Sekhavati, E; Rahimian Boogar, M; Khodadost, M; Afkari, R; Atefeh, Raoufi
Introduction: One of the wellness estimation axes of various communities are the mental well-being of the communities. Health means an attempt to Self-actualization and development that exhibit in the adaptation of person's skills and experiences. No doubt mental health plays a major role in assuring efficiency in any organization and can be affected via different parameters. Accordingly, the current research conducted by the purpose of illustrating the relationship among self-managing and kid parenting techniques and mental health amongst high school pupils of Abadeh Town. Methodology: In this sectional-correlation research, 375 pupils are taken and involved in the research in stage group sampling technique of Abadeh high schools. Tangney's self-managing survey, Barry's kid parenting rate, Reef's mental survey and a framework of demographic data utilized to obtain data. Information investigated utilizing software SPSS 19 or Pearson's relationship coefficient analysis and stepwise multivariable regression investigation. Findings: Information investigation depicts self-managing parameter has a great and opposite predictability regarding mental health parameter (t =0.003, = β-0.158, P=2.99). Therefore self-managing has great and opposite predictability regarding 2 parts of mental health rate i.e. self-approval (P= 0.0001, t=4.87, β= - 0.181) and dominance on conditions (P= 0.0001, t=3.807, β= - 0.200). The decisions represent the proximity of a consequence relationship among predictability of kid parenting techniques regarding mental health (p=0.01, F=3.85, r2= 0.031, r=0.177). These sequences reveal great predictability of kid parenting styles in 2 various ways in 2 methods of grinding (P=0.035, t= 2.12, β=0.113) and standard (P=0.014, t=2.437, β= 0.434). The Severe method has a reversed important connection in maximum features of mental health. Furthermore, they note that "authoritative method" parameter just has prediction capacity 0.143 based on mental
Sekhavati, E; Rahimian Boogar, M; Khodadost, M; Afkari, R; Atefeh, Raoufi
Introduction: One of the wellness estimation axes of various communities are the mental well-being of the communities. Health means an attempt to Self-actualization and development that exhibit in the adaptation of person's skills and experiences. No doubt mental health plays a major role in assuring efficiency in any organization and can be affected via different parameters. Accordingly, the current research conducted by the purpose of illustrating the relationship among self-managing and kid parenting techniques and mental health amongst high school pupils of Abadeh Town. Methodology: In this sectional-correlation research, 375 pupils are taken and involved in the research in stage group sampling technique of Abadeh high schools. Tangney’s self-managing survey, Barry's kid parenting rate, Reef’s mental survey and a framework of demographic data utilized to obtain data. Information investigated utilizing software SPSS 19 or Pearson’s relationship coefficient analysis and stepwise multivariable regression investigation. Findings: Information investigation depicts self-managing parameter has a great and opposite predictability regarding mental health parameter (t =0.003, = β-0.158, P=2.99). Therefore self-managing has great and opposite predictability regarding 2 parts of mental health rate i.e. self-approval (P= 0.0001, t=4.87, β= - 0.181) and dominance on conditions (P= 0.0001, t=3.807, β= - 0.200). The decisions represent the proximity of a consequence relationship among predictability of kid parenting techniques regarding mental health (p=0.01, F=3.85, r2= 0.031, r=0.177). These sequences reveal great predictability of kid parenting styles in 2 various ways in 2 methods of grinding (P=0.035, t= 2.12, β=0.113) and standard (P=0.014, t=2.437, β= 0.434). The Severe method has a reversed important connection in maximum features of mental health. Furthermore, they note that "authoritative method" parameter just has prediction capacity 0.143 based on mental
Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress
Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.
Full Text Available https://doaj.org/puChild's developmental retardation is an undoubted condition for the absence of educational attainment and its unpleasant mental state. Due to the nature of multidimensional state of that, parental attitudes become relevant, as they affect the acceleration or retardation of development. Positive parental attitudes are the strong weapon for the child and his struggles on the way to an equal start and equal development opportunities. For this reason you should emphasize those factors that build the structures supporting developmental progression.An ecosystem approach to human development emphasizes each factor as relevant component for growth and expansion, without denying its own human activity and his self-determination rightblisher/metadata
Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Logan, Jade
Little research has explored linkages between work conditions and mental health in working-class employed parents. The current study aims to address this gap, employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how levels of and changes in job autonomy, job urgency, supervisor support, and coworker support predicted parents' depressive…
Bogels, S.M.; Lehtonen, A.; Restifo, K.
Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting ("mindful parenting") is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting
Mattejat, Fritz; Remschmidt, Helmut
The children of mentally ill parents have a higher risk of developing mental illnesses themselves over the course of their lives. This known risk must be taken into account in the practical provision of health care. Selective literature review. The increased psychiatric risk for children of mentally ill parents is due partly to genetic influences and partly to an impairment of the parent-child interaction because of the parent's illness. Furthermore, adverse factors are more frequent in these families, as well as a higher risk for child abuse. Genetic and psychosocial factors interact with one another. For example, genetic factors moderate environmental effects; that is, the effect of adverse environmental factors depends on the genetic substrate. Preventive measures for children of mentally ill parents urgently need improvement. In this article, positively evaluated programs of preventive measures are discussed. Essential prerequisites for success include appropriate, specialized treatment of the parental illness, psychoeducative measures, and special support (e.g. self-help groups) as indicated by the family's particular needs.
Dockery, Alfred; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth
Previous research demonstrates that non-standard work schedules undermine the stability of marriage and reduce family cohesiveness. Limited research has investigated the effects of parents working non-standard schedules on children's health and wellbeing and no published Australian studies have addressed this important issue. This paper contributes to bridging this knowledge gap by focusing on adolescents aged 15-20 years and by including sole parent families which have been omitted in previous research, using panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. Multilevel linear regression models are estimated to analyse the association between parental work schedules and hours of work and measures of adolescents' mental health derived from the SF-36 Health Survey. Evidence of negative impacts of parents working non-standard hours upon adolescent wellbeing is found to exist primarily within sole parent families.
Psychosocial Impacts of Mentally Retarded Children on Parents in Sudan. ... the age, number of handicapped children in the family as well as the degree of mental ... Results and discussion: The parents reported different psychological effects ...
Markwort, Ilka; Schmitz-Buhl, Mario; Christiansen, Hanna; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne
Offsprings of psychiatric patients are burdened and they are at risk of developing a mental disorder themselves. All admissions in a psychiatric hospital within a period of 6 months were screened for parenthood of underaged children. They were given standardized questionnaires for child behavior (SDQ), parenting behavior and subjective need for help in parenting. 21.5 % (N = 439) of the patients had underaged children, 194 patients participated in the study. They considered their children as having more psychological/behavioral problems than a control group (N = 97). Patients with personality or affective disorders and patients with a high level of psychiatric comorbidity rated their children most problematic. Although patients did not differ from controls in the evaluation of their parenting style, they expressed a higher need for help in parenting. Parenting and education issues need to be considered in the treatment of mentally ill patients. Effective support could be a relief for families and help to prevent mental disorders in offsprings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Pölkki, Pirjo; Ervast, Sari-Anne; Huupponen, Marika
This paper examines the needs and stress reactions of children of mentally ill parents, as well as coping and resilience. The study is based on the interviews of six 9-11 years old children and narratives of seventeen female grown up children of mentally ill parents. The younger and older children of the mentally ill parents had not been informed about their parent's illness. The illness of the parent aroused a variety of emotions in them. The children used both practical problem solving and emotional coping mechanisms. Informal social support was available to them but seldom from the public services. It is recommended that professionals in mental health and child welfare services clarify their roles when working with mentally ill parents. The best interest of the child and the parenting they need should be carefully assessed. Open care measures should be offered to families early enough to prevent serious child welfare and mental problems.
Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J.
Reliable information about children of incarcerated people is difficult to obtain, and major gaps exist in our understanding of their well-being. This study aims to determine whether adolescents with incarcerated parents report higher levels of mental health problems than those without an incarcerated parent, and whether the relationship between parental incarceration and adolescent mental health is moderated by parent-child relationships. Using a statewide survey from one US state, we compar...
McLean, C S; Greer, K; Scott, J; Beck, J C
Support and education groups for the families of the mentally ill have been in existence for at least 20 years. The authors describe a group treatment program established in 1979 for parents of chronically mentally ill individuals living in the community. The goal was to help parents become less overprotective, critical, and hostile so that clients would relapse less frequently and improve their social functioning during their time in the community. The groups provided parents with information and support. Some of the results of the groups include the implementation of new hospital procedures, more effective parenting, and a parent-initiated alliance on behalf of the mentally ill in the locality.
Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Witteman, C.L.M.; Hosman, C.M.H.
Children of parents with a mental illness are often found to be at high risk of developing psychological problems themselves. Little is known about the role of family factors in the relation between parental and adolescent mental health. The current study focused on parent-child interaction and
Ballal, Divya; Navaneetham, Janardhana
Children of parents with mental illness are not routinely included in psychoeducational and supportive family interventions provided by adult mental health systems. The family, therefore, is an important and, sometimes, the only source of information and support for them. To understand the experiences of well parents in talking to their children about parental mental illness. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of the experiences of well parents in talking to their children about parental mental illness. Ten well parents whose spouses were diagnosed with a severe mental illness participated in the study. Socio-demographic information, family details and history of the spouse's mental illness along with their experiences of talking to children about parental mental illness, the perceived risks and benefits, challenges they faced and the role of others in the process were recorded. Qualitative data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The themes of 'distancing children from parental mental illness', 'avoiding conversations about the illness', 'giving and receiving emotional support', 'providing explanations of the illness' and 'regulating other sources of information' show the complex ways in which well parents influence their children's understanding of parental mental illness. The findings are examined in the background of what is known about this topic from the perspective of children or of the parent with illness. Possible ways to support well parents in families affected by parental mental illness are discussed. This study is a step forward in the understanding of how families talk to children about parental mental illness and provides the perspective of the well parent.
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…
Seagull, Elizabeth A. W.; Scheurer, Susan L.
Follow-up of 64 neglected and abused children, seen one to seven years earlier, with mentally retarded parent revealed that six children had been relinquished voluntarily for adoption; that courts had terminated parental rights for 34 children; and that nine had been placed in foster care. Cognitive limitations prevented parents from utilizing…
Bornstein, Marc H
In its most general instrumental sense, parenting consists of care of the young in preparing them to manage the tasks of life. Parents provide childhood experiences and populate the environments that guide children's development and so contribute to child mental health. Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture. Every culture is characterized, and distinguished from other cultures, by deep-rooted and widely acknowledged ideas about how one needs to feel, think, and act as an adequately functioning member of the culture. Insofar as parents subscribe to particular conventions of a culture, they likely follow prevailing "cultural scripts" in childrearing. Broadening our definition, it is therefore the continuing task of parents also to enculturate children by preparing them for the physical, psychosocial, and educational situations that are characteristic of their specific culture. Cross-cultural comparisons show that virtually all aspects of parenting children are informed by culture: culture influences when and how parents care for children, what parents expect of children, and which behaviors parents appreciate, emphasize and reward or discourage and punish. Thus, cultural norms become manifest in the mental health of children through parenting. Furthermore, variations in what is normative in different cultures challenge our assumptions about what is universal and inform our understanding of how parent-child relationships unfold in ways both culturally universal and specific. This essay concerns the contributions of culture to parenting and child mental health. No study of a single society can address this broad issue. It is possible, however, to learn lessons about parenting and child mental health from the study of different societies. Copyright © 2013 World Psychiatric Association.
Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Wadsworth, Lauren Page; Halpern, Hillary Paul
Little research has explored linkages between workplace policies and mental health in working-class, employed parents, creating a gap in our knowledge of work-family issues across social class levels. The current U.S. study addresses this gap by employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how workplace policies and parental leave benefits predicted parents' depressive symptoms and anxiety in a sample of 125, low-income, dual-earner couples interviewed across the transition to...
Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J
Reliable information about children of incarcerated people is difficult to obtain, and major gaps exist in our understanding of their well-being. This study aims to determine whether adolescents with incarcerated parents report higher levels of mental health problems than those without an incarcerated parent, and whether the relationship between parental incarceration and adolescent mental health is moderated by parent-child relationships. Using a statewide survey from one US state, we compared adolescents with a currently incarcerated parent to those with a formerly incarcerated parent and those with no history of parental incarceration on self-reported indicators of mental health, and examined whether strong parent-child relationships were protective against mental health concerns. Results indicate that adolescents with incarcerated parents are at elevated risk for mental health problems, and strong parent-child relationships partially buffer children from risk. Findings underscore the need for more investment in effective early interventions for adolescents in highly adverse contexts. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: In the 1st year of the post-partum period, parenting stress, mental health, and dyadic adjustment are important for the wellbeing of both parents and the child. However, there are few studies that analyze the relationship among these three dimensions. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between parenting stress, mental health (depressive and anxiety symptoms, and dyadic adjustment among first-time parents.Method: We studied 268 parents (134 couples of healthy babies. At 12 months post-partum, both parents filled out, in a counterbalanced order, the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the potential mediating effects of mental health on the relationship between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment.Results: Results showed the full mediation effect of mental health between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment. A multi-group analysis further found that the paths did not differ across mothers and fathers.Discussion: The results suggest that mental health is an important dimension that mediates the relationship between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment in the transition to parenthood.
Parental alienation is defined as a mental state in which a child, usually one whose parents are engaged in a high-conflict separation or divorce, allies himself strongly with one parent (the preferred parent) and rejects a relationship with the other parent (the alienated parent) without legitimate justification. Parental alienation may affect men's mental health: a) parental alienation negatively influences mental health of male children and adolescents who are victims of parental alienation. Alienated children/adolescents display guilt, sadness, and depressed mood; low self-esteem and lack of self-confidence; distress and frustration; lack of impulse control, substance abuse and delinquent behavior; separation anxiety, fears and phobias; hypochondria and increased tendency to develop psychosomatic illness; suicidal ideation and suicide attempt; sleep and eating disorders; educational problems; enuresis and encopresis; b) parental alienation negatively affects the mental health of adult men who were victims of parental alienation when they were children and/or adolescents. Long-term effects of parental alienation include low self-esteem, depression, drug/alcohol abuse, lack of trust, alienation from own children, divorce, problems with identity and not having a sense of belonging or roots, choosing not to have children to avoid being rejected by them, low achievement, anger and bitterness over the time lost with the alienated parent; c) parental alienation negatively influences mental health of men who are alienated from their children. Fathers who have lost some or all contact with their children for months or years following separation or divorce may be depressed and suicidal.
Child psychiatric hospitalization is a time of crisis for the parents of a child with a mental disorder. Prior to hospitalization, the child's problematic behavior has escalated. Parents have various types of contact with mental health professionals prior to, during, and after the hospitalization, which influence their ability to care for their child. This paper reports a qualitative descriptive study of what parents need and want from mental health professionals during this time frame. During the study, parents spontaneously talked about what they needed and wanted from mental health professionals, including nursing personnel. The perspectives of 38 parents of 29 hospitalized children were obtained through interviews. Parents identified needing informational, emotional, and instrumental support most often in the interviews. Specific examples from the data are included in this report.
Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Witteman, C.L.M.
Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and
Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.
Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…
Maria Cristina Verrocchio
Full Text Available Mental disorders are associated with many difficulties in the activities of daily living, work, relationships and family, and they determine high social and economic costs that represent an important public health problem. The literature has shown that children of parents with mental disorders grow up in environments that are potentially harmful to their mental health and are at risk of neglect and maltreatment. Interventions to prevent mental disorders and psychological symptoms of children of parents with mental disorders are effective but supporting these families is a complex task which requires both cooperation between departments and an interdisciplinary knowledge. A greater knowledge of the responses provided to assist families with dependent children and a mentally ill parent, could stimulate reflections on critical issues and government actions aimed at promoting and protecting the mental health of children.
Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Ambrosini, Alessandra; Fulcheri, Mario
Mental disorders are associated with many difficulties in the activities of daily living, work, relationships and family, and they determine high social and economic costs that represent an important public health problem. The literature has shown that children of parents with mental disorders grow up in environments that are potentially harmful to their mental health and are at risk of neglect and maltreatment. Interventions to prevent mental disorders and psychological symptoms of children of parents with mental disorders are effective but supporting these families is a complex task which requires both cooperation between departments and an interdisciplinary knowledge. A greater knowledge of the responses provided to assist families with dependent children and a mentally ill parent, could stimulate reflections on critical issues and government actions aimed at promoting and protecting the mental health of children.
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.
Sinha, Atreyee; Ram, Faujdar
In South Asian countries like India, family system lays a strong foundation in societies and therefore, the context and consequences of single parent family structures are markedly different from that of the West. In these societies single parenthood is mainly an outcome of untimely death of any one of the parents. This study tried to examine the influence of parents' survival status on the mental health of youth in India. "Youth in India: situation and Needs (2006-2007)" survey data was used in the present study. We compared two groups of unmarried young population aged 15-24 y (n = 28 637): one having both parents alive and another having only one parent alive. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to analyze the data. Results revealed that around 11% of the unmarried youth belonged to single parent families. Findings underscored a significant association between parent's survival and mental health of youth; respondents from single parent families were more likely to report metal health problems Moreover, effects of parents' survival were significant on females' mental health rather than males'. Policies must focus on reducing stress of young people growing up in single parent families through enhanced educational and employment opportunities.
Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Gibson, Crystal; Sipsma, Heather; Kershaw, Trace
Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social-personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse's influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples.
Stiawa, Maja; Kilian, Reinhold
Social Networks of Children with Mentally Ill Parents Mental illness of parents can be a load situation for children. Supporting social relations might be an important source in such a situation. Social relations can be shown by social network analysis. Studies about social networks and mental health indicate differences regarding structure and potential for support when compared with social networks of healthy individuals. If and how mental illness of parents has an impact on their children's network is widely unknown. This systematic review shows methods and results of studies about social networks of children with mentally ill parents. By systematic search in electronic databases as well as manual search, two studies were found who met the target criteria. Both studies were conducted in the USA. Results of studies indicate that parental mental illness affects the state of mental health and social networks of children. Symptomatology of children changed due to perceived social support of network contacts. Impact of social support and strong network contacts seems to depend on age of children and the family situation. That's why support offers should be adapt to children's age. Focusing on social networks as potential resource for support and needs of the family affected seems appropriate during treatment.
Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy
Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents’ engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010
Kong, Kyoung Ae; Choi, Hee Yeon; Kim, Soo In
This study compares the mental health of single parents relative to partnered parents and assesses the contribution of the social and demographic factors to this difference, examining the gender difference in it. We analyzed 12,024 single and partnered subjects, aged 30-59 years, living with children, aged 0-19 years, drawn from the 4th, 5th, and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) dataset in South Korea conducted from 2007-2013. Mental health was evaluated by self-reported questionnaires including depressive mood for recent two weeks, presence of suicidal ideation, and the Korean version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Covariates included age, physical illness, socioeconomic status (family income, recipient of national basic livelihood guarantees, educational level, house ownership, job, and residential area), family structure, and support (co-residence of another adult). Multiple logistic regression was carried out and the explained fractions of each covariate was calculated. Single parents had significantly poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with odds ratio (OR) of 2.02 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-2.63) for depressive symptoms, 1.69 (95% CI 1.27-2.25) for suicidal ideation, and 1.74 (95% CI 1.38-2.20) for any of the three mental health statuses (suspicious depression, suicidal ideation, and alcohol dependence) after controlling for the covariates. The odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.50-3.93) and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.97-3.17) among both single fathers and mothers were higher than partnered parents. However, the odds of alcohol dependence were 3.6 times higher among single mothers than partnered mothers (OR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.81-7.08) and were 1.4 times greater among single fathers than partnered fathers (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.81-2.25). Socio-economic status explained more than 50% (except for substance use disorders) of the poorer mental health in single
Kyoung Ae Kong
Full Text Available This study compares the mental health of single parents relative to partnered parents and assesses the contribution of the social and demographic factors to this difference, examining the gender difference in it.We analyzed 12,024 single and partnered subjects, aged 30-59 years, living with children, aged 0-19 years, drawn from the 4th, 5th, and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES dataset in South Korea conducted from 2007-2013. Mental health was evaluated by self-reported questionnaires including depressive mood for recent two weeks, presence of suicidal ideation, and the Korean version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Covariates included age, physical illness, socioeconomic status (family income, recipient of national basic livelihood guarantees, educational level, house ownership, job, and residential area, family structure, and support (co-residence of another adult. Multiple logistic regression was carried out and the explained fractions of each covariate was calculated.Single parents had significantly poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with odds ratio (OR of 2.02 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.56-2.63 for depressive symptoms, 1.69 (95% CI 1.27-2.25 for suicidal ideation, and 1.74 (95% CI 1.38-2.20 for any of the three mental health statuses (suspicious depression, suicidal ideation, and alcohol dependence after controlling for the covariates. The odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.50-3.93 and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.97-3.17 among both single fathers and mothers were higher than partnered parents. However, the odds of alcohol dependence were 3.6 times higher among single mothers than partnered mothers (OR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.81-7.08 and were 1.4 times greater among single fathers than partnered fathers (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.81-2.25. Socio-economic status explained more than 50% (except for substance use disorders of the poorer mental health in
Full Text Available This presentation concerns a group for parents of mentally retarded children.A group of these parents receives professional help and environmental support. The parents are encouraged to assume responsibility in the everyday life educational process of their children.As Baker / 1980 / states: “ If parents cope better on daily basis with the child who has mental retardation, not only the child but also the parents would benefit”.Taking part in the group gave the parents:· the opportunity to meet other parents with the same children;· to talk to other parents and feel less isolated;· to share information and experiences, skills and ideas;· the opportunity to listen to the needs and problems of other parents;· to change the ways of working to meet the child’s needs;· share information about the possibilities of education and services;· parents are encouraged to meet together to support one another;· parents need a special approach to many problems existing in their families.· the education in the group puts the beginning of the work with the parents.The idea is to gather the efforts of specialists from different fields and to establish multi-disciplinary group aiming to work with the parents and create a good collaboration and partnership between them in order to improve the living conditions and services to the retarded persons.This paper reports on the development, evaluation and dissemination of the program for education of parents with mentally retarded children. At the Symposium we will be able to present the results of the effectiveness of the education.
Achieving broad-scale parent engagement with school initiatives has proven elusive. This article reports survey data from 287 Maltese parents about their perceptions of the quality of their child's school's initiatives for promoting students' wellbeing and mental health. Findings indicate that, on average, parents rated school initiatives highly.…
A process-oriented approach to parental divorce locates the experience within the social and developmental context of children's lives, providing greater insight into how parental divorce produces vulnerability in some children and resiliency in others. The current study involves prospectively tracking a nationally representative sample of…
Zeegers, M.A.J.; Colonnesi, C.; Stams, G.-J.J.M.; Meins, E.
Major developments in attachment research over the past 2 decades have introduced parental mentalization as a predictor of infant-parent attachment security. Parental mentalization is the degree to which parents show frequent, coherent, or appropriate appreciation of their infants' internal states.
Ranning, Anne; Munk Laursen, Thomas; Thorup, Anne
Objective To provide an overview of living arrangements during childhood for children of parents with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Method Information was obtained from Danish registers on children's addresses and used to calculate the proportion living in different household...... living arrangements. The study was conducted as a prospective, register-based cohort study covering all children in the entire Danish population born after 1982 (N = 1,823,625) and their parents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or none of these disorders. Regression...... with a single mother with SMI. Conjugal families were dissolved at higher rates if a parent had SMI, especially if the mother (incidence rate ratio 2.98; 95% CI 2.80–3.17) or the father (incidence rate ratio 2.60; 95% CI 2.47–2.74) had schizophrenia. Risks for family dissolution varied greatly with parents...
Hodgkinson, Stacy; Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy
Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of th...
Gladstone, Brenda M; Boydell, Katherine M; Seeman, Mary V; McKeever, Patricia D
This paper provides a review of published qualitative research on children's experiences of parental mental illness. We undertook a comprehensive search of Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Sociological Abstracts and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts databases, as well as citation searches in Web of Science and manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary papers. Although 20 studies met the search criteria, only 10 focused exclusively on children's descriptions of their experience--the remainder elicited adults' perspectives on children's experiences of parental mental illnesses. Findings are organized under three themes: the impact of illness on children's daily life, how children cope with their experiences and how children understand mental illness. Despite references to pervasive knowledge gaps in the literature, significant information has been accumulated about children's experiences of parental mental illness. Considerable variability in research findings and tensions remain unresolved. For example, evidence is mixed as to children's knowledge and understanding of mental illnesses and how best to deploy resources to help them acquire optimal information. Furthermore, children's desire to be recognized as important to their parents' well-being conflicted with adults' perceptions that children should be protected from too much responsibility. Nevertheless, the cumulative evidence remains a key reason for advocating for psychoeducation and peer-support group interventions for children, which are endorsed by child and adult study participants alike. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
J.T. van Busschbach; Dr. Lies Korevaar; J. van Weeghel; Dr. Peter van der Ende; Joanne Nicholson
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this pilot implementation study was to explore the initial experiences with and impact of Parenting with Success and Satisfaction (PARSS), a psychiatric rehabilitation and recoverybased, guided self-help intervention, for parents with severe mental illnesses. Methods:
Jaap van Weeghel; Dr. Peter C. van der Ende; Dr. Lies Korevaar; Jooske T. van Busschbach; Joanne Nicholson
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this pilot implementation study was to explore the initial experiences with and impact of Parenting with Success and Satisfaction (PARSS), a psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery-based, guided self-help intervention, for parents with severe mental illnesses.
van der Ende, Peter C.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Nicholson, Joanne; Korevaar, Eliza L.; van Weeghel, Jaap
Objective: The aim of this pilot implementation study was to explore the initial experiences with and impact of Parenting with Success and Satisfaction (PARSS), a psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery-based, guided self-help intervention, for parents with severe mental illnesses. Methods: Changes
Santvoort, F. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.
In the Netherlands, preventive support groups are offered to children of mentally ill parents. Given the variety of parental diagnoses it might be questionable if offering a standardized program for all these children is the most effective response. While no overall knowledge exists about the type
Mahmoudfakhe, Hemn; Rahmani, Aref; Nasrollahzade, Soraya
The aim of the present research was to compare parenting styles and mental health among students. The statistical population of the paper included all the female and male third grade high school students in the city of Boukan. The sample was selected through simple random style in access which included 340 people of both sexes. The tools used in this research comprises two: Baumrind parenting style and Goldberg's general health questionnaires. Findings revealed that this research is of a caus...
Bould, Helen; Koupil, Ilona; Dalman, Christina; DeStavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia
To investigate which parental mental illnesses are associated with eating disorders in their offspring. We used data from a record-linkage cohort study of 158,679 children aged 12-24 years at the end of follow-up, resident in Stockholm County from 2001 to 2007, to investigate whether different parental mental illnesses are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. The outcome measure was diagnosis of any eating disorder, either from an ICD or DSM-IV code, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Mental illness in parents is a risk factor for eating disorders in female offspring (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.57 (95% CI 1.42, 1.92), p eating disorders is increased if there is a parental diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (AHR 2.28 (95% CI 1.39, 3.72), p = 0.004), personality disorder (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.01, 2.44), p = 0.043) or anxiety/depression (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.32, 1.86), p disorder (AHR 1.25 (95% CI 0.74, 2.13), p = 0.40). There is no support for a relationship between parental substance misuse and eating disorders in children (AHR 1.08 (95% CI 0.82, 1.43), p = 0.57). Parental mental illness, specifically parental anxiety, depression, bipolar affective disorder, and personality disorders, are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the problems that parents or caregivers of children with mental health disabilities and disorders in Namibia experience when accessing healthcare resources for their children. Method: Data was collected through focus group discussions with the participants and ...
Amelsvoort, T.A.M.J. van; Santvoort, F. van; Doesum, K.T.M. van
Purpose: This presentation will present the outcomes of a practice-based and science-based Dutch initiative to develop a comprehensive national prevention programme focused on children of parents with a mental disorder. An outline of the multicomponent programme is presented which includes a wide
Zeegers, Moniek A J; Colonnesi, Cristina; Stams, Geert-Jan J M; Meins, Elizabeth
Major developments in attachment research over the past 2 decades have introduced parental mentalization as a predictor of infant-parent attachment security. Parental mentalization is the degree to which parents show frequent, coherent, or appropriate appreciation of their infants' internal states. The present study examined the triangular relations between parental mentalization, parental sensitivity, and attachment security. A total of 20 effect sizes (N = 974) on the relation between parental mentalization and attachment, 82 effect sizes (N = 6,664) on the relation between sensitivity and attachment, and 24 effect sizes (N = 2,029) on the relation between mentalization and sensitivity were subjected to multilevel meta-analyses. The results showed a pooled correlation of r = .30 between parental mentalization and infant attachment security, and rs of .25 for the correlations between sensitivity and attachment security, and between parental mentalization and sensitivity. A meta-analytic structural equation model was performed to examine the combined effects of mentalization and sensitivity as predictors of infant attachment. Together, the predictors explained 12% of the variance in attachment security. After controlling for the effect of sensitivity, the relation between parental mentalization and attachment remained, r = .24; the relation between sensitivity and attachment remained after controlling for parental mentalization, r = .19. Sensitivity also mediated the relation between parental mentalization and attachment security, r = .07, suggesting that mentalization exerts both direct and indirect influences on attachment security. The results imply that parental mentalization should be incorporated into existing models that map the predictors of infant-parent attachment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte; Martinussen, Monica; vanDoesum, Karin
Children of parents with a mental illness are at risk of developing mental health problems themselves (Beardslee, Versage & Gladstone, 1998; Hosman, van Doesum, & van Santvoort, 2009; Reupert & Maybery, 2007). In order to prevent children of mentally ill parents from developing serious problems, it is therefore beneficial to include a child perspective in the treatment of mentally ill parents by identifying the children of patients, and supporting patients in their parenting role. Norwegia...
Cobham, Vanessa E; McDermott, Brett; Haslam, Divna; Sanders, Matthew R
There is widespread support for the hypothesis that, post-disaster, children's mental health is impacted--at least in part--via the impact on parents, parenting, parent-child interactions, and the family environment. To some degree, the enthusiasm with which this hypothesis is held outstrips the evidence examining it. The current paper critically evaluates the empirical evidence for this hypothesis and concludes that although limited (both in terms of number of existing studies and methodological flaws), the extant literature indicates some parent-related variables, as well as some aspects of the family environment are likely to constitute risk or protective factors for children. Given that parenting is modifiable, it is proposed that the identified parent- and family-related factors represent important therapeutic targets, and a universal post-disaster parenting intervention (Disaster Recovery Triple P) is described.
Burkhart, Margaret L; Borelli, Jessica L; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Brody, Robin; Sbarra, David A
Attachment anxiety in parents is associated with lower quality parent-child relationships. An inhibited capacity to reflect on children's mental states, referred to as prementalizing, may reduce the pleasure parents derive from their relationships. In the current study, we explored the associations among attachment anxiety, prementalizing, and parenting satisfaction in two groups of participants randomly assigned either to reflect on a positive memory with their child (n = 150) or to reflect on a positive memory not involving their child (n = 150). Narratives were evaluated for positive content using two metrics: coder-rated positivity and frequency of positive emotion words. Results revealed that self-reported prementalizing operated indirectly to link attachment anxiety and self-reported parenting satisfaction for both groups. However, prementalizing only served as an indirect link between attachment anxiety and coded measures of positivity among participants who reflected on parenting experiences, suggesting the specificity of prementalizing in linking attachment anxiety and reduced positivity in the parenting role. The results have implications for understanding influences of attachment and mentalization on parents' perception of parent-child relationship quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background The role of parents during childhood is very important. Imbalances in parenting roles may cause severe emotional and physical injuries in children. The current study aimed at comparing parenting role tasks in parents of children who affected to mental/physical disabilities. Materials and Methods In the current cross sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 230 married couples with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. The parenting role tasks were compared between mothers and fathers. Independent t-test, chi square and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between fathers and mothers based on studied variables including demographic variables, types of child disabilities and history of trauma and seizure. Results Among enrolled children, 49 (21.3% had mental and 99 (43% affecting to physical disabilities. A significant difference regarding the parenting role tasks between mothers and fathers; therefore, the mean score of mothers for parenting role tasks was significantly higher than that of fathers regarding different variables such as demographic data, seizure, trauma, and the type of disabilities in the child (P
Fitzsimons, Emla; Goodman, Alissa; Kelly, Elaine; Smith, James P
Using data from the British Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), an ongoing longitudinal study of a cohort of 18,827 children born in the UK in 2000-2001, we investigate important correlates of mental health issues during childhood. MCS respondents were sampled at birth, at age 9 months, and then when they were 3, 5, 7 and 11 years old. Each sweep contains detailed information on the family's SES, parenting activities, developmental indicators, parental relationship status, and indicators of parental mental health. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the related Rutter scale were used to identify behavioral and emotional problems in children. In this paper, childhood problems are separated into four domains: hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer problems. We focus on two aspects of this relationship at ages 5 and 11-the role of temporary and persistent poverty and the role of temporary and persistent mental health problems of mothers and fathers. At ages 11 and 5, without other controls in the model, persistent and transitory poverty have strong estimated associations with all four domains, with somewhat stronger estimated effects for persistent poverty. After a set of controls are added, we document that both persistent levels of poverty and transitions into poverty are strongly associated with levels of and transitions into childhood mental health problems. Similarly, sustained levels and transitions into mothers' mental health problems are strongly associated with levels and transitions into children's mental health problems. This is much less so for fathers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santvoort, F. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Reupert, A.E.; Loon, L.M.A. van
Children of mentally ill parents are at high risk of developing problems themselves. They are often identified and approached as a homogeneous group, despite diversity in parental diagnoses. Some studies demonstrate evidence for transgenerational equifinality (children of parents with various
Background Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam. The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors’ understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Results Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils’ mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Conclusions Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and
Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders, Joske
Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors' understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils' mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and apply strategies to improve students' mental
Paper 3 of this thesis is not available in Munin: 3. Lauritzen, C., & Reedtz, C.: 'Support for children of mental health service users in Norway', Mental Health Practice (2013), vol. 16:12-18. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/mhp2013.07.16.10.12.e875 This dissertation is a result of a large-scale longitudinal project (the BAP-study) where the overall aim was to monitor and evaluate the implementation of clinical change to identify and support children of mentally ill parents within t...
Bruland, Dirk; Kornblum, Katharina; Harsch, Stefanie; Bröder, Janine; Okan, Orkan; Bauer, Ullrich
Students Having Parents with Mental Health Issues and Teachers' Mental Health Literacy Mental health issues of parents of school children often negatively affects the children as well, including their school performance and social behavior in the school setting. Teachers are then required to take actions with regards to supporting children in their coping with and mastering of their home situation and their responds to educational demands. As such, schools' and teachers' actions can either support affected children and fulfill a protective function or respond inappropriately, with negative impact on the affected children. Although the societal discussion about and acceptance of mental illnesses have increased in recent years, scientific knowledge on how well teachers are prepared for meeting the needs of affected students remains insufficient. Therefore, this research study examines teachers' attitudes towards, knowledge about, and competencies regarding children affected by a mentally ill parent. 15 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups (n = 11) with teachers from primary and secondary schools were conducted and systematically analyzed. Although burdens in the family are perceived as major influences on children's school day and performance, teachers report to not feel sufficiently prepared for and uncertain about supporting and coping with the special needs of affected students. Instead they report to "learn from a case to case" basis. Recognizing the family situation of children with mentally ill parents is reported to be especially difficult for teachers. Responding inadequately and insensitive to the needs of affected children was perceived as a serious burden for teachers themselves. While schools can function as entry points to professional social help systems, teachers frequently reported barriers and challenges in accessing, communicating, and collaborating with these systems. The practical implications of these results regarding the "Mental Health
Isobel, Sophie; Meehan, Felicity; Pretty, Danielle
There has been limited examination of the use of relationship based structured parenting programs that focus on emotional interactions in the parent-child dyad in families where a parent has a mental illness. There is also a lack of awareness of the practicalities of providing such interventions within adult mental health services. This study explores the process and outcomes of a nurse led emotional awareness based parenting program for adult clients of a mental health service. Participants demonstrated a significant reduction in difficult parenting moments and associated stress and distress as well as promising improvements in overall distress and emotional awareness. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Burrell, Lori; Beers, Lee S. A.; Duggan, Anne K.
This study examined the relationship between a teen mother's perceptions of nurturance from her mother and father and her mental health and parenting attitudes. One-hundred and thirty-eight urban, primarily African American adolescent mothers were interviewed. Multivariate results indicate that teen mothers who felt nurtured by their mothers had…
van der Ende, P.C.; Venderink, Marrie; van Busschbach, J.T.
Always a complex and demanding task, parenthood can be an extra challenge when parents have severe mental illness. Clients with children may experience extra stress, feelings of uncertainty, and a lack of energy. They may have difficulty in talking about their disabilities with their children.
Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of
Notes that parents whose son or daughter develops serious mental illness experience grief that is often neither recognized by society nor addressed by mental health professionals. Describes some common elements of parental bereavement, losses experienced with mental illness, consequences of ignoring grief, and appropriate interventions for mental…
Ortega, Alexander N; Goodwin, Renee D; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Canino, Glorisa
Previous research documents an association of poor parental mental health with asthma in children. This study aims to determine whether the associations between parental mental health problems and childhood asthma attacks persist after controlling for childhood anxiety and depression and other confounding factors. A community household sample of youth ages 4 to 17 years and their primary caregivers from the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico was studied to determine the associations between parental mental health and childhood asthma attacks. Regression models that predicted asthma attacks in youth controlled for parental mental health problems, childhood anxiety and depression, zone of residence, and parents' age, education, and perception of poverty. After adjusting for children's depressive and anxiety disorders as well as other important confounders, associations between parental depression, suicide attempts, ataque de nervios, and history of mental health treatment and asthma attacks in offspring, by parental report, persisted. Additionally, the frequency of parental mental health problems was associated with children's asthma attacks. Parents with mental health problems were more likely to report histories of asthma attacks in their children compared with parents without mental health problems in Puerto Rico. These associations were not attributable to internalizing disorders in youth but persisted independent of childhood psychopathology and other confounding factors. Clinicians and researchers should recognize the relations between poor parental mental health and childhood asthma and explore the potential role of family psychosocial and behavioral factors related to the manifestation of the disease.
Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel
This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…
Cooney, Teresa M.; Kurz, Jane
Addresses association between recent parental divorce and mental health outcomes in young adults aged 18-23. Half of those studied (n=485) had experienced parental divorce within 15 months of the interview; the other half had not. Comparison indicated that, at the bivariate level, parental divorce was associated with poorer mental health outcomes…
Parrott, F.R.; Macinnes, D.I.; Parrott, J.
Background: Research into parenting and mental illness seldom includes forensic mental health service users, despite its relevance to therapeutic, family work and risk management. Aims: This study aimed to understand the experiences of parents and the variety of parenting roles maintained during
Mental illness is an issue for a number of families reported to child protection agencies. Parents with mental health problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. A recent study undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria, Australia) found that the children of parents with mental health problems comprised just under thirty percent of all new child protection applications brought to the Court and referred to alternative dispute resolution, during the first half of 1998. This paper reports on the study findings, which are drawn from a descriptive survey of 228 Pre-Hearing Conferences. A data collection schedule was completed for each case, gathering information about the child welfare concerns, the parents' problems, including mental health problems, and the contribution by mental health professionals to resolving child welfare concerns. The study found that the lack of involvement by mental health social workers in the child protection system meant the Children's Court was given little appreciation of either a child's emotional or a parent's mental health functioning. The lack of effective cooperation between the adult mental health and child protection services also meant decisions made about these children were made without full information about the needs and the likely outcomes for these children and their parents. This lack of interagency cooperation between mental health social work and child welfare also emerged in the findings of the Icarus project, a cross-national project, led by Brunel University, in England. This project compared the views and responses of mental health and child welfare social workers to the dependent children of mentally ill parents, when there were child protection concerns. It is proposed that adult mental health social workers involve themselves in the assessment of, and interventions in, child welfare cases when appropriate, and share essential information about
Dockerty, J D; Williams, S M; McGee, R; Skegg, D C
When a child is diagnosed with cancer, the family experiences great stress and disruption to daily life. As part of a national study in New Zealand, we evaluated the mental health of mothers and fathers of children with cancer, making comparisons to parents of children from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study. All children diagnosed with cancer at ages 0-14 years in New Zealand during a defined period were ascertained from the national cancer registry and other databases. The population-based comparison children were selected using national birth records. Parents from both groups completed self-administered questionnaires containing the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and other measures. The analyses included 218 mothers and 179 fathers of children with cancer, and 266 mothers and 224 fathers of children in the comparison group. Multivariate regression was used to adjust for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, life events, and social support. Mothers and fathers of children with cancer had poorer GHQ-12 and mood rating scores than those of controls. The adjusted difference in the mean total GHQ-12 score (comparing mothers of children with cancer to mothers of controls) was 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.3-3.2). The 12 items of the GHQ were each scored 0-3, and the total score was the sum, so 2 points is a small difference. For fathers the difference was 1.5 (95% confidence interval 0.6-2.4). Some subgroups of cancer group parents had poorer emotional health scores than others, including those with poor social support and no paid employment and also those who were bereaved. We found statistically significant but small differences between the mental health of parents of children with cancer and controls. The small differences suggest that as a group the parents of children with cancer are relatively resilient. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z; Wadsworth, Lauren Page; Halpern, Hillary Paul
Little research has explored linkages between workplace policies and mental health in working-class, employed parents, creating a gap in our knowledge of work-family issues across social class levels. The current U.S. study addresses this gap by employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how workplace policies and parental leave benefits predicted parents' depressive symptoms and anxiety in a sample of 125, low-income, dual-earner couples interviewed across the transition to parenthood. Descriptive analyses revealed that, on average, parents had few workplace policies, such as schedule flexibility or child care supports, available to them. Results revealed, however, that, when available, schedule flexibility was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less anxiety for new mothers. Greater child care supports predicted fewer depressive symptoms for fathers. In terms of crossover effects, longer maternal leave predicted declines in fathers' anxiety across the first year. Results are discussed with attention to how certain workplace policies may serve to alleviate new parents' lack of time and resources (minimize scarcity of resources) and, in turn, predict better mental health during the sensitive period of new parenthood.
Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
This is a draft technical letter report for NRC client describing the NDE techniques used in the open testing portion of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT).
Methods: Teaching techniques included didactic lectures, case based discussion ... Conclusion: Interactive teaching provided a learning experience for both ... Keywords: Mental Health; Teaching; Resource-poor; Pilot; Innovative; Somaliland ...
Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A.; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi
Background Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents? parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwe...
Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005
"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" reviews theory and research on stigma and mental health with a focus on the stigmatization of mental illness in the family when either a child or a parent has a mental illness.…
Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte; Van Doesum, Karin TM; Martinussen, Monica
Background: Mental health problems are often transmitted from one generation to the next. This knowledge has led to changes in Norwegian legislation, making it mandatory to assess whether or not patients have children, and to provide necessary support for the children of mentally ill patients. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the process of implementing new routines in adult mental health services to identify and support children of mentally ill parents. Methods: The design w...
Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Vink, Jacqueline M; Kremers, Stef P J; Ruiter, Emilie L M; Fisher, Jennifer O
Although parents often report positive intentions to promote and create a healthy food environment for their children (e.g., setting limits to snacks offered), they also experience difficulties in translating these intentions into actual behaviors. In this position paper, we argue that automatic processes explain an important part of the gap between parents' intentions and their actual food parenting behaviors. We provide a conceptual framework in which we hypothesize that automatic effects on food parenting occur through two key interrelated constructs: habits (key outcome construct) and volitional regulation behaviors (key mediating construct). Moreover, we discuss potentially important impulse-focused techniques that may directly change habits (e.g., nudging; inhibitory control training) or indirectly through volitional regulation behaviors (e.g., implementation intentions; mental contrasting). We make use of the literature on the role of intention-behavior discordance in general health behaviors and discuss implications for food parenting practices. Our framework provides a dual process view towards food parenting and may help to explain when and why parents are likely to engage in (un)healthy food parenting behaviors. In addition, this framework may hopefully stimulate research on (combinations of old and) new techniques to promote good food parenting behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Ende, P C; van Busschbach, J T; Nicholson, J; Korevaar, E L; van Weeghel, J
ABSTRACT: Introduction Understanding of the problems of parents with mental illness is growing. Gaining insight into strategies for parenting, while taking the opportunities formulated by these parents themselves as a starting point is fairly new. Question What are the strategies of parents with a
Shenoy, Divya P; Lee, Christine; Trieu, Sang Leng
Single-parenting students face unique challenges that may adversely affect their mental health, which have not been explored in community college settings. The authors conducted secondary analysis of Spring 2013 data from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment to examine difficulties facing single-parent community college students and the association between single parenting and negative mental health (depression, self-injury, suicide attempt). Participants were 6,832 California community college students, of whom 309 were single parents. Demographic and mental health data were characterized using univariate descriptive analyses. Bivariate analyses determined whether single parents differed from other students regarding negative mental health or traumatic/difficult events. Finances, family, and relationship difficulties disproportionally affected single parents, who reported nearly twice as many suicide attempts as their counterparts (5.3% vs. 2.7%; p students face a higher prevalence of mental health stressors than other community college students.
Sonego, Michela; Llácer, Alicia; Galán, Iñaki; Simón, Fernando
To analyze the association between parental education and offspring's mental health in a nationally representative Spanish sample, and assess the contribution of other socioeconomic factors to the association. We conducted a secondary analysis of data on 4- to 15-year-olds participating in the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. Mental health was assessed using the parent-reported Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire. Parents' respective educational levels were summarized in a single variable. Univariate and multivariate analyses, controlling for family-, child- and parent-related characteristics, were used to study the association. The final sample comprised 5,635 children. A strong association between parental education and parent-reported child mental health was observed among 4- to 11-year-olds, with odds ratios (ORs) increasing as parental educational level decreased. Where both parents had a sub-university level, maternal education showed a stronger association than did paternal education. Following adjustment for covariates, parental education continued to be the strongest risk factor for parent-reported child mental health problems, OR = 3.7 (95% CI 2.4-5.8) for the lowest educational level, but no association was found among 12- to 15-year-olds. Male sex, immigrant status, activity limitation, parent's poor mental health, low social support, poor family function, single-parent families, low family income and social class were associated with parent-reported child mental health problems in both age groups. Our results show that there is a strong association between parental education and parent-reported child mental health, and that this is indeed stronger than that for income and social class. Among adolescents, however, the effect of parental education would appear to be outweighed by other factors.
van der Ende, P C; van Busschbach, J T; Nicholson, J; Korevaar, E L; van Weeghel, J
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The combination of coping with their mental health problems and caring for children makes parents vulnerable. Family-centred practice can help to maintain and strengthen important family relationships, and to identify and enhance the strengths of a parent with a mental illness, all contributing to the recovery of the person with the mental illness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO THE EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Taking the strength and the opportunities formulated by parents themselves as a starting point is fairly new. Parents with severe mental illness find strength for parenting in several ways. They feel responsible, and this helps them to stay alert while parenting, whereas parenthood also offers a basis for social participation through school contacts and the child's friendships. Dedication to the parent role provides a focus; parents develop strengths and skills as they find a balance between attending to their own lives and caring for their children; and parenting prompts them to find adequate sources of social support. In this study these strategies were found to be the fundamentals of recovery related to parenting. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses can support and coach patients who are identified as parents, and self-chosen parenting related goals are set and addressed. A family-focused approach by nurses can be used to prevent problems for children and their families, identify their strengths as well as vulnerabilities, and address the challenges to build resilience. Understanding of the problems of parents with mental illness is growing. Gaining insight into strategies for parenting, while taking the opportunities formulated by these parents themselves as a starting point is fairly new. What are the strategies of parents with a mental illness to be successful? Experiences of 19 mothers and eight fathers with a mental illness were explored with in-depth interviews. Data were content analysed, using qualitative methods. Next
Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle
Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were assessed for ASD at 3-years. Parent stress and proband mental health difficulties predicted concurrent toddler mental health difficulties at 2-years, but only baseline proband internalising problems continued to predict toddler internalising problems at 3-years; high-risk status did not confer additional risk. Baseline toddler mental health difficulties robustly predicted later difficulties, while high-risk status and diagnostic outcome conferred no additional risk. A family systems perspective may be useful for understanding toddler mental health difficulties.
Ashley, Julia R.; Cates, Dennis L.
A survey of teachers of the visually impaired and adults with albinism or parents of children with albinism (total responses=144) found no use of Braille by the adults or children with albinism, awareness of the condition by almost all teachers, support for mainstreaming by all, and specific teaching suggestions from teachers. (DB)
van der Ende, Peter; van Busschbach, J.T.; Nicholson, J.; Korevaar, L.; van Weeghel, J.
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The combination of coping with their mental health problems and caring for children makes parents vulnerable. Family-centred practice can help to maintain and strengthen important family relationships, and to identify and enhance the strengths of a parent with a mental
Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat
Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…
PACER Center, 2004
In the fall of 2003, PACER Center's Parent Partnership Project for Children's Mental Health conducted a survey to better understand what parents and families need from the children?s mental health system in Minnesota. The research team developed a survey questionnaire, a telephone interview, and a focus group session directed at learning what was…
Leahy, Marie A.
More than five million children in the United States have a parent suffering from a severe mental illness and these children have specific experiences and needs, particularly in school. Children of mentally ill parents are at greater risk of being neglected and of developing psychological, social, emotional, and behavioral problems. They often…
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on…
Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat
This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the ...
Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle
Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were…
KEMI TORNIO UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES Health Care and Social Services Degree Programme in Nursing SHOBHA ADHIKARI IMMIGRANT PARENTS ROLE IN MENTAL HEALTH PROMOTION OF THEIR PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN Bachelor’s Thesis 46 pages Advisors: Arja Meinilä and Hannele Pietiläinen ________________________________________ Key words: immigrant parents, children, mental health, promotion, school, cooperation This thesis deals with the immigrant parents’ role in mental healt...
Pitman, Erica; Matthey, Stephen
The Simplifying Mental Illness + Life Enhancement Skills program, for children with a mentally ill parent or sibling, is a 3-day program that aims to increase children's knowledge of mental illness and to better equip them with life skills considered beneficial for coping in their family. Self-report data from 25 children who attended 3 of these programs, in Canada and Australia, indicate that these aims were achieved. Their parents also report benefits for their children.
Stikkelbroek, Yvonne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/168171147; Bodden, Denise H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297688499; Reitz, Ellen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/265031036; Vollebergh, Wilma A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; van Baar, Anneloes L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08504749X
The death of a parent or sibling (family bereavement) is associated with mental health problems in approximately, 25 % of the affected children. However, it is still unknown whether mental health problems of family-bereaved adolescents are predicted by pre-existing mental health problems, pre-loss
Miller, Susan B.
This book was written for teenagers and older children who have abusive, alcoholic, or mentally ill parents. Emphasis is placed on young people in such situations using their intelligence, understanding that parents are fallible, viewing the future with optimism, facing reality, and seeing the good in other people rather than assuming everyone…
Coomer, R A
The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the problems that parents or caregivers of children with mental health disabilities and disorders in Namibia experience when accessing healthcare resources for their children. Data was collected through focus group discussions with the participants and individual interviews with the key informants. Overall, a total of 41 people provided information for this study. Thematic data analysis was used to assess the data. The main barriers experienced by the parents were poor service provision, transport and money, whilst access to education services facilitated access to healthcare services. The challenges go beyond commonly-reported problems such as sub-optimal service provision and include the basic challenge of lack of transportation to reach healthcare services. Many of the barriers identified in this study have been related to general problems with the healthcare system in Namibia. Therefore there is a need to address general concerns about healthcare provision as well as improve specific services for children with mental health disabilities and disorders in Namibia.
Pihkala, Heljä; Sandlund, Mikael; Cederström, Anita
Beardslee's family intervention (FI) is a family-based intervention to prevent psychiatric problems for children of mentally ill parents. The parents' experiences are of importance in family-based interventions. Twenty five parents were interviewed about their experiences of FI. Data were analysed by qualitative methods. Confidence and security in the professionals and in FI as a method were prerequisites for initiating communication about the parents' mental illness with the children. FI provides a solid base for an alliance with the parents and might be a practicable method when parenthood and children are discussed with psychiatric patients.
Riebschleger, Joanne; Onaga, Esther; Tableman, Betty; Bybee, Deborah
This research explores consumer parents' recommendations for developing psychoeducation programs for their minor children. Data were drawn from a purposive sample of 3 focus groups of parent consumers of a community mental health agency. The research question was: "What do consumer parents recommend for developing psychoeducation programs for their minor children?" Parents recommended content foci of mental illness, recovery, heritability, stigma, and coping. The next step is youth psychoeducation intervention development and evaluation. Parents, youth, and professionals should be included in the program planning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi
Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China. In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Elderly adults whose parents preferred positive and authoritative parenting styles had higher levels of mental resilience and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Elderly adults parented in the authoritarian style were found to have higher levels of depression and anxiety, with lower mental resilience. The findings of this study provide evidence related to successful ageing and coping with life pressures, and highlight the important effects of parenting on mental health. The results suggest that examination of the proximal determinants of successful ageing is not sufficient-distal factors may also contribute to the 'success' of ageing by modifying key psychological dispositions that promote adaptation to adversity.
Plass-Christl, Angela; Otto, Christiane; Klasen, Fionna; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Barkmann, Claus; Hölling, Heike; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
Children of parents with mental health problems (CPM) have an increased risk for behavioral and psychological problems. This study investigated the age- and gender-specific course as well as predictors of mental health problems in CPM using the longitudinal data (baseline 1- and 2-year follow-ups) of a German general population sample from the BELLA study. Children and adolescents aged 11-17 years (at baseline) who had a parent with mental health problems (n = 325) were analyzed. The mental health problems of the children were assessed by the self-reported version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). We used individual growth modeling to investigate the age- and gender-specific course, and the effects of risk as well as personal, familial and social protective factors on self-reported mental health problems in CPM. Additionally, data were examined differentiating internalizing and externalizing mental health problems in CPM. Results indicated that female compared to male CPM showed increasing mental health problems with increasing age. Mental health problems in CPM were associated with lower self-efficacy, worse family climate and less social competence over time. Internalizing problems were associated with lower self-efficacy, less social competence and more severe parental mental health problems. Externalizing problems were associated with lower self-efficacy, worse family climate and lower social competence. The main limitations of the study are the short time period (2 years) covered and the report of mental health problems by only one parent. Our findings should be considered in the development of treatment and prevention programs for mental health problems in CPM.
The primary purpose of this study is to examine the connection between parent involvement and autonomy support, as well as the combined construct of autonomy supportive parent involvement, with internalized mental health symptoms. A secondary purpose of this study is to determine how certain parent demographics relate to attitudes and behaviors…
Smith, Judith R.
This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal…
Schwartz, Chaya; Gidron, Ronit
Study measured the extent to which parents perceive their ill child as providing assistance and support--practical and emotional--and perceive their own caregiving as emotionally and mentally rewarding. All parents reported receiving help and support, but perceived the satisfaction gained from fulfilling their parental duties and from learning…
Linthorst, K; Bauer, U; Osipov, I; Pinheiro, P; Rehder, M
Children of parents who suffer from mental health disorders are more likely to develop mental disorders than children of parents not suffering from mental disorders. For children at risk, preventive strategies are hardly available and, if available, rarely supported by a scientific evaluation. "Kanu - Gemeinsam weiterkommen (canoe - moving jointly forward)" is a preventive strategy that was developed within a research project focusing on primary prevention in children who live in families with parents affected by mental disorders. The intervention is characterised by a multi-modular concept and was tested in the adult psychiatric setting. Preliminary results indicate a preventive impact of the intervention programme. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Gittleman, M G; Klein, M H; Smider, N A; Essex, M J
Attachment theory posits links between early experiences with parents, adult relationships and adult mental health, but does not specify whether these are independent, mediating, or moderating effects. Associations of parent's behaviour on the Parental Bonding Instrument, adult attachment styles and three dimensions of mental health were investigated in a large sample of women and men. Men and women with secure styles recalled higher levels of care from both parents than those with fearful styles. Maternal and paternal control were more consistent predictors of increased distress for men than for women. Fearful and preoccupied adult styles were associated with higher levels of distress in both men and women. While adult styles had few mediating effects on the association of parental behaviour and mental health, interactions between the fearful style and parental variables suggested that this form of insecurity sometimes accentuated the impact of high parental care or low paternal control on mental health in both men and women; among women, however, the secure style seemed to buffer somewhat the negative effect of high parental control. Although the amount of variance explained by either parental behaviour or adult styles was modest, patterns of moderating effects of adult styles on associations between parental behaviour and mental health suggested that both continuity and discontinuity principles can be applied to understanding these links.
Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge; Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari
This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7 % female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level, emotional well-being (measured with the Everyday Feelings Questionnaire), and the use of negative disciplinary and affirmative parenting practices (measured using the Family Life Questionnaire). Path analyses were conducted to examine the associations between SES and externalizing and internalizing problems. Results supported a model where family economy was associated with externalizing problems through parental emotional well-being and parenting practices, whereas maternal education level was associated with externalizing problems through negative discipline. The direct association between paternal education level and externalizing problems was not mediated by parenting. For internalizing problems, we found both direct associations with family economy and indirect associations with family economy through parental emotional well-being and parenting. The results suggest that parental emotional well-being and parenting practices are two potential mechanisms through which low socioeconomic status is associated with child mental health problems.
Afzelius, M; Plantin, L; Östman, M
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Coping with parental mental illness in families can be challenging for both children and parents. Providing evidence-based family interventions to families where a parent has a mental illness can enhance the relationships in the family. Although psychiatric research has shown that evidence-based family interventions may improve the communication and understanding of parental mental illness, there is a lack in this area of research from an everyday clinical context. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study reinforces the fact that parents with mental illnesses are searching for support from psychiatric services in order to talk to their children about their illness. The finding that under-age children comply when they are told by their parents to join an intervention in psychiatric services supporting the family is something not observed earlier in research. This study once more illuminates the fact that partners of a person with parental mental illness are seldom, in an obvious way, included in family support interventions. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Psychiatric services, and especially mental health nurses, have an important task in providing families with parental mental illness with support concerning communication with their children and in including the "healthy" partner in family support interventions. Introduction Although research has shown that evidence-based family interventions in research settings improve the communication and understanding of parental mental illness, there is a lack of knowledge about interventions in an everyday clinical context. Aim This study explores how families with parental mental illness experience family interventions in a natural clinical context in psychiatric services. Method Five families with children aged 10-12 were recruited from psychiatric services in southern Sweden and interviewed in a manner inspired by naturalistic inquiry and content analysis. Both
Pollak, Eva; Bullinger, Monika; Jeske, Jana; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke
To assess health-related quality of life (hrQoL) of children with a mentally ill parent, and its associations with the parent's illness (diagnoses, severity of disease, current symptoms) and family functioning, 51 mentally ill parents rated their children's hrQoL using the KINDL-R, a multidimensional hrQoL questionnaire for children. Parents rated their current psychiatric symptoms on the SCL-14 (Symptom Checklist-14) and family functioning on the FB-A ("Familienbögen"). The parents' therapists (psychologists or psychiatrists) provided psychiatric diagnoses as well as global ratings of disease severity (CGI) and patient's family functioning. Compared to the general population, parents rated their children's hrQoL significantly lower concerning the dimensions "Psychological Well-Being" and "Family': HrQoL ratings were moderately correlated with the parent's current depressive symptoms and moderately to highly correlated with family functioning from the parent's perspective. Lower depression severity and higher family functioning were associated with higher hrQoL ratings. Parents with affective disorders rated their children's hrQoL significantly lower than did parents with a diagnosis of substance abuse. Results show the importance of family functioning for parents' view of children's hrQoL and the influence of psychiatric symptoms on ill parents' reports. These findings are in line with previous results concerning potential psychological and behavioural problems in children of mentally ill parents. Family interventions and multi-informant assessment should be used in this high-risk group.
Asen, Eia; Fonagy, Peter
This is the second of two companion papers that provide an overview of mentalization-based concepts and techniques when working with the seeming "mindlessness" of intra-family violence. The focus of this paper is on general mentalization-oriented approaches and specific interventions that aim to (1) disrupt the non-mentalizing cycles that can generate intra-family violence and (2) encourage the emergence of patterns of family interactions that provide the foundation for non-violent alternatives. Various playful exercises and activities are described, including the taking of "mental state snapshots" and "selfies" in sessions and staging inverted role-plays, as well as using theatrical masks and creating body-mind maps and scans. These can make "chronic" relationship issues come alive in session and permit "here and now" experiences that generate a safe context for mentalizing to take place. At the core of the work is the continuous focus on integrating experience and reflection. Without acute awareness of the thoughts and feelings occurring in the sessions, mere reflection is not likely to enable change. By increasing mentalizing in the family system, family members' trusting attitudes grow, both within and outside the family. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Moed, Anat; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Bringewatt, Elizabeth H
For youth exposed to community violence, parenting has been found to play a significant role in protecting adolescents from associated mental health symptoms. Yet little is known about the potential of parenting to prevent such exposure in the first place and thereby reduce the likelihood of adolescents' mental health symptoms. This study examined two parental practices that have often been examined as moderators, but not yet as predictors, of youth exposure to community violence associations with adolescent mental health, namely parental control and parental harshness. Analyses of self-reported data from 908 adolescents (M age = 16.5, SD = 1.71; 52 % girls; 13 % non-Hispanic White) revealed that harsh parenting was indirectly associated with youth mental health symptoms through higher levels of exposure to community violence, whereas links between controlling parenting and mental health symptoms were either non-significant or mediated through lower levels of adolescent violence exposure. These findings highlight the potential positive role parental control may play by preventing adolescents from exposure to potentially dangerous situations. Conversely, our results suggest that harsh parenting appears to pose a risk for adolescents by driving youth away from the home environment and potentially into places where violence may be more prevalent.
Puckett, Julia A; Woodward, Eva N; Mereish, Ethan H; Pantalone, David W
Sexual minority individuals face unique stressors because of their sexual identity. We explored associations between parental reactions to children's coming out, internalized homophobia (IH), social support, and mental health in a sample of 257 sexual minority adults. Path analyses revealed that higher IH and lower social support mediated the association between past parental rejection and current psychological distress. Mental health providers may benefit clients by utilizing interventions that challenge internalized stereotypes about homosexuality, increase social support, and process parental rejection, as well as focusing on how certain crucial experiences of rejection may impact clients' IH and mental health.
Research on parenting style and its correlation with some aspects of their children live has yielded inconsistent results. Some studies on authoritarian indentifying significant positive imoact while other find negative. The aim of the currant study is to identify correlationship between parenting style and adolescence mental helth in Ciawi Tasikmalaya. This study used correlation methodology, and rank Spearman for analiyzing. Parenting style measurement used Parental Authority Questionnaire-...
Barlow, Jane; Bennett, Cathy; Midgley, Nick; Larkin, Soili K; Wei, Yinghui
Parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP) is a dyadic intervention that works with parent and infant together, with the aim of improving the parent-infant relationship and promoting infant attachment and optimal infant development. PIP aims to achieve this by targeting the mother's view of her infant, which may be affected by her own experiences, and linking them to her current relationship to her child, in order to improve the parent-infant relationship directly. 1. To assess the effectiveness of PIP in improving parental and infant mental health and the parent-infant relationship.2. To identify the programme components that appear to be associated with more effective outcomes and factors that modify intervention effectiveness (e.g. programme duration, programme focus). We searched the following electronic databases on 13 January 2014: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2014, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, BIOSIS Citation Index, Science Citation Index, ERIC, and Sociological Abstracts. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, checked reference lists, and contacted study authors and other experts. Two review authors assessed study eligibility independently. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-randomised controlled trials (quasi-RCT) that compared a PIP programme directed at parents with infants aged 24 months or less at study entry, with a control condition (i.e. waiting-list, no treatment or treatment-as-usual), and used at least one standardised measure of parental or infant functioning. We also included studies that only used a second treatment group. We adhered to the standard methodological procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration. We standardised the treatment effect for each outcome in each study by dividing the mean difference (MD) in post-intervention scores between the intervention and control groups by the pooled standard deviation. We presented standardised mean differences (SMDs) and
Birdi, Gurkiran; Cooke, Richard; Knibb, Rebecca
Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population complet...
Mah, Jean K; Tough, Suzanne; Fung, Thomas; Douglas-England, Kathleen; Verhoef, Marja
Patient satisfaction surveys are often used to measure quality of care. However, patient satisfaction may not be a reliable indicator of service quality because satisfaction can be influenced by clients' characteristics such as their health status. Parents of children attending a pediatric neurology clinic completed the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and global ratings of their physical and mental health. They also completed the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), the Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC), and the Family-Centered Care Survey (FCCS). 104 parents completed the survey. The correlation between the global rating of physical or mental health and their corresponding SF-36 scores was high. The majority (88%) of parents were satisfied, with a median CSQ score of 28 (IQR, 24 to 31) and a FCCS score of 4.7 (IQR, 4.2 to 4.9). Logistic regression identified parents' mental health as a significant predictor of client satisfaction (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.14). Given the positive association between parents' mental health and satisfaction with care, it is important to consider mental status as a covariate in interpreting satisfaction surveys. Parents' global rating of mental health appears to be a reasonable indicator of their SF-36 mental scores.
Vitolo, Ymara Lúcia Camargo; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Goodman, Robert; Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos
To verify the prevalence and identify the risk factors related to mental health problems among schoolchildren and its possible association with the beliefs and educational attitudes of parents/caretakers. Cross-sectional study with a stratified probabilistic sample (n=454) of first to third-graders from public and private schools in Southeastern Brazil. Standardized instruments were administered to parents/caretakers by trained interviewers, including screening questionnaires for mental health problems among children and parents/caretakers; a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes; and a questionnaire for socio-economic status. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. We found 35.2% prevalence of clinical/borderline cases among students. Parents/caretakers that believed in corporal punishment as a child-rearing method used physical aggression towards their children more frequently (64.8%). Logistic regression models showed that the act of hitting the child with a belt was associated to conduct problems and to overall mental health problems among schoolchildren in the presence of other risk factors: child gender (male), parents/caretakers with mental health problems, and adverse socioeconomic conditions. The high prevalence of mental health problems among schoolchildren and its association with child-rearing methods and mental health problems among parents/caretakers indicate the need for psycho-educational interventions aimed to reduce physical abuse and mental health problems in childhood.
Murphy, Gillian; Peters, Kath; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra
Children who have lived with parental mental illness experience long-standing reduced health and social outcomes, alongside ongoing personal distress. While there has been some dialogue regarding interventions to support children who are living with parental mental illness, there remains a paucity of knowledge regarding adult children's experiences and potential needs. Given this, the aim of the present study was to establish parenting narratives of adult children who had experienced childhood parental mental illness. This included their experiences of being parented alongside their own subsequent parenting roles. Three men and 10 women, ranging from 30 to 78 years old, met individually with a researcher to tell their stories. Narratives were thematically analysed to establish themes. The findings of the study demonstrated that individuals who have lived with childhood parental mental illness dehumanized their parent with mental illness. The authors argue that all mental health services should be underpinned with a whole of family assessment and care philosophy. There is also a need for all mental health services to consider how policies and procedures might inadvertently dehumanize clients who are parents, which could contribute to familial dehumanization. This could prevent the dehumanization of parents who experience mental illness to preserve parental and child relationships. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available Many contradictory notions have been appearing in the area of health care in recent years, including those related to attitudes towards vaccination. On the basis of their understanding of the phenomenon some parents oppose to the vaccination. The purpose of this study was to compare mental models of laymen with expert models and examine the correlation of the mental models of vaccination and the trust in doctors and healthcare system with the parental attitudes on childhood vaccination. In doing so, we have considered the demographic characteristics of the parents and cultural differences between parents from Slovenia and Macedonia. We were also interested in the role of compulsory and optional vaccination, because in the latter the behavioral intention is expressed more clearly. The methods used in our study of mental models was based on the approach of Morgan, Fischhoff, Bostrom and Atman (2002 which has three phases: (1 obtaining expert mental models, (2 getting mental models of the laymen (e.g., parents and (3 comparison of both mental models. Expert models of vaccination were obtained from five doctors from Slovenia and five doctors from Macedonia. Laymen models of vaccination were obtained in structured interviews with 33 parents from Slovenia and 30 from Macedonia. Based on comparisons of expert and laymental models it can be concluded that the mental models of vaccination from parents of one-year old children differ from expert mental models. Most parents, both Macedonian and Slovenian, have also responded that they have greater confidence in the doctors rather than the healthcare system, mainly due to positive experiences with the selected pediatrician. In some Slovenian parents, a tendency to identify compulsory vaccination with force was noticed.
Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David P.; Sekol, Ivana
Unprecedented numbers of children experience parental incarceration worldwide. Families and children of prisoners can experience multiple difficulties after parental incarceration, including traumatic separation, loneliness, stigma, confused explanations to children, unstable childcare arrangements, strained parenting, reduced income, and home, school, and neighborhood moves. Children of incarcerated parents often have multiple, stressful life events before parental incarceration. Theoretically, children with incarcerated parents may be at risk for a range of adverse behavioral outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on associations between parental incarceration and children's later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and educational performance. Results from 40 studies (including 7,374 children with incarcerated parents and 37,325 comparison children in 50 samples) were pooled in a meta-analysis. The most rigorous studies showed that parental incarceration is associated with higher risk for children's antisocial behavior, but not for mental health problems, drug use, or poor educational performance. Studies that controlled for parental criminality or children's antisocial behavior before parental incarceration had a pooled effect size of OR = 1.4 (p children with incarcerated parents, compared with peers. Effect sizes did not decrease with number of covariates controlled. However, the methodological quality of many studies was poor. More rigorous tests of the causal effects of parental incarceration are needed, using randomized designs and prospective longitudinal studies. Criminal justice reforms and national support systems might be needed to prevent harmful consequences of parental incarceration for children. PMID:22229730
Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol; Hart-Johnson, Tamera
Maternal mental health (MMH) problems are associated with lack of confidence in one's parenting, overly lax or too harsh discipline, and child academic underperformance. We asked if parenting mediates the effect of MMH problems on academic outcomes even among mothers with serious mental illness (n=164). Structural equation analyses show a significant association between MMH problems and permissive (lack of parenting confidence, lack of follow through) parenting and verbal hostility as well as worse academic outcomes (school recorded grades, teacher reported behaviour). Permissive parenting completely mediated the direct effect of MMH on academic outcomes. Further analyses showed that the mediation effect was attributed to a single component of permissive parenting-lack of parenting confidence.
Keyes, K.M.; Susser, E.S.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Hamilton, A.; Bitfoi, A.; Goelitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess, V.
Objective. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Methods. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in
Trondsen, Marianne V
Although a considerable body of research has described the implications of parental mental illness, the perspectives of children and adolescents have rarely been addressed. In this article, I explore adolescents' experiences in everyday life, based on an action-oriented study of a Norwegian online self-help group for adolescents (aged 15 to 18) with mentally ill parents. The analysis was conducted through participant observation of the group for 2 years. The adolescents experienced a variety of difficult challenges related to their parent's mental illness: lack of information and openness; unpredictability and instability; fear; loneliness; and loss and sorrow. However, they also discussed strategies for active management of the challenges arising from the family situation. I argue that these adolescents can be understood as vulnerable as well as active participants in managing their everyday lives. I emphasize the importance of including perspectives of children and adolescents in further research so as to improve health care for families with parental mental illness.
The present study was conducted to find the relation of Mental Health of Adolescents with their Emotional Maturity and Parent Child Relationship. The sample comprised of 200 9th class adolescents (100 boys and 100 girls) from Government Secondary Schools of Moga district The data was obtained by using Emotional Maturity Scale (2011) by Singh and Bhargava, Parent Child Relationship Scale (2011) by Rao and Mental Health Battery (2012) by Singh and Gupta. The results of the study showed positive...
Barton, Alison L; Hirsch, Jameson K
Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants were 524 undergraduate students at a single institution (52% female; age range = 18-22). Data collection was completed in May 2011. Cross-sectional design. Participants completed online self-report measures of parenting styles, academic entitlement, stress, depressive symptoms, and well-being. Permissive parenting was associated with greater academic entitlement and, in turn, to more perceived stress and poorer mental health. Mother/father differences were found in some cases. Academic entitlement may partially explain why permissive parenting is detrimentally related to mental health for college students. Implications for academic affairs and counseling include helping students develop an appreciation of the role of self-regulation in college success.
Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd
The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies.
Leijdesdorff, Sophie; van Doesum, Karin; Popma, Arne; Klaassen, Rianne; van Amelsvoort, Therese
Children of parents with a mental illness and/or addiction are at high risk for developing a mental illness themselves. Parental mental illness is highly prevalent leading to a serious number of children at high risk. The aim of this review is to give an up-to-date overview of psychopathology in children of parents with various mental illnesses and/or addiction, based on recent literature. Worldwide, 15-23% of children live with a parent with a mental illness. These children have up to 50% chance of developing a mental illness. Parental anxiety disorder sets children at a more specific risk for developing anxiety disorder themselves, where children of parents with other mental illnesses are at high risk of a large variety of mental illnesses. Although preventive interventions in children of mentally ill parents may decrease the risk of problem development by 40%; currently, these children are not automatically identified and offered help. This knowledge should encourage mental health services to address the needs of these children which requires strong collaboration between Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and Adult Mental Health Services. Directions for further research would be to include both parents, allow for comorbidity and to look deeper into a broader variety of mental illnesses such as autism and personality disorder other than borderline.
African Journal of Psychiatry • July 2013 ... does not cite separate data on the incidence of mental health ... the first large-scale population-based study of common mental ..... adults: Perspectives from consumers, family members, advocates,.
Wartberg, L; Kriston, L; Kramer, M; Schwedler, A; Lincoln, T M; Kammerl, R
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Currently, associations between IGD in early adolescence and mental health are largely unexplained. In the present study, the relation of IGD with adolescent and parental mental health was investigated for the first time. We surveyed 1095 family dyads (an adolescent aged 12-14 years and a related parent) with a standardized questionnaire for IGD as well as for adolescent and parental mental health. We conducted linear (dimensional approach) and logistic (categorical approach) regression analyses. Both with dimensional and categorical approaches, we observed statistically significant associations between IGD and male gender, a higher degree of adolescent antisocial behavior, anger control problems, emotional distress, self-esteem problems, hyperactivity/inattention and parental anxiety (linear regression model: corrected R 2 =0.41, logistic regression model: Nagelkerke's R 2 =0.41). IGD appears to be associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Moreover, the findings of the present study provide first evidence that not only adolescent but also parental mental health is relevant to IGD in early adolescence. Adolescent and parental mental health should be considered in prevention and intervention programs for IGD in adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hegde, Asha; Kamath, Asha; Roy, Kallol
The transitional phase encompassing the physiological and psychological changes during our lifespan is termed as adolescence. Adolescents get mislead to substance use, violence related activities, dating relationships, unhealthy lifestyle. Minimal studies are conducted in India to identify the parenting factors that affect an adolescent's mind. The aim of our study was to explore the role of parenting and social surroundings on - adolescent's mental health and involvement in violence related activities. Cross sectional study design was adopted. Semi structured questionnaire was used. Data obtained was entered and analyzed using SPSS 15. Proportions were used to report the findings. Chi-square test was used to find associations between mental health issues, involvement in violence related activities and Interpersonal Relationship (IPR) Status. Multiple logistic regressions were done to identify independent predictors of mental health. A total of 1770 adolescents participated. Proportion of adolescents with good IPR with parents reported to be having a better mental health status and low involvement in violent related activities. Schools also displayed similar effects. Neighborhood, peers did not display any significant effect on adolescent's mental health. Most significant predictor for adolescent mental health was IPR with parents and at school. The study highlights the need of a cordial environment at places which does influence the adolescent's mental health. Interventions enhancing the relationship status of adolescents with parents, at school must be carried out to observe the change in adolescent behavior.
Mohammad Kazem Atefvahid
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Parents of children with disabilities are poorer physical and mental health and greater stress experience. This study was conducted to evaluate Parenting stress in mothers of mentally retarded, blind, deaf and physically disabled children.Materials and Methods: This study was causal-comparative. The study population included 310 mothers of exceptional children (mothers of children with mental retardation, blind, deaf and physical-motor disabilities 7 to 12 years of age enrolled in primary schools in the academic year 90-1389 exceptional Tehran. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was used. The data obtained from questionnaires parenting stress using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were analyzed.Results: The results showed that parenting stress in mothers of blind with mentally retarded, deaf with mentally retarded, physically with blind and deaf children are significantly different. As well as, there was significant difference between the mean score of blind, physical disorders, mentally retarded and deaf groups in terms of distraction- hyperactivity subscale.Conclusion: Mothers of children with mental retardation, physical disorders, blind and deaf have most parenting stress respectively.
van der Zanden, Rianne A P; Speetjens, Paula A M; Arntz, Karlijn S E; Onrust, Simone A
Children of parents with mental illness (COPMI) are at greater risk of developing mental disorders themselves. Since impaired parenting skills appear to be a crucial factor, we developed a facilitated 8-session preventative group course called KopOpOuders (Chin Up, Parents) delivered via the Internet to Dutch parents with psychiatric problems. The goal was to promote children's well-being by strengthening children's protective factors via their parents. To reach parents at an early stage of their parenting difficulties, the course is easily accessible online. The course is delivered in a secure chat room, and participation is anonymous. This paper reports on (1) the design and method of this online the group course and (2) the results of a pilot study that assessed parenting skills, parental sense of competence, child well-being, and course satisfaction. The pilot study had a pre/post design. Parenting skills were assessed using Laxness and Overreactivity subscales of the Parenting Scale (PS). Sense of parenting competence was measured with the Ouderlijke Opvattingen over Opvoeding (OOO) questionnaire, a Dutch scale assessing parental perceptions of parenting using the Feelings of Incompetence and Feelings of Competence subscales. Child well-being was assessed with the total problem score, Emotional Problems, and Hyperactivity subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Paired samples t tests were performed, and Cohen's d was used to determine effect sizes. Intention-to-treat analyses and analyses of completers only were both performed. Course satisfaction was evaluated using custom-designed questionnaires. The sample comprised 48 parents with mental illness. The response rate was 100% (48/48) at pretest and 58% (28/48) at posttest. Significant improvements were found on PS Laxness and Overreactivity subscales (P children were not in the clinical range at both pretest and posttest. The mean course satisfaction score was 7.8 on a 10-point scale
Widemalm, My; Hjärthag, Fredrik
The aim of this study was to identify how daughters or sons to parents suffering from mental illness perceive their situation. The objective was to provide new knowledge based on what they communicate on open Internet forums. The sample consisted of forum posts written by individuals who reported that they had mentally ill parents. Data collection comprised 301 comments from 35 forum threads on 5 different Swedish Internet forums, and predetermined inclusion criteria were used. Data were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. The analysis generated four themes: "Caregiver burden," "Knowledge seeking," "Support from the forum," and "Frustration and powerlessness over health care." The results showed that parents' mental illness affected the forum writers on several levels, and they often felt stigmatized. The writers often lacked knowledge of their parents' mental illness and sought out Internet forums for information and support from peers in similar situations. The psychiatric care given to the parents was a source of dissatisfaction among the forum writers, who often felt that their parents did not receive adequate care. This study shows that fear of stigmatization and perceived lack of care and support caused forum writers to anonymously seek out Internet forums for information and support from others with similar experiences. The role of social support and the attractiveness of anonymity and availability typical for open Internet forums ought to be considered by health care professionals and researchers when developing new ways for providing support for children or adolescents with a mentally ill parent.
Parents' mental health disorders are not well known within child welfare services. First, to assess the mental health disorders and treatment needs of parents participating in the child welfare-centred family rehabilitation; Second, to evaluate the work of psychiatric nurses and the effectiveness of consultations by psychiatrists in such cases. During 2010, a total of 141 parents participated in child welfare-centred family rehabilitation. The primary psychiatric disorders of parents not currently receiving psychiatric care were assessed, as was the appropriate treatment for them. The majority of parents in child welfare-centred family rehabilitation suffered from severe mental health disorders, often unrecognized and untreated. As much as 93% of parents were referred to mental health or substance abuse treatment, almost half of them to secondary care. The work of psychiatric nurses and consultations by psychiatrists were found to be useful. Most parents suffered from severe unrecognized and untreated mental health disorders. There is a high demand for adult-psychiatric expertise in child welfare.
Langlois, J; Fortin, D
The goal of this article is to discuss an overview of literature published from 1968 to 1993 and dealing with links between single-parenting, poverty and mental health. A total of 56 articles were selected based on the most current data banks. Results show that the population of single-parent mothers is growing and that they are becoming increasingly poor. Of the six mental health variables listed by the author, four (psychological distress, self-esteem, perception of one's own skills and psychological isolation) clearly demonstrate that single-parent mothers are in a less healthy mental state than are mothers in two-parent families. Results also indicate that self-esteem, distress and psychological well-being are affected by economic variables. Results therefore vary according to the variable being measured. Although single-parent mothers experience more psychological discomfort than mothers in two-parent families, they do not seem to experience more serious mental health problems. The authors argue that future research on the subject should take into consideration a certain number of aspects, discussed in the conclusion of this article, which account for links between single-parenting, poverty and mental health.
Kowalenko, N.M.; Mares, S.P.; Newman, L.K.; Williams, A.E.S.; Powrie, R.M.; Doesum, K.T.M. van
One in five young people in Australia, including infants, toddlers and preschoolers, lives in a family with a parent with a mental illness.1 Families affected by mental illness are more likely than other families to experience poverty and social isolation,2 and are more likely to have children taken
Drost, Louisa M.; Schippers, Gerard M.
From epidemiologic research, we know that children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) have an elevated risk of developing a serious mental disorder. Aside from studies based on risk and resilience, there has been little research on the children's own perceptions. The aim of this study was to
The relationship between three parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative) and the mental health of Arab adolescents was tested. It was hypothesized that parenting style toward boys would differ from that towards girls, psychological adjustment of girls would differ from that of boys, and that the authoritarian style applied within the authoritarian Arab society is not associated with poor psychological adjustment. The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents, Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Psychological State Scale were administered to 431 Arab adolescents. Sex comparison revealed that the parenting style with regard to girls tends to be more authoritative and less authoritarian than with regard to boys. Girls scored higher than boys on identity disorder, anxiety disorder, and depression scales, whereas boys scored higher than girls on the behavior disorder scale. There was no significant relationship between the authoritarian parenting style and the mental health measures. A significant positive relationship exists between the authoritative parenting style and the mental health of children. Among boys, the permissive parenting style was associated with negative attitudes towards parents, lower self-esteem and increased identity, anxiety, phobia, depressive, and conduct disorders. It seems, therefore, that the effect of parenting style is culturally and gender dependent rather than universal.
Full Text Available Millions of children have a parent with a mental illness (COPMI. These children are at higher risk of acquiring behavioural, developmental and emotional difficulties. Most children, including COPMI, have low levels of mental health literacy (MHL, meaning they do not have accurate, non-stigmatized information. There is limited knowledge about what kind of MHL content should be delivered to children. The aim of this exploratory study is to identify the knowledge content needed for general population children and COPMI to increase their MHL. A second aim is to explore content for emerging children’s MHL scales. Researchers created and analyzed a literature review database. Thematic analysis yielded five main mental health knowledge themes for children: (1 attaining an overview of mental illness and recovery; (2 reducing mental health stigma; (3 building developmental resiliencies; (4 increasing help-seeking capacities; and (5 identifying risk factors for mental illness. COPMI appeared to need the same kind of MHL knowledge content, but with extra family-contextual content such as dealing with stigma experiences, managing stress, and communicating about parental mental illness. There is a need for MHL programs, validated scales, and research on what works for prevention and early intervention with COPMI children.
Riebschleger, Joanne; Grové, Christine; Cavanaugh, Daniel
Millions of children have a parent with a mental illness (COPMI). These children are at higher risk of acquiring behavioural, developmental and emotional difficulties. Most children, including COPMI, have low levels of mental health literacy (MHL), meaning they do not have accurate, non-stigmatized information. There is limited knowledge about what kind of MHL content should be delivered to children. The aim of this exploratory study is to identify the knowledge content needed for general population children and COPMI to increase their MHL. A second aim is to explore content for emerging children’s MHL scales. Researchers created and analyzed a literature review database. Thematic analysis yielded five main mental health knowledge themes for children: (1) attaining an overview of mental illness and recovery; (2) reducing mental health stigma; (3) building developmental resiliencies; (4) increasing help-seeking capacities; and (5) identifying risk factors for mental illness. COPMI appeared to need the same kind of MHL knowledge content, but with extra family-contextual content such as dealing with stigma experiences, managing stress, and communicating about parental mental illness. There is a need for MHL programs, validated scales, and research on what works for prevention and early intervention with COPMI children. PMID:29072587
Wansink, Henny J; Janssens, Jan M A M; Hoencamp, Erik; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Hosman, Clemens M H
Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, especially when parenting is compromised by multiple risk factors. Due to fragmented services, these families often do not get the support they need. Can coordination between services, as developed in the Preventive Basic Care Management (PBCM) program, improve parenting and prevent child behavioral problems? This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) compared the effectiveness of PBCM with a control condition. Ninety-nine outpatients of a community mental health center were randomized to intervention or control. Primary outcomes included parenting quality (assessed by the HOME instrument), parenting skills (parenting skills subscale of FFQ), and parenting stress (PDH). Secondary outcomes are child behavioral problems (SDQ). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 9 and 18 months. Effects were analyzed by Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. Most families were single-parent families belonging to ethnic minorities. The results of the first RCT on effects of PBCM suggest that this intervention is feasible and has a positive effect on parenting skills. There was no evidence for effects on the quality of parenting and parenting stress, nor preventive effects on child behavioral problems. Replication studies in other sites, with more power, including monitoring of the implementation quality and studying a broader palette of child outcomes are needed to confirm the positive effects of PBCM. Long-term prospective studies are needed to investigate if improved parenting skills lead to positive effects in the children in the long run. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Kolaitis, Gerasimos A; Meentken, Maya G; Utens, Elisabeth M W J
This review will provide a concise description of mental health problems in parents of children with a (non-syndromic) congenital heart disease (CHD) during different stressful periods. Predictors of these problems and also implications for clinical practice will be mentioned. Having a child with CHD can be very stressful for parents, who have to face overwhelming emotions and also extra physical, financial, and other practical challenges. Parental distress has been reported in 30-80% of parents and appears not to be related to severity of CHD. Parental mental health, parenting, the parent-child relationship, and parental quality of life can all be affected. Parents, and especially mothers, are at risk of psychological distress, anxiety, depression, somatization, hopelessness, and posttraumatic stress symptoms, which in turn may influence mother's responsiveness. In the long term, the majority of parents adapt successfully to living with a child with CHD, but approximately 40% report a need for psychosocial care. These families may be helped by early psychosocial interventions to alleviate stress and reduce children's emotional and behavioral problems. A holistic approach to early psychosocial interventions should aim at improving coping and enhance parenting. During routine medical checkups, medical professionals should ask about parental stress, family functioning, and psychosocial functioning of the child and, when needed, adequate psychosocial care should be provided.
Wansink, H.J.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Hoencamp, E.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Hosman, C.M.H.
Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, especially when parenting is compromised by multiple risk factors. Due to fragmented services, these families often do not get the support they need. Can coordination between services, as
Su, Xueyun; Cai, Ru Ying; Uljarevic, Mirko
The aim of this study was to explore the influence of parental intolerance of Uncertainty (IU), sensory sensitivity (SS) and Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP), as well as the severity of their children's autism symptoms and co-morbid symptoms, on the mental health of Chinese parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One hundred and…
Xia, Guohua; Qian, Mingyi
Results of this investigation with 127 youths from China supported the associations of recalled parent's styles with adolescents' self-evaluated health status. Many psychosomatic symptoms and lower scores on indexes of general mental health were significantly related to higher levels of parental rejection, denial, and over involvement, and to…
Kelada, Lauren; Hasking, Penelope; Melvin, Glenn A.
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents poses a significant problem for schools, adolescents, and their families. However, appropriate guidelines for addressing NSSI, including when to disclose the behavior to parents, are currently lacking. The present study aimed to understand how school mental health staff and parents of secondary…
Barton, Alison L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.
Objective: Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants:…
Floyd, Frank J.; Phillippe, Kent A.
Comparison of in-home interactions of mothers and fathers with their school-age children found that parents in 53 families having children with mental retardation were more controlling and less playful with their child than were parents of nonretarded children but they did effectively employ behavior management practices without resorting to…
Faust, Hannah; Scior, Katrina
Background: Young people with intellectual disabilities seem to be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The present study set out to examine the impact such difficulties can have on parents. Method: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with 13 parents and one adult sibling of 11 young people with intellectual…
Burger, Huibert; Boks, Marco P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Aukes, Maartje F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
OBJECTIVE: To construct a risk score for adolescent mental health problems among children, using parental data only and without potentially stigmatizing mental health items. METHODS: We prospectively derived a prediction model for mental health problems at age 16 using data from parent report on
Leijdesdorff, S.M.J.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Popma, A.; Klaassen, R.M.C.; Amelsvoort, T.A.M.J. van
Purpose of review: Children of parents with a mental illness and/or addiction are at high risk for developing a mental illness themselves. Parental mental illness is highly prevalent leading to a serious number of children at high risk. The aim of this review is to give an up-to-date overview of
This study examined the parental styles and psychosocial adjustment of adolescents and the relationship between them in gifted as compared to nongifted Arab adolescents. Five scales --The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents. Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and The Psychological…
Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte; Van Doesum, Karin T M; Martinussen, Monica
Mental health problems are often transmitted from one generation to the next. This knowledge has led to changes in Norwegian legislation, making it mandatory to assess whether or not patients have children, and to provide necessary support for the children of mentally ill patients. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the process of implementing new routines in adult mental health services to identify and support children of mentally ill parents. The design was a pre-test post-test study. The sample (N = 219 at pre-test and N = 185 at post-test) included mental health professionals in the largest hospital in the region, who responded to a web-based survey on the routines of the services, attitudes within the workforce capacity, worker's knowledge on the impact of parental mental illness on children, knowledge on legislation concerning children of patients, and demographic variables. The results of this study indicated that some changes are taking place in clinical practice in terms of increased identification of children. Adult mental health services providing support for the children was however not fully implemented as a new practice. The main finding in this study is that the identification frequency had increased significantly according to self-reported data since the Family Assessment Form was implemented. The increase in self-reported identification behavior is however taking place very slowly. Three years after the legislation was changed to making it mandatory to assess whether or not patients have children, it was still not fully incorporated in the routines of the entire workforce. In terms of support for the families affected by parental mental illness, the changes are not yet significant.
Lacey, Melanie; Paolini, Stefania; Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Melville, Jessica; Galletly, Cherrie; Campbell, Linda E
Research demonstrates that people living with serious mental illness (SMI) contend with widespread public stigma; however, little is known about the specific experiences of stigma that mothers, and in particular fathers, with SMI encounter as parents. This study aimed to explore and compare the experiences of stigma for mothers and fathers with SMI inferred not only by living with a mental illness but also potential compounding gender effects, and the associated impact of stigma on parenting. Telephone surveys were conducted with 93 participants with SMI who previously identified as parents in the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. Results indicated that mothers were more likely than fathers to perceive and internalise stigma associated with their mental illness. Conversely, fathers were more inclined to perceive stigma relating to their gender and to hold stigmatising attitudes towards others. Mental illness and gender stigma predicted poorer self-reported parenting experiences for both mothers and fathers. These findings may assist in tailoring interventions for mothers and fathers with SMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deneke, Christiane; Lüders, Bettina
Disturbed parent infant interactions are frequently seen in cases of parental mental illness. They are indicating possible risks of the infant's development. Regular and illness-specific patterns are not found. Therefore the interaction has to be observed and classified in each individual case to recognize the relevance of the parental illness to the child. Different interaction patterns and their impact on the child's development are described and illustrated by case vignettes. The importance of preventive intervention is highlighted.
Phelps, William R.
Discussed are techniques in counseling parents of retarded children. Suggested are ways to structure the interview as well as methods to help the parents deal with such problems as overprotection and initial reactions to the diagnosis of retardation. (CL)
Tebeka, Sarah; Hoertel, Nicolas; Dubertret, Caroline; Le Strat, Yann
Despite the severity of the loss of a parent and the frequency of parental divorce, few studies compared their impact on mental health in the general adult population. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, and psychiatric comorbidity of parental loss and parental divorce during childhood and adolescence. Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 43,093). Of the 43,093 participants, parental divorce during childhood or adolescence was reported by 5776 participants, whereas 3377 experienced parental death during childhood or adolescence. Participants reporting a history of parental divorce present a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly alcohol and drug use disorders compared with control subjects. While participants experiencing the death of a parent reported a poorer overall health, the prevalence of psychiatric disorder after 17 years of age was not significantly higher than that of the control subjects.
Gladstone, Brenda M; McKeever, Patricia; Seeman, Mary; Boydell, Katherine M
We report an ethnographic analysis of a psycho-education and peer-support program for school-aged children of parents with mental illnesses. We conducted a critical discourse analysis of the program manual and observed group interactions to understand whether children shared program goals predetermined by adults, and how, or if, the intervention was responsive to their needs. Children were expected to learn mental illness information because "knowledge is power," and to express difficult feelings about being a child of a mentally ill parent that was risky. Participants used humor to manage group expectations, revealing how they made sense of their parents' problems, as well as their own. Suggestions are made for determining good mental health literacy based on children's preferences for explaining circumstances in ways they find relevant, and for supporting children's competencies to manage relationships that are important to them. © The Author(s) 2014.
van Santvoort, Floor; Hosman, Clemens M H; Janssens, Jan M A M; van Doesum, Karin T M; Reupert, Andrea; van Loon, Linda M A
Children of mentally ill parents are at high risk of developing problems themselves. They are often identified and approached as a homogeneous group, despite diversity in parental diagnoses. Some studies demonstrate evidence for transgenerational equifinality (children of parents with various disorders are at risk of similar problems) and multifinality (children are at risk of a broad spectrum of problems). At the same time, other studies indicate transgenerational specificity (child problems are specifically related to the parent's diagnosis) and concordance (children are mainly at risk of the same disorder as their parent). Better insight into the similarities and differences between children of parents with various mental disorders is needed and may inform the development and evaluation of future preventive interventions for children and their families. Accordingly, we systematically compared 76 studies on diagnoses in children of parents with the most prevalent axis I disorders: unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorders. Methodological characteristics of the studies were compared, and outcomes were analyzed for the presence of transgenerational equifinality, multifinality, specificity, and concordance. Also, the strengths of the relationships between child and parent diagnoses were investigated. This review showed that multifinality and equifinality appear to be more of a characteristic of children of unipolar and bipolar parents than of children of anxious parents, whose risk is mainly restricted to developing anxiety disorders. For all children, risk transmission is assumed to be partly specific since the studies indicate a strong tendency for children to develop the same disorder as their parent.
Roscoe, Joseph N; Lery, Bridgette; Chambers, Jaclyn E
Among children investigated for maltreatment, those with parents experiencing mental illness or substance abuse are more likely to be placed out-of-home; however, little is known about why these children are at greater risk. Using a sample of 2488 Structured Decision Making ® assessments administered in San Francisco county from 2011 to 2015, we identified a profile of safety threats that accounts for why workers are more likely to determine children of parents with mental illness and/or substance abuse unsafe in the home. Eight percent of assessments in our sample involved parents with current mental illness only and 10% had comorbid substance abuse. The odds of an unsafe determination more than doubled among parents with mental illness (OR = 2.52, p mental illness on safety determination: caretaking impairment due to emotional stability/developmental status/cognitive deficiency (57%), failure to meet a child's immediate needs (30%), and threats of harm (14%). Three safety threats accounted for 55% of the effect of comorbid mental illness and substance abuse on safety determination: failure to meet a child's immediate needs (21%), presence of a drug-exposed infant (21%), and caretaking impairment due to emotional stability/developmental status/cognitive deficiency (14%). Results suggest that sustained linkage to effective mental health services and material resources at the outset of a child welfare case may help to promote faster and more likely reunification, and prevent future maltreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
It is estimated that 20% of children experience psychological problems at any one time. 1 Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in Ireland are under-resourced. Recent economic downturn has hindered the possibility of increased funding to alleviative these deficits. It is now imperative that mental health professionals create innovative and cost effective solutions to promote positive mental health. Recent literature has focused on the benefits of self delivered parenting programmes, with minimal costs incurred. 2,3 Based on the developing evidence supporting self directed approaches, the Lucena Foundation has initiated a series of parent information evenings. These evenings are offered on a monthly basis, and are free to attend. To date 1,538 parents have attended. Feedback from parents has been very positive with 80.5% of them finding them useful or very useful.
Umpierre, Mari; Meyers, Laura V.; Ortiz, Aida; Paulino, Angela; Rodriguez, Anita Rivera; Miranda, Ana; Rodriguez, Raquel; Kranes, Stephanie; McKay, Mary M.
Objective This article describes Phase 1 of a pilot that aims to develop, implement, and test an intervention to educate and simultaneously engage highly stressed Latino parents in child mental health services. A team of Spanish-speaking academic and community co-investigators developed the intervention using a community-based participatory research approach and qualitative methods. Method Through focus groups, the team identified parents' knowledge gaps and their health communication preferences. Results Latino parents from urban communities need and welcome child mental health literacy interventions that integrate printed materials with videos, preferably in their native language, combined with guidance from professionals. Conclusion A 3-minute video in Spanish that integrates education entertainment strategies and a culturally relevant format was produced as part of the intervention to educate and simultaneously engage highly stressed Latino parents in child mental health care. It is anticipated that the intervention will positively impact service use among this group. PMID:26412954
Joanne Nicholson; dr. P.C. van der Ende; Jaap van Weeghel; Dr. Lies Korevaar; Jooske T. van Busschbach
Can parents with severe mental illness benefit from a new approach? XIthENMESH International Conference in Málaga (Spain). 1-3 October, 2015. With these results at hand we developed a new program and evaluated it . In this presentation we will reflect on the merits of this program but also share
Currently, little is known about adolescents' self-stigma experiences as mental health (MH) treatment recipients. Hence, this study addresses the following two questions: (a) what are adolescents' and parents' perceptions of stigma and perceptions of the cause, controllability, and anticipated outcome (illness perceptions) of adolescents' MH…
Nilsson, Stefan; Gustafsson, Lisa; Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt
There are several concerns in relation to children living with a parent suffering from a mental illness. In such circumstances, the health-care professionals need to involve the whole family, offering help to the parents on parenting as well as support for their children. These children are often helped by participating in meetings that provide them with contact with others with similar experiences. The aim of this study was to investigate young adults' childhood experiences of support groups when living with a mentally ill parent. Seven young women were chosen to participate in this study. A qualitative descriptive method was chosen. The main category emerged as 'the influence of life outside the home because of a parent's mental illness' from the two generic categories: 'a different world' and 'an emotion-filled life'. The participants' friends did not know that their parent was ill and they 'always had to…take responsibility for what happened at home'. These young adults appreciated the support group activities they participated in during their childhood, stating that the meetings had influenced their everyday life as young adults. Despite this, they associated their everyday life with feelings of being different. This study highlights the need for support groups for children whose parents suffer from mental illness. © The Author(s) 2014.
Jenewein, J; Moergeli, H; Fauchère, J-C; Bucher, H U; Kraemer, B; Wittmann, L; Schnyder, U; Büchi, S
To assess the impact of extremely preterm birth (24-26 weeks of gestation) on the mental health of parents two to six years after delivery, and to examine potential differences in post-traumatic growth between parents whose newborn infant died and those whose child survived. A total of 54 parents who had lost their newborn and 38 parents whose preterm child survived were assessed by questionnaires with regard to depression and anxiety (HADS) and post-traumatic growth (PTGI). Neither group of parents had clinically relevant levels of depression and anxiety. Mothers showed higher levels of anxiety than fathers. Bereaved parents with no other, living child reported higher levels of depression than bereaved parents with one or more children. Mothers reported higher post-traumatic growth compared to fathers. In particular, bereaved mothers experienced the value and quality of their close social relationships more positively compared to the non-bereaved parents. In the long term, bereaved and non-bereaved parents cope reasonably well with an extremely preterm birth of a child. Post-traumatic growth appears to be positively related to bereavement, particularly in mothers.
Emerson, E; Brigham, P
The authors sought to: (1) estimate the prevalence of health behaviours, mental health and exposure to social determinants of poorer health among parents with and without intellectual disability; and (2) determine the extent to which between-group differences in health behaviours/status may be attributable to differential exposure to social determinants of poorer health. Cross sectional survey. Secondary analysis of confidentialized needs analysis data collected in three Primary Care Trusts in England on 46,023 households with young children. Households containing a parent with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of: (1) poorer parental mental health, parental drug and alcohol abuse and smoking; (2) exposure to a range of environmental adversities. Controlling for the latter eliminated the increased risk of poorer health for single parent households headed by a person with intellectual disabilities. For two parent headed households, risk of poorer parental mental health remained elevated. The poorer health of parents with intellectual disability may be accounted for by their markedly greater risk of exposure to common social determinants of poorer health rather than being directly attributable to their intellectual disability. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boman, Fiffi; Stafström, Martin; Lundin, Nils; Moghadassi, Mahnaz; Törnhage, Carl-Johan; Östergren, Per-Olof
Screening instruments are often used for detecting mental health problems in children and adolescents. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is one instrument for screening children's mental health. The SDQ can be used for assessment by different informants, i.e. parents, teachers and by 11-16 year olds for self-reporting. The aim was to compare the precision and validity of parental and teacher SDQ assessments in elementary school children, and to analyze whether assessments were affected by the child's sex and by socio-demographic factors. A total of 512 primary school students were included in a cross-sectional study. Exploratory factor analysis, sensitivity/specificity analysis, Cronbach's alphas, and logistic regression were applied. Parents rated 10.9% and teachers 8.8% of the children as high-risk individuals, but the overlap was low (32.1%). Cronbach's alphas were 0.73 and 0.71 for parents and teachers, respectively. However, factor analysis showed that the five-factor solution could be confirmed only for teacher ratings. Moreover, only the parents' ratings were affected by maternal educational level and parental country of birth when rating the same children as the teachers. Construct validity was only confirmed for teacher assessments. However, parental assessments might capture a dimension of a child's mental health that seems to be sensitive to socioeconomic factors, which could be important when addressing equity issues, and for the dialogue between parents and school. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Tabak, Izabella; Zabłocka-Żytka, Lidia; Ryan, Peter; Zanone Poma, Stefano; Joronen, Katja; Viganò, Giovanni; Simpson, Wendy; Paavilainen, Eija; Scherbaum, Norbert; Smith, Martin; Dawson, Ian
Parental mental illness is considered one of the strongest risk-factors for development of offspring psychopathology. The lack of pan-European guidelines for empowering children of parents with mental illness led to EU project CAMILLE - Empowerment of Children and Adolescents of Mentally Ill Parents through Training of Professionals working with children and adolescents. The first task in this project, was to analyse needs, expectations and consequences for children, with respect to living wi...
Full Text Available The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009 and adapted it for groups. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28, a Wait Control group (n = 9, and a control group of healthy children (n = 40. Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children’s knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group and externalizing symptoms were reduced for this group as well. This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children’s enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies.
Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko
Although sense of coherence (SOC) moderates parental stress, the relationship between SOC, parental mental health and physical punishment of children with intellectual disabilities remains uncertain. The present authors describe parental physical punishment towards children with intellectual disabilities and investigate its related demographic characteristics, SOC and parental mental health. With the cooperation of Tokyo's 10 special needs schools, the present authors obtained 648 questionnaire responses from parents of children with intellectual disabilities. Of the parents, 69.7% reported having physically punished their children with intellectual disabilities. This was positively associated with parents' younger age, poorer mental health, lower SOC, children's younger age, birth order (firstborns) and disability type (autism/pervasive developmental disorder). This is the first study supporting the relationship between SOC, mental health and physical punishment use among parents of children with intellectual disabilities. It may assist the development of strategies to prevent physical abuse of children with disabilities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mäkelä, Jukka; Salo, Saara
Parent-child interaction therapy is an effective means to prevent and correct children's mental problems. Interactive interventions shown to be effective share common features: the focus is on the support of the parent's sensitivity, positive guiding ability and reflective capability. Simultaneous participation of both parents in the therapy, application of video observation and affirmation of positive collaborative relationship with the parents seem to increase the efficacy of the intervention. The above-mentioned elements are utilized in an interactive therapy method called Theraplay.
Tabak, Izabela; Zabłocka-Żytka, Lidia; Ryan, Peter; Poma, Stefano Zanone; Joronen, Katja; Viganò, Giovanni; Simpson, Wendy; Paavilainen, Eija; Scherbaum, Norbert; Smith, Martin; Dawson, Ian
The lack of pan-European guidelines for empowering children of parents with mental illness led to the EU project CAMILLE - Empowerment of Children and Adolescents of Mentally Ill Parents through Training of Professionals working with children and adolescents. The aim of this initial task in the project was to analyse needs, expectations and consequences for children with respect to living with a parent with mental illness from the perspective of professionals and family members. This qualitative research was conducted in England, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland and Scotland with 96 professionals, parents with mental illness, adult children and partners of parents with mental illness. A framework analysis method was used. Results of the study highlighted that the main consequences described for children of parental mental illness were role reversal; emotional and behavioural problems; lack of parent's attention and stigma. The main needs of these children were described as emotional support, security and multidisciplinary help. Implications for practice are that professionals working with parents with mental illness should be aware of the specific consequences for the children and encourage parents in their parental role; multi-agency collaboration is necessary; schools should provide counselling and prevent stigma. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Lê Cook, Benjamin; Brown, Jonathan D; Loder, Stephen; Wissow, Larry
Significant Latino-white disparities in youth mental health care access and quality exist yet little is known about Latino parents' communication with providers about youth mental health and the role of acculturation in influencing this communication. We estimated regression models to assess the association between time in the US and the number of psychosocial issues discussed with the medical assistant (MA) and doctor, adjusting for child and parent mental health and sociodemographics. Other proxies of acculturation were also investigated including measures of Spanish and English language proficiency and nativity. Parent's length of time in the US was positively associated with their communication of: their child's psychosocial problems with their child's MA, stress in their own life with their child's MA, and their child's school problems with their child's doctor. These differences were especially apparent for parents living in the US for >10 years. Parent-child language discordance, parent and child nativity were also significantly associated with communication of psychosocial problems. Greater provider and MA awareness of variation in resistance to communicating psychosocial issues could improve communication, and improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of youth mental illness.
Park, Keunwoo; Seo, Mikyung
Parents of offspring with mental illness must endure endless child care burden despite their old age, and must cope with associative stigma. This study analyzed the mediator effect of associative stigma on relationships between the main stressors, psychiatric symptoms and lowered social function of offspring with mental illness, assessed by the parents, and their care burden. 215 parents caring for an adult child with mental illness in Korea were surveyed (Mage=60.68, SD=13.58; 74.4% mothers). They were asked to assess the psychiatric symptoms and social function of their offspring, the stigma they experienced, and the objective/subjective care burdens they felt. Our findings suggest that the symptoms and function of offspring directly affect the care burden of parents, but also have an indirect effect mediated by associative stigma. Among the predictor variables, symptoms have a greater effect on the subjective/objective burden and associative stigma than social function. We suggest strategies for parents to overcome associative stigma and emphasize the professional endeavor required to meet the service needs of elderly parents taking care of an adult child with mental illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gamarel, Kristi E.; Kuo, Caroline; Boyes, Mark E.; Cluver, Lucie D.
HIV stigma – both ‘self-stigma’ towards positive individuals and ‘stigma by association’ towards their families – is linked with adverse mental health. This study examined how stigma was associated with the mental health of parents and children in South Africa. Parent-child dyads (n=2477 dyads) in South Africa participated in a cross-sectional survey. For both parents and children, greater stigma was associated with their own reports of greater anxious and depressive symptoms. Parents reports...
Siegenthaler, Eliane; Munder, Thomas; Egger, Matthias
Objective: Mental illness in parents affects the mental health of their children. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to prevent mental disorders or psychological symptoms in the offspring were performed. Method: The Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled…
Schuh, Daniela; Hippler, Kathrin; Schubert, Maria Theresia
The aim of this study was to examine parental sense of coherence (SOC) as a resource for coming to terms with their children's disease. Furthermore we examined the interaction between parental stress experience and SOC while controlling for neuroticism. 3 groups were compared: parents of children with (1) cystic fibrosis (CF, n = 35), (2) juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, n = 31) and (3) mental health disorders (PSY, n = 34). Parents were asked to complete the "Heidelberger Sense of Coherence Questionnaire", the "Parenting Stress Index" and the Neuroticism Scale of the "Trierer Integriertes Persönlichkeitsinventar". There were no significant differences in SOC and neuroticism. Parents of children with mental health disorders showed significantly higher stress levels (M = 2.60; p = 0.001) than parents of children with CF (M = 2.13) and JIA (M = 1.99). In all groups, significant negative interactions between SOC and stress experience were found (r = - 0.46 to - 0.65). However, this effect decreased when controlling for neuroticism (r = - 0.26 to - 0.31). According to our results, the type of the child's disease is not relevant to the parents' SOC. A well developed SOC in parents is likely to be helpful in coping with the stress associated with a child's disease or disorder. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat
This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12-14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children's externalizing symptoms. Fathers' parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children's mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.
Full Text Available This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children’s externalizing symptoms. Fathers’ parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children’s mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.
Parrott, Fiona R; Macinnes, Douglas L; Parrott, Janet
Research into parenting and mental illness seldom includes forensic mental health service users, despite its relevance to therapeutic, family work and risk management. This study aimed to understand the experiences of parents and the variety of parenting roles maintained during admission to a secure forensic hospital. Narrative interviews with 18 parents (eight mothers and 10 fathers) at an English medium security hospital were analysed thematically, using the framework approach. The proportion of patients who are parents and their contact patterns with their children were estimated from records. About a quarter of men and 38% of women were parents. Parenthood was of central importance to their emotional life, spanning experiences of loss, shame and failed expectations, joy, responsibility and hope. Fewer fathers maintained contact with their children than mothers yet fatherhood remained a vital aspect of men's identities, with impact on their self-esteem. Parenting during lengthy admissions--while constrained and dependent on professional support and surveillance--ranged from sending gifts and money to visits and phone calls. Offending was seen as a particularly shameful aspect of admission, contributing to distancing from the children and difficulty explaining detention to them. Such complex experiences call for multidisciplinary knowledge and skills. Provision of focused therapy, as well as appropriate visiting spaces, creative approaches to contact time and support for patients in explaining their mental illness and detention to their children are recommended. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Johnson, Sarah E; Lawrence, David; Sawyer, Michael; Zubrick, Stephen R
To describe the extent to which parents report that 4- to 17-year-olds with symptoms meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for mental disorders need help, the types of help needed, the extent to which this need is being met and factors associated with a need for help. During 2013-2014, a national household survey of the mental health of Australia's young people (Young Minds Matter) was conducted, involving 6310 parents (and carers) of 4- to 17-year-olds. The survey identified 12-month mental disorders using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children - Version IV ( n = 870) and asked parents about the need for four types of help - information, medication, counselling and life skills. Parents of 79% of 4- to 17-year-olds with mental disorders reported that their child needed help, and of these, only 35% had their needs fully met. The greatest need for help was for those with major depressive disorder (95%) and conduct disorder (93%). Among these, 39% of those with major depressive disorder but only 19% of those with conduct disorder had their needs fully met. Counselling was the type of help most commonly identified as being needed (68%). In multivariate models, need for counselling was higher when children had autism or an intellectual disability, in blended families, when parents were distressed, and in the most advantaged socioeconomic areas. Many children and adolescents meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for mental disorders have a completely unmet need for help, especially those with conduct disorders. Even with mild disorders, lack of clinical assessment represents an important missed opportunity for early intervention and treatment.
Mistry, Ritesh; Stevens, Gregory D.; Sareen, Harvinder; De Vogli, Roberto; Halfon, Neal
Objectives. We assessed whether there were associations between maternal mental health and individual and co-occurring parenting stressors related to social and financial factors and child health care access. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from the 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health. The 5-item Mental Health Inventory was used to measure self-reported mental health. Results. After we controlled for demographic covariates, we found that the following stressors increased the risk of poor maternal mental health: lack of emotional (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0, 5.9) or functional (OR=2.2; 95% CI=1.3, 3.7) social support for parenting, too much time spent with child (OR=3.5; 95% CI=2.0, 6.1), and difficulty paying for child care (OR=2.3; 95% CI=1.4, 3.9). In comparison with mothers without any parenting stressors, mothers reporting 1 stressor had 3 times the odds of poor mental health (OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.1, 4.8), and mothers reporting 2 or more stressors had nearly 12 times the odds (OR = 11.7; 95% CI = 7.1, 19.3). Conclusions. If parenting stressors such as those examined here are to be addressed, changes may be required in community support systems, and improvements in relevant social policies may be needed. PMID:17538058
Coyne, I; McNamara, N; Healy, M; Gower, C; Sarkar, M; McNicholas, F
Service user involvement is essential for quality care in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This study was conducted to explore adolescents' and parents' experiences of CAMHS in relation to accessibility, approachability and appropriateness. This study used a descriptive qualitative design, and focus groups and single interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 15) and parents (n = 32) from three mental health clinics. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Accessing mental health services was a challenging experience for many parents and adolescents due to knowledge deficit, lack of information and limited availability of specialist services. Some parents and adolescents reported positive experiences while others reported negative experiences. They expressed a need for more information, involvement in decision making, flexible scheduling of appointments, school support and parent support groups. The nature and quality of the relationship with staff was critical to positive experience with the service; therefore, frequent changes of medical staff was disruptive. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in ensuring continuity, assessing adolescents' participation preferences and advocating for their information needs with other members of the interdisciplinary team. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mental ill-health among children and young adults is a growing public health problem and research into causes involves consideration of family life and gender practice. This study aimed at exploring the association between parents' degree of gender equality in childcare and children's mental ill-health. Methods The population consisted of Swedish parents and their firstborn child in 1988-1989 (N = 118 595 family units and the statistical method was multiple logistic regression. Gender equality of childcare was indicated by the division of parental leave (1988-1990, and child mental ill-health was indicated by outpatient mental care (2001-2006 and drug prescription (2005-2008, for anxiety and depression. Results The overall finding was that boys with gender traditional parents (mother dominance in childcare have lower risk of depression measured by outpatient mental care than boys with gender-equal parents, while girls with gender traditional and gender untraditional parents (father dominance in childcare have lower risk of anxiety measured by drug prescription than girls with gender-equal parents. Conclusions This study suggests that unequal parenting regarding early childcare, whether traditional or untraditional, is more beneficial for offspring's mental health than equal parenting. However, further research is required to confirm our findings and to explore the pathways through which increased gender equality may influence child health.
Introduction Mental ill-health among children and young adults is a growing public health problem and research into causes involves consideration of family life and gender practice. This study aimed at exploring the association between parents' degree of gender equality in childcare and children's mental ill-health. Methods The population consisted of Swedish parents and their firstborn child in 1988-1989 (N = 118 595 family units) and the statistical method was multiple logistic regression. Gender equality of childcare was indicated by the division of parental leave (1988-1990), and child mental ill-health was indicated by outpatient mental care (2001-2006) and drug prescription (2005-2008), for anxiety and depression. Results The overall finding was that boys with gender traditional parents (mother dominance in childcare) have lower risk of depression measured by outpatient mental care than boys with gender-equal parents, while girls with gender traditional and gender untraditional parents (father dominance in childcare) have lower risk of anxiety measured by drug prescription than girls with gender-equal parents. Conclusions This study suggests that unequal parenting regarding early childcare, whether traditional or untraditional, is more beneficial for offspring's mental health than equal parenting. However, further research is required to confirm our findings and to explore the pathways through which increased gender equality may influence child health. PMID:22463683
Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren
The present study employed qualitative methods to examine multiple stakeholder perspectives regarding the role of parent and family contextual factors on community child mental health treatment for children with behavior problems. Findings suggest agreement between clinicians and parents on the number, types and importance of parent and family…
Huang, Ching Yu; Shen, A.C.T.; Hsieh, Y.P.; Feng, J.Y.; Wei, H.S.; Hwa, H.L.; Feng, J.Y.
The current study aims to clarify the associations as well as the pathways through which parenting and children's emotional intelligence (EI) may influence children's mental health with a cross-sectional sample of 675 school pupils (fourth grade, mean age = 10.4 years, 310 boy, 356 girls and 9 unidentified) in Taiwan. Hierarchical regression and path analyses were used to examine the relationships between parenting styles, children's trait EI, and their psychological symptoms, wit...
Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Gary, Faye A.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson
Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescent...
Youth mental health disorders are rising across the world. Mindful Parenting could be a potential tool to promote youth mental health. The primary distinction between Mindful Parenting programs and other behavioral parenting programs is the focus on emotional literacy and compassion. However, this emerging field has gaps in its theory and evidence. In order to objectively evaluate the impact of Mindful Parenting, it is important to identify how it promotes change. This theoretical paper aims to articulate the key change processes of Mindful Parenting that promote positive outcomes. A literature review was conducted to synthesize the change processes outlined by different authors in the field. Key processes argued to promote Mindful Parenting were aligned with five main categories, namely attention, intention, attitude, attachment and emotion. More specifically the change processes were listening, emotional awareness, emotional regulation, attentional regulation, attunement, attention to variability, intentionality, reperceiving, compassion and non-judgmental acceptance. This preliminary analysis attempted to understand how Mindful Parenting fosters change and transformation. Whilst there are numerous change processes, the essence of Mindful Parenting appears to be the ability to be responsive to a child's needs. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
van der Jagt-Jelsma, Willeke; de Vries-Schot, Margreet; de Jong, Rint; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Swinkels, Sophie; Buitelaar, Jan
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between parental religiosity, parental harmony on the subject of religiosity, and the mental health of pre-adolescents. In a community-based sample of 2,230 pre-adolescents (10-12 years), mental health problems were assessed using self-report
Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Hamrick, Hannah C; Braitman, Abby L; White, Tyler D; Jenkins, Jennika
This brief report examined the unique associations between parents' ratings of child internalizing symptoms and their own depression and anxiety in families with parental substance use disorder (SUD). Further, we examined whether parental SUD (father only, mother only, both parents) was related to discrepancy in mothers' and fathers' reports of children's internalizing symptoms. Participants were 97 triads (fathers, mothers) in which one or both parents met criteria for SUD. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to examine whether father-mother reports of child internalizing symptoms had unique associations with parents' own symptoms of depression and anxiety while controlling for child gender, child age, and SUD diagnoses. Controlling for fathers' symptoms and other covariates, mothers experiencing more depression and anxiety symptoms reported more symptoms of child internalizing symptoms than did fathers. Mothers' and fathers' SUD was associated with higher anxiety symptoms among mothers after controlling for other variables. A second set of polynomial regressions examined whether father-mother reports of child internalizing symptoms had unique associations with parents' SUD diagnoses while controlling for child gender and child age. After controlling for mothers' symptoms and other covariates, parents' reports of children's internalizing symptoms were not significantly associated with either parent's SUD or parental SUD interactions (i.e., both parents have SUD diagnoses). Taken together, mothers' ratings of children's internalizing symptoms may be accounted for, in part, by her reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.
This article explores some core findings from a qualitative investigation of parents' experiences of their child's treatment in an adolescent mental health service in Sydney, Australia. In particular, the research question was, "How does parents' involvement in the child/adolescent's treatment influence their perception of how they can be helpful in their child's recovery?" The theme of parent hope emerged from the broad qualitative exploration of parent's experience of their involvement in their adolescent's intensive treatment program. A purposive sample of 14 sets of parents participated, being interviewed at admission, discharge, and 6 months following their adolescent's discharge. A continuum of high, moderate, and low levels of hope were evident in this parent sample 6 months after their treatment involvement. The strongly emergent theme was the relationship between parents' hope and agency/self-efficacy. Parents who remained more passive in expecting expert helpers to fix their child experienced reduced hope months after finishing the program. When parents positively changed their interaction with their child, they felt a more sustained hopefulness. These findings generate the hypothesis that if parents are actively involved in changing themselves as part of their child's treatment, they experience increased hope and effectiveness in contributing to their child's recovery.
Barrow, Susan M; Alexander, Mary Jane; McKinney, Jacki; Lawinski, Terese; Pratt, Christina
The capabilities framework and a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach frame this study. We consider the real opportunities for parenting available for women with serious mental health diagnoses, despite complications posed by their own capacity, material constraints, social network disruptions, and, by law, custom and policy related to mental health conditions and child custody decisions. We convened focus groups with mothers currently living in shelters apart from their children, service providers in supported housing programs, grandmothers caring for children of mothers with mental health and substance use problems, and a policy discussion with mental health administrators. Qualitative analyses explored common and divergent perspectives on parenting experiences and aspirations of particularly marginalized mothers. Perspectives of mothers and other stakeholders converged in recognizing the parenting challenges facing mothers experiencing homelessness and mental health and substance use problems, but their views on the implications of this diverged sharply. Mothers' current aspirations were limited by contextual obstacles to maintaining contact with children; other stakeholders saw contact as risky and reunification as improbable. All stakeholders described systemic barriers to supporting contact and ongoing mothering roles. Evidence-based parenting interventions require facilitating policy contexts that do not foreclose parenting possibilities for mothers whose current challenges dictate modest immediate parenting goals. CBPR amplifies voices of lived experience to demonstrate what is possible over time for mothers with complex lives and histories. These become possibilities that a person can imagine for herself and are essential to inform the evidence base for practice and policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Pihkala, Heljä; Sandlund, Mikael; Cederström, Anita
Beardslee's family intervention (FI), which is a family-based preventive method for children of mentally ill parents, has been implemented on a national level in Sweden. Fourteen children and parents from nine families were interviewed about how the FI was for the children. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. A central finding was children's sense of relief and release from worry because of more knowledge and openness about the parent's illness in the family. The results indicating relief for the children are encouraging.
Eun, John David; Paksarian, Diana; He, Jian-Ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries
We examined associations between parenting style and past-year mental disorders in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of US adolescents and whether the associations differed by adolescent demographic characteristics. The sample included 6483 adolescents aged 13-18 years who were interviewed for a full range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Parenting style was assessed by adolescent-reported maternal and paternal care and control using items from the Parental Bonding Instrument. We controlled for socio-demographics, parental history of mental disorders, stressful life events, sexual violence, inter-parental conflict, and household composition. We also tested for two-way interactions between parental care and control and adolescent age, sex, and race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, high maternal care was associated with lower odds of depressive, eating, and behavioral disorders, and high maternal control was associated with greater odds of depressive, anxiety, eating, and behavioral disorders. High paternal care was associated with lower odds of social phobia and alcohol abuse/dependence. High paternal control was associated with greater odds of agoraphobia and alcohol abuse/dependence but with lower odds of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Associations of maternal and paternal control with anxiety disorders and substance abuse/dependence differed by sex. High paternal care was associated with lower odds of anxiety disorders only among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Perceived parental care and control were associated with adolescent mental disorders after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Differential patterns of association were found according to adolescent sex and race/ethnicity. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention programs that incorporate familial contextual factors.
Doumit, Myrna A A; Farhood, Laila F; Hamady, Carmen
The wars that Lebanon had endured led to a devastating number of deaths, injuries, and displacements. Such tragedies have detrimentally affected its civilians psychologically. To identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices of teachers and parents concerning child/adolescent mental health. Using purposeful sampling, five focus groups were conducted with teachers and parents of students from elementary, middle, and secondary levels in two private hub schools in South Lebanon. A total of 27 teachers and 18 parents participated separately in focus groups. Three themes emerged: (a) Mental health care is a priority for overall health, (b) Mental illness is a cultural taboo, and (c) There is a need for better education and cultural understanding about mental health. This is the first study in Lebanon directly targeted at parents' and teachers' mental health concerns. Such findings will add to transcultural nursing knowledge about the importance of mental health care.
health sector face a high unmet mental health need due in part to the conflict itself, ... unemployment.9 In addition, high rates of female genital mutilation .... previously received formal mental health training, although AI ..... World Bank; 1st ed.
Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden
Predictors of 4 indices of well-being (physical health, life satisfaction, burden, and parenting stress) were examined among 203 aging mothers of mentally retarded adults living at home. Predictive variables examined include maternal characteristics, retarded adult's characteristics, family social climate, mother's social support network, and…
Ray, Dee C.
This study investigated the impact of Child-Centred Play Therapy (CCPT)/Non-Directive Play Therapy on parent-child relationship stress using archival data from 202 child clients divided into clinical behavioural groups over 3-74 sessions in a mental health training setting. Results demonstrated significant differences between pre and post testing…
Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Stadnick, Nicole; Taylor, Robin
The community mental health (CMH) system provides treatment for behavioral and psychiatric problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although parent stakeholder perspectives are important to improving care, these perspectives have not been systematically examined for this population in the CMH sector. Twenty-one semi-structured…
Huang, Ching-Yu; Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Feng, Jui-Ying; Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Feng, Joyce Yen
The current study aims to clarify the associations as well as the pathways through which parenting and children's emotional intelligence (EI) may influence children's mental health with a cross-sectional sample of 675 school pupils (fourth grade, mean age = 10.4 years, 310 boy, 356 girls and 9 unidentified) in Taiwan. Hierarchical regression and…
Sentse, Miranda; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
The potential effect of parental separation during early adolescence on adolescent externalizing and internalizing problems was investigated in a longitudinal sample of adolescents (n = 1274; mean age = 16.27; 52.3% girls). Pre-separation mental health problems were controlled for. Building on a
Pretis, Manfred; Dimova, Aleksandra
The increasing prevalence of mental illness among parents always represents a stressor affecting the biopsychosocial development of a child. However, due to varying inherent resilience factors, not all children are affected to the same extent. The presence of evidence-based resilience factors is able to minimise or prevent the adverse effects…
Trondsen, Marianne V; Tjora, Aksel
Although implications of parental mental illness are well documented, most children of mentally ill parents are left to manage their family situation with limited information and support. We explored the role of a Norwegian online self-help group for adolescents (aged 15 to 18) with a mentally ill parent. Through in-depth interviews with 13 participants, we found that the online self-help group provided "communal normalization" by which participants, through communication in the forum, made sense of everyday experiences and emotions arising from having a mentally ill parent. We identified three main aspects of this process-recognizability, openness, and agency-all of which were important for the adolescents' efforts to obtain support, to be supportive, and to handle everyday life situations better. Communal normalization might provide resources for significantly improving the participants' life situations, and could demonstrate similar potential for users in other situations characterized by stigma, loneliness, silence, and health worries. © The Author(s) 2014.
Santvoort, F. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.
The large number of children with mentally ill or addicted parents calls for efficient provision of preventive support: interventions should be offered to children most at risk and attune to their risk levels and needs. This study provided insight in the (heterogeneous) needs of children
Dorn, T.; Yzermans, J.C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.; Zee, J. van der
OBJECTIVE: Caregiving has been described in the literature as a risk factor for ill health in the carer. This controlled, prospective study examines the course of physical and mental health problems in parents of adolescent survivors of a mass burn incident. METHODS: Health information was extracted
Kolaitis, Gerasimos A.; Meentken, Maya G.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.
This review will provide a concise description of mental health problems in parents of children with a (non-syndromic) congenital heart disease (CHD) during different stressful periods. Predictors of these problems and also implications for clinical practice will be mentioned. Having a child with
Oosterman, M.; Kohlhoff, J.; Barnett, B.; Kunseler, F.C.; Schuengel, C.; Wernand, J.J.; Flykt, M.
Maternal mental health problems are linked to negative parenting and child outcomes. However, evidence for mechanisms that may explain the undermining influence of psychological problems is less well specified and the influence of possible moderators is relatively unexplored. (Dix & Meunier, 2009).
Beck, Emma; Sharp, Carla; Poulsen, Stig; Bo, Sune; Pedersen, Jesper; Simonsen, Erik
Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting in borderline pathology. While one prior study found support for this notion in adolescents, it neglected a focus on peer attachment. Separation from primary caregivers and formation of stronger bonds to peers are key developmental achievements during adolescence and peer attachment warrants attention as a separate concept. In a cross-sectional study, female outpatients (M age 15.78=, SD = 1.04) who fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for BPD ( N = 106) or met at least 4 BPD criteria ( N = 4) completed self-reports on attachment to parents and peers, mentalizing capacity (reflective function) and borderline personality features. Our findings suggest that in a simple mediational model, mentalizing capacity mediated the relation between attachment to peers and borderline features. In the case of attachment to parents, the mediational model was not significant. The current study is the first to evaluate this mediational model with parent and peer attachment as separate concepts and the first to do so in a sample of adolescents who meet full or sub-threshold criteria for borderline personality disorder. Findings incrementally support that mentalizing capacity and attachment insecurity, also in relation to peers, are important concepts in theoretical approaches to the development of borderline personality disorder in adolescence. Clinical implications are discussed.
Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther J.; Goldfeld, Keith; Petkova, Eva
IMPORTANCE Low-income minority children living in urban neighborhoods are at high risk for mental health problems and underachievement. ParentCorps, a family-centered, school-based intervention in prekindergarten, improves parenting and school readiness (ie, self-regulation and preacademic skills) in 2 randomized clinical trials. The longer-term effect on child mental health and academic performance is not known. OBJECTIVE To examine whether ParentCorps delivered as an enhancement to prekindergarten programs in high-poverty urban schools leads to fewer mental health problems and increased academic performance in the early elementary school years. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This is a 3-year follow-up study of a cluster randomized clinical trial of ParentCorps in public schools with prekindergarten programs in New York City. Ten elementary schools serving a primarily low-income, black student population were randomized in 2005, and 4 consecutive cohorts of prekindergarten students were enrolled from September 12, 2005, through December 31, 2008. We report follow-up for the 3 cohorts enrolled after the initial year of implementation. Data analysis was performed from September 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015. INTERVENTIONS ParentCorps included professional development for prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers and a program for parents and prekindergarten students (13 two-hour group sessions delivered after school by teachers and mental health professionals). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Annual teacher ratings of mental health problems and academic performance and standardized tests of academic achievement in kindergarten and second grade by testers masked to the intervention or control group randomization. RESULTS A total of 1050 children (4 years old; 518 boys [49.3%] and 532 girls [50.7%]) in 99 prekindergarten classrooms participated in the trial (88.1% of the prekindergarten population), with 792 students enrolled from 2006 to 2008. Most families in the
Lauritzen, C.; Reedtz, C.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Martinussen, M.
Children with mentally ill parents are at risk of developing mental health problems themselves. To enhance early support for these children may prevent mental health problems from being transmitted from one generation to the next. The sample (N = 219) included health professionals in a large
Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Overall, cultural adaptation and parenting cultural values and behaviors were related to aspects of child mental health in meaningful ways. Parents' cultural value of independence appears to be especially salient (e.g., negatively related to behavior problems and positively related to adaptive behavior) and significantly mediates the link between cultural adaptation and adaptive behavior. Study findings have implications for supporting Asian American immigrant families to promote their young children's mental health.
Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana L; Gale, Catharine R; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus
We examined parent-child relationship quality and positive mental well-being using Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development data. Well-being was measured at ages 13-15 (teacher-rated happiness), 36 (life satisfaction), 43 (satisfaction with home and family life) and 60-64 years (Diener Satisfaction With Life scale and Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale). The Parental Bonding Instrument captured perceived care and control from the father and mother to age 16, recalled by study members at age 43. Greater well-being was seen for offspring with higher combined parental care and lower combined parental psychological control ( p < 0.05 at all ages). Controlling for maternal care and paternal and maternal behavioural and psychological control, childhood social class, parental separation, mother's neuroticism and study member's personality, higher well-being was consistently related to paternal care. This suggests that both mother-child and father-child relationships may have short and long-term consequences for positive mental well-being.
Verhulp, Esmée E; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Pels, Trees V M; Van Weert, Caroline M C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in lay beliefs about emotional problems and attitudes toward mental health care. Additionally, among immigrant Dutch parents, we examined the associations between acculturation orientations and lay beliefs about emotional problems as well as attitudes toward mental health care. In total, 349 pairs of parents and their adolescent children participated in our study (95 native Dutch, 85 Surinamese-Dutch, 87 Turkish-Dutch, 82 Moroccan-Dutch). A vignette was used to examine participants' lay beliefs. Immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents differed in their lay beliefs and attitudes toward mental health care, whereas hardly any differences were revealed among their children. Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch parents showed more passive and fewer active solutions to emotional problems compared to native Dutch parents. Additionally, Moroccan-Dutch and Surinamese-Dutch parents reported greater fear of mental health care compared to native Dutch parents. Furthermore, the results showed that immigrant Dutch parents who were more strongly oriented toward the Dutch culture reported less fear of mental health care. Our results showed clear differences in lay beliefs and attitudes toward mental health care between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents but not between their children. Substantial differences were also found between parents from different immigrant Dutch populations as well as within the population of immigrant Dutch parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Bjereld, Ylva; Hensing, Gunnel; Petzold, Max; Povlsen, Lene
Background The home, the family and the parents represent a context of everyday life that is important for child health and development, with parent-child relationships highlighted as crucial for children?s mental health. Time pressure is an emerging feature of modern societies and previous studies indicates that parents with children living at home experience time pressure to a greater extent than people with no children living at home. Previous studies of children?s mental health in relatio...
Morgan, Z; Brugha, T; Fryers, T; Stewart-Brown, S
Abusive and neglectful parenting is an established determinant of adult mental illness, but longitudinal studies of the impact of less severe problems with parenting have yielded inconsistent findings. In the face of growing interest in mental health promotion, it is important to establish the impact of this potentially remediable risk factor. 8,405 participants in the 1958 UK birth cohort study, and 5,058 in the 1970 birth cohort study questionnaires relating to the quality of relationships with parents completed at age 16 years. 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Malaise Inventory collected at age 42 years (1958 cohort) and 30 years (1970 cohort). Statistical methodology: logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex, social class and teenage mental health problems. 1958 cohort: relationships with both mother and father predicted mental health problems in adulthood; increasingly poor relationships were associated with increasing mental health problems at age 42 years. 1970 cohort: positive items derived from the Parental Bonding Instrument predicted reduced risk of mental health problems; negative aspects predicted increased risk at age 30 years. Odds of mental health problems were increased between 20 and 80% in fully adjusted models. Results support the hypothesis that problems with parent-child relationships that fall short of abuse and neglect play a part in determining adult mental health and suggest that interventions to support parenting now being implemented in many parts of the Western world may reduce the prevalence of mental illness in adulthood.
Havas, Jano; Bosma, Hans; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Feron, Frans J
We studied the hypothesis of socioeconomic equalization regarding adolescents' mental health problems by examining whether a low educational level of adolescents and their parents shows independent (cumulative) or dependent (including interactive) associations with adolescents' mental health problems, or whether equalization occurred. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the preventive Youth Health Care Centre in a relatively deprived Dutch former mining area. Participants were 1861 adolescents aged 13 or 14 years (response rate 71.7%). The self-administered Dutch version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to identify adolescents' mental health problems. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations, and linear regression models to check the robustness of the findings. A low educational level of adolescents was strongly related to their mental health problems (OR = 5.37; 95% CI: 3.31-8.70). The initially high odds ratios for adolescents with low-educated parents (OR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.14-2.59) disappeared after controlling for the adolescents' own educational level (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 0.73-1.74). In terms of interactions, no specifically increased odds were found, e.g. for low-educated adolescents with high-educated parents. There was no evidence for socioeconomic equalization regarding adolescents' mental health problems. Lower educated adolescents had substantially higher odds of having mental health problems, regardless of their parents' education. The odds may be affected by differences in intelligence and life events. Youth healthcare workers should collaborate closely with schools to intervene in time, particularly among low-educated adolescents. More interventions are probably needed to reduce these major inequities.
Beck, Emma; Sharp, Carla; Poulsen, Stig
Background: Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting in borde......Background: Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting...... personality features. Our findings suggest that in a simple mediational model, mentalizing capacity mediated the relation between attachment to peers and borderline features. In the case of attachment to parents, the mediational model was not significant. Conclusions: The current study is the first...... to evaluate this mediational model with parent and peer attachment as separate concepts and the first to do so in a sample of adolescents who meet full or sub-threshold criteria for borderline personality disorder. Findings incrementally support that mentalizing capacity and attachment insecurity, also...
Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko
Background: Although sense of coherence (SOC) moderates parental stress, the relationship between SOC, parental mental health and physical punishment of children with intellectual disabilities remains uncertain. The present authors describe parental physical punishment towards children with intellectual disabilities and investigate its related…
Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R
The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.
Proven techniques for using mental ray effectively. If you're a busy artist seeking high-end results for your 3D, design, or architecture renders using mental ray, this is the perfect book for you. It distills the highly technical nature of rendering into easy-to-follow steps and tutorials that you can apply immediately to your own projects. The book uses 3ds Max and 3ds Max Design to show the integration with mental ray, but users of any 3D or CAD software can learn valuable techniques for incorporating mental ray into their pipelines.: Takes you under the hood of mental ray, a stand-alone or
Radesky, Jenny; Leung, Christy; Appugliese, Danielle; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C; Rosenblum, Katherine L
Qualities of the parent-child relationship have not been explored as predictors of parent mobile device use during parent-child activities. In 195 mother-child dyads enrolled in an ongoing cohort study, maternal mental representations of their child (ability to reflect on their child's characteristics, emotional state, and their parenting role) were evaluated through the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI), a validated semistructured interview. WMCI scale scores were examined as predictors of active maternal mobile device use during parent-child eating encounters (videotaped home mealtimes and a structured laboratory-based protocol) in multivariate logistic regression models. Children were aged 5.9 years (SD: 0.7), mothers were aged 31.5 years (SD: 7.4), and 73.3% of mothers were of white non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. During the family mealtime, 47 (24.1%) mothers actively used a mobile device at least once, whereas during the structured eating protocol, 44 (22.6%) mothers used a device. Controlling for maternal race/ethnicity, education level, and child's sex, WMCI subscales were associated with device use during home mealtimes (higher Child Difficulty) and the eating protocol (higher Child Difficulty and lower Richness of Perceptions and Caregiving Sensitivity). Maternal mental representations of their child were significantly associated with using mobile devices during eating encounters. More research studies are needed to understand directionality and longer-term associations between mobile device use and parent-child relationship characteristics.
Anderson, Kayla N; Koh, Bibiana D; Connor, Jennifer J; Koerner, Ascan F; Damario, Mark; Rueter, Martha A
Compared with singletons, what is the parent mental health, parent-child and couple relationship satisfaction, and child adjustment of 6- to 12-year-old assisted reproduction technology (ART) twins and their families? There are no differences between 6- and 12-year-old ART twin and singleton families in parent mental health or family relationships; however, twins had significantly fewer behavior and attention problems than singletons in middle childhood. When ART twins are younger than 5 years old, parents have more mental health difficulties and poorer parent-child relationship quality, and no differences have been found in ART twin and singletons' psychosocial adjustment. However, studies have only examined the implications of ART twin status in families with infant and toddler aged children. A cross-sectional study of 300 6-12-year-old ART children (n = 124 twins and n = 176 singletons) from 206 families at a reproductive endocrinology clinic in the USA. Patients from one clinic with a child born between 1998 and 2004 were invited to participate in an online survey (82% recruitment rate). Participants provided information on each 6- to 12-year-old ART child in the family, and responded to questions on parent mental health, family relationships and child adjustment. There were no differences in parent mental health or family relationships in families with 6- to 12-year-old ART twins versus singletons. However, twins (M = 2.40, SE = 0.35) had significantly fewer behavior problems than singletons (M = 3.47, SE = 0.36; F(1, 201) = 4.54, b = 1.08, P difficulties and lower parent-child relationship quality than singleton families. This study indicates the negative effects of twin status may have ameliorated by middle childhood, and twins may even have more optimum psychosocial adjustment than singletons in this developmental period. This research is based on a collaborative research effort supported by University of Minnesota Agriculture Experiment Station Project
Byford, M; Abbott, R A; Maughan, B; Kuh, D; Richards, M
Adolescent mental health problems are associated with a range of adverse outcomes in adulthood but little is known about the effects on adult parenting practices. This study aimed to examine prospective associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and subsequent parenting behaviours in adulthood. The study sample comprised 1110 members from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Prospective data were collected from teacher reports of conduct and emotional problems at age 13 and 15 years and adult outcome measures of parenting included intellectual environment, cognitive stimulation, coercive discipline, parental interest and parental aspiration. In regression models adjusted for the confounding effects of social background, cognition and education, adolescent conduct problems predicted coercive parenting behaviours in adulthood. The effects of adolescent emotional problems on the development of coercive discipline practices were explained by covariates. Likewise, the inability of parents who displayed conduct problems in adolescence to provide an intellectually stimulating home environment was fully explained by the adjustment for education. Adolescents who exhibit conduct problems are more likely to develop coercive styles of parenting.
Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Bomba, Franziska; Tönnies, Sven; Bullinger, Monika; Plass, Angela
Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children? Parents with a mental disorder often display a problematic attachment style which may impact on their children's health related quality of life (HrQoL). The current study cross-sectionally examines attachment styles (BEPE) in mentally ill parents with underage children (n = 62) and the effect of attachment on their children's HrQoL (KINDL-R). Results show that secure attachment is less represented in parents with a mental health condition than in a healthy reference group. Within the clinical sample, children of mentally ill parents with a secure attachment style exhibit a higher HrQoL than children of mentally ill parents with ambivalent or avoidant attachment styles. These findings indicate not only that problematic attachment styles frequently occur in families with a mentally ill parent, but also suggest that this negatively affects the children's HrQoL. Appropriate interventions should include attachment oriented concepts.
Stelling, Kirsten; Habers, Ingeborg; Jungbauer, Johannes
By now there is a relatively broadly based basic research as to burden and developmental risks in children of mentally ill parents. Nevertheless, hardly any studies exist focusing the living situation of teenagers concerned. This article presents results from an in-depth interview study with 15 adolescents (15 to 21 years old) who have a mentally ill parent. Particularly, the living situation of the study participants was explored from the perspective of developmental psychology, i. e. considering age-specific developmental tasks. The results show that, in many cases, daily life and future perspectives of adolescents are greatly affected by the mental illness of a parent. Based on the results of the study, the article presents conclusions for further research and psychosocial practice. Generally, professional assistance for children of mentally ill people should be on hand as early as possible. When planning specific help offers for adolescents affected, compatibility to their emotional life-world should be taken into consideration. Involving peer counsellors and offering web-based psychological assistance can contribute to better get in touch with adolescent clients.
The world is currently witnessing a significant growth in marriages across ethnic borders, but relatively little is known of how discourses of 'normal' families, ethnicity, race, migration, globalisation affect couples and children involved in these mixed marriages. This book illuminates...... the reality of mixed marriage through intimate stories drawn from the lives of visibly different couples. The testimonies describe rich possibilities and bitter disappointments, offering lessons for services promoting mental health and wellbeing, and for improving psychosocial intervention. The book...... will be of interest to academics in anthropology, sociology, psychology and social work, as well as practitioners including psychologists, counsellors, school advisors, and health workers. Sociology Family, Relationships and Personal Life Race and Ethnicities Psychology Cultural and Cross Psychology of Relationships...
حسین قمری گیوی
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare social skills, mental health and academic performance in children with divorced, divorcing and intact parents. The study sample included 481 children with divorced parents and 419 children with divorcing parents, who were matched to 500 children with normal parents. The participants responded to the Matson's Social Skills Scale and Goldenberg's Mental Health Questionnaire. To assess the academic performance GPA was used. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test. The Findings showed that children with divorced and divorcing parents had more average scores of the components of physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, depression and general mental disorder than those of children with normal parents. Also children with divorcing parents had more scores in components of social dysfunction, depression and general mental disorder than children with divorced parents had. Social skills scores and academic performance in children with normal parents were higher than those of divorced parents’ children and children with divorced parents had higher scores than children with divorcing parents. Hence, due to the harm and the conesquences of divorce on children, strategies for minimalizing these conesquences should be planed.
Adrian, Juan E; Clemente, Rosa A; Villanueva, Lidon; Rieffe, Carolien
This study focuses on parent-child book reading and its connection to the development of a theory of mind. First, parents were asked to report about frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home. Second, mothers were asked to read four picture-books to thirty-four children between 4;0 and 5;0. Both frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home, and mother's use of mental state terms in picture-books reading tasks were significantly associated with success on false belief tasks, after partialling out a number of potential mediators such as age of children, verbal IQ, paternal education, and words used by mothers in joint picture-book reading. Among the different mental state references (cognitive terms, desires, emotions and perceptions), it was found that the frequency and variety of cognitive terms, but also the frequency of emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Relationships between mental state language and theory of mind are discussed.
Polaha, Jodi; Williams, Stacey L; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Studts, Christina R
To examine parents' perceptions of stigma regarding mental health services for their child, consider stigma in the context of novel service delivery settings (e.g., telehealth, primary care, and schools), and evaluate stigma with other factors known to influence service access. 347 caregivers of children with psychosocial concerns completed surveys regarding their perceptions of stigma, service delivery settings, and barriers to care. Parents endorsed low levels of stigma around services. Greater perceived stigma was related to less willingness to seek services in a mental/behavioral health center or schools but not in other settings, even when other barriers were considered. Having a younger child and a history of prior services was associated with greater willingness to seek services. Stigma does appear to present as a barrier, but only for some parents. Providing mental health services to young children and their parents in some nontraditional settings may increase access. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Van Loon, Linda M A; Van de Ven, Monique O M; Van Doesum, Karin T M; Hosman, Clemens M H; Witteman, Cilia L M
When adolescents live with a parent with mental illness, they often partly take over the parental role. Little is known about the consequences of this so-called parentification on the adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. This survey study examined this effect cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of 118 adolescents living with a parent suffering from mental health problems. In addition, the study examined a possible indirect effect via perceived stress. Path analyses were used to examine the direct associations between parentification and problem behavior as well as the indirect relations via perceived stress. The results showed that parentification was associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems cross-sectionally, but it predicted only internalizing problems 1 year later. An indirect effect of parentification on adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems via perceived stress was found, albeit only cross-sectionally. These findings imply that parentification can be stressful for adolescents who live with a parent with mental health problems, and that a greater awareness of parentification is needed to prevent adolescents from developing internalizing problems. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Mohammad reza khodabakhsh
Full Text Available Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls of Boukan's high schools. The participants were asked to complete psychological well-being inventory and mental health parenting style questionnaire. Data was analyzed using of Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results showed that psychological well-being and authoritative parenting styles were significantly related with mental health; also, Permissive parenting styles has significant positive relationship with mental health. The regression analysis indicated that mental health is predictable by psychological well-being and parenting styles. Conclusion: The knowledge of parenting styles and psychological well-being and their relationships with general well-being can provide the significant implications on the provision of students' health. Parenting styles and psychological well-being, as significant variables in general well-being, needs more clinical research.
Bohus, M; Schehr, K; Berger-Sallawitz, F; Novelli-Fischer, U; Stieglitz, R D; Berger, M
The risk of developing clinically relevant psychiatric disorders in the lifetime course is significantly greater among children of mentally ill parents. A child-adapted programme of information concerning the nature and symptomatology of parental illness is considered to be an important preventive factor, and lies within the domain of the psychiatrist's or therapist's responsibilities. During the developmental phase of a prevention project at Freiburg University's Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, both clinical practice and the level of problem awareness among patients and the therapists were evaluated. Over a period of one year, consecutive interviews involving 114 patients with children under 18 years of age, as well as their respective therapists, were conducted. The results showed that: scarcely any exchanges between children and therapists took place; the extent to which children are informed about parental illness must be considered as small; a high percentage of such children are already evaluated by their parents as disturbed, and the pressing need for support exists.
Genugten, L. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Massey, E.K.; Empelen, P. van
Mental wellbeing is influenced by self-regulation processes. However, little is known on the efficacy of change techniques based on self-regulation to promote mental wellbeing. The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify effective self-regulation techniques (SRTs) in primary and secondary
Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C W M; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane
Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past-year injuries serious enough to seek medical attention were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and reported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defiant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR=1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2-1.9), teacher report (OR=1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.7), or parent and teacher report combined (OR=1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.1). Children who self-reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR=1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.4). Low-caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR=1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent-child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externalizing problems may reduce the burden of injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Chunkai; Jiang, Shan; Fan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qiunv
This study aimed to examine the associations between marital relationships and parent-child relationships on children's mental health. Participants included 19,487 students from the 2013-2014 baseline China Education Panel Survey. Structural equation modeling was applied to analyze the data and results revealed that marital and parent-child relationships positively affected children's mental health. Parent-child relationship also played a mediating role between marital relationship and children's mental health. The unique contributions of this study and its theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
This Master s thesis consists of two parts. The first is a literature review and reflection on the research process. The other part is a scientific article (Jones, M., Pietilä, I., Joronen, K., Simpson, W., Gray, S. & Kaunonen, M.: The varied voices of parents with mental illness a discourse analysis of focus group discussions). In the literature review the main themes of the study are discussed in more depth. These include mental illness and the ways in which it is portrayed and perce...
Abid, H.; Aadil, M.; Hamdani, S.U.
To assess parental practices and attitude regarding administration of psychotropic agents in their children suffering from psychiatric disorders. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Psychiatry Out-Patient Department (OPD) Mayo Hospital conducted over a span of 6 months, from 15 Apr to 15 Oct 2017. Material and Methods: Ninety three individuals were included in the study through non-probability purposive sampling. Informed consent was taken from the parents. A closed ended questionnaire was designed to carry out a targeted survey which was focused on the knowledge and practices followed by parents during their first contact in an outpatient department. Parents were asked whether they believe that psychotropic drugs are effective in the treatment of mental disorders. Results: Results are based on ninety three responders who participated in answering the questionnaire. Eighty turned out and submitted the questionnaire for result compilation and analysis. Participants ranged from 19 to 65 years. Males outnumbered female's patients during the study period by approx, 20%. The study indicated that two third of the patients had family history of mental illness. Common diagnosis included epilepsy, behavioral/ conversion disorders and mental retardation. One thought-provoking finding among parents was that psychotropic drugs lead to certain side effects and somehow effects which may causes biological abnormalities resulting into several medical diseases. Others had a belief that these drugs are addictive and may cause vital organs failure. Conclusion: Mostly parents were of the opinion that are of psychotropic drugs lead to certain side effects and somehow effects brain which may cause biological abnormalities resulting into several medical diseases. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin′s parenting stress questionnaire was used and obtained data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance or covariance as appropriate. Results: Mothers of children with sensory-motor mental and chronic physical problems experience more stress than mothers of children with psychological disorders (P < 0.05. The stress score of mothers of children with psychological disorders was lower than the other two groups. Also there was a significant difference between the score of mothers of children with chronic physical problems and mothers of children with psychological disorders regarding parent-child dysfunctional interaction (P < 0.01. A significant difference was observed in terms of stress among mothers of children with sensory-motor mental problems with different number of children (P < 0.05; also mothers of children with chronic physical problems in different levels of education have experienced different levels of parenting stress (P < 0.05 Conclusion: Due to high level of parenting stress among our studied samples, special education and early intervention are needed for parents in our study population in order to deepening their diagnostic knowledge and professional consultation on stress management
Full Text Available The current study aims to clarify the associations as well as the pathways through which parenting and children's emotional intelligence (EI may influence children's mental health with a cross-sectional sample of 675 school pupils (fourth grade, mean age = 10.4 years, 310 boy, 356 girls and 9 unidentified in Taiwan. Hierarchical regression and path analyses were used to examine the relationships between parenting styles, children's trait EI, and their psychological symptoms, with children's psychological symptoms as the dependent variable. The results showed that authoritative parenting was positively associated with children’s trait EI, which in turn had a negative effect on children’s psychological symptoms, whereas authoritarian and Chinese-specific parenting styles had direct negative effect on children’s psychological symptoms. These findings shed light on the pathways of the interrelations between different parenting styles, children's trait EI, and psychological symptoms, providing theoretical as well as practical implications for children's emotional development and mental health.
Wiegand-Grefe, S; Geers, P; Petermann, F; Plass, A
Children of mentally ill parents are known as a high-risk population for the development of psychological disturbances. In this study, the psychiatric diagnoses, the severity and chronicity and the comorbidity of a parental mental illness as well as the non-specific parameters were examined in terms of their influence on the children's mental health. n = 62 children of psychiatric inpatients were examined regarding their psychic symptomatology, assessed with the CBCL-Parent Report Form. The psychiatric ICD-10 diagnoses and comorbidities as well as the severity (CGI) of the mentally ill parents were collected from psychiatric assessment forms. Children of parents with personality disorders (PD) are evaluated as highly affected by their parents, regardless of whether the PD is the primary or the comorbid diagnosis. Children of parents suffering from addictive disorders are seen as the least affected by their parents. Overall, children of parents with multiple diagnoses tend to be rated as more affected. Severity of illness and chronicity do not have a considerable impact on the children's development of mental health problems. Strikingly, children with a high length of exposure to a parental illness are psychologically less affected than children with shorter times of exposure. Thus, children possibly acquire effective coping mechanisms with increasing time of exposure. The results reveal the necessity of preventive programmes, especially in case of personality disorders. In addition the necessity for external assessment of the children becomes clear, especially in those cases where the parents exhibit a poor acceptance of their disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Boka, V; Arapostathis, K; Vretos, N; Kotsanos, N
The aim of this study was to examine the acceptance by Greek parents of nine behaviour-management techniques and its association with several possible confounding factors. Following ethical approval, 106 parents whose 3- to 12-year-old children had been receiving treatment in a university postgraduate paediatric dental clinic, and 123 parents of children from a private paediatric dental practice agreed to participate. After being shown a video with nine behaviour-management techniques, parents rated the acceptance of each technique on a 0-10 scale. They were then asked to complete a questionnaire about demographics, their previous dental experience and dental anxiety (modified Corah dental anxiety scale). The best accepted technique was tell-show-do (9.76 ± 0.69), followed by parental presence/absence (PPA) technique (7.83 ± 3.06) and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation (7.09 ± 3.02). The least accepted techniques were passive restraint (4.21 ± 3.84) and general anaesthesia (4.21 ± 4.02). No correlations were found between acceptance of any individual management technique and parental age, gender, income, education, dental experience and dental anxiety or the child's age, gender and dental experience. Parents whose children had been treated at the University clinic had lower income and educational levels, and rated passive restraint, oral sedation and general anaesthesia higher than those from the private practice. When the parents were specifically asked to choose between general anaesthesia over any of the active or passive restraint, hand-over-mouth and voice control techniques, 10% preferred general anaesthesia, and these parents reported statistically significant more negative dental experience but not higher dental anxiety. Statistical significance of differences was explored using the Tukey-Kramer method. There was no correlation between parental dental experience and dental anxiety and the acceptance of any specific behaviour-management technique
Sun, Gwo-Ching; Hsu, Mei-Chi
Child-to-parent violence is an often hidden serious problem for parental caregivers of mentally ill adult children who experience violence toward them. To date, the comprehensive dyadic parent-adult child intervention to manage child-to-parent violence is scarce. To evaluate the effect of Child- and Parent-focused Violence Program, an adjunctive intervention involved with both violent adult children with mental illness and their victimized biological parent (parent-adult child dyads) on violence management. Open-label randomized controlled trial. A psychiatric ward in a teaching hospital and two mental hospitals in Southern Taiwan. Sixty-nine patients aged ≥20 years, with thought or mood disorders, having violent behavior in the past 6 months toward their biological parent of either gender were recruited. The violent patients' victimized biological parents who had a major and ongoing role in provision of care to these patients, living together with and being assaulted by their violent children were also recruited. The parent-adult child dyads were selected. The intervention was carried out from 2011 to 2013. The parent-adult child dyads were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (36 dyads), which received Child- and Parent-focused Violence Intervention Program, or to the control group (33 dyads), which received only routine psychiatric care. The intervention included two individualized sessions for each patient and parent, separately, and 2 conjoint sessions for each parental-child dyad for a total of 6 sessions. Each session lasted for at least 60-min. Data collection was conducted at 3 different time frames: pre-treatment, post-treatment, and treatment follow-up (one month after the completion of the intervention). Occurrence of violence prior to intervention was comparable between two groups: 88.9% (n=32) parents in the experimental group versus 93.9% (n=31) in the control group experienced verbal attack, and 50% (n=18) versus 48.5% (n=16
Full Text Available Abstract Background: With regards to importance of the role of parents in children's life, imbalance in the roles of parents can lead to serious mental, emotional and physical damages of the child. The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks in parents of children with disability (physical- mental younger than 7 years in the city of Arak in 2016. Materials and Methods: In this study, the parenting role's tasks questionnaire for 120 parents of children with disability was completed. The effect of demographic characteristics on how to perform the role of parents was studied. Results: Based on data collected and analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient for the relationship between the parents and other factors, we have found no significant relationship between role of parents with the child's age. In disabled children, between parent's role and maternal age was significant difference which its correlation coefficient was -0.18, represented the inverse association between maternal age and the parent's role with disabled children. In comparison of parent's role based on child's gender, significant difference was not seen in any of cases. The impact of the seizure on performance of parenting role's tasks implied no relationship between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks. Economic situation as well as on how to do tasks was ineffective. Conclusion: Imbalance in performance of parenting role's tasks in primary care, education, leisure and cognition promotion showed that existence of a disabled child in the family had negative impact on the parenting role's tasks in different aspects, for example further focus on one of the domains lead to ignorance of other domains. Total score confirmed the negative impact of disabled children on efficient implementation of parenting role's tasks.
Malm-Buatsi, Elizabeth; Aston, Christopher E; Ryan, Jamie; Tao, Yeun; Palmer, Blake W; Kropp, Bradley P; Klein, Jake; Wisniewski, Amy B; Frimberger, Dominic
Within the chronic medical illness literature, associations exist between caring for an affected child and parent mental health. The few studies examining both mothers and fathers provide mixed results. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between caregiver anxiety, depression, and parenting variables in caregivers of youth with SB as these relate to marital status, age, education, household income, work status, and child's severity of SB. The aim of this study is to examine associations between anxiety, depression, and parenting variables in caregivers of youth with spina bifida and how they relate to demographic and disease variables. Exploratory analyses examined the relationship between participation in support activities and depressive and anxious symptomatology and parenting characteristics. Eighty-four primary caregivers (49 mothers) of 51 youth with spina bifida completed measures of depressive and anxious symptomology, parenting stress, parent overprotection, and perceived child vulnerability. There were differences between mothers and fathers on several parenting characteristics; however, these were related more to marital status and employment than to gender of the caretaker per se. In the 33 married/remarried couples for whom both spouses participated, stress for the mothers was correlated with stress for the fathers. This correlation was strongest in the 12 married couples in which the mother works. Higher perceived vulnerability scores were reported in parents of SB patients in the younger age group, especially preschoolers (0-4 years). Parents of children with shunts reported more anxiety, depression and perceived child vulnerability. Both male and female caregivers of younger children reported significantly higher protectiveness scores. Involvement in recreational activities with other families affected by SB was associated with more positive parenting characteristics for mothers. Stress and protectiveness were found to be positively
Dey, Michelle; Wang, Jen; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun
To compare children with mental and physical health problems regarding (1) perceived disease severity; (2) the impact of their condition on their families; (3) their utilization of health care services (including satisfaction with care); and (4) parents' health literacy about their child's condition and its treatment. Furthermore, we examined whether parents' health literacy differs between types of mental health condition. Parental reports about their 9- to 14-year-old children with mental (n = 785) or physical health problems (n = 475) were analyzed from the population-based National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs in Switzerland. Mental health problems were perceived as being more severe (p mental health problem mentioned having a particular person or place to contact if they needed information or advice regarding the child's condition (p = 0.004) and were satisfied with the health care services their child received (p mental health problems vs. parents of children with physical health problems (OR in the adjusted model = 1.92; 95 % CI 1.47-2.50; p mental health problem (although only a trend was observable for internalizing problems). The large impact of children's mental health conditions on themselves and their families might be reduced by adapting the provision of health care and by increasing parents' health literacy.
Werner, H; Braegger, Cp; Buehr, P; Koller, R; Nydegger, A; Spalinger, J; Heyland, K; Schibli, S; Landolt, Ma
This study assessed the mental health of parents of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared their mental health with age-matched and gender-matched references and examined parental and child predictors for mental health problems. A total of 125 mothers and 106 fathers of 125 children with active and inactive IBD from the Swiss IBD multicentre cohort study were included. Parental mental health was assessed by the Symptom Checklist 27 and child behaviour problems by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Child medical data were extracted from hospital records. While the mothers reported lower mental health, the fathers' mental health was similar, or even better, than in age-matched and gender-matched community controls. In both parents, shorter time since the child's diagnosis was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, the presence of their own IBD diagnosis and child behaviour problems predicted maternal mental health problems. Parents of children with IBD may need professional support when their child is diagnosed, to mitigate distress. This, in turn, may help the child to adjust better to IBD. Particular attention should be paid to mothers who have their own IBD diagnosis and whose children display behaviour problems. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Polaha, Jodi; Williams, Stacey L.; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Studts, Christina R.
Objective To examine parents’ perceptions of stigma regarding mental health services for their child, consider stigma in the context of novel service delivery settings (e.g., telehealth, primary care, and schools), and evaluate stigma with other factors known to influence service access. Methods 347 caregivers of children with psychosocial concerns completed surveys regarding their perceptions of stigma, service delivery settings, and barriers to care. Results Parents endorsed low levels of s...
Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie
The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.
Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Bodden, Denise H M; Reitz, Ellen; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van Baar, Anneloes L
The death of a parent or sibling (family bereavement) is associated with mental health problems in approximately, 25 % of the affected children. However, it is still unknown whether mental health problems of family-bereaved adolescents are predicted by pre-existing mental health problems, pre-loss family functioning, or multiple bereavements. In this study, a prospective longitudinal assessment of change in mental health following bereavement was done in a large representative sample from the 'Tracking Adolescents Individual Lives Survey' (TRAILS). This is a four-wave prospective cohort study of Dutch adolescents (n = 2230) of whom 131 (5.9 %) had experienced family bereavement at the last wave (T4). Family-bereaved adolescents reported more internalizing problems, within 2 years after family bereavement, compared to the non-bereaved peers, while taking into account the level of internalizing problems before the bereavement. A clinically relevant finding was that 22 % new cases were found in family-bereaved, in comparison to 5.5 % new cases in non-bereaved. Low SES predicted more internalizing problems in family-bereaved but not in non-bereaved adolescents. Family functioning, reported by the adolescent, did not predict mental health problems within 2 years. Multiple family bereavements predicted fewer externalizing problems. In conclusion, internalizing problems increase in adolescents after family bereavement in comparison to non-bereaved and these can be predicted by pre-loss factors. Awareness among professionals regarding the risks for aggravation of mental health problems after family loss is needed.
Macedo, A; Sherr, L; Tomlinson, M; Skeen, S; Roberts, K J
Parental loss is a major stressful event found to increase risk of mental health problems in childhood. Yet, some children show resilient adaptation in the face of adversity across time. This study explores predictors of mental health resilience among parentally bereaved children in South Africa and Malawi, and their cumulative effect. The study also explores whether predictors of resilience differed between orphaned and non-orphaned children. Consecutive attenders of community based organisations (children;4-13 years, and their caregivers) were interviewed at baseline and 15-18 month follow up (n=833). Interviews comprised of inventories on demographic information, family data, child mental health, bereavement experience and community characteristics. Mental health screens were used to operationalise resilience as the absence of symptoms of depression, suicidality, trauma, emotional and behavioural problems. Almost 60% of children experienced parental loss. One quarter of orphaned children showed no mental health problems at either wave and were classified as resilient. There were equal proportions of children classified as resilient within the orphaned (25%) vs. non-orphaned group (22%). Being a quick learner, aiding ill family members, positive caregiving, household employment, higher community support, and lower exposure to domestic violence, physical punishment, or stigma at baseline predicted sustained resilience. There were cumulative influences of resilience predictors among orphaned children. Predictors of resilience did not vary by child age, gender, country of residence or between orphaned and non-orphaned children. This study enhances understanding of resilience in younger children and identifies a number of potential environmental and psychosocial factors for bolstering resilience in orphaned children.
Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete
Little is known about parents' health following their children's exposure to trauma. We investigated the mental health of parents of young terrorist survivors and assessed parental distress and guilt as potential predictors of mental health. Mothers and fathers (N=531) participated in two study waves 4-5 and 14-15 months after the shooting. Posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSS) and anxiety/depression were compared with age- and gender-adjusted expected scores that were calculated from a concurrent population study. Mixed effects models investigated the associations between parental distress, parental guilt, and mental health. Parents' level of anxiety/depression was three times higher and PTSS was five times higher than that of the general population. Parental distress and guilt about their child's traumatic experience contributed uniquely to symptoms at both time points. Parents of traumatized youth constitute a vulnerable group that has been overlooked in the literature. Intervention strategies following trauma should include both survivors and their parents. Copyright © 2016 Z. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
van Berkel, Sheila R; Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David
This study examined how the combination of sibling victimization and parental child maltreatment is related to mental health problems and delinquency in childhood and adolescence. Co-occurrence, additive associations, and interactive associations of sibling victimization and parental child maltreatment were investigated using a sample of 2,053 children aged 5-17 years from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. The results provide primarily evidence for additive associations and only suggest some co-occurrence and interactive associations of sibling victimization and child maltreatment. Evidence for co-occurrence was weak and, when controlling for the other type of maltreatment, only found for neglect. Sibling victimization was related to more mental health problems and delinquency over and above the effect of child abuse and neglect. Moderation by sibling victimization depended on child age and was only found for the relation between both types of child maltreatment by parents and delinquency. For mental health, no interactive associations were found. These results highlight the unique and combined associations between sibling victimization on child development.
Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Ormel, Johan
Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to
Gunnarsdóttir, Hrafnhildur; Hensing, Gunnel; Povlsen, Lene
BACKGROUND: The Nordic welfare system has been acknowledged as favourable for children, successfully contributing to low child mortality and poverty rates. Nevertheless, mental health problems among children and adolescents are common and the economic situation of the family has been highlighted...... as an important determinant. In spite of similar social, political and cultural structures, the Nordic countries differ; Iceland was most affected by the global financial crisis in 2008. The aim of this study was to examine potential differences in parental financial stress and the associations to child mental...... to measure mental health problems. RESULTS: In Iceland, 47.7% of the parents reported financial stress while ≤20% did so in the other countries except for Finland (33.5%). However, in case of parental financial stress the OR of mental health problems comparing children to parents with and without financial...
Doesum, K.T.M. van; Riebschleger, J.; Carroll, J.; Grové, C.; Lauritzen, C.; Mordoch, E.; Skerfving, A.
Research substantiates children of parents with mental disorders including substance abuse face increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Although evidence suggests that support programs for children enhance resiliency, recruiting children to these groups remains problematic. This study
Neece, Cameron L
Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems; however, it is rarely addressed in interventions aimed at reducing child behaviour problems. The current study examined the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for parents of children with DD by investigating whether this intervention is effective in reducing parenting stress and whether decreases in parenting stress lead to reductions in behaviour problems among children with DD. Forty six parents of children with DD were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or wait list-control group. Participants completed questionnaires assessing parental stress and child behaviour problems at intake and at a second assessment, which took place after only the immediate treatment group had received the MBSR. Parents who participated in MBSR reported significantly less stress and depression as well as greater life satisfaction compared with wait list-control parents. Regarding child outcomes, children whose parents participated in MBSR were reported to have fewer behaviour problems following the intervention, specifically in the areas of attention problems and ADHD symptomatology. Results indicated that MBSR may be an effective intervention for ameliorating parental stress and mental health problems among parents of children with DD. Additionally, these benefits may 'spill over' and improve behaviour challenges among these children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte
Mental health problems are often transmitted from one generation to the next. However, transferring knowledge about interventions that reduce intergenerational transmission of disease to the field of parental mental illness has been very difficult. One of the most critical issues in mental health services research is the gap between what is generally known about effective treatment and what is provided to consumers in routine care. In this article we discuss several aspects of knowledge transfer in the field of parental mental illness. Effective strategies and implementation prerequisites are explored, and we also discuss indicators of success and sustainability. Altogether, this article presents a rationale for the importance of preventive strategies for children of mentally ill parents. Furthermore, the discussion shows how complex it is to change clinical practice.
Risholm Mothander, Pia; Furmark, Catarina; Neander, Kerstin
This study presents effects of adding Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P) to an already established comprehensive therapeutic model for early parent-child intervention in three Swedish infant mental health (IMH) clinics. Parents' internal representations and quality of parent-infant interaction were studied in a clinical sample comprised of 52 parent-infant dyads randomly allocated to two comparable groups. One group consisted of 28 dyads receiving treatment as usual (TAU) supplemented with COS-P in a small group format, and another group of 24 dyads receiving TAU only. Assessments were made at baseline (T1), 6 months after inclusion (T2) and 12 months after inclusion (T3). Changes over time were explored in 42 dyads. In the COS-P group, the proportion of balanced representations, as assessed with Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI), significantly increased between T1 and T3. Further, the proportion of emotionally available interactions, as assessed with Emotional Availability scales (EA), significantly increased over time in the COS-P group. Improvements in the TAU-group were close to significant. Limitations of the study are mainly related to the small sample size. Strength is the real world character of the study, where COS-P was implemented in a clinical context not otherwise adapted to research. We conclude by discussing the value of supplementing TAU with COS-P in IMH treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Giallo, R; Cooklin, A; Wade, C; D'Esposito, F; Nicholson, J M
Maternal postnatal mental health difficulties have been associated with poor outcomes for children. One mechanism by which parent mental health can impact on children's outcomes is via its effects on parenting behaviour. The longitudinal relationships between maternal postnatal distress, parenting warmth, hostility and child well-being at age seven were examined for 2200 families participating in a population-based longitudinal study of Australian children. The relationship between postnatal distress and children's later emotional-behavioural development was mediated by parenting hostility, but not parenting warmth, even after accounting for concurrent maternal mental health. Postnatal distress was more strongly associated with lower parenting warmth for mothers without a past history of depression compared with mothers with a past history of depression. These findings underscore the contribution of early maternal well-being to later parenting and child outcomes, highlighting the importance of mental health and parenting support in the early parenting years. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Bjereld, Ylva; Hensing, Gunnel; Petzold, Max; Povlsen, Lene
The home, the family and the parents represent a context of everyday life that is important for child health and development, with parent-child relationships highlighted as crucial for children's mental health. Time pressure is an emerging feature of modern societies and previous studies indicates that parents with children living at home experience time pressure to a greater extent than people with no children living at home. Previous studies of children's mental health in relation to parents' time pressure are lacking. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between parents' subjective time pressure and mental health problems among children in the Nordic countries as well as potential disparities between boys and girls in different age groups. 4592 children, aged 4-16 from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, participating in the 2011 version of the NordChild study, were included. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure children's mental health and associations to parents' time pressure were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Among children of parents experiencing time pressure, 18.6% had mental health problems compared to 10.1% among children of parents experiencing time pressure not or sometimes. The odds of mental health problems were higher among both boys (OR 1.80 95% CI 1.32-2.46) and girls (OR 1.95 95% CI 1.42-2.66) if their parents experienced time pressure when adjusted for financial stress. The highest prevalence of mental health problems in the case of parental time pressure was found among girls 13-16 years old (23.6%) and the lowest prevalence was found among boys 13-16 years old (10.7%). In this study an association between parents' subjective time pressure and increased mental health problems among children was found. Given that time pressure is a growing feature of modern societies, the results might contribute to an explanation as to mental health problems are common among children
Mohammad reza khodabakhsh; Fariba kiani; Soliman Ahmedbookani
Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls) of Boukan's hi...
Vukojević, Mladenka; Zovko, Ana; Talić, Ivana; Tanović, Merima; Rešić, Biserka; Vrdoljak, Ivana; Splavski, Bruno
Parental socioeconomic status is a multidimensional concept of special importance for the growth, development, health outcomes and education of children. Its definition generally refers to the amount of parents' income, their employment status and level of education. Hence, lack of economic resources and poverty of parents affect all aspects of the child's life, health outcomes and education, as well as his/her social inclusion. Accordingly, the consequences of a reduced parental socioeconomic status leave long-term effects on their children. Therefore, in order to create interventional programs for children of parents with low income and lower socioeconomic status, as well as with lower level of education, it is important to address the direct aspects of poverty. This review contributes to the evidence indicating that the parental socioeconomic status is highly influential in determining the child's physical and mental health and future outcomes including his/her academic achievements and education, as well as the parameters of his/her physical abilities, cognitive function and fundamental neurobiology affecting brain development.
Langley, Audra; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Rodríguez, Adriana; Zelaya, Jennifer
Although more schools are offering mental health programs, few studies have involved the school community in research to improve their successful implementation. In this community-partnered study, focus groups were conducted with school staff and parents to explore issues related to community engagement and feasibility of a mental health intervention for elementary school students exposed to trauma. Four educator focus groups, including 23 participants, and 2 parent focus groups, consisting of 9 Spanish-speaking and 7 English-speaking parents were conducted. Participants discussed facilitators and barriers to successful implementation of the program. Participants identified the importance of pre-implementation parent education, raising awareness of the impact of student mental health among educators, maintaining ongoing communication during the intervention, and addressing logistical concerns. Participants described clear considerations for parent and educator engagement, both at the pre-implementation phase and during implementation of the program. Implications for next steps of this community-partnered approach are described.
Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Rodríguez, Adriana; Zelaya, Jennifer
Although more schools are offering mental health programs, few studies have involved the school community in research to improve their successful implementation. In this community partnered study, focus groups were conducted with school staff and parents to explore issues related to community engagement and feasibility of a mental health intervention for elementary school students exposed to trauma. Four educator focus groups, including 23 participants, and 2 parent focus groups, consisting of 9 Spanish-speaking and 7 English-speaking parents were conducted. Participants discussed facilitators and barriers to successful implementation of the program. Participants identified the importance of pre-implementation parent education, raising awareness of the impact of student mental health among educators, maintaining ongoing communication during the intervention, and addressing logistical concerns. Participants described clear considerations for parent and educator engagement both at the pre implementation phase and during implementation of the program. Implications for next steps of this community partnered approach are described. PMID:23576136
Avieli, Hila; Smeloy, Yael; Band-Winterstein, Tova
Increasing numbers of aging parents are finding themselves in the role of caregiver for their mentally ill adult child due to global deinstitutionalization policy. The aim of this article is to explore preparations for the end of life in light of the life review process among old parents of abusive children with mental disorder. Data collection was performed through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 20 parents, followed by phenomenological analysis. Five different types of departure scripts emerged: a pragmatic departure script, a burned-out departure script, a dead-end departure script, an optimistic departure script, and a violent departure script. The parents in this study tended to interpret events in their past to fit their perception of the current relationship with their child, thus connecting past, present, and future into one coherent picture. Years of extended care have led to a unique aging process which does not allow separation from the child or the development of a sense of closure that characterizes the aging process. This calls for better insights and deeper understanding in regard to intervention with such families. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Aebi, Marcel; Kuhn, Christine; Banaschewski, Tobias
were used to predict any problems/disorders, emotional problems/disorders and behavioural problems/disorders in a community sample (n = 252) and in a clinic sample (n = 95). RESULTS: The findings were strikingly similar in both samples. Parent and youth SDQ scales were related to any problem/disorder......BACKGROUND: Discrepancies between multiple informants often create considerable uncertainties in delivering services to youth. The present study assessed the ability of the parent and youth scales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to predict mental health problems/disorders....... Youth SDQ symptom and impact had the strongest association with emotional problems/disorder and parent SDQ symptom score were most strongly related to behavioural problems/disorders. Both the SDQ total and the impact scores significantly predicted emotional problems/disorders in males whereas...
Gökgöz-Durmaz, Funda; Cihan, Fatma Gökşin; Uzun, Meltem; Kutlu, Ruhuşen
Mental health problems and parental anxiety in children with epilepsy were investigated. Parents of 83 children with epilepsy and 172 healthy children were asked to complete Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for their children and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for themselves. In those with epilepsy, 39.8% (n: 33) were girls, 60.2% (n: 50) were boys and their mean age was 9.34 ± 3.99 years. Control group was more successful in school (p children with epilepsy was higher than control group (p children with epilepsy were higher. Children with epilepsy have more neuro-behavioral problems; and their parents have greater anxiety levels. Physicians should be in contact with children with epilepsy for the psychological health of the family besides seizure control.
Mattejat, F; Wüthrich, C; Remschmidt, H
Children of psychiatrically ill parents represent a risk group that has received growing attention during the last years. The risk for this group to develop a psychiatric illness is markedly increased due to genetic and psychosocial factors. The development of effective preventive concepts requires a thorough knowledge of the psychosocial factors. In this paper, deficits and problems of research in psychosocial transmission mechanism are discussed taking the example of children of depressive parents. Conclusions from this exemplary considerations may serve as guidelines for future research. The authors suggest that the focus be rather placed on coping strategies and developmental psychopathology. Further, research criteria are formulated that refer to theoretical models as well as to study design.
Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Dettlaff, Alan J; Hurlburt, Michael S
Latino families may be at risk of experiencing stressors resulting from the immigration process, such as those related to documentation status and acculturation, that may increase their need for mental health services. However, little research exists on the mental health needs and service use of Latino children. This study examined how parental nativity and legal status influence mental health needs and service utilization among children in Latino families investigated by child welfare. Data from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative, prospective study of families investigated by child welfare agencies for maltreatment, were used to examine mental health need and service use in a subset of Latino children who remained in the home following a maltreatment investigation (N=390). Although children of immigrants did not differ from children of U.S.-born parents in levels of clinical need, they had lower rates of mental health service receipt. After the analyses accounted for other relevant variables, the odds of receiving services were significantly lower (odds ratio=.09) for children whose parents were undocumented compared with children whose parents were U.S. citizens. This study contributes to growing discourse on Latino family needs within the child welfare system. Analyses support earlier research regarding the effects of parent nativity on mental health service use and advance the literature by identifying parent legal status as a unique barrier to child service receipt.
Collings, Sunny; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Carter, Kristie; Signal, Louise
In many countries single parents report poorer mental health than partnered parents. This study investigates whether there are gender differences in the mental health of single parents in New Zealand (and whether any gender difference varies with that among partnered parents), and examines key social and demographic mediators that may account for this difference. We used data on 905 single parents and 4,860 partnered parents from a New Zealand household panel survey that included the Kessler-10 measure of psychological distress. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate both interactions of gender and parental status, and confounding or mediation by other covariates. High/very high levels of psychological distress were reported by 15.7 % of single mothers and 9.1 % of single fathers, and 6.1 % of partnered mothers and 4.1 % of partnered fathers. In an Ordinary Least Squares regression of continuous K10 scores on gender, parental status and the interaction of both (plus adjustment for ethnicity, number of children and age), female single parents had a 1.46 higher K10 score than male single parents (95 % CI 0.48-2.44; 1.46). This difference was 0.98 (95 % CI -0.04 to 1.99) points greater than the gender difference among partnered parents. After controlling for further confounding or mediating covariates (educational level, labour force status and socioeconomic deprivation) both the gender difference among single parents (0.38, -0.56 to 1.31) and the interaction of gender and parental status (0.28 greater gender difference among single parents, -0.69 to 1.65) greatly reduced in magnitude and became non-significant, mainly due to adjustment for individual socioeconomic deprivation. The poorer mental health of single parents remains an important epidemiological phenomenon. Although research has produced mixed findings of the nature of gender differences in the mental health of single parents, our research adds to the increasing evidence that it is single
Birdi, Gurkiran; Cooke, Richard; Knibb, Rebecca
Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population completed validated measures of QoL, anxiety, depression, and stress. Results. Parents of children with food allergy (PA or MA) reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression than the control group (all p food allergy related QoL compared to parents of children with PA (p food allergy have significantly poorer mental health compared to healthy controls, irrespective of whether food allergy is medically diagnosed or not. It is important to encourage parents to have their child medically tested for food allergy and to recognise and refer for psychological support where needed.
Verhulp, Esmée E.; Stevens, Gonneke W.J.M.; Van Weert, Caroline M.C.; Pels, Trees V.M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.
Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in lay
Verhulp, Esmée E.; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Pels, Trees V M; Van Weert, Caroline M C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Objective: Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in
Riemersma, I.; Santvoort, F. van; Vermaes, I.P.R.
Aim: To date no intervention is available for children with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) of parents with a mental illness or substance use disorder, despite the strong relation between parental psychopathology and ID in children. Moreover, research has shown that mild ID combined with
Nguyen, Peter V.
Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. Most Vietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity…
Joseph, Gathua; Muthee, Jessica
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of parent's involvement in education on the academic performance of the mentally retarded learners in primary schools of selected schools in Thika Municipality, Kiambu County. The objectives of the study was to determine whether cultural beliefs among the parents affects the enrolments of…
Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender
Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…
Reedtz, Charlotte; Lauritzen, Camilla; van Doesum, Karin T M
According to new Norwegian laws, mental healthcare for adults are obligated to assess all patients who are parents and to act on their children's needs. This article describes the study protocol of implementing the interventions Family Assessment and Child Talks for children of patients in the adult psychiatry of the University Hospital of Northern Norway. The project is designed to evaluate the process of changes in clinical practice due to the implementation of two interventions. The interventions to be implemented are a standardised Family Assessment Form and the intervention called Child Talks. The family assessment form is an intervention to identify children of mentally ill parents and their needs. The intervention Child Talks is a health-promoting and preventive intervention where the mental health workers talk with the family about the situation of the children and their needs. There are two groups of participants in this study: (1) mental health workers in the clinic (N=220) and (2) patients who are parents (N=200) receiving treatment in the clinic. (1) In the evaluation of clinical practice, the authors use a pre-test, post-test and 1-year follow-up design. At pre-test, the authors evaluate status quo among mental health workers in the clinic regarding knowledge, attitudes, collaborative routines and clinical practice related to families with parental mental illness. After the pre-test is finished, the project move on to implement the interventions Family Assessment Form and Child Talks in the clinic. At post-test and 1-year follow-up, the authors evaluate the impact of implementing the Family Assessment Form in terms of how many children were identified and offered Child Talks in the clinic or referred to other services for additional support. (2) In the evaluation of parents/patients experience with the interventions, the authors use a pre-test post-test design. To identify children of mentally ill patients, the authors collect data on demographical
Golub, Judith S.; And Others
This study describes discipline practices, attitudes, beliefs, and other characteristics that may differentiate parents of children in day care from those parents who care for their children at home. Adult-child ratio, staff continuity, and staff training were used as quality-of-care indices. A total of 89 families with target children between 18…
Patel, Monica; McTigue, Dennis J; Thikkurissy, Sarat; Fields, Henry W
To re-examine parental attitudes toward advanced behavior management techniques in pediatric dentistry and determine whether cost, urgency, and amount of treatment influence parental preferences. Parents viewed previously validated videotaped clinical vignettes of four advanced behavior guidance techniques: (1) passive immobilization; (2) active immobilization; (3) general anesthesia; and (4) oral sedation. The study was conducted in a children's hospital dental clinic and a suburban private pediatric dentistry office. Parents rated overall acceptance of the techniques, and acceptance under specified conditions using an anchored visual analogue scale. One hundred five parents completed the survey; 55 from the children's hospital and 50 from private practice. Oral sedation was rated as the most acceptable technique, followed by general anesthesia, active immobilization, and passive immobilization. As urgency, convenience, and previous experience increased, parental acceptance of the technique increased. As cost of treatment increased, parental acceptance decreased. Ratings between the children's hospital group and private practice group differed, as did the demographic variables of insurance, income, and race. The hierarchy of parental acceptance of advanced behavior guidance techniques is changing with increasing approval of pharmacological management and decreasing approval of physical management. The health care delivery system, urgency, convenience, previous experience, and cost all influence parental acceptance.
Fardouly, Jasmine; Magson, Natasha R; Johnco, Carly J; Oar, Ella L; Rapee, Ronald M
Time spent on social media and making online comparisons with others may influence users' mental health. This study examined links between parental control over the time their child spends on social media, preadolescents' time spent browsing social media, preadolescents' appearance comparisons on social media, and preadolescents' appearance satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction. Preadolescent social media users (N = 284, 49.1% female; aged 10-12) and one of their parents completed online surveys. Preadolescents, whose parents reported greater control over their child's time on social media, reported better mental health. This relationship was mediated by preadolescents spending less time browsing and making fewer appearance comparisons on social media. Parental control over time spent on social media may be associated with benefits for mental health among preadolescents.
Yamamoto, Rumi; Keogh, Brian
WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: There are many qualitative studies that explore what it is like for children who live with a parent who has a mental illness. These studies are sometimes criticized because they have small sample sizes which limits their application. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We conducted a systematic review of qualitative papers with an aim to strengthening our understanding of what it is like for children who live with a parent who has a mental illness. We used stringent criteria to make sure that only the voices of children affected by parental mental illness were included in the review. In addition, the paper presents a timely update on previous reviews completed in this area. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The findings of this review highlight the impact that parental mental illness has on children and the important role that mental health nurses can play in maximizing opportunities for building resilience in affected children. Mental health nurses are in a key position to provide timely and age-appropriate information and support to both parents and children to assist in the development of appropriate coping and support mechanisms. Introduction This paper brings together what is known about what it is like for children who live with a parent with a mental illness with a view to strengthening our understanding of their experiences. This paper presents an update on previous reviews that were completed in this area and used a systematic approach and stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria to ensure that the voices of children were central in the included papers. A systematic review of this nature could not be located in the literature. Aims This paper presents the findings of a systematic review which explored the experiences of children who were affected by parental mental illness. Methods CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, Pubmesh and EMBASE were searched for qualitative studies which explored children's experiences, and
de Castro, Alessandra Maia; de Oliveira, Fabiana Sodré; de Paiva Novaes, Myrian Stella; Araújo Ferreira, Danielly Cunha
This study compared the parental acceptance of pediatric behavior guidance techniques (BGT). Forty parents of children without disabilities (Group A) and another 40 parents of children with disabilities (Group B) were selected. Each BGT was explained by a single examiner and it was presented together with a photograph album. After that parents evaluated the acceptance in: totally unacceptable, somewhat acceptable, acceptable, and totally acceptable. Results indicated that in Group A, the BGT based on communicative guidance was accepted by most participants. In Group B, just one mother considered totally unacceptable the voice control method and other two, tell-show-do. For both groups, the general anesthesia was the less accepted BGT. There was statistically significant difference in acceptance for protective stabilization with a restrictive device in Group B. Children's parents with and without disabilities accepted behavioral guidance techniques, but basic techniques showed higher rates of acceptance than advanced techniques. ©2013 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abdirahman, H A; Bah, T T; Shrestha, H L; Jacobsen, K H
To examine the relationships between peer victimization, mental health, and parental involvement among middle school students in the Caribbean. Data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in the Cayman Islands, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago in 2007 were analysed using age- and gender-adjusted logistic regression models. About one-quarter of the 6780 participants reported having been bullied in the past month. Rates of bullying were similar for boys and girls, and younger children reported higher rates of peer victimization. Nearly 25% of students reported sadness and hopelessness, more than 10% reported loneliness and anxiety and more than 15% reported having seriously considered suicide in the past year. Bullied students were much more likely than non-bullied students to report mental health issues (p mental health issues and were somewhat less likely to report being a victim of a bully. The strong association between bullying and poor mental health in the Caribbean emphasizes the need to develop and implement strategies for reducing bullying among children and adolescents.
Butler, Ashley M; Elkins, Sara; Kowalkowski, Marc; Raphael, Jean L
High quality care in pediatrics involves shared decision making (SDM) between families and providers. The extent to which children with common mental health disorders experience SDM is not well known. The objectives of this study were to examine how parent-reported SDM varies by child health (physical illness, mental health condition, and comorbid mental and physical conditions) and to examine whether medical home care attenuates any differences. We analyzed data on children (2-17 years) collected through the 2009/2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. The sample consisted of parents of children in one of three child health categories: (1) children with a chronic physical illness but no mental health condition; (2) children with a common mental health condition but no chronic physical condition; and (3) children with comorbid mental and chronic physical conditions. The primary dependent variable was parent-report of provider SDM. The primary independent variable was health condition category. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted. Multivariate analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables and parent-reported health condition impact indicated lower SDM among children with a common mental health condition-only (B = -0.40; p mental health condition-only were no longer significant in the model adjusting for medical home care. However, differences in SDM for children with comorbid conditions persisted after adjusting for medical home care. Increasing medical home care may help mitigate differences in SDM for children with mental health conditions-only. Other interventions may be needed to improve SDM among children with comorbid mental and physical conditions.
These findings add support to recommendations that mental health professionals consider the impact of their patient’s psychiatric symptoms on the developing child when planning treatment. The study also shows that it is important to ensure that fathers are not overlooked in assessment and intervention. Family-based approaches to adult psychiatric care could meet the dual needs of intervention for parents and preventative measures for their offspring. These findings can inform policy regarding the importance of integrating and coordinating services to meet the needs of the family.
Knutsson-Medin, L; Edlund, B; Ramklint, M
Children of mentally ill parents have increased rates of psychopathology and reduced adaptive functioning. However, there are very few studies examining the subjective experiences of those children and their opinions concerning their previous contact with psychiatric services. This study followed up a group of children of former psychiatric inpatients by sending them a questionnaire asking about their experiences. Thirty-six individuals responded. Answers were analysed qualitatively by using manifest content analysis. Participants reported negative experiences and lack of information and support from psychiatric care. They had wanted more explanations and more support for themselves. Quantitative data are used to establish the significance of the results.
This thesis examines long-term, negative consequences of various behaviours characteristic of negative parenting styles, specifically verbal maltreatment (insulting children), physical maltreatment (beating or hitting children), and lack of encouragement. Psychological scales were employed to explore the relationship of each of these factors to mental and physical health in adults. As a part of this research, a new questionnaire, the Arabic Parenting Style Questionnaire (APSQ), was developed...
Zeratsion, Henok; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole R; Halvorsen, Jon A; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Claussen, Bjørgulf
Former studies have shown increased mental health problems in adolescents after parental divorce all over the Western world. We wanted to see if that still is the case in Norway today when divorce turns to be more and more common. In a prospective study design, two samples were constituted, adolescents at a baseline survey in 2001/02 (n = 2422) and those at follow-up in 2003/04 (n = 1861), when the adolescents were 15/16 and 18/19 years-old, respectively. They answered self-administered questionnaires in both surveys of Young-HUBRO in Oslo. Early parental divorce was defined as that which occured before age 15/16 years, and late divorce occured between age 15/16 and 18/19. Internalized and externalized mental health problems were measured by the Hopkin's Symptom Check List (HSCL-10) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). After linear regression models were adjusted for gender, ethnicity, family economy, social support, and mental health problem symptoms measured at baseline before parental divorce occured, late parental divorce did not lead to significant increase in mental health problems among adolescents in the city of Oslo. Early parental divorce was associated with internal mental health problems among young adolescents when adjusted only for the first four possible confounders. It seems that parental divorce in late adolescence does not lead to mental health problems in Norway any more, as has been shown before, while such problems may prevail among young adolescents. This does not mean that parental divorce create less problems in late adolescence than before but these youths might have developed adjustment abilities against health effects as divorce have turned to be more common.
Reedtz, C.; Lauritzen, C.; Doesum, K.T.M. van
Background According to new Norwegian laws, mental healthcare for adults are obligated to assess all patients who are parents and to act on their children's needs. This article describes the study protocol of implementing the interventions Family Assessment and Child Talks for children of patients
Muzik, Maria; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Alfafara, Emily A; Schuster, Melisa M; Miller, Nicole M; Waddell, Rachel M; Stanton Kohler, Emily
Maternal psychopathology and traumatic life experiences may adversely impact family functioning, the quality of the parent-child relationship and the attachment bond, placing the child's early social-emotional development at risk. Attachment-based parenting interventions may be particularly useful in decreasing negative outcomes for children exposed to risk contexts, yet high risk families frequently do not engage in programs to address mental health and/or parenting needs. This study evaluated the effects of Mom Power (MP), a 13-session parenting and self-care skills group program for high-risk mothers and their young children (age parenting competence, and engagement in treatment. Mothers were referred from community health providers for a phase 1 trial to assess feasibility, acceptability, and pilot outcomes. At baseline, many reported several identified risk factors, including trauma exposure, psychopathology, poverty, and single parenthood. Ninety-nine mother-child pairs were initially recruited into the MP program with 68 women completing and providing pre- and post-self-report measures assessing demographics and trauma history (pre-assessment only), maternal mental health (depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)), parenting, and intervention satisfaction. Results indicate that MP participation was associated with reduction in depression, PTSD, and caregiving helplessness. A dose response relationship was evident in that, despite baseline equivalence, women who attended ≥70 % of the 10 groups (completers; N = 68) improved on parenting and mental health outcomes, in contrast to non-completers (N = 12). Effects were most pronounced for women with a mental health diagnosis at baseline. The intervention was perceived as helpful and user-friendly. Results indicate that MP is feasible, acceptable, and holds promise for improving maternal mental health and parenting competence among high-risk dyads. Further research is warranted to evaluate
Ergün, Gül; Gümüş, Funda; Dikeç, Gül
To investigate the relationship between traumatic growth and psychological resilience in young adult children of parents with a mental disorder and to compare them with young adult children of parents without mental disorders. Negative life experiences that lead to trauma can affect young adults' psychological resilience, either positively or negatively. This study investigates levels of traumatic growth, the characteristics of psychological resilience, and the relationship between the former and latter in young adults between the ages of 18 and 23 who have parents with a mental disorder and who have parents without a mental disorder. This study was designed as a cross-sectional, descriptive study and was conducted between June 1 and October 31 of 2017. The sample of the study consisted of young adult children of outpatients with mental disorders who applied to the Psychiatric Polyclinics of Burdur State Hospital (334) and young adult children of parents without mental disorders who applied to different polyclinics (332). A total of 666 individuals participated in the study. Comparative analyses showed a significant difference between the participants who had parents with a mental disorder and participants who had parents without mental disorders in terms of the mean scale scores and all sub-scale scores on the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory and Resilience Scale for Adults. It was found that individuals who had parents without a mental disorder were negatively affected after traumatic events and that their psychological resilience was high. This study provides data on the characteristics of traumatic growth and psychological resilience levels of not only young adults whose parents have mental disorders but also young adults whose parents do not have mental disorders. In the light of this study's findings, psychiatric nurses may benefit from conducting early screening and intervention programs to help increase the psychological resilience of young adults whose
Koren E V; Kupriyanova, T A; Dubinskaya, A O; Khairetdinov, O Z
To specify parent reaction to a mental disorder in the child and to develop differential approaches to psychosocial family interventions. Authors studied parents (mostly mothers) of 140 children with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 100 children with autistic disorders and 85 children with mental retardation. Along with psychiatric examination of the parents, it was used psychometric scales ECI and CGSQ. Authors specified emotional and behavioral characteristics of the parents' reaction as common for all diseases studied as well peculiar for separated forms of mental diseases in children. The factors (cognitive, emotional and behavioral) determining the targets of differentiated therapeutic interventions were singled out. The stress coping strategies for parents are formulated.
Afifi, Tracie O; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender
To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years; response rate 82.4%). Logistic regression models were used to determine the odds of experiencing lifetime psychiatric disorders and suicidal ideation and attempts. Parental divorce alone was associated with some psychiatric disorders after adjusting for sociodemographic variables (AOR ranging from 1.30 to 2.37), while child abuse alone was associated with psychiatric disorders (AOR ranging from 1.39 to 6.07) and suicidal ideation (AOR=2.08; 95% CI=1.57-2.77) and attempts (AOR=1.54; 95% CI=1.02-2.31) after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. However, having experienced both parental divorce and child abuse together resulted in significantly increased odds for lifetime PTSD (AOR=9.87; 95% CI=6.69-14.55), conduct disorder (AOR=4.01; 95% CI=2.92-5.51) and suicide attempts (AOR=2.74; 95% CI=1.84-4.08) compared to having experienced either parental divorce or child abuse alone. These results were attenuated when further adjusting for parental psychopathology. When the experience of parental divorce is accompanied with child abuse, the associations with some poor mental health outcomes are significantly greater compared to the impact of either parental divorce or child abuse on its own. Therefore, parental divorce is an additional childhood adversity that significantly contributes to poor mental health outcomes especially when in combination with child abuse. Parental psychopathology attenuated these relationships suggesting that it may be one possible mechanism to explain the relationships between child abuse, parental divorce, and psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts.
Wahl, Patricia; Bruland, Dirk; Bauer, Ulrich; Lenz, Albert
Mentally ill parents are often sceptical about professional help for their children although these children face an increased risk to develop a mental disease themselves. To get a better understanding of needs and help-seeking behaviour in those families a systematic literature review was conducted. Four databases (FIS, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, PubPsych) were scanned for international and national research literature. Out of 18,057 articles 56 were included which report quantitative or qualitative studies taking the children's and parents' perspectives into account. A thematic synthesis was done to categorize the needs. Results concerning the help-seeking behaviour and the influence of demographic variables were extracted and summarized. Our results were limited by the aspect that no evaluation of study quality had been made and influences on the categorizing process by the authors' subjective perceptions are likely. There were a lot of hints regarding the needs of the families, but little report was found about help-seeking behaviour and demographic variables. The "health literacy" concept was discussed as a basis for further research in this area.
Gibson, Marcia; Thomson, Hilary; Banas, Kasia; Lutje, Vittoria; McKee, Martin J; Martin, Susan P; Fenton, Candida; Bambra, Clare; Bond, Lyndal
Background Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents. Objectives To assess the effects of WtW interventions on mental and physical health in lone parents and their children living in high-income countries. The secondary objective is to assess the effects of welfare-to-work interventions on employment and income. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, PsycINFO EBSCO, ERIC EBSCO, SocINDEX EBSCO, CINAHL EBSCO, Econlit EBSCO, Web of Science ISI, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) via Proquest, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS) via ProQuest, Social Services Abstracts via Proquest, Sociological Abstracts via Proquest, Campbell Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) (CRD York), Turning Research into Practice (TRIP), OpenGrey and Planex. We also searched bibliographies of included publications and relevant reviews, in addition to many relevant websites. We identified many included publications by handsearching. We performed the searches in 2011, 2013 and April 2016. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mandatory or voluntary WtW interventions for lone parents in high-income countries, reporting impacts on parental mental health, parental physical health, child mental health or child physical health. Data collection and analysis One review author extracted data using a standardised extraction
Full Text Available Background Children of parents with bipolar disorder appear to have an increased risk of early-onset Bipolar Disorder (BP, mood disorders and other psychiatric disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the mental health of school-age children of parents, with/without bipolar disorder. Materials and Methods This case-control study included one hundred children aged six to twelve years, who had parents with bipolar disorder and 200 children of 163 demographically-matched control parents. Parents with bipolar disorder were recruited from Farshchian Psychiatric Hospital of Hamadan, Iran, during year 2014. The parent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 questionnaire was used to measure mental health. Mean comparisons were performed using Student’s t test while effect sizes were estimated by Cohen’s d coefficient. The Chi-square test was used to assess significant differences between frequency distribution of demographic variables in both groups. The significance level was considered less than 0.05. Results There were statistically significant differences between children of parents with and those without bipolar disorder regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct, generalized anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, separation anxiety (P< 0.001 and social phobia (P < 0.05. Children of parents with BP are at high risk for psychiatric disorders. Conclusions These findings support that the careful evaluation and prospective following of the psychopathology of children of parents with bipolar disorder are critical for early identification and treatment.
McGilloway, Sinead; NiMhaille, Grainne; Bywater, Tracey; Leckey, Yvonne; Kelly, Paul; Furlong, Mairead; Comiskey, Catherine; O'Neill, Donal; Donnelly, Michael
The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Basic parent programme (IYBP) in reducing child conduct problems and improving parent competencies and mental health was examined in a 12-month follow-up. Pre- to post-intervention service use and related costs were also analysed. A total of 103 families and their children (aged 32-88 months), who previously participated in a randomised controlled trial of the IYBP, took part in a 12-month follow-up assessment. Child and parent behaviour and well-being were measured using psychometric and observational measures. An intention-to-treat analysis was carried out using a one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Pairwise comparisons were subsequently conducted to determine whether treatment outcomes were sustained 1 year post-baseline assessment. Results indicate that post-intervention improvements in child conduct problems, parenting behaviour and parental mental health were maintained. Service use and associated costs continued to decline. The results indicate that parent-focused interventions, implemented in the early years, can result in improvements in child and parent behaviour and well-being 12 months later. A reduced reliance on formal services is also indicated.
Overbeek, Geertjan; Vollebergh, Wilma; Meeus, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Engels, Rutger C M E
Recollections of cold and overprotective behaviors from parents have been hypothesized to lead to the presence of mental disorders in young adulthood through their detrimental effects on individuals' satisfaction in later partner relationships. Previous studies have not explicitly tested, however, whether partner relationship satisfaction mediates the longitudinal relationship from parental bonds to DSM-III-R disorders in young adults. We examined: (1) whether recollections of parental bonds in the first 16 years of life were related to the prevalence of DSM-III-R mental disorders in young adulthood, and (2) whether young adults' satisfaction with current partner relationships mediated these links. Data were used from 1,581 Dutch young adults aged 18-34 years, who were interviewed in three waves (1996, 1997, and 1999) of a nationwide epidemiological study. Structural Equation Models demonstrated that recollections of caring, non-intrusive parenting behaviors were significantly, negatively associated with the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders (but not substance disorders) in young adulthood. The satisfaction with current partner relationships did not mediate these negative associations. Results replicate and extend earlier findings from the National Comorbidity Survey (Enns et al. 2002), demonstrating that mental disorders are directly related to people's recollections of parental care and overprotection. Low-quality parental bonds were only related to internalizing types of psychopathology, however, and were of a modest strength. Results may indicate that there is relatively little cross-relationship continuity in the experience of intimacy between relationships with parents and with partners.
Pemberton, Joy R.; Borrego, Joaquin
Consumers' willingness to accept treatments is an important concern of clinicians and clinical researchers, particularly when treating children. However, few studies have directly asked parents to give reasons for accepting or refusing treatments. In the current study, 82 parents read descriptions of six behavioral child management techniques,…
Nicholson, Joanne; Hinden, Beth R; Biebel, Kathleen; Henry, Alexis D; Katz-Leavy, Judith
The rationale for the development of effective programs for parents with serious mental illness and their children is compelling. Using qualitative methods and a grounded theory approach with data obtained in site visits, seven existing programs for parents with mental illness and their children in the United States are described and compared across core components: target population, theory and assumptions, funding, community and agency contexts, essential services and intervention strategies, moderators, and outcomes. The diversity across programs is strongly complemented by shared characteristics, the identification of which provides the foundation for future testing and the development of an evidence base. Challenges in program implementation and sustainability are identified. Qualitative methods are useful, particularly when studying existing programs, in taking steps toward building the evidence base for effective programs for parents with serious mental illness and their children.
Public Health Nurses work with children under 18 years in schools and the community. Increasingly children are living with a parent suffering from a mental illness. Consequently Public Health Nurses are encountering more mental illness as part of their practice. The research reported in this article aimed to identify the Public Health Nurse's role with regard to children in these circumstances. A qualitative research design was used with eight Public Health Nurses working in rural and urban settings. Participants engaged in a focus group from which data were gathered and analysed thematically using axial coding. To evaluate the identified themes six of the participants went on to take part in a further focus group. The three key themes identified were Advocacy, Assessment, and Relational Knowing and Clinical Practice. It emerged that the role of Public Health Nurses working with such families involved advocating for the child, using a range of assessment skills to gather relevant information and make referrals, with all informed by expert knowledge and clinical experience. Findings indicate the need for more acknowledgement of the frequency with which Public Health Nurses are encountering problems associated with mental illness; and hence the need for provision of appropriate education and support that will enable them to effectively advocate for children's safety and wellbeing.
Peretz, Benjamin; Kharouba, Johnny; Blumer, Sigalit
To evaluate parents' acceptance of management techniques in Israeli pediatric dental clinics. Ninety parents who accompanied their children to three pediatric dental clinics provided information on selected parameters including their attitudes about management techniques. 68.9% of the parents preferred to stay in the treatment room. The most accepted technique was positive reinforcement (81.1%) followed by tell-show-do (TSD) (76.7%, with younger parents more accepting than older, p = 0.049). The least accepted techniques were restraint (1.1%) and voice control (7.8%, especially by parents with the highest dental anxiety, p = 0.002). Sedation was unacceptable by 15.6% of the parents: those with the lowest dental anxiety agreed to sedation significantly more than those with greater dental anxiety (p = 0.031). Parents preferred more positive approaches and management techniques that involve demonstrations geared for the child's level of understanding. Restraint and voice control were more strongly rejected than sedation.
Kagee, Ashraf; Donenberg, Geri; Davids, Alicia; Vermaak, Redwaan; Simbayi, Leickness; Ward, Catherine; Naidoo, Pamela; Mthembu, Jacky
High risk sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems combine to yield high levels of HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents with mental health problems. In South Africa, little research has been conducted on parental perspectives of HIV-risk among this population. We conducted a series of focus group discussions with 28 mothers of adolescents receiving services at two mental health clinics in South Africa to identify, from their perspectives, the key community problems facing their children. Participants indicated that HIV remained a serious threat to their adolescent children's well-being, in addition to substance abuse, early sexual debut, and teenage pregnancy. These social problems were mentioned as external to their household dynamics, and thus seemingly beyond the purview of the parent-adolescent relationship. These data have implications for the design of family-based interventions to ameliorate the factors associated with HIV-risk among youth receiving mental health services.
McEwan, Miranda; Friedman, Susan Hatters
Psychiatrists are mandated to report suspicions of child abuse in America. Potential for harm to children should be considered when one is treating parents who are at risk. Although it is the commonly held wisdom that mental illness itself is a major risk factor for child abuse, there are methodologic issues with studies purporting to demonstrate this. Rather, the risk from an individual parent must be considered. Substance abuse and personality disorder pose a separate risk than serious mental illness. Violence risk from mental illness is dynamic, rather than static. When severe mental illness is well-treated, the risk is decreased. However, these families are in need of social support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koike, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Ohta, Kazusa; Ojio, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Kei-Ichiro; Ando, Shuntaro
Mental-health-related stigma affects help-seeking behavior and service utilization among young people. Whether mental-health-related stigma is different or correlated between parents and their children is unknown. It is also unknown whether the name change of schizophrenia in 2002 has had long-term effects on reducing stigma for adults in the general population. We recruited 143 parent-child pairs (mean ages [SD]: 51.5 [3.6] and 21.2 [1.2] years, respectively) to complete self-report questionnaires regarding mental-health-related stigma and experience. We also assessed negative stereotypes for three psychiatric disease names (old and new names of schizophrenia, and depression), and for diabetes mellitus as a physical illness comparison. The questionnaires also asked respondents to identify the old and new names of schizophrenia and dementia, respectively, among 10 names for mental and physical illnesses and conditions. Parents showed lower stigma levels toward mental illness and diabetes mellitus, but similar or greater stigma levels toward schizophrenia, compared with their children. Stigma levels toward mental illness in parents and their children were significantly correlated. The rate of correct identification of the old and new names for schizophrenia was higher in parents than in their children (64.7% vs 41.4%, P stigma toward mental illness is shared between family members, and the name change of schizophrenia has effectively reduced stigma levels toward this disorder in adults of various ages. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Bee, Penny; Berzins, Kathryn; Calam, Rachel; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Abel, Kathryn M
Severe parental mental illness poses a challenge to quality of life (QoL) in a substantial number of children and adolescents, and improving the lives of these children is of urgent political and public health concern. This study used a bottom-up qualitative approach to develop a new stakeholder-led model of quality of life relevant to this population. Qualitative data were collected from 19 individuals participating in focus groups or individual interviews. Participants comprised 8 clinical academics, health and social care professionals or voluntary agency representatives; 5 parents and 6 young people (aged 13-18 yrs) with lived experience of severe parental mental illness. Data underwent inductive thematic analysis for the purposes of informing a population-specific quality of life model. Fifty nine individual themes were identified and grouped into 11 key 'meta-themes'. Mapping each meta-theme against existing child-centred quality of life concepts revealed a multi-dimensional model that endorsed, to a greater or lesser degree, the core domains of generic quality of life models. Three new population-specific priorities were also observed: i) the alleviation of parental mental health symptoms, ii) improved problem-based coping skills and iii) increased mental health literacy. The identification of these priorities raises questions regarding the validity of generic quality of life measures to monitor the effectiveness of services for families and children affected by severe mental illness. New, age-appropriate instruments that better reflect the life priorities and unique challenges faced by the children of parents with severe mental illness may need to be developed. Challenges then remain in augmenting and adapting service design and delivery mechanisms better to meet these needs. Future child and adult mental health services need to work seamlessly alongside statutory education and social care services and a growing number of relevant third sector providers to
Bee, Penny; Berzins, Kathryn; Calam, Rachel; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Abel, Kathryn M.
Severe parental mental illness poses a challenge to quality of life (QoL) in a substantial number of children and adolescents, and improving the lives of these children is of urgent political and public health concern. This study used a bottom-up qualitative approach to develop a new stakeholder-led model of quality of life relevant to this population. Qualitative data were collected from 19 individuals participating in focus groups or individual interviews. Participants comprised 8 clinical academics, health and social care professionals or voluntary agency representatives; 5 parents and 6 young people (aged 13–18 yrs) with lived experience of severe parental mental illness. Data underwent inductive thematic analysis for the purposes of informing a population-specific quality of life model. Fifty nine individual themes were identified and grouped into 11 key ‘meta-themes’. Mapping each meta-theme against existing child-centred quality of life concepts revealed a multi-dimensional model that endorsed, to a greater or lesser degree, the core domains of generic quality of life models. Three new population-specific priorities were also observed: i) the alleviation of parental mental health symptoms, ii) improved problem-based coping skills and iii) increased mental health literacy. The identification of these priorities raises questions regarding the validity of generic quality of life measures to monitor the effectiveness of services for families and children affected by severe mental illness. New, age-appropriate instruments that better reflect the life priorities and unique challenges faced by the children of parents with severe mental illness may need to be developed. Challenges then remain in augmenting and adapting service design and delivery mechanisms better to meet these needs. Future child and adult mental health services need to work seamlessly alongside statutory education and social care services and a growing number of relevant third sector
Glozah, Franklin N; Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Kugbey, Nuworza
Parental involvement in physical activity and dietary habits have been found to play a substantial role in the mental health of young people. However, there is little evidence about the associations between parental involvement, health behaviours and mental health among Ghanaian youth. This study sought to examine the role of parental involvement in the association between physical activity, dietary habits and mental health among Ghanaian youth. Data were obtained from the 2012 Ghana Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). The study population consisted of 1,984 school going youth in high schools with a median age of 15 years old, (53.7%) males. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression statistical models using complex samples method were performed. The prevalence of mental distress was 18.1%, 16.6% and 23% for loneliness, feeling worried and suicidal ideation respectively. Younger students were more likely to feel lonely, worried and have suicidal ideation than older students. Students from low socio-economic backgrounds were significantly more likely to report loneliness, worry and suicidal ideation. After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, some physical activity and eating habits were associated with experiencing loneliness, worry and suicidal ideation but after introducing parental involvement, there was a decrease in the likelihood of some health behaviour factors in both physical activity and dietary habits to be associated with loneliness, worry and suicidal ideation. Physical inactivity and poor dietary habits could have a negative effect on mental distress, however, parental involvement could mitigate the impact of these lifestyle habits on mental distress and should therefore be taken into consideration in efforts aimed at encouraging positive lifestyle habits for good mental health among Ghanaian youth.
Full Text Available Severe parental mental illness poses a challenge to quality of life (QoL in a substantial number of children and adolescents, and improving the lives of these children is of urgent political and public health concern. This study used a bottom-up qualitative approach to develop a new stakeholder-led model of quality of life relevant to this population. Qualitative data were collected from 19 individuals participating in focus groups or individual interviews. Participants comprised 8 clinical academics, health and social care professionals or voluntary agency representatives; 5 parents and 6 young people (aged 13-18 yrs with lived experience of severe parental mental illness. Data underwent inductive thematic analysis for the purposes of informing a population-specific quality of life model. Fifty nine individual themes were identified and grouped into 11 key 'meta-themes'. Mapping each meta-theme against existing child-centred quality of life concepts revealed a multi-dimensional model that endorsed, to a greater or lesser degree, the core domains of generic quality of life models. Three new population-specific priorities were also observed: i the alleviation of parental mental health symptoms, ii improved problem-based coping skills and iii increased mental health literacy. The identification of these priorities raises questions regarding the validity of generic quality of life measures to monitor the effectiveness of services for families and children affected by severe mental illness. New, age-appropriate instruments that better reflect the life priorities and unique challenges faced by the children of parents with severe mental illness may need to be developed. Challenges then remain in augmenting and adapting service design and delivery mechanisms better to meet these needs. Future child and adult mental health services need to work seamlessly alongside statutory education and social care services and a growing number of relevant third
Ramberg, Axel; Feldkötter, Sinja
One of the most discussed questions in clinical literature concerns the impact of child abuse by mentally ill parents (cf. Mattejat, 1998). It's obvious that most children cannot understand such a parental behaviour and that this lack of understanding along with the lack of knowledge about their parents' emotional disorder results in childrens' fear, disorientation and uncertainty. The consequences are massive interferences in the relationship between parents and children, who could develop an anxious-resistant insecure or even a disorganized/disoriented attachment. But how does a child react, if the behaviour of its parents is ambivalent itself and alternates from abuse to care? Such a parental behaviour is described as the "Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome". This article regards the effects of a "Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome" on the childrens' attachment development. After discussing the basic assumptions about the "Munchhauen by Proxy Syndrome" and the attachment theory we draw conclusions about the syndrome's effect on childrens' attachment behaviour.
Xiuqin, Huang; Huimin, Zhang; Mengchen, Li; Jinan, Wang; Ying, Zhang; Ran, Tao
The objectives of this study were to compare the personality profiles of adolescent males with and without Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and to determine if IAD is associated with specific parental rearing behaviors. A total of 304 subjects (204 IAD positive and 100 IAD negative controls) completed three instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-revision (SCL-90-R), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised (EPQ-R), and Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran--'My Memories of Upbringing' (EMBU). SCL-90-R profiles of adolescents with IAD revealed comparatively higher mean scores for all of the nine domains, and significantly higher scores for obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoid ideation; the mean global symptom index of adolescents with IAD was also significantly higher by approximately 10%. EPQ profiles of adolescents with IAD showed that Internet-dependent individuals tended to exhibit a significantly lower degree of extraversion and a significantly higher degree of psychoticism when compared with the control group. EMBU profiles revealed that adolescents with IAD generally rated both maternal and paternal rearing practices as lacking in emotional warmth, being over-involved, rejecting, and punitive (mothers only). The results of this study confirm that IAD often occurs concurrently with mental symptoms and personality traits such as introversion and psychoticism. Adolescents with IAD consistently rated parental rearing behaviors as being over-intrusive, punitive, and lacking in responsiveness. These findings suggest that the influences of parenting style and family function are important factors in the development of Internet dependency.
Ranning, Anne; Munk Laursen, Thomas; Thorup, Anne; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete
To provide an overview of living arrangements during childhood for children of parents with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Information was obtained from Danish registers on children's addresses and used to calculate the proportion living in different household living arrangements. The study was conducted as a prospective, register-based cohort study covering all children in the entire Danish population born after 1982 (N = 1,823,625) and their parents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or none of these disorders. Regression analyses were performed assessing the risk of dissolution of the conjugal family. Children's living arrangements were characterized by fewer nuclear families and more single-parent-headed households when parents had serious mental illness (SMI). From birth, 15% to 20% of children lived with a single mother with SMI. Conjugal families were dissolved at higher rates if a parent had SMI, especially if the mother (incidence rate ratio 2.98; 95% CI 2.80-3.17) or the father (incidence rate ratio 2.60; 95% CI 2.47-2.74) had schizophrenia. Risks for family dissolution varied greatly with parents' socioeconomic position in all diagnostic groups. Parents' SMI affects children's family living arrangements because fewer children live with both parents and more children live with a single parent or are separated from both parents. Family cohesion seems especially difficult to maintain when parents have schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gaziel, M; Hasson-Ohayon, I; Morag-Yaffe, M; Schapir, L; Zalsman, G; Shoval, G
The purpose of the current study was to assess the associations of illness perception-related variables with satisfaction with life (SwL) among adolescents with mental disorders. Insight into mental disorder (SAI-E), Internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) and Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS) were administrated to 30 adolescent patients. Adapted version for parents of the SAI-E was also administrated to 37 of their parents. Significant positive correlations were found between insight into the illness, self-stigma and parental insight. Insight and self-stigma were significantly negatively related to the total score of SwL and few of its dimensions while parental insight was significantly associated only with the SwL dimensions of school and self. Regression models revealed main negative effects of insight and self-stigma on SwL and no interaction effect. The possible independent contribution of insight and self-stigma to SwL should be addressed in interventions designed for family and adolescents coping with mental illness. Special attention should be given to the possible negative implications that insight possesses. In lack of support of the moderation role of self-stigma, reported in studies among adults with mental illness, future studies should trace other variables in order to further understand the insight paradox among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Powell, C; Bamber, D; Long, J; Garratt, R; Brown, J; Rudge, S; Morris, T; Bhupendra Jaicim, N; Plachcinski, R; Dyson, S; Boyle, E M; St James-Roberts, I
During the first 4 months of age, approximately 20% of infants cry a lot without an apparent reason. Most research has targeted the crying, but the impact of the crying on parents, and subsequent outcomes, need to receive equal attention. This study reports the findings from a prospective evaluation of a package of materials designed to support the well-being and mental health of parents who judge their infant to be crying excessively. The resulting "Surviving Crying" package comprised a website, printed materials, and programme of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based support sessions delivered to parents by a qualified practitioner. It was designed to be suitable for United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS) use. Parents were referred to the study by 12 NHS Health Visitor/Community Public Health Nurse teams in one UK East Midlands NHS Trust. Fifty-two of 57 parents of excessively crying babies received the support package and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 anxiety questionnaire, as well as other measures, before receiving the support package and afterwards. Significant reductions in depression and anxiety were found, with numbers of parents meeting clinical criteria for depression or anxiety halving between baseline and outcome. These improvements were not explained by reductions in infant crying. Reductions also occurred in the number of parents reporting the crying to be a large or severe problem (from 28 to 3 parents) or feeling very or extremely frustrated by the crying (from 31 to 1 parent). Other findings included increases in parents' confidence, knowledge of infant crying, and improvements in parents' sleep. The findings suggest that the Surviving Crying package may be effective in supporting the well-being and mental health of parents of excessively crying babies. Further, large-scale controlled trials of the package in NHS settings are warranted. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte; Van Doesum, Karin; Martinussen, Monica
Children with mentally ill parents are at risk of developing mental health problems themselves. To enhance early support for these children may prevent mental health problems from being transmitted from one generation to the next. The sample ( N = 219) included health professionals in a large university hospital, who responded to a web-based survey on the routines of the mental health services, attitudes within the workforce capacity, worker's knowledge on the impact of parental mental illness on children, knowledge on legislation concerning children of patients, experience, expectations for possible outcomes of change in current clinical practice and demographic variables. A total of 56 % reported that they did not identify whether or not patients had children. There were no significant differences between the groups (identifiers and non-identifiers) except for the two scales measuring aspects of knowledge, i.e., Knowledge Children and Knowledge Legislation where workers who identified children had higher scores. The results also showed that younger workers with a medium level of education scored higher on Positive Attitudes. Furthermore, workers who reported to have more knowledge about children and the impact of mental illness on the parenting role were less concerned about a child-focussed approach interfering with the patient-therapist relation.
Huh, Hyu Jung; Huh, Seung; Lee, So Hee; Chae, Jeong-Ho
Objective This study examined the overall mental health consequences of the bereaved parents after the Sewol ferry accident. Methods Eighty-four bereaved parents participated in the study. Self-report scales assessing the severity of psychiatric symptoms and other related psychosomatic problems were used at 18 months following the accident. Univariate descriptive statistics and regression analyses were performed to report the prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychiatric symptoms. Resul...
Dr. Mahshid Foroughan
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Most of the studies indicates that the parents of the hearing impaired children show many mental health problems after the diagnosis of their children's hearing impairment. Counselling with the parents of the hearing impaired children is one of the most important goals of any early intervention program. This paper describes a study to determine the effectiveness of a group counselling programme for parents of hearing impaired children. Materials and Method: It was a semi-experimental study with a single group pretest-post test design. The participants were all the parents of hearing impaired children attending in an early intervention center. First the parents' mental health were assessed.Then the group counselling program was implemented. Program has involved six weekly 1.5 hour sessions. The format of each session included both lecture presentation and group discussion using cognitive behavioral procedure. Subjects were assessed before and immediately after group therapy by means of General Health Questionnaire(GHQ and Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90 questionnaires. Resuts: The first part of the project had shown that over the half of the parents had considerable psychosocial morbidity. Comparisons showed a significant reduction from pretreatment to posttreatment in depression, anxiety and most of other psychological problems. Conclusion: The study supports the effectiveness of group therapy programs in the treatment of parents of hearing impaired children. Concerning the progress of early detection programs for the children's hearing impairment more studies should be done in the field of counseling with their parents.
Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher; Andrews, Kelly
A growing body of research indicates parental supply of alcohol to children and adolescents is common. The present study aimed to examine parents' reasons for supplying alcohol to adolescents that they may find hard to articulate or not be consciously aware of. A projective methodology was used, whereby respondents were asked to explain the thoughts and motivations of a gender-matched parent in a scenario in which the parent did or did not provide alcohol to their teenage child. Respondents were 97 mothers and 83 fathers of teenagers who completed an anonymous online survey. Open-ended responses were coded thematically; t-tests were used to compare quantitative responses between the scenarios. The quantitative analysis found the parent who provided alcohol was less likely to be seen as making sure their child was safe and educating them about boundaries, but more likely to be seen as being a friend as well as a parent and (for females only) making sure their child fits in with others. The open-ended responses showed explanations for not providing alcohol most commonly focused on ensuring the child's safety, obeying the law, and setting rules and boundaries, and for providing alcohol focused on ensuring the child fit in with peers and beliefs about harm minimisation. The findings suggest that these respondents (parents) harboured a number of misperceptions about underage drinking and experienced conflicts in weighing up the perceived benefits of providing alcohol to their children against the risks of adolescent drinking. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Krattenmacher, Thomas; Kühne, Franziska; Führer, Daniel; Beierlein, Volker; Brähler, Elmar; Resch, Franz; Klitzing, Kai v; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Bergelt, Corinna; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit
Parental cancer increases the risk of psychosocial problems in adolescents. We investigated the frequency and efficacy of adolescents' coping strategies and relationships between those strategies and mental health status. Age and gender differences regarding coping and mental health were also investigated. In total, 214 adolescents from 167 families participated in a cross-sectional, multicenter study. All participants were recruited from standard oncological care. Among the participants, 52% utilized a child-centered intervention program. Adolescents' coping skills were measured using KIDCOPE. Mental health status was rated by adolescents and parents by the SDQ for symptomatology and the KIDSCREEN for well-being. We found that 29% of the adolescents showed emotional and behavioral problems. We found gender differences in mental health status but not in coping. Adolescents used a broad spectrum of coping strategies. Active problem-solving, distraction, acceptance, wishful thinking and seeking social support were the most frequently used coping strategies. The utilization of certain coping skills was mediated by their perceived efficacy. Problem-focused or approach-oriented coping strategies generally are associated with better mental health, while avoidance-oriented coping are associated with worse mental health. Emotion-focused coping was associated with both lower and higher mental health. The strategies used by adolescents to cope with parental cancer are associated with their mental health. Problem-solving and approach-oriented coping strategies should be facilitated by psychological interventions regardless of age and gender. Age and gender differences in adolescents' mental health should be further investigated because these differences are not explained by differences in coping strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Examining the Links between Challenging Behaviors in Youth with ASD and Parental Stress, Mental Health, and Involvement: Applying an Adaptation of the Family Stress Model to Families of Youth with ASD
Schiltz, Hillary K.; McVey, Alana J.; Magnus, Brooke; Dolan, Bridget K.; Willar, Kirsten S.; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey; Carson, Audrey M.; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan
Raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) poses unique challenges that may impact parents' mental health and parenting experiences. The current study analyzed self-report data from 77 parents of youth with ASD. A serial multiple mediation model revealed that parenting stress (SIPA) and parental mental health (BAI and BDI-II) appears to…
Turner, Erlanger A; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Heffer, Robert W
Research has identified several variables that affect utilization of mental health services. However, more could be explored regarding ethnic differences among parents seeking help for their children. In our study, 238 caregivers were recruited from the southern United States to examine ethnic differences in intentions to access child mental health services with the Parental Attitudes Toward Psychological Services Inventory (Turner, 2012) as the primary measure. Group comparisons indicated that African-American parents reported less positive attitudes and more stigma than European-American or Hispanic-American parents. Moderation analyses found (a) attitudes were associated with a higher level of parental help-seeking intention among European Americans, but not among African Americans or Hispanic Americans and (b) stigma was associated with a lower parent-reported likelihood of help-seeking for Hispanic Americans, but not for European Americans or African Americans. Ethnicity deferentially impacts attitudes and stigma associated with seeking mental health services. Public education efforts to increase service use should be tailored toward under-served groups to be more effective. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Gage, H; Egan, B; Williams, P; Györei, E; Brands, B; López-Robles, J-C; Campoy, C; Koletzko, B; Decsi, T; Raats, M
Several factors affect the mental performance of children. The importance that parents attribute to food-related determinants, compared with genetic, socio-economic and school environment, was investigated. Parents of school children (aged 4-11) were recruited through state primary schools in four European countries. Interviews were conducted in which participants were asked to sort 18 cards representing possible determinants of four elements of mental performance (attention, learning, mood and behaviour) according to perceived strength of effect. Determinants were identified from the literature and grouped in six categories: food-related, school environment, physical, social, psychological and biological. Effects were scored: 0=none; 1=moderate; and 2=strong. Views were compared between and within countries. Two hundred parents took part (England: 53; Germany: 45; Hungary: 52; Spain: 50). Differences existed between countries in the proportions reporting university education and being in employment. Taking all countries together, parents consider the food category (mean 1.33) to have a lower impact on a child's mental performance than physical (activity and sleep, 1.77), psychological (mood and behaviour, 1.69) and school environment (1.57). Social (1.12) and biological (0.91) determinants were ranked lower than food. Of determinants in the food category, parents thought regularity of meals had more influence on mental performance (1.58) than what a child eats now (1.36), food at school (1.35), nutrition as a baby/infant (1.02). Scope exists to improve parental awareness of the repercussions of their dietary choices for the mental performance of their children.
Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir R.; Peltonen, Kirsi
ABSTRACT Background: Trauma affects the family unit as a whole; however, most existing research uses individual or, at most, dyadic approaches to analyse families with histories of trauma. Objective: This study aims to identify potentially distinct family types according to attachment, parenting, and sibling relations, to analyse how these family types differ with respect to war trauma, and to explore how children’s mental health and cognitive processing differ across these family types. Method: Participants included Palestinian mothers and fathers (N = 325) and their children (one per family; 49.4% girls; 10–13 years old; mean ± SD age = 11.35 ± 0.57 years) after the Gaza War of 2008–2009. Both parents reported their exposure to war trauma, secure attachment availability, and parenting practices, as well as the target child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Children reported their symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (on the Children’s Revised Impact Event Scale), depression (Birleson), and SDQ, as well as their post-traumatic cognitions (Children’s Post Traumatic Cognitions Inventory). Results: A cluster analysis identified four family types. The largest type reflected secure attachment and optimal relationships (security and positive family relationships, 36.2%, n = 102), and the smallest exhibited insecurity and problematic relationships (insecurity and negative family relationships, 15.6%; n = 44). Further, families with discrepant experiences (23.0%; n = 65) and moderate security and neutral relationships (25.2%; n = 71) emerged. The insecurity and negative relationships family type showed higher levels of war trauma; internalizing, externalizing, and depressive symptoms among children; and dysfunctional post-traumatic cognitions than other family types. Conclusion: The family systems approach to mental health is warranted in war conditions, and therapeutic
Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir R; Peltonen, Kirsi
Background : Trauma affects the family unit as a whole; however, most existing research uses individual or, at most, dyadic approaches to analyse families with histories of trauma. Objective : This study aims to identify potentially distinct family types according to attachment, parenting, and sibling relations, to analyse how these family types differ with respect to war trauma, and to explore how children's mental health and cognitive processing differ across these family types. Method: Participants included Palestinian mothers and fathers ( N = 325) and their children (one per family; 49.4% girls; 10-13 years old; mean ± SD age = 11.35 ± 0.57 years) after the Gaza War of 2008-2009. Both parents reported their exposure to war trauma, secure attachment availability, and parenting practices, as well as the target child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Children reported their symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (on the Children's Revised Impact Event Scale), depression (Birleson), and SDQ, as well as their post-traumatic cognitions (Children's Post Traumatic Cognitions Inventory). Results: A cluster analysis identified four family types. The largest type reflected secure attachment and optimal relationships (security and positive family relationships, 36.2%, n = 102), and the smallest exhibited insecurity and problematic relationships (insecurity and negative family relationships, 15.6%; n = 44). Further, families with discrepant experiences (23.0%; n = 65) and moderate security and neutral relationships (25.2%; n = 71) emerged. The insecurity and negative relationships family type showed higher levels of war trauma; internalizing, externalizing, and depressive symptoms among children; and dysfunctional post-traumatic cognitions than other family types. Conclusion: The family systems approach to mental health is warranted in war conditions, and therapeutic interventions for
Popp, Lukka; Neuschwander, Murielle; Mannstadt, Sandra; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia
Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al., 2009). The children (51.8% girls) were between the ages of 7 and 18 years ( M = 10.94; SD = 2.22). Results: Overall, parent-child agreement on the diagnostic category of anxiety disorder ( k = 0.21; k = 0.22) and the specific anxiety diagnoses (base rate > 10%) of social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder ( k = 0.24-0.52; k = 0.19-0.43) and corresponding diagnostic criteria ( k = 0.22-0.67; k = 0.24-0.41) were low to moderate with the highest agreement on separation anxiety disorder ( k > 0.43). Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. Maternal depression was indicated as the strongest predictor. Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. Conclusions: Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. Psychological strains in the family-especially maternal depression and low social support-lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. Child- and relation-related variables (age, gender, amount of time parent(s) and children interact) play no role in the prediction of low parent-child agreement.
Full Text Available Background and aims. Parental acceptance and consent are important parameters in selecting the required behavior management technique during pediatric dental treatment. The present study sought to assess the effect of three different informing methods on the parental acceptance, consent and concern regarding the pharmacological and invasive behavior management techniques used in pediatric dentistry. Materials and methods. Ninety mothers of 3-6-year-old uncooperative children were selected and randomly assigned to three study groups. The parents in each group were initially asked to answer three questions related to their levels of ‘acceptance’, ‘consent’, and ‘concern’ toward the five behavior management techniques. Then, the information about the techniques was presented through a piece of writing in group I, verbal presentation in group II and showing a film in group III. At last, the parents answered the same three questions again. Score changes were analyzed by using ANOVA, correlations, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis methods. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in score changes of parental acceptance, consent and concern between the three groups, overall and in relation to each behaviour management technique (P > 0.05. Mothers with academic education revealed more statistically significant concern following presentation of information by film (P < 0.05. Conclusion. None of the presentation methods had a significant preference over the others; in selecting the behavioral management techniques, it is advisable to observe individual factors, such as the level of education of the mothers.
Full Text Available In an English Foreign Language learning context, where access to native like use of metaphorical language is limited, gaining this ability becomes challenging. For many years, foreign language educators didn’t pay much attention to idiomatic language and assumed that idioms could only be taught through rote learning. For this reason, they face with difficulties in using appropriate approaches to idiom instruction. Furthermore, learners struggle with comprehending and practicing idioms. To resolve the concern, linguists are trying to develop cognitive approaches to the teaching of idiomatic language. The purpose of this study is to provide educators with guidelines to choose the appropriate idiom teaching technique for English Foreign Language learners taking into account the learners’ metaphorical competence level and their cognitive style preferences. In evaluating the appropriate teaching technique, three different techniques (context out, context in and mental imaging technique were used. The participants were presented 50 idioms. As a first technique, context out, idioms were taught with their definitions in the dictionary without additional contextual support. As a second technique, context in, in an attempt to investigate the effect of contextual support, idioms were both presented in a sentence and with their definitions. As a third technique, mental imaging technique, in an attempt to investigate the effect of Dual Coding approach, both pictorial representations of a mapping of literal senses of each idiomatic expression and verbal support (the definition of the idiom and the sentence in which the idiom is used were used concurrently. The findings point that mental imaging technique has positive effect on learning and recalling of the idiomatic expressions as it provides simultaneous verbal information with mental image which creates a supplementary pathway for recollecting the verbal information. In contrast, the results indicate no
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; And Others
Examined effects on young adults (23 years) of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence using data from Britain's longitudinal National Child Development study. Found that divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on young adults' mental health; the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of…
The material presented here is based on a pilot European project (Daphne Project, 2000/EU funding, collaboration of Greece and England) regarding parental mental illness and children's welfare and needs (1).The presentation focuses upon the responses of a group of teachers working in primary education in relation to identification issues and…
Santvoort, F. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Janssens, J.M.
In various countries preventive support groups are offered to children of mentally ill and/or addicted parents to reduce the risk that they will develop problems themselves. This study assessed the effectiveness of Dutch support groups for children aged 8-12 years old in terms of reducing negative
... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...
Krattenmacher, Thomas; Kühne, Franziska; Halverscheid, Susanne; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Bergelt, Corinna; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit
To compare the emotional and behavioral problems of children of patients suffering from cancer or a mental disorder and their association with parental quality of life. A total of 223 children from 136 families and their 160 parents were investigated from multiple perspectives in a cross-sectional study. The consistency of different adjustment reports between family members was examined. Through mixed models, the differences between parental HRQoL and the children's symptomatology were studied with regard to the type of parental illness. The prediction of children's adjustment through parental HRQoL was further examined. Additionally, gender and age of the children were considered. Half of the children exhibited psychosocial problems. Gender and age differences were independent of the type of parental disease. In families with parental cancer, the reports of children's adjustment were more consistent between family members than in families where a parental mental disorder was present. We found differences in HRQoL between families with mentally ill parents and those with parental cancer patients. Specifically, the healthy partners of mentally ill parents showed worse HRQoL compared with healthy partners of cancer patients. Healthy parents' reduced HRQoL was associated with worse adjustment in their children, regardless of the type of parental illness, but this result was not found for ill parents. Family members confronted with parental cancer or mental disorders are more burdened compared with those from the "normal" population, independently of the type of disease. Our results indicate that the type of a parental disease has no direct effect on children's adjustment. However, there are disease-specific effects on parental HRQoL, which are associated with children's adjustment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Woolderink, Marla; Bindels, Jill A. P. M.; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.; Paulus, Aggie T. G.; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.
Background: Mental illnesses affect many people around the world, either directly or indirectly. Families of persons suffering from mental illness or addiction suffer too, especially their children. In the Netherlands, 864,000 parents meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness or addiction.
Full Text Available This paper examines the discriminant effect of mothers' and fathers' attachment working models, the quality of their relationships in everyday settings, and children's social abilities on children's peer acceptance. Participants were thirty-four 7–9 year olds, their mothers, and fathers. Interactions were observed at home and coded on global measures of positive, negative, controlling, disconfirming, correcting behaviors, and neutral conversation. Parents' IWM were assessed by the AAI. Children's peer acceptance and behavioral orientations as a measure of a child's social competence at school were assessed by sociometric techniques. By using both traditional statistical analyses and a multidimensional scaling approach (MDS, in terms of “similarity structure analysis (SSA” and the “external variables as points technique,” it emerged that children's lack of success among peers associated with social behaviors which were linked to parents' rejecting/neglecting and directive interactive styles, mainly to negative, disconfirming, and a few positive interactions. These parenting styles were significantly affected by adults' insecure IWM.
Jongerden, Loes; Simon, Ellin; Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M
This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age = 10.28, standard deviation (SD) = 1.35], 176 non-referred anxious children recruited in primary schools (M age = 9.94, SD = 1.22). Child anxiety and other disorders were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Child anxiety symptoms, behavioural problems, parental anxiety, the parenting styles overprotection, autonomy encouragement, rejection, and the family functioning dimensions control and relational functioning, were assessed with child, father and mother report on questionnaires. The summed interference rating of children's anxiety disorders was a predictor of referral, consistent over child and parent reports, but not comorbidity. Most family and parenting variables did not predict referral, nor differed between the referred and non-referred sample. Contrary to our hypothesis, maternal self-reported anxiety decreased the odds of referral and child reported parental autonomy granting increased, while child reported overprotection decreased the odds of referral. The impairment for the child due to the number and severity of their anxiety disorder(s) is, based on child, mother and father report associated with referral. This indicates that those who need it most, receive clinical treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Schleider, Jessica L; Weisz, John R
Because parents are primary gatekeepers to mental health care for their children, parental expectations that mental health treatment is ineffective may undermine treatment seeking, retention, and response. Thus, a need exists to understand parents' expectations about treatment and to develop scalable interventions that can instill more favorable views. We examined parents' treatment expectancies and preferences for their offspring and themselves in relation to two global beliefs: mind-sets (malleability beliefs) of emotions and anxiety, and views of failure as enhancing versus debilitating. Study 1 (N = 200; 49.5% fathers; 70.4% Caucasian) examined associations among parents' emotion mind-sets, anxiety mind-sets, failure beliefs, and treatment expectancies and preferences. Study 2 (N = 430; 44.70% fathers; 75.80% Caucasian) tested whether online inductions teaching "growth emotion mind-sets" (viewing emotions as malleable), adaptive failure beliefs, or both improved parents' treatment expectancies and hypothetical preferences for treatment (vs. no-treatment). Participants received one of three 8- to 15-min inductions or a psychoeducation control, rating treatment expectancies. and preferences pre- and postinduction. In Study 1, fixed emotion mind-sets and failure-is-debilitating beliefs were associated with lower parent psychotherapy expectancies for offspring and themselves and stronger "no-treatment" preferences for offspring. In Study 2, inductions teaching (a) growth emotion mind-sets only and (b) growth emotion mind-sets and failure-is-enhancing beliefs improved parents' psychotherapy expectancies for themselves (ds = .38, .51) and offspring (ds = .30, .43). No induction increased parents' hypothetical preferences for treatment (vs. no-treatment). Findings suggest scalable strategies for strengthening parents' psychotherapy effectiveness beliefs for themselves and their children.
Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J; Perreira, Krista M; Juang, Linda P
Children of immigrants represent one in four children in the United States and will represent one in three children by 2050. Children of Asian and Latino immigrants together represent the majority of children of immigrants in the United States. Children of immigrants may be immigrants themselves, or they may have been born in the United States to foreign-born parents; their status may be legal or undocumented. We review transcultural and culture-specific factors that influence the various ways in which stressors are experienced; we also discuss the ways in which parental socialization and developmental processes function as risk factors or protective factors in their influence on the mental health of children of immigrants. Children of immigrants with elevated risk for mental health problems are more likely to be undocumented immigrants, refugees, or unaccompanied minors. We describe interventions and policies that show promise for reducing mental health problems among children of immigrants in the United States.
Gérain, Pierre; Zech, Emmanuelle
Introduction: Parenting a child with special needs (CSN) may be an important challenge. Previous research has highlighted an increased risk of parental burnout among parents caring for their CSN. Yet, these studies only focused on children with specific issues and did not consider the wide variety of CSN. There is thus a need to take a more global approach to assessing the impact of caring for a CSN on parental burnout. In addition, the impact on parental burnout of personality and parenting (dis)agreement needs to be measured to have a better understanding of parent-caregivers' (PCgs) burnout. Method: An online survey was completed by a large sample of parents from which a subsample of PCgs was identified. Results: T -tests highlighted significantly more parental burnout among parents of CSN. However, further analyses showed that parents with only one child with one special need did not experience significantly more burnout than parents with typical children. The significant difference lay in the presence of comorbidity or the presence of multiple CSN in the family. Hierarchical regressions showed an important impact of Neuroticism for every burnout facet, along with co-parenting (dis)agreement. Subjective consequences of having to care for a CSN were also related to the burnout facets of both emotional exhaustion and emotional distancing. Discussion: The presence of comorbidity and of multiple CSN in the family were related to more PCg burnout, emphasizing the need to consider these situations in further research. The role of neuroticism in PCg burnout confirms previous research both in parental and professional contexts. Parenting (dis)agreement also highlights the importance of dyadic support among parents. Finally, the importance of subjective aspects suggests that parental perception of their situation remains a central element in understanding the consequences of caregiving.
Hipp, Michael; Schatte, Dirk; Altrogge, Birgit
Mentally ill parents are impaired in their ability to care for their children. To support the affected families from the perspective of the parents and the children alike a close cooperation between the institutions of psychiatry and child-welfare is of utmost importance. In the district of Mettmann a cooperation agreement was concluded to realize a cross-system concept to care for the families with mentally ill parents. To prevent children from developing psychiatric disorders the taboo of the psychiatric diseases has to be overcome, an early diagnostic clarification to be reached, and multiinstitutional help to be implemented. In the article the experience in dealing with the affected families in a multidisciplinary context is described.
Reedtz, Charlotte; Lauritzen, Camilla; van Doesum, Karin T M
Background According to new Norwegian laws, mental healthcare for adults are obligated to assess all patients who are parents and to act on their children's needs. This article describes the study protocol of implementing the interventions Family Assessment and Child Talks for children of patients in the adult psychiatry of the University Hospital of Northern Norway. The project is designed to evaluate the process of changes in clinical practice due to the implementation of two interventions....
Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R
Studies have often linked parenting to children's subsequent antisocial behavior; however, the circumstances under which this might occur are less clear. The current study explores patterns in mothers' parenting practices, and associated correlates including maternal delinquency and offending, mental health, and children's physical aggression. This study is based on the first wave of the ongoing Vancouver Longitudinal Study; the objective of this prospective study is to identify the early risk and protective factors for aggression and violence from the earliest developmental periods. Parenting practices of 287 mothers with preschoolers are examined using a series of latent class analyses. Three different patterns of parenting emerged: Positive, Negative, and Intermittent. Patterns identified are associated with several key criminogenic, socio-demographic, historical, and developmental factors including current maternal adult offending, mothers' mental health, ethnicity, and frequency of children's physical aggression. Importantly, mothers who show parenting in line with the more negative classes also rely on a number of positive practices. Implications of the study suggest that parenting is influenced by mothers' immediate situations and contexts (e.g., current offending rather that past delinquency), which can be targeted for intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Jacob, Jenna; Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Holley, Simone; Law, Duncan; Wolpert, Miranda
This research sought to explore and categorise goals set by children and young people, parents/caregivers and jointly by a combination of children/young people, parents/caregivers and/or clinicians within mental health settings across the United Kingdom. Using a dataset of 441 goals formed at the outset of 180 treatment episodes (2007-2010) from UK child mental health services using the Goal-Based Outcomes tool, a grounded theory approach was taken, which built on previous research into child-rated goals to develop frameworks for parent and joint goal data which were then compared with the child goal data. A total of 19 subthemes and four overarching themes were identified for parent goals. A total of 19 subthemes in five overarching themes were identified for joint goals. These were compared with 25 subthemes and three overarching themes for child goals. A comparison of subthemes between parent, child and joint goals demonstrated many consistencies, but also differences. Most commonly rated goals from children focused on coping with specific difficulties, personal growth and independence. Parent goals focused mainly on managing specific difficulties, parent-specific goals and improving self or life. Jointly negotiated goals focused on parent-specific goals, self-confidence and understanding, hopes for the future and managing specific problems. The results suggest that goals may capture areas not captured by other normed outcome measures. In particular, goals may capture higher order, underlying factors, such as confidence, resilience, coping, and parenting factors that may not be explored by other measures. The differences across perspectives also link to existing literature suggesting a different focus on treatment based on perspectives and highlights the potential importance when jointly agreeing goals of ensuring the voice of the child/young person is heard and included in goal setting. © The Author(s) 2015.
Nguyen, Peter V
Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. MostVietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory, this exploratory study surveyed 290Vietnamese American adolescents in a major metropolitan area to examine the relationship between their fathers' acculturation levels and parenting styles and the relationships among parenting styles and self-esteem levels and depression scores of the adolescents. Findings revealed that most of the adolescents perceived that their fathers have not acculturated to the U.S. culture and continue to practice the traditional authoritarian parenting style, regardless of the amount of time spent in the United States. Furthermore, results indicate that adolescents who perceived their fathers as using the authoritarian parenting style reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher depression scores when compared with those who perceived their fathers as using the authoritative parenting style.
Oldfield, Jeremy; Stevenson, Andrew; Ortiz, Emily; Haley, Bethany
Adolescent attachment relationships formed with parents are salient predictors of mental health. Few studies, however, have demonstrated whether peer attachment or school connectedness can predict resilience to mental health difficulties when a young person is at risk due to poor parental attachment. Ninety adolescents (44 females and 46 males) living in economically disadvantaged areas and attending informal schooling projects in and around Guatemala City participated. Participants completed self-report measures of parental and peer attachment, school connectedness and mental health. Resilience to mental health difficulties was predicted by more secure school connectedness but lower levels of secure peer attachment. School connectedness may provide a role in promoting resilience for mental health for adolescents living in risk, whereas the potential negative influence that secure attachments to peers exerts, in context of poor parental attachment, needs to be explored further. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brüne, Martin; Walden, Sarah; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Dimaggio, Giancarlo
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a range of interpersonal difficulties, which are, in part, related to adverse experiences during childhood. Unresponsive parenting and traumatization may cause functional impairment of mentalization, i.e. the ability to reflect upon own and others' mental states. However, the relationship of poor parenting, trauma and mentalization in BPD has not exhaustively been studied. Thirty patients diagnosed with BPD and 30 matched control subjects were asked to sequence a novel cartoon-based mentalization task involving complex emotions such as jealousy, shame, guilt etc. In addition, they were required to reason about cognitive and affective mental states of the cartoon characters. The quality of parental care was assessed using a self-report measure for recalled parental rearing style, and childhood trauma was measured in retrospect using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients with BPD performed more poorly in all aspects of the cartoon task. Mentalizing skills, particularly relating to affective mental states, were uniquely associated with the quality of recalled parental care and childhood trauma. Together, the quality of parental care and the experience of childhood trauma negatively impact on mentalization in BPD, even in an experimental "offline" task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adult mental illness in the community including depression and anxiety has achieved greater public awareness and visibility in recent years and this has also resulted in increased recognition about the widespread impact on dependent children. During the past decade in Australia, policies and specific programs for infants, children and youth in terms of prevention, early intervention and promotion in relation to children of parents with a mental illness ('copmi') have been devised. However, these have generally been disconnected projects, essentially supported only by non-recurrent funding. In more recent years, systematic and interconnected responses involving a wider range of government, non-government and consumer and carer organisations to build sustainability have become the focus. However, little research about change processes affecting the organisational systems serving children of parents with mental illness and their families has been undertaken. This aim of the current study is to describe the enablers and barriers that contribute to change in systems and government and non-government organisations in relation to children of parents with a mental illness in Australia over the past decade, within the context of sustainability. The study involved interviews, focus groups and website and literature searches regarding systems change across Australian states and territories and nationally in relation to the enablers, barriers and future directions. Strategic and intentional processes within organisations, more evolutionary ongoing cross-agency processes and links to sustained changes are key systems change findings. Relevance for change in other health services is highlighted.
Huh, Hyu Jung; Huh, Seung; Lee, So Hee; Chae, Jeong-Ho
This study examined the overall mental health consequences of the bereaved parents after the Sewol ferry accident. Eighty-four bereaved parents participated in the study. Self-report scales assessing the severity of psychiatric symptoms and other related psychosomatic problems were used at 18 months following the accident. Univariate descriptive statistics and regression analyses were performed to report the prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychiatric symptoms. 94% of the participants appeared to suffer from complicated grief based on scores on the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG). Half of the participants were categorized as having severe depression and 70.2% reported clinically significant post-traumatic symptoms according to scores on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and PTSD Check List-5 (PCL-5). No significant differences by gender were observed in the severity of psychiatric symptoms. A higher educational level was associated with more severe psychiatric symptoms in fathers. The loss of a child due to a disaster caused by human error may continue to have a substantial impact on parental mental health at 18 months after the event. A longitudinal study following parents' mental health state would be necessary to investigate the long-term effects of the traumatic experience in the future.
Gunnarsdóttir, Hrafnhildur; Hensing, Gunnel; Povlsen, Lene; Petzold, Max
The Nordic welfare system has been acknowledged as favourable for children, successfully contributing to low child mortality and poverty rates. Nevertheless, mental health problems among children and adolescents are common and the economic situation of the family has been highlighted as an important determinant. In spite of similar social, political and cultural structures, the Nordic countries differ; Iceland was most affected by the global financial crisis in 2008. The aim of this study was to examine potential differences in parental financial stress and the associations to child mental health between the Nordic countries as well as age and gender differences. The study sample consisted of 6330 children aged 4-16 years old included in the 2011 version of the Nordic Study of Children's Health, Wellbeing and Quality of life. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure mental health problems. In Iceland, 47.7% of the parents reported financial stress while ≤20% did so in the other countries except for Finland (33.5%). However, in case of parental financial stress the OR of mental health problems comparing children to parents with and without financial stress was significantly lower among the Icelandic children (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.15-2.24) than among the others: Denmark OR 3.07 (95% CI 2.15-4.39), Finland OR 2.28 (95% CI 1.60-3.25), Norway OR 2.77 (95% CI 1.86-4.12), Sweden OR 3.31(95% CI 2.26-4.86). No significant age or gender differences in the ORs were observed. Besides socioeconomic situation, relative deprivation should be considered an important determinant of child mental health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Maybery, Darryl; Goodyear, Melinda; Reupert, Andrea; Sheen, Jade; Cann, Warren; Dalziel, Kim; Tchernagovski, Phillip; O'Hanlon, Brendan; von Doussa, Henry
A considerable number of people with a mental illness are parents caring for dependent children. For those with a mental illness, parenting can provide a sense of competence, belonging, identity and hope and hence is well aligned to the concept of personal recovery. However, little research has focused on the recovery journey of those who are parents and have a mental illness. This randomised controlled trial aims to (i) evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention model of recovery for parents (Let's Talk about Children) in three different mental health service sectors and (ii) examine the economic value of a larger roll out (longer term) of the parent recovery model. A two arm parallel randomised controlled trial will be used with participants, who are being treated for their mental illness in adult mental health, non-government community mental health or family welfare services. The study will involve 192 parents, who are considered by their treating practitioner to be sufficiently well to provide informed consent and participate in an intervention (Let's Talk about Children) or control group (treatment as usual). Participant randomisation will occur at the level of the treating practitioner and will be based on whether the randomised practitioner is trained in the intervention. Outcomes are compared at pre, post intervention and six-month follow-up. Recovery, parenting and family functioning, and quality of life questionnaires will be used to measure parent wellbeing and the economic benefits of the intervention. This is the first randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of a parenting intervention on recovery outcomes and the first to provide an economic evaluation of an intervention for parents with a mental illness. An implementation model is required to embed the intervention in different sectors. The trial was retrospectively registered: ACTRN12616000460404 on the 8/4/2016.
Full Text Available Parent mental illness and family living arrangement are associated with depression and anxiety in children, and may influence the effects of programs that aim to prevent these disorders. This study investigated whether these family context factors moderated the intervention effects of the enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills program on depression and anxiety in primary school children. The intervention was a universal, cognitive-behavioral program, with a one hour session each week for 10 weeks, delivered by trained teachers. The participants were 502 children from 13 private schools, aged 9–11, with 347 in the intervention group and 155 in the control group. There were 267 females and 235 males. Data from 502 parents was also included. A cluster randomized controlled trial design was used, including eight intervention schools and five control schools. Depression and anxiety were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and 6-months follow-up. Information on parent mental illness and family living arrangement was collected through a parent questionnaire. The data was analyzed using covariance analysis with Generalized Linear Mixed Methods. At baseline, depressive and anxiety symptoms did not differ significantly based on parent mental illness. Symptoms of depression at baseline were significantly higher for children from a higher-risk family living arrangement, but anxiety symptoms were not. Parent mental illness and family living arrangement did not moderate the effects of the program on depression and anxiety at post-test or 6-months follow-up. Parent mental illness moderated the intervention effects on negative self-esteem, an aspect of depression, at post-test, with improvements seen only for children who did not have a parent with a mental illness. The findings indicate an association between family living arrangement and depressive symptoms in children. The findings suggest that the program is effective for children regardless of
Keyes, Katherine M.; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane
Objective Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Methods Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past year injuries serious enough to seek medical atten tion were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and re ported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Results. Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR = 1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2 1.9), teacher report (OR = 1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1 1.7), or parent- and teacher-report combined (OR = 1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1 2.1). Children who self reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR = 1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1 2.4). Low caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR = 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Conclusion Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externaliz ing problems may reduce the burden of injury. PMID:25073079
van Genugten, Lenneke; Dusseldorp, Elise; Massey, Emma K; van Empelen, Pepijn
Mental wellbeing is influenced by self-regulation processes. However, little is known on the efficacy of change techniques based on self-regulation to promote mental wellbeing. The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify effective self-regulation techniques (SRTs) in primary and secondary prevention interventions on mental wellbeing in adolescents. Forty interventions were included in the analyses. Techniques were coded into nine categories of SRTs. Meta-analyses were conducted to identify the effectiveness of SRTs, examining three different outcomes: internalising behaviour, externalising behaviour, and self-esteem. Primary interventions had a small-to-medium ([Formula: see text] = 0.16-0.29) on self-esteem and internalising behaviour. Secondary interventions had a medium-to-large short-term effect (average [Formula: see text] = 0.56) on internalising behaviour and self-esteem. In secondary interventions, interventions including asking for social support [Formula: see text] 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.11-1.98) had a great effect on internalising behaviour. Interventions including monitoring and evaluation had a greater effect on self-esteem [Formula: see text] 95% CI = 0.21-0.57). For primary interventions, there was not a single SRT that was associated with a greater intervention effect on internalising behaviour or self-esteem. No effects were found for externalising behaviours. Self-regulation interventions are moderately effective at improving mental wellbeing among adolescents. Secondary interventions promoting 'asking for social support' and promoting 'monitoring and evaluation' were associated with improved outcomes. More research is needed to identify other SRTs or combinations of SRTs that could improve understanding or optimise mental wellbeing interventions.
Full Text Available This paper is based on partially exploratory and partially descriptive research design to find out AIDS awareness and agreement of parents and teachers on educating adolescents about contraception techniques. For this study 60 parents and 60 teachers were interviewed from 10 different Govt. Senior Secondary schools in district Sangrur, Punjab, India. The random sampling technique was used. The knowledge of AIDS among parents was found partial. Mothers showed lesser knowledge of AIDS in comparison to fathers. Teachers showed comprehensive knowledge of AIDS. Majority of respondents disagree on educating adolescents about contraception techniques. But all responded reported to be in agreement to provide full knowledge about AIDS to adolescents. The education of contraception for adolescent found to be associated with the knowledge of prevention from unwanted pregnancy. Parents and teachers showed propensity to provide such education to adolescents which advocates sexual abstinence until marriage. The plausible reason to such perception could be that in most of Indian societies there is taboo on sex or sex related discussion. Keywords: Adolescents and AIDS; contraception knowledge to adolescents; teachers and AIDS; parents and AIDS DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4520 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.193-210
Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the firm with respect to the stakeholder approach of corporate governance. The use of the cognitive map to view these diagrams to show the ways of thinking and conceptualization of the stakeholder approach. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses stakeholder model. It takes also a cognitive mapping technique.
Boka, V.; Arapostathis, K.; Charitoudis, G.; Veerkamp, J.; van Loveren, C.; Kotsanos, N.
Aim: To examine the effectiveness of parental presence/absence (PPA) technique on the dental behaviour management of children. Materials and methods: This randomised control study recruited 61 child dental patients with uncooperative behaviour (Frankl 1 or 2) managed with AAPD-endorsed
Gage, Heather; Egan, Bernadette; Williams, Peter; Brands, Brigitte; Györei, Eszter; López-Robles, Juan-Carlos; Campoy, Cristina; Decsi, Tamas; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique
Typically, attention focuses on how nutrition affects physical health. The present study investigated the importance that parents attach to the impact of diet on mental performance when choosing food for their child. Questionnaire. Four European countries. Parents of children aged 4-10 years (n 1574): England (n 397), Germany (n 389), Hungary (n 398) and Spain (n 390). Most parents (80-85 %) considered the effect of food on four elements of mental performance (child's ability to learn, attention, behaviour, mood) to be moderately, very, extremely (v. slightly, not at all) important in food choices; over 90 % considered healthiness of food and making food appealing to their child important; 79·8 % cost; 76·8 % convenience. Belief that food affects mental performance was 57·4 % (ability to learn), 60·5 % (attention); less than 40 % of parents agreed they were aware which foods had an effect. Parents with lower general interest in healthy eating were less likely to consider the effect of food on mental performance elements as important. Respondents from Germany were more likely to rate mental performance as important (except behaviour); those in Hungary less likely. The most important influence on parents' decisions about feeding their child was their own experience, except Spain, where family/friends/health professionals were more important. Nutrition affects brain development and cognitive functioning. Low prioritisation of the effect of food on mental performance indicates potential for educating parents.
Sandler, Irwin N.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Braver, Sanford L.
The current study examined the associations between child mental health problems and the quality of maternal and paternal parenting, and how these associations were moderated by three contextual factors, quality of parenting by the other parent, interparental conflict, and the number of overnights parents had with the child. Data for the current study come from a sample of divorcing families who are in high legal conflict over developing or maintaining a parenting plan following divorce. Analyses revealed that the associations between child mental health problems and positive maternal and paternal parenting were moderated by the quality of parenting provided by the other parent and by the number of overnights children spent with parents, but not by the level of interparental conflict. When both parenting by the other parent and number of overnights were considered in the same model, only number of overnights moderated the relations between parenting and child behavior problems. The results support the proposition that the well-being of children in high conflict divorcing families is better when they spend adequate time with at least one parent who provides high quality parenting. PMID:24098960
Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Santos, Teresa; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas de Almeida, J M
Due to the economic recession, several people in Europe became unemployed. This situation may risk their mental health. This study explored parents' perceptions about their unemployment's effects in daily life during the recession. A total of 59 unemployed parents (40.7% fathers and 59.3% mothers), ageing 44.4 years (±6.2), answer a question on how the unemployment affected their family lives. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data. The findings suggest that unemployment is a source of adult and youth mental distress and of economic hardship and changes in family relations. Support to unemployed individuals and their families could benefit from these insights when granting the needed financial and socioemotional assistance. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ali Jafari Nodoushan
Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of mentally retarded children in every family affects on the structure and mental health of family specially parents. The purpose of this research is the comparison of the mean of psychological well-being, mental health and self-esteem between parents of normal and educable students. Materials & Methods: This was causal- comparative and retrospective study and the instruments were three questionnaire of self-esteem, public mental health GHQ and psychological well-being. Self-esteem questionnaire is including three scales of academic performance, social evaluation and external evaluation. The GHQ questionnaire is consisted of 28 items while psychological well-being questionnaire include 19 item for life satisfaction, 13 item for happiness and optimism, 8 item for growth and development, 8 item for positive relationship with others and 10 item for autonomy. The results were analysed by SPSS software. Results: This research showed that normal students parents have more psychological well-being than educable students’ parents, moreover two groups of educable and normal students parents are equal in mental health and self-esteem structure and there isn't significant difference between them. Conclusion: This research showed that psychological well-being in educable students’ parents is lower than normal students’ parents. Thus it is suggested that educational organization of exceptional children arrange courses for improving psychological well-being of educable students’ parents.
Full Text Available Children of parents with drug and alcohol use disorders often grow up under severe stress and are at greater risk of developing psychological and social problems. However, a substantial proportion of affected children adapt to their distressing life conditions and show positive development in terms of their mental health. These children are described as resilient. One difference between resilient and maladapted children is the presence of protective factors. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the current state of the research concerning protective mental health factors in children of parents with alcohol or drug use disorders (COPAD. For that purpose, the PsychInfo, PubMed, CINAHL and ISI Web of Science databases were searched through January 2017. All the identified publications were screened using previously developed inclusion criteria. The search yielded 3,402 articles. Eleven of these publications (2003-2013 met the criteria for inclusion in the present review. Information on the studies was extracted using an extraction form. A narrative analysis was performed, and the methodological quality was examined using a checklist based on the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The research identified familial, parental, child-related and biological factors that influenced mental health outcomes in affected children (N = 1,376, age range = 1-20 years. Overall, protective mental health factors are understudied in this target group. Most of the included studies were conducted in the United States and employed a cross-sectional design. A comparison of the included cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicated consistent results related to a secure parent-child attachment. Based on the current state of the research, no causal conclusions with regard to the effectiveness of protective factors can be drawn. To develop effective prevention programs, further longitudinal studies and studies assessing the interactions between
Popp, Lukka; Neuschwander, Murielle; Mannstadt, Sandra; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia
Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al., 2009). The children (51.8% girls) were between the ages of 7 and 18 years (M = 10.94; SD = 2.22). Results: Overall, parent-child agreement on the diagnostic category of anxiety disorder (k = 0.21; k = 0.22) and the specific anxiety diagnoses (base rate > 10%) of social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder (k = 0.24–0.52; k = 0.19–0.43) and corresponding diagnostic criteria (k = 0.22–0.67; k = 0.24–0.41) were low to moderate with the highest agreement on separation anxiety disorder (k > 0.43). Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. Maternal depression was indicated as the strongest predictor. Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. Conclusions: Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. Psychological strains in the family—especially maternal depression and low social support—lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. Child- and relation-related variables (age, gender, amount of time parent(s) and children interact) play no role in the prediction of low parent-child agreement. PMID:28396644
Fleming, Charles B; Mason, W Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P; Thompson, Ronald W; Fernandez, Kate; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Oats, Robert G
Engaging and retaining participants are crucial to achieving adequate implementation of parenting interventions designed to prevent problem behaviors among children and adolescents. This study examined predictors of engagement and retention in a group-based family intervention across two versions of the program: a standard version requiring only parent attendance for six sessions and an adapted version with two additional sessions that required attendance by the son or daughter. Families included a parent and an eighth grader who attended one of five high-poverty schools in an urban Pacific Northwest school district. The adapted version of the intervention had a higher rate of engagement than the standard version, a difference that was statistically significant after adjusting for other variables assessed at enrollment in the study. Higher household income and parent education, younger student age, and poorer affective quality in the parent-child relationship predicted greater likelihood of initial attendance. In the adapted version of the intervention, parents of boys were more likely to engage with the program than those of girls. The variables considered did not strongly predict retention, although retention was higher among parents of boys. Retention did not significantly differ between conditions. Asking for child attendance at workshops may have increased engagement in the intervention, while findings for other predictors of attendance point to the need for added efforts to recruit families who have less socioeconomic resources, as well as families who perceive they have less need for services.
Richard A Bryant, ProfPhD
Full Text Available Summary: Background: Children and adolescents, who account for most of the world's refugees, have an increased prevalence of psychological disorders. The mental health of refugee children is often associated with the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in their caregivers. Despite the potential for refugee caregivers' PTSD to affect child mental health, little evidence exists concerning the underlying mechanisms of this association. This study tested the effect of refugee caregivers' previous trauma and levels of ongoing stressors on current PTSD, and in turn how this influences parenting behaviour and consequent child psychological health. Methods: This cohort study recruited participants from the Building a New Life in Australia study, a population-based prospective cohort study of refugees admitted to 11 sites in Australia between October, 2013, and February, 2014. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older and the principal or secondary applicant (ie, the refugee applicant within a migrating family unit for a humanitarian visa awarded between May, 2013, and December, 2013. Primary caregiver PTSD and postmigration difficulties were assessed at Wave 1 (in 2013, and caregiver PTSD was reassessed at Wave 2 (in 2014. At Wave 3, between October, 2015, and February, 2016, primary caregivers repeated measures of trauma history, postmigration difficulties, probable PTSD, and harsh and warm parenting style, and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for their child. We used path analysis to investigate temporal patterns in PTSD, trauma history, postmigration stressors, parenting style, and children's psychological difficulties. Findings: The current data comprised 411 primary caregivers who provided responses in relation to at least one child (660 children. 394 primary caregivers with 639 children had data on independent variables and were included in the final model. Path analyses revealed that caregivers' trauma
Pesigan, Ivan Jacob Agaloos; Luyckx, Koen; Alampay, Liane Peña
This study focused on a process-oriented approach to identity formation using a sample of Filipino late adolescents and young adults (17-30 years; N = 779). Indirect relations between parenting and mental health via identity formation processes were examined. Two parenting dimensions (psychological control and support), two types of mental health outcomes (depression and psychological well-being), and five identity dimensions (commitment making (CM), identification with commitment (IC), exploration in breadth (EB), exploration in depth (ED), and ruminative exploration (RE)) were assessed. Recursive path analysis showed indirect relations between parenting and mental health via EB, ED, RE, and IC. Model differences between late adolescents (17-21 year olds) and young adults (22-30 year olds) were examined using multigroup path analysis. Results showed that the direct effect of psychological control on RE, and its indirect effect on depression through RE differed between the age groups. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chase-Lansdale, P L; Cherlin, A J; Kiernan, K E
The effects of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence on the mental health of young adults (age 23) were examined, using the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a longitudinal, multimethod, nationally representative survey of all children born in Great Britain during 1 week in 1958 (N = 17,414). Children were assessed at birth and subsequently followed up at ages 7, 11, 16, and 23 by means of maternal and child interviews, and by psychological, school, and medical assessments. Parental divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on adult mental health, as measured by the Malaise Inventory total score, and controlling for economic status, children's emotional problems, and school performance preceding marital dissolution. The likelihood of scoring above the clinical cutoff of the Malaise Inventory rose from 8% to 11% due to parental divorce. This indicated that the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of divorce, but that the large majority of individuals did not exhibit such risks. Path analyses revealed that the negative effects of divorce on adult mental health operated indirectly through higher emotional problems and lower levels of school achievement and family economic status at age 16. Results related to timing of divorce, remarriage, and interactions between age 7 emotional problems and divorce, and between age 7 emotional problems and child gender, are also discussed.
Kristensen, Pål; Heir, Trond; Herlofsen, Pål H; Langsrud, Øyvind; Weisæth, Lars
We prospectively studied parental mental health after suddenly losing a son in a military training accident. Parents (N = 32) were interviewed at 1, 2 and 23 years after the death of their son. The General Health Questionnaire and Expanded Texas Inventory of Grief were self-reported at 1, 2, 5, and 23 years; the Inventory of Complicated Grief was self-reported at 23 years. We observed a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (57% and 45%, respectively), particularly major depression (43% and 31%, respectively). Only one mental disorder was diagnosed at the 23-year follow-up. Grief and psychological distress were highest at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Spouses exhibited a high concordance of psychological distress. Mothers reported more intense grief reactions than did fathers. The loss of a son during military service may have a substantial impact on parental mental health particularly during the first 2 years after death. Spouses' grief can be interrelated and may contribute to their psychological distress.
Catalano, Denise; Holloway, Linda; Mpofu, Elias
Parent carers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often report increased levels of stress, depression, and anxiety. Unmet parent carer mental health needs pose a significant risk to the psychological, physical, and social well-being of the parents of the child affected by ASD and jeopardize the adaptive functioning of the family as well as the potential of the child affected by ASD. This systematic review identifies key qualities of interventions supporting the mental health of parent carers and proposes practitioner-parent carer support guidelines. A search of four databases (Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Social Science Data) was conducted to identify studies that met the following criteria: (1) an intervention was delivered to parent carers of a child with ASD under the age of 18 years; (2) the research design allowed for a comparison on outcomes across groups; and (3) outcome measures of the parent carers' mental health were used. A total of 23 studies met the inclusion criteria. A critical interpretive synthesis approach was used to produce an integrated conceptualization of the evidence. Findings suggest practitioner guidelines to support the mental health and wellbeing of parent carers should include addressing the parent's self-perspective taking and skill for real time problem-solving.
Hsieh Tsungling; Yang Chihwei; Lin Chiuhsiangjoe
The key goals of staffing and qualifications review element are to ensure that the right numbers of people with the appropriate skills and abilities are available to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is too few, excessive stress that caused human errors possibly will be placed on the operators. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation technique based on CPM-GOMS for the mental tasks such as operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation technique. The results indicated the performance of evaluated staffing level via the staffing evaluation technique was significantly higher than that of non-evaluated staffing level; thus, validity of the staffing evaluation technique can be accepted. Finally, the implications for managerial practice on the findings of this study were discussed. (author)
Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P; Yeoh, Brenda S A
The international migration of parents from the global south raises questions about the health impacts of family separation on those who stay behind. This paper uses data collected in 2008 and 2009 for a project on Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) to address a largely neglected research area by investigating the mental health of those who stay behind in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam to care for the children of overseas migrants. A mixed-methods research design is employed to answer two questions. First, whether carers in transnational (migrant) households are more likely to suffer mental health problems than those in non-migrant households; and secondly, whether transnational family practices and characteristics of migration are associated with mental health outcomes for stay-behind carers. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was completed by carers in selected communities (N = 3026) and used to identify likely cases of common mental disorders (CMD). Multivariate logistic regression and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews (N = 149) reveal a nuanced picture. All stay-behind carers in the Indonesian sample are more likely than carers in non-migrant households to suffer CMD. Across the three study countries, however, it is stay-behind mothers with husbands working overseas who are most likely to experience poor mental health. Moreover, infrequent contact with the migrant, not receiving remittances and migrant destinations in the Middle East are all positively associated with carer CMD, whereas greater educational attainment and greater wealth are protective factors. These findings add new evidence on the 'costs' of international labour migration and point to the role of gendered expectations and wider geopolitical structures. Governments and international policy makers need to intervene to encourage transnational family practices that are less detrimental to the mental health of those who stay behind to care for the
Rubin, Mark; Kelly, Benjamin M.
Introduction This study tested a novel explanation for the positive relation between social class and mental health among university students. Students with a higher social class were expected to have experienced more authoritative and less authoritarian parenting styles; these parenting styles were expected to lead to greater friendship and social integration at university; and greater friendship and integration were expected to lead to better mental health. Method To test this model, the re...
Knight, Andrea M; Vickery, Michelle E; Fiks, Alexander G; Barg, Frances K
Untreated mental health problems may result in poor outcomes for youth with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). We investigated perceptions, barriers and facilitators for mental healthcare of these youth. We conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with 16 outpatient youth with SLE/MCTD, ages 11-22 years, and their parents. We used purposive sampling to deliberately obtain the experiences of youth screened during a previous study for depression and anxiety with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Disorders, respectively. We recruited 6 youth with previous positive screens and 10 with negative screens. We assessed interim mental health history, and qualitatively examined perceptions, barriers and facilitators for mental healthcare. Youth with a mental health history increased from 6 (38%) at initial screening to 9 (56%) at interview (mean follow-up = 2.1 years). Youth receiving mental health treatment increased from 33 to 67%. Youth and parents identified rheumatologists as primary physicians and found mental health screening in rheumatology acceptable. Barriers to mental healthcare included: stigma; fear; uncertainty about getting help; parental emotional burden; minimization by doctors; and limited mental healthcare access. Facilitators included: strong clinician relationships; clinician initiative, sincerity and normalization in discussing mental health; and increased patient/family awareness of mental health issues in SLE/MCTD. Youth with SLE/MCTD and their parents perceive pediatric rheumatologists as a preferred source for mental health screening, guidance and referral. Interventions addressing barriers and enhancing facilitators may improve mental healthcare for youth with SLE/MCTD.
The question of what is genuine maternal love was posed by a mother struggling to understand and value the nature of her bond with her small baby. The question surfaced time and again in the context of this dyad's long-term parent-infant psychotherapy and has challenged me to examine my thinking and, indeed, has produced impassioned discussions within the Parent Infant Project team at The Anna Freud Centre. In this paper I will address this question through sessional material of this mother and baby and discuss issues of technique in response to it, including my countertransference and conceptualization.
This study examines a sample of filial caregivers to investigate whether and how a history of childhood abuse is associated with caregivers' mental health (i.e., depressed affect, psychological well-being, and life satisfaction). This study also investigates the mediational role of self-esteem between caring for an abusive parent and the mental health outcomes. Using the 2004-2006 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, data from 219 filial caregivers were analyzed. A series of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and mediational analyses were conducted to estimate the direct and indirect effects of providing care to an abusive parent on negative affect, psychological well-being, and levels of life satisfaction. Key results showed that providing care to an abusive parent was associated with greater depressed affect and lower levels of life satisfaction. In addition, self-esteem served as a significant mediator: providing care to an abusive parent was associated with lower self-esteem, which was, in turn, ultimately associated with greater depressed affect, diminished psychological well-being, and lower levels of life satisfaction. Filial caregivers with a history of childhood abuse should be acknowledged as a high-risk group of caregivers so that they can gain attention and support for targeted interventions. Additionally, evidence-based intervention programs (e.g., improving self-esteem issues) should be designed and implemented to address this group's unique challenges and concerns.
In the last fifteen years a lot of services were established to assist children and their mentally ill parents. To improve the preventive and therapeutic interventions in favour of these families, the cooperation between all the institutions involved has to be enhanced. Family counselling centers can play an important role as a link between the psychiatric care system and the youth welfare services. By transferring the psychiatric terminology to the families' everyday language, the counsellors help the parents and the children to share their experiences with the parental illness. To implement a consultation-hour in a psychiatric clinic is an example of how educational guidance can close the gap between the two systems and strengthen the cooperation.
Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.
Background: Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods. A qualitative design was used to address the ma...
Ramakrishnan, Parameshwaran; Baccari, Andrew; Ramachandran, Uma; Ahmed, Syed Faiz; Koenig, Harold G
Religious-spiritual (R/S) education helps medical students cope with caregiving stress and gain skills in interpersonal empathy needed for clinical care. Such R/S education has been introduced into K-12 and college curricula in some developed nations and has been found to positively impact student's mental health. Such a move has not yet been seen in the Indian education system. This paper aimed to examine perspectives of teachers and parents in India on appropriateness, benefits, and challenges of including R/S education into the school curriculum and also to gather their impressions on how a R/S curriculum might promote students' health. A cross-sectional study of religiously stratified sample of teachers and parents was initiated in three preselected schools in India and the required sample size (N = 300) was reached through snowballing technique. A semi-structured questionnaire, with questions crafted from "Religion and Spirituality in Medicine, Physicians Perspective" (RSMPP) and "American Academy of Religion's (AAR) Guidelines for Religious Literacy," was used to determine participants' perspectives. Findings revealed that teachers' and parents' "comfort in integrating R/S into school curriculum" was associated with their gender (OR 1.68), education status (OR 1.05), and intrinsic religiosity (OR 1.05). Intrinsic religiosity was significantly (p = 0.025) high among parents while "intrinsic spirituality" was high (p = 0.020) among teachers. How participants' R/S characteristics influence their support of R/S education in school is discussed. In conclusion, participants believe R/S education will fosters students' emotional health and interpersonal skills needed for social leadership. A curriculum that incorporates R/S education, which is based on AAR guidelines and clinically validated interpersonal spiritual care tools would be acceptable to both teachers and parents.
Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Husky, Mathilde; Pitrou, Isabelle; Fermanian, Christophe; Shojaei, Taraneh; Chee, Christine Chan; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Beiser, Morton
In France, one in 10 residents has immigrated mainly from North Africa, West Africa or the Caribbean including the French West Indies. However little is known about how parents from these regions behave when they migrate to countries that have different cultural norms. It is therefore important to determine how ethno-cultural background affects parental behavior and subsequent child mental health in the context of immigration. The objectives are: 1) to compare negative parenting behaviors of French residents from diverse ethno-cultural backgrounds 2) to examine the relationship between parental region of origin and child mental health, and 3) to investigate the extent to which ethno-cultural context moderates the effect of parenting styles on child mental health. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 in 100 schools in South-East France. The Dominic Interactive and the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to assess child psychopathology. The Parent Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess parenting styles. The final sample included data on 1,106 mother and child dyads. Caring and punitive attitudes were significantly different across mothers as a function of region of origin. This association was stronger for punitive attitudes with the highest prevalence in the Caribbean/African group, while mothers from Maghreb were more similar to French natives. Differences in caring behaviors were similar though less pronounced. Among children of Maghrebian descent, punitive parenting was associated with an increased risk of internalizing disorders while this association was weaker among children of African and Afro-Caribbean descent. Parental region of origin is an important component of both parenting styles and their effect on child mental health. Interventions on parenting should consider both the region of origin and the differential impact of origin on the effect of parenting styles, thus allowing for a finer
Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Baker-Ericzén, Mary; Dyson, Margaret; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren
Publicly funded mental health services are critical in caring for children with autism spectrum disorder. Accurate identification of psychiatric comorbidity is necessary for effective mental health treatment. Little is known about psychiatric diagnosis for this population in routine mental health care. This study (1) examined correspondence…
Riba, Hicham; Al-Shahrani, Asma; Al-Ghutaimel, Hayat; Al-Otaibi, Adel; Al-Kahtani, Salim
Parental presence/absence in the dental operatory (also called: Parent-in-parent-out technique) is an extremely controversial aspect of the nonpharmacological BMTs. Historically, dentists used to exclude parents from dental operatory to avoid their interference with the dentist's aptitude to build a rapport and relationship with the child, hence increasing the child management problems by disrupting treatment and making the dentist unfocused and uncomfortable. The purpose of this article is to review and emphasize on the importance of parental presence/absence in the dental operatory, especially in a certain age group, as a behavior management technique (BMT) in pediatric dentistry, and to present a modified view of this technique. This article reviews the current literature concerning behavior management in pediatric dentistry. It includes a medline database search and review of the comprehensive textbooks in pediatric dentistry. Some recommendations were based on the opinions of experienced researchers and clinicians. Parent-in-parent-out technique in dental operatory is advocated to gain emotional support and avoid the effect of traumatic separation, especially in younger children or special health-care needs patients. The parent-in-parent-out technique in dental operatory is underused, or misused. This article clarifies the proper use of this technique along with a minor modification to it to make it more effective on young apprehensive dental patients.
This paper reports parents' use of electronic bulletin board for social support during a pilot study of an Internet intervention. Parents participated for a mean of 13.83 weeks. The convenience sample consisted of six parents. Data were from site access information and parents' postings. Excluding one mother who checked frequently for messages, mothers have an average of 5.2 postings. Excluding this one mother, the postings/ accesses ratio was greater than 60%. Parents made postings in four categories of "child's illness" having 37 comments and 36 comments for "group maintenance". While the study findings cannot be generalized, these results suggest that parents will use electronic discussion boards.
Woolderink, M; Smit, H.F.E.; Zanden, R.; Beecham, J; Knapp, M.; Paulus, A; Evers, S.
Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI), because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly
Powdthavee, Nattavudh; Vignoles, Anna
This paper addresses the extent to which there is an intergenerational transmission of mental health and subjective well-being within families. Specifically it asks whether parents' own mental distress influences their child's life satisfaction, and vice versa. Whilst the evidence on daily contagion of stress and strain between members of the same…
mothers of mentally-retarded children to know themselves better, recognize their strength and weak points, and reach a level of self-recognition that proceed improving their weak points and promoting their strong points. As a result, parents accept better the reality of their mentally-retarded child and better adapt to this situation. This will in turn reduce the mental stress and increase their health status.
Wansink, H.J.; Drost, R.M.W.A.; Paulus, A.T.G.; Ruwaard, D.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Evers, S.M.A.A.
Background: The children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing costly psychiatric disorders because of multiple risk factors which threaten parenting quality and thereby child development. Preventive basic care management (PBCM) is an intervention aimed at
Full Text Available Parent carers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD often report increased levels of stress, depression, and anxiety. Unmet parent carer mental health needs pose a significant risk to the psychological, physical, and social well-being of the parents of the child affected by ASD and jeopardize the adaptive functioning of the family as well as the potential of the child affected by ASD. This systematic review identifies key qualities of interventions supporting the mental health of parent carers and proposes practitioner-parent carer support guidelines. A search of four databases (Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Social Science Data was conducted to identify studies that met the following criteria: (1 an intervention was delivered to parent carers of a child with ASD under the age of 18 years; (2 the research design allowed for a comparison on outcomes across groups; and (3 outcome measures of the parent carers’ mental health were used. A total of 23 studies met the inclusion criteria. A critical interpretive synthesis approach was used to produce an integrated conceptualization of the evidence. Findings suggest practitioner guidelines to support the mental health and wellbeing of parent carers should include addressing the parent’s self-perspective taking and skill for real time problem-solving.
Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R; Greenberg, Jan S
Parents of sons and daughters with disabilities have ongoing financial burdens and vulnerability due to the demands of caregiving responsibilities and their related direct and indirect costs. This study aims to investigate whether midlife and older parents of individuals with a mental health problem or a developmental disability were particularly vulnerable to the impact of the recession. The data were drawn from Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), a longitudinal survey of a national probability sample in the United States, Waves II (2004-2006) and III (2013-2014; 84 parents of individuals with a mental health problem, 98 parents of individuals with a developmental disability, and 2,029 parents of individuals without any conditions as a comparison group). The findings suggest that the midlife and older parents whose son or daughter had a mental health problem experienced more recession impacts than comparison parents, even after controlling prerecession financial status and sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicate the need for policies that provide effective financial support and reduce restrictions on health service access in order to relieve the financial burden experienced by midlife and older parents of individuals with a mental health problem. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
van der Ende, P.C.; Korevaar, E.L.; van Busschbach, J.T.; van Weeghel, J.
Chronic illness affects a person’s wellbeing and affects the ability to perform the social roles of spouse or parent. When working with people with long-lasting mental or somatic illnesses, social workers and nurses are confronted with needs for support, especially for parents. Although programs are
Van Der Ende, P.C.; Korevaar, L.; Van Busschbach, J.T.; Van Weeghel, J.
Chronic illness affects a person’s wellbeing and affects the ability to perform the social roles of spouse or parent. When working with people with long-lasting mental or somatic illnesses, social workers and nurses are confronted with needs for support, especially for parents. Although programs are
Yen, Wen-Jiuan; Teng, Ching-Hwa; Huang, Xuan-Yi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Lee, Sheuan; Tseng, Hsiu-Chih
The aim of this study is to generate a theory of meaning of care-giving for parents of mentally ill children in Taiwan. Studies indicate that the meaning of care-giving plays an important role in the psychological adjustment of care-givers to care-giving. With a positive meaning of care-giving, care-givers can accept their roles and adapt to them more readily. The research employs the qualitative method of grounded theory, the inquiry is based on symbolic interactionism. Twenty parental care-givers of children with schizophrenia were recruited at a private hospital in central Taiwan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. A comparative method was used to analyse the text and field notes. Responsibility (zeren) emerges as the core category or concept. Responsibility expresses broadly the behavioural principles that are culturally prescribed and centred on familial ethics and values. Related concepts and principles that influence caregiver actions and affections include a return of karma, challenges from local gods and fate. By maintaining their culturally prescribed interpretations of care-giving, parents hope to give care indefinitely without complaints. The findings clearly suggest that the meaning of care-giving is determined through a process of internal debate that is shaped by culturally specific concepts. The paper attempts to explain some of these culturally specific determinants and explanations of care-giving behaviour. The theory contributes knowledge about the meaning of care-giving for parents of mentally ill children in Taiwan. It should be useful reference for mental health professionals, who provide counselling services to ethnically Taiwanese care-givers.
Wilson, Erin C; Chen, Yea-Hung; Arayasirikul, Sean; Raymond, H Fisher; McFarland, Willi
Significant health disparities exist for transgender female (trans*female) youth. We assessed differences in mental health outcomes based on exposure to discrimination among transgender female youth in the San Francisco Bay Area aged 16-24 years. Youth were recruited using a combination of respondent driven sampling with online and social media methods. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for the mental health outcomes, comparing levels of discrimination and levels of resiliency promoting protective factors among sexually active youth in the sample (N = 216). High transgender-based discrimination was significantly associated with greater odds of PTSD (AOR, 2.6; 95 % CI 1.4-5.0), depression (AOR, 2.6; 95 % CI 1.2-5.9), and stress related to suicidal thoughts (AOR 7.7, 95 % CI 2.3-35.2). High racial discrimination was significantly associated with greater odds of psychological stress (AOR 3.6; 95 % CI 1.2-10.8), PTSD (AOR 2.1; 95 % CI 1.1-4.2) and stress related to suicidal thoughts (AOR 4.3, 95 % CI 1.5-13.3). Parental closeness was related to significantly lower odds of all four mental health outcomes measured, and intrinsic resiliency positively reduced risk for psychological stress, PTSD, and stress related to suicidal thoughts. Transgender and racial discrimination may have deleterious effects on the mental health of trans*female youth. Interventions that address individual and intersectional discrimination and build resources for resiliency and parental closeness may have success in preventing mental health disorders in this underserved population.
Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Hartman, Catharina A; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Ormel, Johan
Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to indicate high context sensitivity, would show relatively high problem levels following chronic stress, especially in the presence of parental psychiatric history. With Linear Mixed Models, we investigated the hypotheses in 1917 Dutch adolescents (53.2% boys), assessed at ages 11, 13.5, and 16. Low basal cortisol combined with the absence of a parental psychiatric history increased the risk of externalizing but not internalizing problems following chronic stress. Conversely, low basal cortisol combined with a substantial parental psychiatric history increased the risk of internalizing but not externalizing problems following chronic stress. Thus, parental psychiatric history moderated stress- cortisol interactions in predicting psychopathology, but in a different direction than hypothesized. We conclude that the premise that basal cortisol indicates context sensitivity may be too crude. Context sensitivity may not be a general trait but may depend on the nature of the context (e.g., type or duration of stress exposure) and on the outcome of interest (e.g., internalizing vs. externalizing problems). Although consistent across informants, our findings need replication.
Thanhäuser, Martina; Lemmer, Gunnar; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Christiansen, Hanna
The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most significant causes of psychiatric morbidity. Several risk factors for children of parents with mental illness (COPMI) have been identified in numerous studies and meta-analyses. Many interventions have been developed for this high-risk group, but data about their efficacy are heterogeneous. The current meta-analysis reports on 96 articles including 50 independent samples from randomized controlled trials quantifying effects of preventive interventions for COPMI. Random effect models resulted in small, though significant Effect Sizes (ES) for programs enhancing the mother-infant interaction (ES = 0.26) as well as mothers' (ES = 0.33) and children's (ES = 0.31) behavior that proved to be stable over the 12-month follow-up, except for infants' behavior. Interventions for children/adolescents resulted in significant small effects for global psychopathology (ES = 0.13), as well as internalizing symptoms (ES = 0.17), and increased significantly over time, with externalizing symptoms reaching significance in the follow-up assessments as well (ES = 0.17). Interventions addressing parents and children jointly produced overall larger effects. Higher study quality was associated with smaller effects. There is a dearth of high quality studies that effectively reduce the high risk of COPMI for the development of mental disorders.
Background An increasing proportion of immigrants to Western countries in the past decade are from war affected countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of war experience among adolescents and their parents and to investigate possible differences in internalizing and externalizing mental health problems between adolescents exposed and unexposed to own and parental war experience. Method The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 1,758 aadolescents were included, all with both parents born outside of Norway. Internalizing and externalizing mental health problems were measured by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 and subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. Own and parental war experience is based on adolescent self-report. Results The proportion of adolescents with own war experience was 14% with the highest prevalence in immigrants from Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. The proportion of parental war experience was 33% with Sub-Saharan Africa being highest. Adolescents reporting own war experience had higher scores for both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems compared to immigrants without war experience, but only externalizing problems reached statistically significant differences. For parental war experience there was a statistically significant relationship between parental war experience and internalizing mental health problems. The association remained significant after adjustment for parental educational level and adolescents' own war experience. Conclusion War exposure is highly prevalent among immigrants living in Oslo, Norway, both among adolescents themselves and their parents. Among immigrants to Norway, parental war experience appears to be stronger associated with mental health problems than adolescents own exposure to war experience. PMID:17081315
Rubin, Mark; Kelly, Benjamin M
This study tested a novel explanation for the positive relation between social class and mental health among university students. Students with a higher social class were expected to have experienced more authoritative and less authoritarian parenting styles; these parenting styles were expected to lead to greater friendship and social integration at university; and greater friendship and integration were expected to lead to better mental health. To test this model, the researchers asked 397 Australian undergraduate students to complete an online survey. The research used a cross-sectional correlational design, and the data was analysed using bootstrapped multiple serial mediation tests. Consistent with predictions, parenting style, general friendship and support, and social integration at university mediated the relation between social class and mental health. The present results suggest that working-class parenting styles may inhibit the development of socially-supportive friendships that protect against mental health problems. The potential effectiveness of interventions based on (a) social integration and (b) parenting style is discussed. Future research in this area should employ a longitudinal research design in order to arrive at clearer causal conclusions about the relations between social class, parenting styles, friendship, social integration, and mental health.
Dam, K; Joensen, D G; Hall, E O C
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Children of parent with severe mental illness are often carrying a caring burden; they keep the illness in the family, are documented to be stigmatized, bullied and to take special attention to their mentally ill parent's health and well-being. Little is however known about these children's experiences when growing up in a small-scale society. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Children's experiences of living with a parent with severe mental illness in the small-scale society (Faroe Islands) are paradoxical, life is often unreasonable and evidently contradictory but anyway connected. The results show that "everybody knows everybody" which refers to that, in the small-scale society, it is difficult to be anonymous. The children were familiar with that people talked and had a prejudiced attitude; this resulted that the participants were constantly reminded of their mental ill parent's difference, and they were feeling less worthy than their pals. Children of parents with severe mental illness in a small-scale society need to support from the close family as well as mental healthcare professionals. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The study adds knowledge about the challenges that children of mental ill parents have to go through. Dialogue among mental healthcare colleagues not only about caring for the sick parent but also about modes of caring for the children and the family at large would deepen the staff's knowing of the need for family-centred care within mental health care. Introduction An estimated 23% of children worldwide live with a parent experiencing mental illness. These children are exposed to emotional and psychosocial challenges. Little is known about these children when living in small-scale societies. Aim To explore how adults, who as children lived with parents experiencing mental illness in a small-scale society, recalled their childhood life. Method Individual interviews with 11 adults were
A comparison of the effectiveness of three parenting programmes in improving parenting skills, parent mental-well being and children's behaviour when implemented on a large scale in community settings in 18 English local authorities: the parenting early intervention pathfinder (PEIP
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and thereby the behaviour of children exhibiting or at risk of developing antisocial behaviour. Given the high prevalence of childhood behaviour problems the task is to develop large scale application of effective programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the UK government funded implementation of the Parenting Early Intervention Pathfinder (PEIP. This involved the large scale rolling out of three programmes to parents of children 8-13 years in 18 local authorities (LAs over a 2 year period. Methods The UK government's Department for Education allocated each programme (Incredible Years, Triple P and Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities to six LAs which then developed systems to intervene using parenting groups. Implementation fidelity was supported by the training of group facilitators by staff of the appropriate parenting programme supplemented by supervision. Parents completed measures of parenting style, efficacy, satisfaction, and mental well-being, and also child behaviour. Results A total of 1121 parents completed pre- and post-course measures. There were significant improvements on all measures for each programme; effect sizes (Cohen's d ranged across the programmes from 0.57 to 0.93 for parenting style; 0.33 to 0.77 for parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy; and from 0.49 to 0.88 for parental mental well-being. Effectiveness varied between programmes: Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities was significantly less effective than both the other two programmes in improving parental efficacy, satisfaction and mental well-being. Improvements in child behaviour were found for all programmes: effect sizes for reduction in conduct problems ranged from -0.44 to -0.71 across programmes, with Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities again having significantly lower reductions than Incredible Years. Conclusions
A comparison of the effectiveness of three parenting programmes in improving parenting skills, parent mental-well being and children's behaviour when implemented on a large scale in community settings in 18 English local authorities: the parenting early intervention pathfinder (PEIP).
Lindsay, Geoff; Strand, Steve; Davis, Hilton
There is growing evidence that parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and thereby the behaviour of children exhibiting or at risk of developing antisocial behaviour. Given the high prevalence of childhood behaviour problems the task is to develop large scale application of effective programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the UK government funded implementation of the Parenting Early Intervention Pathfinder (PEIP). This involved the large scale rolling out of three programmes to parents of children 8-13 years in 18 local authorities (LAs) over a 2 year period. The UK government's Department for Education allocated each programme (Incredible Years, Triple P and Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities) to six LAs which then developed systems to intervene using parenting groups. Implementation fidelity was supported by the training of group facilitators by staff of the appropriate parenting programme supplemented by supervision. Parents completed measures of parenting style, efficacy, satisfaction, and mental well-being, and also child behaviour. A total of 1121 parents completed pre- and post-course measures. There were significant improvements on all measures for each programme; effect sizes (Cohen's d) ranged across the programmes from 0.57 to 0.93 for parenting style; 0.33 to 0.77 for parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy; and from 0.49 to 0.88 for parental mental well-being. Effectiveness varied between programmes: Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities was significantly less effective than both the other two programmes in improving parental efficacy, satisfaction and mental well-being. Improvements in child behaviour were found for all programmes: effect sizes for reduction in conduct problems ranged from -0.44 to -0.71 across programmes, with Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities again having significantly lower reductions than Incredible Years. Evidence-based parenting programmes can be implemented
Le, Victory; Arayasirikul, Sean; Chen, Yea-Hung; Jin, Harry; Wilson, Erin C
Transfemale youth (TFY) are an underserved and understudied population at risk for numerous poor physical and mental health outcomes, most notably HIV. Research suggests that parental acceptance and social support may serve as protective factors against HIV and other risks for TFY; however, it is unclear whether TFY receive primary social support from parents with or without parental acceptance of their gender identity. This study examines differences in parental acceptance, mental health and the HIV risk factors of history of sex work, age at sexual debut and engagement in condomless anal intercourse between TFY with two types of primary social support - non-parental primary social support (NPPSS) and parental primary social support (PPSS). Cross-sectional data collected from 301 TFY from 2012 to 2014 in the San Francisco Bay Area were analyzed to determine differences in parental acceptance, mental health and HIV risk factors between youth with and without PPSS. Univariate statistics and chi-squared tests were conducted to determine if parental acceptance and health outcomes were correlated with type of social support. Two-hundred fifty-one participants (83.7%) reported having NPPSS, and 49 (16.3%) reported PPSS. Significantly more youth with PPSS reported affirmative responses on parental acceptance items than their NPPSS counterparts. For example, 87.8% of youth with PPSS reported that their parents believed they could have a happy future as a trans adult, compared with 51.6% of youth with NPPSS (pparental acceptance of their gender identity may be more likely to reach out to their parents as their primary source of social support. Interventions focused on parental acceptance of their child's gender identity may have the most promise for creating parental social support systems in the lives of TFY.
Collishaw, Stephan; Gardner, Frances; Lawrence Aber, J; Cluver, Lucie
Children parentally bereaved by AIDS experience high rates of mental health problems. However, there is considerable variability in outcomes, and some show no mental health problems even when followed over time. Primary aims were to identify predictors of resilient adaptation at child, family and community levels within a group of AIDS-orphaned children, and to consider their cumulative influence. A secondary aim was to test whether predictors were of particular influence among children orphaned by AIDS relative to non-orphaned and other-orphaned children. AIDS-orphaned (n = 290), other-orphaned (n = 163) and non-orphaned (n = 202) adolescents living in informal settlements in Cape Town, South Africa were assessed on two occasions 4 years apart (mean age 13.5 years at Time 1, range = 10-19 years). Self-report mental health screens were used to operationalise resilience in AIDS-orphaned children as the absence of clinical-range symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, depression, conduct problems, and suicidality. A quarter of AIDS-orphaned children (24 %) showed no evidence of mental health problems at either wave. Child physical health, better caregiving quality, food security, better peer relationship quality, and lower exposure to community violence, bullying or stigma at baseline predicted sustained resilience. There were cumulative influences across predictors. Associations with mental health showed little variation by child age or gender, or between orphaned and non-orphaned children. Mental health resilience is associated with multiple processes across child, family and community levels of influence. Caution is needed in making causal inferences.
Marriage, Amanda Lynn
This study reviewed how Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) is used in psychotherapeutic practice, and how it is understood and experienced by the practitioners who use it. Participants included 18 mental health professionals who have obtained the certification-level of training in NET and have incorporated NET into their professional practice. A qualitative method was used to explore NET providers' experiences through an online survey. Data from these surveys was analyzed using the constant comparative method. Six categories containing 18 themes emerged as a result of this analysis. These categories included: (1) practitioners currently employing NET; (2) technique utilization; (3) participant estimation of the efficacy of NET; (4) talking about NET; (5) clients most likely to benefit from NET; and (6) clients least likely to benefit from NET. The 18 themes that emerged within these categories represent important components of the integration of NET into psychological treatment. These themes were compared with existing literature to serve as valuable information for psychologists and other mental health professionals seeking to incorporate NET into their professional practices. This study helps to fill the current void in the area of research on NET as a psychological intervention, or more specifically, as a holistic mind-body approach to self-betterment and the amelioration of symptoms for humans who are healing from a broad spectrum of traumatic and stressful experiences.
Perkins, Rose J. Merlino
"Women's Mental Health Questionnaire" (W-MHQ) assesses females' adult mental health concerns, and examines their associations with specified father-daughter childhood relationships. Presented are W-MHQ item and scale development, and psychometric findings drawn from factor analyses, reliability assessments, and validation processes. For…
Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; van Pampus, Mariëlle G; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L; Hartman, Catharina A; Burger, Huibert
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) follows 5-15% of the life births and forms a major threat to the child's mental health and psychosocial development. However, the nature, continuance, and mediators of the association of postpartum depression (PPD) with the child's mental health are not well
Miller, Laurence; Miller, Halle B; Bjorklund, David
Military deployment of a parent carries with it a number of stresses for children, all centering around uncertainty, instability and unpredictability. This article conceptualizes military deployment and relocation stress in the context of attachment theory, and describes the types of adverse outcomes that can occur as the result of impaired attachment. It then presents a set of practical recommendations for mental health clinicians and counselors for helping children and families cope productively and negotiate the developmental hurdles associated with maintaining healthy attachment and family stability in the face of military deployment.
Hamilton, Hayley A; Marshall, Lysandra; Rummens, Joanna A; Fenta, Haile; Simich, Laura
Research has increasingly identified the perception of school environment as an influential factor in children's lives. There has been sparse research attention, however, on the potential importance of parents' perceptions of school environment on child adjustment. This study examined the relationship between parents' perceptions of school environment and children's emotional and behavioral problems. Data were derived from the New Canadian Children and Youth Study, a study of the children (aged 4-6 and 11-13) of immigrant parents. Analyses focused on a subsample of Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, and Filipino immigrants in a large metropolitan area. Parental perception of school environment was negatively associated with physical aggression in children even after controlling for child age and gender, parental characteristics, family functioning, and aspects of acculturation. In contrast, parental perception was not significantly related to symptoms of emotional distress in children. There were some ethnic differences in perception of school environment. Parental perception of school environment is important to the well-being of the children of immigrant parents, and reinforces the relevance of initiatives to improve the dynamics between parents and schools. © 2011, American School Health Association.
Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Wang, August G
BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio 4...
Sørensen, Holger; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Wang, August
BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio 4...
Band-Winterstein, Tova; Smeloy, Yael; Avieli, Hila
Increasing numbers of aging parents are finding themselves in the role of caregiver for their mentally ill adult child due to global deinstitutionalization policy. The aim of this paper is to describe the daily aging experience of parents abused by an adult child with mental disorder and the challenges confronting them in this shared reality. Data collection was performed through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 16 parents, followed by content analysis. Three major themes emerged: (a) old age as a platform for parent's vulnerability facing ongoing abuse; (b) "whose needs come first?" in a shared reality of abusive and vulnerable protagonists; (c) changes in relationship dynamics. Old age becomes an arena for redefined relationships combining increased vulnerability, needs of both sides, and its impact on the well-being of the aging parents. This calls for better insights and deeper understanding in regard to intervention with such families.
Kalland, Mirjam; Fagerlund, Åse; von Koskull, Malin; Pajulo, Marjaterttu
The aim of the present study was to describe the development of Families First, a new mentalization-based group intervention model for supporting early parenthood. The general aim of the intervention was to support well-functioning models of parenting and prevent transmission of negative parenting models over generations, and thus promote child development and overall family health. In the Finnish society, great concern has aroused during the last decade regarding the well-being and mental health of children and adolescents. Increased number of divorces, poverty, substance abuse, and mental health problems among parents enhance the risk for child neglect and abuse. New effective, preventive, and health-promoting intervention tools are greatly needed to support families with young children. At present, the Families First intervention is being implemented in primary social and healthcare units all over Finland. This article will provide a theoretical understanding of the importance of parental mentalization for the development of the parent-child relationship and the development of the child as well as proposed mechanisms of actions in order to enhance mentalizing capacity. The cultural context will be described. The article will also provide a description of the scientific evaluation protocol of the intervention model. Finally, possible limitations and challenges of the intervention model are discussed.
Sin, Jacqueline; Murrells, Trevor; Spain, Debbie; Norman, Ian; Henderson, Claire
The wellbeing and caregiving experiences of family carers supporting people with psychosis has garnered increasing interest. Evidence indicates that the burden of caregiving can adversely impact on parents' wellbeing, few studies have investigated whether this is also the case for siblings, who often take on caregiving responsibilities. This exploratory study investigated the wellbeing, mental health knowledge, and appraisals of caregiving in siblings of individuals with psychosis. Using a cross-sectional design, 90 siblings completed three validated questionnaires: Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS), Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS), and Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI). Data obtained were compared to general population norms and parent-carers' scores. Multi-variable regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between questionnaire scores and demographic characteristics including age, sex, birth order, marital status, accommodation and educational level. Siblings, especially sisters, had significantly poorer mental wellbeing, compared to normative scores. Conversely, they had better mental health knowledge. Siblings and parent-carers had comparable high levels of negative appraisals of caregiving experiences, but siblings reported more satisfaction with personal experiences and relationships. Education level was a significant predictor for better mental health knowledge; there were no other relationships between siblings' demographic factors and outcomes. Study findings suggest that siblings have overlapping as well as distinct needs, compared to parent-carers. Further research is required to better understand siblings' experiences so as to inform development of targeted interventions that enhance wellbeing and caregiving capacity.
Barton, Alison L.; Kirtley, Michael S.
Objective: Levels of student depression may increase as stress increases; parenting styles may be one indirect source of stress. The authors examined the role of parenting style in relationship to student stress, anxiety, and depression, with focused attention on gender differences. Participants: Participants were 290 undergraduate students (58%…
Li, Jiong; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Precht, Dorthe Hansen
Background The loss of a child is considered one of the most stressful events in the life of a parent. We hypothesized that parental bereavement increases the risk of hospital admission for a psychiatric disorder, especially for affective disorders. Methods We studied a cohort of 1,082,503 person...
Barton, Alison L; Kirtley, Michael S
Levels of student depression may increase as stress increases; parenting styles may be one indirect source of stress. The authors examined the role of parenting style in relationship to student stress, anxiety, and depression, with focused attention on gender differences. Participants were 290 undergraduate students (58% female, mean age = 19). Cross-sectional design. Participants completed surveys containing measures of parenting styles, college stress, anxiety, and depression. Anxiety and stress acted as mediators between some maternal parenting styles and female student depression. No mediational relationships were found for male student ratings. Daughters may be more susceptible to the influences of maternal parenting styles, which can either prepare or fail to prepare them for management and avoidance of stressors that are encountered during the college transition. College counseling centers and student affairs personnel may wish to focus attention on the instruction of self-management and problem-solving skills for incoming students.
Barry, Christopher T; Sidoti, Chloe L; Briggs, Shanelle M; Reiter, Shari R; Lindsey, Rebecca A
This study investigated adolescent and parent reports of adolescent social media use and its relation to adolescent psychosocial adjustment. The sample consisted of 226 participants (113 parent-adolescent dyads) from throughout the United States, with adolescents (55 males, 51 females, 7 unreported) ranging from ages 14 to 17. Parent and adolescent reports of the number of adolescents' social media accounts were moderately correlated with parent-reported DSM-5 symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, as well as adolescent-reported fear of missing out (FoMO) and loneliness. Lastly, anxiety and depressive symptoms were highest among adolescents with a relatively high number of parent-reported social media accounts and relatively high FoMO. The implications of these findings and need for related longitudinal studies are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bryant, Richard A; Edwards, Ben; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Forbes, David; Felmingham, Kim L; Silove, Derrick; Steel, Zachary; Nickerson, Angela; McFarlane, Alexander C; Van Hooff, Miranda; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan
Children and adolescents, who account for most of the world's refugees, have an increased prevalence of psychological disorders. The mental health of refugee children is often associated with the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their caregivers. Despite the potential for refugee caregivers' PTSD to affect child mental health, little evidence exists concerning the underlying mechanisms of this association. This study tested the effect of refugee caregivers' previous trauma and levels of ongoing stressors on current PTSD, and in turn how this influences parenting behaviour and consequent child psychological health. This cohort study recruited participants from the Building a New Life in Australia study, a population-based prospective cohort study of refugees admitted to 11 sites in Australia between October, 2013, and February, 2014. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older and the principal or secondary applicant (ie, the refugee applicant within a migrating family unit) for a humanitarian visa awarded between May, 2013, and December, 2013. Primary caregiver PTSD and postmigration difficulties were assessed at Wave 1 (in 2013), and caregiver PTSD was reassessed at Wave 2 (in 2014). At Wave 3, between October, 2015, and February, 2016, primary caregivers repeated measures of trauma history, postmigration difficulties, probable PTSD, and harsh and warm parenting style, and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for their child. We used path analysis to investigate temporal patterns in PTSD, trauma history, postmigration stressors, parenting style, and children's psychological difficulties. The current data comprised 411 primary caregivers who provided responses in relation to at least one child (660 children). 394 primary caregivers with 639 children had data on independent variables and were included in the final model. Path analyses revealed that caregivers' trauma history and postmigration difficulties were associated
Dejko, Karolina; Janusz, Bernadetta; Treger, Bartosz
The aim of the study was to answer the question about the ability to mentalize emotional states in parents of children with difficulties in realizing developmental objectives of the latency stage. The research was exploratory in nature; the aim was formulated on the basis of notions from the field literature indicating a correlation between the attachment style and the ability to mentalize in the parents and psychosocial functioning of their children. The structured Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was used as the main tool for the research. The analysis was performed with the Reflective Functioning Scale. Total of 9 narrations obtained through AAI were subjected to qualitative analysis. The conducted analysis showed that parents of children with difficulties in realizing developmental objectives of the latency stage are characterized by reduced mentalization skills. The mentalization pattern isolated in the analysis, characteristic for the studied group encompasses the tendency towards idealization, generalization, describing the relation at the behavioural level and avoidance of reflecting upon mental states experienced in the context of early attachment relations, and the lack of coherence. Difficulties in mentalization of relationships mainly concern the relation with the mother. Relations established later in life are better mentalized than the early relations with parents. Observed disturbance in mentalization may suggest possible disturbances in the process of reflecting and containing in the early developmental stages of the examined persons. Mentalization skills were developed later in life of the examined persons. Idealization turned out to be the process that is most impacting and interfering with free reflections upon one's own emotions and emotions of the others (including those of one's own child).
Rayan, Tarek; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh
With large or giant aneurysms, the use of multiple tandem clips can be essential for complete obliteration of the aneurysm. One potential disadvantage, however, is the considerable cumulative weight of these clips, which may lead to kinking of the underlying parent vessels and obstruction of flow. The authors describe a simple technique to address this problem, guided by intraoperative blood flow measurements, in a patient with a ruptured near-giant 2.2 × 1.7-cm middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysm that was treated with the tandem clipping technique. A total of 11 clips were applied in a vertical stacked fashion. The cumulative weight of the clips caused kinking of the temporal M2 branch of the bifurcation with reduction of flow. A 4-0 Nurolon suture tie was applied to the hub of one of the clips and was tethered to the dura of the sphenoid ridge by a small mini-clip and reinforced by application of tissue sealant. The patient underwent intraoperative indocyanine green videoangiography as well as catheter angiography, which demonstrated complete aneurysmal obliteration and preservation of vessel branches. Postoperative angiography confirmed patency of the bifurcation vessels with mild vasospasm. The patient had a full recovery with no postoperative complications and was neurologically intact at her 6-month follow-up. The suture retraction technique allows a simple solution to parent vessel obstruction following aneurysm tandem clipping, in conjunction with the essential guidance provided by intraoperative flow measurements.
Brand, Carrie; Howcroft, Greg; Hoelson, Christopher Norman
Research on parental divorce suggests that the nature of the divorce process, as experienced by the child, is the most important factor in his or her post-divorce adjustment. Research regarding children's experiences of the divorce process has been limited and the adult perspective has dominated the discourse on divorce; only recently has research started to consider children's viewpoint. This article describes a narrative inquiry into the experiences and perceptions of parental divorce, of 9- to 10-year-old children. Its aim is to use children's stories of parental divorce to inform the practice of professionals working with such children. The research adopted a narrative paradigm. Unstructured interviews were conducted with five children whose parents were divorced. Data were analysed thematically. Seven themes were identified. The first theme explored children's endeavours to describe and explain parental divorce. An additional six themes were developed around the types of stories children told of the divorce process. The seven themes were: (i) What is a divorcement; (ii) Stories of loss; (iii) Stories of gain; (iv) Stories of change; (v) Stories of stability; (vi) Healing stories; and (vii) Complicating stories. On the basis of the narratives elicited from children on parental divorce, this article proposes several guidelines for professionals such as psychologists, registered counsellors, social workers, and teachers as well as parents in their possible interventions with children. Some guidelines may also be of use to family and maintenance courts, and the government departments of health and education.
Kluth, S; Stern, K; Trebes, J; Freyberger, H-J
This study enrolled mentally ill mothers from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, with children between the ages of 0 and 3 years. Using different self and expert ratings, psychological symptoms, social support, parental stress, and behavior of the children were assessed. Teenage mothers and adult mothers were compared using the mean values of the data. The data of 104 mothers were included; 46.1% of the mothers were younger than 20 years of age when they gave birth. All mothers show a variety of psychological problems. While adult mothers had significantly more affective and anxiety disorders, teenage mothers had significantly more eating disorders and sexual abuse in their histories. Young mothers reported subjectively significantly less social support and more parenting stress than older mothers. The children in both subgroups are described as unremarkable. More than 80% of the mothers had at least one contact with youth welfare, a general practitioner, or a pediatrician, while only 23% used psychiatric or psychological help. The data show a high level of stress in both groups and there is a great need for support from the medical sector as well as from youth welfare.
Schrank, Beate; Moran, Katherine; Borghi, Cristiana; Priebe, Stefan
There are well-established risks for parents with severe mental illness (i.e. psychotic and bipolar disorders), both for their children and themselves. Interventions to help parents fulfil their role should therefore be a public health objective, but their implementation needs to be underpinned by research evidence. This systematic review determines what is known about the nature and effectiveness of interventions for parents with severe mental illness. We conducted a narrative synthesis of controlled and uncontrolled studies reporting interventions for this patient group after the post-natal period (i.e. after the child has turned 1 year old). Eighteen publications reported data from 15 studies. All but two studies were rated as low quality studies. Interventions included home visiting programmes, complex community programmes, residential treatments, and online interventions. Interventions targeted diverse areas, with parenting skills and understanding the impact of mental illness on parenting most frequently addressed. Both parent and child-related outcomes improved, but children were only assessed via observers and follow-up times were short. Interventions were diverse with respect to their nature and effectiveness. Future interventions should combine different intervention strategies to target multiple areas in a flexible manner. The addition of positively focussed and resource-oriented components should be investigated. Trials should include direct assessments of both parents and children, outcomes that are relevant from a public health perspective, and establish the long-term effects ideally until children have reached 18 years of age.
Nienaber, A; Wieskus-Friedemann, E; Kliem, S; Hoppmann, J; Kemper, U; Löhr, M; Kronmüller, K-T; Wabnitz, P
Objective: Evaluation of a project offering low-threshold anonymous counseling services jointly by mental health services and child and youth services to support children in families with mentally ill parents Methods: Evaluating performance data and completed questionnaires returned by parents included in the project. Results: Between 2011-2014, 150 families received up to 10 sessions of family-oriented counseling. The survey results indicate a high level of satisfaction with the services of the cooperation project. The vast majority of respondents said that they would recommend this service to others or would themselves take advantage of the services again. Conclusion: A collaboration of service providers from psychiatry and child and youth welfare department resulting in continuous availability of counseling with a common family medical perspective represents a forward-looking model for families with a mentally ill parent. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Tornello, Samantha L; Patterson, Charlotte J
According to family systems theory, parent-child relationships are an important aspect of individual wellbeing. This study explored associations among parental disclosure, parent-child relationships, and wellbeing among 84 adult children with gay fathers. We explored associations between the adult children's wellbeing and the children's ages at sexual orientation disclosure, geographic distance, relationship quality, and closeness with their fathers. We found that when parental disclosure had occurred earlier in the adult child's life, participants reported feeling closer to fathers in adulthood. Those who reported closer relationships with their fathers reported greater wellbeing. Using a stepwise regression, we found that adult children's reports of closeness with fathers were the best predictors of adult children's wellbeing.
Jónsson, F H; Njardvik, U; Olafsdóttir, G; Grétarsson, S J
Specific long term effects of parental divorce were examined in a sample of 179 Icelanders, 20 to 30 years of age. The participants answered the Borromean Family Index, the Affect Balance Scale and a number of questions on sexual behavior and attitudes towards marriage and divorce. Results showed that compared to adults whose parents remained married, those of divorced parents reported more negative emotional experiences at the time of the study and had looser family ties. They also had greater number of short love affairs, had their first love affair at a younger age, had a greater number of sexual partners, and were younger at the time of their first sexual intercourse than adults whose parents remained married.
Webb, Rebecca; Ayers, Susan; Rosan, Camilla
A significant proportion of women with young children experience mental health problems and recent research suggests fathers may also be affected. This may have a long term negative impact on the child's development with significant costs to society. Appropriate measures are therefore needed to identify parents and children at risk. This literature review aimed to identify the most reliable, evidence based global measures of mental health for parents of infants from pregnancy to 5 years postpartum (0-5 years). Literature searches were conducted on online databases and hand searches of reference lists were also carried out. Studies were included in the review if they reported information on measures of global psychological distress or wellbeing from 0 to 5 years postpartum. A total of 183 studies were included in the review, 19 of which directly examined the psychometric validity of an outcome measure. These studies reported information on 23 outcome measures, 4 of which had been validated in parents of children from 1 to 5. These were: the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the Symptom Checklist (SCL), the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Kessler scale (K10/6). Reliability and validity varied across studies. Only a small number of studies included fathers and examined psychometric validity across the entire period of early childhood. The GHQ was the most frequently validated but results suggest poor reliability and validity. The SRQ and K10/6 were the most promising measures in terms of psychometric properties and clinical utility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Storksen, Ingunn; Roysamb, Espen; Moum, Torbjorn; Tambs, Kristian
This is a prospective Norwegian study of a group of adolescents with an experience of parental divorce or separation (n=413) and a comparison group without this experience (n=1758). Mean age at T1 was 14.4 years and mean age at T2 was 18.4 years. Parental divorce was prospectively associated with a relative change in anxiety and depression,…
Zahra, J; Ford, T; Jodrell, D
Previous research has established that poor diets and eating patterns are associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. This study explored the relationships between two specific eating behaviours (daily junk food consumption and irregular eating) and self-reported physical and mental health of secondary school children, and their association with perceived parenting and child health. 10 645 participants aged between 12 and 16 completed measures of junk food consumption, irregular eating, parental style, and mental and physical health through the use of an online survey implemented within 30 schools in a large British city. 2.9% of the sample reported never eating regularly and while 17.2% reported daily consumption of junk food. Young people who reported eating irregularly and consuming junk food daily were at a significantly greater risk of poorer mental (OR 5.41, 95% confidence interval 4.03-7.25 and 2.75, 95% confidence interval 1.99-3.78) and physical health (OR 4.56, 95% confidence interval 3.56-5.85 and 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.63-2.47). Authoritative parenting was associated with healthier eating behaviours, and better mental and physical health in comparison to other parenting styles. A worrying proportion of secondary school children report unhealthy eating behaviours, particularly daily consumption of junk food, which may be associated with poorer mental and physical health. Parenting style may influence dietary habits. Interventions to improve diet may be more beneficial if also they address parenting strategies and issues related to mental and physical health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hart, C L; Deary, Ian J; Davey Smith, G; Upton, M N; Whalley, Lawrence J; Starr, John M; Hole, D J; Wilson, V; Watt, G C M
The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between childhood IQ of parents and characteristics of their adult offspring. It was a prospective family cohort study linked to a mental ability survey of the parents and set in Renfrew and Paisley in Scotland. Participants were 1921-born men and women who took part in the Scottish Mental Survey in 1932 and the Renfrew/Paisley study in the 1970s, and whose,offspring took part in the Midspan Family study in 1996. There were 286 of...
Lauritzen, Camilla; Kolmannskog, Anne Berit; Iversen, Anette Christine
Previous research has shown a link between parental mental illness and adverse development in their offspring. In Norway, it is mandatory for health professionals to identify if patients in adult mental health services have children, and subsequently to provide support for the children. An important tool to detect if families are affected by parental mental illness and to assess if there is a need for further intervention is the Family Assessment Conversation. Family Assessment Conversations is potentially a powerful tool for communication with families affected by parental mental illness because it facilitates early identification of children at risk of various adversities due to the family situation. Additionally the tool may initiate processes that enable children and parents to cope with the situation when a parent becomes seriously ill. Little is however known about how the mental health practitioners use the family assessment form in conversations, and to what extent they record relevant information in the electronic patient journals. The main aim of the study was to provide information about the existing practice within mental health services for adults in terms of parental mental illness and family assessment conversations. The project is a retrospective journal review. The data base consists of relevant journal data from 734 patients aged 20-60 years admitted. In total, 159 recordings of family assessment conversations were discovered. The main result in this study was that many of the questions in the family assessment form lacked documented responses and assessments from the healthcare professionals. Only 17% of the participants had been assessed with the total family assessment form. Additionally, there was a lack of documentation about whether or not the children had been informed in a large proportion of the assessment forms (31%). A total of 55% say that the child has not been informed. This implies that there is still a long way to go in order to
Roosa Ordway, Monica; McMahon, Thomas J; De Las Heras Kuhn, Lourdes; Suchman, Nancy E
The process of mental health intervention implementation with vulnerable populations is not well-described in the literature. The authors worked as a community-partnered team to adapt and pilot an empirically supported intervention program for mothers of infants and toddlers in an outpatient mental health clinic that primarily serves a low-income community. We used qualitative ethnographic methods to document the adaption of an evidence-based intervention, Mothering from the Inside Out, and the pilot implementation in a community mental health clinic. Seventeen mothers and their identified 0- to 84-month-old children were enrolled in the study. Key lessons from this implementation include (a) the importance of formative work to build community relationships and effectively adapt the intervention to meet the needs of the therapists and their clients, (b) the importance of designing plans for training and reflective supervision that fit within the flow of the clinic and can tolerate disruptions, and (c) that use of an interdisciplinary approach is feasible with the development of a plan for communication and the support of a trained reflective clinical supervisor. These key lessons advance the scientific knowledge available to healthcare managers and researchers who are looking to adapt mental health clinical interventions previously tested in clinical trials to implementation in community settings. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Hyun-Chung; Cho, Hyun; Shin, Yun-Mi
As children with emotional or behavioral problems often fail to receive the treatment available to them, this study examined (1) the degree of perceived need (PN) among Korean parents regarding mental health services for their children, (2) the factors associated with such perceptions, (3) the degree to which Korean parents actually engage mental health services for their children, and (4) the factors associated with such use. To determine the degrees of PN and actual use, 1,058 children aged between 9 and 12 years were asked to complete the Children's Depression Inventory, while their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. About 11.4% of the parents demonstrated PN, compared to 2.7% who actually engaged child mental health services. While most of the CBCL factors were associated with PN, the child's self-report significantly affected the perception as well. The attention problem score in the CBCL was the only factor that strongly corresponded to the actual use of services in Korea, a country where academic achievement is considered paramount, which suggests that cultural forces may play a powerful role in determining parents' decisions regarding child mental health care.
Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others
This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…
Serec, Maša; Svab, Igor; Kolšek, Marko; Svab, Vesna; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael
To identify potential differences between children of alcoholics (COAs) and controls in their health-related lifestyle, mental and physical health. The recruitment of COAs took place in inpatient and outpatient treatment and rehabilitation units. Controls were recruited in elementary and high schools. 57 COAs (72% response rate) and 84 controls (88% response rate) aged between 12 and 18 years completed a postal questionnaire about their health-related lifestyle, and mental and physical health. Bivariate analysis showed that COAs' families have higher unemployment rates and lower economic status (P = 0.000). COAs reported poorer school performance (P = 0.000), spending more time in sedentary (television: P = 0.000, Internet: P = 0.014, music: P = 0.040) and less time in physical activities (P = 0.048), having poorer eating habits (fruits and vegetables: P = 0.001, sweets: P = 0.001, fast food: P = 0.000, soft drinks: P = 0.004), a higher substance use (cigarettes: P = 0.030; marijuana: P = 0.564, heavy drinking: P = 0.050) and more mental health difficulties (emotional symptoms: P = 0.015, conduct problems: P = 0.012, suicidal tendencies: P = 0.007, mental disorder: P = 0.040). Among COAs, girls reported more emotional and somatic symptoms compared to boys (P = 0.020 and P = 0.047, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that after controlling for socioeconomic status, significant mental health and health-related lifestyle inequalities between COAs and controls persist. Our findings suggest that COAs have a less healthy lifestyle and more mental health difficulties above and beyond the poorer economic environment they live in. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Kvalevaag, Anne Lise; Ramchandani, Paul G; Hove, Oddbjørn; Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Assmus, Jörg; Havik, Odd E; Sivertsen, Børge; Biringer, Eva
This study examines the association between expectant parents' psychological distress and children's development at 36 months old. This is a prospective population study based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, N = 31,663. Logistic regression models were used to assess whether high scores (cutoff ≥ 2.00) on the symptom checklist-5 in parents predicted higher levels (cutoff ≥ 90 percentile) of developmental problems in their children. The risk of emotional and behavioral problems were significantly increased in children when both parents were affected by psychological distress during pregnancy, fully adjusted OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.36, 4.07) and OR 2.65 (96% CI 1.564.48), respectively. The risk was higher when mothers reported high level of psychological distress than when only the fathers did, but the risk of emotional difficulties in children was highest when both parents presented high levels of psychological distress, indicating an additive effect of parental psychological distress.
Li, Jiong; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Precht, Dorthe Hansen
Background The loss of a child is considered one of the most stressful events in the life of a parent. We hypothesized that parental bereavement increases the risk of hospital admission for a psychiatric disorder, especially for affective disorders. Methods We studied a cohort of 1,082,503 persons...... identified from national registers in Denmark who were born between 1952 and 1999 and had at least one child under 18 years of age during the follow-up period, from 1970 to 1999. Parents who lost a child during follow-up were categorized as “bereaved” from the date of death of the child. Results As compared...... with parents who did not lose a child, parents who lost a child had an overall relative risk of a first psychiatric hospitalization for any disorder of 1.67 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.53 to 1.83). Bereaved mothers had a higher relative risk of being hospitalized for any psychiatric disorder than...
Brands, Brigitte; Egan, Bernadette; Györei, Eszter; López-Robles, Juan Carlos; Gage, Heather; Campoy, Cristina; Decsi, Tamás; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique M
Nutrition is one of the many factors that influence a child's cognitive development and performance. Understanding the relationship between nutrition and mental performance in children is important in terms of their attainment and productivity both in school and later life. Since parents are seen as nutritional gatekeepers for their children's diets, their views and beliefs are of crucial importance. The present study aims to qualitatively examine parents' perceptions of the relationship between diet and mental performance of children. The study was conducted with a total of 124 parents in four European countries using a semi-structured interview schedule. Parents speak of the effects of diet at two levels; the nature of the effects of diet and the characteristics of the foods responsible for these effects. Mental outcomes are related to diet, with the effects perceived to be associated with attention and concentration, often mediated by effects on children's mood and behaviour. Parents categorise foods as 'good' or 'bad' with positive effects related generally to a healthy balanced diet while negative effects are perceived to be associated with sugary and fatty foods. Understanding parental perceptions is important for many purposes including the targeting of dietary advice and prioritising of public health issues. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Santvoort, Floor; Hosman, Clemens M H; van Doesum, Karin T M; Janssens, Jan M A M
In various countries preventive support groups are offered to children of mentally ill and/or addicted parents to reduce the risk that they will develop problems themselves. This study assessed the effectiveness of Dutch support groups for children aged 8-12 years old in terms of reducing negative cognitions; improving social support, competence, and parent-child interaction (direct intervention goals); and reducing emotional and behavioural problems (ultimate intervention aim). Children from 254 families were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Parents and children completed questionnaires at baseline and 3 and 6 months later. Emotional and behavioural problems of intervention group children were also assessed 1 year after the start. Univariate analyses of variance showed that children in the intervention group experienced a greater decrease in negative cognitions and sought more social support, immediately after participation and 3 months later, as compared to control group children. They also remained stable in their feelings of social acceptance (competence aspect) immediately after the intervention, whereas these feelings declined in control group children. The intervention and control groups both improved over time in terms of cognitions, competence, parent-child interaction and emotional and behavioural problem scores. Additional improvement in terms of problem scores was found in the intervention group 1 year after baseline. Further enhancement of effectiveness requires re-consideration of the support group goals; it should be studied whether the goals reflect the most important and influential risk and protective factors for this specific population. Besides, effects should be studied over a longer period.
Staets, S; Hipp, M
Children of psychiatrically ill parents up to now have hardly been perceived as a risk group. In order to prevent these children form becoming psychiatrically ill the practice for art-therapy and psychotherapy and the social psychiatric service of the city of Hilden have developed a programme for parents having children under 18 years of age in which at least one parent suffers from endogenous psychosis or severe personality disorder. The two initiators of the KIPKEL project describe the experiences they had during the preparatory phase and while securing the financial basis and building up solid structures of cooperation. The conceptual basis of the project and problems of practical realization are presented. Finally an example of a family who participated in the programme is given. It illustrates the complex arrangement of interpersonal relationship and the course of the carework.
Children of psychiatrically ill parents have a high risk themselves to develop a psychiatric illness in adulthood. Prevention aims at strengthening the resilience of these children and reducing psychosocial risk factors. This article found and describes a theoretical concept of prevention groups for children in schoolage (7-16 years) whose parents are psychiatrically ill. First practical experiences are depicted. The Hamburgian model of prevention works with closed and temporary limited groups of children as well as with the parents. It is based on supporting the children's existing coping strategies and the children are encouraged to exchange their individual experiences of the relationships within their families. One conclusion was, that the main thematic emphasis varied considerably depending on the age of the children.
Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.
Background: Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of
Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle; Van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Bult, Maureen K.
This cross-sectional survey study examined the relation between mental imagery (i.e., seeing images of a story "in the mind's eye") and perceived self-competence in reading. The study was conducted with a group of seventh-grade to ninth-grade students in the prevocational educational track of secondary schools in the Netherlands and…
Gibson, Marcia; Thomson, Hilary; Banas, Kasia; Lutje, Vittoria; McKee, Martin J; Martin, Susan P; Fenton, Candida; Bambra, Clare; Bond, Lyndal
Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents. To assess the effects of WtW interventions on mental and physical health in lone parents and their children living in high-income countries. The secondary objective is to assess the effects of welfare-to-work interventions on employment and income. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, PsycINFO EBSCO, ERIC EBSCO, SocINDEX EBSCO, CINAHL EBSCO, Econlit EBSCO, Web of Science ISI, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) via Proquest, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS) via ProQuest, Social Services Abstracts via Proquest, Sociological Abstracts via Proquest, Campbell Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) (CRD York), Turning Research into Practice (TRIP), OpenGrey and Planex. We also searched bibliographies of included publications and relevant reviews, in addition to many relevant websites. We identified many included publications by handsearching. We performed the searches in 2011, 2013 and April 2016. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mandatory or voluntary WtW interventions for lone parents in high-income countries, reporting impacts on parental mental health, parental physical health, child mental health or child physical health. One review author extracted data using a standardised extraction form, and another checked them. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and
Gibson, Marcia; Thomson, Hilary; Banas, Kasia; Lutje, Vittoria; McKee, Martin J; Martin, Susan P; Fenton, Candida; Bambra, Clare; Bond, Lyndal
Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents. To assess the effects of WtW interventions on mental and physical health in lone parents and their children living in high-income countries. The secondary objective is to assess the effects of welfare-to-work interventions on employment and income. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, PsycINFO EBSCO, ERIC EBSCO, SocINDEX EBSCO, CINAHL EBSCO, Econlit EBSCO, Web of Science ISI, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) via Proquest, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS) via ProQuest, Social Services Abstracts via Proquest, Sociological Abstracts via Proquest, Campbell Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) (CRD York), Turning Research into Practice (TRIP), OpenGrey and Planex. We also searched bibliographies of included publications and relevant reviews, in addition to many relevant websites. We identified many included publications by handsearching. We performed the searches in 2011, 2013 and April 2016. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mandatory or voluntary WtW interventions for lone parents in high-income countries, reporting impacts on parental mental health, parental physical health, child mental health or child physical health. One review author extracted data using a standardised extraction form, and another checked them. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and
Conclusion: Given a significant positive correlation between appeal to God and meaningful life, it is suggested including spirituality therapy sessions and teaching religious coping methods to reduce stress and thus make meaningful life in these parents by welfare, education of exceptional children, and radio and television organizations.
Feldman, Maurice; McConnell, David; Aunos, Marjorie
Parents with cognitive impairments (CI) are overrepresented in child custody cases and their children are at risk for adverse outcomes. Ecological-transactional researchers propose that child outcomes are a function of the interaction of multiple distal, intermediate, and proximal risk and resilience factors. This study tested the fit of, and…
Benson, Paul R.
Employing a cohort sequential design, the effects of network characteristics on maternal cognitions (perceived social support and parenting self-efficacy) and mental health (depression and well-being) were assessed over 7 years when children with ASD of mothers in the study were age 7-14. Findings indicated that network size, network emotional…
Fjone, Heidi Haug; Ytterhus, Borgunn; Almvik, Arve
Using data from in-depth interviews with 20 children, this study finds that children with parents suffering from mental health distress struggle hard to present themselves as "normal" and equal among their peer group. The study shows how they avoid stigma in their presentation of self in everyday life. All the children in this study,…
Mendez, Linda Raffaele; Ogg, Julia; Loker, Troy; Fefer, Sarah
In this study, the authors reviewed journal articles published between 1995 and 2010 that described student mental health interventions involving parents delivered in school settings. Their review identified 100 articles describing 39 interventions. On the basis of participant selection criteria provided by the authors of the reviewed articles,…
Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah
BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... genetic effects directly linked with maternal illness, lifestyle factors (diet, smoking, alcohol and drugs), poor antenatal care, psychotropic medication toxicity, and gene-environment interactions. Further research is needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms...
Ymara Lúcia Camargo Vitolo
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência e fatores de risco para problemas de saúde mental em escolares e sua possível relação com crenças e atitudes educativas de pais/cuidadores. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal; com amostra probabilística e estratificada (n=454 de escolares das primeiras três séries do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas e particulares de Taubaté, Estado de São Paulo. Foram aplicados instrumentos padronizados a pais/cuidadores por entrevistadores treinados: questionários de rastreamento de problemas de saúde mental em crianças e pais/cuidadores; questionário de crenças e atitudes educativas; questionário de classificação econômica. As seguintes análises estatísticas foram utilizadas: testes de qui-quadrado e modelos de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: A prevalência dos casos clínicos/limítrofes entre os escolares foi de 35,2%. Pais/cuidadores que acreditavam na punição física como método educativo agrediam fisicamente seus filhos com maior freqüência (64,8%. Modelos de regressão logística revelaram que a atitude de bater com o cinto esteve associada a problemas de conduta e a problemas de saúde mental em geral nos escolares, na presença de outros fatores de risco: sexo da criança (masculino, pais/cuidadores com problemas de saúde mental e condições socioeconômicas desfavoráveis. CONCLUSÕES: A alta prevalência de problemas de saúde mental em escolares e sua associação com métodos educativos e problemas de saúde mental dos pais/cuidadores indicam a necessidade de intervenções psicoeducacionais para reduzir o abuso físico e os problemas de saúde mental na infância.OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence and identify the risk factors related to mental health problems among schoolchildren and its possible association with the beliefs and educational attitudes of parents/caretakers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a stratified probabilistic sample (n=454 of first to third
Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther J; Goldfeld, Keith; Petkova, Eva
Low-income minority children living in urban neighborhoods are at high risk for mental health problems and underachievement. ParentCorps, a family-centered, school-based intervention in prekindergarten, improves parenting and school readiness (ie, self-regulation and preacademic skills) in 2 randomized clinical trials. The longer-term effect on child mental health and academic performance is not known. To examine whether ParentCorps delivered as an enhancement to prekindergarten programs in high-poverty urban schools leads to fewer mental health problems and increased academic performance in the early elementary school years. This is a 3-year follow-up study of a cluster randomized clinical trial of ParentCorps in public schools with prekindergarten programs in New York City. Ten elementary schools serving a primarily low-income, black student population were randomized in 2005, and 4 consecutive cohorts of prekindergarten students were enrolled from September 12, 2005, through December 31, 2008. We report follow-up for the 3 cohorts enrolled after the initial year of implementation. Data analysis was performed from September 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015. ParentCorps included professional development for prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers and a program for parents and prekindergarten students (13 two-hour group sessions delivered after school by teachers and mental health professionals). Annual teacher ratings of mental health problems and academic performance and standardized tests of academic achievement in kindergarten and second grade by testers masked to the intervention or control group randomization. A total of 1050 children (4 years old; 518 boys [49.3%] and 532 girls [50.7%]) in 99 prekindergarten classrooms participated in the trial (88.1% of the prekindergarten population), with 792 students enrolled from 2006 to 2008. Most families in the follow-up study (421 [69.6%]) were low income; 680 (85.9%) identified as non-Latino black, 78 (9.8%) as
Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia’s Early Parenting Services support families and intervene early in mental health problems in parents. The Victorian Early Parenting Strategy, a platform for government policy recommended a stronger evidence base for early parenting services. Tweddle Child and Family Health Service (TCFHS is a not-for-profit public sector early parenting centre, which provides residential, day stay, home visiting and outreach programs. This study aimed i to examine the health, social circumstances and presenting needs of clients attending the Tweddle Day Stay Program (DSP with infants under 12 months old and ii to assess the parent mental health and infant behaviour outcomes and the factors associated with program success. Methods A cohort of clients was recruited prior to admission and followed-up 8 weeks after discharge. Data were collected using standardised measures in a study specific questionnaire at baseline, participant’s Tweddle records and a follow-up telephone interview. Health, social circumstances and presenting needs of clients were described. Changes in parents’ symptoms of depression and infants’ sleep and settling between admission and follow-up were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with changes in primary outcomes. Results Of the total 162 clients who were eligible and invited to participate, 115 (72% were recruited. Parents admitted to the DSP had worse general self-reported physical and mental health than community samples. Infants of DSP participants were no more likely to be premature or have low birth weight, but significantly more unsettled than other community samples. Participants’ mental health and their infants’ behaviours were significantly improved after DSP admission. In multivariate analysis, higher depression score at baseline and greater educational attainment were significantly associated with improvements in parents’ mental
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the strong influence of culture on family involvement in disease management, few studies have examined how immigrant families care for persons with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine how immigrant families organize their world to care for a mentally ill person in the United States. The current analysis focused on how Confucian notions of filial piety and parental obligation shape caregiving in Korean immigrant families. Methods Participants in this interpretive phenomenological study were comprised of six Korean immigrant women caring for a family member with mental illness. Participants provided narratives that illustrate challenges and opportunities in caring for their mentally ill family member. Results Three family caregiving patterns were discerned. Insulating from the outside world describes a family’s effort to accept a member's illness and to manage it within the family. Prioritizing education over well-being concerns parental commitment to the Confucian priority of educating one’s children. Reciprocating the sacrifice describes how a family adapts and enacts filial piety. Conclusion The findings of this study warrant further study to examine the influence of Confucianism among Korean American families. The three patterns of caregiving are strongly aligned with Confucian notion of family and family engagement. These patterns may help health providers to anticipate the needs of and provide individualized, culturally appropriate mental health care for patients with mental illness and their families of Korean origin.
Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the fi rm with respect to the cognitive approach of corporate governance. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses mental models and uses the cognitive map to view the diagrams showing the ways of thinking and the conceptualization of the cognitive approach. In addition, it employs a cognitive mapping technique. Returning to the systematic exploration of grids for each actor, it concludes that there is a balance of concepts expressing their cognitive orientation.
Neece, Cameron L.
Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…
Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Cham, Heining; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim
This study reports on the findings from a 6-year follow-up of a randomized trial of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on the outcomes for spousally bereaved parents. Spousally bereaved parents (N = 131) participated in the trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive the FBP (N = 72) or literature control (N = 59). Parents were assessed at four time points: pretest, posttest, and 11-month and 6-year follow-up. They reported on mental health problems, grief, and parenting at all four time periods. At the 6-year follow-up, parents reported on additional measures of persistent complex bereavement disorder, alcohol abuse problems, and coping efficacy. Bereaved parents in the FBP as compared to those in the literature control had lower levels of symptoms of depression, general psychiatric distress, prolonged grief, and alcohol problems, and higher coping efficacy (for mothers) at the 6-year follow-up. Multiple characteristics of the parent (e.g., gender, age, and baseline mental health problems) and of the spousal death (e.g., cause of death) were tested as moderators of program effects on each outcome, but only 3 of 45 tests of moderation were significant. Latent growth modeling found that the effects of the FBP on depression, psychiatric distress, and grief occurred immediately following program participation and were maintained over 6 years. Mediation analysis found that improvement in positive parenting partially mediated program effects to reduce depression and psychiatric distress, but had an indirect effect to higher levels of grief at the 6-year follow-up. Mediation analysis also found that improved parenting at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated by program effects to reduce depression and that program effects to increase coping efficacy at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated through reduced depression and grief and improved parenting. FBP reduced mental health problems, prolonged grief, and alcohol abuse, and increased coping
Wabnitz, Pascal; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas; Wieskus-Friedemann, Erwin; Kliem, Sabine; Hoppmann, Johannes; Burek, Monika; Löhr, Michael; Kemper, Ulrich; Nienaber, André
"Nicht von schlechten Eltern - NischE": A Family Orientated Collaborative Care Approach to Support Children in Families with Mentally Ill Parents The present work describes the setting- and multi-professional offer "NischE" in Gütersloh, a systemic approach for the care of children and their mentally ill parents. Children of mentally ill parents are a special risk group for developing their own mental illness. The aim of the collaborative care model between child and adolescent psychiatry, youth services and adult psychiatry is to enable affected families in terms of family-focused practice a low threshold access to different services. For this purpose, two positions have been created to advise the affected families and support access to the help system in the sense of a systemic case management in a project. The article describes the background and the need for the development of the offer, the current scientific knowledge base on the subject and illustrates the procedure using a case study from practice.
In mental health settings, feedback from clients and carers is central to service evaluation, development and delivery. Increasingly, client and carer feedback is considered an integral part of service planning, and recognized as a critical element of the provision of recovery oriented service. This paper outlines the findings of a qualitative evaluation of a Youth Mental Health (YMH) service from the perspective of discharged clients and their parents. The service researcher conducted telephone interviews with 39 parents of discharged clients, and 17 young people themselves. Participants reported positive or mixed experiences with the service. In addition to more generic positive statements about the service, analysis identified two key themes: the importance of 'family inclusive practice' and the importance of 'working with client preferences'. Young people and their parents want to be actively engaged in treatment and have their treatment preferences considered in treatment planning. Participants expressed the importance of "a good fit" between the client and the worker in terms of the clinician's gender, personality and treatment style/modality. While for some participants these themes were raised in the context of service strengths, others identified them as limitations or opportunities for service improvement. The extent to which clients and their parents felt engaged and heard by their allocated clinician is critical to their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the service, depending on their unique experience. As an outcome of this evaluation, a range of service improvement strategies have been recommended. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Fisher Jane RW
Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia's public access residential early parenting services provide programs to assist parents who self-refer, to care for their infants and young children. Treatment programs target infant feeding and sleeping difficulties and maternal mental health. There is limited systematic evidence of maternal and infant mental health, psychosocial circumstances or presenting problems, or the effectiveness of the programs. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evidence base about residential early parenting services. Methods A prospective cohort design was used. A consecutive sample of mothers with infants under one year old recruited during admission to a public access residential early parenting service for a 4 or 5 night stay in Melbourne, Australia was recruited. They completed structured self-report questionnaires, incorporating standardised measures of infant behaviour and maternal mood, during admission and at one and six months after discharge. Changes in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning after discharge were observed. Results 79 women completed the first questionnaire during admission, and 58 provided complete data. Women admitted to the residential program have poor physical and mental health, limited family support, and infants with substantial behaviour difficulties. One month after discharge significant improvements in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning were observed (mean (SD daily crying and fussing during admission = 101.02 (100.8 minutes reduced to 37.7 (55.2 at one month post discharge, p Conclusions This psycho-educational approach is an effective and acceptable early intervention for parenting difficulties and maternal mood disturbance, and contributes to a system of comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants.
Guillamón, Noemí; Nieto, Ruben; Pousada, Modesta; Redolar, Diego; Muñoz, Elena; Hernández, Eulàlia; Boixadós, Mercè; Gómez-Zúñiga, Benigna
To explore the quality of life and mental health of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy and to examine the impact of self-efficacy and coping strategies on these outcomes. Few studies analyse the impact of caring for a child with cerebral palsy on the caregivers' quality of life besides mental health. Also, less attention has been paid to the influence of caregiver's personal resources like self-efficacy or coping strategies on how they adjust to the child's illness and the care situation. Cross-section correlational design. Sixty two parents of children with cerebral palsy completed measures to assess the quality of life (i.e. physical, environmental and social relationships), mental health (i.e. general mental health, depression and anxiety), self-efficacy and coping strategies. Parents of children with cerebral palsy had, in general terms, low levels of quality of life and mental health. Self-efficacy was related to most of the outcomes, whereas any of the coping strategies assessed was significantly related to the outcomes. Quality of life and mental health can be affected in caregivers of children with CP. Personal resources like self-efficacy also need attention as they can help in the understanding of the differences in these outcomes and the design of effective interventions. RELEVANCE OF CLINICAL PRACTICE: Self-efficacy should be a key element in interventions addressed to parents of children with CP to elicit a process of empowerment that can improve the well-being of the family as a whole. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Erlandsson, Soly; Lundin, Linda; Punzi, Elisabeth
A discourse analysis was performed based on an online document under the headline: "What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, ADD)?" published by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), USA. Three parts of the document were analysed: (1) The introductory part, as this sets the tone of the whole text. (2) Parts of the text that were specifically addressed to parents. (3) Etiology and pathology of "ADHD" with reference to a number of different symptoms and behaviors. Inattention and hyperactivity are presented in the document as a floating spectrum of symptoms caused by "ADHD." Other factors of importance for children's development, that is, early attachment, close relationships, previous experiences, culture, and contexts are ignored. Children who are perceived as inattentive and hyperactive are portrayed as having inherent difficulties with no reference to their emotions or efforts to communicate. The child is viewed as suffering from a lifelong disorder that might not be cured but controlled by a diagnosis and subsequent medication. Parents are advised to control their child's behavior and to strive for early diagnosis in order to receive treatment provided by experts. Those who are presented as experts rely on a biomedical model, and in the document, detailed descriptions of medication to correct the undesired behaviors are provided. The value of judgment in the assessment of different symptoms and behaviors that signifies "ADHD" is absent, rather taken-for-granted beliefs were identified throughout the document. A heterogeneous set of behaviors is solely described as a disorder and hereafter it is stressed that the same behaviors are caused by the disorder. In this manner, cause and effects of "ADHD" are intertwined through circular argumentation.
Full Text Available A discourse analysis was performed based on an online document under the headline: “What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, ADD?” published by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, USA. Three parts of the document were analysed: (1 The introductory part, as this sets the tone of the whole text. (2 Parts of the text that were specifically addressed to parents. (3 Etiology and pathology of “ADHD” with reference to a number of different symptoms and behaviors. Inattention and hyperactivity are presented in the document as a floating spectrum of symptoms caused by “ADHD.” Other factors of importance for children's development, that is, early attachment, close relationships, previous experiences, culture, and contexts are ignored. Children who are perceived as inattentive and hyperactive are portrayed as having inherent difficulties with no reference to their emotions or efforts to communicate. The child is viewed as suffering from a lifelong disorder that might not be cured but controlled by a diagnosis and subsequent medication. Parents are advised to control their child's behavior and to strive for early diagnosis in order to receive treatment provided by experts. Those who are presented as experts rely on a biomedical model, and in the document, detailed descriptions of medication to correct the undesired behaviors are provided. The value of judgment in the assessment of different symptoms and behaviors that signifies “ADHD” is absent, rather taken-for-granted beliefs were identified throughout the document. A heterogeneous set of behaviors is solely described as a disorder and hereafter it is stressed that the same behaviors are caused by the disorder. In this manner, cause and effects of “ADHD” are intertwined through circular argumentation.
Woolderink, Marla; Bindels, Jill A P M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Paulus, Aggie T G; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Schayck, Onno C P
Mental illnesses affect many people around the world, either directly or indirectly. Families of persons suffering from mental illness or addiction suffer too, especially their children. In the Netherlands, 864,000 parents meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness or addiction. Evidence shows that offspring of mentally ill or addicted parents are at risk for developing mental disorders or illnesses themselves. The Kopstoring course is an online 8-week group course with supervision by 2 trained psychologists or social workers, aimed to prevent behavioral and psychological problems for children (aged 16 to 25 years) of parents with mental health problems or addictions. The course addresses themes such as roles in the family and mastery skills. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Kopstoring course. The aim was to gain knowledge about expectations, experiences, and perspectives of participants and providers of the online Kopstoring course. A process evaluation was performed to evaluate the online delivery of Kopstoring and the experiences and perspectives of participants and providers of Kopstoring. Interviews were performed with members from both groups. Participants were drawn from a sample from the Kopstoring RCT. Thirteen participants and 4 providers were interviewed. Five main themes emerged from these interviews: background, the requirements for the intervention, experience with the intervention, technical aspects, and research aspects. Overall, participants and providers found the intervention to be valuable because it was online; therefore, protecting their anonymity was considered a key component. Most barriers existed in the technical sphere. Additional barriers existed with conducting the RCT, namely gathering informed consent and gathering parental consent in the case of minors. This study provides valuable insight into participants' and providers' experiences and expectations with the online
Full Text Available ... NACFC Carolyn and C Richard Mattingly Leadership in Mental Health Care Award Mary M. Kontos Award NACFC Reflections ... help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway clearance. ... Instagram Email Find a Clinical Trial Help us blaze ...
Copenhagen infant mental health project: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing circle of security –parenting and care as usual as interventions targeting infant mental health risks
Mette Skovgaard Væver
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems and psychopathologies. In disadvantaged populations insecure and disorganized attachment are common, which points to the need of identifying early risk and effective methods of addressing such problems. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of an indicated group-based parental educational program, Circle of Security–Parenting (COS-P, currently being conducted in Denmark. Methods/design In a parallel randomized controlled trial of two intervention groups this study tests the efficacy of COS-P compared to Care as Usual (CAU in enhancing maternal sensitivity and child attachment in a community sample in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314, who agree to participate, will be randomly allocated with a ratio of 2:1 into the COS-P intervention arm and into CAU. Data will be obtained at inclusion (baseline and at follow-up when the child is 12–16 months. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity. Secondary outcomes include quality of infant attachment, language, cognitive and socioemotional development, family functioning, parental stress, parental mentalizing and maternal mental wellbeing
Syed Sheriff, R J; Bass, N; Hughes, P; Ade-Odunlade, P; Ismail, A; Whitwell, S; Jenkins, R
There are currently no practising psychiatrists in Somaliland. In 2007 the first medical students graduated from universities in Somaliland without mental health training. We aimed to pilot an intensive but flexible package of mental health training to all senior medical students and interns using interactive training techniques and to evaluate its effectiveness by assessing knowledge, skills and attitudes. Teaching techniques included didactic lectures, case based discussion groups and role playing. Informal feedback informed a flexible teaching package. Assessment tools designed specifically for this course included a pre and post course MCQ exam and an OSCE. Changes in students' attitudes were evaluated using a questionnaire administered before and after the course. In addition, a questionnaire administered following the course evaluated the changes students perceived in their knowledge and attitudes to mental health. The MCQ improved from 50.7% pre course to 64.4% post course (p = 9.73 E-08). Students achieved an average overall OSCE mark of 71%. The pre and post attitudes questionnaire was most significantly different for statements relevant to aetiology, stigma and the overlap between mental and physical health. The statement most strongly agreed with after the course was 'I now understand more about the overlap between mental and physical health'. Interactive teaching provided a learning experience for both students and trainers. On site and distance learning based on the teaching described here has widened the scope of the training possible in psychiatry and allowed the provision of regular teaching, supervision and peer support in Somaliland. However, the current lack of local expertise means that important issues of sustainability need to be considered in future work.
Wagenblass, S; Schone, R
A mental illness of parents brings up a high burden for the affected children. The professionals working in psychiatry and social work are getting a rising knowledge of the specific problems these children have. Anyway, there are only a few useful treatments offered for this group of people. There are a lot of reasons for this lag in take care of. It's not only based on the financial situation or the personnel structure which must be mentioned as reasons for children of parents with mental illness for not asking for help. It's also the incomplete knowledge of the caregivers. But first of all the writer wants to show that the tension in this working field brings up the main problems. For solving these problems the article gives some advice for crossing over the borderlines and build up a communication between the institutions which are involved.
Blankertz, Benjamin; Tangermann, Michael; Vidaurre, Carmen; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Sannelli, Claudia; Popescu, Florin; Fazli, Siamac; Danóczy, Márton; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert
The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface Brain-Computer Interface (BBCI) uses a machine learning approach to extract user-specific patterns from high-dimensional EEG-features optimized for revealing the user's mental state. Classical BCI applications are brain actuated tools for patients such as prostheses (see Section 4.1) or mental text entry systems ( and see [2-5] for an overview on BCI). In these applications, the BBCI uses natural motor skills of the users and specifically tailored pattern recognition algorithms for detecting the user's intent. But beyond rehabilitation, there is a wide range of possible applications in which BCI technology is used to monitor other mental states, often even covert ones (see also  in the fMRI realm). While this field is still largely unexplored, two examples from our studies are exemplified in Sections 4.3 and 4.4.
Harder, Susanne; Davidsen, Kirstine; MacBeth, Angus; Lange, Theis; Minnis, Helen; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager; Simonsen, Erik; Lundy, Jenna-Marie; Nyström-Hansen, Maja; Trier, Christopher Høier; Røhder, Katrine; Gumley, Andrew
The WARM study is a longitudinal cohort study following infants of mothers with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and control from pregnancy to infant 1 year of age. Children of parents diagnosed with complex mental health problems including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, are at increased risk of developing mental health problems compared to the general population. Little is known regarding the early developmental trajectories of infants who are at ultra-high risk and in particular the balance of risk and protective factors expressed in the quality of early caregiver-interaction. We are establishing a cohort of pregnant women with a lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and a non-psychiatric control group. Factors in the parents, the infant and the social environment will be evaluated at 1, 4, 16 and 52 weeks in terms of evolution of very early indicators of developmental risk and resilience focusing on three possible environmental transmission mechanisms: stress, maternal caregiver representation, and caregiver-infant interaction. The study will provide data on very early risk developmental status and associated psychosocial risk factors, which will be important for developing targeted preventive interventions for infants of parents with severe mental disorder. NCT02306551, date of registration November 12, 2014.
Bone, C; O'Reilly, M; Karim, K; Vostanis, P
Recent initiatives have emphasized the ongoing need to include children in healthcare research, which is relevant to the development of both paediatric and mental healthcare services. Our aim was to contribute children and their parents' perceptions and experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), with the objective of providing guidance for those wishing to improve inclusivity and empowerment. We performed a thematic analysis of interview data taken from 11 children (9 boys, 2 girls, aged 8-12) and their parents (12 mothers, 2 fathers), who had recently been referred to CAMHS for mental health and educational problems. Three core themes emerged from the data. Fear of the unknown refers to emotional apprehension due to uncertainty of what happens in CAMHS. However children also provided useful reassurances for future service users. Therapeutic engagement refers to the importance of being listened to and building up good relationships with professionals. Finally making services acceptable was discussed in terms of issues of accessibility, session tolerances and suggestions for the development of child-centred services. Children were able to provide potentially useful opinions of CAMHS. In a time of limited resources it is imperative that the voices of children and their parents are acknowledged in order to improve accessibility and experiences within CAMHS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This paper describes secondary analysis of previously unreported data collected during the 2014 Australian Human Rights Commission Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention. The aim was to examine the mental health of asylum-seeking parents and children during prolonged immigration detention and to consider the human rights implications of the findings. The average period of detention was seven months. Data includes 166 Kessler 10 Scales (K10) and 70 Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) for children aged 3-17 and parental concerns about 48 infants. Extremely high rates of mental disorder in adults and children resemble clinical populations. The K10 indicated severe co-morbid depression and anxiety in 83% of adults and 85.7% of teenagers. On the SDQ, 75.7% of children had a high probability of psychiatric disorder, with lower conduct and hyperactivity scores than clinic populations. Sixty-seven percent of parents had concerns about their infant's development. Correlations were not found between time detained or parent/child distress. Multiple human rights breaches are identified, including the right to health. This is further evidence of the profound negative consequences for adults and children of prolonged immigration detention. Methodological limitations demonstrate the practical and ethical obstacles to research with this population and the politicized implications of the findings.
Liu, Tung-Kuan; Chen, Yeh-Peng; Hou, Zone-Yuan; Wang, Chao-Chih; Chou, Jyh-Horng
Evaluating and treating of stress can substantially benefits to people with health problems. Currently, mental stress evaluated using medical questionnaires. However, the accuracy of this evaluation method is questionable because of variations caused by factors such as cultural differences and individual subjectivity. Measuring of biomedical signals is an effective method for estimating mental stress that enables this problem to be overcome. However, the relationship between the levels of mental stress and biomedical signals remain poorly understood. A refined rough set algorithm is proposed to determine the relationship between mental stress and biomedical signals, this algorithm combines rough set theory with a hybrid Taguchi-genetic algorithm, called RS-HTGA. Two parameters were used for evaluating the performance of the proposed RS-HTGA method. A dataset obtained from a practice clinic comprising 362 cases (196 male, 166 female) was adopted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. The empirical results indicate that the proposed method can achieve acceptable accuracy in medical practice. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully used to identify the relationship between mental stress levels and bio-medical signals. In addition, the comparison between the RS-HTGA and a support vector machine (SVM) method indicated that both methods yield good results. The total averages for sensitivity, specificity, and precision were greater than 96%, the results indicated that both algorithms produced highly accurate results, but a substantial difference in discrimination existed among people with Phase 0 stress. The SVM algorithm shows 89% and the RS-HTGA shows 96%. Therefore, the RS-HTGA is superior to the SVM algorithm. The kappa test results for both algorithms were greater than 0.936, indicating high accuracy and consistency. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for both the RS-HTGA and a SVM method were greater than 0.77, indicating
Full Text Available Background The majority of past work on athletes’ use of psychological skills and techniques (PSTs has adopted a variable-centered approach in which the statistical relations among study variables are averaged across a sample. However, variable-centered-analyses exclude the possibility that PSTs may be used in tandem or combined in different ways across practice and competition settings. With this empirical gap in mind, the purposes of this study were to identify the number and type of profiles of elite athletes’ use of PSTs, and examine differences between these clusters in terms of their self-reported mental toughness. Methods In this cross-sectional survey study, 285 Malaysian elite athletes (170 males, 115 females aged 15–44 years (M = 18.89, SD = 4.49 completed measures of various PSTs and mental toughness. Latent profile analysis was employed to determine the type and number of profiles that best represent athletes’ reports of their use of PSTs in practice and competition settings, and examine differences between these classes in terms of self-reported mental toughness. Results Our results revealed three profiles (low, moderate, high use in both practice and competition settings that were distinguished primarily according to quantitative differences in the absolute levels of reported use across most of the PSTs assessed in practice and competition settings, which in turn, were differentially related with mental toughness. Specifically, higher use of PSTs was associated with higher levels of mental toughness. Conclusion This study provides one of the first analyses of the different configurations of athletes’ use of PSTs that typify unique subgroups of performers. An important next step is to examine the longitudinal (in stability of such classes and therefore provide insight into the temporal dynamics of different configurations of athletes’ use of PSTs.
Jongerden, L.; Simon, E.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, Susan M.
This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8–13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age =10.28, standard deviation (SD) =1.35], 176
Jongerden, L.; Simon, E.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.
This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age =10.28, standard deviation (SD) =1.35], 176
Jongerden, L.; Simon, E.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.
This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age =10.28, standard deviation (SD) =1.35], 176
Basch, Corey Hannah; Roberts, Katherine J; Ethan, Danna; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra
More than a third of children and adolescents in the United States take vitamins even though professional medical organizations do not endorse their use in healthy children. Regardless of their efficacy, children's vitamin products are aggressively promoted. Therefore, the goal of this study was to describe and analyze advertisements related to vitamins in the following three popular parenting magazines, Parents, Parenting Early Years, and Parenting School Years. A total of 135 magazines across four years were reviewed. There were 207 advertisements for children's vitamins, all in the form of chewy or gummy. None of these advertisements included a dosage or a warning. Almost all (92.3%) included a cartoon in the advertisement. Almost a quarter (23.2%) of the advertisements promoted their product with the theme of prevention and more than half (51.2%) included the theme of peace of mind. Parenting magazines are a popular medium for providing exposure to products geared towards children. Companies that market children's vitamins in these magazines can increase awareness among parents of the risks by providing warning and dosage information in their advertisements. Magazines can also play a role by encouraging responsible marketing and providing editorial content on children's vitamins and potential consequences of pediatric overdose.
Basch, Corey H.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Ethan, Danna; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra
More than a third of children and adolescents in the United States take vitamins even though professional medical organizations do not endorse their use in healthy children. Regardless of their efficacy, children’s vitamin products are aggressively promoted. Therefore, the goal of this study was to describe and analyze advertisements related to vitamins in the following three popular parenting magazines, Parents, Parenting Early Years, and Parenting School Years. A total of 135 magazines across four years were reviewed. There were 207 advertisements for children’s vitamins, all in the form of chewy or gummy. None of these advertisements included a dosage or a warning. Almost all (92.3%) included a cartoon in the advertisement. Almost a quarter (23.2%) of the advertisements promoted their product with the theme of prevention and more than half (51.2%) included the theme of peace of mind. Parenting magazines are a popular medium for providing exposure to products geared towards children. Companies that market children’s vitamins in these magazines can increase awareness among parents of the risks by providing warning and dosage information in their advertisements. Magazines can also play a role by encouraging responsible marketing and providing editorial content on children’s vitamins and potential consequences of pediatric overdose. PMID:25948456
Nijjar, Rami; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh
It has been proposed that the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), through genetic mechanisms and early family interactions, develop a heightened sensitivity to stress, maladaptive coping, and dysregulated behavior, which ultimately increases the risk for affective disorders. The current study tested certain predictions of this model by assessing different psychosocial and health-related outcomes in the OBD, including personality, coping style, smoking, suicidality, high-risk sexual behaviors, criminality, and mental health. The sample was composed of 74 OBD and 75 control offspring, who were between 14 and 27 years of age (mean: 19.38±3.56). Participants underwent a diagnostic interview and a structured interview to assess high-risk behavior and other maladaptive outcomes, and they completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and Coping in Stressful Situations questionnaire. The rates of affective (31.1%) and non-affective (56.8%) disorders were elevated in the OBD compared to controls (9.5% and 32.4%). Relative to controls, OBD endorsed fewer task-oriented and more distraction coping strategies [Wilk׳s λ=.83, F(1, 136) =6.92, pdisorder diagnosis. The results highlight a potential risk profile for the OBD, consisting of ineffective coping strategies and risky sexual behavior and are discussed in the context of current knowledge of stress and coping in this population. The present findings were based on cross-sectional data and relied on offspring self-report. It would be useful to corroborate these findings with biobehavioural and longitudinal measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Riemersma, I.; Santvoort, F. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Doesum, K.T.M. van
Background: Children of parents with a mental illness or substance use disorder (COPMI) have an increased risk of developing social-emotional problems themselves. Fear of stigmatisation or unawareness of problems prevents children and parents from understanding each other. Little is known about
Trentacosta, Christopher J; McLear, Caitlin M; Ziadni, Maisa S; Lumley, Mark A; Arfken, Cynthia L
This study examined mental health problems among children of Iraqi refugees, most of whom were Christian. Exposure to potentially traumatic events was hypothesized to predict more symptoms of depression and traumatic stress. Moreover, youth reports of supportive relationships with parents and positive feelings about school were examined in relation to mental health problems. These promotive factors were expected to mitigate the hypothesized association between traumatic event exposure and mental health problems. Participants were 211 youth recruited from agencies and programs serving Iraqi refugees in a large metropolitan area in the United States. The hypotheses were partially supported. Youth who reported experiencing more potentially traumatic events endorsed more traumatic stress and depression symptoms. After accounting for exposure to potentially traumatic events and other covariates, youth who reported more positive feelings about school endorsed fewer symptoms of traumatic stress, and youth who reported more supportive relationships with parents endorsed fewer symptoms of depression. In addition, there was an interaction between potentially traumatic events and relationships with parents when predicting depression symptoms. Youth endorsed higher levels of depression symptoms when they reported less supportive relationships, regardless of the amount of traumatic event exposure, whereas youth endorsed lower levels of depression symptoms when they reported more supportive relationships with parents, but only at low levels of traumatic event exposure. Otherwise, the main effects were not qualified by interactions between potentially traumatic event exposure and the promotive factors. The findings from this study have implications for future research, policy, and practice with children of refugees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Goodkind, Jessica; LaNoue, Marianna; Lee, Christopher; Freeland, Lance; Freund, Rachel
An important predictor of youth well-being and resilience is the presence of nurturing adults in a youth's life. Parents are ideally situated to fulfill this role but often face challenges and stressors that impede their ability to provide adequate support and guidance. American Indian parents may also be affected by intergenerational transmission…
Greene, Carolyn A; Chan, Grace; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J
Young children are at significant risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and vulnerable to exposure-related psychopathology, yet few studies investigate the effects of exposure to IPV on children under the age of 5 years. The current study investigated the role of maternal PTSD symptoms and parenting strategies in the relationship between mothers' IPV experiences and psychopathology in their young children, ages 3-6 years in a community-based cohort of 308 mother-child dyads at high risk for family violence. Data were collected from 2011 to 2014. IPV history and maternal PTSD symptoms were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Children's symptoms were assessed with a developmentally-sensitive psychiatric interview administered to mothers. Punitive/restrictive parenting was independently-coded from in-depth interviews with mothers about their disciplinary practices. Hypothesized direct and indirect pathways between physical and psychological IPV, maternal PTSD, maternal parenting style, and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms were examined with mediation models. Results indicated that neither physical nor psychological IPV experienced by mothers was directly associated with children's symptoms. However, both types of victimization were associated with maternal PTSD symptoms. Examination of indirect pathways suggested that maternal PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological and physical IPV experiences and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mothers' restrictive/punitive parenting mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological IPV and children's externalizing symptoms. In addition, there was a path from maternal physical IPV to child externalizing symptoms through both maternal PTSD symptoms and restrictive/punitive parenting. Findings highlight the importance of supporting parents in recovering from the sequelae of their own traumatic experiences, as their ensuing mental health
What do parents perceive are the barriers and facilitators to accessing psychological treatment for mental health problems in children and adolescents? A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies.
Reardon, Tessa; Harvey, Kate; Baranowska, Magdalena; O'Brien, Doireann; Smith, Lydia; Creswell, Cathy
A minority of children and adolescents with mental health problems access treatment. The reasons for poor rates of treatment access are not well understood. As parents are a key gatekeeper to treatment access, it is important to establish parents' views of barriers/facilitators to accessing treatment. The aims of this study are to synthesise findings from qualitative and quantitative studies that report parents' perceptions of barriers/facilitators to accessing treatment for mental health problems in children/adolescents. A systematic review and narrative synthesis were conducted. Forty-four studies were included in the review and were assessed in detail. Parental perceived barriers/facilitators relating to (1) systemic/structural issues; (2) views and attitudes towards services and treatment; (3) knowledge and understanding of mental health problems and the help-seeking process; and (4) family circumstances were identified. Findings highlight avenues for improving access to child mental health services, including increased provision that is free to service users and flexible to their needs, with opportunities to develop trusting, supportive relationships with professionals. Furthermore, interventions are required to improve parents' identification of mental health problems, reduce stigma for parents, and increase awareness of how to access services.
Hamer, Mark; Dye, Louise; Siobhan Mitchell, E; Layé, Sophie; Saunders, Caroline; Boyle, Neil; Schuermans, Jeroen; Sijben, John
Intake of specific nutrients has been linked to mental states and various indices of cognitive performance although the effects are often subtle and difficult to interpret. Measurement of so-called objective variables (e.g. reaction times) is often considered to be the gold standard for assessing outcomes in this field of research. It can, however, be argued that data on subjective experience (e.g. mood) are also important and may enrich existing objective data. The aim of this review is to evaluate methods for measuring mental performance and mood, considering the definition of subjective mood and the validity of measures of subjective experience. A multi-stakeholder expert group was invited by ILSI Europe to come to a consensus around the utility of objective and subjective measurement in this field, which forms the basis of the paper. Therefore, the present review reflects a succinct overview of the science but is not intended to be a systematic review. The proposed approach extends the traditional methodology using standard 'objective' measurements to also include the consumers' subjective experiences in relation to food. Specific recommendations include 1) using contemporary methods to capture transient mood states; 2) using sufficiently sensitive measures to capture effects of nutritional intervention; 3) considering the possibility that subjective and objective responses will occur over different time frames; and 4) recognition of the importance of expectancy and placebo effects for subjective measures. The consensus reached was that the most informative approach should involve collection and consideration of both objective and subjective data.
Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Vink, J.M.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Ruiter, E.L.M.; Fisher, J.O.
Although parents often report positive intentions to promote and create a healthy food environment for their children (e.g., setting limits to snacks offered), they also experience difficulties in translating these intentions into actual behaviors. In this position paper, we argue that automatic
Wlodarczyk, Olga; Metzner, Franka; Pawils, Silke
Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the health care situation and barriers to support minor children of mentally ill parents from the perspective of adult psychiatry in Germany. Methods Based on the German Hospital Register mental health practitioners of all psychiatric clinics in Germany were asked to answer a 37-item questionnaire. Overall, 441 practitioners of 239 psychiatric clinics participated in the cross sectional study. Results Most important barriers were high workload, scarce resources, patient-focused treatment, missing expertise as well as insufficient awareness. Conclusions More resources, training, clear declaration of competence and coordination of services are necessary to implement family sensitive services in psychiatric clinics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the best ways for a member of the public to respond when someone in their social network develops a mental disorder. Controlled trials are not feasible in this area, so expert consensus may be the best guide. Methods To assess expert views, postal surveys were carried out with Australian GPs, psychiatrists and psychologists listed on professional registers and with mental health nurses who were members of a professional college. These professionals were asked to rate the helpfulness of 10 potential first aid strategies for young people with one of four disorders: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, social phobia and psychosis. Data were obtained from 470 GPs, 591 psychiatrists, 736 psychologists and 522 mental health nurses, with respective response rates of 24%, 35%, 40% and 32%. Data on public views were available from an earlier telephone survey of 3746 Australian youth aged 12–25 years and 2005 of their