tropical ... assessment of indoor air quality and determine pathogenic microorganisms due to particle fall-out. Key words: Indoor air, bioaerosols, hospital ward, tropical setting ...

  17. Polluted air--outdoors and indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, I; Maynard, R L

    2005-09-01

    Many air pollutants which are considered important in ambient (outdoor) air are also found, sometimes at higher levels, in indoor air. With demanding standards having been set for many of these pollutants, both in the workplace and ambient air, consideration of the problems posed by indoor pollution is gaining pace. Studies on exposure to pollutants found in the indoor domestic environment are increasing and are contributing to an already significant compilation of datasets. Improvement in monitoring techniques has helped this process. Documented reports of fatalities from carbon monoxide poisonings are still worrying. However, studies on health effects of non-fatal, long term, low dose, indoor exposure to carbon monoxide and other pollutants, are still inconclusive and too infrequently documented. Of particular concern are the levels of air pollutants found in the domestic indoor environment in developing countries, despite simple interventions such as vented stoves having shown their value. Exposure to biomass smoke is still a level that would be considered unacceptable on health grounds in developed countries. As in the occupational environment, steps need to be taken to control the risks from exposure to the harmful constituents of indoor air in the home. However, the difficulty regarding regulation of the domestic indoor environment is its inherent privacy. Monitoring levels of pollutants in the home and ensuring regulations are adhered to, would likely prove difficult, especially when individual behaviour patterns and activities have the greatest influence on pollutant levels in indoor air. To this end, the Department of Health is developing guidance on indoor air pollution to encourage the reduction of pollutant levels in indoor domestic air. The importance of the effects of domestic indoor air on health and its contribution to the health of the worker are increasingly appreciated. Occupational physicians, by training and interest, are well placed to extend

  18. Acute pulmonary admissions following implementation of a national workplace smoking ban.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-09-01

    The implementation of workplace smoking bans has contributed to a significant reduction in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome admissions, but their influence on adult acute pulmonary disease admissions is unclear. We sought to assess the impact of a national smoking ban on nationwide admissions of individuals of working age with acute pulmonary illness.

  19. Do Partial Home Smoking Bans Signal Progress toward a Smoke-Free Home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Haardörfer, Regine; Bundy, Lucja T.; Escoffery, Cam; Berg, Carla J.; Fernandez, Maria; Williams, Rebecca; Hovell, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding who establishes partial home smoking bans, what these bans cover, and whether they are an intermediate step in going smoke-free would help to inform smoke-free home interventions. Participants were recruited from United Way of Greater Atlanta's 2-1-1 contact center. Data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months via telephone…

  20. The impact of the Danish smoking ban on hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tabita Maria; Møller, Lisbeth; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The positive impact of a smoking ban on AMI hospitalization rates has been demonstrated both inside and outside Europe. A national smoking ban (SB) was implemented in Denmark on 15...

  1. Perceptions of Teachers on the Ban of Corporal Punishment in Pre-Primary Institutions in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwai, Beth Kirigo; Kimengi, Isaac Njuguna; Kipsoi, Emmy Jerono

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate perceptions of teachers on the ban of corporal punishment in pre-primary institutions. The objectives of the study were to investigate teachers' attitudes towards corporal punishment ban in pre-schools and to establish whether the level of education of teachers had an influence on the use of corporal…

  2. Perceptions of a Gay-Straight Alliance Club Ban: School Counselors and Advocacy for LGBTQQ Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Pamela S.; Sifford, Amy McCarthy

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological inquiry explored the experiences and reactions of five school counselors who worked in a school that banned a Gay-Straight Alliance club. Specifically, the authors examined how counselors' perceptions of the ban influenced their advocacy for LGBTQQ students. The results of semi-structured interviews revealed one overarching…

  3. Coming This Fall to a School Library near You: The Challenged, the Banned, and the Filtered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Important happenings related to the concept of intellectual freedom (IF) coincide with the annual back-to-school ramp up. This article discusses how to use the summer hiatus to develop learning opportunities related to events such as Banned Books Week (BBW) and Banned Websites Awareness Day (BWAD). The author provides resource information to aid…

  4. Attitudes and Motivations of Competitive Cyclists Regarding Use of Banned and Legal Performance Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkaku R. Kisaalita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug ‘doping’ and the use of banned performance enhancing products (PEPs remains an issue in virtually all competitive sports despite penal consequences and known health risks. The lines distinguishing “fair” and “unfair” performance enhancement have become increasingly blurred. Few studies have explored how attitudes towards legal performance enhancers (drugs/substances, diet, and equipment modifications may influence motivations to use banned PEPs. In the present study, 68 competitive cyclists completed a survey examining the importance of choosing banned and non-banned PEPs using World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA and Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI criteria. Results showed that over 60 percent of cyclists used non-banned PEPs while 8 percent used banned PEPs. Health was overall the most important factor in choosing a PEP while apprehension by a doping agency was least important. Mixed- model ANOVA analyses revealed that motivations to use banned PEPs were complex, as the importance of health, violating the sprit of the sport, performance improvement, and getting caught were differentially influenced by PEP legality (p 0.05. Our findings illustrate the multifactorial nature of PEP use/doping attitudes and highlight the unique role that “legal” performance enhancement may plays in influencing banned and/or unethical sports behaviors.

  5. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty : an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty ushers in the post-nuclear testing era. The Treaty is the result of many years of intensive international negotiation, and is an impressive document of some 48 pages plus 15 pages of annexes which, by April 1997, 143 nations including New Zealand had signed. New Zealand has consistently maintained a strong opposition to the testing of nuclear weapons and has had a long involvement in negotiations towards this Treaty. This is the first of a series of articles on the Treaty, its enforcement, and its implications for New Zealand, and provides an overview of the treaty by means of a quick tour through its main provisions. (author)

  6. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  7. Epistemic Dependence and the EU Seal Ban Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Christian Blichner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On September 2009 the European Union (EU adopted a regulation banning the import of seal products into the EU or placing seal products on the EU market. The European Parliament was the main driving force behind the regulation and the EU has been criticised by affected countries outside the EU for not basing this decision on the available expert knowledge. The questions asked are how, given epistemic dependence, non-experts may challenge an expert based policy proposal. Can non-experts hold experts accountable, and if so in what way? Three main tests and ten subtests of expert knowledge are proposed and these tests are then used to assess whether the European Parliament did in fact argue in a way consistent with available expert knowledge in amending the Commission proposal for a regulation.

  8. Impact of Denmark's ban on antimicrobials for growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen H; Hayes, Dermot J

    2014-06-01

    Denmark was among the first countries to ban the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion (AGPs) in animal production through an on-going series of actions and regulations since 1995. In 2010 the Yellow Card scheme was adopted to decrease total antimicrobial consumption in pig production through additional restrictions on pig farmers. The withdrawal of AGPs and other restrictions have reduced total antimicrobial use, but at the same time therapeutic drug use has increased and resistance in key zoonotic bacteria has not decreased. Improved use of vaccines and management practices can help reduce losses especially for weaner pigs, but come with additional costs to producers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fissile material ban: global and non-discriminatory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datt, Savita

    1995-01-01

    With the indefinite and unconditional extension of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) now out of the way, the next issue on the non-proliferation agenda is that of the existing stocks and further production of plutonium and weapons grade uranium. More than the existing stocks and the surplus fissile materials made available through arms control and disarmament measures, it is the further production of such materials which is sought to be tackled urgently. Of prime concern are the nuclear programmes of threshold countries like India, Pakistan and Israel (countries out of the NPT fold) which need to be capped at all costs. The best method of achieving this, it is believed can be through a global ban on the production of fissile materials. 15 refs

  10. Assessing storefront tobacco advertising after the billboard ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A; Pokorny, Steven B; Mikulski, Kathy; Schoeny, Michael E

    2004-03-01

    This study examined storefront tobacco advertisements in 11 towns in Illinois from 1999 through 2001 to assess possible changes in these types of advertisements since the master tobacco settlement, which banned tobacco advertisements on billboards. Observers assessed the number of merchant- and industry-made tobacco storefront advertisements in Illinois stores and whether these advertisements were either brand- or price-focused. The relationship between the amount of tobacco advertisements and underage tobacco sales to minors was also explored. Findings indicated no significant relationships between tobacco advertisements and underage tobacco sales. However, industry price advertisements decreased over time because of tobacco price increases resulting from the master settlement, whereas industry brand advertisements increased over time, perhaps in an effort by the tobacco industry to retain sales of their products through brand recognition.

  11. Point-of-sale tobacco advertising in Beirut, Lebanon following a national advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Nakkash, Rima T; Myers, Allison E; Wood, Kathryn A; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-06-03

    The objective of this study was to conduct an audit of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and assess compliance with an advertising ban in a large district of Beirut, Lebanon. The audit was conducted 3 months following the ban on tobacco advertising. Trained students observed all tobacco retail outlets (n = 100) and entered data into a web-based form using iPad(®) technology. Presence of tobacco advertisements was assessed to determine compliance with the national advertising ban. Among the 100 tobacco retail outlets, 62% had tobacco advertisements, including 7% with a tobacco brand logo as part of the main exterior store sign. POS tobacco advertising is widespread in Beirut despite the national advertising ban. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of the advertisement ban with tobacco retail outlets in Lebanon.

  12. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  13. Insider trading under trading ban regulation in China’s A-share market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafen Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of China’s 2008 trading ban regulation on the insider trading of large shareholders in China’s A-share market. It finds no evidence of insider trading during the ban period (one month before the announcement of a financial report, due to high regulation risk. However, the ban only constrains the profitability of insider trades during the ban period, while trades outside it remain highly profitable. Informed insider trading before the ban period is 2.83 times more profitable than uninformed trading. The regulation has changed insider trading patterns, but has been ineffective in preventing insider trading by large shareholders due to rigid administrative supervision and a lack of civil litigation and flexible market monitoring. This study enhances understanding of large shareholders’ trading behavior and has important implications for regulators.

  14. Effect of a smoking ban on respiratory health in nonsmoking hospitality workers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Stolz, Daiana; Hammer, Jürg; Moeller, Alexander; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Röösli, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a smoking ban on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and respiratory symptoms in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace, spirometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured in 92 nonsmoking hospitality workers before as well as twice after a smoking ban. At baseline, secondhand smoke-exposed hospitality workers had lung function values significantly below the population average. After the smoking ban, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio for cough was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.93) and for chronic bronchitis 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.02) compared with the preban period. The below-average lung function before the smoking ban indicates chronic damages from long-term exposure. Respiratory symptoms such as cough decreased within 12 months after the ban.

  15. The Impact of Smoking Bans on Smoking and Consumer Behavior: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Stefan; Marti, Joachim; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we exploit the progressive implementation of smoking bans in public venues at the state level in Switzerland to evaluate both the direct effects on smoking and the potential unintended consequences of these legislations on consumer behaviors as measured by visiting restaurants/bars and discos ('going out'). Our results indicate that public venue smoking bans in Switzerland reduce smoking rates, but the findings do not emerge until 1 year following the ban. This pattern of results is consistent with delays in ban enforcement on the part of business owners, difficulties in changing addictive behaviors such as smoking, and/or learning on the part of smokers. We find evidence that smoking bans influence going-out behavior and there is substantial heterogeneity across venue and consumer characteristics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Indoor climate optimization with limited resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, A.; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    This report presents experimental data and models for optimisation of the indoor climate parameters temperature, noise, draught and window opening. Results are based on experiments with human subjects performed in climate chambers at University of the Philippines. The report may assist building...... designers to balance attention and resources between the parameters of the indoor climate when resources are less than optimal....

  17. Allegheny County Clean Indoor Air Act Exemptions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List and location of all the businesses and social clubs who have received an exemption from the Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act. “The Clean Indoor Air Act, Act...

  18. Identifying Typical Movements Among Indoor Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, positioning systems are becoming available that enable indoor location-based services. As a result, indoor tracking data is also becoming available. This paper puts focus on one use of such data, namely the identification of typical movement patterns...

  19. In-plane user positioning indoors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, N.; Özçelebi, T.; Lukkien, J.J.; Skoric, B.; Ignatenko, T.

    2014-01-01

    Indoor positioning is a service required by many smart environment applications for various purposes, such as activity classification, indoor navigation and context awareness. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the user positioning problem based on in-plane detection enabled by a set of

  20. Indoor Air Quality: Maryland Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, College Park. Office of Administration and Finance.

    Less than adequate indoor air quality in schools can lead to a higher risk of health problems, an increase in student and teacher absenteeism, diminished learning, and even hazardous conditions. An indoor air quality program that addresses the planning, design, maintenance, and operation of public school buildings should be implemented at the…

  1. Indoor Air Quality Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understand indoor air in homes, schools, and offices. Most of us spend much of our time indoors. The air that we breathe in our homes, in schools, and in offices can put us at risk for health problems. Some pollutants can be chemicals, gases, and living or

  2. Indoor Air Quality: A Guide for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Indoor air quality is a major concern for educators involved in the development of new school facilities, or the remodeling and maintenance of existing ones. This guide addresses the issue of air quality, the health concerns involved, and procedures for minimizing the impact of pollutants in the school environment. It defines common indoor air…

  3. Online Risk Prediction for Indoor Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Calders, Toon

    2016-01-01

    Technologies such as RFID and Bluetooth have received considerable attention for tracking indoor moving objects. In a time-critical indoor tracking scenario such as airport baggage handling, a bag has to move through a sequence of locations until it is loaded into the aircraft. Inefficiency or in...... reduce the operation cost....

  4. Indoor Climate of Large Glazed Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Ole Juhl; Madsen, Christina E.; Heiselberg, Per

    In recent years large glazed spaces has found increased use both in connection with renovation of buildings and as part of new buildings. One of the objectives is to add an architectural element, which combines indoor- and outdoor climate. In order to obtain a satisfying indoor climate it is crui...... it is cruicial at the design stage to be able to predict the performance regarding thermal comfort and energy consumption. This paper focus on the practical implementation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the relation to other simulation tools regarding indoor climate.......In recent years large glazed spaces has found increased use both in connection with renovation of buildings and as part of new buildings. One of the objectives is to add an architectural element, which combines indoor- and outdoor climate. In order to obtain a satisfying indoor climate...

  5. Characterizing the source of radon indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1983-09-01

    Average indoor radon concentrations range over more than two orders of magnitude, largely because of variability in the rate at which radon enters from building materials, soil, and water supplies. Determining the indoor source magnitude requires knowledge of the generation of radon in source materials, its movement within materials by diffusion and convection, and the means of its entry into buildings. This paper reviews the state of understanding of indoor radon sources and transport. Our understanding of generation rates in and movement through building materials is relatively complete and indicates that, except for materials with unusually high radionuclide contents, these sources can account for observed indoor radon concentrations only at the low end of the range observed. Our understanding of how radon enters buildings from surrounding soil is poorer, however recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that soil may be the predominant source in many cases where the indoor radon concentration is high. 73 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  6. Indoor air quality in Brazilian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Sonia R; Bankoff, Antônia D P; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-07-11

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  7. Providing better indoor environmental quality brings economicbenefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Seppanen, Olli

    2007-06-01

    This paper summarizes the current scientific evidence that improved indoor environmental quality can improve work performance and health. The review indicates that work and school work performance is affected by indoor temperature and ventilation rate. Pollutant source removal can sometimes improve work performance. Based on formal statistical analyses of existing research results, quantitative relationships are provided for the linkages of work performance with indoor temperature and outdoor air ventilation rate. The review also indicates that improved health and related financial savings are obtainable from reduced indoor tobacco smoking, prevention and remediation of building dampness, and increased ventilation. Example cost-benefit analyses indicate that many measures to improve indoor temperature control and increase ventilation rates will be highly cost effective, with benefit-cost ratios as high as 80 and annual economic benefits as high as $700 per person.

  8. Evolution of Indoor Positioning Technologies: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon F. Brena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning systems (IPS use sensors and communication technologies to locate objects in indoor environments. IPS are attracting scientific and enterprise interest because there is a big market opportunity for applying these technologies. There are many previous surveys on indoor positioning systems; however, most of them lack a solid classification scheme that would structurally map a wide field such as IPS, or omit several key technologies or have a limited perspective; finally, surveys rapidly become obsolete in an area as dynamic as IPS. The goal of this paper is to provide a technological perspective of indoor positioning systems, comprising a wide range of technologies and approaches. Further, we classify the existing approaches in a structure in order to guide the review and discussion of the different approaches. Finally, we present a comparison of indoor positioning approaches and present the evolution and trends that we foresee.

  9. Indoor radon in Tunisian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labidi, S.; Al-Azmi, Darwish; Ben Salah, R.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in four well-known spas of Tunisia using nuclear track detectors. The radon concentrations in these spas were found to be in the range of 19 - 870 Bq.m -3 . The equilibrium factor F between radon and its progeny was found to vary in the range of 0.2 - 0.5, depending upon the ventilation rates within the buildings of the spas. Using the exposure-dose conversion factor, the effective doses to patients and workers were estimated and the dose was found to vary in the range 3.7 x 10 -3 - 12.5 x 10 -3 mSv.y -1 and 0.45 - 1.5 mSv.y -1 for patients and workers, respectively. These values are well inside the limit recommended for the annual dose limit of 20 mSv.y -1 for an occupational worker. The radium content in the groundwater of all four spas was measured and the results showed no correlation between the 226 Ra concentration in water and radon concentration in indoor air of the investigated spas. (authors)

  10. Indoor air and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkel, G.; Rudolph, R.; Muckelmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infections of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chemico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  11. Indoor radon and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises the epidemiological literature on domestic exposure to radon and risk for childhood leukaemia. The results of 12 ecological studies show a consistent pattern of higher incidence and mortality rates for childhood leukaemia in areas with higher average indoor radon concentrations. Although the results of such studies are useful to generate hypotheses, they must be interpreted with caution, as the data were aggregated and analysed for geographical areas and not for individuals. The seven available case - control studies of childhood leukaemia with measurement of radon concentrations in the residences of cases and controls gave mixed results, however, with some indication of a weak (relative risk < 2) association with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The epidemiological evidence to date suggests that an association between indoor exposure to radon and childhood leukaemia might exist, but is weak. More case - control studies are needed, with sufficient statistical power to detect weak associations and based on designs and methods that minimise misclassification of exposure and provide a high participation rate and low potential selection bias. (authors)

  12. Banning traditional birth attendants from conducting deliveries: experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheelo, Chilala; Nzala, Selestine; Zulu, Joseph M

    2016-10-21

    In 2010 the government of the republic of Zambia stopped training traditional birth attendants and forbade them from conducting home deliveries as they were viewed as contributing to maternal mortality. This study explored positive and negative maternal health related experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula. This was a phenomenological study and data were collected through focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with trained traditional birth attendants (tTBAs) and key informant interviews with six female traditional leaders that were selected one from each of the six zones. All 22 trained tTBAs from three clinic catchment areas were included in the study. Content analysis was used to analyse the data after coding it using NVIVO 8 software. Home deliveries have continued despite the community and tTBAs being aware of the ban. The ban has had both negative and positive effects on the community. Positive effects include early detection and management of pregnancy complications, enhanced HIV/AIDS prevention and better management of post-natal conditions, reduced criticisms of tTBAs from the community in case of birth complications, and quick response at health facilities in case of an emergency. Negatives effects of the ban include increased work load on the part of health workers, high cost for lodging at health facilities and traveling to health facilities, as well as tTBAs feeling neglected, loss of respect and recognition by the community. Countries should design their approach to banning tTBAs differently depending on contextual factors. Further, it is important to consider adopting a step wise approach when implementing the ban as the process of banning tTBAs may trigger several negative effects.

  13. Indoor air-assessment: Indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, K.W.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    In the report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: radon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and inorganic compounds. These pollutants are either known or suspect carcinogens (i.e., radon-222, asbestos) or more complex mixtures or classes of compounds which contain known or suspect carcinogens. Concentration data for individual carcinogenic compounds in complex mixtures are usually far from complete. The data presented for complex mixtures often include compounds which are not carcinogenic or for which data are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenicity. Their inclusion is justified, however, by the possibility that further work may show them to be carcinogens, cocarcinogens, initiators or promotors, or that they may be employed as markers (e.g., nicotine, acrolein) for the estimation of exposure to complex mixtures

  14. Response to ban on smoking in public places--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Mohan, Anjana; Sathiyasekaran, B W C

    2009-07-01

    Smoking has become an important global problem that poses serious health hazards. Today even teenagers have got trapped by this addictive habit. To curb this menace, the Government of Tamilnadu has proposed a ban on smoking in public places by introducing the Bill "Tamilnadu Prohibition of Smoking and Spitting 2002". A study was conducted in the month of February, 2003 to find out the response to this proposed ban among health providers. One hundred and twenty-seven hospital employees were studied using a one page questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking was found to be 12.6% (95% CI 6.9 to 18.3). The response of the study group to the proposed ban was recorded by asking them about their awareness, acceptability and their personal opinion about the ban. It was found that 94% of the smokers and 83% of the non-smokers were aware of the proposed ban and 50% of the smokers and 69% of non-smokers wanted the ban to be implemented. It was also found that 43.8% of the smokers and 52.3% of the non-smokers were confident that the ban on smoking in public places will be effective. They were also of the opinion that awareness had to be increased and the penalties had to be implemented strictly. Further studies on other population groups may have to be taken upto know about the impact of this important Act after it comes into effect.

  15. Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in bars: The limits of local discretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In January 1998, the California state legislature extended a workplace smoking ban to bars. The purpose of this study was to explore the conditions that facilitate or hinder compliance with a smoking ban in bars. Methods We studied the implementation of the smoking ban in bars by interviewing three sets of policy participants: bar employers responsible for complying with the law; local government officials responsible for enforcing the law; and tobacco control activists who facilitated implementation. We transcribed the interviews and did a qualitative analysis of the text. Results The conditions that facilitated bar owners' compliance with a smoking ban in bars included: if the cost to comply was minimal; if the bars with which they were in competition were in compliance with the smoking ban; and if there was authoritative, consistent, coordinated, and uniform enforcement. Conversely, the conditions that hindered compliance included: if the law had minimal sanctions; if competing bars in the area allowed smoking; and if enforcement was delayed or inadequate. Conclusion Many local enforcers wished to forfeit their local discretion and believed the workplace smoking ban in bars would be best implemented by a state agency. The potential implication of this study is that, given the complex nature of local politics, smoking bans in bars are best implemented at a broader provincial or national level.

  16. Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in bars: the limits of local discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montini, Theresa; Bero, Lisa A

    2008-12-08

    In January 1998, the California state legislature extended a workplace smoking ban to bars. The purpose of this study was to explore the conditions that facilitate or hinder compliance with a smoking ban in bars. We studied the implementation of the smoking ban in bars by interviewing three sets of policy participants: bar employers responsible for complying with the law; local government officials responsible for enforcing the law; and tobacco control activists who facilitated implementation. We transcribed the interviews and did a qualitative analysis of the text. The conditions that facilitated bar owners' compliance with a smoking ban in bars included: if the cost to comply was minimal; if the bars with which they were in competition were in compliance with the smoking ban; and if there was authoritative, consistent, coordinated, and uniform enforcement. Conversely, the conditions that hindered compliance included: if the law had minimal sanctions; if competing bars in the area allowed smoking; and if enforcement was delayed or inadequate. Many local enforcers wished to forfeit their local discretion and believed the workplace smoking ban in bars would be best implemented by a state agency. The potential implication of this study is that, given the complex nature of local politics, smoking bans in bars are best implemented at a broader provincial or national level.

  17. Indoor air quality – buildings design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhásová Šenitková Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention is being paid to indoor air quality as one of the main health and well-being factors. The indoor research is concerned mostly to indoor air chemicals within indoor engineering related to building design. The providing good indoor air quality can be achieved effectively by avoiding or reducing indoor air pollution sources and by selecting low-polluting building materials, both being low-cost and energyefficient solutions. On the base of the last large experimental monitoring results, it was possible to know the level of selected indoor chemicals occurrence, rank them as well as to predict the tendencies of occurrence and establish the priorities for the future. There has been very limited attention to rigorous analysis of buildings actual environmental impacts to date. Healthy/green/sustainable building practices are typically applied in unsystematic and inconsistent ways often without resolution of inherent conflicts between and among such practices. Designers, products manufacturers, constructors, and owners declare their buildings and the applied technologies to be beneficial to the environment without validating those claims.

  18. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more polluted than ambient air, the USEPA lists poor IAQ as a major environmental concern. In the sections that follow, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. In some cases, exposure may be acute, with one or more pets (and owners) experiencing signs within a relatively short period. However, most exposures are episodic or chronic, making it difficult to definitively link poor IAQ to respiratory or other adverse health outcomes. Age or underlying immunologic, cardiac, or respiratory disease may further complicate the clinical picture, as those patients may be more sensitive to (and affected by) lower concentrations than prove problematic for healthy housemates. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoors, we will discuss how certain home conditions can worsen indoor air quality and will briefly discuss measures to improve IAQ for owners and their pets. In this overview presentation, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoo

  19. Acute respiratory and cardiovascular admissions after a public smoking ban in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Humair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many countries have introduced legislations for public smoking bans to reduce the harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking bans cause significant reductions in admissions for acute coronary syndromes but their impact on respiratory diseases is unclear. In Geneva, Switzerland, two popular votes led to a stepwise implementation of a state smoking ban in public places, with a temporary suspension. This study evaluated the effect of this smoking ban on hospitalisations for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This before and after intervention study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, across 4 periods with different smoking legislations. It included 5,345 patients with a first hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and acute asthma. The main outcomes were the incidence rate ratios (IRR of admissions for each diagnosis after the final ban compared to the pre-ban period and adjusted for age, gender, season, influenza epidemic and secular trend. RESULTS: Hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease significantly decreased over the 4 periods and were lowest after the final ban (IRR=0.54 [95%CI: 0.42-0.68]. We observed a trend in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndromes (IRR=0.90 [95%CI: 0.80-1.00]. Admissions for ischemic stroke, asthma and pneumonia did not significantly change. CONCLUSIONS: A legislative smoking ban was followed by a strong decrease in hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a trend for reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. Smoking bans are likely to be very beneficial for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  20. Large-sized soda ban as an alternative to soda tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hery Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This Note examines New York City's Sugary Drinks Portion Cap Rule (Soda Ban), which was originally set to become effective March 12, 2013. The New York County Supreme Court's decision in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene suspended the Soda Ban on March 11, 2013. The First Department of the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court affirmed the suspension on July 30, 2013. However, the complex economic policy and constitutional issues arising from the proposed Soda Ban deserve as much attention as the ultimate result of the legal challenge to the ban. Both courts struck down the Soda Ban on the grounds that it violated the separation of powers doctrine. The lower court further held that the Soda Ban was arbitrary and capricious. This Note does not focus solely on the holdings of the two courts, but takes a broader approach in analyzing the issues involved in the Soda Ban. By comparing and contrasting tobacco products with sugary beverages, this Note explains why the public seems to find the Soda Ban less appealing than tobacco regulations. Specifically, this Note addresses how the failed attempts of numerous states and cities to implement soda taxes demonstrate the complexity of policies geared toward curbing obesity; how fundamental values, such as health, fairness, efficiency, and autonomy factor into obesity policies; and the fact that legislatures and courts are struggling to determine the scope of public health law intervention. The Note explores how the Soda Ban, despite its judicial suspension, could represent a stepping-stone in combating the obesity epidemic.

  1. Impact of 2 Successive Smoking Bans on Hospital Admissions for Cardiovascular Diseases in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Iñaki; Simón, Lorena; Boldo, Elena; Ortiz, Cristina; Medrano, María José; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Linares, Cristina; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2018-04-16

    To evaluate the impact of 2 smoking bans enacted in 2006 (partial ban) and 2011 (comprehensive ban) on hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease in the Spanish adult population. The study was performed in 14 provinces in Spain. Hospital admission records were collected for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in patients aged ≥ 18 years from 2003 through 2012. We estimated immediate and 1-year effects with segmented-linear models. The coefficients for each province were combined using random-effects multivariate meta-analysis models. Overall, changes in admission rates immediately following the implementation of the partial ban and 1 year later were -1.8% and +1.2% for AMI, +0.1 and +0.4% for IHD, and +1.0% and +2.8% for CVD (P>.05). After the comprehensive ban, immediate changes were -2.3% for AMI, -2.6% for IHD, and -0.8% for CVD (P>.05), only to return to precomprehensive ban values 1 year later. For patients aged ≥ 65 years of age, immediate changes associated with the comprehensive ban were -5.0%, -3.9%, and -2.3% for AMI, IHD, and CVD, respectively (P<.05). Again, the 1-year changes were not statistically significant. In Spain, smoking bans failed to significantly reduce hospitalizations for AMI, IHD, or CVD among patients ≥ 18 years of age. In the population aged ≥ 65 years, hospital admissions due to these diseases showed significant decreases immediately after the implementation of the comprehensive ban, but these reductions disappeared at the 1-year evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5 during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  3. Design an Indoor Air Quality Controller Based on LPC2478

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Shuheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality is very important to our lives, because we spend most of our time indoor. In order to improve the air quality of indoor, this paper designs an indoor environment quality monitoring and controlling system based on ARM microcontroller LPC2478. It will do a real-time monitoring work for detecting the indoor environmental factors and comprehensively evaluate its air quality level. While the indoor air quality status is "poor", this intelligent system will automatically start the heat exchange ventilator for indoor environmental quality improvement. The results compared to traditional natural ventilation method show the better performance of proposed system.

  4. Smoking ban in all restaurants and cafeterias on the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    CSR

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the SCC decided that there would be a total smoking ban in all restaurants and satellite cafeterias on the CERN site, except for the designated area in Restaurant No.1. Unfortunately, it seems that this ban is often over-looked, resulting in an unhealthy and unpleasant environment for the users and staff of these facilities. You are asked to respect this ban and are reminded that smoking is only permitted in the room in Restaurant 1 specially installed for this purpose. The CSR Restaurant Monitoring Committee

  5. Verifying the nuclear-test ban. CTBTO: For a safer and more secure world [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature in September 1996. In March 1997, the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization started work in Vienna, Austria. This film depicts the Commission's activities in establishing the Treaty's verification regime to monitor adherence to the global ban on nuclear explosions. It presents the challenging work at some of the global monitoring facilities, and at the International Data Centre in Vienna, where the data generated by the facilities are received, processed and analysed

  6. Indoor Radon Hazard: Impact Indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alitto, G.; Nicoletti, G.

    2006-01-01

    How is possible to quantify, quickly, the effects of the Radon and the risk to it associated in relationship to the physical characteristics of the environments in which it is appraised? the concentration activity of Radon, valued in confined environments, it doesn't represent a meaningful and discriminating datum, or however exhaustive, for the respect of the negative effects from it induced. They exist, in fact, at the same concentration of the gas, different environmental configurations in which, risk related to exposure can also vary considerably. The estimation of the goodness of a indoor environment regarding ionizing radiations, excluding in this treatment those responsible of external exposure (gamma), it undoubtedly goes connected to a whole series of chemical-physical parameters proper of that environment. From this the demand has risen to create an impact index that kept track of all these aspects [it

  7. Normal and seasonally amplified indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; King, D.

    1995-01-01

    Winter and summer indoor radon measurements are reported for 121 houses in Freehold, New Jersey. When presented as winter:summer ratios of indoor radon, the data closely approximate a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean is 1.49. Freehold is located on the fairly flat coastal plain. The winter:summer ratios are believed to represent the norm for regions of the U.S. with cold winters and hot summers. The Freehold data set can be compared to corresponding data sets from other locations to suggest seasonal perturbations of indoor radon arising from unusual causes

  8. Assessment of indoor environment of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Y; Kovanen, K [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Indoor Environment and Systems

    1996-12-31

    The synthetical assessment of indoor environment has become world-wide topic in recent years. Many research evidences have shown that the quality of indoor air is a multi-factor influenced issue. Building Research Establishment (BRE) in United Kingdom has worked out a series of assessing methods for different kinds of buildings. Whereas, in Finland, National Building Code of Finland has been used for many years. The comparison between the two approaches in assessing indoor air quality will be addressed in this presentation. Each issue considered in the above two approaches is discussed by referring the recent research highlights. (author)

  9. Assessment of indoor environment of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Y.; Kovanen, K. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Indoor Environment and Systems

    1995-12-31

    The synthetical assessment of indoor environment has become world-wide topic in recent years. Many research evidences have shown that the quality of indoor air is a multi-factor influenced issue. Building Research Establishment (BRE) in United Kingdom has worked out a series of assessing methods for different kinds of buildings. Whereas, in Finland, National Building Code of Finland has been used for many years. The comparison between the two approaches in assessing indoor air quality will be addressed in this presentation. Each issue considered in the above two approaches is discussed by referring the recent research highlights. (author)

  10. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  11. A Semantic-Based Indexing for Indoor Moving Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Tingting Ben; Xiaolin Qin; Ning Wang

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of indoor positioning, driven by techniques like RFID, Bluetooth, and smart phones, enables a variety of indoor location-based services (LBSs). Efficient queries based on semantic-constraint in indoor spaces play an important role in supporting and boosting LBSs. However, the existing indoor index techniques cannot support these semantic constraints-based queries. To solve this problem, this paper addresses the challenge of indexing moving objects in indoor spaces,...

  12. Sistem Panel Kinerja Untuk Program Studi Sarjana Berbasis BAN PT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Prasetyo Utomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study program need to do monitoring and continuously measurements of performance to ensure achievement the goals set of its. The process of performance requires monitoring data and information was taken from all parts of the organization. The purpose of this research is to build a panel system performance (performance dashboard that can be used to help measure the performance of undergraduate degree courses based on BAN PT in order of quality assurance in higher education. The results of performance monitoring will be delivered to the parties concerned, efficiently and effectively. Panel System (Dashboard is a tool to present information at a glance. Dashboard inform using Key Performance Indicators (KPI an effective presentation media. KPIs are used in the construction panel system performance of these courses entirely using the instruments of the National Accreditation of Higher Education. The methodology can be applied either on a case study of the development of dashboards to support the efforts of quality assurance courses at the Stikubank University Semarang. This study emphasizes how the application is to provide easy information to Head of study program, Dean of faculty, Rector and Vice Rector of university to the achievement of the quality of undergraduate study program.   Keywords: Performance Dashboard; Key Performance Indicators; Accreditation.

  13. Athletes' perceptions of anti-doping sanctions: the ban from sport versus social, financial and self-imposed sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Knudsen, Mette Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Today the main doping deterrence strategy is to ban athletes from sport if caught. This study examines whether Danish elite athletes perceive the ban as a deterrent and how they evaluate social, self-imposed and financial sanctions compared with the ban. Questionnaires were emailed to elite...... athletes from 40 sports (N = 645; response rate, 43%). Results showed that 78% of athletes regarded the ban as a deterrent. Older male athletes, however, did so to a lesser degree. Seventy-seven per cent, regardless of gender, age, sport type and previous experience of doping testing, viewed social...... sanctions as a greater deterrent than the ban. Many also considered self-imposed sanctions (54%) and financial consequences (47%) a greater deterrent. Four per cent considered neither the ban nor the presented alternatives a deterrent. The findings indicate that the ban from sport deters doping...

  14. Performance Indicators of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    environmental framework for the promotion of a healthy and comfortable ... (n.d.) consists of six metrics namely: Indoor air quality (IAQ) ..... Quality. Thermal quality measurement in the hospital ...... article/pii/S036013231300142X. Jensen, K.

  15. Indoor Positioning using Wi-Fi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Krarup, Mads Vering; Stisen, Allan

    The past decade has witnessed substantial research on methods for indoor Wi-Fi positioning. While much effort has gone into achieving high positioning accuracy and easing fingerprint collection, it is our contention that the general problem is not sufficiently well understood, thus preventing...... deployments and their usage by applications to become more widespread. Based on our own and published experiences on indoor Wi-Fi positioning deployments, we hypothesize the following: Current indoor Wi-Fi positioning systems and their utilization in applications are hampered by the lack of understanding...... of the requirements present in the real-world deployments. In this paper, we report findings from qualitatively studying organisational requirements for indoor Wi-Fi positioning. The studied cases and deployments cover both company and public-sector settings and the deployment and evaluation of several types...

  16. 9 CFR 3.126 - Facilities, indoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., vents, fans, or air-conditioning and shall be ventilated so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. (c) Lighting. Indoor housing facilities shall have ample lighting, by natural or artificial means...

  17. Finding dense locations in indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    for semi-constrained indoor movement, and then uses this to map raw tracking records into mapping records representing object entry and exit times in particular locations. Then, an efficient indexing structure, the Dense Location Time Index (DLT-Index) is proposed for indexing the time intervals...... of the mapping table, along with associated construction, query processing, and pruning techniques. The DLT-Index supports very efficient aggregate point queries, interval queries, and dense location queries. A comprehensive experimental study with real data shows that the proposed techniques can efficiently......Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation, and guidance. Indoor tracking data can be very large and are not readily available for finding dense locations. This paper presents a graph-based model...

  18. Publications about Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications and resources that relate to indoor air quality in schools, and design tools for schools. These publications cover a wide range of issues, including IAQ management, student performance, asthma, mold and moisture, and radon.

  19. Monocular Vision SLAM for Indoor Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel indoor navigation and ranging strategy via monocular camera. By exploiting the architectural orthogonality of the indoor environments, we introduce a new method to estimate range and vehicle states from a monocular camera for vision-based SLAM. The navigation strategy assumes an indoor or indoor-like manmade environment whose layout is previously unknown, GPS-denied, representable via energy based feature points, and straight architectural lines. We experimentally validate the proposed algorithms on a fully self-contained microaerial vehicle (MAV with sophisticated on-board image processing and SLAM capabilities. Building and enabling such a small aerial vehicle to fly in tight corridors is a significant technological challenge, especially in the absence of GPS signals and with limited sensing options. Experimental results show that the system is only limited by the capabilities of the camera and environmental entropy.

  20. Landmines on the Table: A Negotiations Analysis of the Global Campaign to Ban Landmines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moody, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    ...?" I argue that the competitive, distributive negotiation strategies and tactics used by the United States and pro-ban advocates during the campaign ensured that a negotiated agreement was not reached...

  1. SISTEM INFORMASI KEUANGAN SESUAI STANDAR BAN-PT TERINTEGRASI SISFO KAMPUS 4.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahiduzzaman Syahiduzzaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak-Standar keuangan adalah salah satu standar yang dinilai dalam instrumen BAN-PT, yaitu pada standar 6.1. Pengelolaan keuangan sebuah perguruan tinggi harus memenuhi standar tersebut. Untuk dapat mengetahui seberapa besar tingkat pemenuhan standar diperlukan penilaian. Sistem informasi keuangan yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini digunakan untuk memasukkan data transaksi keuangan, mencatatnya dalam sistem akuntansi, dan melaporkannya. Laporan-laporan yang disajikan berbentuk tabel dan grafik yang menyatakan kinerja keuangan dan diukur sesuai dengan standar 6.1. BAN-PT. Sistem informasi keuangan ini, juga terintegrasi dengan SISFOKAMPUS 4.1 yang merupakan sistem informasi akademik open source yang berbasis web. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah sistem informasi keuangan dengan fungsi khusus yaitu menilai kinerja keuangan yang sesuai dengan standar 6.1. BAN-PT yang dapat digunakan untuk melakukan audit internal.   Kata kunci: Standar 6.1. BAN-PT, Sistem Informasi Keuangan, SISFOKAMPUS 4.1.

  2. The influence of a smoking ban on the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schoenmaker, Sofie; Van Cauwenberge, Philippe; Vander Bauwhede, Heidi

    2013-05-01

    To examine whether the nationwide smoking ban, imposed in 2007, had an impact on the profitability of Belgian restaurants. Objective financial reporting data on 1613 restaurants were analysed with return on assets as the outcome measure. The data were collected from the Belfirst database and cover the period 2004-2009. To assess the impact of the smoking ban, a differences-in-differences estimation method was used, with bars serving as the control group. The regression model was estimated, while controlling for firm-specific characteristics and unobserved firm-level heterogeneity. The variable of interest is the interaction between the smoking ban dummy and the dummy for the treatment group. The coefficient of this variable is insignificant. The adoption of the nationwide smoking ban did not affect the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

  3. Impact of a national smoking ban on hospital admission for acute coronary syndromes: a longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-04-01

    A ban on smoking in the workplace was introduced in Ireland on March 29, 2004. As exposure to secondhand smoke has been implicated in the development of coronary disease, this might impact the incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

  4. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  5. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of Mizoram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalramengzami, R.; Laldawngliana, C.; Sinha, D.; Ghosh, S.; Dwivedi, K.K.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of indoor radon has been measured in some dwellings of Mizoram state by employing time integrated method using solid state nuclear track detector. This state is located in the north eastern region of India which has been identified as a high background area. The indoor radon levels determined in this work are compared with data obtained from other regions of India and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribed safe limit. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs

  6. Indoor Climate and Air Quality Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valbjørn, O.; Hagen, H.; Kukkonen, E.

    This report presents a stepwise method for the investigation of and remedial actions for indoor climate and air quality problems. The report gives the basis for evaluation of the prevalence and causes of building related symptoms like mucosal irritation and headache. The report adresses members...... of occupational health and safety organisations, consulting engineers and architects, and also the people responsible for the operation of buildings and installations which is essential for the indoor climate and air quality....

  7. Conceptual spatial representations for indoor mobile robots

    OpenAIRE

    Zender, Henrik; Mozos, Oscar Martinez; Jensfelt, Patric; Kruijff, Geert-Jan M.; Wolfram, Burgard

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach for creating conceptual representations of human-made indoor environments using mobile robots. The concepts refer to spatial and functional properties of typical indoor environments. Following findings in cognitive psychology, our model is composed of layers representing maps at different levels of abstraction. The complete system is integrated in a mobile robot endowed with laser and vision sensors for place and object recognition. The system also incorporate...

  8. Indoor radon pollution: update. Bibliographic series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, S.A.

    1988-12-01

    This bibliography focuses on indoor radon pollution problems and is organized according to the following major topic areas: I-Overview (covering general areas such as law and policy, popular press, communication and education, indoor air and books); II-Health Effects (epidemiology, risk estimates, and dosimetry); III-Exposure (house construction, geology, source, physical properties, and radon in water); IV-Surveys (national and international case studies); V-Mitigation; and VI-Measurement Techniques. Section VIII-Appendix, lists State Contacts

  9. Education of indoor enviromental engineering technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kic, P.; Zajíček, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, Spec. 1 (2011), s. 83-90 ISSN 1406-894X. [Biosystems Engineering 2011. Tartu, 12.05.2011-13.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Biosystems engineering * indoor environment * study * programs Subject RIV: AM - Education http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/VS/zajicek-education of indoor enviromental engineering technology.pdf

  10. Distributed Monocular SLAM for Indoor Map Building

    OpenAIRE

    Ruwan Egodagamage; Mihran Tuceryan

    2017-01-01

    Utilization and generation of indoor maps are critical elements in accurate indoor tracking. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is one of the main techniques for such map generation. In SLAM an agent generates a map of an unknown environment while estimating its location in it. Ubiquitous cameras lead to monocular visual SLAM, where a camera is the only sensing device for the SLAM process. In modern applications, multiple mobile agents may be involved in the generation of such maps,...

  11. Public Smoking Bans, Youth Access Laws, and Cigarette Sales at Vending Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Kvasnicka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco control policies have proliferated in many countries in recent years, in particular youth access laws and public smoking bans. The effectiveness of youth access laws is still disputed, however, as are the costs of public smoking bans to the hospitality industry. Using a unique data set on cigarette sales at more than 100k vending machines that provides first objective evidence on the outgoing and customer behavior of smokers, we study both outcome dimensions by investigating several r...

  12. Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents....... A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs....

  13. Improved health of hospitality workers after a Swiss cantonal smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, André-Dante; Bergier, Samuel; Morisod, Xavier; Locatelli, Isabella; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Cornuz, Jacques

    2011-12-22

    Hospitality workers are a population particularly at risk from the noxious effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The Canton of Vaud, Switzerland banned smoking in public places in September 2009. This prospective study addresses the impact of the ban on the health of hospitality workers. ETS exposure was evaluated using a passive sampling device that measures airborne nicotine; lung function was assessed by spirometry; health-related quality of life, ETS exposure symptoms and satisfaction were measured by questionnaire. 105 participants (smokers and non-smokers) were recruited initially and 66 were followed up after one year. ETS exposure was significantly lower after the ban. Hospitality workers had lower pre-ban forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values than expected. FEV1 remained stable after the ban, with a near-significant increase in the subgroup of asthmatics only. FVC increased at one year follow-up from 90.42% to 93.05% (p = 0.02) in the entire cohort; women, non-smokers and older participants gained the greatest benefit. The health survey showed an increase in physical wellbeing after the ban, the greatest benefit being observed in non-smokers. ETS exposure symptoms were less frequent after the ban, especially red and irritated eyes and sneezing. The new law was judged useful and satisfactory by the vast majority of employees, including smokers. The recent cantonal ban on smoking in public places brought about an improvement in lung function, physical well-being and ETS symptoms of hospitality workers, including smokers.

  14. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.; Babalola Folaranmi D.; Asogwa Uche E.; Idris Ndagi; Aderolu Ismail A.; Mokwunye Francis C.; Idrisu Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100%) were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers ...

  15. Exposure to unusually high indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    Unusually high indoor radon concentrations were reported in a small village in western Tyrol, Austria. The authors have measured the seasonal course of indoor radon concentrations in 390 houses of this village. 71% of houses in winter and 33% in summer, showed radon values on the ground floor above the Austrian action level of 400 Bq/cm 3 . This proportion results in an unusually high indoor radon exposure of the population. The radon source was an 8,700-year-old rock slide of granite gneiss, the largest of the alpine crystalline rocks. It has a strong emanating power because its rocks are heavily fractured and show a slightly increased uranium content. Previous reports show increased lung cancer mortality, myeloid leukemia, kidney cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancer resulting from indoor radon exposure. However, many studies fail to provide accurate information on indoor radon concentrations, classifying them merely as low, intermediate, and high, or they record only minor increases in indoor radon concentrations. Mortality data for 1970-91 were used to calculate age and sex standardized mortality rates (SMR) for 51 sites of carcinoma. The total population of Tyrol were controls. A significantly higher risk was recorded for lung cancer. The high SMR for lung cancer in female subjects is especially striking. Because the numbers were low for the other cancer sites, these were combined in one group to calculate the SMR. No significant increase in SMR was found for this group

  16. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, W.J.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs

  17. Indoor environment program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  18. Indoor environment program - 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  19. NFC Internal: An Indoor Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdenizci, Busra; Coskun, Vedat; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation systems have recently become a popular research field due to the lack of GPS signals indoors. Several indoors navigation systems have already been proposed in order to eliminate deficiencies; however each of them has several technical and usability limitations. In this study, we propose NFC Internal, a Near Field Communication (NFC)-based indoor navigation system, which enables users to navigate through a building or a complex by enabling a simple location update, simply by touching NFC tags those are spread around and orient users to the destination. In this paper, we initially present the system requirements, give the design details and study the viability of NFC Internal with a prototype application and a case study. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the system and compare it with existing indoor navigation systems. It is seen that NFC Internal has considerable advantages and significant contributions to existing indoor navigation systems in terms of security and privacy, cost, performance, robustness, complexity, user preference and commercial availability. PMID:25825976

  20. NFC Internal: An Indoor Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Ozdenizci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indoor navigation systems have recently become a popular research field due to the lack of GPS signals indoors. Several indoors navigation systems have already been proposed in order to eliminate deficiencies; however each of them has several technical and usability limitations. In this study, we propose NFC Internal, a Near Field Communication (NFC-based indoor navigation system, which enables users to navigate through a building or a complex by enabling a simple location update, simply by touching NFC tags those are spread around and orient users to the destination. In this paper, we initially present the system requirements, give the design details and study the viability of NFC Internal with a prototype application and a case study. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the system and compare it with existing indoor navigation systems. It is seen that NFC Internal has considerable advantages and significant contributions to existing indoor navigation systems in terms of security and privacy, cost, performance, robustness, complexity, user preference and commercial availability.

  1. Adoption and compliance in second-hand smoking bans: a global econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Richard; Neumayer, Eric

    2014-10-01

    We examine the determinants governing both countries' enactment of smoking bans in public places and their ability to successfully put these bans into effect. Using a large sample (N = 99-184) of low-, middle- and high-income countries, econometric techniques are used to estimate the influence of several variables on cross-national variations in the adoption and compliance of second-hand smoke laws (2010). We find similarities in the determinants of adoption and compliance. Yet more notable are the differences, with several political economy factors which have a statistically significant influence on countries' level of compliance with existing smoke-free laws in public places found not to consistently influence their propensity to adopt bans in the first place. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are that governments are motivated to adopt smoking bans for reasons other than protecting the health of their citizens and that the real costs of smoking bans are predominantly borne at the compliance stage. More effort needs to be made to ensure that governments realize their existing policy commitments through effective enforcement of bans.

  2. Does a ban on informal health providers save lives? Evidence from Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlonton, Susan; Okeke, Edward N.

    2015-01-01

    Informal health providers ranging from drug vendors to traditional healers account for a large fraction of health care provision in developing countries. They are, however, largely unlicensed and unregulated leading to concern that they provide ineffective and, in some cases, even harmful care. A new and controversial policy tool that has been proposed to alter household health seeking behavior is an outright ban on these informal providers. The theoretical effects of such a ban are ambiguous. In this paper, we study the effect of a ban on informal (traditional) birth attendants imposed by the Malawi government in 2007. To measure the effect of the ban, we use a difference-in-difference strategy exploiting variation across time and space in the intensity of exposure to the ban. Our most conservative estimates suggest that the ban decreased use of traditional attendants by about 15 percentage points. Approximately three quarters of this decline can be attributed to an increase in use of the formal sector and the remainder is accounted for by an increase in relative/friend-attended births. Despite the rather large shift from the informal to the formal sector, we do not find any evidence of a statistically significant reduction in newborn mortality on average. The results are robust to a triple difference specification using young children as a control group. We examine several explanations for this result and find evidence consistent with quality of formal care acting as a constraint on improvements in newborn health. PMID:26681821

  3. Banning is not enough: The complexities of oceanic shark management by tuna regional fisheries management organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Travassos Tolotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, declining populations of several pelagic shark species have led to global conservation concerns surrounding this group. As a result, a series of species-specific banning measures have been implemented by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs in charge of tuna fisheries, which include retention bans, finning bans and trading bans. There are both positive and negative aspects to most management measures, but generally, the positive aspects outweigh the negatives, ensuring the measure is beneficial to the resource and its users in the long term. Banning measures are a good first step towards the conservation of pelagic shark species, especially since they improve conservation awareness among fishers, managers and the public. Measures that impose total bans, however, can lead to negative impacts that may jeopardize the populations they were intended to protect. The majority of pelagic shark catches are incidental and most sharks die before they reach the vessel or after they are released. The legislation set out by RFMOs only prevents retention but not the actual capture or the mortality that may occur as a result. Managers should be fully aware that the development and implementation of mitigation measures are critical for a more effective conservation strategy.

  4. A total ban on alcohol advertising: presenting the public health case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; London, Leslie

    2012-05-28

    Evidence from burden of disease and economic costing studies amply indicate that the public health burden from hazardous and harmful use of alcohol in South Africa warrants drastic action. Evidence that banning alcohol advertising is likely to be an effective intervention is reflected in WHO strategy documents on non-communicable diseases and harmful use of alcohol. Studies on young people furthermore support arguments refuting the claim that advertising only influences brand choice. Given the weakness of relying on industry self-regulation, the government is considering legislation to ban alcohol advertising, resulting in heated debate. Tobacco control and studies investigating the effect of alcohol advertising bans on consumption and alcohol-related deaths point to the effectiveness of such action - ideally supplemented by other policy interventions. Arguments against an advertising ban include possible communication sector job losses, but these are likely to have been exaggerated. Banning alcohol advertising will necessitate greater scrutiny of digital media, satellite television and merchandising to reduce the likelihood of subverting the ban.

  5. Test ban treaty verification with regional data: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, P.W.; Best, W.J.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the use of regional (Δ ≤ 30 0 ) seismic data in a test ban context for detecting, locating, identifying, and determining the yield of underground nuclear explosions. In many areas of the world (Eastern North America, Africa, Eastern USSR), Lg is the largest amplitude wave recorded on standard seismograph systems and thus is the most appropriate phase for monitoring small magnitude events. Excellent location capability for near-regional events has been demonstrated at the Norwegian small aperture array (NORESS) using Lg and P waves. Lg and other regional phases may contain information on source depth, but such information has not been exploited to date. Fifteen classes of regional discriminants are listed. Most have been tested only on limited data, usually from one geographic region and only one or two recording stations. No systematic analyses have been done to determine the best individual discriminant or combination of them. Preliminary evaluation of the use of Lg for yield determination suggests that regional waves hold promise in this application. Theoretical studies have contributed significantly to the understanding of propagation characteristics of regional waves but further studies are required emphasizing modeling for realistic anisotropic sources. The major conclusion of this study is that a systematic and comparative evaluation of all the proposed regional discriminants is now required, utilizing a common data base derived from all present-day test sites. This evaluation would suggest the optimal discrimination procedure using regional waves, and would also define areas of needed research. Without such an integrated evaluation, it is still possible to speculate, using existing results, on the most promising regional discriminants

  6. Indoor Multi-Dimensional Location GML and Its Application for Ubiquitous Indoor Location Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Qing; Li, Yun; Xiong, Qing; Zlatanova, S.; Ding, Yulin; Zhang, Yeting; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Geography Markup Language (GML) standard provides basic types and a framework for defining geo-informational data models such as CityGML and IndoorGML, which provide standard information models for 3D city modelling and lightweight indoor network navigation.

  7. Spatial subdivision of complex indoor environments for 3D indoor navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diakite, A.A.; Zlatanova, S.

    2018-01-01

    As we realize that we spend most of our time in increasingly complex indoor environments, applications to assist indoor activities (e.g. guidance) have gained a lot of attention in the recent years. The advances in ubiquitous computing made possible the development of several spatial models

  8. Indoor microclimate in a South African school: impact of indoor environmental factors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Essah, EA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Demand for good indoor air quality is increasing as people recorgnise the risks to their health and productivity from indoor pollutants. There is a tendency to reduce ventilation rates to ensure energy conservation in buildings; in this instance...

  9. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Lony, R.J.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study on the performance based design for the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia

  10. Variation of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in different outdoor and indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovska, Zdenka; Janevik, Emilija; Taleski, Vaso [Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Stip (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Boev, Blazo [Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, Stip (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Zunic, Zora S. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' ' Vinca' ' , Belgrade (Serbia); Ivanova, Kremena; Tsenova, Martina [National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria); Ristova, Mimoza [University in Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematic, Institute of Physics, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Ajka, Sorsa [Croatian Geological Survey, Zagreb (Croatia); Bossew, Peter [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Subject of this study is an investigation of the variations of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in outdoor and indoor environments of 40 dwellings, 31 elementary schools and five kindergartens. The buildings are located in three municipalities of two, geologically different, areas of the Republic of Macedonia. Indoor radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track detectors, deployed in the most occupied room of the building, between June 2013 and May 2014. During the deploying campaign, indoor and outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were measured simultaneously at the same location. It appeared that the measured values varied from 22 to 990 Bq/m{sup 3} for indoor radon concentrations, from 50 to 195 nSv/h for outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates, and from 38 to 184 nSv/h for indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. The geometric mean value of indoor to outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates was found to be 0.88, i.e. the outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were on average higher than the indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. All measured can reasonably well be described by log-normal distributions. A detailed statistical analysis of factors which influence the measured quantities is reported. (orig.)

  11. Radon measurements in indoor workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokonami, S.; Matsumoto, M.; Furukawa, M.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujitaka, K.; Pan, J.; Kurosawa, R.

    1996-01-01

    Radon measurements in several office buildings located in Tokyo were carried out with two types of device to study the time-dependent radon concentration in indoor workplaces. Both types of device use the electrostatic field for the collection of 218 Po onto the electrode of the detector. One provides an average radon concentration throughout the day. The other, in which a weekly timer is installed in the circuit of the electrode of the device, provides an average radon concentration during working hours (9:00-17:00, Monday-Friday). Although radon concentrations in Japanese dwellings have been found to be generally low, relatively high concentrations were observed in the office buildings. No consistent seasonal variation was recognised in this study. Little difference of average radon concentrations between working hours and the whole day was found throughout the year in two offices. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed in other offices. The operation of an air conditioner might change the radon concentration during working hours. From the results of radon measurements the average effective dose in the workplace was estimated to be 0.23 mSv for 2000 working hours in a year. (Author)

  12. Indoor radon -- a strategic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Even the average 222 Rn concentration in US homes corresponds to an estimated individual lifetime risk of fatal lung cancer between 0.1% and 1%, depending on whether one smokes or not. Perhaps 50,000 to 100,000 homes have ten times the average or more, implying radiation doses to the occupants at or above the occupational radiation limit. But even this picture has been exaggerated by information provided the public by the EPA and the media, associating with nonsmokers risk estimated for smokers, and -- due to a faulty monitoring protocol -- giving the impression that a large fraction of homes have elevated levels. The result has been a program that focuses in fact on slightly-above-average indoor levels, while having no program for rapidly identifying and assisting those living at genuinely high levels. A sensible and effective strategy, in contrast, would (1) rely on accurate and specific public information, (2) recommend a monitoring protocol yielding the annual-average concentration in living space, the parameter of health significance, (3) constitute a national program to identify systematically and rapidly the areas of the country where the bulk of the high-radon homes occur, (4) build a sensible long-term research and action program associated with lower concentrations. Accomplishing these purposes will require a commitment to careful analysis and planning, involving an effective interaction with the scientific community, that has so far not been demonstrated

  13. Impact of a point-of-sale tobacco display ban on smokers' spontaneous purchases: comparisons from postpurchase interviews before and after the ban in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Phan, Tina; Mills, Brennen W

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of the Western Australian tobacco point-of-sale display ban on spontaneous purchase behaviours. Daily adult smokers (n=402) observed purchasing cigarettes were recruited via exit interviews either 2 months before or after the implementation of the display ban. Smokers were asked if they had intended to purchase cigarettes before entering the store to assess spontaneous purchase behaviours. Whether smokers had noticed the displays before their purchase and the extent to which this influenced their purchase decision was also assessed via non-prompting questions. When compared with before the ban, fewer smokers after the ban noticed the displays (27.1% vs 1.1%, pmaking spontaneous purchases (28.2% vs 19.8%, ppurchase decisions (free recall 5.0% vs 1.1%, ppurchasers were more likely than planned purchasers to suggest the displays influenced their purchase decisions (free recall 9.7% vs 3.2%, ppurchasers nominating the influence of displays fell substantially (free recall 9.7% vs 5.6%, p=NS; cued recall 40.0% vs 11.1%, ppurchasers (free recall 3.2% vs 0.0%, pmaking spontaneous tobacco purchases after implementation of the Western Australian tobacco display ban and between a fivefold and sixfold reduction in the proportion suggesting displays influenced their decision to purchase cigarettes. These data are consistent with previous research suggesting tobacco displays encourage spontaneous purchases and their removal corresponds to reductions in the same. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, A D; Mathijssen, J J P; Jansen, M W J; van Oers, J A M

    2018-02-01

    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of sustainability and examines perceived barriers/facilitators related to the sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban at secondary schools. A mixed-method design was used with a sequential explanatory approach. In phase I, 438 online surveys were conducted and in phase II, 15 semi-structured interviews were obtained from directors of relevant schools. ANOVA (phase I) and a thematic approach (phase II) were used to analyze data. Level of sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban was high at the 48% Dutch schools with an outdoor smoking ban. Furthermore, school size was significantly associated with sustainability. The perceived barriers/facilitators fell into three categories: (i) smoking ban implementation factors (side-effects, enforcement, communication, guidelines and collaboration), (ii) school factors (physical environment, school culture, education type and school policy) and (iii) community environment factors (legislation and social environment). Internationally, the spread of outdoor school ground smoking bans could be further promoted. Once implemented, the ban has become 'normal' practice and investments tend to endure. Moreover, involvement of all staff is important for sustainability as they function as role models, have an interrelationship with students, and share responsibility for enforcement. These findings are promising for the sustainability of future tobacco control initiatives to further protect against the morbidity/mortality associated with smoking. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  15. Sampling strategies for indoor radon investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent investigations prompted by concern about the environmental effects of residential energy conservation have produced many accounts of indoor radon concentrations far above background levels. In many instances time-normalized annual exposures exceeded the 4 WLM per year standard currently used for uranium mining. Further investigations of indoor radon exposures are necessary to judge the extent of the problem and to estimate the practicality of health effects studies. A number of trends can be discerned as more indoor surveys are reported. It is becoming increasingly clear that local geological factors play a major, if not dominant role in determining the distribution of indoor radon concentrations in a given area. Within a giving locale, indoor radon concentrations tend to be log-normally distributed, and sample means differ markedly from one region to another. The appreciation of geological factors and the general log-normality of radon distributions will improve the accuracy of population dose estimates and facilitate the design of preliminary health effects studies. The relative merits of grab samples, short and long term integrated samples, and more complicated dose assessment strategies are discussed in the context of several types of epidemiological investigations. A new passive radon sampler with a 24 hour integration time is described and evaluated as a tool for pilot investigations

  16. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  17. Behaviors of radon in indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Sadamu; Shimo, Michikuni.

    1987-01-01

    The source of radon ( 222 Rn) in the atmosphere is radioactive nuclide, uranium ( 238 U), which exists fairly common throughout the earth's crust. Radium ( 226 Ra) descended from uranium produce radon ( 222 Rn) of noble gas by decay. After formation in the ground, radon diffuses into the atmosphere. Without exception radon decay products are heavy metals which soon become attached to natural aerosols. Therefore, radon and its daughters (decay products) appear also in indoor environment, and generally, their concentration levels become higher than that of outdoor air due to build-up effects in the closed indoor environments. With the progress of the study on the influence of radon and its daughers on human health, it has become clear that they act effectively as an exciting cause of lung cancer. So, the study on the risk evaluation of them in room air has become to be very important. Concequently, the behaviors of radon and its daughters in indoor environment, first of all, should be studied in detail for the accurate estimation of the risk caused by them. In this special edition, fundamental characteristics of radon and its daughters, some measuring methods, theoretical considerations and some observational evidences obtained from various circumstances of indoor environment are described inorder to grasp and understand the behaviors of radon and its daughters in the indoor environment. (author)

  18. Photocatalytic surface reactions on indoor wall paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthammer, T; Fuhrmann, F

    2007-09-15

    The reduction of indoor air pollutants by air cleaning systems has received considerable interest, and a number of techniques are now available. So far, the method of photocatalysis was mainly applied by use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in flow reactors under UV light of high intensity. Nowadays, indoor wall paints are equipped with modified TiO2 to work as a catalyst under indoor daylight or artificial light. In chamber experiments carried out under indoor related conditions itwas shown thatthe method works for nitrogen dioxide with air exchange and for formaldehyde without air exchange at high concentrations. In further experiments with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a small effect was found for terpenoids with high kOH rate constants. For other VOCs and carbon monoxide there was no degradation at all or the surface acted as a reversible sink. Secondary emissions from the reaction of paint constituents were observed on exposure to light. From the results it is concluded that recipes of photocatalytic wall paints need to be optimized for better efficiency under indoor conditions.

  19. Gillnet and trammel net ban and buyback in St. Croix, USVI: This dataset contains data fishermen and other stakeholders views about the performance of the gillnet and trammel net buyback and ban in St. Croix, USVI (CRCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data contains information on demographics and fishermens perceptions about the efficacy of St. Croix gillnet ban and buyback

  20. Perceptions of Parents on the Practice of Private Tuition in Public Learning Institutions in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebi, Robert B.; Maithya, Redempta

    2016-01-01

    The practice of private tuition outside normal class hours is a phenomenon which has prevailed in Kenyan basic learning institutions despite the repeated ban by the government. The purpose of the study was to establish parental perceptions on extra tuition in public schools in Kenya. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 40…

  1. Do provincial policies banning smoking in cars when children are present impact youth exposure to secondhand smoke in cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Driezen, Pete; Azagba, Sunday; Burkhalter, Robin

    2015-09-01

    To examine youth exposure to smoking in cars following 7 provincial bans on smoking in cars with children in Canada. Repeated cross-sectional data from the 2004-2012 Youth Smoking Survey (n=91,800) were examined. Using a quasi-experimental design, contrasts of the interaction of survey year and province included in the logistic regression analyses were used to test whether exposure significantly declined pre-post implementation of a ban on smoking in cars relative to control provinces not implementing a ban. Exposure across all provinces declined from 26.5% in 2004 to 18.2% of youth in 2012. Exposure declined significantly from pre to post implementation of a ban on smoking in cars with children in Ontario at time 1 post ban (Pre-Ban=20.4% T1post=10.3%, OR=0.45), time 2 post ban (12.1%, OR=0.61) and time 3 post ban (11.6%, OR=0.58) relative to control provinces that did not implement a ban. In British Columbia exposure to smoking in cars declined significantly at pre-post ban time 3 compared to the control group (Pre-Ban=21.2%, T3post=9.6%, OR=0.51). No other provinces had a significant change in exposure pre-post ban relative to the control provinces. Although rates declined, significant differences were only found in Ontario relative to control provinces in the immediate and long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  3. What can public endorsement for a smoking ban policy mean? Preliminary findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Agnieszka; Lignowska, Izabella; Makowska, Marta

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study is to describe attitudes which underlie Pole's declarations of support for a smoking ban in public places. The qualitative study using semi-structured individual in-depth interviews was conducted. The 30 IDI-s (in depth interviews) being a part of a larger research project entitled 'Lay meanings of health and life orientation of Polish society versus prevention and health promotion attitudes' were realized between 2007-2009. People belonging to all key socio-demographic categories identified by variables such as sex, age, education, and place of domicile were interviewed. The resulting material was subjected to content analysis. In the study the structural concept of 'attitude' was adopted. In order to identify the attitudes towards smoking bans in public places statements related to all three components of attitudes were analysed, but the typology of attitudes was constructed mainly on the basis of the emotional-evaluative component. The study identified as many as four attitudes behind the declared support for a smoking ban in public places. Those attitudes were labelled 'supportive', 'accepting', 'conditionally accepting', and 'ambivalent'. They differ as regards degree of acceptance for the ban, conviction about harmfulness of passive smoking, setting great store by other regulators of smoking like cultural norms or healthy consciousness, and propensity to observe and execute the smoking ban. The 'supportive' attitude can be characterized not only by total support for the smoking ban in public places but also by insistence on the need for its extension. The 'accepting' attitude means approval for the smoking ban, and the 'conditionally accepting' attitude is distinguished from the others by the stress put on the right of smokers to have an access to places where smoking is permitted. The 'ambivalent' attitude can be typified by underlining other than legal ways of influencing smoking in public places. The study suggests that the attitudes

  4. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM), released in 2002, is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  5. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  6. Publications and Resources About Indoor airPLUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented are useful materials to help you build homes that meet Indoor airPLUS specifications and to promote Indoor airPLUS qualified homes. These materials are FREE of charge and are available in PDF.

  7. Indoor air quality in cold climates: hazards and abatement measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walkinshaw, D. S

    1986-01-01

    The first APCA Conference on Indoor Air Quality, held April 29, 30 and May 1, 1985 in Ottawa, featured some 67 presentations covering many aspects of indoor air quality, with the focus on cold climate...

  8. Alcohol consumption and attitudes towards banning alcohol sales on campus among European university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C; Mikolajczyk, R; Bloomfield, K; Maxwell, A E; Ozcebe, H; Petkeviciene, J; Naydenova, V; Marin-Fernandez, B; El-Ansari, W; Krämer, A

    2009-02-01

    The European Commission's new health strategy for improving health at the European Union (EU) level includes tackling alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption and problem drinking, as well as students' attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. In total, 5826 students from universities in seven European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Turkey) took part in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic information, frequency of alcohol consumption, problem drinking and attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. The highest prevalence of drinking alcohol more than once per week was reported in Bulgarian (males 46%, females 64%) and Spanish students (males 59%, females 64%). Among those students who drank alcohol (n=3170), problem drinking (CAGE score >1) was found in 24% of males and 13% of females. Male gender, depressive moods and a low importance of good grades at university were risk factors for drinking alcohol more than once per week as well as for problem drinking. There were substantial country differences in the proportion of students who would support a ban of alcohol sales on campus (23% in Denmark, 88% in Poland). Support for a ban was higher among female students and among students who drank alcohol once or less per week. Problem drinking is a concern among students in many European countries, especially among males. Students' support for banning the sale of alcohol on campus varies between countries and should be considered in developing EU policy.

  9. Attitudes and experiences of restaurateurs regarding smoking bans in Adelaide, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Wakefield, M; Turnbull, D A

    1999-01-01

    To determine compliance with a voluntary code of practice (VCP) for restricting smoking in restaurants and to canvass the attitudes of restaurateurs towards tougher smoking restrictions. Cross-sectional survey conducted in 1996 using a telephone questionnaire. Metropolitan restaurants and cafes in Adelaide, South Australia. 276 (86.8%) of a sample of randomly selected owners and managers. Restaurant non-smoking policies, reported and anticipated change in business, and restaurateurs' attitudes towards smoking restrictions. 26.8% of restaurants had a total smoking ban; 40.6% restricted smoking some other way; and 32.6% permitted unrestricted smoking. Only 15.1% of restaurants with a ban or restrictions had used the VCP to guide the development of their policy, and only half of these were complying with it. Although 78.4% of those with bans and 84.4% of those with restrictions reported that their non-smoking policy had been associated with either no change or a gain in business, only 33.3% of those allowing unrestricted smoking expected that this would be the case, if they were to limit smoking. A total of 50.4% of restaurateurs, including 45.3% of those with no restrictions, agreed that the government should ban smoking in all restaurants. The VCP made an insignificant contribution to adoption of non-smoking policies, and compliance with the code was poor. Despite concerns about loss of business, there was considerable support for legislation which would ban smoking in all dining establishments.

  10. The Asbestos Ban in Korea from a Grassroots Perspective: Why Did It Occur?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ryong Yoon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, asbestos was finally banned in Korea, about 70 years after the first opening of asbestos mines under Japanese control. After having presented the history of asbestos industry, together with its regulations and health effects over time, we constructed narrative analyses of how the asbestos issue under the prevailing risk system was managed by whom and for what purpose, to provide context for the change. We could identify five different phases: laissez-faire, politico-technical, economic–managerial, health-oriented cultural, and human rights-based post-cultural risk systems. The changes leading to the asbestos ban evolved over different phases, and each phase change was necessary to reach the final ban, in that, without resolving the previous issues by examining different categories of potential alternatives, either the final ban was not possible or, even if instituted, could not be sustained. An asbestos ban could be introduced when all the alternatives to these issues, including legitimate political windows, economic rationalizations, health risk protections, and human rights sensitivities, were available. We think the alternatives that we had were not in perfect shape, but in more or less loosely connected forms, and hence we had to know how to build solidarities between different stakeholders to compensate for the imperfections.

  11. Exposure to workplace smoking bans and continuity of daily smoking patterns on workdays and weekends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael S; Shiffman, Saul; Chandra, Siddharth

    2018-05-01

    Individuals may compensate for workplace smoking bans by smoking more before or after work, or escaping bans to smoke, but no studies have conducted a detailed, quantitative analysis of such compensatory behaviors using real-time data. 124 daily smokers documented smoking occasions over 3weeks using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and provided information on real-world exposure to smoking restrictions and type of workplace smoking policy (full, partial, or no bans). Mixed modeling and generalized estimating equations assessed effects of time of day, weekday (vs weekend), and workplace policy on mean cigarettes per hour (CPH) and reports of changing location to smoke. Individuals were most likely to change locations to smoke during business hours, regardless of work policy, and frequency of EMA reports of restrictions at work was associated with increased likelihood of changing locations to smoke (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.16; pbusiness hours across weekdays and weekends. Smokers largely compensate for exposure to workplace smoking bans by escaping restrictions during business hours. Better understanding the effects of smoking bans on smoking behavior may help to improve their effectiveness and yield insights into determinants of smoking in more restrictive environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tourists’ attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists’ attitudes toward the ban was conducted. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Results: Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Conclusion: Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand. PMID:19364754

  13. [Recent developments on the European ban on animal experiments for cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, I W

    2001-01-01

    For the second time the European Commission has postponed the sales ban on cosmetics products that have been developed and tested in animal experiments now until 2002. In the meantime the Commission wants to adopt the Seventh Amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive. In its draft the Commission proposes to scrap the sales ban and replace it with an animal testing ban. This change would avoid possible conflicts with the WTO, however, from the animal welfare point of view would result in animal testing moving into third countries instead of avoiding them. This is because cosmetics products tested on animals outside the EU could be sold in the EU without any restrictions. As a consequence this measure would take the pressure from authorities and industry to further develop and adopt alternative methods. Other proposed measures are not acceptable from the animal welfare point of view, e.g. because they contradict Directive 86/609 and would result in a delay of the application of validated alternative methods. The Deutscher Tierschutzbund therefore still demands an immediate and complete sales ban in connection with an animal testing ban within the EU.

  14. Tourists' attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-06-01

    Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists' attitudes toward the ban was conducted. A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand.

  15. Cumann na mBan & Women in Irish Republican Paramilitary Organisations, 1969-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Reinisch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marked the centenary of Cumann na mBan, the Irish Republican women’s organisation. While a number of recent publications have dealt with the first decade of Cumann na mBan, its existence in the second half of the 20th century has largely been neglected by academics. However, women played an integral part in the Republican struggle and many of these women held influential positions in the Irish Republican Movement. With this in mind, the article will discuss the role of Cumann na mBan within the so-called Provisional Republican Movement between 1969 and 1986. Based on 25 Oral History interviews with former members of the women’s organisation, the membership structure of the organisation and its activities will be discussed. In particular, the role of women in the Irish Republican Movement will be examined along with a number of other factors which have hitherto been largely underplayed in the historiography of women activists in the Irish Republican Movement. This will provide students and academics with literature for further in-depth research on Cumann na mBan. In essence, the aim of the article is to introduce Cumann na mBan into the historiography of the recent conflict in the North of Ireland.

  16. Compliance with the smoking ban in Italy 8 years after its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, Valentina; Gorini, Giuseppe; Carreras, Giulia; Masocco, Maria; Ferrante, Gianluigi; Possenti, Valentina; Quarchioni, Elisa; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Galeone, Daniela; Vasselli, Stefania; Salmaso, Stefania

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to report compliance with the smoking ban and the spread of smoke-free homes after 3-8 years since the Italian smoking ban implementation, according to the ongoing Italian surveillance system for behavioural risk factors (PASSI). PASSI is based on representative annual samples of the Italian population aged 18-69 years. We considered questions on smoking habits, self-reported compliance with the ban, and on smoke-free homes of 176,236 interviews conducted in 2008-2012. Ninety percent of respondents in 2012 reported that the smoking ban was enforced in hospitality premises (HPs), with a significant 3% increase from 2008. Similarly, 91.3% in 2012 reported a high compliance in workplaces other than HPs, with a significant 5% increase. Perception of compliance did not change among smokers and non-smokers. Seventy-eight percent of respondents in 2012 reported smoke-free homes, with a significant increase from 2008 to 2012. The high compliance with the ban that is still increasing even after 8 years since its implementation may partially have caused the concurrent increase in smoke-free homes.

  17. Bluetooth Indoor Positioning System using Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Christian; Jensen, Casper Svenning; Luckow, Kasper Søe

    2011-01-01

    Indoor Positioning has been an active research area in the last decade, but so far, commercial Indoor Positioning Systems (IPSs) have been sparse. The main obstacle towards widely available IPSs has been the lack of appropriate, low cost technologies, that enable indoor positioning. While Wi-Fi...... infrastructures are ubiquitous, consumer-oriented Wi-Fi enabled mobile phones have been missing. Conversely, while Bluetooth technology is present in the vast majority of consumer mobile phones, Bluetooth infrastructures have been missing. Bluetooth infrastructures have typically been installed as part...... of complete hardware/software IPSs that often incur a substantial hardware cost. Furthermore, Bluetooth has low power consumption compared to Wi-Fi devices, which promotes longer battery life-time on mobile phones. In this paper, we present a Bluetooth IPS based entirely on commodity-grade products...

  18. Indoor radon levels in coastal Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Indoor radon levels have been measured in selected dwellings of coastal Karnataka using LR-115 type II peelable films and it is found to vary from 28.4 to 45.6 Bq m -3 with a geometric mean value of 35.7 Bq m -3 . The annual effective dose equivalent to the population of the region due to inhalation of radon was estimated from the measured data on radon level and is found to be in the range 1.9 - 3.1 mSv y -1 with a mean value 2.4 mSv y -1 . The correlation between indoor radon level and radium content in the underlying soil were studied. No definite correlation was observed to exist between indoor radon level and radium content in soil. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Distribution of indoor radon levels in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, G; Rickards, J; Gammage, R B

    1999-01-01

    Our laboratory has carried out a systematic monitoring and evaluation of indoor radon concentration levels in Mexico for ten years. The results of the distribution of indoor radon levels for practically the entire country are presented, together with information on geological characteristics, population density, socioeconomic levels of the population, and architectural styles of housing. The measurements of the radon levels were made using the passive method of nuclear tracks in solids with the end-cup system. CR-39 was used as the detector material in combination with a one-step chemical etching procedure and an automatic digital- image counting system. Wherever a high level was measured, a confirming measurement was made using a dynamic method. The results are important for future health studies, including the eventual establishment of patterns for indoor radon concentration, as it has been done in the USA and Europe.

  20. A proposed UAV for indoor patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Catherine; Watfa, Mohamed; El Mouden, Yassine; Sahir, Sana; Ali, Afrah; Niavarani, Ali; Lutfi, Aoun; Copiaco, Abigail; Agarwal, Vaibhavi; Afsari, Kiyan; Johnathon, Chris; Okafor, Onyeka; Ayad, Marina

    2015-09-10

    Indoor flight, obstacle avoidance and client-server communication of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) raises several unique research challenges. This paper examines current methods and associated technologies adapted within the literature toward autonomous UAV flight, for consideration in a proposed system for indoor healthcare administration with a quadcopter. We introduce Healthbuddy, a unique research initiative towards overcoming challenges associated with indoor navigation, collision detection and avoidance, stability, wireless drone-server communications and automated decision support for patient care in a GPS-denied environment. To address the identified research deficits, a drone-based solution is presented. The solution is preliminary as we develop and refine the suggested algorithms and hardware system to achieve the research objectives.

  1. Assessing future trends in indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van de Wiel, H.J.; Lebret, E.; van der Lingen, W.K.; Eerens, H.C.; Vaas, L.H.; Leupen, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Several national and international health organizations have derived concentration levels below which adverse effects on men are not expected or levels below which the excess risk for individuals is less than a specified value. For every priority pollutant indoor concentrations below this limit are considered healthy. The percentage of Dutch homes exceeding such a limit is taken as a measure of indoor air quality for that component. The present and future indoor air quality of the Dutch housing stock is described for fourteen air pollutants. The highest percentages are scored by radon, environmental tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from unvented combustion, and the potential presence of housedust mite and mould allergen in damp houses. Although the trend for all priority pollutants is downward the most serious ones remain high in the coming decades if no additional measures will be instituted

  2. [Current situation of awareness and use of banned pesticides among vegetable greenhouse farmers in a town of Ledu County, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-hua; Xing, Yong-hua; Ji, Wen-wu; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Jian; Niu, Zhao-di; Yang, Hui-fang

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the awareness and use of banned pesticides among vegetable greenhouse farmers in a town of Ledu County, Qinghai Province, China and to provide a basis for the management and control of banned pesticides. Local residents who lived in a town of Ledu County for more than 5 years were selected as subjects in August 2012. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 267 vegetable greenhouse farmers who were selected from five villages of the town by cluster random sampling. Of the 267 subjects, 249 (93.26%) completed and returned the questionnaires. Eighty-seven (34.9%) of the 249 subjects were aware of banned pesticides, and the banned pesticide awareness rate varied significantly among the subjects with different education levels (χ(2) = 11.061, P = 0.011). Only education level entered the regression equation in non-conditional logistic regression analysis. Only five (2.0%) of the 249 subjects knew the banned pesticides as well as the details. All the 249 subjects used banned pesticides to varying degrees in the past 5 years. Only 9.0% (17/189) of the vegetable greenhouse farmers knew the time pesticides were initially banned in China. The banned pesticide awareness rate is relatively low in the town of Ledu County, and this rate is influenced by education level. It is needed to spread the knowledge and hazards of banned pesticides.

  3. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 04: PARENT PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data collection form is used to identify the activity patterns of the preschool children and possible sources and routes of exposure. The parent is asked questions on their child's activities indoors and outdoors at the home. These include questions on their child's frequenc...

  4. [Indoor air pollution in southeast Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, P; Oyarzún, M; Walter, T; von Baer, D; Romieu, I

    1998-04-01

    Indoor air pollution could play an important role in the susceptibility to respiratory diseases of vulnerable individuals, such as elders and infants. To evaluate indoor air pollution in a low income population of South East Santiago. A domiciliary survey of contaminant sources was carried out in the bouses of a cohort of 522 children less than one year old. Using a case-control design, 121 children consulting for respiratory diseases were considered as cases and 131 healthy infants of the same age and sex were considered as controls. In the houses of both groups, active monitors for particulate matter (PM10) and passive monitors for NO2 were installed. Forty two percent of fathers and 30% of mothers were smokers, and in two thirds of the families there was at least one smoker. Eighty five percent used portable heaters in winter. Of these, 77% used kerosene as fuel. Only 27% had water heating appliances. The rest heated water on the kitchen store or on bonfires. Most kitchen stoves used liquid gas as fuel. Twenty four hour PM10 was 109 +/- 3.2 micrograms/m3. Mean indoor and outdoor NO2 in 24 h was 108 +/- 76.3 and 84 +/- 53.6 micrograms/m3 respectively. Indoor NO2 levels were related to the use of heating devices and smoking. No differences in PM10 and NO2 levels were observed between cases and controls. There is a clear relationship between indoor pollution and contaminating sources. Indoor NO2 levels are higher than outdoors.

  5. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  6. Barcode based localization system in indoor environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Ilkovičová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the era of intelligent buildings, there is a need to create indoornavigation systems, what is steadily a challenge. QR (Quick Response codesprovide accurate localization also in indoor environment, where other navigationtechniques (e.g. GPS are not available. The paper deals with the issues of posi-tioning using QR codes, solved at the Department of Surveying, Faculty of CivilEngineering SUT in Bratislava. Operating principle of QR codes, description ofthe application for positioning in indoor environment based on OS Android forsmartphones are described.

  7. Indoor air pollution caused by geothermal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the little-known but potentially serious indoor air quality problems that may occur where buildings are constructed on geothermal ground. The main problems are related to seepage of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, radon and other gases from soil cavities directly into indoor air through perforations in the structure. These gases present a health hazard, and hydrogen sulphide, which is particularly corrosive, may cause problems electrical and electronic systems. Counter-measures are not always effective, so developments in such areas should only be undertaken with a clear understanding of site-specific issues and their possible solutions. (author)

  8. EVALUATION OF AIR PURIFICATION DEVICES FOR CONTROL OF INDOOR PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because people spend most of their time indoors (89%), the indoor environment is a primary determinant of particle exposure. The indoor environment is especially an important determinant for the very young, the very old, and those with underlying cardiopulmonary disease because...

  9. [Health evaluation of fine particulate matter in indoor air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    When evaluating the health effects of indoor air fine particulate matter, the indoor dynamics as well as the physical, chemical and biological properties of fine particles have to be considered. The indoor air fraction PM2.5 largely stems from outdoor air. Accordingly, the German Working Group on Indoor Guideline Values of the Federal Environmental Agency and the States' Health Authorities also recommends WHO's (2006) 24-hour mean guideline value of 25 microg PM2,5 per cubic meter for indoor air evaluation. In contrast to PM2.5, coarse particles (PM10) in schools, kindergartens and dwellings show much higher indoor air concentrations. Additional sources indoors have to be assumed. Because of the different composition of indoor air compared to outdoor air and due to the lack of dose-response relationships of coarse particles in indoor air, the health effects of indoor air PM10 can not be evaluated yet. Sufficient and consistent ventilation is an indispensable basis to reduce PM concentrations in indoor spaces. Furthermore, known sources of PM indoors should be detected consequently and subsequently minimized.

  10. Plants for Sustainable Improvement of Indoor Air Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilli, Federico; Fares, Silvano; Ghirardo, Andrea; Visser, de Pieter; Calatayud, Vicent; Muñoz, Amalia; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sebastiani, Federico; Alivernini, Alessandro; Varriale, Vincenzo; Menghini, Flavio

    2018-01-01

    Indoor pollution poses a serious threat to human health. Plants represent a sustainable but underexploited solution to enhance indoor air quality. However, the current selection of plants suitable for indoors fails to consider the physiological processes and mechanisms involved in phytoremediation.

  11. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Timothy Dvonch, J.; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods: We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures' responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results: Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 °C, 13.8 °C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions: Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings to improve heat exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations. Weatherizing homes and modifying home surroundings could mitigate indoor heat exposure among the elderly.

  12. Microbiological assessment of indoor air of teaching hospital wards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the objective of this study is to provide fundamental data related to the microbial quality of indoor air of Jimma University Specialized Hospital wards, to estimate the health hazard and to create standards for indoor air quality control. METHODS: The microbial quality of indoor air of seven wards of Jimma University ...

  13. Safety assessment of indoor live fire range, May 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the indoor live fire range (LFR) at EG&G Mound Applied Technology plant. The purpose of the indoor LFR is to conduct training with live ammunition for all designated personnel. The SA examines the risks that are attendant to the operation of an indoor LFR for this purpose.

  14. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  15. An architectural framework for 5G indoor communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Kishor; Prasad, R. Venkatesha; Niemegeers, Ignas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we emphasize on indoor networks in 5G era. We explore the possible technologies and architectural solutions for 5G indoor communications. Owing to the fact that requirements for indoor and outdoor communications will be quite different in the next generation networks, we try to define

  16. Influence of indoor formaldehyde pollution on respiratory system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The decoration of interior spaces can lead to dangerous levels of indoor formaldehyde pollution. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million deaths per year in developing countries. Objectives To assess the prevalence of indoor formaldehyde pollution caused by decoration and ...

  17. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more pol...

  18. Factors influencing indoor concentrations of radon and daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hengde

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between indoor concentrations of 222 Rn and its daughters and some influencing factors is discussed and expressions of concentrations are derived with relation to radon exhalation rate from indoor surfaces, air exchange rate and daughter deposition velocities on indoor surfaces. Experimental methods for determining radon exhalation rate, air exchange rate and daughter deposition velocities are also mentioned

  19. The cigarette advertising broadcast ban and magazine coverage of smoking and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K E; Goldenhar, L M

    1989-01-01

    At the time of the cigarette broadcast advertising ban, which took effect in 1971, cigarette manufacturers rapidly shifted advertising expenditures from the broadcast media to the print media. In the last year of broadcast advertising and the first year of the ban, cigarette ad expenditures in a sample of major national magazines increased by 49 and then 131 percent in constant dollars. From an 11-year period preceding the ban to an 11-year period following it, these magazines decreased their coverage of smoking and health by 65 percent, an amount that is statistically significantly greater than decreases found in magazines that did not carry cigarette ads and in two major newspapers. This finding adds to evidence that media dependent on cigarette advertising have restricted their coverage of smoking and health. This may have significant implications for public health, as well as raising obvious concerns about the integrity of the profession of journalism.

  20. Iron ore pollution in Mandovi and Zuari estuarine sediments and its fate after mining ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessarkar, Pratima M; Suja, S; Sudheesh, V; Srivastava, Shubh; Rao, V Purnachandra

    2015-09-01

    Iron ore was mined from the banded iron formations of Goa, India, and transported through the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries for six decades until the ban on mining from September 2012. Here we focus on the environmental magnetic properties of sediments from the catchment area, upstream and downstream of these estuaries, and adjacent shelf during peak mining time. Magnetic susceptibility (χ lf) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) values of sediments were highest in upstream (catchment area and estuaries), decreased gradually towards downstream (catchment area and estuaries), and were lowest on the adjacent shelf. The χ lf values of the Mandovi estuary were two to fourfold higher than those in the Zuari. The sediments of these two estuaries after the mining ban showed enrichment of older magnetite and sharp decrease in the SIRM values. Although the input of ore material has been reduced after mining ban, more flushing of estuarine sediments is required for healthier environment.

  1. When You Smoke, They Smoke: Children's Rights and Opinions about Vehicular Smoking Bans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymko, Morgan Anne

    International law guarantees every person the highest attainable standard of health, and this should include protection from the health risks of environmental tobacco smoke. As knowledge of these risks has increased, there has been an incremental expansion of smoking bans in public space. Since 2007, they have extended to the private space of the motor vehicle in an attempt to protect child passengers. This thesis aimed to understand the views and interests of children and youth on vehicular smoking bans, and the extent to which these have been sought after and considered in previous discussions of this policy initiative in Canada. A print media analysis found a lack of concern for children's perspectives. Rights, when considered, were generally those of adults. In focus groups, children discussed the unfairness of exposure to smoke in any space, but especially within the motor vehicle, and articulated a desire for increased participation in decision-making. Keywords: Smoking, smoking bans, rights, children's opinions, vehicles, Canada.

  2. Tobacco advertising, environmental smoking bans, and smoking in Chinese urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Rockett, Ian R H; Li, Mu; Xu, Xiaochao; Gu, Yaming

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate whether cigarette smoking in Chinese urban areas was respectively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising and smoking bans in households, workplaces, and public places. Participants were 4735 urban residents aged 15 years and older, who were identified through multi-stage quota-sampling conducted in six Chinese cities. Data were collected on individual sociodemographics and smoking status, and regional tobacco control measures. The sample was characterized in terms of smoking prevalence, and multilevel logistic models were employed to analyze the association between smoking and tobacco advertising and environmental smoking restrictions, respectively. Smoking prevalence was 30%. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that smoking was positively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising, and negatively associated with workplace and household smoking bans. The association of smoking with both tobacco advertising and environmental smoking bans further justifies implementation of comprehensive smoking interventions and tobacco control programs in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Local responses to the Maharashtra gutka and pan masala ban: a report from Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S; Schensul, J J; Bilgi, S; Kadam, V; D'Mello, S; Donta, B

    2012-01-01

    The Maharashtra government has banned the production, sale, distribution and storage of gutka, and pan masala in the Maharashtra State due to the increasing burden of cancer and reproductive health problems attributable to the use of these products. In view of this, it is important to understand the way producers', sellers' and users' are adapting to the ban. During the two months following the ban (July 19 th through Sept 30, 2012), a research team studying smokeless tobacco use and promotion in a low income community of Mumbai conducted rapid surveillance to assess the impact of the ban in the study community. Assessment involved documenting new points of sale, informal observations of tobacco use, and interviews with thirteen shop owners and eight gutka users'. Overall changes in accessibility, availability, patterns of use of tobacco products, perception of ban, social norms and surveillance activities were assessed. Tobacco companies were marketing new products that resembled gutka, under similar brand logos. Surveillance, financial and social cost of selling gutka or using it in public have had an immediate effect on reducing local supply, demand and use and increasing stigma associated with its use. There was an increased recognition of ill-effects of gutka on cancer among sellers' but not overall. To reduce the overall consumption of tobacco in the community, it is critical to include programs that create awareness about effects of smokeless tobacco on health and sustain surveillance levels. This would maintain requirements of the ban, and sustain limits on accessibility, availability and use of these products in the community and other similar communities.

  4. Tribal communities and coal in Northeast India: The politics of imposing and resisting mining bans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDuie-Ra, Duncan; Kikon, Dolly

    2016-01-01

    Bans on coal mining have been implemented in two tribal majority states in India's north-east frontier; Nagaland and Meghalaya. In Nagaland the state government imposed the ban in an attempt to capture control of coal extraction and trade, while in Meghalaya India's National Green Commission imposed the ban over concern for the environment and labour conditions. In both cases local communities have opposed the bans, and in some areas resumed mining under the authority of tribal councils and powerful civil society actors. In this paper we explore the politics of coal extraction that resulted in these bans and the response of communities and authorities. In doing so we made three main arguments that contribute to understanding of coal and communities in frontier regions where state control is partial and the legacy of armed conflict is powerful. First, in both locations the majority of the coal mining activity has been initiated and managed by members of tribal communities rather than profit-driven outsiders. Second, in contrast to other contexts in India (notably Orissa and Jharkhand) where large state or private enterprises seek to modify the law to enable coal extraction, in Nagaland and Meghalaya it has been communities that resent and challenge state and national laws being applied to their lands. Third, the right to extract coal is connected to the right of tribal communities to determine what happens on their lands. - Highlights: • Tribal communities initiate and manage coal mining in Nagaland and Meghalaya. • Laws banning coal extraction have been challenged and resisted by local communities. • The right to extract coal is tied to protecting tribal land rights. • Tribal autonomy in coal policy is progressive, yet enables capture by local elites. • Where there has been regulation of coal mining it has come from unexpected sources.

  5. Changes in hospitalizations for chronic respiratory diseases after two successive smoking bans in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Galán

    Full Text Available Existing evidence on the effects of smoke-free policies on respiratory diseases is scarce and inconclusive. Spain enacted two consecutive smoke-free regulations: a partial ban in 2006 and a comprehensive ban in 2011. We estimated their impact on hospital admissions via emergency departments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma.Data for COPD (ICD-9 490-492, 494-496 came from 2003-2012 hospital admission records from the fourteen largest provinces of Spain and from five provinces for asthma (ICD-9 493. We estimated changes in hospital admission rates within provinces using Poisson additive models adjusted for long-term linear trends and seasonality, day of the week, temperature, influenza, acute respiratory infections, and pollen counts (asthma models. We estimated immediate and gradual effects through segmented-linear models. The coefficients within each province were combined through random-effects multivariate meta-analytic models.The partial ban was associated with a strong significant pooled immediate decline in COPD-related admission rates (14.7%, 95%CI: 5.0, 23.4, sustained over time with a one-year decrease of 13.6% (95%CI: 2.9, 23.1. The association was consistent across age and sex groups but stronger in less economically developed Spanish provinces. Asthma-related admission rates decreased by 7.4% (95%CI: 0.2, 14.2 immediately after the comprehensive ban was implemented, although the one-year decrease was sustained only among men (9.9%, 95%CI: 3.9, 15.6.The partial ban was associated with an immediate and sustained strong decline in COPD-related admissions, especially in less economically developed provinces. The comprehensive ban was related to an immediate decrease in asthma, sustained for the medium-term only among men.

  6. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Salin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/−2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/−1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/−0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25–35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  7. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion

  8. Measurements of MIMO Indoor Channels at 1800 MHz with Multiple Indoor and Outdoor Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaldén Niklas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes several configurations for multiple base stations in indoor MIMO systems and compares their performance. The results are based on channel measurements realized with a MIMO testbed. The receiver was moved along several routes and floors on an office building. Both outdoor and indoor locations are considered for the transmitters or base stations, which allow the analysis of not only indoor but also outdoor-to-indoor environment. The use of 2 base stations with different system level combinations of the two is analyzed. We show that the configuration with base station selection provides almost as good performance as a full water-filling scheme when the 2 base stations are placed at different locations. Also the spatial correlation properties for the different configurations are analyzed and the importance of considering path loss when evaluating capacity is highlighted.

  9. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion.

  10. Banning Ads from Prime-Time State TV: Lessons from France

    OpenAIRE

    Lapo Filistrucchi; Andrea Mangani; Luigi Luini

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the effects of the advertising ban on French public television, which came into effect on the 5th of January 2009. The ban forbids commercial advertising on public TV in the time slot 20.00-6.00. By using a difference-in-difference approach we show that advertising which was previously broadcasted on public TV in the time slot 20.00-6.00 did not switch to private channels in the same time slot (nor did the price per second in that time slot on private channels rise). Rather adverti...

  11. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Science and Technology 2011 (S and T2011). Announcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    To build and strengthen its relationship with the broader science community in support of the Treaty, the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) invites the community to a scientific conference CTBT: Science and Technology 2011 (S and T 2011), to be held from 8 to 10 June 2011 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. The conference goals are: Discuss advances in science and technology relevant to test ban verification; Explore scientific applications of the CTBT verification infrastructure; Encourage partnerships and knowledge exchange between the CTBTO and the broader scientific community.

  12. The ban on smokeless tobacco products is systematically violated in Chennai, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidhubala, E.; Pisinger, C.; Basumallik, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: India is the world's third largest consumer of tobacco. There are twice as many users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) as cigarette smokers. The Government of Tamil Nadu has banned the sale of gutkha and pan masala in 2013. Our aim was to identify the varieties of illegal STP...... not have a pictorial warning; a text warning was printed on 80.8%, but only two products had the messages in Tamil; 70% had promotional messages printed, and 57% had their registration numbers printed. Conclusion: The ban on STP is being systematically violated in Chennai. STP are cheap and easily...

  13. Very volatile organic compounds: An understudied class of indoor air pollutants: Keynote: Indoor Air 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Salthammer, T.

    2016-01-01

    Very volatile organic compounds (VVOCs), as categorized by the WHO, are an important subgroup of indoor pollutants and cover a wide spectrum of chemical substances. Some VVOCs are components of products commonly used indoors, some result from chemical reactions and some are reactive precursors of secondary products. Nevertheless, there is still no clear and internationally accepted definition of VVOCs. Current approaches are based on the boiling point, and the saturation vapor pressure or ref...

  14. Organic indoor air pollutants: occurrence, measurement, evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salthammer, Tunga; Uhde, Erik

    2009-01-01

    ... hand, organic chemical pollutants emitted from materials and appliances can adversely affect human health. People in developed countries spend more than 90% of their time indoors. In the light of this fact, the cleanliness of occupied spaces such as buildings, houses, and transportation systems becomes very important. In contemporary so...

  15. Measuring low-frequency noise indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    that is exceeded in 10% of the volume of a room (L10) is proposed as a rational and objective target for a measurement method. In Sweden and Denmark rules exist for measuring low-frequency noise indoors. The performance of these procedures was investigated in three rooms. The results from the Swedish method were...

  16. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  17. Indoor Location Fingerprinting with Heterogeneous Clients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous wireless clients measure signal strength differently. This is a fundamental problem for indoor location fingerprinting, and it has a high impact on the positioning accuracy. Mapping-based solutions have been presented that require manual and error-prone calibration for each new clie...

  18. 9 CFR 3.26 - Facilities, indoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or air conditioning, and shall be ventilated so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. The ambient temperature shall not be allowed to rise above 85 °F. (c) Lighting. Indoor housing... constructed and maintained so that they are substantially impervious to moisture and may be readily sanitized. ...

  19. Redispersion of indoor surface contamination: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansone, E.B.; Slein, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of surface contamination as a potential source of exposure to hazardous materials is discussed. Data from the literature concerning the resuspension of indoor surface contamination are presented. Reported procedures for quantitating surface contamination are compared. It is suggested that, despite its limitations, surface contamination monitoring may be useful in estimating potential risks from hazardous materials. (Auth.)

  20. Indoor radon measurements in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.mx; Golzarri, J.I. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bogard, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6480 (United States); Gaso, I. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ponciano, G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mena, M.; Segovia, N. [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-08-15

    Mexico City is one of the most populated cities in the world with almost 22 million inhabitants, located at an altitude of 2200 m. The old city was founded on an ancient lake and the zone is known by its high seismicity; indoor radon determination is an important public health issue. In this paper the data of indoor radon levels in Mexico City, measured independently by two research groups, both using Nuclear Track Detector systems but different methodologies, are correlated. The measurements were done during similar exposure periods of time, at family houses from the political administrative regions of the city. The results indicate a correlation coefficient between the two sets of data of R=0.886. Most of the differences between the two sets of data are inherent to houses having extreme (very high or very low indoor radon) included in the statistics of each group. The total average indoor radon found in Mexico City considering the two methods was 87Bqm{sup -3}.

  1. CARBON ADSORPTION FOR INDOOR AIR CLEANING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the use of carbon adsorption for indoor air cleaning, focusing on the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using granular activated carbon (GAC). It addresses GAC performance in two directions. Initially, it presents performance measurements for GAC at...

  2. Indoor Coal Use and Early Childhood Growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ghosh, R.; Amirian, E.; Dostál, Miroslav; Šrám, Radim; Hertz-Picciotto, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 6 (2011), s. 492-497 ISSN 1072-4710 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/50/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution, * coal heating * indoor air pollutants Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.140, year: 2011

  3. Ventilation strategies and indoor environment in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the other building types, the school building has much higher occupancy density and ventilation demand. In Demark, most of the school buildings are ventilated by natural manner. There is a risk of poor indoor environment associated with the lack of ventilation system or insufficient...

  4. Growth of indoor fungi on gypsum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Frank J J; van Laarhoven, Karel A; Wosten, Han; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To have a better understanding of fungal growth on gypsum building materials to prevent indoor fungal growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gypsum is acquired by mining or as a by-product of flue-gas desulfurization or treatment of phosphate ore for the production of fertilizer. Natural gypsum,

  5. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO 2 , CO, SO 2 , and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  6. Personal control over indoor climate and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerstra, A.C.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    A multilayer study was designed to investigate how having or not having control over one’s indoor climate affects work performance in office buildings. The study consisted of 2 stages. The HOPE database (with results from a large study in 64 European office buildings) was reanalyzed on correlations

  7. An Innovative Gateway for Indoor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marias Giannis F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Enabling the pervasive paradigm requires the incorporation of location information. Retrieving location data has been a field of ongoing research for both the outdoor and indoor wireless systems. The results in the cellular scenario are already mature and location architectures have been standardized. Recent research is ongoing for indoor-positioning mechanisms, resulting in implementations that vary. A platform that enables the deployment of location-based services in heterogeneous indoor and WLAN-based communication systems will address difficulties in cooperating with different positioning systems. For that purpose, we have designed a novel entity, called Gateway WLAN Location Center (GWLC, which hides the heterogeneous functions of the indoor positioning architectures, incorporating a unified framework for retrieving location data of users and objects. The GWLC platform has been designed to meet objectives such as modularity, scalability, as well as portability, and to facilitate open interfaces. In this contribution, we elaborate on the design principles and the functionality of GWLC. We also provide performance results, obtained through real experiments.

  8. Medical management after indoor fires: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, L.; van Harten, S. M.; Patka, P.; Bierens, J. J. L. M.; Boers, M.; Luitse, J. S. K.; Mackie, D. P.; Trouwborst, A.; Gouma, D. J.; Kreis, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    Fires involving mass burn casualties require extreme efforts and flexibility from the regular health care system. The cafe fire in Volendam, which occurred shortly after midnight on the first of January 2001, resulted in the worst indoor mass burns incident in Dutch history. During the extensive

  9. Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem Khan, A A; Mohan Karuppayil, S

    2012-10-01

    Indoor environments play important roles in human health. The health hazards posed by polluted indoor environments include allergy, infections and toxicity. Life style changes have resulted in a shift from open air environments to air tight, energy efficient, environments, in which people spend a substantial portion of their time. Most indoor air pollution comes from the hazardous non biological agents and biological agents. Fungi are ubiquitous in distribution and are a serious threat to public health in indoor environments. In this communication, we have reviewed the current status on biotic indoor air pollution, role of fungi as biological contaminants and their impact on human health.

  10. Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurraß, Julia; Heinzow, Birger; Aurbach, Ute; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bufe, Albrecht; Buzina, Walter; Cornely, Oliver A; Engelhart, Steffen; Fischer, Guido; Gabrio, Thomas; Heinz, Werner; Herr, Caroline E W; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Köberle, Martin; Lichtnecker, Herbert; Lob-Corzilius, Thomas; Merget, Rolf; Mülleneisen, Norbert; Nowak, Dennis; Rabe, Uta; Raulf, Monika; Seidl, Hans Peter; Steiß, Jens-Oliver; Szewszyk, Regine; Thomas, Peter; Valtanen, Kerttu; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A

    2017-04-01

    In April 2016, the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventative Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin (GHUP)) together with other scientific medical societies, German and Austrian medical societies, physician unions and experts has provided an AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies) guideline 'Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure'. This guideline shall help physicians to advise and treat patients exposed indoors to mold. Indoor mold growth is a potential health risk, even without a quantitative and/or causal association between the occurrence of individual mold species and health effects. Apart from the allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and the mycoses caused by mold, there is only sufficient evidence for the following associations between moisture/mold damages and different health effects: Allergic respiratory diseases, asthma (manifestation, progression, exacerbation), allergic rhinitis, exogenous allergic alveolitis and respiratory tract infections/bronchitis. In comparison to other environmental allergens, the sensitizing potential of molds is estimated to be low. Recent studies show a prevalence of sensitization of 3-10% in the total population of Europe. The evidence for associations to mucous membrane irritation and atopic eczema (manifestation, progression, exacerbation) is classified as limited or suspected. Inadequate or insufficient evidence for an association is given for COPD, acute idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage in children, rheumatism/arthritis, sarcoidosis, and cancer. The risk of infections from indoor molds is low for healthy individuals. Only molds that are capable to form toxins can cause intoxications. The environmental and growth conditions and especially the substrate determine whether toxin formation occurs, but indoor air concentrations are always very low. In the case of indoor moisture/mold damages, everyone can be affected by odor effects and

  11. Indoor Environment Program - 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indoor Environment Program

    1996-11-01

    The forty-five chemists, physicists, biologists, architects, engineers, staff, and students of the Indoor Environment Program are all working to solve the problems of indoor air quality, health, comfort, and energy use associated with the indoor environment. A common thread throughout this work is the importance of ventilation--both for its role in supporting human health and comfort as well as for its liability in requiring large amounts of energy to heat and cool it. The importance of understanding these interactions can be illustrated by two examples: the health and productivity of workers (Fisk and Rosenfeld, 1996) and the performance of sensitive equipment in clean room environments (Faulkner, et d., 1996). During the past year, we estimated the magnitudes of health and productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments. The ratio of the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments to the costs of the improvements ranges between 20 and 50. A second example is from our Clean Room Energy Efficiency Study: Clean rooms utilize large amounts of electricity to operate fans that recirculate air at very high flow rates through particle filters. Usually, the fans operate continuously at full speed, even when the clean room is unused. To reduce the energy use in a research clean room, the rate of air recirculation was controlled in response to real-time measurements of particle concentration. With this new control system, fan energy use decreased by 65% to 85% while maintaining particle concentrations below the allowable limits except during occasional one-minute periods. The estimated payback period for this technology is one to four years.

  12. A Foundation for Efficient Indoor Distance-Aware Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Hua; Cao, Xin; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    model that integrates indoor distance seamlessly. To enable the use of the model as a foundation for query processing, we develop accompanying, efficient algorithms that compute indoor distances for different indoor entities like doors as well as locations. We also propose an indexing framework......Indoor spaces accommodate large numbers of spatial objects, e.g., points of interest (POIs), and moving populations. A variety of services, e.g., location-based services and security control, are relevant to indoor spaces. Such services can be improved substantially if they are capable of utilizing...... that accommodates indoor distances that are pre-computed using the proposed algorithms. On top of this foundation, we develop efficient algorithms for typical indoor, distance-aware queries. The results of an extensive experimental evaluation demonstrate the efficacy of the proposals....

  13. Quitting smoking : The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how smoker' and non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban.Design:

  14. The ban on "off-label" pharmaceutical promotion: constitutionally permissible prophylaxis against false or misleading commercial speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Critics of the Food & Drug Administration's ban on off-label promotion often claim that it violates the First Amendment because it suppresses pharmaceutical manufacturers' truthful speech about their legal--and beneficial--products. Characterizing the ban on off-label promotion in this way has more than rhetorical significance. Bans on truthful, non-misleading speech elicit special skepticism because of the belief that they "usually rest solely on the offensive assumption that the public will respond 'irrationally' to the truth." The legislative history of the provisions of the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act that underlie the ban on off-label promotion, however, reveals that Congress was concerned that physicians were responding rationally to false and misleading promotional claims. In this Article, I explore the doctrinal questions raised by conceiving of the ban on off-label promotion not as a ban on "truthful speech to physicians" but instead as a prophylaxis against false and misleading pharmaceutical promotion. I review the evidence that false and misleading claims were commonplace before the ban's adoption and persist today, along with the enforcement challenges the FDA confronted at that time and would confront were the ban lifted, and conclude the government likely could develop the factual record necessary to establish that Congress' rejection of an after-the-fact case-by-case approach to combating false and misleading prescription drug promotion is constitutional.

  15. Resolution establishing the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Adopted on 19 November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Resolution on the Establishment of a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization which was adopted on 19 November 1996 at a meeting of the States Signatories of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  16. Does the workplace-smoking ban eliminate differences in risk for environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Knibbe, Ronald A; Tan, Frans E S; Willemsen, Marc C; de Groot, Henk N; de Vries, Hein

    2009-10-01

    A workplace-smoking ban in the Netherlands was introduced on January 1, 2004. Before the ban male and low educated employees were at higher risk for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Effective implementation of the ban should result not only in an overall decline of exposure, but also in the disappearance of systematic differences in exposure between subgroups of employees. Data from a Dutch continuous Internet survey were used. From July 2003 through June 2005, 200 respondents were randomly selected each week. The sample consisted of 11,291 non-smoking, working respondents, aged 16-65 years. ETS exposure decreased among all employees and among subgroups at higher risk before the ban. However, also after the ban, males and low educated employees were still most likely to be exposed to ETS. The workplace-smoking ban was effective in reducing ETS exposure among employees. However, after the ban still 52.2% of non-smoking workers reported to be exposed. We did not find the expected stronger effect among employees who were at higher risk. Both before and after implementation of the ban, males and lower educated employees were about two times more likely to be exposed to ETS.

  17. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  18. The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

  19. Smoking habits and attitudes toward tobacco bans among United Kingdom hospital staff and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K E; Shin, D; Davies, G

    2011-08-01

    A group of United Kingdom (UK) hospitals. To estimate the current smoking habits of health care professionals (HCPs) in a country with active tobacco control measures, and to record their attitudes to national and hospital tobacco bans. A cross-sectional survey of 500 HCPs. HCPs reported a lower rate of current smoking (7%) than the general population (24%). Doctors (2.6%) and medical students (3.8%) were less likely to be current smokers than both nurses (8.7%) and allied health professionals (10.9%, P smoking in health care premises. A higher proportion of UK doctors (69%) than nurses (52%) favoured a complete ban (odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.14-3.56). Self-reported smoking patterns in UK health professionals are lower than previously and compared to other industrialised and developing countries. Support for bans is very high, but differences remain in behaviour and especially attitudes to local bans according to professional status, although this gap is also narrowing.

  20. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools : A mixed-method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, A. D.; Mathijssen, J. J. P.; Jansen, M. W. J.; Van Oers, J. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of

  1. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks 5 years after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in Denmark in 1995. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks in the absence of the selective pressure exerted by the use of avoparcin. One hundred sixty...

  2. SISTEM INFORMASI SARANA DAN PRASARANA SESUAI STANDAR BAN-PT TERINTEGRASI SISFOKAMPUS 4.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ainul Yaqin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak- Standar sarana dan prasarana adalah salah satu standar yang dinilai dalam instrumen BAN-PT, yaitu pada standar 6.2. Pengelolaan sarana dan prasarana sebuah perguruan tinggi harus memenuhi standar tersebut. Untuk dapat mengetahui seberapa besar tingkat pemenuhan standar diperlukan penilaian. Sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini digunakan untuk memasukkan data-data usulan pengadaan, penerimaan, distribusi, penggunaan, pemeliharaan, dan pemusnahan. Laporan-laporan yang disajikan berbentuk tabel dan grafik yang menyatakan kinerja keuangan dan diukur sesuai dengan standar 6.2. BAN-PT. Sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana ini, juga terintegrasi dengan SISFOKAMPUS 4.1 yang merupakan sistem informasi akademik open source yang berbasis web. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana dengan fungsi khusus yaitu menilai kinerja keuangan yang sesuai dengan standar 6.1. BAN-PT yang dapat digunakan untuk melakukan audit internal.   Kata kunci : standar 6.2. BAN-PT, Sistem Informasi Sarana dan Prasarana, SISFOKAMPUS 4.1.

  3. Survey reveals public open to ban on hand-held cell phone use and texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A study performed by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) reveals that the public is open to a ban on hand-held cell phone use while driving. The study is based on data from 2009s Omnibus Household Survey (OHS), which is administered by B...

  4. OpenBAN: An Open Building ANalytics Middleware for Smart Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandarasamy Arjunan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Towards the realization of smart building applications, buildings are increasingly instrumented with diverse sensors and actuators. These sensors generate large volumes of data which can be analyzed for optimizing building operations. Many building energy management tasks such as energy forecasting, disaggregation, among others require complex analytics leveraging collected sensor data. While several standalone and cloud-based systems for archiving, sharing and visualizing sensor data have emerged, their support for analyzing sensor data streams is primitive and limited to rule-based actions based on thresholds and simple aggregation functions. We develop OpenBAN, an open source sensor data analytics middleware for buildings, to make analytics an integral component of modern smart building applications. OpenBAN provides a framework of extensible sensor data processing elements for identifying various building context, which different applications can leverage. We validate the capabilities of OpenBAN by developing three representative real-world applications which are deployed in our test-bed buildings: (i household energy disaggregation, (ii detection of sprinkler usage from water meter data, and (iii electricity demand forecasting. We also provide a preliminary system performance of OpenBAN when deployed in the cloud and locally.

  5. Job satisfaction and attitudes of restaurant staff regarding the smoking ban – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljudevit Pranić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While extant research on the impacts of smoke-free legislation on hospitality employees and industries has centered on developed countries, the research on the effects of smoking bans in transition countries has received very little attention. Hoping to assist in filling this void, this research empirically explores the relationships among restaurant employees’ attitudes, demographics, work-related variables (WRV, and job satisfaction after the introduction of a smoke-free legislation in one transition economy, i.e. Croatia. Results revealed that gender, education, age, restaurant seating allocation, hospitality work experience, smoking status, average weekly workload, and the restaurant area served were for the most part not significant in explaining different perceptions toward a smoking ban. However, the respondents’ preferred restaurant smoking policy somewhat influenced how respondents view the smoking ban. In terms of the respondents’ preferred restaurant smoking policy, results revealed no significant differences in regards to demographics and WRV. With regard to job satisfaction, staff with more positive post-implementation attitudes towards the ban exhibit somewhat higher levels of satisfaction with the current job. Overall, respondents appear willing to make concessions for both pro- and anti-smoking patrons, staff, and owners/managers. Therefore, lawmakers should consider population characteristics, seating allocation, and the combination thereof when devising restaurant smoking policies.

  6. Voting to Ban Same-Sex Marriage: Interests, Values, and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.

    2009-01-01

    From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…

  7. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A treaty banning nuclear weapons and its implications for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güven, O.; van der Meer, S.

    2015-01-01

    International support for a new multilateral treaty banning nuclear weapons is increasing. What implications would such a treaty have for the Netherlands? This policy brief describes the legal and political context of such a treaty and examines the implications of two scenarios: one in which the

  9. Is the banning of importation of second-hand clothes and shoes a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate if the banning of importation of ... Qualitative and quantitative secondary data were employed to validate the research ... conducive business and investment environment necessary for the growth of the ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  10. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  12. After "Ginsberg" and "Tinker": Book Banning and Minor's First Amendment Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth, Denise M.; Huffman, John L.

    Through an analysis of the six federal book banning cases that have been adjudicated in the past decade since "Ginsberg v. New York" and "Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District," this paper explores the difference in current First Amendment theory in the area of student access to books. A review of the six cases indicates that the…

  13. Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagan, M E; DeFries, R S; Sesnie, S E; Arroyo, J P; Soto, C; Walker, W; Chazdon, R L; Sanchun, A

    2013-01-01

    Forest protection policies potentially reduce deforestation and re-direct agricultural expansion to already-cleared areas. Using satellite imagery, we assessed whether deforestation for conversion to pasture and cropland decreased in the lowlands of northern Costa Rica following the 1996 ban on forest clearing, despite a tripling of area under pineapple cultivation in the last decade. We observed that following the ban, mature forest loss decreased from 2.2% to 1.2% per year, and the proportion of pineapple and other export-oriented cropland derived from mature forest declined from 16.4% to 1.9%. The post-ban expansion of pineapples and other crops largely replaced pasture, exotic and native tree plantations, and secondary forests. Overall, there was a small net gain in forest cover due to a shifting mosaic of regrowth and clearing in pastures, but cropland expansion decreased reforestation rates. We conclude that forest protection efforts in northern Costa Rica have likely slowed mature forest loss and succeeded in re-directing expansion of cropland to areas outside mature forest. Our results suggest that deforestation bans may protect mature forests better than older forest regrowth and may restrict clearing for large-scale crops more effectively than clearing for pasture. (letter)

  14. The ban on reprocessing as seen from the perspective of European law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanenburg, E.; Warg, G.

    1999-01-01

    The plan of the German federal government to opt out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power for electricity generation initially was to incorporate also a ban on reprocessing spent fuel elements. On February 22, 1999, Federal Minister for the Environment Trittin finally announced that his revised draft for the time being would contain no ban on reprocessing. That ban, as originally planned, raises a number of issues of European law which are analyzed in the article by Hanenburg and Warg, especially the question whether the ban on reprocessing constitutes a violation of the principles and objectives of the Common Market. The legal principles underlying the Common Market, especially the Euratom Treaty among the member countries, constitute the basis of the analysis in which, inter alia, aspects such as cross-border reprocessing and secondary European law or the legal consequences of the Euratom Treaty for the opting-out policy of the German federal government are dealt with. The analysis arrives at the finding that a final opt-out as planned by the German federal government in the amendments to the Atomic Energy Act, and the complete substitution of nuclear electricity by other sources of energy, violate the purpose of the Euratom Treaty at least to keep open the structural possibility of generating electricity by nuclear power. (orig.) [de

  15. 16 CFR 1305.4 - Artificial fireplace ash and embers as banned hazardous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Artificial fireplace ash and embers as... RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1305.4 Artificial fireplace ash and embers as banned hazardous products. On... mesothelioma to the public, artificial fireplace ash and embers containings respirable free-form asbestos are...

  16. Transnational Dynamics Amid Poor Regulations: Taiwan’s Asbestos Ban Actions and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Yi-Jui Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history of the asbestos use regulation process in Taiwan and the associated factors leading to its total ban in 2018. Despite the long history of asbestos mining and manufacturing since the Japanese colonial period, attempts to understand the impact of asbestos on the health of the population and to control its use did not emerge until the early 1980s. We attempted to investigate the driving forces and obstructions involved in asbestos regulations by reviewing available public sources and scientific journal articles and conducting interviews with key propagators of the asbestos regulation and ban. Correlation between asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases has already been established; however, authorities have been unable to effectively regulate the extensive application of asbestos in various light industries that support economic growth since the 1960s. More stringent regulations on asbestos use in industries and an eventual ban were caused indirectly by appeals made by visionary scholars and healthcare professionals but also due to the subsidence of asbestos-related industries. With the elucidation of factors that affect asbestos regulation and ban, a thorough long-term healthcare plan for the neglected victims of asbestos-related diseases and upstream measures for policy change must be developed.

  17. Banned Books; 387 B.C. to 1978 A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Anne Lyon; Grannis, Chandler B.

    The first half of this volume presents an introductory essay defining the First Amendment and the legal aspects of censorship, and offers an annotated list of books that have been banned at various times throughout history. The annotations, arranged according to the birth dates of the authors, include a chronological account of the censorship…

  18. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

  19. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  20. Adoption and diffusion of zoning bylaws banning fast food drive-through services across Canadian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Campbell, Elizabeth J; Macridis, Soultana; McKennitt, Daniel; Atkey, Kayla; Raine, Kim D

    2018-01-15

    Healthy public policy is an important tool for creating environments that support human health and wellbeing. At the local level, municipal policies, such as zoning bylaws, provide an opportunity for governments to regulate building location and the type of services offered. Across North America, there has been a recent proliferation of municipal bylaws banning fast food drive-through services. Research on the utilization of this policy strategy, including bylaw adopters and adopter characteristics, is limited within the Canadian context. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Canadian municipalities based on level of policy innovation and nature of their adopted bylaw banning fast food drive-through services. A multiple case history methodology was utilized to identify and analyse eligible municipal bylaws, and included development of a chronological timeline and map of adopter municipalities within Canada. Grey literature and policy databases were searched for potential adopters of municipal fast food drive-through service bylaws. Adopters were confirmed through evidence of current municipal bylaws. Geographic diffusion and diffusion of innovations theories provided a contextual framework for analysis of bylaw documents. Analysis included assignment of adopter-types, extent and purpose of bans, and policy learning activities of each adopter municipality. From 2002 to 2016, 27 municipalities were identified as adopters: six innovators and twenty-one early adopters. Mapping revealed parallel geographic diffusion patterns in western and eastern Canada. Twenty-two municipalities adopted a partial ban and five adopted a full ban. Rationales for the drive-through bans included health promotion, environmental concerns from idling, community character and aesthetics, traffic concerns, and walkability. Policy learning, including research and consultation with other municipalities, was performed by nine early adopters. This study detailed the adoption of