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Sample records for parenting family environment

  1. Parental Low Self-Control, Family Environments, and Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan C; Connolly, George M; Flexon, Jamie; Guerette, Rob T

    2016-10-01

    Research consistently finds that low self-control is significantly correlated with delinquency. Only recently, however, have researchers started to examine associations between parental low self-control, family environments, and child antisocial behavior. Adding to this emerging area of research, the current study examines associations between parental low self-control, aspects of the family environment, and officially recoded juvenile delinquency among a sample (N = 101) of juveniles processed through a juvenile justice assessment facility located in the Southeastern United States. Furthermore, it considers whether aspects of family environments, particularly family cohesion, family conflict, and parental efficacy, mediate the influence of parental low self-control on delinquency. The results of a series of analyses indicate that parental low self-control is correlated with various aspects of family environments and juvenile delinquency, and that the association between parental low self-control and juvenile delinquency is mediated by family environments. Supplementary analyses also suggest that the association between parental low self-control and the family environment may be reciprocal. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. The Relationship between Family Environment and Parenting Style: A Preliminary Study of African American Families.

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    Hill, Nancy E.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of parenting style on aspects of family environment was studied with 174 9th graders, 11th graders and college freshmen (96% African American). Findings demonstrate that types of parenting styles are significantly related to outcome measures of family environment as predicted. Implications of authoritative parenting among blacks are…

  3. The Role of Parents, Parenting and the Family Environment in Children's Post-Disaster Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobham, Vanessa E; McDermott, Brett; Haslam, Divna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    There is widespread support for the hypothesis that, post-disaster, children's mental health is impacted--at least in part--via the impact on parents, parenting, parent-child interactions, and the family environment. To some degree, the enthusiasm with which this hypothesis is held outstrips the evidence examining it. The current paper critically evaluates the empirical evidence for this hypothesis and concludes that although limited (both in terms of number of existing studies and methodological flaws), the extant literature indicates some parent-related variables, as well as some aspects of the family environment are likely to constitute risk or protective factors for children. Given that parenting is modifiable, it is proposed that the identified parent- and family-related factors represent important therapeutic targets, and a universal post-disaster parenting intervention (Disaster Recovery Triple P) is described.

  4. Parental employment and work-family stress: Associations with family food environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Hearst, Mary O.; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Parental employment provides many benefits to children's health. However, an increasing number of studies have observed associations between mothers' full-time employment and less healthful family food environments. Few studies have examined other ways in which parental employment may be associated with the family food environment, including the role of fathers' employment and parents' stress balancing work and home obligations. This study utilized data from Project F-EAT, a population-based study of a socio-demographically diverse sample of 3709 parents of adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States, to examine cross-sectional associations between mothers' and fathers' employment status and parents' work-life stress with multiple aspects of the family food environment. Among parents participating in Project F-EAT, 64% of fathers and 46% of mothers were full-time employed, while 25% of fathers and 37% of mothers were not employed. Results showed that full-time employed mothers reported fewer family meals, less frequent encouragement of their adolescents' healthful eating, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less time spent on food preparation, compared to part-time and not-employed mothers, after adjusting for socio-demographics. Full-time employed fathers reported significantly fewer hours of food preparation; no other associations were seen between fathers' employment status and characteristics of the family food environment. In contrast, higher work-life stress among both parents was associated with less healthful family food environment characteristics including less frequent family meals and more frequent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption by parents. Among dual-parent families, taking into account the employment characteristics of the other parent did not substantially alter the relationships between work-life stress and family food environment characteristics. While parental employment is beneficial for many

  5. Parental employment and work-family stress: associations with family food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katherine W; Hearst, Mary O; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-08-01

    Parental employment provides many benefits to children's health. However, an increasing number of studies have observed associations between mothers' full-time employment and less healthful family food environments. Few studies have examined other ways in which parental employment may be associated with the family food environment, including the role of fathers' employment and parents' stress balancing work and home obligations. This study utilized data from Project F-EAT, a population-based study of a socio-demographically diverse sample of 3709 parents of adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States, to examine cross-sectional associations between mothers' and fathers' employment status and parents' work-life stress with multiple aspects of the family food environment. Among parents participating in Project F-EAT, 64% of fathers and 46% of mothers were full-time employed, while 25% of fathers and 37% of mothers were not employed. Results showed that full-time employed mothers reported fewer family meals, less frequent encouragement of their adolescents' healthful eating, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less time spent on food preparation, compared to part-time and not-employed mothers, after adjusting for socio-demographics. Full-time employed fathers reported significantly fewer hours of food preparation; no other associations were seen between fathers' employment status and characteristics of the family food environment. In contrast, higher work-life stress among both parents was associated with less healthful family food environment characteristics including less frequent family meals and more frequent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption by parents. Among dual-parent families, taking into account the employment characteristics of the other parent did not substantially alter the relationships between work-life stress and family food environment characteristics. While parental employment is beneficial for many

  6. Parents of Children with Asperger Syndrome or with Learning Disabilities: Family Environment and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Tali; Berger, Ornit

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the family environment and perceived social support of 33 parents with a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and 43 parents with a child with learning disability, which were compared to 45 parents of children without disabilities as a control group. Parents completed the Family Environment Scale and Social Support Scale…

  7. Associations Between Parental BMI and the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Environment in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joel E; Helsel, Brian; Griffin, Sarah F; Liang, Jessica

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental BMI and the family environment and determine if differences exist in child diet and physical activity related parenting behaviors by parental BMI in a community sample of families recruited through elementary schools in a local school district. We found an association between parental BMI category and family nutrition and physical activity (FNPA) score. Families with an underweight or normal weight parent had a larger proportion (64.3%) of high (indicating a healthier family environment) FNPA scores and families with an overweight or obese parent had a smaller proportion (45.2%) of high FNPA scores (χ 2  = 5.247, P = 0.022). Families with a parent who was overweight or obese had 2.18 times the odds (95% CI 1.11-4.27) of being in the low FNPA ("less healthy" environment) group. Further, underweight/normal weight parents reported higher levels of monitoring of child diet (Z = -3.652, P authoritative parenting behaviors were associated with a less obesogenic home environment and a positive parenting style related to child eating and physical activity behaviors.

  8. Musical Home Environment, Family Background, and Parenting Style on Success in School Music and in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdzinski, Stephen; Dell, Charlene; Gumm, Alan; Rinnert, Nathan; Orzolek, Douglas; Yap, Ching Ching; Cooper, Shelly; Keith, Timothy; Russell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine influences of parental involvement-home music environment, family background, and parenting style factors on success in school music and in school. Participants (N = 1114) were music students in grades 4-12 from six regions of the United States. Data were gathered about parental involvement-home environment…

  9. Parental child-care practices of Slovenian preschoolers' mothers and fathers: The Family Environment Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Zupančič; Anja Podlesek; Tina Kavčič

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ), and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Facto...

  10. CREATING SUPPORTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS: EXPERIENCES OF LESBIAN AND GAY-PARENTED FAMILIES IN SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS

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    Diana Breshears

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gayparented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children’s education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and administrators wishing better to support lesbian/ gay-parented families. The results of our study offer an understanding of the challenges and needs of this diverse family in the school system, as well as a starting point for administrators and teachers wanting to create inclusive environments for all family types.

  11. Family Social Environment and Parenting Predictors of Alcohol Use among Adolescents in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šumskas, Linas; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2017-09-08

    The role of the family as the social environment in shaping adolescent lifestyle has recently received substantial attention. This study was focused on investigating the association between familial and parenting predictors and alcohol use in school-aged children. Adolescents aged 13- and 15-year from a representative sample (N = 3715) of schools in Lithuania were surveyed during the spring of 2014. The methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study was applied. HBSC international questionnaires were completed in the classroom anonymously for obtaining information about drinking of alcoholic beverages and family characteristics-family's affluence and structure, style of communication in the family, parenting style, parental monitoring, family time together, etc. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied for assessment of the association between familial variables and weekly alcohol use. Analysis has demonstrated that adolescents from non-intact families tended to show significantly higher risk of being weekly drinkers (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.30-2.19). The following parenting factors were associated with weekly use of alcohol: father's and mother's low monitoring, father's authoritarian-repressive and mother's permissive-neglectful parenting style. Frequent family time together and frequent electronic media communication with parents showed an inverse negative effect than was predicted. The study suggests that alcohol misuse among adolescents could be associated with a non-intact family structure as well as with complex family and parenting determinants which should be investigated more thoroughly by further studies.

  12. Family environment and psychopathology in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Phoebe; Hawes, David J; Hunt, Caroline; Frankland, Andrew; Roberts, Gloria; Wright, Adam; Costa, Daniel S J; Mitchell, Philip B

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between family environment (cohesion and parental bonding), high-risk status, and psychopathology (internalizing and externalizing problems) among offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), from the perspective of both offspring and their parents. We further tested if family environment mediated the relationship between bipolar risk status and internalizing and externalizing problems. High-risk (n = 90) BD offspring and control (n = 56) offspring aged 12-21 years old, and their parents, completed questionnaires on family cohesion and offspring internalizing and externalizing problems. Offspring also completed a parental bonding questionnaire. Group differences were examined, followed by multi-level mediation analysis with maximum likelihood and robust standard errors. Both offspring and parents in the high-risk group reported higher levels of internalizing and externalizing problems than controls. According to offspring reports, high-risk status, lower maternal and paternal care in parental bonding, was independently associated with internalizing problems. Lower maternal care alone predicted externalizing problems. Family environment did not mediate the relationship between bipolar risk status, and offspring problems. Due to rates of missing data from parent reports of offspring psychopathology, mediation analysis was completed using offspring reports. The offspring-report data presented indicate that low parental warmth and connection were associated with internalizing and externalizing problems as an independent risk factor, in addition to bipolar risk status. The parent-child relationship therefore warrants attention as a potential target for prevention strategies with such families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Making time for family meals: Parental influences, home eating environments, barriers and protective factors.

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    Jones, Blake L

    2018-04-06

    Frequent family mealtimes have been associated with numerous positive dietary, health, and behavioral outcomes for children and families. This review article summarizes some of the beneficial outcomes associated with having frequent family dinners. Current trends in family dinner frequency are discussed in the context of barriers that influence how often families eat dinner together, including time issues, work issues, and distractions in the home environment. Next, several parental influences and home environment factors that promote healthy and consistent family dinners are outlined. Finally, limitations are discussed and a few practical suggestions are mentioned to help encourage families, employers, and policy-makers to make family mealtimes a regular practice for as many families as possible. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. How is gambling related to perceived parenting style and/or family environment for college students?

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    Jonkman, Jeffrey; Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Worthy, Sheri Lokken

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims The relationship between college student gambling, parenting styles, and family environments is a neglected area of gambling research. Do parenting styles indirectly influence problem gambling behaviors via family environments? Do poor family environments, characterized by high levels of conflict and low levels of cohesion, increase the likelihood of problem gambling among youth? This study explored the interrelationships among college students' current gambling behaviors and a) having an emotionally close and supportive family environment, b) having nagging and critical parents, c) having an authoritative mother, and d) frequency of alcohol consumption. Methods and results Survey data were collected from 450 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two state universities in a southern state. Feeling that one has nagging and critical parents was associated with gambling in more venues, while the opposite was true for having emotionally close and supportive families. However, perceptions of having authoritative mothers were not related to gambling. The results also showed that more frequent alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of gambling in casinos, playing cards for money, betting on sports, gambling on the Internet, higher gambling losses, and a larger number of gambling venues. Conclusions As with any exploratory research, there are several unique lines of inquiry that can, and should, follow from these findings, including more research on how college students' attitudes toward gambling activities may have begun prior to college and been influenced by their feelings about their homes and parents.

  15. Family Social Environment and Parenting Predictors of Alcohol Use among Adolescents in Lithuania

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    Linas Šumskas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of the family as the social environment in shaping adolescent lifestyle has recently received substantial attention. This study was focused on investigating the association between familial and parenting predictors and alcohol use in school-aged children. Adolescents aged 13- and 15-year from a representative sample (N = 3715 of schools in Lithuania were surveyed during the spring of 2014. The methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study was applied. HBSC international questionnaires were completed in the classroom anonymously for obtaining information about drinking of alcoholic beverages and family characteristics—family’s affluence and structure, style of communication in the family, parenting style, parental monitoring, family time together, etc. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied for assessment of the association between familial variables and weekly alcohol use. Analysis has demonstrated that adolescents from non-intact families tended to show significantly higher risk of being weekly drinkers (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.30–2.19. The following parenting factors were associated with weekly use of alcohol: father’s and mother’s low monitoring, father’s authoritarian-repressive and mother’s permissive-neglectful parenting style. Frequent family time together and frequent electronic media communication with parents showed an inverse negative effect than was predicted. The study suggests that alcohol misuse among adolescents could be associated with a non-intact family structure as well as with complex family and parenting determinants which should be investigated more thoroughly by further studies.

  16. Parenting Attitudes, Family Environments, Depression, and Anxiety in Caregivers of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, Ferol E.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated parenting attitudes, family environments, depression, and anxiety in a sample of primarily minority urban mothers to better understand maltreating mothers (n = 83), who retain custody of their children and how they are similar to and different from foster mothers (n = 50), kin caregivers (n = 52) of maltreated children, and…

  17. Family Social Environment and Parenting Predictors of Alcohol Use among Adolescents in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Linas Šumskas; Apolinaras Zaborskis

    2017-01-01

    The role of the family as the social environment in shaping adolescent lifestyle has recently received substantial attention. This study was focused on investigating the association between familial and parenting predictors and alcohol use in school-aged children. Adolescents aged 13- and 15-year from a representative sample (N = 3715) of schools in Lithuania were surveyed during the spring of 2014. The methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study wa...

  18. Parental child-care practices of Slovenian preschoolers' mothers and fathers: The Family Environment Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ, and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Factor analysis of the 63 items reliably recovered a four-component solution in both, maternal and paternal self-reports indicating the following broad-band parenting practices: Authoritative Parenting, Ineffective Control, Power Assertion, and Stimulation. Variables loading high on more than one component and those that did not load on the same factor obtained from maternal and paternal data were excluded from further analyses. The 51 items that were retained and corresponded to the four factors demonstrate adequate internal consistency for both samples of respondents. In addition, parental stimulation was positively linked to authoritative parenting, while it was negatively related to ineffective control and power assertion. The mothers perceived themselves to be more authoritative and stimulative than did fathers, who described themselves as more power assertive and ineffective in control. The parent-pairs were also found to share, at least to some extent, similar parenting practices, whereas their self-perceived expression of these practices was not dependent on their child's gender.

  19. Dysfunctional family environment in affected versus unaffected offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

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    Ferreira, Guilherme S; Moreira, Carolina R L; Kleinman, Ana; Nader, Edmir C G P; Gomes, Bernardo Carramão; Teixeira, Ana Maria A; Rocca, Cristiana C Almeida; Nicoletti, Mark; Soares, Jair C; Busatto, Geraldo F; Lafer, Beny; Caetano, Sheila C

    2013-11-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) are at heightened risk for developing mood and other psychiatric disorders. We proposed to evaluate the environment of families with at least one parent with BD type I (BDF) with affected offspring (aBDF) and unaffected offspring (uBDF) compared with control families without a history of DSM-IV Axis I disorder (CF). We used the Family Environment Scale (FES) to evaluate 47 BDF (aBDF + uBDF) and 30 CF. Parents were assessed through the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Diagnosis of the offspring was determined through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children/Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) interview. There were statistically significant differences between aBDF, uBDF and CF in cohesion (p = 0.003), intellectual-cultural orientation (p = 0.01), active-recreational orientation (p = 0.007), conflict (p = 0.001), control (p = 0.01), moral-religious emphasis (p = 0.01) and organization (p = 0.001). The aBDF showed higher levels of control (p = 0.02) when compared to the uBDF. Families with a BD parent presented more dysfunctional interactions among members. Moreover, the presence of BD or other psychiatric disorders in the offspring of parents with BD is associated with higher levels of control. These results highlight the relevance of psychosocial interventions to improve resilience and family interactions.

  20. Creating Supportive Learning Environments: Experiences of Lesbian and Gay-Parented Families in South African Schools

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    Breshears, Diana; Lubbe-De Beer, Carien

    2016-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gay-parented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children's education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and…

  1. Modeling the relationship between family home environment factors and parental health.

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    Didericksen, Katharine Wickel; Berge, Jerica M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding parental health is an important part of understanding family health. Previous research suggests that family meals, familial relationship satisfaction, and family physical activity may separately be related to physical health. The current study aims to combine these variables into a structural equation model to determine the collective relationship they have with adult health within a sample of parents (n = 1,435). Most parents were married, White, and highly educated. The relationship between family meals and parental health was significant (β = -.07, t = -2.29, p Familial relationship satisfaction and family physical activity were not found to be associated with parental health. Exploratory findings of the sample stratified by biological sex are described. Findings from the current study were consistent with a systemic perspective in that parents may have health benefits when they participate in family-level behavior (e.g., family meals). Additional areas for research and limitations to the current study are also discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The effects of parental education and family income on mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and family environments in the People's Republic of China.

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    Zhang, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    Using a cross-sectional design with 407 Chinese children aged 3-5 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and family income, on the children's mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and the social environment in their families. The results indicated that income negatively predicted conflict in father-child relationships and positively predicted family active-recreational environments. Income also positively predicted family cohesion among girls but not boys. Maternal education negatively predicted conflict in mother-child relationships and positively predicted closeness in mother-child and father-child relationships, family cohesion, and the intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments in the family. Paternal education positively predicted family cohesion and intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments. Income was found to partially mediate the effects of both maternal and paternal education on family active-recreational environments. Findings are discussed in the frameworks of the family stress model and the family investment model. © FPI, Inc.

  3. Linking Social Environments with the Well-Being of Adolescents in Dual-Earner and Single Working Parent Families

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    Tisdale, Sandee; Pitt-Catsuphes, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationships between middle school-aged children's perceptions of their social environments (home, school, neighborhood, and parental work) with self-reports of well-being. In the present study, well-being was defined by measures of physical health and psychological happiness. Data from the Nurturing Families Study…

  4. Patterns of individual change in a parenting program for child maltreatment and their relation to family and professional environments.

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    Byrne, S; Rodrigo, M J; Máiquez, M L

    2014-03-01

    In the area of child maltreatment prevention, little is known about the typology of changes that individuals undergo in response to parent-training interventions. In this study, we examined the patterns of change observed in parents immediately after their completion of the Apoyo Personal y Familiar (APF, Personal and Family Support) parenting program. We identified five clusters and classified 496 parents according to two criteria: (a) the amount of pre-post changes (total or partial) as reflected in their self-reports on implicit theories, parental agency and childrearing practices, and (b) the positive, negative or mixed character of these changes. The study also included a follow-up of a subset of 95 participants intended to examine the extent to which the patterns of change identified in the first part of the study might predict the quality of the childrearing environment at home and the successful integration of the APF program into social services structures one year on. In this follow-up study, external evaluators observed families' home environments and collected the parenting program facilitators' self-reports on changes to their work environment. The evaluators found higher-quality childrearing environments and more positive appraisals of the changes to the teams' work with families in those cases where participants had experienced partial or total positive changes as a result of the APF. This approach offers insights into processes of individual change that have practical implications for the successful implementation of parenting programs in child maltreatment prevention services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Family environment and adult resilience: contributions of positive parenting and the oxytocin receptor gene

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    Bekh Bradley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abundant research shows that childhood adversity increases the risk for adult psychopathology while research on influences of positive family environment on risk for psychopathology is limited. Similarly, a growing body of research examines genetic and gene by environment predictors of psychopathology, yet such research on predictors of resilience is sparse. Objectives: We examined the role of positive factors in childhood family environment (CFE and the OXTR rs53576 genotype in predicting levels of adult resilient coping and positive affect. We also examined whether the relationship between positive factors in the CFEs and adult resilient coping and positive affect varied across OXTR rs53576 genotype. Methods: We gathered self-report data on childhood environment, trauma history, and adult resilience and positive affect in a sample of 971 African American adults. Results: We found that positive CFE was positively associated with higher levels of resilient coping and positive affect in adulthood after controlling for childhood maltreatment, other trauma, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. We did not find a direct effect of OXTR 53576 on a combined resilient coping/positive-affect-dependent variable, but we did find an interaction of OXTR rs53576 with family environment. Conclusions: Our data suggest that even in the face of adversity, positive aspects of the family environment may contribute to resilience. These results highlight the importance of considering protective developmental experiences and the interaction of such experiences with genetic variants in risk and resilience research.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  6. Family environment and child development

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    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  7. Relationship between the linguistic environments and early bilingual language development of hearing children in deaf-parented families.

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    Kanto, Laura; Huttunen, Kerttu; Laakso, Marja-Leena

    2013-04-01

    We explored variation in the linguistic environments of hearing children of Deaf parents and how it was associated with their early bilingual language development. For that purpose we followed up the children's productive vocabulary (measured with the MCDI; MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory) and syntactic complexity (measured with the MLU10; mean length of the 10 longest utterances the child produced during videorecorded play sessions) in both Finnish Sign Language and spoken Finnish between the ages of 12 and 30 months. Additionally, we developed new methodology for describing the linguistic environments of the children (N = 10). Large variation was uncovered in both the amount and type of language input and language acquisition among the children. Language exposure and increases in productive vocabulary and syntactic complexity were interconnected. Language acquisition was found to be more dependent on the amount of exposure in sign language than in spoken language. This was judged to be related to the status of sign language as a minority language. The results are discussed in terms of parents' language choices, family dynamics in Deaf-parented families and optimal conditions for bilingual development.

  8. Effects of parental perception of neighbourhood deprivation and family environment characteristics on pro-social behaviours among 4-12 year old children.

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    Renzaho, Andre M N; Karantzas, Gery

    2010-08-01

    To assess the effect family environment stressors (e.g. poor family functioning and parental psychological distress) and neighbourhood environment on child prosocial behaviour (CPB) and child difficulty behaviour (CDB) among 4-to-12 year old children. Analysis of the 2006 Victorian Child Health and Wellbeing Survey (VCHWS) dataset derived from a statewide cross-sectional telephone survey, with a final total sample of 3,370 children. Only family functioning, parental psychological distress, child gender, and age were associated with CPB, explaining a total of 8% of the variance. Children from healthily functioning families and of parents without any psychological distress exhibited greater prosocial behaviours than those from poorly functioning families and of parents with mental health problems. Neighbourhood environment was not found to contribute to CPB. A total of eight variables were found to predict CDB, explaining a total of 16% of the variance. Poor family and parental psychological functioning as well as poor access to public facilities in the neighbourhood were associated with conduct problems in children. Our results point to the importance of the family environment in providing a context that fosters the development of empathic, caring and responsible children; and in buffering children in exhibiting behaviour difficulties during the formative years of life. Programs aimed at promoting prosocial behaviours in children need to target stressors on the family environment.

  9. Parental Socio-Economic Status, Family Structure and Living Environment as Predictors of Violence against Children in Lagos, Nigeria

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    A.A. Oni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to find out whether parental socioeconomic status, family structure and living environment are predictors of violence against children. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and the population of the study consisted of all the children in public primary schools and in junior secondary schools within Lagos state of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted for the study. Random samples of twenty five children were picked from each of the sixteen schools selected. This gives a total 400 participants that were used for the study. Experts in Sociology, measurement and evaluation certified the content validity of the questionnaire, while the co-efficient of the reliability of the four sections of the questionnaire were ascertained to be 0.63; 0.68; 0.66 and 0.73, respectively for sections A,B,C and D. Chi-square statistical tools was used to test the hypotheses formulated. Major findings of the study include the fact that parental socioeconomic status significantly influence violence against children, family structure significantly influence violence against children and that living environment also significantly influence violence against children. This study conclude by recommending among others that the Lagos State government should put machinery in motion to improve the poverty level of individuals living in Lagos State of Nigeria and should also make available social services and amenities that are supportive of family well being in order to avoid any form of violence against children.

  10. The consequences of corporal punishment of children by parents in the home and family environment

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    Mohammad reza Tamannaifar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available How adults behave has a profound impact on children’s personality and their acquired habits. The Persian equivalent of punishment means to make somebody aware of something and to wake someone up. However, corporal punishment means using physical force to cause pain without any injury in order to discipline (behavior correction and control children. Corporal punishment is considered as a form of child abuse and it is the most common form of violence in the family which violates the rights of the child. Psychologies usually do not approve of corporal punishment. Corporal punishment has a short-term and long-term destructive impact on both the body and mind of the child. It can have negative effects such as fear, not learning the proper behavior, justifying hurting others, being aggressive towards the punisher, showing improper reactions and being a wrong model for other. Research studies indicate that house-keeping mothers with low level of education are more likely to use corporal punishment. And behavioral problems such as physical and verbal aggression, non-cooperativeness are more in children punished corporally by their parents than in those who are not punished. Therefore, educating parents regarding the bad impact of corporal punishment on children’s body and mind as well as educating them concerning the positive ways of rearing children can be effective in reducing the use of corporal punishment. Furthermore, other substitutes for corporal punishment can be saturation, passage of time, reinforcement of the incompatible behavior and turning a blind eye on misbehavior. طرز رفتار بزرگسالان اثر عمیقی بر شخصیت کودکان و عادات کسب شده توسط آنها دارد. تنبیه به معنای آگاهانیدن، بیدار کردن، واقف گردانیدن به چیزی و آگاه و هوشیاری کردن آمده است. تنبیه‌بدنی به معنای استفاده از

  11. Adoptive Family Adjustment and Its Relation to Perceived Family Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Betty; Kelly, Mary Margaret; Towner-Thyrum, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Interviewed adopted college students regarding perceptions of adoptive family life. Found that overall satisfaction with adoptive status and family life was the strongest predictor of perceived general family environment. Perception of adoptive parents' communication styles predicted different aspects of family environment. Acknowledgment of life…

  12. The consequences of corporal punishment of children by parents in the home and family environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad reza Tamannaifar; Fteme Salami Mohammadabadi; somayye Dashtbanzadeh

    2011-01-01

    How adults behave has a profound impact on children’s personality and their acquired habits. The Persian equivalent of punishment means to make somebody aware of something and to wake someone up. However, corporal punishment means using physical force to cause pain without any injury in order to discipline (behavior correction and control) children. Corporal punishment is considered as a form of child abuse and it is the most common form of violence in the family which violates the rights of ...

  13. Parental Involvement in a New Environment: Igbo Families in Chicago and the Education of Their Children--A Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwughalu, Obiefuna J.

    2011-01-01

    Parents, family, school and community have overlapping spheres of influence in the education of children (Epstein, 2001). Schooling isolated from the home will have significant consequences for child behavior and development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). A fact of life is that a people's socio-political, cultural and historical life situation, context…

  14. Family environment patterns in families with bipolar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, Cecilia; Hatch, John P; Olvera, Rene L; Fonseca, Manoela; Caetano, Sheila C; Nicoletti, Mark; Pliszka, Steven; Soares, Jair C

    2008-04-01

    We studied the characteristics of family functioning in bipolar children and healthy comparison children. We hypothesized that the family environment of bipolar children would show greater levels of dysfunction as measured by the Family Environment Scale (FES). We compared the family functioning of 36 families that included a child with DSM-IV bipolar disorder versus 29 comparison families that included only healthy children. All subjects and their parents were assessed with the K-SADS-PL interview. The parents completed the FES to assess their current family functioning. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the family environment of families with and without offspring with bipolar disorder. Parents of bipolar children reported lower levels of family cohesion (pfamilies where a parent had a history of mood disorders compared to families where parents had no history of mood disorders. Length of illness in the affected child was inversely associated with family cohesion (r=-0.47, p=0.004). Due to the case-control design of the study, we cannot comment on the development of these family problems or attribute their cause specifically to child bipolar disorder. Families with bipolar children show dysfunctional patterns related to interpersonal interactions and personal growth. A distressed family environment should be addressed when treating children with bipolar disorder.

  15. Predictors of maternal language to infants during a picture book task in the home: Family SES, child characteristics and the parenting environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Pancsofar, Nadya; Willoughby, Mike; Odom, Erica; Quade, Alison; Cox, Martha

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of child characteristics and parenting environment to the relationship between family SES/demographic characteristics and maternal language to infants.1157 children were drawn from a representative sample of 1292 infants born to mothers in rural Appalachian counties and rural counties in southern minority U.S. communities. Mothers and their 6-8 month old babies were videotaped at home while talking about a wordless picture book. Mothers' language output and complexity were analyzed. Child temperament, age, and parenting environment (knowledge of child development and observed mother-child engagement) were predictors of maternal language. Furthermore, their inclusion reduced the magnitude of the association between demographic characteristics and maternal language. Tests of mediation suggested that the parenting environment partially mediates the relationship between SES/demographic characteristics and maternal language. Findings are discussed with respect to identifying proximal processes that explain how SES may exert its influence on the language of young children.

  16. Family Functioning of Adolescents Who Parent and Place for Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Gayle; Resnick, Michael D.

    1988-01-01

    Assessed family environments of 84 pregnant adolescents who recently made decision to parent or to place their babies for adoption. Results showed that adolescent parents or placers described their families as less functional than adolescent norms. Found no significant differences in family functioning between parents and placers. Vast majority of…

  17. The Influence of Family Dog Ownership and Parental Perceived Built Environment Measures on Children's Physical Activity within the Washington, DC Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jennifer D; Rodkey, Lindsey; Grisham, Cortney; Ray, Rashawn

    2017-11-16

    Sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are significant contributors to youth obesity in the United States. Neighborhood dog walking is an outlet for physical activity (PA). Therefore, understanding the relationship between built environment, dog ownership, and youth PA is essential. This study examined the influence of dog ownership and parental built environment perceptions on children's PA in the Washington, D.C. area. In 2014, questionnaires were mailed to 2000 parents to assess family dog ownership; children's outdoor dog walking or playing; and parental perceived built environment measures. Chi-square analyses examined differences in parental perceived built environment measures between children with and without family dogs. The sample included 144 children (50% female; average-age 9.7 years; 56.3% White; 23.7% African-American; 10.4% Asian-American; 29.9% owned dog). Only 13% and 5.6% of the children walked or played outdoors with the dog daily, respectively. A significantly greater proportion ( p -value supports children's outdoor PA through dog walking and playing.

  18. Parental communication style and family relationships in children of bipolar parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Yvonne H; Huntley Jones, Steven; Espie, Jonathan; Bentall, Richard; Tai, Sara

    2008-09-01

    To examine relationships between parental communication styles and family environment in parents with bipolar disorder (BD) and their children (CBP). On measures of parental communication styles and family environment, 20 BD parents and their 23 children (CBP) were compared to controls. Children completed a current mood measure. BD parents endorsed more negative communication styles and were less expressive than controls. CBP presented with more current or lifetime mood disorder diagnoses than control children (CC). Current depressive mood was associated with different perceptions of family environment for both CBP and CC. This familial high risk design indicated differences in family environment, parenting style, and in children of bipolar parents' perception of their family environment as it relates to their current mood.

  19. Family Home Food Environment and Nutrition-Related Parent and Child Personal and Behavioral Outcomes of the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Friend, Sarah; Horning, Melissa; Flattum, Colleen; Draxten, Michelle; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Gurvich, Olga; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Kubik, Martha Y

    2018-02-01

    Research has demonstrated a significant positive association between frequent family meals and children's dietary intake; however, the promotion of healthful family meals has not been rigorously tested for key food environment and nutrition-related behavioral outcomes in a randomized trial. To describe family home food environment and nutrition-related parent and child personal and behavioral outcomes of the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment Plus program, the first rigorously tested family meals intervention targeting childhood obesity prevention. Randomized controlled trial. Baseline, postintervention (12 months, 93% retention), and follow-up (21 months, 89% retention) data (surveys and dietary recalls) were collected. Children aged 8 to 12 years (N=160) and their parents were randomized to intervention (n=81) or control (n=79) groups. The intervention included five parent goal-setting calls and 10 monthly sessions delivered to families in community settings that focused on experiential nutrition activities and education, meal planning, cooking skill development, and reducing screen time. Family home food environment outcomes and nutrition-related child and parent personal and behavioral outcomes. Analyses used generalized linear mixed models. Primary comparisons were contrasts between intervention and control groups at postintervention and follow-up, with adjustments for child age and parent education. Compared with control parents, intervention parents showed greater improvement over time in scores of self-efficacy for identifying appropriate portion sizes, with significant differences in adjusted means at both post-intervention (P=0.002) and follow-up (P=0.01). Intervention children were less likely to consume at least one sugar-sweetened beverage daily at post-intervention than control children (P=0.04). The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment Plus program involved the entire family and targeted personal, behavioral, and

  20. Adolescent and parent views of family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2006-04-01

    To examine and compare the family mealtime environment from the perspectives of both adolescents and parents. Adolescents completed a school-based survey and parents participated in a telephone interview as part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Participants were 902 adolescent females (n=424) and males (n=478) and one of their guardians/parents. Frequencies, chi(2) analyses, and Spearman correlations were used to assess relationships. Parents were more likely than adolescents to report eating five or more family meals per week, the importance of eating together, and scheduling difficulties (Ptogether, and more rule expectations at mealtime (PGirls reported more family meals per week and more scheduling conflicts than boys did; boys reported more rules at mealtime than girls did (Ptogetherness, and for role modeling behaviors that parents would like their children to emulate. Dietetics professionals can capitalize on positive attitudes toward family meals to help promote their frequency. Helping families learn to cook healthful, quick meals may reduce dependency on less healthful meal options, reduce the frequency of eating outside of the home, and promote greater nutritional intake.

  1. Factors within the family environment such as parents' dietary habits and fruit and vegetable availability have the greatest influence on fruit and vegetable consumption by Polish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Taraszewska, Anna Małgorzata; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Jarosz, Mirosław

    2015-10-01

    To identify determinants of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among school-aged children. A survey study was conducted in October 2010. The questionnaire contained questions concerning social and demographic data, lifestyle and dietary habits, particularly the frequency of F&V consumption, availability of F&V and knowledge about recommended amounts of F&V intake. Polish primary schools. Children (n 1255) aged 9 years from randomly selected primary schools and their parents. The children's consumption of fruit and of vegetables was influenced by the fruit consumption and vegetable consumption of their parents (r=0·333 and r=0·273, respectively; P=0·001), parents encouraging their children to eat F&V (r=0·259 and r=0·271, respectively; P=0·001), giving children F&V to take to school (r=0·338 and r=0·321, respectively; P=0·001) and the availability of F&V at home (r=0·200 and r=0·296, respectively; P=0·001). Parental education influenced only the frequency of fruit consumption (r=0·074; P=0·01). A correlation between parents' knowledge of the recommended intakes and the frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption by children was noticed (r=0·258 and r=0·192, respectively, P=0·001). Factors within the family environment such as parents' dietary habits and F&V availability had the greatest influence on the F&V consumption by children. Educational activities aimed at parents are crucial to increase the consumption of F&V among children.

  2. Parenting styles and home obesogenic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel; Welk, Greg; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Ihmels, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind's parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7-10) in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting behaviors were assessed with the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ), a 58-item survey that categorizes parenting practices into three styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Parent perceptions of the home obesogenic environment were assessed with the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) instrument, a simple 10 item instrument that has been shown in previous research to predict risk for overweight. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns in the PSDQ data and these clusters were related to FNPA scores and measured BMI values in children (using ANCOVA analyses that controlled for parent income and education) to examine the impact of parenting styles on risk of overweight/obesity. The FNPA score was positively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritative parenting scale (r = 0.29) but negatively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritarian scale (r = -0.22) and permissive scale (r = -0.20). Permissive parenting was significantly associated with BMIz score but this is the only dimension that exhibited a relationship with BMI. A three-cluster solution explained 40.5% of the total variance and clusters were distinguishable by low and high z-scores on different PSDQ sub-dimensions. A cluster characterized as Permissive/Authoritarian (Cluster 2) had significantly lower FNPA scores (more obesogenic) than clusters characterized as Authoritative (Cluster 1) or Authoritarian/Authoritative (Cluster 3) after

  3. Parenting Styles and Home Obesogenic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ihmels

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind’s parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7–10 in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting behaviors were assessed with the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ, a 58-item survey that categorizes parenting practices into three styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Parent perceptions of the home obesogenic environment were assessed with the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA instrument, a simple 10 item instrument that has been shown in previous research to predict risk for overweight. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns in the PSDQ data and these clusters were related to FNPA scores and measured BMI values in children (using ANCOVA analyses that controlled for parent income and education to examine the impact of parenting styles on risk of overweight/obesity. The FNPA score was positively (and significantly associated with scores on the authoritative parenting scale (r = 0.29 but negatively (and significantly associated with scores on the authoritarian scale (r = −0.22 and permissive scale (r = −0.20. Permissive parenting was significantly associated with BMIz score but this is the only dimension that exhibited a relationship with BMI. A three-cluster solution explained 40.5% of the total variance and clusters were distinguishable by low and high z-scores on different PSDQ sub-dimensions. A cluster characterized as Permissive/Authoritarian (Cluster 2 had significantly lower FNPA scores (more obesogenic than clusters characterized as Authoritative (Cluster 1 or Authoritarian

  4. Family and relationship influences on parenting behaviors of young parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace; Murphy, Alexandrea; Lewis, Jessica; Divney, Anna; Albritton, Tashuna; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick

    2014-02-01

    Assess the influence of relationship and family factors during pregnancy on parenting behavior 6 months postpartum among low-income young parents. Some 434 young expectant couples were recruited from obstetrics clinics during pregnancy and followed 6 months postpartum. Using a series of general estimating equations to control for the correlated nature of the data, we assessed the influence of relationship factors (e.g., relationship satisfaction, attachment) and family factors (e.g., family functioning, family history) during pregnancy on parenting (e.g., parenting involvement, time spent caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence) 6 months postpartum controlling for covariates. Relationship functioning related to parenting involvement, caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence. In addition, several family factors related to parenting. Mother involvement during childhood was related to more parenting involvement, parenting positive experiences, and parenting sense of competence. History of being spanked as a child related to less time spent caregiving and less positive life change from being a parent. Further, gender significantly moderated the associations between relationship and family factors and parenting behavior. Male parenting behavior was more influenced by relationship and family factors than female parenting. This study suggests the importance of relationship and family contexts for parenting behaviors of young mothers and fathers, highlighting the potential utility of involving both young mothers and fathers in parenting programs, and developing interventions that focus on strengthening young parents' romantic relationships and that address negative parenting experienced during childhood. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Education, Parenting and Family: The Social Geographies of Family Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Emma; Marandet, Elodie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between education, parenting and family through the prism and particularities of family learning. Family learning is an example of an educational initiative, primarily aimed at parents and linked to wider policy concerns, which can be explored through a mapping of its social geographies; family learning is…

  6. Family structure and park use among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yingling; French, Simone A; Das, Kirti V

    2012-11-01

    Despite the increasingly diversified family structure in the U.S., little research examines differences in park use between nontraditional and traditional family structures. This study examines family-structure differences in parent park use. It was hypothesized that working single parents and dual-worker parents have lower levels of park use than parents in two-parent, single-worker families. Data from a 2010 park-use survey in three urban neighborhoods in Minneapolis MN (N=261 parents) were analyzed in 2012. Multiple variables of park use were developed, including recalled measures over the past 3 days and over the past year. Family-structure differences in these variables were examined using multivariate regression analyses. After controlling for spatial clustering effects and confounding factors, working single parents reported 32.6% (pparents in two-parent, single-worker families. Dual-worker parents did not report fewer park visits in the past 3 days than parents in two-parent, single-worker families, yet the length of time they spent in parks during these visits was 41.5% (psingle parents and dual-worker parents is needed in descriptive and intervention research aiming to promote park use among families with children. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Family Environments May Moderate Prediction of Low Educational Attainment in Adulthood: The Cases of Childhood Hyperactivity and Authoritarian Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2007-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study, this study explored conditions under which the effects of risk factors for low educational attainment might be moderated. Two different risk factors, hyperactivity and maternal authoritarian parenting attitudes, were studied. The results showed that on the whole these two risk factors…

  8. Single-Parent Families in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ken

    1978-01-01

    Presenting national statistics on single-parent families, this article illustrates the need for serious study of this phenomenon, suggesting that changing divorce laws, increased single-parent adoptions, and an increase in the number of supportive services for single-parent families are contingencies having significant bearing upon the…

  9. Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents' Experiences in Preschool Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E

    2014-01-01

    Little research has examined the school experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families. The current exploratory study examined the experiences of 79 lesbian, 75 gay male, and 112 heterosexual adoptive parents of preschool-age children with respect to their (a) level of disclosure regarding their LG parent and adoptive family status at their children's schools; (b) perceived challenges in navigating the preschool environment and advocating on behalf of their children and families; and (c) recommendations to teachers and schools about how to create affirming school environments with respect to family structure, adoption, and race/ethnicity. Findings revealed that the majority of parents were open about their LG and adoptive family status, and had not encountered challenges related to family diversity. Those parents who did experience challenges tended to describe implicit forms of marginalization, such as insensitive language and school assignments. Recommendations for teachers included discussing and reading books about diverse families, tailoring assignments to meet the needs of diverse families, and offering school community-building activities and events to help bridge differences across families.

  10. Relationship between parenting style, family type, personality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    208 females) from single parent, monogamous and polygamous families responded ... It was hypothesized that: there would be significant and positive correlations ... self esteem, need for achievement, locus of control, sense of competence and ... that young people from families where authoritative parenting was practiced ...

  11. Notions and conceptions of parenting and family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Martínez Licona

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To show the main conceptions of the parents about the family, in a city of the northeastern of the Mexican Republic. Methods: Study with dominant mixed approach, where the qualitative has a higher prevalence, carried out from the mediational perspective of Psychology, with 1000 parents of the city of San Luis Potosí. The data were coded and grouped by similarity, which gave rise to thematic categories. Results: There were found different axes of rationality with that parents conceive the family, the social function of it, problems being experienced and easy or difficult aspects of parenting, which were related to the biographic data of the groups of families. Conclusions: There is no homogeneous conception about what should be a family, likewise there were found differences between the thought of young families and the thought of families in the middle and late adulthood.

  12. Validation of the Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales to Measure Parenting Skills and Family Adjustment in Chinese Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingchun; Morawska, Alina; Filus, Ania

    2017-01-01

    This study validated a parent-report measure of the Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales in a Chinese cultural context through investigating 650 Chinese parents. The results provided evidence for satisfactory reliability and validity of Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales in a Chinese context, which is thus promising to be used for Chinese…

  13. Parental Ethnotheories and Family Language Policy in Transnational Adoptive Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, Lyn Wright

    2013-01-01

    Family language policy refers to explicit and overt decisions parents make about language use and language learning as well as implicit processes that legitimize certain language and literacy practices over others in the home. Studies in family language policy have emphasized the ways in which family-internal processes are shaped by and shape…

  14. Parental experience of family resources in single-parent families having a child with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Chen; Mu, Pei-Fan; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the essence of family experiences in terms of family resources and how these assist a single-parent caring for a child with cancer. When families face stresses caused by cancer, they need to readjust their roles, interactive patterns and relationships, both inside and outside the family. During the adaptation process, family resources may assist recovery from stress and a return to equilibrium. Most research has emphasised the support resources available to two-parent families during the treatment process. There is a lack of information on the experiences of single-parent families and their available resources together with the functions and roles played by family resources during the adjustment process. Qualitative. Five major themes were identified: (i) facing the disease with courage; (ii) hope kindled by professionals; (iii) constructing parental role ability; (iv) assisting the children to live with the illness; and (v) family flexibility. The results of the current study demonstrate that single-parent families with a child suffering from cancer employ family resources to assist family adjustment and to maintain family function/equilibrium. These results explain the dynamic interactions between the multiple levels of resources available to the family. The study results provide evidence-based information that identifies the nature of family resources in single-parent families and describes how these resources can be applied to assist the families.

  15. Parenting in non-Western migrant families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freek Bucx; Simone de Roos

    2015-01-01

    Original Title: Opvoeden in niet-westerse migrantengezinnen This report describes the parenting of young children in families of non-Western origin. The focus is mainly on parents and children of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean origin. Based on earlier qualitative research and

  16. Family Dinners. For Parents Particularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Helen Altman

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that family dinners deserve attention as a positive contributor to children's well-being. Maintains that family dinners give stability to a potentially confusing day, present a place for children to express themselves, and provide children's first community. Includes ideas for helping families identify their own dinner patterns and…

  17. Parental food-related behaviors and family meal frequencies: associations in Norwegian dyads of parents and preadolescent children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent family meals are associated with healthy dietary behaviors and other desirable outcomes in children and adolescents. Therefore, increased knowledge about factors that may increase the occurrence of family meals is warranted. The present study has its focus on the home food environment, and aims to explore potential associations between parent-reported feeding behaviors and child-reported family meal frequencies. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were performed among 10-12-year-olds and their parents recruited from eighteen schools in southwest Norway. The child questionnaire included measures of family meal frequencies (breakfast, dinner and supper). The parent questionnaire included measures of parental feeding behaviors adapted from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. A series of multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between parental feeding behaviors and the frequency of family meals. Results The frequency of family breakfasts was associated with three parental feeding variables; home environment (β=.11, peat (β=.11, pdinners and suppers was associated with one parental feeding variable; home environment (β=.11, pdinners and suppers respectively). Conclusions The home environment variable was the most important correlate of child-reported family meal frequencies in this study. Although further research is needed, our findings support the evident influence of parents and the home food environment on child and adolescent eating behavior, which in the present study was measured as the frequency of shared family meals. PMID:24015833

  18. The Family Parenting Influenced Adolescent Brawls Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhaeni, Heni; Dinarti; Priharti, Dwi

    2016-01-01

    There are four types of parenting: democratic, authoritarian, permissive, and ignored, which would affect the character of the child. However family upbringing itself influenced education, norms/cultural, environmental, social, economic and belongs to the family members. Quasi-experimental study through questionnaires, observation, deep interview,…

  19. Family Structure Transitions and Maternal Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we found that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers reported higher levels of…

  20. Working with families having parents who are gay or lesbian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmann, E

    1999-01-01

    Families in which one or both parents are gay or lesbian are becoming increasingly common as social acceptance of this lifestyle increases and legal barriers slowly erode. Despite past concerns and occasional reports to the contrary, the bulk of research has shown no evidence that children of parents who are gay or lesbian suffer any greater physical or mental pathology than children of heterosexual parents. However, research does suggest that there may be ways in which health care providers can be more respectful and supportive of homosexual parents and their families. Health care providers should examine their own attitudes toward these families and consider how to provide a welcoming environment and presence. Using gender neutral language about spouses, displaying posters and publications related to varied family types, and acknowledging both parents as participants in care are some examples. Health care providers who are aware of the special concerns these parents and their children may have, including stigmatization, the issue of disclosure, teasing, feeling different, and the stress resulting from challenges faced due to anti-homosexual social attitudes, can demonstrate sensitivity to the involved children and provide families with anticipatory guidance, support, suggested reading material, and referrals to appropriate organizations.

  1. Meeting the Needs of Single-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Myrna R.; Haynes, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    Schools can better meet the needs of single-parent families in the following ways: (1) acknowledge the diversity of single-parent families; (2) avoid assumptions about single-parent families; (3) provide educators with information about differing family structures; and (4) facilitate the connection between single parents and schools. (11…

  2. A Research Project on Successful Single-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Ann

    1979-01-01

    Studies variables associated with successful single-parent families. Single parents volunteered to share their positive family experiences. Information was sought on ages of family members and length of single-parent family status, education level and income, relations with absent parent, and relations with children. A hypothesis and counseling…

  3. Parenting in Planned Lesbian Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Henny

    2004-01-01

    This thesis reports on a study on lesbian families in which the children were born to the lesbian relationship (planned lesbian families). How strong is the desire of lesbian mothers to have a child, and what are their motivations? How do lesbian mothers experience parenthood? What do they strive

  4. Sibsize, Family Environment, Cognitive Performance, and Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    1976-01-01

    Incorporates measures of family environment (parent-child interaction) into research methodology to study the effects of sibsize (family size and birth order) on a child's cognitive performance and affective behavior. Provides tentative support for the confluence model of sibsize influences on children's behaviors. (RL)

  5. The Family Economic Environment as a Context for Children's Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Dale Clark; Margolis, Lewis H.

    1987-01-01

    Longitudinally examines how the complexities of the family economic environment may affect children's health, behavior, and ideas about the world of work. Family economic factors considered include father's/mother's work status (especially parental unemployment); per-capita income; health insurance; father's job security; and satisfaction with…

  6. Differential impact of fathers' authoritarian parenting on early adolescent adjustment in conservative protestant versus other families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner; Hetherington, E Mavis; Reiss, David

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether well-established associations between authoritarian parenting and adolescent adjustment pertain to conservative Protestant (CP) families. Structural equation modeling was used to test paths from biological fathers' authoritarian parenting to adolescent adjustment in 65 CP versus 170 comparison families in the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development Study (NEAD; D. Reiss et al., 1994). The hypothesis that adolescents in CP families would be less harmed by authoritarian parenting than would adolescents in control families was partially supported: Authoritarian parenting directly predicted greater externalizing and internalizing for adolescents in control families but not for adolescents in CP families. In contrast, parents' religious affiliation failed to moderate the negative associations between authoritarian parenting and positive adjustment. Understanding family processes specific to the CP subculture is important for helping these families raise competent children. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Altered parenting and the reconstituted family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, G G; Kachel, J M

    1991-01-01

    Reconstituted families are a high incidence phenomena in contemporary society. Because the family continues to be a focus for the delivery of nursing care, nurses must now address the special needs of individuals who are members of reconstituted families. Studies in this area provide important background information regarding behavioral patterns in reconstituted families that can be used for assessment and intervention with these families. Through the use of focused assessment parameters, nurses can collect data that will indicate the special needs of members of reconstituted families. In general, nursing interventions with clients who are a part of a reconstituted family fall into two major categories: (a) developing positive parenting behaviors, and (b) protecting the development of the stepchild.

  8. The Likelihood of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence: Effects of Family Structure and Parental Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Estimated influence of child, parent, and family structural characteristics on likelihood of parents having coresident adult child, based on national sample of 4,893 parents. Results indicated most parents maintained own households and most parents and adult children who coresided lived in parents' home. Family structure was found to exert strong…

  9. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2009-01-01

    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  10. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence versus Parental Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Stephen; Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    One third of all children are born to unmarried mothers and over one half of children will spend some time in a single-parent family. In fact, single-father families are the fastest growing family form. Using data from the 1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, the authors extend prior research that has investigated the effects of…

  11. Parental Perceptions of Family Adjustment in Childhood Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sandra; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Trute, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Based on the adjustment phase of the double ABC-X model of family stress (McCubbin and Patterson, 1983) this study examined the impact of parenting stress, positive appraisal of the impact of child disability on the family, and parental self-esteem on parental perceptions of family adjustment in families of children with disabilities. For mothers,…

  12. Family and College Environmental Exposures Mediate the Relationship between Parental Education and Depression among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui; Chen, Lu; Yang, Yanjie; Sun, Hailian; Pan, Hui; He, Jincai; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Sui, Hong; Wang, Wenbo; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Yang, Xiuxian; Yang, Jiarun; Yu, Yunmiao; Ban, Bo; He, Changzhi

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a major health concern for college students due to its substantial morbidity and mortality. Although low parental education has been identified as a factor in depression in college students, the mechanisms through which parental educational achievement affects students' depression are not well understood. We tested whether adverse family and college environments mediate the relationship between parental educational level and depression among Chinese college students. A total of 5180 respondents were selected using a cross-sectional survey. We examined the association of parental education, adverse family and college environments with depression in college students using the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, Beck Depression Inventory and socio-demographic questionnaires. Lower parental educational level is significantly correlated with depression in college students in our sample. Additionally, low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, having been scolded and beaten by parents, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends, heavy course load and failure in selection processes are also associated with parental education. Low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends and heavy course load mediated the relationship between parental education and depression in college students. Adverse family and college environments could explain the influence of parental educational level on depression in college students.

  13. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.

  14. Parental Work Demands and Parent-Child, Family, and Couple Leisure in Dutch Families: What Gives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Anne; Treas, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data on 898 Dutch couples with minor children to examine whether parental work demands are related differently to one-on-one parent-child, family, and couple leisure activities. The authors presume that the impact of working hours and work arrangements is smaller on activities that are prioritized highly and that are easier and…

  15. Parent-Child Interactions in Anxious Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Matthew; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has examined factors associated with the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children. The familial nature of anxiety has been well-established, with genetic studies showing that approximately 30% of the variance is accounted for by genetic factors. Research into the family environment documents…

  16. A Comparison Study of Single-Parent Families Living on Remote, Rural Islands and in Urban Settings in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratani, Yuko; Hohashi, Naohiro

    2016-06-01

    Nursing interventions that aim to enhance the family environment are necessary to help single-parent families with children to improve family functioning. The cultural and social factors that are unique to Japan's remote islands should be considered to assess the influence of this unique setting on family functioning. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the family functioning of child-rearing single-parent families living in different environments and to investigate the association between family demographics and family functioning. A self-administered questionnaire, the Japanese version of the Survey of Family Environment, was used to evaluate the sufficiency of family functioning. The participants were families with children enrolled in nurseries and kindergartens who were either living in remote, rural islands or in an urban city on the mainland in Japan. Family functioning was significantly higher for single-parent families living on the islands than for those living in the city in terms of media use, participation in community activities, and the collaboration of family members in child-rearing. Family functioning of single-parent families correlated significantly with household income, the parent's gender, family members' health, and family life cycle. Single-parent families living on Japanese offshore islands maintained family functioning through mutual support and the effective use of information technology. Nevertheless, single-parent families require additional support to improve their healthcare and financial situations.

  17. Parenting Styles and Child Outcomes in Puerto Rican Families

    OpenAIRE

    Colón, Jeisianne Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate observed parenting styles among Puerto Rican parents living in Puerto Rico. Participants included 51 families with a child between the ages of 6 and 11. Families engaged in different behavioral observational tasks. Observations were coded for parenting dimensions and family parenting styles in order to determine its relationship to child outcomes. The Parenting Styles Observation Rating Scale was used to code the observations and the Child Behavior Ch...

  18. Parent and family factors associated with child adjustment to pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kristen E; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B

    2007-05-01

    To identify factors that influence the association between parent and child distress among families of children with cancer and comparison peers. Parent and child distress, social support, and family environment were assessed among families of 95 children with cancer (94 mothers, 67 fathers) and 98 comparison peers (97 mothers, 77 fathers). Significant associations were found between parent and child distress. For models examining the impact of fathers' distress on children, several moderators were identified (i.e., family environment, child age and gender, a cancer diagnosis, and treatment severity). Family environment also partially mediated father and child distress. Children whose parents were distressed were more likely to be distressed themselves. Subgroups of children were particularly vulnerable, indicating a need to identify further mechanisms of risk and resilience and to develop family-based interventions. Support was found for including fathers as independent sources of information in pediatric psychology research and clinical practice.

  19. Rearing the Sad or Mad: Differentiating the Family Environments of Depressed versus Conduct Disordered Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jeremy D.; Beyers, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The following review examines the current literature on parental depression and its characteristic family environment and parenting styles that may be related to the development of Conduct Disorder (CD) or depression in children. A description of the depressed parent and the general effects of depression on parenting and discipline practices are…

  20. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  1. Teen and Parent Perceptions of a Secondary School Family Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonely, Heather M.; Klein, Shirley R.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescent and parent focus groups were conducted to do a needs assessment and discover possible topics for a secondary school family class. Results included identifying teen and parent family-related needs and societal concerns; discovering where teens currently learn about family life; and receiving teen and parent feedback about a proposed…

  2. Youth’s narratives about family members smoking: parenting the parent- it’s not fair!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Successful cancer prevention policies and programming for youth must be based on a solid understanding of youth’s conceptualization of cancer and cancer prevention. Accordingly, a qualitative study examining youth’s perspectives of cancer and its prevention was undertaken. Not surprisingly, smoking (i.e., tobacco cigarette smoking) was one of the dominant lines of discourse in the youth’s narratives. This paper reports findings of how youth conceptualize smoking with attention to their perspectives on parental and family-related smoking issues and experiences. Methods Seventy-five Canadian youth ranging in age from 11–19 years participated in the study. Six of the 75 youth had a history of smoking and 29 had parents with a history of smoking. Youth were involved in traditional ethnographic methods of interviewing and photovoice. Data analysis involved multiple levels of analysis congruent with ethnography. Results Youth’s perspectives of parents and other family members’ cigarette smoking around them was salient as represented by the theme: It’s not fair. Youth struggled to make sense of why parents would smoke around their children and perceived their smoking as an unjust act. The theme was supported by four subthemes: 1) parenting the parent about the dangers of smoking; 2) the good/bad parent; 3) distancing family relationships; and 4) the prisoner. Instead of being talked to about smoking it was more common for youth to share stories of talking to their parents about the dangers of smoking. Parents who did not smoke were seen by youth as the good parent, as opposed to the bad parent who smoked. Smoking was an agent that altered relationships with parents and other family members. Youth who lived in homes where they were exposed to cigarette smoke felt like a trapped prisoner. Conclusions Further research is needed to investigate youth’s perceptions about parental cigarette smoking as well as possible linkages between youth exposed to

  3. Youth’s narratives about family members smoking: parenting the parent- it’s not fair!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodgate Roberta L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful cancer prevention policies and programming for youth must be based on a solid understanding of youth’s conceptualization of cancer and cancer prevention. Accordingly, a qualitative study examining youth’s perspectives of cancer and its prevention was undertaken. Not surprisingly, smoking (i.e., tobacco cigarette smoking was one of the dominant lines of discourse in the youth’s narratives. This paper reports findings of how youth conceptualize smoking with attention to their perspectives on parental and family-related smoking issues and experiences. Methods Seventy-five Canadian youth ranging in age from 11–19 years participated in the study. Six of the 75 youth had a history of smoking and 29 had parents with a history of smoking. Youth were involved in traditional ethnographic methods of interviewing and photovoice. Data analysis involved multiple levels of analysis congruent with ethnography. Results Youth’s perspectives of parents and other family members’ cigarette smoking around them was salient as represented by the theme: It’s not fair. Youth struggled to make sense of why parents would smoke around their children and perceived their smoking as an unjust act. The theme was supported by four subthemes: 1 parenting the parent about the dangers of smoking; 2 the good/bad parent; 3 distancing family relationships; and 4 the prisoner. Instead of being talked to about smoking it was more common for youth to share stories of talking to their parents about the dangers of smoking. Parents who did not smoke were seen by youth as the good parent, as opposed to the bad parent who smoked. Smoking was an agent that altered relationships with parents and other family members. Youth who lived in homes where they were exposed to cigarette smoke felt like a trapped prisoner. Conclusions Further research is needed to investigate youth’s perceptions about parental cigarette smoking as well as possible linkages

  4. Parental distress, family functioning, and social support in families with and without a child with neurofibromatosis 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Schorry, Elizabeth K; Lovell, Anne M; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Noll, Robert B

    2008-05-01

    To compare parental adjustment, social support, and family functioning between families of children with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) and a group of demographically similar comparison families, and to examine the impact of disease severity. Questionnaires were completed at home by parents of 54 children with NF1 (54 mothers and 42 fathers) and 51 comparison children (49 mothers and 32 fathers). Few differences between groups were identified for parental distress, social support, or family environment. Greater neurological impairment in children with NF1 was associated with greater distress, more family conflict, less positive mealtime interactions, and less social support from the perspectives of mothers. Overall, parents of children with NF1 appear similar to parents of comparison children. Mothers who have children with NF1 characterized by greater neurological impairment may be at risk for more difficulties. Future work exploring long-term adjustment for these mothers as well as interventions to ameliorate any potential difficulties may be appropriate.

  5. Parental food-related behaviors and family meal frequencies: associations in Norwegian dyads of parents and preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Øgaard, Torvald; Øverby, Nina C; Hansen, Håvard

    2013-09-10

    Frequent family meals are associated with healthy dietary behaviors and other desirable outcomes in children and adolescents. Therefore, increased knowledge about factors that may increase the occurrence of family meals is warranted. The present study has its focus on the home food environment, and aims to explore potential associations between parent-reported feeding behaviors and child-reported family meal frequencies. Cross-sectional surveys were performed among 10-12-year-olds and their parents recruited from eighteen schools in southwest Norway. The child questionnaire included measures of family meal frequencies (breakfast, dinner and supper). The parent questionnaire included measures of parental feeding behaviors adapted from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. A series of multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between parental feeding behaviors and the frequency of family meals. The frequency of family breakfasts was associated with three parental feeding variables; home environment (β=.11, pfood environment on child and adolescent eating behavior, which in the present study was measured as the frequency of shared family meals.

  6. Behavior Management Style of Single Parents and Intact Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas K.; And Others

    Studies examining the behavior management styles of parents as a function of family intactness and parent employment status are lacking. To assess parental style of behavior management, the Parental Management Questionnaire (PMQ) was completed by 1,957 parents of elementary school children (50% response rate). The PMQ is based on Aronfreed's…

  7. "Doing the Job as a Parent": Parenting Alone, Work, and Family Policy in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Michelle; Coen, Liam; Bradley, Ciara; Rau, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of family life in Ireland have focused on changes in "traditional" family structures, including the increase in one-parent families. This article illustrates the impact dominant conceptions in Irish society that privilege the family based on marriage have on one-parent family policy. The authors focus on two key areas of…

  8. Associations between family characteristics and parental empowerment in the family, family service situations and the family service system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorenmaa, M; Perälä, M-L; Halme, N; Kaunonen, M; Åstedt-Kurki, P

    2016-01-01

    Parental empowerment signifies parents' sense of confidence in managing their children, interacting with services that their children use and improving child care services. High empowerment is associated with parents' resilience to demands and their confidence to make decisions and take actions that positively affect their families. Most families with children access various healthcare and education services. Professionals working in these services are therefore ideally placed to reinforce parental empowerment. However, little is known about the characteristics associated with parental empowerment within a generic sample of parents or in the context of basic child care services. The aim of this study was to assess how family characteristics are associated with maternal and paternal empowerment in the family, in service situations and in the service system. Parental empowerment was measured among 955 parents (mothers = 571; fathers = 384) of children aged 0-9 years using the Generic Family Empowerment Scale. Family characteristics were assessed through questions on children, parents and the life situation. Associations between empowerment and family characteristics were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance and t-test. Parental empowerment was predicted by multiple linear regression analysis. Parents' concerns related to their parenting, such as whether they possessed sufficient skills as a parent or losing their temper with children, as well as experiences of stress in everyday life, were negatively associated with all dimensions of maternal and paternal empowerment. Both determinants were more common and more significant in empowerment than child-related problems. Promoting parental self-confidence and providing appropriate emotional and concrete support for everyday functioning may reinforce parental empowerment, thereby enhancing families' well-being and coping, as well as improving their access to required services and timely support. Finally

  9. Analysis of Family Functioning and Parent-Child Relationship between Adolescents with Depression and their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; DU, Wenyong; Gao, Yan; Ma, Changlin; Ban, Chunxia; Meng, Fu

    2017-12-25

    Drug therapy combined with family therapy is currently the best treatment for adolescent depression. Nevertheless, family therapy requires an exploration of unresolved problems in the family system, which in practice presents certain difficulties. Previous studies have found that the perceptual differences of family function between parents and children reflect the problems in the family system. To explore the characteristics and role of family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. The general information and clinical data of the 93 adolescents with depression were collected. The Family Functioning Assessment Scale and Parent-child Relationship Scale were used to assess adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. a) The dimensions of family functioning in adolescents with depressive disorder were more negative in communication, emotional response, emotional involvement, roles, and overall functioning than their parents. The differences were statistically significant. Parent-child relationship dimensions: the closeness and parent-child total scores were more negative compared with the parents and the differences were statistically significant. b) All dimensions of parent-child relationship and family functioning in adolescents with depression except the time spent together were negatively correlated or significantly negatively correlated. c) The results of multivariate regression analysis showed: the characteristics of family functioning, emotional involvement, emotional response, family structure, and income of the adolescents with depressive disorder mainly affected the parent-child relationship. There were perceptual differences in partial family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Unclear roles between family members, mutual entanglement, too much or too little emotional investment, negligence of inner feelings

  10. Analysis of Family Functioning and Parent-Child Relationship between Adolescents with Depression and their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Qing; DU, Wenyong; GAO, Yan; MA, Changlin; BAN, Chunxia; MENG, Fu

    2017-01-01

    Background Drug therapy combined with family therapy is currently the best treatment for adolescent depression. Nevertheless, family therapy requires an exploration of unresolved problems in the family system, which in practice presents certain difficulties. Previous studies have found that the perceptual differences of family function between parents and children reflect the problems in the family system. Aims To explore the characteristics and role of family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Methods The general information and clinical data of the 93 adolescents with depression were collected. The Family Functioning Assessment Scale and Parent-child Relationship Scale were used to assess adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Results a) The dimensions of family functioning in adolescents with depressive disorder were more negative in communication, emotional response, emotional involvement, roles, and overall functioning than their parents. The differences were statistically significant. Parent-child relationship dimensions: the closeness and parent-child total scores were more negative compared with the parents and the differences were statistically significant. b) All dimensions of parent-child relationship and family functioning in adolescents with depression except the time spent together were negatively correlated or significantly negatively correlated. c) The results of multivariate regression analysis showed: the characteristics of family functioning, emotional involvement, emotional response, family structure, and income of the adolescents with depressive disorder mainly affected the parent-child relationship. Conclusions There were perceptual differences in partial family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Unclear roles between family members, mutual entanglement, too much or too little emotional

  11. How adolescents with anorexia nervosa and their parents perceive family functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Pompili, Sara; Zanna, Valeria; Castiglioni, Maria Chiara; Criscuolo, Michela; Chianello, Ilenia; Mazzoni, Silvia; Baiocco, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    This study aims at examining whether adolescent girls diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and their parents differ in perceiving the different aspects of family functioning. Moreover, the discrepancy between adolescent girls and healthy controls on Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales dimensions, family communication, and family satisfaction is investigated. The study includes 36 female anorexia patients and their parents and 36 healthy controls. The results showed a different view between mothers and their daughters with regard to the dimension of rigidity. In addition, girls with anorexia nervosa were less satisfied about family environment and rated their families as less communicative, flexible, cohesive, and more disengaged, compared to controls.

  12. Correlates of parental influence, school environment, learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the predicting effects of parental influence, school environment, Learners\\' interest, and self–efficacy on academic performance of police children in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo state, Nigeria. The sample consisted of 200 primary IV, V and VI pupils (Mean age = 9 years). The results of the multiple regression ...

  13. Parental Stress, Family-Professional Partnerships, and Family Quality of Life: Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the quality of life of families that have at least one child with autism spectrum disorder, parental stress level, and partnerships between the family and professionals. Also, parent perceptions of parental stress, family quality of life, and family-professional partnerships were…

  14. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  15. Parenting and Children's Externalizing Problems in Substance-Abusing Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent; Kamon, Jody; Burstein, Marcy

    2004-01-01

    This study tested associations in path models among positive and negative parenting and children's rule-breaking behavior, aggressive and oppositional behavior, and attention problems for families with a drug-dependent parent. A structural model tested relations between parenting and children's externalizing problems for 251 families with 399…

  16. PARENTING AND SOCIAL ROLES IN TURKISH TRADITIONAL FAMILIES: ISSUES AND CHOICES IN PARENTING FOR TURKISH EXPATRIATE FAMILIES LIVING IN BUCHAREST

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet ECIRLI

    2012-01-01

    This article looks into the issues and challenges of parenting in Turkish families upholding traditional values that live in Bucharest, the capital of Romania. Based on theoretical mainstreams on parenting and the structure of Turkish families, a qualitative research was designed with two aims. The first was to describe the issues and choices in parenting for Turkish expatriate families living in a foreign country. The second was to find out to which of the three ideal-types of families accor...

  17. The Relation between Family Structure and Young Adolescents' Appraisals of Family Climate and Parenting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Fine, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Young adolescents who lived with both biological parents, single divorced mother, single divorced father, mother and stepfather, father and stepmother, or multiply divorced parent appraised dimensions of family climate and dimensions of parenting. Differences among family structures were found on warmth, conflict, permissive parenting, and…

  18. Parenting Style and Family Meals: Cross-Sectional and 5-year Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Background Research on family meals in the last decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, which may be associated with family meal patterns. Objective The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and five-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Study Design Data were from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school, high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n = 4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n = 806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Results Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals five years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Conclusions Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency in order to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors

  19. Parenting style and family meals: cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Research on family meals in the past decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, that may be associated with family meal patterns. The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Data were from Project Eating Among Teens, a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school and high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n=4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n=806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals 5 years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors of authoritative parents and identify specific behaviors that dietetics

  20. Psychological Stress and Parenting Behavior among Chinese Families: Findings from a Study on Parent Education for Economically Disadvantaged Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ching Man

    2011-01-01

    With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child's life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation. A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was…

  1. Listening to Parents: Understanding the Impact of ASD on Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytel, Jayne; Lopez-Garcia, Jorge; Stacey, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    No two families cope with the diagnosis of a child's developmental disability in exactly the same way. In this article, three parents share their experiences with the diagnosis and treatment of an autism spectrum disorder. Listening to parents describe the impact of autism on their families reminds us that each child and family bring a unique set…

  2. Socialization Environments of Chinese and Euro-American Middle-Class Babies: Parenting Behaviors, Verbal Discourses and Ethnotheories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; Abels, Monika; Borke, Jorn; Lamm, Bettina; Su, Yanjie; Wang, Yifang; Lo, Wingshan

    2007-01-01

    Children's socialization environments reflect cultural models of parenting. In particular, Euro-American and Chinese families have been described as following different socialization scripts. The present study assesses parenting behaviors as well as parenting ethnotheories with respect to three-month-old babies in middle-class families in Los…

  3. Family Policies and Children's School Achievement in Single- versus Two-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Suet-Ling; Dronkers, Jaap; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the gap in math and science achievement of third- and fourth-graders who live with a single parent versus those who live with two parents in 11 countries. Finds single parenthood to be less detrimental when family policies equalize resources between single- and two-parent families. Concludes that national family policies can offset…

  4. Family Structure, Parent-Child Communication, and Adolescent Participation in Family Consumer Tasks and Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Marie J.; Legault, Frederic; Bujold, Neree

    2000-01-01

    A study of adolescents from single-mother (n=171) and two-parent (n=1,029) families showed that the former were more involved in family consumer tasks and decisions. The conceptual parenting style was associated with higher adolescent participation. The social style had greater impact on participation in single-parent families. (Contains 88…

  5. Family Diversity and the Nature of Parental Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, Sandra J.

    1996-01-01

    Parents influence children's achievement through verbal and nonverbal communication of their expectations about education, participating in school activities, and helping with homework. Family variables such as ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and parenting style affect the nature and degree of involvement. (SK)

  6. Parenting and Child Development in Adoptive Families: Does Parental Sexual Orientation Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Rachel H.; Forssell, Stephen L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2010-01-01

    This study, funded by Williams Institute, investigated child development and parenting in 106 families headed by 27 lesbian, 29 gay, and 50 heterosexual couples with young adopted children. Parents and teachers reported that, on average, children were developing in typical ways. Measures of children’s adjustment, parenting approaches, parenting stress, and couple relationship adjustment were not significantly associated with parental sexual orientation. However, several family process variabl...

  7. Family policy instruments oriented towards single parent families in the Czech Republic and in selected European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with family policy oriented towards single parent families. This thesis tries to define reasons why single parent families are arising. It addresses the divorce rate, birth rate, and extramarital fertility. Differences between families with both parents and single parent families are defined and the subjective views of single parents in the Czech Republic are described in this thesis. Provisions from family policy, which take into account single parent families in t...

  8. The impact of family intactness on family functioning, parental control and parent-child relational qualities in a Chinese context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the differences between intact and non-intact families in family processes, including systematic family functioning, parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities. The participants were 3,328 Secondary One students, with a mean age of 12.59 years, recruited from 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Four validated scales were used to assess family processes. Results showed that adolescents in non-intact families perceived relatively poorer family functioning, lower level of paternal and maternal behavioral control, lower level of paternal psychological control and poorer parent-child relational qualities than did adolescents in intact families. This generally indicated that family processes were poorer in non-intact families, compared with those in intact families. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  9. Parenting styles, family structure and adolescent dietary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart J H; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte

    2010-08-01

    To examine associations between parenting styles, family structure and aspects of adolescent dietary behaviour. Cross-sectional study. Secondary schools in the East Midlands, UK. Adolescents aged 12-16 years (n 328, 57 % boys) completed an FFQ assessing their consumption of fruit, vegetables, unhealthy snacks and breakfast. Adolescents provided information on parental and sibling status and completed a seventeen-item instrument measuring the general parenting style dimensions of involvement and strictness, from which four styles were derived: indulgent, neglectful, authoritarian, authoritative. After controlling for adolescent gender and age, analysis of covariance revealed no significant interactions between parenting style and family structure variables for any of the dietary behaviours assessed. Significant main effects for family structure were observed only for breakfast consumption, with adolescents from dual-parent families (P parent families and those with one or more brother, respectively. Significant main effects for parenting style were observed for all dietary behaviours apart from vegetable consumption. Adolescents who described their parents as authoritative ate more fruit per day, fewer unhealthy snacks per day, and ate breakfast on more days per week than those who described their parents as neglectful. The positive associations between authoritative parenting style and adolescent dietary behaviour transcend family structure. Future research should be food-specific and assess the efficacy of strategies promoting the central attributes of an authoritative parenting style on the dietary behaviours of adolescents from a variety of family structures.

  10. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type and adolescent functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship

  11. Family life under pressure? Parents' paid work and the quantity and quality of parent-child and family time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.

    2010-01-01

    Even though family life and paid work are often considered as difficult to reconcile, prior research found that family time is relatively unaffected by the demands paid work imposes upon employed parents. This dissertation investigates this puzzling finding by exploring how parents protect family

  12. [Comparison of the factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R; Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to compare factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families. The participants were 692 children aged 11 to 13 yr (388 in two parent families and 304 in single parent families) recruited from 20 community agencies and 5 elementary schools in Gyeonggi Province and Seoul City, South Korea. Data were collected from May to July, 2007 using a survey questionnaire containing items on self-esteem, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, family hardiness, parent-child communication and social support. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 program and factors affecting children's self-esteem were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression. Scores for the study variables were significantly different between the two groups. The factors influencing children's self-esteem were also different according to family type. For two parent families, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.505, psingle parent families, social support, family hardiness, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.444, p<.001). Nurse working with children should consider family type-specific factors influencing their self-esteem.

  13. [Multi-parent families as "normal" families--segregation and parent-child-alienation after separation and divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp-Peters, Anneke

    2005-12-01

    Decisive for the question as to how children cope with their parents' divorce is whether or not the parents continue to perform their parental role together even after separation, or have at least made arrangements for the child to maintain a good relationship with each parent. These are the findings of a longitudinal study of 150 postdivorce families. The case of a multi-parent family after remarriage, which sees itself as a "normal" family and segregates the visiting parent, shows what consequences the breakdown of parent-child relationships has for the psychological health and the development of children. Alienation and long-term disruption of the contact between child and visiting parent is a phenomenon which the psychiatric and psychotherapeutic professions are increasingly confronted with. The American child psychiatrist R. A. Gardner has introduced the term "Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS)" to encompass this childhood disorder that arises almost exclusively in the context of child-custody disputes.

  14. Family Economic Status and Parental Involvement: Influences of Parental Expectation and Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiji; Deng, Ciping; Yang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's education is a critical factor associated with children's socio-emotional and educational outcomes. However, low parental involvement occurs more often among economically disadvantaged families. It is unclear what mechanisms may explain the association between family economic status and parents' educational…

  15. Adolescent Substance Use in the Context of the Family: A Qualitative Study of Young People's Views on Parent-Child Attachments, Parenting Style and Parental Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Aisling; Campbell, Anne; McColgan, Mary

    2016-12-05

    Adolescent substance use can place youth at risk of a range of poor outcomes. Few studies have attempted to explore in-depth young people's perceptions of how familial processes and dynamics influence adolescent substance use. This article aimed to explore risk and protective factors for youth substance use within the context of the family with a view to informing family based interventions. Nine focus groups supplemented with participatory techniques were facilitated with a purposive sample of sixty-two young people (age 13-17 years) from post-primary schools across Northern Ireland. The data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) parent-child attachments, (2) parenting style, and (3) parental and sibling substance misuse. Parent-child attachment was identified as an important factor in protecting adolescents from substance use in addition to effective parenting particularly an authoritative style supplemented with parental monitoring and strong parent-child communication to encourage child disclosure. Family substance use was considered to impact on children's substance use if exposed at an early age and the harms associated with parental substance misuse were discussed in detail. Both parent and child gender differences were cross-cutting themes. Parenting programmes (tailored to mothers and fathers) may benefit young people via components on authoritative styles, parental monitoring, communication, nurturing attachments and parent-child conflict. Youth living with more complex issues, e.g., parental substance misuse, may benefit from programmes delivered beyond the family environment, e.g., school based settings.

  16. Dimensions of Family Functioning: Perspectives of Low-Income African American Single Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccreary, Linda L.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2004-01-01

    Family functioning is influenced by socio-economic status, culture, family structure, and developmental stage, and is assessed primarily using instruments developed for middle-income European American two-parent families. These instruments may not validly assess low-income African American single-parent families. This qualitative study was…

  17. Family Makeover: Coaching, Confession and Parental Responsibilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstedt, Magnus; Fejes, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Today, there is a widespread idea that parents need to learn how to carry out their roles as parents. Practices of parental learning operate throughout society. This article deals with one particular practice of parental learning, namely nanny TV, and the way in which ideal parents are constructed through such programmes. The point of departure is…

  18. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  19. Understanding nurses' and parents' perceptions of family-centred care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Megan; Melling, Sally

    2014-09-01

    To explore and compare differences between parents' and nurses' perceptions of family-centred care (FCC) for children's acute short-stay admissions. Mixed-method questionnaires were designed to compare care task delegation between nurse and parent participants in the study. Parents and nurses had similar perceptions of task allocation in FCC. Parents generally were prepared to undertake basic care tasks only, rather than help with nursing interventions. Nurses had a comprehensive understanding of FCC. Most parents were not able to define FCC but carried it out naturally. In the UK, nurses and parents have similar expectations of FCC. It is unusual for parents to be given information or opportunities to engage in the care of the child beyond everyday tasks. The investigation highlighted the importance of negotiating with family members on each separate admission because, although most parents would be comfortable undertaking care tasks, each family and each situation is different.

  20. Parent-Adolescent Conflict in African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Olivenne D; McHale, Susan M

    2016-10-01

    Parent-adolescent conflict is frequent in families and has implications for youth adjustment and family relationships. Drawing on a family systems perspective, we examined mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-aged siblings' (50.5 % females) reports of parent-adolescent conflict in 187 African American families. Using latent profile analysis in the context of an ethnic homogeneous design, we identified three family types based on levels of and differences between parent and youth conflict reports: low conflict, father high conflict, and younger sibling high conflict. Compared to low conflict families, youth in younger sibling high conflict families reported more depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. The results for parents' acceptance revealed that, in comparison to low conflict families, older siblings in father high conflict families reported lower acceptance from mothers, and mothers in these families reported lower acceptance of their children; further, older siblings in younger sibling high conflict families reported less acceptance from fathers, and fathers in these families reported less acceptance of their children. Results underscore the significance of levels of and both differences between and direction of differences in parents' and youth's reports of their "shared" experiences, as well as the importance of examining the larger family contexts of dyadic parent-relationships.

  1. Maternal Insomnia and Children's Family Socialization Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ambler, Antony; Arseneault, Louise; Houts, Renate M.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine concurrent associations between maternal insomnia and different aspects of the family socialization environment. Design: Mothers reported on their symptoms of insomnia in a private standardized interview and interviewers evaluated the family socialization environment using the Coder's Inventory. Setting: Assessments were conducted in participants' homes within the U.K. Patients or Participants: One thousand one hundred sixteen mothers of British children enrolled in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) study were invited to participate when their children were aged 12 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: After controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES), mothers' relationship status, and maternal depression, maternal insomnia was associated with a poorer family socialization environment (β = −0.10, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = −0.16, −0.04], P Ambler A; Arseneault L; Houts RM; Caspi A. Maternal insomnia and children's family socialization environments. SLEEP 2012;35(4):579-582. PMID:22467996

  2. Family Communication about Donor Conception: A Qualitative Study with Lesbian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parys, Hanna; Wyverkens, Elia; Provoost, Veerle; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido; Buysse, Ann

    2016-03-01

    In this qualitative study of 10 lesbian couples who built their families through anonymous donor conception, we explore how lesbian parents experience communication about the donor conception within the family. While for these families "disclosure" of donor conception is often seen as evident, the way parents and children discuss this subject and how this is experienced by the parents themselves has not received much research attention. To meet this gap in the literature, in-depth interviews with lesbian couples were conducted. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis showed that this family communication process can be understood within the broader relational context of parent-child relationships. Even though parents handled this family communication in many different ways, these were all inspired by the same motives: acting in the child's best interest and-on a more implicit level-maintaining good relations within the family. Furthermore, parents left the initiative for talking about the DC mostly to the child. Overall, parents aimed at constructing a donor conception narrative that they considered acceptable for both the children and themselves. They used different strategies, such as gradual disclosure, limiting the meaning of the donor, and justifying the donor conception. Building an acceptable donor conception narrative was sometimes challenged by influences from the social environment. In the discussion, we relate this qualitative systemic study to the broader issues of selective disclosure and bidirectionality within families. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  3. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes.

  4. Parent-professional alliance and outcomes of child, parent, and family treatment: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, M. de; Pijnenburg, H.M.P.H.M.; Hattum, M.J.C. van; McLeod, B.D.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    This review systematically explored research examining the relation between parent-professional alliance and outcomes of psychosocial treatments provided to children, and their parents and families. Study findings and methodological characteristics were reviewed to investigate the evidence linking

  5. Gender Gaps in the Effects of Childhood Family Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenøe, Anne Ardila; Lundberg, Shelly

    2016-01-01

    We examine the differential effects of family disadvantage on the education and adult labor market outcomes of men and women using high-quality administrative data on the entire population of Denmark born between 1966 and 1995. We link parental education and family structure during childhood...... to male-female and brother-sister differences in teenage outcomes, educational attainment, and adult earnings and employment. Our results are consistent with U.S. findings that boys benefit more from an advantageous family environment than do girls in terms of the behavior and grade-school outcomes....... Father's education, which has not been examined in previous studies, is particularly important for sons. However, we find a very different pattern of parental influence on adult outcomes. The gender gaps in educational attainment, employment, and earnings are increasing in maternal education, benefiting...

  6. Parental stress, family quality of life, and family-teacher partnerships: Families of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Higgins, Kyle; Pierce, Tom; Whitby, Peggy J Schaefer; Tandy, Richard D

    2017-11-01

    Reducing parental stress and improving family quality of Life (FQOL) are continuing concerns for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Family-teacher partnerships have been identified as a positive factor to help parents reduce their stress and improve their FQOL. However, the interrelations among parental stress, FQOL, and family-teacher partnerships need to be further examined so as to identify the possible paths to help parents reduce their stress and improve their FQOL. The purpose of this study was to examine the interrelations among these three variables. A total of 236 parents of school children with ASD completed questionnaires, which included three measures: (a) the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale, (b) the Parental Stress Scale, and (c) the Beach Center Family-Professional Partnerships Scale. The structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelations among these three variables. Perceived parental stress had a direct effect on parental satisfaction concerning FQOL and vice versa. Perceived family-teacher partnerships had a direct effect on FQOL, but did not have a direct effect on parental stress. However, family-teacher partnerships had an indirect effect on parental stress through FQOL. Reducing parental stress could improve FQOL for families of children with ASD and vice versa. Strong family-teacher partnerships could help parents of children with ASD improve their FQOL and indirectly reduce their stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between Parental Concern for Adolescent Weight and the Home Food Environment and Dietary Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Abbie; Crawford, David; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine associations between parental concern about adolescent weight and adolescent perceptions of their dietary intake, home food availability, family mealtime environment, and parents' feeding practices. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Adolescents, aged 12-15 years from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, and their…

  8. Effects of Family Functioning and Parenting Style on Early Entrants' Academic Performance and Program Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Erron L.; Sayler, Michael F.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the predictive nature of parenting style and overall family environment on the academic performance and program completion of early college entrants. Furthermore, gender and family form were examined as possible moderators to these relationships. A total of 88 early college entrants participated in…

  9. Harsh, Firm, and Permissive Parenting in Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumow, Lee; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Posner, Jill K.

    1998-01-01

    Parents' reports of their child-rearing expectations and intentions were measured for 184 low-income urban families when children were in the third and fifth grades. Parenting strategies were stable over time. Parenting strategies were related to measures of adjustment at school, behavior problems in the home, academic achievement, and…

  10. Representations of Parent-Child Alliances in Children's Family Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Kim; Wallace, Tamar; Rudy, Duane

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between children's representations of parent-child alliances (PCA) and their peer relationship quality, using a new scale that was developed to rate representations of PCA in children's family drawings. The parent-child alliance pattern is characterized by a relationship between parent and…

  11. Perspectives on Stress, Parenting, and Children's Obesity-Related Behaviors in Black Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Elizabeth P; Kazak, Anne; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Lewis, Lisa; Barg, Frances K

    2016-12-01

    Objective In an effort to develop targets for childhood obesity interventions in non-Hispanic-Black (Black) families, this study examined parental perceptions of stress and identified potential links among parental stress and children's eating patterns, physical activity, and screen-time. Method Thirty-three self-identified Black parents or grandparents of a child aged 3 to 7 years were recruited from a large, urban Black church to participate in semistructured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Parents/grandparents described a pathway between how stress affected them personally and their child's eating, structured (sports/dance) and unstructured (free-play) physical activity, and screen-time usage, as well as strategies to prevent this association. Five themes emerged: stress affects parent behaviors related to food and physical activity variably; try to be healthy even with stress; parent/grandparent stress eating and parenting; stress influences family cooking, food choices, and child free-play; and screen-time use to decrease parent stress. Negative parent/grandparent response to their personal stress adversely influenced food purchases and parenting related to child eating, free-play, and screen-time. Children of parents/grandparents who ate high-fat/high-sugar foods when stressed requested these foods. In addition to structured physical activity, cooking ahead and keeping food in the house were perceived to guard against the effects of stress except during parent cravings. Parent/child screen-time helped decrease parent stress. Conclusion Parents/grandparents responded variably to stress which affected the child eating environment, free-play, and screen-time. Family-based interventions to decrease obesity in Black children should consider how stress influences parents. Targeting parent cravings and coping strategies that utilize structure in eating and physical activity may be useful

  12. SMART Optimization of a Parenting Program for Active Duty Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    child and caregiver outcomes over time, based on a sample of 200 military personnel and their co- parents who have recently or will soon separate from...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0407 TITLE: SMART Optimization of a Parenting Program for Active Duty Families PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Abigail...Optimization of a Parenting Program for Active Duty 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Families 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Abigail

  13. Parenting approaches, family functionality, and internet addiction among Hong Kong adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Wong, Ho Ting; Yu, Kin Fai; Fok, Ka Wing; Yeung, Sheung Man; Lam, Cheuk Ho; Liu, Ka Man

    2016-08-18

    Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents has become a global health problem, and public awareness of it is increasing. Many IA risk factors relate to parents and the family environment. This study examined the relationship between IA and parenting approaches and family functionality. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 2021 secondary students to identify the prevalence of IA and to explore the association between adolescent IA and familial variables, including parents' marital status, family income, family conflict, family functionality, and parenting approaches. The results revealed that 25.3 % of the adolescent respondents exhibited IA, and logistic regression positively predicted the IA of adolescents from divorced families, low-income families, families in which family conflict existed, and severely dysfunctional families. Interestingly, adolescents with restricted Internet use were almost 1.9 times more likely to have IA than those whose use was not restricted. Internet addiction is common among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong, and family-based prevention strategies should be aligned with the risk factors of IA.

  14. Impact of caring for a child with cancer on single parents compared with parents from two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F; Dix, David; Papsdorf, Michael; Klaassen, Robert J; Yanofsky, Rochelle; Sung, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    It is currently unknown how the intensive and often prolonged treatment of childhood cancer impacts on the lives of single parents. Our aims were to determine whether single parents differ from parents from two-parent families in terms of caregiver demand (the time and effort involved in caregiving), and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Forty single parents and 275 parents from two-parent families were recruited between November 2004 and February 2007 from five pediatric oncology centers in Canada. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire booklet composed of items and scales to measure caregiver demand and HRQL (SF-36). The booklet also measured the following constructs: background and context factors, child factors, caregiving strain, intrapsychic factors, and coping factors. Single parents did not differ from parents from two-parent families in caregiving demand and physical and psychosocial HRQL. Compared with Canadian population norms for the SF-36, both groups reported clinically important differences (i.e., worse health) in psychosocial HRQL (effect size ≥ -2.00), while scores for physical HRQL were within one standard deviation of population norms. Our findings suggest that the impact of caregiving on single parents, in terms of caregiving demand and HRQL is similar to that of parents from two-parent families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Pathways to Parental Knowledge: The Role of Family Process and Family Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was (a) to examine the role of family process on child disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental knowledge and (b) to examine how patterns might differ as a function of family structure. Data for this study were taken from the Flourishing Families Project, which consists of 353 two- and 147 single-parent…

  16. Birth and Adoptive Parent Antisocial Behavior and Parenting: A Study of Evocative Gene-Environment Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Burt, S Alexandra; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2017-03-01

    Negative parenting is shaped by the genetically influenced characteristics of children (via evocative rGE) and by parental antisocial behavior; however, it is unclear how these factors jointly impact parenting. This study examined the effects of birth parent and adoptive parent antisocial behavior on negative parenting. Participants included 546 families within a prospective adoption study. Adoptive parent antisocial behavior emerged as a small but significant predictor of negative parenting at 18 months and of change in parenting from 18 to 27 months. Birth parent antisocial behavior predicted change in adoptive father's (but not mother's) parenting over time. These findings highlight the role of parent characteristics and suggest that evocative rGE effects on parenting may be small in magnitude in early childhood. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Are single-parent families different from two-parent families in the treatment of adolescent bulimia nervosa using family-based treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Angela Celio; McLean, Carmen; Washington, Blaine N; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; le Grange, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    To examine whether family-based treatment (FBT) for adolescent bulimia nervosa (BN), which emphasizes family involvement in helping to reduce binge eating and purging behaviors, is differentially efficacious in single-parent families versus two-parent families. Forty-one adolescents (97.6% female; 16.0 +/- 1.7 years old) with either BN (n = 18) or subthreshold BN (n = 23) were randomized to FBT as part of a larger randomized controlled trial studying treatments for adolescent BN. Two-parent (n = 27; 65.9%) and single-parent (n = 14; 34.2%) families were compared on demographic variables, presence of comorbid psychiatric illnesses, and symptoms of BN at baseline, post, and 6-month follow-up. ANOVA and chi-square analyses revealed no statistically significant differences between two-parent and single-parent families on any variables with the exception of ethnicity, for which a greater proportion of Caucasians and Hispanic families had two- parent families compared with African-American families (chi(2) = 8.68, p = .01). These findings suggest that FBT may be an appropriate and efficacious treatment for single-parent families as well as two-parent families, despite the reliance on parental intervention to reduce bulimic symptoms and normalize eating patterns.

  18. Mothers' work–family conflict and enrichment: associations with parenting quality and couple relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Westrupp, E; Strazdins, L; Giallo, R; Martin, A; Nicholson, J M

    2015-01-01

    Background Employment participation of mothers of young children has steadily increased in developed nations. Combining work and family roles can create conflicts with family life, but can also bring enrichment. Work–family conflict and enrichment experienced by mothers may also impact children's home environments via parenting behaviour and the couple relationship, particularly in the early years of parenting when the care demands for young children is high. Methods In order to examine these associations, while adjusting for a wide range of known covariates of parenting and relationship quality, regression models using survey data from 2151 working mothers of 4- to 5-year-old children are reported. Results/Conclusion Results provided partial support for the predicted independent relationships between work–family conflict, enrichment and indicators of the quality of parenting and the couple relationship. PMID:24673505

  19. Mothers' work-family conflict and enrichment: associations with parenting quality and couple relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Westrupp, E; Strazdins, L; Giallo, R; Martin, A; Nicholson, J M

    2015-03-01

    Employment participation of mothers of young children has steadily increased in developed nations. Combining work and family roles can create conflicts with family life, but can also bring enrichment. Work-family conflict and enrichment experienced by mothers may also impact children's home environments via parenting behaviour and the couple relationship, particularly in the early years of parenting when the care demands for young children is high. In order to examine these associations, while adjusting for a wide range of known covariates of parenting and relationship quality, regression models using survey data from 2151 working mothers of 4- to 5-year-old children are reported. Results provided partial support for the predicted independent relationships between work-family conflict, enrichment and indicators of the quality of parenting and the couple relationship. © 2014 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Role of Parents' Critical Thinking About Media in Shaping Expectancies, Efficacy and Nutrition Behaviors for Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Radanielina-Hita, Marie Louise; Ran, Weina

    2015-01-01

    A convenience survey completed online by 137 4-H parents in Washington state explored their orientation toward critical thinking regarding media sources and content and its implications for family dietary behaviors. Parents' critical thinking toward media sources predicted their information efficacy about content. Critical thinking toward media content predicted information efficacy about sources, expectancies for parental mediation, and expectancies for family receptiveness to lower-fat dietary changes. Expectancies for receptiveness to dietary changes and expectancies for parental mediation predicted efficacy for implementing healthy dietary practices; this strongly predicted healthy dietary practices. Media-related critical thinking, therefore, indirectly but consistently affected self-reported family dietary behaviors through its effects on efficacy for managing media and expectancies for the family's receptiveness to healthy dietary changes. The results suggest parents' media literacy skills affect their family's dietary behavior. Health campaigns that help parents interpret and manage the media environment may benefit all family members.

  1. Parenting and adolescent antisocial behavior and depression: evidence of genotype x parenting environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Button, Tanya M M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Hetherington, E Mavis

    2007-04-01

    Little is known about the interplay of genotypes and malleable risk factors in influencing adolescent psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Information on these processes is crucial in designing programs for the prevention of psychiatric disorders. To assess whether latent genetic factors and measured parent-child relationships interact (G x E) in predicting adolescent antisocial behavior and depression. We characterized risk of antisocial behavior and depression in adolescents by means of a genetically informed design. We used in-home questionnaire and observational measures of adolescent outcomes and environmental moderators (parenting), and a latent variable behavior genetic analytic model. A nationally distributed sample recruited from random-digit dialing and national market panels. A total of 720 families with at least 2 children, 9 through 18 years old, stratified by genetic relatedness (monozygotic and dizygotic twins, full biological siblings in nondivorced and stepfamilies, and half-siblings and biologically unrelated siblings in stepfamilies). Antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. There was an interaction of genotype and both parental negativity and low warmth predicting overall antisocial behavior, as well as aggressive and nonaggressive forms of antisocial behavior, but not depression. Genetic influence was greater for adolescent antisocial behavior when parenting was more negative or less warm. Genotype-environment correlation was partialled out in the analysis and thus did not account for the results. This study demonstrates, on the basis of careful measurement and appropriate analytic methods, that a continuous measure of parenting in the normative range moderates the influence of genotype on antisocial behavior.

  2. Conduct disorder in girls: neighborhoods, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chien-Ni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the social context of girls with conduct disorder (CD, a question of increasing importance to clinicians and researchers. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between three social context domains (neighborhood, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors and CD in adolescent girls, additionally testing for race moderation effects. We predicted that disadvantaged neighborhoods, family characteristics such as parental marital status, and parenting behaviors such as negative discipline would characterize girls with CD. We also hypothesized that parenting behaviors would mediate the associations between neighborhood and family characteristics and CD. Methods We recruited 93 15–17 year-old girls from the community and used a structured psychiatric interview to assign participants to a CD group (n = 52 or a demographically matched group with no psychiatric disorder (n = 41. Each girl and parent also filled out questionnaires about neighborhood, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors. Results Neighborhood quality was not associated with CD in girls. Some family characteristics (parental antisociality and parenting behaviors (levels of family activities and negative discipline were characteristic of girls with CD, but notll. There was no moderation by race. Our hypothesis that the association between family characteristics and CD would be mediated by parenting behaviors was not supported. Conclusion This study expanded upon previous research by investigating multiple social context domains in girls with CD and by selecting a comparison group who were not different in age, social class, or race. When these factors are thus controlled, CD in adolescent girls is not significantly associated with neighborhood, but is associated with some family characteristics and some types of parental behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships need to be further

  3. Parents and Students and Healthy Indoor School Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    School-aged children spend a great deal of time inside school buildings. Parents can play an important role in creating healthy indoor school environments. Parents and students alike can make a powerful case for protecting health in schools.

  4. A Model of Family Background, Family Process, Youth Self-Control, and Delinquent Behavior in Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, So-Hee; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a national sample of two-parent families with 11- and 12-year-old youths (N = 591), we tested a structural model of family background, family process (marital conflict and parenting), youth self-control, and delinquency four years later. Consistent with the conceptual model, marital conflict and youth self-control are directly…

  5. Factor analysis shows association between family activity environment and children's health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Coveney, John; Cox, David N

    2011-12-01

    To characterise the family activity environment in a questionnaire format, assess the questionnaire's reliability and describe its predictive ability by examining the relationships between the family activity environment and children's health behaviours - physical activity, screen time and fruit and vegetable intake. This paper describes the creation of a tool, based on previously validated scales, adapted from the food domain. Data are from 106 children and their parents (Adelaide, South Australia). Factor analysis was used to characterise factors within the family activity environment. Pearson-Product Moment correlations between the family environment and child outcomes, controlling for demographic variation, were examined. Three factors described the family activity environment - parental activity involvement, opportunity for role modelling and parental support for physical activity - and explained 37.6% of the variance. Controlling for demographic factors, the scale was significantly correlated with children's health behaviour - physical activity (r=0.27), screen time (r=-0.24) and fruit and vegetable intake (r=0.34). The family activity environment questionnaire shows high internal consistency and moderate predictive ability. This study has built on previous research by taking a more comprehensive approach to measuring the family activity environment. This research suggests the family activity environment should be considered in family-based health promotion interventions. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The role of parent depression and parenting stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of you...

  7. Families with children with diabetes: implications of parent stress for parent and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2012-05-01

    To examine the relation of parent stress to parent mental health and child mental and physical health. We interviewed children with type 1 diabetes (n = 132; mean age 12 years) annually for 5 years and had one parent complete a questionnaire at each assessment. Parents completed measures of general life stress, stress related to caring for a child with diabetes, benefit finding, and mental health. Child outcomes were depressive symptoms, self-care behavior, and glycemic control. Multilevel modeling was used to examine concurrent and longitudinal relations. Greater parent general stress and greater parent diabetes-specific stress were associated with poorer parent mental health. Overall, greater parent general stress was associated with poorer child outcomes, whereas greater parent diabetes-specific stress was associated with better child outcomes. Families with high levels of general life stress should be identified as they are at risk for both poor parent and child health outcomes.

  8. Immigrant parents' perceptions of school environment and children's mental health and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Hayley A; Marshall, Lysandra; Rummens, Joanna A; Fenta, Haile; Simich, Laura

    2011-06-01

    Research has increasingly identified the perception of school environment as an influential factor in children's lives. There has been sparse research attention, however, on the potential importance of parents' perceptions of school environment on child adjustment. This study examined the relationship between parents' perceptions of school environment and children's emotional and behavioral problems. Data were derived from the New Canadian Children and Youth Study, a study of the children (aged 4-6 and 11-13) of immigrant parents. Analyses focused on a subsample of Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, and Filipino immigrants in a large metropolitan area. Parental perception of school environment was negatively associated with physical aggression in children even after controlling for child age and gender, parental characteristics, family functioning, and aspects of acculturation. In contrast, parental perception was not significantly related to symptoms of emotional distress in children. There were some ethnic differences in perception of school environment. Parental perception of school environment is important to the well-being of the children of immigrant parents, and reinforces the relevance of initiatives to improve the dynamics between parents and schools. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  9. Talking about parental substance abuse with children: eight families' experiences of Beardslee's family intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihkala, Heljä; Dimova-Bränström, Neda; Sandlund, Mikael

    2017-07-01

    Many children are affected by parental substance use disorder. Beardslee's family intervention (BFI) is a family-based psycho-educative method for children of mentally ill parents, used in psychiatric practise in several Nordic countries. The method has also been used to some extent when a parent suffers from substance use disorder. The aim of the study was to explore the family members' experiences of the BFI when a parent has a diagnosis of substance use disorder, to gain new knowledge about the process of the BFI in this area. Ten children and 14 parents were interviewed about their experiences 6 months after a BFI. The interviews were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The children's psychological symptoms were measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at baseline and after 6 months. Increased openness about the substance use disorder in the families was a recurrent theme throughout the material and a central issue reported in the children's experiences. The children had a high level of psychological symptoms according to the SDQ at baseline, but the majority of them felt that the BFI made a positive difference in their families and for themselves. The parents reported improved wellbeing of their children. Positive experienced effects for children and parents are reported in families with parental substance use disorder, with possible connection to use of BFI. The present study suggests that Beardslee's family intervention is applicable as a preventive method for children in families with a parent suffering from substance use disorder.

  10. Family structure, family functioning and adolescent well-being: the transcendent influence of parental style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, A H; Bellissimo, A; Norman, G R

    1995-07-01

    This study assessed the association between parental style, family functioning and adolescent well being, contrasting intact families with those of changed configuration. Eight hundred and one grade 10 general level teenagers in 11 high schools of a single educational system were the subjects. Results indicated that the configuration of the family was not the key determinant of effectiveness of family functioning. Instead the style of parenting turned out to be the main determinant of both family functioning and well being of the adolescents. While both "parents" were judged to have contributed to these outcomes cross gender effects were found.

  11. Families living with parental mental illness and their experiences of family interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzelius, M; Plantin, L; Östman, M

    2018-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Coping with parental mental illness in families can be challenging for both children and parents. Providing evidence-based family interventions to families where a parent has a mental illness can enhance the relationships in the family. Although psychiatric research has shown that evidence-based family interventions may improve the communication and understanding of parental mental illness, there is a lack in this area of research from an everyday clinical context. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study reinforces the fact that parents with mental illnesses are searching for support from psychiatric services in order to talk to their children about their illness. The finding that under-age children comply when they are told by their parents to join an intervention in psychiatric services supporting the family is something not observed earlier in research. This study once more illuminates the fact that partners of a person with parental mental illness are seldom, in an obvious way, included in family support interventions. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Psychiatric services, and especially mental health nurses, have an important task in providing families with parental mental illness with support concerning communication with their children and in including the "healthy" partner in family support interventions. Introduction Although research has shown that evidence-based family interventions in research settings improve the communication and understanding of parental mental illness, there is a lack of knowledge about interventions in an everyday clinical context. Aim This study explores how families with parental mental illness experience family interventions in a natural clinical context in psychiatric services. Method Five families with children aged 10-12 were recruited from psychiatric services in southern Sweden and interviewed in a manner inspired by naturalistic inquiry and content analysis. Both

  12. Parenting Styles and Home Obesogenic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Rachel; Welk, Greg; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Ihmels, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind’s parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7–10) in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting be...

  13. The role of co-parenting alliance as a mediator between trait anxiety, family system maladjustment, and parenting stress in a sample of non-clinical Italian parents

    OpenAIRE

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Sciandra, Andrea; Finos, Livio; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Riso, Daniela Di

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of co-parenting alliance in mediating the influence of parents’ trait anxiety on family system maladjustment and parenting stress. A sample of 1606 Italian parents (803 mothers and 803 fathers) of children aged one to thirteen years completed measures of trait anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory - Y), co-parenting alliance (Parenting Alliance Measure), family system maladjustment (Family Assessment Measure - III), and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Inve...

  14. When Parents Separate and One Parent 'Comes Out' as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual: Sons and Daughters Engage with the Tension that Occurs When Their Family Unit Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhán C Daly

    Full Text Available The experiences of Irish sons and daughters born into heterosexually-organised parental partnerships/unions whose parents have separated and one has come out as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual (LGB were explored through a grounded theory approach. 15 adult children (over the age of 18 years, who varied in age when their parents separated and one disclosed as LGB, were interviewed. The primary concern that emerged centred on participants having to adjust to their parents' being separated, as opposed to their parent being LGB. This involved engaging with the tension that arose from the loss of the parental union, which involved changes to the home environment and adapting to new parental partners and family units. Heightened reflection on sexual orientation and an increased sensitivity to societal LGB prejudice were specifically associated with a parent coming out as LGB. How parents negotiated disclosing the changes to others, the level of support available to parents, and how capable parents were at maintaining the parent-child relationship had an impact on the tension experienced by sons and daughters. Participants moved from initially avoiding and resisting the family changes that were occurring to gradual consonance with their altered family environments. Concluding directions for research and clinical considerations are suggested.

  15. When Parents Separate and One Parent 'Comes Out' as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual: Sons and Daughters Engage with the Tension that Occurs When Their Family Unit Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Siobhán C; MacNeela, Pádraig; MacNeela, Pádriag; Sarma, Kiran M

    2015-01-01

    The experiences of Irish sons and daughters born into heterosexually-organised parental partnerships/unions whose parents have separated and one has come out as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual (LGB) were explored through a grounded theory approach. 15 adult children (over the age of 18 years), who varied in age when their parents separated and one disclosed as LGB, were interviewed. The primary concern that emerged centred on participants having to adjust to their parents' being separated, as opposed to their parent being LGB. This involved engaging with the tension that arose from the loss of the parental union, which involved changes to the home environment and adapting to new parental partners and family units. Heightened reflection on sexual orientation and an increased sensitivity to societal LGB prejudice were specifically associated with a parent coming out as LGB. How parents negotiated disclosing the changes to others, the level of support available to parents, and how capable parents were at maintaining the parent-child relationship had an impact on the tension experienced by sons and daughters. Participants moved from initially avoiding and resisting the family changes that were occurring to gradual consonance with their altered family environments. Concluding directions for research and clinical considerations are suggested.

  16. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding.

  17. Parents, Families, and Partnerships: Issues and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Deb

    2007-01-01

    The first contact parents may have with a professional in relation to their child with a disability is often at the point of diagnosis. From that moment onwards, parents embark on a journey that generally involves the formation of many relationships with professionals working in the field. These relationships have the potential to facilitate…

  18. Toxic Familial Effects of Parental Hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; And Others

    In research efforts to account for the variance in parent-child interactions, two variables have been cited repeatedly for their explanatory cogency--nurturance and authority. This study was conducted to examine the relation of parents' Hostility (Ho) scores from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-based Cook and Medley Hostility Scale…

  19. The Development of Children's Ethnic Identity in Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada: The Role of Parenting Practices and Children's Perceptions of Parental Family Obligation Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…

  20. Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The role of parent depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Sharp, Carla; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-09-01

    Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of young children. The aim of this study was to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles in low-income families. Questionnaires were completed by 290 African-American and Hispanic parents residing in a large urban city in the southwestern United States. Twenty-six percent of the parents reported depressive symptoms above the clinical cutoff. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles. After adjusting for potential confounding variables (e.g., ethnicity, education, age), parents with an uninvolved feeding style reported less positive affect and more parenting stress than parents showing the other three feeding styles - authoritative, authoritarian, and indulgent. Because feeding styles tend to be associated with child obesity in low income samples, the results of this study provide important information regarding the parent-child eating dynamic that may promote less optimal child eating behaviors and the development of childhood obesity. This information could be useful for prevention studies aimed at changing parent behaviors that negatively impact the socialization of child eating behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Grandmother Support, Family Functioning, and Parenting Stress in Families with a Child with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbarello, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among grandparent support, family functioning, and parental stress on families with children with and without disabilities between the ages of 2 and 12 years. Families are viewed as an ever-changing complex system with reciprocal interactions. One possible stressor on the family system is the birth of a child…

  2. How Families Experience the Phenomenon of Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting: Implications for Family Therapists and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Glenda J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe how family members experience the phenomenon of adolescent pregnancy and parenting in the family unit, over time, and to examine the meanings family members attach to the experience. The participants were six nuclear families (20 individuals) of six adolescent mothers who had previously…

  3. Communication and Supervision of Alcohol in the Family: Parental Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Nigel; Cox, Louise; Coleman, Lester; Roker, Debi

    2008-01-01

    It is now well acknowledged that parents can have a central role in supporting sensible alcohol use and reducing alcohol misuse amongst young people. However, little research has considered how communication and supervision in relation to alcohol actually takes place within the family. Drawing upon interviews with the parents of young people aged…

  4. Adolescent Perceptions of Overall Family System Functioning and Parental Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Neal, Rachel A.; Huey, Erron L.

    2006-01-01

    We used a systems perspective to examine relationships between adolescents' perceptions of overall family system functioning and selected parental behaviors. Self-report questionnaire data from 160 ninth and tenth grade students were analyzed using MANCOVA and discriminant analysis. The results showed two parental behaviors, support and monitoring…

  5. Addressing Cultural Variables in Parent Training Programs with Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Chikira H.; Cook, Katrina L.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been increased attention given to understanding how cultural variables may have an impact on the efficacy of treatments with Latino families seeking psychological services. Within parent training programs, understanding the extent to which culture can affect parenting practices is vital to providing quality care. The focus of…

  6. Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

    2009-01-01

    Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

  7. Parents' perceptions of the family climate for road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the applicability of the Family Climate for Road Safety Scale (FCRSS; Taubman-Ben-Ari and Katz-Ben-Ami, 2013) to the parents of young drivers. The sample consisted of 549 parents and 234 of their children, all of whom completed the FCRSS. In addition, the parents completed the multidimensional driving style inventory (MDSI; Taubman-Ben-Ari et al., 2004) and provided background data (e.g., age, gender). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a slightly modified structure of the scale for parents. Examination of the correlations revealed significant weak to strong associations between parents' scores on the various FCRSS dimensions on the one hand, and their self-reported driving styles and offspring's perceptions of the family climate for safety on the other. The findings indicate that the FCRSS is suitable for use with the parents of young drivers, and that perceptions of the family climate are shared by the two generations. Furthermore, they show that family climate is related to parents' customary driving behavior, with the careful driving style positively related to the positive dimensions of the FCRSS. The discussion stresses the importance of the parents' influence on the manner in which their children drive, and the multifaceted nature of this influence. Moreover, it indicates the potential value of the FCRSS, both for research and for designing interventions and measuring their effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Family Cohesion and Level of Communication Between Parents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the level of communication between parents and their adolescent children and how such communication affects family cohesion. A sample of 200 subjects made up of adolescents and parents were selected through cluster, stratified and random sampling techniques from ten Local Government Areas ...

  9. The Family Environment and Achievement of Deaf Students: A Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner-Johnson, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Parental responses (N=125) to scaled items in home interviews were factor analyzed and family environment dimensions were employed as predictor variables. Parents of proficient readers were characterized as adapted to their children's deafness, involved in the deaf community, and permissive rather than overprotective. High achievers had parents…

  10. Parental Adjustment, Marital Relationship, and Family Function in Families of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chou, Miao-Churn; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the psychopathology, marital relationship, and family function in parents of children with autistic disorder (autism) as compared to parents of typically developing children. We also compared these measures between the mothers and the fathers. We assessed 151 families with at least one child with autistic disorder…

  11. The influences of family environment on personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, K; Takaishi, J; Tatsuta, K; Katayama, H; Iwase, M; Yorifuji, K; Takeda, M

    2000-02-01

    In order to clarify the influences of family environment on the development of personality traits, 150 children (104 males and 46 females, mean age 13.2 +/- 2.4 years) who had been interviewed at the Child Guidance Clinic in Osaka were investigated. From 13 behavioral characteristics (activity, talkativeness, sociability, social skills, rule-keeping, will, aggression, emotional control, imagination, anxiety, maturity, intelligence, and neuroticism), factor analysis identified three personality traits: extraversion, maturity, and intellect. The effects of family environment (maternal and paternal participation in child rearing before and after 4years of age, child-rearing style, parental relationship, sibling relationship, number of siblings, birth order, and socioeconomic status) on these personality traits were examined based on a structural equation model. The results found, first, that extraversion was negatively associated with overprotection/interference and with maternal participation in child rearing. Maturity correlated with high socioeconomic status, appropriate child-rearing style, and paternal participation in child rearing. Intellect was related to high socioeconomic status and maternal participation in child rearing. Second, path analysis with selected variables revealed that 8% of variance in extraversion, 14% in maturity, and 10% in intellect was due to family environment. Third, children with high introversion or high intellect had stronger influences from family environment than did those with high extraversion or low intellect.

  12. Parent Cortisol and Family Relatedness Predict Anxious Behavior in Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vanessa Kahen; Gans, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging adult cortisol response during family interaction predicts change in EA anxious behavior during the transition to college (Gans & Johnson, in press). In the present study, we take an additional step toward integrating family systems research and physiology by including assessment of parent physiology. We collect salivary cortisol from parents and emerging-adults during triadic family interaction. Emerging adults (N = 101) between the ages of 17 and 19 were assessed at three time points across their first college year: the summer before college, fall and spring semesters. Two parents accompanied the emerging adult child to the summer assessment; all family members provided four saliva samples each at 20-minute intervals. Later assessments of emerging adults included measures of internalizing behaviors. Parents’ cortisol secretion patterns during family interaction predict their emerging adult child’s cortisol secretion pattern, parent perceptions of the family environment, and emerging adult children’s internalizing behavior during the college transition. Different patterns of results emerged for mothers’ and fathers’ cortisol response to family interaction, and for families with sons or with daughters. The approach taken by this study provides a first step toward understanding how interrelationships among elements of physiology and family functioning contribute to adjustment during major life transitions. PMID:27536860

  13. Home environment as a predictor of child's language: A mediating role of family literacy activities and symbolic play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja-Peklaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we explored the ways in which SES-related factors of family environment affect child's language across toddlerhood and early childhood. We proposed a mediational path model in which we presumed that family literacy activities and parental encouragement of symbolic play acted as mediating variables, mediating the effect of parental education, family possessions and parent-to-child speech on child's language. The sample included 99 families with children, aged from 1 to 6 years. The data were collected in the family home, mostly via direct observation and by using a semi-structured interview with parents. The findings suggest that high-SES parents and parents who used a more complex and supportive speech, more frequently involved their children in different literacy activities. The effect of the parent-to-child speech on child's language proved to be mediated by parental use of mental transformations during symbolic play with a child.

  14. Exploring Parent Perceptions of the Food Environment in Youth Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Megan; Nelson, Toben F.; Harwood, Eileen; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine parent perceptions of the food environment in youth sport. Methods: Eight focus group discussions were held with parents (n = 60) of youth aged 6-13 years participating in basketball programs in Minnesota. Key themes and concepts were identified via transcript-based analysis. Results: Parents reported that youth commonly…

  15. Longitudinal associations between family dinner and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication among racially-diverse urban youth

    OpenAIRE

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Growth curve models examined changes in adolescent self-reported parent-child communication conditional on family meal frequency over a 3.5 year period among a population of racially-diverse, low-income adolescents from an urban environment (n = 4750). Results indicated that although both family dinner frequency and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores were characterized by negative linear growth over time (both p < .0001), family dinner frequency was positively associa...

  16. The influence of family environment on dissociation in pediatric injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Nicole R; Sledjeski, Eve M; Christopher, Norman C; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2011-10-01

    Emerging support for the roles of both early trauma and family environment in the development of dissociative symptomatology is complicated by the frequent co-occurrence of dysfunctional family environments and childhood maltreatment. The present investigation prospectively examined the influence of family environment on dissociative symptom course in 82 youths (8-18 years) who experienced accidental injury. The primary caretaker reported on six-week family environment (including family cohesion and adaptability) and on youth symptoms of dissociation prior to injury at six weeks and at six months; dissociation prior to injury was assessed via retrospective parent account at the six-week timepoint. Adolescents (aged 11-18) also reported on their own dissociative symptoms at six weeks. Latent growth modeling indicated that youth in more cohesive family environments evidenced decreased symptoms of dissociation at the six-week intercept (z = -2.80). Furthermore, parent income was negatively related to symptoms of dissociation at intercept (z = -1.96) and parent education was associated with a decrease in youth dissociation symptoms over time (z = -2.57). The present findings provide support for the importance of acute family environment in pediatric post-injury adjustment and further highlight the importance of parent resources, including income and education, in post-injury adjustment.

  17. Family interaction: parental representation in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, S; Skre, I; Torgersen, S; Kringlen, E

    1994-01-01

    12 monozygotic (MZ) and 19 same-sexed dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs discordant for DSM-III-R schizophrenia completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The schizophrenic twins described their parents as less caring and being more overprotective compared to their non-schizophrenic co-twins. These results were independent of age, sex and zygosity. Difference in paternal overprotection was the most important variable discriminating between the schizophrenic probands and their co-twins. Three different hypotheses regarding these findings are discussed.

  18. Parent Perceptions of Family Social Supports in Families With Children With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kim A; Miller, Wendy R; Buelow, Janice M

    2016-12-01

    When a child is diagnosed with epilepsy, not only has the child's life been disrupted but also the family's sense of normalcy. Although there is considerable literature discussing family concerns and social support issues in families with chronically ill children, a major gap lies in the exploration of how the specifics of childhood epilepsy affect parents and family operations. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial care needs of parents of children with epilepsy. Utilizing the Family Systems Nursing theory as a framework, this correlation study examined the relationships among social and community support, family needs, family empowerment, and family quality of life in 29 primary caregivers of a child with epilepsy. These families felt highly supported; they had low needs and high perceptions of empowerment. There was a negative association between social supports and the total family needs survey scale and the subscales of financial support, help regarding explaining to others, and professional support. There was no association between family empowerment or quality of life with parental perceptions of social support. In general, as parental perceptions of family needs increased, perceptions of familial social supports decreased. Further research is recommended to investigate varying socioeconomic status effects in families with children with pediatric epilepsy.

  19. Maternal Parenting Stress and Child Perception of Family Functioning Among Families Affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Marya T; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D; Payne, Diana L; Goodrum, Nada M; Murphy, Debra A

    Mothers living with HIV (MLWH) experience stressors inherent to parenting, often within a context characterized by poverty, stigma, and/or limited social support. Our study assessed the relationship between parenting stress and child perceptions of family functioning in families with MLWH who have healthy school-age children. MLWH and their children (N = 102 pairs) completed measures addressing parenting stress and perceptions of family functioning (i.e., parent-child communication, family routines, and family cohesion). We used covariance structural modeling to evaluate the relationship between these factors, with results showing greater maternal parenting stress associated with poorer family functioning outcomes (reported by both the child and the mother). Findings offer support for the parenting stress-family functioning relationship by providing the child perspective along with the maternal perspective, and point to the need for interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of maternal parenting stress on family functioning. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Strengthening Parents and Families during the Early Childhood Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    This book provides early childhood educators with perspectives and tools that will enable them to strengthen parents and families during the child's earliest year of development. The 25 chapters are divided into 6 parts or themes. Part one focuses on understanding families as learners from an ecological and empathetic perspective, with the premise…

  1. Dimensions of Parenting in Families Having Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study examined relationships between parenting, severity of disability, and 5 aspects of family ecology for 83 preschool and 69 elementary school children with disabilities. Family ecology variables included socioeconomic status, coping styles, social support, stressful life events, and marital quality. Results showed positive correlations…

  2. A Look at the Single Parent Family: Implications for the School Psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Christine W.; Brassard, Marla R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the effects on parents and children of living in a single parent family, and suggests ways in which school psychologists can aid schools and single parent families. Presents school-based interventions for children and parents. Suggests changes in administrative policies to meet the needs of single parent families. (Author)

  3. Family Environment and Childhood Obesity: A New Framework with Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hui; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah bt; Salarzadeh Jenatabadi, Hashem

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child’s food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM) concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among ...

  4. Promoting parenting to support reintegrating military families: after deployment, adaptive parenting tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Abigail H; Pinna, Keri L M; Hanson, Sheila K; Brockberg, Dustin

    2014-02-01

    The high operational tempo of the current conflicts and the unprecedented reliance on National Guard and Reserve forces highlights the need for services to promote reintegration efforts for those transitioning back to civilian family life. Despite evidence that parenting has significant influence on children's functioning, and that parenting may be impaired during stressful family transitions, there is a dearth of empirically supported psychological interventions tailored for military families reintegrating after deployment. This article reports on the modification of an empirically supported parenting intervention for families in which a parent has deployed to war. A theoretical rationale for addressing parenting during reintegration after deployment is discussed. We describe the intervention, After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT), and report early feasibility and acceptability data from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of ADAPT, a 14-week group-based, Web-enhanced parenting training program. Among the first 42 families assigned to the intervention group, participation rates were high, and equal among mothers and fathers. Satisfaction was high across all 14 sessions. Implications for psychological services to military families dealing with the deployment process are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Childhood temperament: passive gene-environment correlation, gene-environment interaction, and the hidden importance of the family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Kao, Karen; Swann, Gregory; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2013-02-01

    Biological parents pass on genotypes to their children, as well as provide home environments that correlate with their genotypes; thus, the association between the home environment and children's temperament can be genetically (i.e., passive gene-environment correlation) or environmentally mediated. Furthermore, family environments may suppress or facilitate the heritability of children's temperament (i.e., gene-environment interaction). The sample comprised 807 twin pairs (mean age = 7.93 years) from the longitudinal Wisconsin Twin Project. Important passive gene-environment correlations emerged, such that home environments were less chaotic for children with high effortful control, and this association was genetically mediated. Children with high extraversion/surgency experienced more chaotic home environments, and this correlation was also genetically mediated. In addition, heritability of children's temperament was moderated by home environments, such that effortful control and extraversion/surgency were more heritable in chaotic homes, and negative affectivity was more heritable under crowded or unsafe home conditions. Modeling multiple types of gene-environment interplay uncovered the complex role of genetic factors and the hidden importance of the family environment for children's temperament and development more generally.

  6. Parenting environment and scholastic archievement: A restrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.W.; Bok, I. A.

    1996-01-01

    The current paper examines how two parenting styles (the degree to which parents provided an overly protective environment, and a warm and loving environment) relate to educational achievement. We expected that a warm and loving upbringing and an upbringing that is not overly protective would

  7. Rainbow families: the sociological path of homosexuals parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina La Delfa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays rainbow families can live openly, thanks to the fact that society has deeply changed since the 60’s. It is clear by now to all sociologists that in the western society children’s birth and care are less and less jointed to the concept of “one father, one mother, and one hearth”. Today we make children by ourselves, or by two (but not always a man and a woman, or even by three or four, if adding to the intentional parents also the donors’ and/or the surrogate mothers’ participations, or if considering adoptive children conceived by others, but only parented by the intentional parents, etc. Among blended families, co-parented families, single mothers parenting their children with help from some friends, or sisters, or mothers, or grandparents of theirs, the arrangements of families, and of children’s attachments, are just unlimited. In this context there is space for our families, even if resistance is strong, especially in Italy, while half of Europe is now recognizing and upholding these new families.

  8. Infant sleep, parental sleep and parenting stress in families of mothers on maternity leave and in families of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Dana; Tikotzky, Liat

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the links between infants' sleep and their parents' sleep and to assess the links between infant/parent sleep and parenting stress. Furthermore, we explored whether the links between sleep and parenting stress are moderated by maternal leave status. Participants were 50 families with an infant between the ages of 4-5 months. Half of the mothers were on maternity leave while the others returned to work. Parents completed daily sleep logs about infants' and their own sleep for 4 consecutive nights. Each parent also completed the Parenting Stress Index. Infant sleep was associated with sleep of both mothers and fathers, but the correlations with maternal sleep were stronger. Parental perceptions of their infant's sleep as problematic were associated with higher parenting stress. Poorer infant and maternal sleep patterns were associated with parenting stress only in families with mothers on maternity leave, probably because these mothers need to provide intensive caregiving "around the clock" without sufficient opportunities to rest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Strengthening Low-Income Families: A Research Agenda for Parenting, Relationship, and Fatherhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Policymakers need to decide how to invest in strengthening the most basic foundation for early childhood development: family relationships. The challenges: (1) help parents provide the responsive and stimulating environments that will prepare young children for school; and (2) support fathers' engagement with their children regardless of whether…

  10. A Research Review: The Importance of Families and the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Parents are a child's first educator. A child's family and home environment has a strong impact on his/her language and literacy development and educational achievement. This impact is stronger during the child's early years but continues throughout their school years. Many background variables affect the impact of the family and home environment…

  11. Sex Role Development of Preschoolers from Two-Parent and One-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Margarita Elena; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examines sex-role development in families in which parents were divorced or separated, specifically assessing children's understanding of gender identity and sex-role stereotypes and indicating toy choices during play. (Author/KS)

  12. Development of the General Parenting Observational Scale to assess parenting during family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Dickstein, Susan; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2015-04-10

    There is growing interest in the relationship between general parenting and childhood obesity. However, assessing general parenting via surveys can be difficult due to issues with self-report and differences in the underlying constructs being measured. As a result, different aspects of parenting have been associated with obesity risk. We developed a more objective tool to assess general parenting by using observational methods during a mealtime interaction. The General Parenting Observational Scale (GPOS) was based on prior work of Baumrind, Maccoby and Martin, Barber, and Slater and Power. Ten dimensions of parenting were included; 4 were classified in the emotional dimension of parenting (warmth and affection, support and sensitivity, negative affect, detachment), and 6 were classified in the behavioral dimension of parenting (firm discipline and structure, demands for maturity, psychological control, physical control, permissiveness, neglect). Overweight children age 8-12 years old and their parent (n = 44 dyads) entering a weight control program were videotaped eating a family meal. Parents were coded for their general parenting behaviors. The Mealtime Family Interaction Coding System (MICS) and several self-report measures of general parenting were also used to assess the parent-child interaction. Spearman's correlations were used to assess correlation between measures. The emotional dimensions of warmth/affection and support/sensitivity, and the behavioral dimension of firm discipline/structure were robustly captured during the family meals. Warmth/affection and support/sensitivity were significantly correlated with affect management, interpersonal involvement, and communication from the MICS. Firm discipline/structure was inversely correlated with affect management, behavior control, and task accomplishment. Parents who were older, with higher educational status, and lower BMIs were more likely to display warmth/affection and support/sensitivity. Several

  13. Relations between Parent Psychopathology, Family Functioning, and Adolescent Problems in Substance-Abusing Families: Disaggregating the Effects of Parent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-01-01

    The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…

  14. What's for dinner? Types of food served at family dinner differ across parent and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Berge, Jerica

    2014-01-01

    To examine the types of food served at family dinner in the homes of adolescents and correlations with parent and family sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors and meal-specific variables. A cross-sectional population-based survey completed by mail or telephone by parents participating in Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) in 2009-2010. Homes of families with adolescents in Minneapolis/St. Paul urban area, MN, USA. Participants included 1923 parents/guardians (90·8% female; 68·5% from ethnic/racial minorities) of adolescents who participated in EAT 2010. Less than a third (28%) of parents reported serving a green salad at family dinner on a regular basis, but 70% reported regularly serving vegetables (other than potatoes). About one-fifth (21%) of families had fast food at family dinners two or more times per week. Variables from within the sociodemographic domain (low educational attainment) psychosocial domain (high work-life stress, depressive symptoms, low family functioning) and meal-specific domain (low value of family meals, low enjoyment of cooking, low meal planning, high food purchasing barriers and fewer hours in food preparation) were associated with lower healthfulness of foods served at family dinners, in analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. There is a need for interventions to improve the healthfulness of food served at family meals. Interventions need to be suitable for parents with low levels of education; take parent and family psychosocial factors into account; promote more positive attitudes toward family meals; and provide skills to make it easier to plan and prepare healthful family meals.

  15. Perceptions of Personal and Familial Adjustment by Children from Intact, Single-Parent, and Reconstituted Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Gerald D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated children's (N=566) personal and familial adjustment as a function of familial configuration and gender. The results revealed less positive adjustment among children from divorced families. Males appeared to be favorably affected within the single-parent configuration, while females were more favorably adjusted within the reconstituted…

  16. Family Conflict and Children's Self-Concepts: A Comparison of Intact and Single-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Helen J.; Raschke, Vernon J.

    1979-01-01

    Using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale to measure self-concept, and self-reports for family structure and family conflict, no significant differences in self-concept scores of children from intact, single-parent, reconstituted, or other types of families were found. Self-concept scores were significantly lower for children reporting…

  17. The Impact of Family Violence, Family Functioning, and Parental Partner Dynamics on Korean Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…

  18. Familial Risk Factors to Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Parental Psychopathology and Maternal Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In sample of 177 clinic-referred children aged 7-13, association was found between diagnosis of conduct disorder and several aspects of family functioning: maternal parenting (supervision and persistence in discipline) and parent adjustment (paternal antisocial personality disorder and paternal substance abuse). Children with oppositional defiant…

  19. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  20. Sensitive parenting in Turkish ethnic minority families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekmekci-Baydar, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity is defined as a mother’s ability to perceive child signals, to interpret these signals correctly, and to respond to them promptly and appropriately (Ainsworth, Bell, & Stayton, 1974) The overall aim of this dissertation is to examine beliefs about sensitive parenting and actual sensitive

  1. Lesbian and heterosexual two-parent families: adolescent-parent relationship quality and adolescent well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 51 adolescents from intact two-mother planned lesbian families (all conceived through donor insemination) with 51 adolescents from intact mother-father families on their relationships with their parents (parental control, disclosure to parents, and adolescent-parent relationship

  2. CHILDREN´S ANXIETY AND PARENTING STYLES IN FAMILY IN EIGHT-YEAR-OLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Poledňová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is a recurrent topic in personality psychology of today. According to Z. Matějček’s (1991 estimation, the issue of anxiety assumes the third place as for the number of clients in children’s counselling service (behind the issue of intellectual capabilities and ADHD in the Czech Republic. In children where it occurs to a higher degree, it can have a negative impact on their socialisation, achievements, development of self-confidence. The most influential factor in developing an anxious personality appears to be family environment. If the family fails to satisfy the child’s basic needs – feeling of security and confidence – the child’s development can be in jeopardy. The current research is concentrated on how the style of parenting in families (the so-called parenting styles is related to anxiety in children at a younger school age. The aim of the research is to find out what relationship there is between the individual components of parenting in families (positive – negative component, component of requirements – freedom and anxiety in eight-year-olds. These relationships were inquired into from mothers’ perspective by means of questionnaire surveys (Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale and Questionnaire for acquiring the parenting style in family. The data from 407 mothers of eight-year-old children have been analysed. An assumption that anxiety in children of younger school age is significantly influenced by parenting styles in family has been confirmed. The most anxious children appear to be children raised in families with a negative parental emotional involvement towards the child and at the same time with discordant control. They were also some differences in the importance of individual components of parenting by fathers and mothers for anxious orientation of the child identified.

  3. Self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived parenting and family climate; and depression in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J M; Paull, J C

    1995-07-01

    This study examined associations among self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived unfavorable Parental Rearing Style (perceived PRS) and unfavorable family climate in the family of origin; and depression in undergraduates still in frequent contact with their families (N = 186). Unfavorable perceived PRS and family climate were construed as "affectionless control," in which parents and family provide little affection, but excessive control. Constructs were measured by the Self-Esteem Inventory, the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory, the Family Environment Scale, and the Beck Inventory. Perceived "affectionless control" in both PRS and family climate accounted for about 13% of the variance in self-esteem, self-efficacy, and depression. Neither introversion nor depression mediated the relation between family socialization and self-esteem.

  4. Longitudinal associations between family dinner and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication among racially-diverse urban youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Growth curve models examined changes in adolescent self-reported parent-child communication conditional on family meal frequency over a 3.5 year period among a population of racially-diverse, low-income adolescents from an urban environment (n = 4750). Results indicated that although both family dinner frequency and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores were characterized by negative linear growth over time (both p family dinner frequency was positively associated with adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores over time (p families with teenagers may enhance parent-child communication and ultimately promote healthy adolescent development by making family dinner a priority. Additionally, the communication benefits of family dinner at the beginning of 6th grade may be protective through 8th grade. PMID:20545399

  5. Grandparenting and adolescent adjustment in two-parent biological, lone-parent, and step-families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet; Tan, Jo-Pei; Buchanan, Ann; Flouri, Eirini; Griggs, Julia

    2009-02-01

    There is limited research on the links between grandparenting and adolescents' well-being, especially from the perspective of the adolescents. The study examined whether grandparent involvement varied in two-parent biological, lone-parent, and step-families and whether this had a different contribution to the emotional and behavioral adjustment of adolescents across different family structures. The study is based on a sample of 1,515 secondary school students (ages 11-16 years) from England and Wales who completed a structured questionnaire. Findings of hierarchical regression analyses showed that among the whole sample, greater grandparent involvement was associated with fewer emotional problems (p < .01) and with more prosocial behavior (p < .001). In addition, while there were no differences in the level of grandparent involvement across the different family structures, grandparent involvement was more strongly associated with reduced adjustment difficulties among adolescents from lone-parent and step-families than those from two-parent biological families. A possible implication is that the positive role of grandparent involvement in lone-parent and step- families should be more emphasized in family psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Family strengths, motivation, and resources as predictors of health promotion behavior in single-parent and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Gilboe, M

    1997-06-01

    The extent to which selected aspects of family health potential (strengths, motivation, and resources) predicted health work (health-related problem-solving and goal attainment behaviors) was examined in a Canadian sample of 138 female-headed single-parent families and two-parent families. The mother and one child (age 10-14) each completed mailed self-report instruments to assess the independent variables of family cohesion, family pride, mother's non-traditional sex role orientation, general self-efficacy, internal health locus of control, network support, community support, and family income, as well as the dependent variable, health work. With the effects of mothers' education held constant, the independent variables predicted 22 to 27% of the variance in health work in the total sample and each family type. Family cohesion was the most consistent predictor of health work, accounting for 8 to 13% of the variance. The findings challenge existing problem-oriented views of single-parent families by focusing on their potential to engage in health promotion behavior.

  7. Pathways from Earlier Marijuana Use in the Familial and Non-Familial Environments to Self-Marijuana Use in the Fourth Decade of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Koppel, Jonathan; Brook, David W.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the longitudinal pathways from marijuana use in the familial environment (parents and siblings) and non-familial environment (peers and significant other), throughout adolescence and young adulthood, to the participants’ own marijuana use in their fourth decade of life (n = 586). Longitudinal pathways to marijuana use were assessed using structural equation modeling. Familial factors were mediated by non-familial factors; sibling marijuana use also had a direct effect on the parti...

  8. Parental divorce, sibship size, family resources, and children's academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2009-09-01

    Using data from 19,839 adolescents from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study investigates whether the effects of parental divorce on adolescents' academic test performance vary by sibship size. Analyses show that the negative effect of divorce on adolescent performance attenuates as sibship size increases. On the other side of the interaction, the inverse relationship between sibship size and test performance is weaker in disrupted than in two-biological-parent families. Trends of such interactions are evident when sibship size is examined either as a continuous or a categorical measure. Finally, the observed interactions on adolescents' academic performance are completely explained by variations in parental financial, human, cultural, and social resources. In sum, this study underlines the importance of treating the effect of parental divorce as a variable and calls for more research to identify child and family features that may change the magnitude of such an effect.

  9. Family Food Environment and Child Eating Behavior in a Private School of Abu Dhabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Amoodi Sara Ahmed Abdulla Saeed

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: This study is in line with other studies showing that aspects in the family food environment have an influence on eating behaviour of children. Educating parents on food environment and its impact on child behaviour is crucial in order to make them able to develop feeding strategies most likely to benefit children's' health.

  10. Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration

    OpenAIRE

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver–child and incarcerated parent–child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and chil...

  11. Wellbeing of gay fathers with children born through surrogacy: a comparison with lesbian mother families and heterosexual IVF parent families

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, HWM; Joregnsen, TD; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Rubio, B; Gross, M; Vecho, O; Lamb, ME

    2018-01-01

    Study question:\\ud Are there differences in levels of parental wellbeing (parental stress, psychological adjustment, and partner relationship satisfaction) between gay-father families with infants born through surrogacy, lesbian-mother families with infants born through donor insemination, and heterosexual-parent families with infants born through IVF?\\ud \\ud Summary answer:\\ud There were no differences in parental wellbeing.\\ud \\ud What is known already: \\ud The only other study of parental ...

  12. The Role of Parenting Practices in the Home Environment among Underserved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Beth A; McGinn, Aileen P; Lounsbury, David W; Diamantis, Pamela M; Groisman-Perelstein, Adriana E; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Isasi, Carmen R

    2015-08-01

    The home environment, which includes parenting practices, is an important setting in which children develop their health behaviors. We examined the role of parenting practices in the home environment among underserved youth. We examined baseline data of a family-focused pediatric obesity intervention. Parenting practices (monitoring, discipline, limit setting of soda/snacks [SS] and screen media [SM], pressure to eat, and reinforcement) and availability of fruits/vegetables (FV) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), family meals, television (TV) watching during meals, TVs in the home, owning active video games/sports equipment, and household food security were assessed in 301 parent/caregivers of overweight/obese children (ages 7-12 years; BMI≥85th percentile). Associations were evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Parents/caregivers (ages 22-67 years) were largely Hispanic/Latino (74.1%), female (92.4%), and reported high levels of limit setting SS and low levels of pressure to eat. Parent age, gender, country of birth, and years living in the United States accounted for differences among several parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression models identified several statistically significant associations, including: Monitoring was positively associated with availability FV (odds ratio [OR]=2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25, 3.82); limit setting SS was inversely associated with availability of SSBs (OR=0.40; 95% CI, 0.21, 0.75); and limit setting SM was inversely associated with TV viewing during family meals (OR=0.51; 95% CI, 0.31, 0.85). Nearly 40% of our population was food insecure, and food insecurity was positively associated with pressure to eat (OR=1.77; 95% CI, 1.01, 3.15). Parenting practices play an important role in the home environment, and longitudinal studies are needed to examine these associations in the context of family-focused pediatric obesity

  13. Mediators of maternal depression and family structure on child BMI: parenting quality and risk factors for child overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConley, Regina L; Mrug, Sylvie; Gilliland, M Janice; Lowry, Richard; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A; Bogart, Laura M; Franzini, Luisa; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad L; Franklin, Frank A

    2011-02-01

    Risk factors for child obesity may be influenced by family environment, including maternal depression, family structure, and parenting quality. We tested a path model in which maternal depression and single parent status are associated with parenting quality, which relates to three risk factors for child obesity: diet, leisure, and sedentary behavior. Participants included 4,601 5th-grade children and their primary caregivers who participated in the Healthy Passages study. Results showed that associations of maternal depression and single parenthood with child BMI are mediated by parenting quality and its relation to children's leisure activity and sedentary behavior. Interventions for child obesity may be more successful if they target family environment, particularly parenting quality and its impact on children's active and sedentary behaviors.

  14. The parental bonding in families of adolescents with anorexia: attachment representations between parents and offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balottin L

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Laura Balottin,1 Stefania Mannarini,1 Maura Rossi,2 Giorgio Rossi,3 Umberto Balottin2,4 1Interdepartmental Center for Family Research, Department of Philosophy, Sociology, Education, and Applied Psychology, Section of Applied Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, 2Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, C Mondino National Neurological Institute, Pavia, 3Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, 4Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Introduction: The attachment theory is widely used in order to explain anorexia nervosa origin, course and treatment response. Nevertheless, very little literature specifically investigated parental bonding in adolescents with anorexia, as well as the parents’ own bonding and intergenerational transmission within the family.Purpose: This study aims to identify any specific pattern of parental bonding in families of adolescents newly diagnosed with restricting-type anorexia, comparing them to the families of the control group.Patients and methods: A total of 168 participants, adolescents and parents (78 belonging to the anorexia group and 90 to the control one, rated the perceived parental styles on the parental bonding instrument. The latent class analysis allowed the exploration of a maternal bonding latent variable and a paternal one.Results: The main findings showed that a careless and overcontrolling parental style was recalled by the patients’ parents, and in particular by the fathers. As far as the adolescents’ responses were concerned, patients with anorexia did not seem to express differently their parental bonding perception from participants of the control group.Conclusion: Clinical implications driven from the results suggest that a therapeutic intervention working on how the parents’ own attachment representations influence current relationships may help to modify the actual family

  15. Cultural influences on parental bereavement in Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sio-Wa; Brotherson, Sean E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the bereavement experiences of parents who had experienced the death of a child in Chinese families. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 bereaved parents in Macau, China. Narrative accounts of Chinese parents' experience in the loss of a child were explored to understand how their connection to the deceased child and their worldview were influenced by cultural beliefs and values. Study themes related to parental connections with the deceased child included the use of object linking, memorializing acts, and avoidance of traditional funeral processes, with clear patterns of Chinese cultural influence. Additionally, themes related to impacts on parental worldview included use of the concept of fate as a rationale for child loss and influences on religious orientation. The influence of cultural beliefs and background on Chinese parents as they deal with the issue of a child's death was apparent. Further research is needed and will benefit our understanding of parental bereavement in Chinese families.

  16. Parental Feeding Style and Pediatric Obesity in Latino Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski, Genevieve; Gillette, Meredith Dreyer; Brown, Chris; Cowden, John D

    2017-06-01

    Pediatric obesity has become an epidemic in the United States. Previous research has shown that parenting factors related to feeding style affect child weight and that Latino families are especially at risk for pediatric obesity. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between parental feeding style and child body mass index (BMI) in Latino families. Latino parents of children between the ages of 2 and 8 ( N = 124) completed a survey on parental feeding styles, acculturation, and demographics. The outcome variable was child BMI. Among respondents, 89% were mothers, 72% were overweight or obese, and 40% reported an indulgent feeding style. Children had a mean age of 59 months ( SD = 23.8) and a mean BMI z score of 0.77 ( SD = 1.14). A demanding parental feeding style was associated with lower child BMI z score, r = -.179, p parents' feeding behaviors. Future research is warranted in the area of ethnic variations of parenting and how these affect feeding and obesity in this highly vulnerable population.

  17. Effect of quality of family environment on the child's adaptation capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kreft

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to investigate how the quality of family environment is related to the child's adaptation capabilities. Child's adaptation was evaluated with a special assessment called SPP-3 (Systematic Psychological Assessment of a 3-year Old Child, that screens the population of 3-year olds to look for inadequate adaptation patterns. I assumed that in families where parents have higher education and where the environment is more stimulating children will show more effective and adaptive behaviour. Seventy-five children and parents who attended the psychological assessment in their regional hospitals first concluded the psychological examination (SPP-3 and then filled-in two questionnaires: The Family Environment Questionnaire (Zupančič, Podlesek, & Kavčič, 2004 and The Home Literacy Environment Questionnaire (Marjanovič Umek, Podlesek, & Fekonja, 2005. The results showed that quality of family environment does effect the child's adaptive capabilities and is associated with parental level of education. Of special importance for the child's socialization is the parents' ability to use effective control (to have consistent and clear demands. Hypothesis that the level of parental education affects the child's adaptation capabilities was not confirmed. Perhaps the parents' relations with the child are of greater importance, and these are probably not related to parents' education. The results show that child's adaptation capabilities are associated with parenting methods, so preventive psychological counselling may also be used to help parents choose more effective methods in order to allow the child to develop effective adaptive behaviour.

  18. Parental self-confidence, parenting styles, and corporal punishment in families of ADHD children in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Applequist, Kimberly F; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2007-05-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental self-confidence, warmth, and involvement, and corporal punishment in families of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The diagnosis of ADHD was established through clinical interviews with the parents, children, and teachers, according the criteria in DSM-IV-TR. This diagnosis was also established by having the parents complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale, and the teachers complete the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale. Two groups of Iranian parents, one group with children who have ADHD (N=130) and a control group (N=120), completed questionnaires measuring parental self-confidence and parenting styles. Parents of children with ADHD were found to have lower self-confidence and less warmth and involvement with their children, and used corporal punishment significantly more than the parents of control children. The study provides strong evidence that children with ADHD are at considerable risk of abuse by their parents. Rather than focusing only on the child's ADHD, treatment may also need to address the parents' functioning.

  19. Predicting success in an online parenting intervention: the role of child, parent, and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Cassandra K; Farruggia, Susan P; Palmer, Melanie L; Sanders, Matthew R; Keown, Louise J

    2014-04-01

    The present study involved an examination of the extent to which a wide range of child, parent, family, and program-related factors predicted child behavior and parenting outcomes after participation in an 8-session online version of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Participants were mothers and fathers of 97 children aged between 3 and 8 years displaying elevated levels of disruptive behavior problems. For both mothers and fathers, poorer child behavior outcomes at postintervention were predicted by the number of sessions of the intervention completed by the family. For mothers, postintervention child behavior was also predicted by the quality of the mother-child relationship at baseline; for fathers, baseline child behavior severity was an additional predictor. Mothers' postintervention ineffective parenting was predicted by session completion and preintervention levels of ineffective parenting, whereas the only predictor of fathers' ineffective parenting at postintervention was preintervention levels of ineffective parenting. Socioeconomic risk, parental adjustment, and father participation in the intervention were not significant predictors of mother- or father-reported treatment outcomes. The implications of the findings for the provision of online parenting support are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Adoptive gay father families: parent-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Mothers' and Fathers' Couple and Family Contextual Influences, Parent Involvement, and School-Age Child Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly couples in two-parent families share the dual responsibilities of parenting and providing for their children financially. Parenting is embedded within and shaped by specific family contexts. This study examined 92 mothers' and fathers' responses on indices of couple and family contexts, parent involvement, and child-reported…

  2. Service Family Support -- A Small-Scale Project of Educational Psychologists Working with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Jane; Hart, Anne; Collins, Zoe V.

    2014-01-01

    Being in a Service family can be a difficult position for children and parents alike due to high levels of mobility, parental separation, and the remaining parent's stress and emotional well-being. A Service family is defined as a family with one or both parents employed by the Ministry of Defence (MOD). The current project looked at the…

  3. Longitudinal Linkages among Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Parenting, Parent-Child Sense of Alienation, and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the authors of the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation…

  4. Irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence and the family environment: underlying causes by family structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A; Kirby, Joanna

    2012-08-01

    Data from the 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression for outcome variable irregular breakfast consumption (IBC). IBC prevalence in Scotland was higher among young people from reconstituted and single parent families, and particularly single father families. Family characteristics, found previously to be associated with breakfast consumption, such as number of siblings, perceived parenting, parental involvement and family affluence, differed by family structure. Family structure inequalities in IBC existed, also after adjustment for year and child's sex, age, grade and ethnicity. Across all family structures, IBC was more prevalent at the older age groups, among those who had difficult communication with their parents, and where household routines were infrequent. Greater number of siblings and lower family affluence were associated with higher odds of IBC in single mother and both parent families, while having a second home was associated with higher odds in reconstituted households. Fair parenting and being close to at least one parent was associated with reduced odds of IBC in single mother households, while being close to all parents was in single father households. In single mother homes, having a working mother was also positively associated with IBC. Family structure differences should be considered when addressing irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Socioeconomic status and parenting in ethnic minority families: testing a minority family stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Prevoo, Mariëlle J L; Yeniad, Nihal

    2013-12-01

    According to the family stress model (Conger & Donnellan, 2007), low socioeconomic status (SES) predicts less-than-optimal parenting through family stress. Minority families generally come from lower SES backgrounds than majority families, and may experience additional stressors associated with their minority status, such as acculturation stress. The primary goal of this study was to test a minority family stress model with a general family stress pathway, as well as a pathway specific to ethnic minority families. The sample consisted of 107 Turkish-Dutch mothers and their 5- to 6-year-old children, and positive parenting was observed during a 7-min problem-solving task. In addition, mothers reported their daily hassles, psychological distress, and acculturation stress. The relation between SES and positive parenting was partially mediated by both general maternal psychological stress and maternal acculturation stress. Our study contributes to the argument that stressors specific to minority status should be considered in addition to more general demographic and family stressors in understanding parenting behavior in ethnic minority families.

  6. [Supporting parenting in families with multiple problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Supporting parenthood in families with multiple problems is a major early prevention challenge. Indeed, the factors of vulnerability, especially if they mount up, expose the child to an increased risk of a somatic pathology, developmental delays, learning difficulties and maltreatment. In order to limit the impact of these vulnerabilities on the health of mothers and infants, it is essential to act early, to adapt the working framework and to collaborate within a network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Parenting Environment and Scholastic Achievement during Adolescence: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, Toon W.; Bok, Inge A.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effects of perceived parenting style (overly protective versus a warm and loving environment) on the scholastic achievement of 986 Dutch adults age 18-30 years. Retrospective and longitudinal data suggested that respondents with overprotective parents drop out more frequently and have a lower level of educational attainment…

  8. Link Between Deployment Factors and Parenting Stress in Navy Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A Families 5b. GRANT NUMBER HT9404-13-1-TS05 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Purpose: Many service members today are married, and many also have children; deployments affect all members of the military family . The purpose of this...conducted. Findings: As deployment factors increased, parenting stress increased for fathers in the reintegration period, with a potential mediation

  9. Parental education and family status--association with children's cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloudíková, Iva; Hrubá, Drahoslava; Samara, Ibrahim

    2012-03-01

    Social influences are among the most important factors associated with children's and adolescents' smoking. Social norms in families, peer groups, professional and municipal communities influence the individuals ones by the process of socialization obtained mainly by interactions and observations. Especially social context of the home environment expressed by household smoking restriction serves as a socialization mechanism that dissuades from the using of tobacco. Parental anti-smoking socialization practices (their attitudes and knowledge about children smoking, discussion about smoking in appropriate quality and frequency, smoking environment in homes) are influenced by their education and family status. Markers of social environment (the level of mothers' and fathers' education, family status) were investigated during interview with 5th graders included in the cohort participating in the programme "Non-smoking Is Normal". Data about the self-reported exposure to passive smoking at homes and cars were taken into consideration. Information about discussions with parents about smoking, opinions about adults smoking, experimentation with smoking, and concurrent decision about smoking in the future were obtained from 766 children aged 11 years. Those who did not know parental education or family status were excluded from the evaluation. Differences were evaluated using the chi-square, Mantel-Haenszel, Fisher and Yates corrected tests in the statistic software Epi Info, version 6. The level of mothers' and fathers' education significantly influenced the exposure of children to passive smoking. Compared to families of higher educated parents, children living in families with middle and low levels of parents' education were significantly more exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home and in car (RR 1.38; 95% CI 1.04-1.83) and fewer of them live in non-smoking environments. In the whole cohort, 67.5% children have not smoked even one puff yet, 17.2% reported one

  10. Sex differences in parental care: Gametic investment, sexual selection, and social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P; Remeš, Vladimir; Székely, Tamás

    2015-11-01

    Male and female parents often provide different type and amount of care to their offspring. Three major drivers have been proposed to explain parental sex roles: (1) differential gametic investment by males and females that precipitates into sex difference in care, (2) different intensity of sexual selection acting on males and females, and (3) biased social environment that facilitates the more common sex to provide more care. Here, we provide the most comprehensive assessment of these hypotheses using detailed parental care data from 792 bird species covering 126 families. We found no evidence for the gametic investment hypothesis: neither gamete sizes nor gamete production by males relative to females was related to sex difference in parental care. However, sexual selection correlated with parental sex roles, because the male share in care relative to female decreased with both extra-pair paternity and frequency of male polygamy. Parental sex roles were also related to social environment, because male parental care increased with male-biased adult sex ratios (ASRs). Taken together, our results are consistent with recent theories suggesting that gametic investment is not tied to parental sex roles, and highlight the importance of both sexual selection and ASR in influencing parental sex roles. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent?Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3–9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent–child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families com...

  12. The Family Environment as a Moderator of Psychosocial Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether the family environment moderates psychosocial outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children. Method Participants were recruited prospectively from consecutive hospital admissions of 3-6 year old children, and included 19 with severe TBI, 56 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 99 with orthopedic injuries (OI). They completed four assessments across the first 18 months post-injury. The initial assessment included measures of parenting style, family functioning, and the quality of the home. Children’s behavioral adjustment, adaptive functioning, and social competence were assessed at each occasion. Mixed model analyses examined the relationship of the family environment to psychosocial outcomes across time. Results The OI and TBI groups differed significantly in social competence, but the family environment did not moderate the group difference, which was of medium magnitude. In contrast, group differences in behavioral adjustment became more pronounced across time at high levels of authoritarian and permissive parenting; among children with severe TBI, however, even those with low levels of permissive parenting showed increases in behavioral problems. For adaptive functioning, better home environments provided some protection following TBI, but not over time for the severe TBI group. These three-way interactions of group, family environment, and time post injury were all of medium magnitude. Conclusions The findings indicate that the family environment moderates the psychosocial outcomes of TBI in young children, but the moderating influence may wane with time among children with severe TBI. PMID:20438212

  13. Parental family variables and likelihood of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalkidou, A

    2000-01-01

    It has long been established that divorced men and women have substantially higher standardized general mortality than same gender persons. Because the incidence of divorce is increasing in many countries, determinants of divorce rates assume great importance as indirect risk factors for several diseases and conditions that adversely affect health. We have undertaken a study in Athens, Greece, to evaluate whether sibship size, birth order, and the gender composition of spousal sibships are related to the probability of divorce. 358 high school students, aged between 15 and 17 years, satisfactorily completed anonymous questionnaires, indicating whether their natural parents have been separated or divorced, their parents' educational achievement, birth order and sibship size by gender. The study was analyzed as a twin case-control investigation, treating those divorced or separated as cases and those who were not divorced or separated as controls. A man who grew up as an only child was almost three times as likely to divorce compared to a man with siblings, and this association was highly significant (p approximately 0.004). There was no such evidence with respect to women. After controlling for sibship size, earlier born men--but not women--appeared to be at higher risk for divorce compared to those later born. There was no evidence that the gender structure of the sibship substantially affects the risk for divorce. Even though divorce is not an organic disease, it indirectly affects health as well as the social well-being. The findings of this study need to be replicated, but, if confirmed, they could contribute to our understanding of the roots of some instances of marital dysfunction.

  14. An exploratory study of 2 parenting styles and family health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emma M; Williams, Joel; Thompson, Kirsten; Johnson, Knowlton; Bright, Mikia; Karam, Eli; Jones, V Faye

    2013-07-01

    To examine the relationships between 2 parenting styles and family nutrition and physical activity. Parents of elementary/primary school children in the southeastern United States (N = 145) completed surveys regarding family relationships and health behaviors. Parents exhibiting a laissez-faire parenting style reported lower levels of family nutrition and physical activity. In addition, parent BMI moderated the relationship between laissez-faire parenting and these health behaviors. This study indicates that family-oriented nutrition and physical activity programs may benefit from including a focus on decreasing laissez-faire parenting, as well as helping overweight parents reduce their BMIs.

  15. Family size, cognitive outcomes, and familial interaction in stable, two-parent families: United States, 1997-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, John; Rafail, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Measures of children's time use, particularly with parents and siblings, are used to evaluate three hypotheses in relation to the vocabulary and mathematical skills development: (1) the resource dilution hypothesis, which argues that parental and household resources are diluted in larger families; (2) the confluence hypothesis, which suggests that the intellectual milieu of families is lowered with additional children; and (3) the admixture ("no effect") hypothesis, which suggests that the negative relationship between family size and achievement is an artifact of cross-sectional research resulting from unobserved heterogeneity. Each hypothesis is tested using within-child estimates of change in cognitive scores over time with the addition of new children to families.

  16. Family Environment and Cognitive Development: Twelve Analytic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Marjoribanks, Kevin

    1976-01-01

    The review indicates that refined measures of the family environment and the use of complex statistical models increase the understanding of the relationships between socioeconomic status, sibling variables, family environment, and cognitive development. (RC)

  17. Positive parenting in ethnic minority families : challenges and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, Rosalia Antonia Grada (Rosanneke)

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of the current dissertation is to uncover predictors and outcomes of positive parenting in ethnic minority families. Chapter 2 provides an overview of commonly used observational instruments to measure sensitivity, showing the versatility and scientific importance of the construct.

  18. Self-esteem, gender, family-communication-style and parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the role of self-esteem, gender, family communication style, and parental neglect on aggressive tendencies among secondary school adolescents' in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. A total of two hundred and forty (240) secondary school adolescents drawn from 9 private and 3 public ...

  19. Parental Emotion Coaching and Dismissing in Family Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Shields, Ann M.; Cortina, Kai S.

    2007-01-01

    We observed the positive emotion socialization practice of parental emotion coaching (EC) and the negative socialization practice of emotion dismissing (ED) during a family interaction task and examined their effects on children's emotion regulation and behavior problems in middle childhood. Participants were 87 sociodemographically diverse…

  20. Parental adaptation in families of young children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentinck, I.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background For most parents, the birth of their child is a unique and touching moment. However, in some families a child is born with a physical disability. Among the large variety of childhood developmental disabilities, cerebral palsy (CP) is considered to be the major physical disability

  1. Daily Management of Work and Family Goals in Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Klumb, Petra L.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses one-week time-sampling information from 104 employed parents with pre-school children to examine the association between daily workloads, control strategies, and goal progress. In addition, it examines relationships between work- and family-goal progress and important stress indices such as positive/negative affect and cortisol…

  2. Exploring personality clusters among parents of ED subjects. Relationship with parents' psychopathology, attachment, and family dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Daga, Giovanni Abbate; Bertorello, Antonella; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-10-01

    Eating disorders are some of the most difficult mental disorders to treat and manage. Family interacts with genetic dispositions and other pathogenic factors, and may influence the outburst, development and outcome of EDs. The present study explores with a cluster analysis the personality traits of parents of ED subjects. One-hundred-eight mothers and 104 fathers were tested with Temperament Character Inventory (TCI), Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAX), Family Assessment Device (FAD), Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Symptom Questionnaire (SQ), Psychological Well-Being scales (PWB). The cluster distribution of parents based on personality traits was explored. Parents' clusters TCI scores were compared as regards personality, psychopathology, attachment and family features. Cross distribution of temperament and character clusters in mothers and fathers, among couples and ED diagnoses of the daughters was explored. Two clusters of mothers and fathers were identified with temperament clustering. Character traits led to two mothers and three fathers clusters. Mothers temperament cluster 1 (MTC1) correspond to a explosive/adventurous profile, MTC2 to a cautious/passive-dependent profile. Fathers temperament cluster 1 (FTC1) was explosive/methodic, FTC2 was independent/methodic. Character clustering distinguished very immature mothers (MCC1) and majority (65%) of character mature mothers with low self-transcendence (MCC2). A third of fathers was severely immature (FCC1), a third impaired as regards relationships (poor cooperativeness and self-transcendence; FCC2), and one third character mature fathers with low self-transcendence (FCC3). Each cluster evidences specific psychopathology and attachment characteristics. FTC1 was more frequently associated with character immaturity. No significant clusters' cross correlation was found in parental couples. Parents' clusters analyze in depth the univocal picture of

  3. Parental self-work: governing enactments in family life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselott Aarsand

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Discourses on lifelong and lifewide learning portray everyday life as a pedagogical space where requirements for how to preferably improve oneself through learning are highly significant. Drawing upon the notion of governmentality, it could be argued that techniques operate within a range of practices to shape, foster and stabilize the assumed adequate ways to perform. Using that particular lens, the case of parenting was investigated to accentuate selves and self-work in narrations on family life in Norway. The analysis illustrates how the techniques of activation and comparison are at work to define, fashion and develop the responsible, involved and attentive parental self, thereby signifying pedagogical claims one should aspire to. However, how this is accomplished differs slightly within the social contexts of family life. Parenting, then, may be discussed as a powerful educative practice for fabricating capable and wellbehaved citizens of contemporary times.

  4. Fractured families: parental perspectives of the effects of adolescent drug abuse on family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Debra; Usher, Kim; O'Brien, Louise

    Drug use in young people has serious ramifications for health and well-being of young people and their families and continues to be an area of major concern for health workers. Though the task of dealing with drug-related problems falls on families, particularly parents, very little literature has explored parental experiences of managing drug use within the context of family life. Eighteen parents of drug-abusing young people were recruited into this qualitative study that aimed to develop understandings into the effects of adolescent drug use on family life. Findings revealed that the experience of having a drug-abusing adolescent family member had a profound effect on other members of the immediate family. Family relationships were fractured and split as a result of the on-going destructive and damaging behaviour of the drug-abusing young person. Five themes were identified that captured the concept of fractured families. These are: betrayal and loss of trust: 'You had to have the doors locked'; abuse, threats and violence: 'there were holes in the wall'; sibling anger and resentment: 'Better off now with him gone'; isolated, disgraced and humiliated: 'You are on your own with it'; and, feeling blamed: 'You are not a good parent'. Implications for practice and further research are drawn from the findings of this paper.

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Family Factors: Parenting Styles, Attachment Styles & Family Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    میرمحمدباقر آزادموسوی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the relationship between parental styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, attachment styles (secure, avoidant and ambivalent & family climate (hot and cold of two generations. Subjects were 220 (110 boy students of third class of secondary schools of two districts of Qazvin, and 110 parents who were selected via cluster sampling. In this study, Schaffer,s parenting questionnaires styles (Naqashian, 1358 and Collins and Read,s attachment (Collins & Read, 1990 were used as measures for collecting required data. Analyzes were carried out using simple linear regression, pearson correlation and chi-square. Results revealed that parenting styles, attachment styles and family climate of parents, predict same variables in children as second generation.

  6. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (pfamily types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (pfamily with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of family type and parental depressive symptoms on adolescent functioning. Older and female adolescents deserve particular attention.

  7. Derecho u Obligacion?: Parents' and Youths' Understanding of Parental Legitimacy in a Mexican Origin Familial Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Leticia

    2007-01-01

    This study draws from a social domain framework to explore judgments of parental authority in a Mexican origin familial context. The sample included 277 ninth-grade youth (M = 14.53 years, SD = 0.61) and one of each of their parents. The average age of mothers was 39.88 years (SD = 5.85), and for fathers it was 41.65 years (SD = 5.51). As…

  8. The Maudsley Model of Family-Based Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Evaluation of Parent-to-Parent Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Paul; Brown, Jac; Madden, Sloane

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the qualitative analysis of a randomized control trial that explores the use of parent-to-parent consultations as an augmentation to the Maudsley model of family-based treatment for anorexia. Twenty families were randomized into two groups, 10 receiving standard treatment and 10 receiving an additional parent-to-parent…

  9. Correlation between Family Environment and Suicidal Ideation in University Students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the association between suicidal ideation and family environment. The sample included 5183 Chinese university students. A number of studies on suicidal ideation have focused on individuals rather than families. This paper reviews the general principles of suicidal ideation and the consequences resulting from the family environment. Methods: This study used six different colleges as the dataset, which included 2645 males and 2538 females. Students were questioned with respect to social demographics and suicidal ideation factors. The data were analyzed with factor and logistic analyses to determine the association between suicidal ideation and poor family environment. Results: The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 9.2% (476/5183. Most participants with suicidal ideation had significant similarities: they had poor family structures and relationships, their parents had unstable work, and their parents used improper parenting styles. Female students were more likely to have suicidal thoughts than male students. Conclusions: This study shows that suicidal ideation is a public health issue among Chinese university students and demonstrates the importance of considering the family environment when examining university students’ suicidal ideation. Understanding family-related suicidal ideation risk factors can help to predict and prevent suicides among university students.

  10. Correlation between family environment and suicidal ideation in university students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui; Bai, Bing; Chen, Lu; Han, Dong; Wang, Lin; Qiao, Zhengxue; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Yang, Yanjie

    2015-01-27

    This study investigated the association between suicidal ideation and family environment. The sample included 5183 Chinese university students. A number of studies on suicidal ideation have focused on individuals rather than families. This paper reviews the general principles of suicidal ideation and the consequences resulting from the family environment. This study used six different colleges as the dataset, which included 2645 males and 2538 females. Students were questioned with respect to social demographics and suicidal ideation factors. The data were analyzed with factor and logistic analyses to determine the association between suicidal ideation and poor family environment. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 9.2% (476/5183). Most participants with suicidal ideation had significant similarities: they had poor family structures and relationships, their parents had unstable work, and their parents used improper parenting styles. Female students were more likely to have suicidal thoughts than male students. This study shows that suicidal ideation is a public health issue among Chinese university students and demonstrates the importance of considering the family environment when examining university students' suicidal ideation. Understanding family-related suicidal ideation risk factors can help to predict and prevent suicides among university students.

  11. Correlation between Family Environment and Suicidal Ideation in University Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui; Bai, Bing; Chen, Lu; Han, Dong; Wang, Lin; Qiao, Zhengxue; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Yang, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the association between suicidal ideation and family environment. The sample included 5183 Chinese university students. A number of studies on suicidal ideation have focused on individuals rather than families. This paper reviews the general principles of suicidal ideation and the consequences resulting from the family environment. Methods: This study used six different colleges as the dataset, which included 2645 males and 2538 females. Students were questioned with respect to social demographics and suicidal ideation factors. The data were analyzed with factor and logistic analyses to determine the association between suicidal ideation and poor family environment. Results: The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 9.2% (476/5183). Most participants with suicidal ideation had significant similarities: they had poor family structures and relationships, their parents had unstable work, and their parents used improper parenting styles. Female students were more likely to have suicidal thoughts than male students. Conclusions: This study shows that suicidal ideation is a public health issue among Chinese university students and demonstrates the importance of considering the family environment when examining university students’ suicidal ideation. Understanding family-related suicidal ideation risk factors can help to predict and prevent suicides among university students. PMID:25633031

  12. Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver–child and incarcerated parent–child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children’s behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children’s behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment. PMID:20582847

  13. Parental emotional competence and parenting in low-income families with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Wendy; Borre, Alicia; Wright, Anna W; Jäggi, Lena; Drazdowski, Tess; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2016-02-01

    Ample research has demonstrated that alexithymia, which is characterized by difficulty processing emotions, is associated with disruptions in parenting infants and toddlers. Individuals suffering from alexithymia have among other negative outcomes difficulty building and maintaining interpersonal relationships. Research on emotional expression and recognition has documented the importance of these competencies for the quality of the parent-child relationship and for skills critical for parents of adolescents, such as effective monitoring. However, literature linking parental alexithymia to parenting behaviors and related constructs during adolescents is lacking. The present study closes this gap by examining how mothers' (M age = 39.42 years, SD = 7.62; Range = 23-67) alexithymia affects parent-reported behaviors of solicitation and control, as well as youths' (53.6% female; M age = 12.13 years, SD = 1.62; Range = 9-16) reported disclosure and felt acceptance by their mothers among a sample of 358 primarily urban, African American families. Structural equation models (SEM) revealed that mothers' alexithymia was prospectively related to less parental solicitation 2 years later for both males and females, and to lower levels of felt acceptance for males. Multiple group analyses revealed that these models fits equally well for younger and older youth. Contrary to hypotheses, alexithymia was not related to control or to disclosure. Taken together, these findings indicate that parents' difficulty in processing emotions contributes to parenting beyond early childhood. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The role of co-parenting alliance as a mediator between trait anxiety, family system maladjustment, and parenting stress in a sample of non-clinical Italian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Sciandra, Andrea; Finos, Livio; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Riso, Daniela Di

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of co-parenting alliance in mediating the influence of parents' trait anxiety on family system maladjustment and parenting stress. A sample of 1606 Italian parents (803 mothers and 803 fathers) of children aged one to 13 years completed measures of trait anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y), co-parenting alliance (Parenting Alliance Measure), family system maladjustment (Family Assessment Measure-III), and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Inventory-Short Form). These variables were investigated together comparing two structural equations model-fitting including both partners. A model for both mothers and fathers was empirically devised as a series of associations between parent trait anxiety (independent variable), family system maladjustment and parenting stress (dependent variables), mediated by co-parenting alliance, with the insertion of cross predictions between mothers and fathers and correlations between dependent variables for both parents. Results indicated that the relation between mothers and fathers' trait anxiety, family system maladjustment and parenting stress was mediated by the level of co-parenting alliance. Understanding the role of couples' co-parenting alliance could be useful during the family assessment and/or treatment, since it is an efficient and effective tool to improve the family system maladjustment and stress.

  15. Family functioning, burden and parenting stress 2 years after very preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W; Lee, Katherine J; Roberts, Gehan; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    Examining rates of difficulties in family functioning following very preterm birth has been a relatively neglected area of research. To examine family functioning, burden and parenting stress in families with very preterm compared with term born children, and investigate influences of parental mental health problems and child neurodevelopmental disability on family outcomes in families with preterm children. Participants were 184 very preterm and 71 term children and their parents. Parents completed the Family Assessment Device, Parenting Stress Index and Impact on Family questionnaires when their children were 2 years old (corrected for prematurity). Parental mental health and social risk information were also collected. Children were assessed for neurodevelopmental disability. Families with very preterm children reported poorer family functioning (p=.03) compared with families with term born children, with less evidence for differences between families with very preterm and term born children in parenting stress and family burden. Within very preterm families, parental mental health problems were associated with higher levels of parenting stress (p=.001), and parents of children with a neurodevelopmental disability were more likely to report higher family burden (p=.04). For families with very preterm children, parental mental health symptoms and child neurodevelopmental disability may identify families at risk of greater stress and burden who may benefit from additional support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How Nurse Work Environments Relate to the Presence of Parents in Neonatal Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Sunny G; Rogowski, Jeannette A; Lake, Eileen T

    2017-09-25

    Parental presence in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is essential for families to participate in infant care and prepare them to transition from hospital to home. Nurses are the principal caregivers in the NICU. The nurse work environment may influence whether parents spend time with their hospitalized infants. To examine the relationship between the NICU work environment and parental presence in the NICU using a national data set. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study of a national sample of 104 NICUs, where 6060 nurses reported on 15,233 infants cared for. Secondary analysis was used to examine associations between the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) (subscale items and with a composite measure) and the proportion of parents who were present during the nurses' shift. Parents of 60% (SD = 9.7%) of infants were present during the nurses' shift. The PES-NWI composite score and 2 domains-Nurse Participation in Hospital Affairs and Manager Leadership and Support-were significant predictors of parental presence. A 1 SD higher score in the composite or either subscale was associated with 2.5% more parents being present. Parental presence in the NICU is significantly associated with better nurse work environments. NICU practices may be enhanced through enhanced leadership and professional opportunities for nurse managers and staff. Future work may benefit from qualitative work with parents to illuminate their experiences with nursing leaders and nurse-led interventions in the NICU and design and testing of interventions to improve the NICU work environment.

  17. Parenting and Family Support for Families 'at risk' - Implications from Child Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Marie Halpenny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of family experiences on children’s development and wellbeing has been widely documented. Yet, recent reports generated by inquiries into child abuse and neglect in the Irish context raise disturbing questions with regard to how the severe maltreatment of children can occur within the family context. It is imperative that the messages generated from these inquiries can effectively inform policy and practice in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support to families at-risk. The present paper draws together key issues for parenting and family support for families ‘at risk’ based on the Roscommon and Monageer inquiries with a view to gaining insight into key issues which need to be addressed in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support for parents experiencing adversity. A number of implications arising from these reports are outlined and discussed. Specifically, the need to amplify the focus on support for parenting in the context of poverty and substance abuse is highlighted with a particular emphasis on developing sensitive screening and assessment for parents who may be difficult to engage with due to chronic mental health issues. The importance of accessing the voice of children within the provision of family support is also underlined in these findings. A key recommendation from these reports is that the needs, wishes and feelings of each child must be considered as well as the totality of the family situation. Moreover, the need for staff in child welfare and protection services to have access to ongoing training and professional development to meet the complex and changing needs of the children and families they are working with is also highlighted. Specifically, ongoing training for frontline staff in understanding the effects of drug and alcohol dependency, and, in particular, the effects on parenting and parent-child relationships is underscored in findings from these reports.

  18. Single-Parent Family Forms and Children's Educational Performance in a Comparative Perspective: Effects of School's Share of Single-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Marloes; Dronkers, Jaap; Wolbers, Maarten H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Living in a single-parent family is negatively related with children's educational performance compared to living with 2 biological parents. In this article, we aim to find out to what extent the context of the school's share of single-parent families affects this negative relationship. We use pooled data from the Organisation for Economic…

  19. Single-parent family forms and children's educational performance in a comparative perspective: Effects of school's share of single-parent families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. de; Dronkers, J.A.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Living in a single-parent family is negatively related with children's educational performance compared to living with 2 biological parents. In this article, we aim to find out to what extent the context of the school's share of single-parent families affects this negative relationship. We use

  20. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and

  1. Family Environments and Adaptation: A Clinically Applicable Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Andrew G.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a typology of family environments based on multidimensional assessments of a representative sample of community families. Identified seven family types. Found family differences in environmental stressors and coping resources affected family members' levels of functioning. Discusses clinical and research applications of the typology.…

  2. Smoke-free homes among single-parent families: Differences associated with parental race/ethnicity and smoking behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Mai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed differences in the rates of smoke-free homes among single-parent households with regard to parental race/ethnicity and smoking status. We identified two cohorts representative of the U.S. single-parent households with underage children (children under the age of 18 based on the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey: 2010–11 (n=6474 and 2014–15 (n=6114. The interviews were conducted by phone and in-person. Statistical analysis was performed in 2017. The overall rate of smoke-free homes was 82% in 2010–11 and 86% in 2014–15. The rate of a smoke-free home was highest for Non-Hispanic (NH Asian (94% and Hispanic (92% parents and lowest for NH Multiracial (77% in 2010–11 and 82% in 2014–15 in both survey periods. However, 2014–15 model-based comparisons relative to NH Whites indicated only one significant difference: the rate was lower for NH Blacks (OR=0.46, 99% CI=0.32:0.66. The smoke-free homes were least prevalent among daily smokers, followed by occasional smokers, followed by former smokers, and most prevalent among never smokers in each survey period. The 2010–11 and 2014–15 rates were 45% and 54% for daily, 64% and 72% for occasional, 89% and 91% for former, and 93% and 94% for never smokers. The gap in the rates of smoke-free homes for diverse parental racial/ethnic groups observed in 2010–11 decreased by 2014–15. While smoke-free homes became more prevalent in 2014–15, the rates remain drastically different among families with different parental smoking behaviors. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home remains common among single-parent households where the parent smokes. Keywords: Involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke, Single mother, Single father, Healthy home environment

  3. The Impact of Deployment on Parental, Family and Child Adjustment in Military Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Aralis, Hilary; Sinclair, Maegan; Kiff, Cara; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Mustillo, Sarah; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid

    2016-12-01

    Since 9/11, military service in the United States has been characterized by wartime deployments and reintegration challenges that contribute to a context of stress for military families. Research indicates the negative impact of wartime deployment on the well being of service members, military spouses, and children. Yet, few studies have considered how parental deployments may affect adjustment in young children and their families. Using deployment records and parent-reported measures from primary caregiving (N = 680) and military (n = 310) parents, we examined the influence of deployment on adjustment in military families with children ages 0-10 years. Greater deployment exposure was related to impaired family functioning and marital instability. Parental depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms were associated with impairments in social emotional adjustment in young children, increased anxiety in early childhood, and adjustment problems in school-age children. Conversely, parental sensitivity was associated with improved social and emotional outcomes across childhood. These findings provide guidance to developing preventive approaches for military families with young children.

  4. Does Marital Status of Parents Relate to Family Communication Regarding Finances?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Mauldin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available How do youth and parents perceive their communication with each other? How do they perceive communication about money with each other? Are there differences between married-parent families and single-parent families? The reported study examined the discrepancies in perception between parents and youth and compares these differences between married and single-parent families. Although single-parent families had greater discrepancies in perceptions regarding communication in general, there was no evidence of such differences in discrepancies regarding communication about money. The finding suggests the importance of youth development programs to provide information and encouragement to both youth and their parents.

  5. Parent-offspring conflict over family size in current China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghua; Duan, Chongli; Lummaa, Virpi

    2017-05-06

    In China, the recent replacement of the one-child policy with a two-child policy could potentially change family ecology-parents may switch investment from exclusively one child to two. The parent-offspring conflict theory provides testable hypotheses concerning possible firstborn opposition toward further reproduction of their mother, and who wins the conflict. We tested the hypotheses that if there is any opposition, it will differ between sexes, weaken with offspring age and family resource availability, and affect maternal reproductive decision-making. Using survey data of 531 non-pregnant mothers of only one child from Xi'an (China), logistic regression was used to examine effects of age, family income, and sex on the attitudes of firstborn children toward having a sibling; ordinal regression was used to investigate how such attitudes affect maternal intention to reproduce again. Firstborns' unsupportive attitude toward their mothers' further reproduction weakened with age and was overall more frequent in low-income families. Sons' unsupportive tendency displayed a somewhat U-shaped relationship, whereas daughters' weakened with family income; consequently, sons were more likely than daughters to be unsupportive in high-income families, suggesting a tendency to be more demanding. Forty-nine percent of mothers supported by their firstborns intended to reproduce again, whilst only 9% of mothers not supported by firstborns had such an intention. Our study contributes to evolutionary literature on parent-offspring conflict and its influence on female reproductive strategy in modern human societies, and has also important implications for understanding fertility patterns and conducting interventions in family conflict in China. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Sylvana; van Oort, Floor; Huizink, Anja; Verhulst, Frank; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina; Boomsma, Dorret; Bartels, Meike

    2012-10-01

    The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with married parents, and that externalizing problems in girls precede and predict later parental divorce. The aim of the current study was to investigate as to whether genetic and environmental influences on internalizing and externalizing problems were different for children from divorced versus non-divorced families. Maternal ratings on internalizing and externalizing problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist in 4,592 twin pairs at ages 3 and 12 years, of whom 367 pairs had experienced a parental divorce between these ages. Variance in internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 3 and 12 was analyzed with biometric models in which additive genetic and environmental effects were allowed to depend on parental divorce and sex. A difference in the contribution of genetic and environmental influences between divorced and non-divorced groups would constitute evidence for gene-environment interaction. For both pre- and post-divorce internalizing and externalizing problems, the total variances were larger for children from divorced families, which was mainly due to higher environmental variances. As a consequence, heritabilities were lower for children from divorced families, and the relative contributions of environmental influences were higher. Environmental influences become more important in explaining variation in children's problem behaviors in the context of parental divorce.

  7. Parenting after infertility: issues for families and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jacqueline M; Samra, Haifa A; Zukowsky, Ksenia; Baker, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the research related to parenting after assisted reproduction and uses that research to discuss clinical implications for nurses who work to support these families and the development of their children. The worldwide diagnosis of infertility continues to rise and now hovers near 20%. The increased availability and success of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) provides a potential option for infertile families to conceive and begin a family, but as nurses know, infertility treatments are not easy to tolerate, are time-consuming, physically taxing, and expensive. In addition, a positive outcome is far from guaranteed. Even when infertile couples successfully give birth, they can continue to struggle with the psychological aspects of infertility and the ongoing care of a child who may be premature, low birth weight, or afflicted with another high-risk condition such as long-term developmental or behavioral problems. Unfortunately, the psychological needs of the couple and the family may not be addressed during ART treatment or after the birth of a child. Parenting is a challenging life task; parenting when the partners may have to work through the psychological aspects of infertility and the care of a high-risk child is even more complex and may have long-lasting effects on the partners as well as their children.

  8. Are parental concerns for child TV viewing associated with child TV viewing and the home sedentary environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford David

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time spent watching television affects multiple aspects of child and adolescent health. Although a diverse range of factors have been found to be associated with young people's television viewing, parents and the home environment are particularly influential. However, little is known about whether parents, particularly those who are concerned about their child's television viewing habits, translate their concern into action by providing supportive home environments (e.g. rules restricting screen-time behaviours, limited access to screen-based media. The aim of this study was to examine associations between parental concerns for child television viewing and child television viewing and the home sedentary environment. Methods Parents of children aged 5-6 years ('younger' children, n = 430 and 10-12 years ('older children', n = 640 reported usual duration of their child's television (TV viewing, their concerns regarding the amount of time their child spends watching TV, and on aspects of the home environment. Regression analyses examined associations between parental concern and child TV viewing, and between parental concern and aspects of the home environment. Analyses were stratified by age group. Results Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents were not concerned (B = 9.63, 95% CI = 1.58-17.68, p = 0.02 and B = 15.82, 95% CI = 8.85-22.80, p Conclusions Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents who were not concerned. Parents appear to recognise excessive television viewing in their children and these parents appear to engage in conflicting parental approaches despite these concerns. Interventions targeting concerned parents may be an innovative way of reaching children most in need of strategies to reduce their television viewing and harnessing this parental concern may offer considerable opportunity to change the family and home environment.

  9. Parent-Reported Family Functioning Among Children With Cleft Lip/Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crerand, Canice E; Rosenberg, Janine; Magee, Leanne; Stein, Margot B; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Broder, Hillary L

    2015-11-01

    To examine family functioning related to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics in youth with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P). Cross-sectional, multi-site investigation. Six U.S. cleft centers. A diverse sample of 1200 children with CL/P and their parents. Parents completed the Family Environment Scale (FES), which assesses three domains of family functioning: cohesion (or closeness), expressiveness (open expression of feelings), and conflict. Demographic and clinical characteristics were also assessed including race, ethnicity, type of insurance, and surgical recommendations. The FES scores for families seeking team evaluations for their youth with CL/P (mean age = 11.6 years) fall within the average range compared with normative samples. Families receiving surgical recommendations for their youth also had FES scores in the average range, yet families of children recommended for functional surgery reported greater cohesion, expressiveness, and less conflict compared with those recommended for aesthetic surgery (P conflict domain. Families with private insurance reported significantly greater cohesion (P functioning across domains was in the average range. However, observed differences by race, ethnicity, type of insurance, and surgical recommendation may warrant consideration in clinical management for patients and families.

  10. Longitudinal associations between family dinner and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication among racially diverse urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Pasch, Keryn E; Stigler, Melissa H; Farbakhsh, Kian; Perry, Cheryl L; Komro, Kelli A

    2010-06-01

    We examined changes in adolescent self-reported parent-child communication using growth curve models conditional on family meal frequency over a 3.5-year period among a population of racially diverse, low-income adolescents from an urban environment (n = 4,750). Results indicated that although both family dinner frequency and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores were characterized by negative linear growth over time (both p parent-child communication scores over time (p parent-child communication and ultimately promote healthy adolescent development by making family dinner a priority. In addition, the communication benefits of family dinner at the beginning of sixth grade may be protective through eighth grade. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n=109) and non-attempters (n=107) were recruited from the NYC area. Latent class analysis revealed three family environment types: tight-knit; intermediate-knit; and loose-knit. Tight-knit families (high cohesion and low conflict) were significantly less likely to have teens that attempted...

  12. Work-Family Conflict within the Family: Crossover Effects, Perceived Parent-Child Interaction Quality, Parental Self-Efficacy, and Life Role Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Weisel, Amatzia; Tzuk, Kineret

    2007-01-01

    To better understand the work-family interface within the family domain, this study investigated crossover effects of two types of work-family conflict among 120 participants (60 married couples), these conflicts' relations with parental self-efficacy and perceived quality of parent-child interaction, and the contribution of attributions of…

  13. Parent and child perspectives on family out-of-home eating: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffin, Lynn E; Price, Ruth K; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Hall, Glenn; Lobo, Alan; Wallace, Julie M W; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    To (i) explore the factors influencing family out-of-home (OH) eating events and (ii) identify possible opportunities for food businesses to support families in making healthier OH choices. Focus group discussions were conducted with parents (six to eight participants per group) and friendship pair discussions (informal interviews with two children who are friends) were conducted with children (5-12 years) throughout the island of Ireland. Both discussions were audio-recorded and analysed using a thematic content analysis. Eight focus groups and sixteen friendship pairs were conducted in Northern Ireland and sixteen focus groups and thirty-two friendship pairs were conducted in the Republic of Ireland. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a sample of non-related parents and children that represented equal numbers of gender, age, socio-economic status and demographic backgrounds. The main, overarching theme was that families perceived OH eating to be a treat, while health was not currently a key priority for many parents and children. Children were reported to have most responsibility for their own food choice decisions in this environment, with taste and food neophobia having the greatest influences. Parents believed that if food businesses could meet parent and child priorities in addition to health influences, e.g. change cooking methods, and increase flexibility, then families would be more likely to patronise these establishments. The entire family OH eating experience needs to be considered when developing public health interventions and this research has highlighted key opportunities that caterers could employ to support healthier family OH food choices.

  14. Child symptoms, parent behaviors, and family strain in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Chan; Brinkman, Tara M; Mullins, Larry; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Krull, Kevin R

    2018-05-17

    How family environment and parental factors affect health status and symptoms in childhood cancer survivors is understudied. We examined the influence of family cohesion, parent distress, and overprotection on child symptom burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and family strain in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Parents of 213 children treated with chemotherapy-only completed a survey when survivors were at least five-years post-diagnosis. Family Environment Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory-18, Parent Protection Scale, PedsQL, and Impact on Family were used to assess family cohesion, parental distress, overprotection, child symptom burden and HRQOL, and family strain, respectively. Path analysis was conducted to quantify effects of family cohesion on family strain through parental distress, overprotection, child symptoms, and HRQOL. Lower family cohesion (β=0.06, 95% CI=0.01 to 0.13), higher parental distress (β=0.35, 95% CI=0.20 to 0.45), and overprotection (β=0.17, 95% CI=0.01 to 0.32) were associated with more child symptom burden. More symptom burden were associated with poorer child HRQOL (β=0.66, 95% CI=0.57 to 0.75), which in turn was associated with more family strain (β=0.11, 95% CI=0.01 to 0.22). Lower maternal education was associated with overprotection (β=-0.23, 95% CI=-0.33 to -0.12), more child symptoms (β=-0.30, 95% CI=-0.41 to -0.16), poorer child HRQOL (β=-0.36, 95% CI=-0.46 to -0.21), and more family strain (β=-0.15, 95% CI=-0.23 to -0.08). Family and parental factors contributed to health outcomes of childhood ALL survivors. Interventions to enhance family cohesion, decrease parental distress and overprotection, and ameliorate child symptoms may improve family functioning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Sebastian Sieh

    Full Text Available It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group. Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem. Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01 than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01 and externalizing problems (p<.05 than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001. Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05. Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined

  16. Parenting styles, parental response to child emotion, and family emotional responsiveness are related to child emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Glade L; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Page, Melanie C; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal Resources, Parenting Practices, and Child Competence in Rural, Single-Parent African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.

    1998-01-01

    Tested a model linking maternal/family characteristics to child cognitive and psychosocial competence in African-American 6- to 9-year olds in rural single-mother-headed households. Found that maternal education, religiosity, and financial resources were linked with parenting style, mother-child relationship, and maternal school involvement.…

  18. Development of a Multisystemic Parent Management Training Intervention for Incarcerated Parents, Their Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, J. Mark; Martinez, Charles R.; Schiffmann, Tracy; Newton, Rex; Olin, Laura; Leve, Leslie; Foney, Dana M.; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2008-01-01

    The majority of men and women prison inmates are parents. Many lived with children prior to incarceration, and most have at least some contact with their children and families while serving their sentences. Because prison populations have increased in the United States, there has been a renewed interest in finding ways not only to reduce…

  19. Parental Choice without Parents: Families, Education and Class in a South African Township

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mark

    2017-01-01

    From the 1980s and 1990s, governments around the world began to champion "parental choice" over schooling. Much of the existing scholarship has been based on examples taken from the global North. In such settings, where nuclear families are common, a major theme has been the privileged educational strategies and outcomes of middle-class…

  20. Parents' assessment of parent-child interaction interventions – a longitudinal study in 101 families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engström Ingemar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to describe families with small children who participated in parent-child interaction interventions at four centres in Sweden, and to examine long term and short term changes regarding the parents' experience of parental stress, parental attachment patterns, the parents' mental health and life satisfaction, the parents' social support and the children's problems. Methods In this longitudinal study a consecutive sample of 101 families (94 mothers and 54 fathers with 118 children (median age 3 years was assessed, using self-reports, at the outset of the treatment (T1, six months later (T2 and 18 months after the beginning of treatment (T3. Analysis of the observed differences was carried out using Wilcoxon's Signed-Rank test and Cohen's d. Results The results from commencement of treatment showed that the parents had considerable problems in all areas examined. At the outset of treatment (T1 the mothers showed a higher level of problem load than the fathers on almost all scales. In the families where the children's problems have also been measured (children from the age of four it appeared that they had problems of a nature and degree otherwise found in psychiatric populations. We found a clear general trend towards a positive development from T1 to T2 and this development was also reinforced from T2 to T3. Aggression in the child was one of the most common causes for contact. There were few undesired or unplanned interruptions of the treatment, and the attrition from the study was low. Conclusion This study has shown that it is possible to reach mothers as well as fathers with parenting problems and to create an intervention program with very low dropout levels – which is of special importance for families with small children displaying aggressive behaviour. The parents taking part in this study showed clear improvement trends after six months and this development was reinforced a year later. This

  1. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…

  2. Couples' cultural values, shared parenting, and family emotional climate within Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Peterson, Marcela; Figueredo, Aurelio J; Christensen, Donna H; Taylor, Angela R

    2012-06-01

    This study tested a model of shared parenting as its centerpiece that incorporates cultural values as predictors and family emotional climate as the outcome variable of interest. We aimed to assess the predictive power of the Mexican cultural values of familismo and simpatia over couples' shared parenting practices. We anticipated that higher levels of shared parenting would predict family emotional climate. The participants were 61 Mexican American, low income couples, with at least one child between 3 and 4 years of age, recruited from a home-based Head Start program. The predictive model demonstrated excellent goodness of fit, supporting the hypothesis that a positive emotional climate within the family is fostered when Mexican American couples practice a sufficient level of shared parenting. Empirical evidence was previously scarce on this proposition. The findings also provide evidence for the role of cultural values, highlighting the importance of family solidarity and avoidance of confrontation as a pathway to shared parenting within Mexican American couples. © FPI, Inc.

  3. The interaction of parental alcoholism, adaptation role, and familial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Judith L; Broida, John P; Conway, Kim; Yue, Alicia

    2004-05-01

    Many people believe that parental alcoholism has adverse consequences on children-some research fails to support this hypothesis. Familial dysfunction is often regarded as having a more important impact on adults, perhaps because of a failure to recognize that adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) may have adopted more than one coping strategy. The present study investigated within-group differences in psychological symptomology as measured by the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI). ACOAs, were compared by roles (Hero, Mascot, Lost Child, and Scapegoat) to non-ACOAs as measured by familial dysfunction and roles. MANOVA indicated significant main effects of dysfunction, role, ACOA, and an interaction of role and ACOA. Failures to recognize the impact of parental alcoholism may be caused by multiple adaptation strategies.

  4. A Latent Profile Analysis of Latino Parenting: The Infusion of Cultural Values on Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayón, Cecilia; Williams, Lela Rankin; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie; Kiehne, Elizabeth

    The purpose of the present study was to (a) examine how acculturation and social support inform Latinos' parenting behaviors, controlling for gender and education; (b) describe parenting styles among Latino immigrants while accounting for cultural elements; and (c) test how these parenting styles are associated with family conflict. A 3 step latent profile analysis with the sample ( N = 489) revealed best fit with a 4 profile model ( n = 410) of parenting: family parenting ( n = 268, 65%), child-centered parenting ( n = 68, 17%), moderate parenting ( n = 60, 15%), and disciplinarian parenting ( n = 14, 3%). Parents' gender, acculturation, and social support significantly predicted profile membership. Disciplinarian and moderate parenting were associated with more family conflict. Recommendations include integrating culturally based parenting practices as a critical element to family interventions to minimize conflict and promote positive youth development.

  5. Is parental competitive ability in winter negatively affected by previous springs' family size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, Rienk W; Ubels, Richard; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2017-03-01

    Reproductive behavior cannot be understood without taking the local level of competition into account. Experimental work in great tits ( Parus major ) showed that (1) a survival cost of reproduction was paid in environments with high levels of competition during the winter period and (2) experimentally manipulated family size negatively affected the ability of parents to compete for preferred breeding boxes in the next spring. The fact that survival was affected in winter suggests that the competitive ability of parents in winter may also be affected by previous reproductive effort. In this study, we aim to investigate whether (1) such carryover effects of family size on the ability of parents to compete for resources in the winter period occurred and (2) this could explain the occurrence of a survival cost of reproduction under increased competition. During two study years, we manipulated the size of in total 168 great tit broods. Next, in winter, we induced competition among the parents by drastically reducing the availability of roosting boxes in their local environment for one week. Contrary to our expectation, we found no negative effect of family size manipulation on the probability of parents to obtain a roosting box. In line with previous work, we did find that a survival cost of reproduction was paid only in plots in which competition for roosting boxes was shortly increased. Our findings thus add to the scarce experimental evidence that survival cost of reproduction are paid under higher levels of local competition but this could not be linked to a reduced competitive ability of parents in winter.

  6. Culture, parenting, and child behavioral problems: a comparative study of cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao-Jan; Kuo, Yi-Jin; Wang, Lee; Yang, Chien-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the interplay of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic factors on children's behavioral problems, especially within culturally mixed families in Chinese society. This study compares the presence of behavioral problems between children from families with an immigrant mother and those from native-born families in a randomly selected sample of 957 children aged 6 to 12 years from three counties in central Taiwan. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist completed by parents and the Teacher's Report Form. Parenting styles were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument completed by children. Children of immigrant mothers had higher scores for all behavioral syndromes based on the parent's report. However, in the teacher's report a difference was only observed for withdrawn/depressed syndrome. Children of immigrant mothers were more likely, and children with high paternal care were less likely, to have internalizing and total problems in the parent's report. For the teacher's report, only high education in fathers was associated with decreased internalizing and total problems in children. These findings suggest that children growing up in a cross-cultural environment with an immigrant mother, as opposed to a native-born Taiwanese family environment, are more likely to have higher internalizing problems and total behavioral problem scores, due to a number of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic factors. Children's behaviors appear to be more influenced by fathers' than mothers' parenting styles, regardless of family type. The study findings imply that unequal health and social conditions exist between cross-cultural and native-born families. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Children's Divorce and Parent-Child Contact: A Within-Family Analysis of Older European Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that a parental divorce has a negative effect on parent-child relations. This study examines how adult children's divorce affects the amount of contact children have with older parents, making a distinction between the effects of being single on the one hand and the effects of divorce on the other hand. Using data on older adults in 11 European countries, I estimate within-family regression models to compare multiple adult children per parent (19,454 children aged 30-49; 10,476 parents aged 50-96). I analyze contact frequency while taking into account coresidence and distance. When comparing single divorced children and married children, no difference in contact is observed, but divorced children are more likely to live with their parents. When comparing among children who are single, divorced children have less frequent contact with parents than never-married children. This negative divorce effect exists for sons and daughters and is found in 9 of the 11 countries. The divorce of a child has a double meaning: it leads to being single, which is associated with stronger intergenerational ties, but it is also a non-normative and stressful life event, which is associated with weaker intergenerational ties. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Risks for Conduct Disorder Symptoms Associated with Parental Alcoholism in Stepfather Families versus Intact Families from a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Debra L.; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael; Gardner, Charles O.; Maes, Hermine H.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is not known if the prevalence of parental psychiatric disorders is higher in stepfather than intact families, or if parental alcoholism is differentially associated with risk for conduct disorder (CD) symptoms in stepfather families versus intact families. Method: The sample comprised 839 girls and 741 boys from 792 intact families…

  9. Tiger Parents or Sheep Parents?: Struggles of Parental Involvement in Working-Class Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Desirée Baolian; Han, Eun-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Research on Chinese immigrant parents tends to focus on their high levels of educational involvement and its positive impact on their children's exceptional educational performances. Relatively little research has been conducted to understand the challenges Chinese immigrant parents face in helping their children with school…

  10. Relations among Perceived Parental Control, Warmth, Indulgence, and Family Harmony of Chinese in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sing; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results of a study of 925 educated Chinese who recalled child-rearing patterns of their parents indicated that greater perceived parental dominating control was related to less perceived parental warmth and that greater parental warmth and less parental control were related to greater perceived family harmony. (RH)

  11. Is Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Associated with Parenting and Family Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Martin, Graham; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the association of parenting and family factors with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in preadolescents. A sample of 1,439 preadolescents and their parents were assessed by means of (a) adolescent-reported parenting behaviors (support and behavioral/psychological control), (b) parent-reported parenting behaviors…

  12. Parenting stress in mothers of adults with an intellectual disability: parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C; Rose, J

    2009-12-01

    There is a body of evidence that indicates that the cognitions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) play an important role in influencing parental stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence about the experience of parents of adult children with ID. This study sought to apply a model of parenting stress to mothers of adults with ID. Of particular interest were the parental cognitions of parenting self-esteem and parental locus of control. Face-to face interviews were administered with 44 mothers of adults with ID. They completed the Vineland Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour Scale, the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened version of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Correlations were observed between parenting stress and the other study variables. Regression analysis revealed that parental cognitive variables predicted 61% of the variance in parenting stress. Parenting satisfaction, a subscale of the measure of parenting sense of competence, mediated the relationships between adaptive behaviour and parenting stress and between family support and parenting stress. These results indicate the importance of cognitive variables in the stress of mothers of adults with ID. Potential avenues of future research might focus on the experience of fathers and the impact of positive perceptions as a cognitive factor.

  13. Children's responses to low parental mood. II: Associations with family perceptions of parenting styles and child distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantaus-Simula, Tytti; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Beardslee, William R

    2002-03-01

    In an earlier article (part 1) the authors identified four patterns of children's responses to parental low mood: Active Empathy, Emotional Overinvolvement, Indifference, and Avoidance. They then hypothesized that these response patterns were related to parenting styles and to discrepancies in family members' perceptions of parenting and child mental distress. A normal population sample of 990 twelve-year-old Finnish children and their mothers (843) and fathers (573) was used. Within-family multivariate analyses conducted in mother-father-child triads (470) were used to examine whether quality of parenting varied according to children's responses and whether parents' and children's perceptions of parenting and child distress were different. Children in the Active Empathy and Indifference groups experienced more positive parenting than those in the other two groups. Discrepancies in family members' perceptions of child distress and mothering and fathering were especially characteristic of the Emotional Overinvolvement group. Typical for the Avoidance group was a within-family agreement on poor parenting and severe child distress. Children's response patterns as regards parental low mood are related to family dynamics. The study suggests that discrepancies in parents' and children's perceptions of parenting and child distress can be meaningful in understanding family interactions and child development and well-being.

  14. Families of Sexual Minorities: Child Well-Being, Parenting Desires, and Expectations for Future Family Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Wondra, Danielle Leanne

    2017-01-01

    My dissertation project uses a multiple methodological approach—unfolding in three substantive chapters—to ask how gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status intersect with sexual identity to create unique experiences for sexual minorities in terms of parenting perspectives and expectations for family formation. Perspectives on family formation may differ for sexual minorities because they are socially positioned differently than heterosexual people, yet previous studies largely address...

  15. Family functioning and illness perception of parents of children with atopic dermatitis, living without skin symptoms, but with psychosomatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Kanán-Cedeño, E G; Guillén Martínez, E; Campos Garibay, M J

    2011-03-01

    Emotional factors and a recurrent psychosomatic environment, have been implicated in the evolution of atopic dermatitis. These, in turn, affect the disease. This study was under taken to evaluate the functioning of families with a child that has atopic dermatitis without skin symptoms and the parents' perceptions of their child's disease.Semi-quantitative and cross-sectional study in which questionnaires were applied: one to study family functioning (Espejel et al. scale) and the second to determine aspects of parental perception of their child's atopic dermatitis. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlation between the categories of the Family Function Scale.The most affected categories of family functioning were authority, handling of disruptive conduct, communication, and negative affect. The most significant positive correlations between the categories of family functioning were: authority and support, r=0.867, pparents, 66.4% thought that the pharmacotherapy used for their child's atopic dermatitis was not effective, and 33.3% of parents stated that the disease had affected their child's daily activities.In families of children with atopic dermatitis, various family environment factors facilitate the recurrence of symptoms even when no cutaneous lesions have been found on the child. The identification and use of family resources to face this disease are aspects that should be taken into consideration during the psychotherapeutic management of these families, putting emphasis on the most affected functional categories of these families in a strategy that should be implanted in a multi-disciplinary context.

  16. Increased Sensory Processing Atypicalities in Parents of Multiplex ASD Families Versus Typically Developing and Simplex ASD Families

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Chelsea K.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; Donkers, Franc C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that sensory processing atypicalities may share genetic influences with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To further investigate this, the adolescent/adult sensory profile (AASP) questionnaire was distributed to 85 parents of typically developing children (P-TD), 121 parents from simplex ASD families (SPX), and 54 parents from multiplex ASD families (MPX). After controlling for gender and presence of mental disorders, results showed that MPX parents significantly d...

  17. Gender Differences in How Family Income and Parental Education Relate to Reading Achievement in China: The Mediating Role of Parental Expectation and Parental Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of social economic status (SES on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1 home monitoring; (2 parent-child communication; and (3 parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.

  18. Gender Differences in How Family Income and Parental Education Relate to Reading Achievement in China: The Mediating Role of Parental Expectation and Parental Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaolin; Lv, Bo; Zhou, Huan; Liu, Chunhui; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Kexin; Luo, Liang

    2018-01-01

    The impact of social economic status (SES) on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls) in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1) home monitoring; (2) parent-child communication; and (3) parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.

  19. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly; Sohonpal, Gundeep; Lange, Kylie; Golley, Rebecca

    2013-01-07

    The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children's dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1) investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children's saturated fat intake; and (2) to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children's saturated fat intake. Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30 minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment--Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children's dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat) were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (pchange in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2), perceived responsibility (β=-0.3) and restriction (β=-0.3) from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake. The present study was one of the first to quantify changes in the family food environment, and identify a number of factors which were associated with a positive dietary change. Because interventions focus on behaviour change, the findings may provide specific targets for intervention strategies in the future. Australia New Zealand Clinical

  20. Do family environment factors play a role in adolescents' involvement in organized activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badura, Petr; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sigmund, Erik; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-08-01

    The study assessed the association of family environment factors with adolescents' participation in organized leisure-time activities (OLTA). We used data on 10,472 Czech adolescents aged 11-15 years (49.2% boys) from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The associations of family support, the presence of parental screen-time rules and joint family activities with participation in at least one OLTA were assessed using logistic regression. High family support and the presence of parental screen-time rules were associated with higher odds of OLTA participation. Moreover, adolescents playing sports, indoor games and going for walks with their families at least weekly were more likely to participate in OLTA. Conversely, those spending time in joint family TV/video watching on most days were less likely to do so. A supportive family environment and direct parental involvement in their adolescent children's leisure are associated with OLTA participation in early to middle adolescence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Subjective Well-being and Family Functioning among Adolescents Left Behind by Migrating Parents in Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia; Hu, Fang; Wu, Jing; Zou, Zhi Yong; Wang, Yi Xin; Peng, Hua Can; Vermund, Sten H; Hu, Yi Fei; Ma, Ying Hua

    2018-05-01

    We sought to identify the differences between adolescents left behind in their home villages/towns (LBA) and non-left behind adolescents (NLB) on subjective well-being and family functioning due to parental migration in south China. We used a stratified cluster sampling method to recruit middle school students in a city experiencing population-emigration in Jiangxi Province in 2010. Participants included adolescents from families with: (1) one migrant parent, (2) both parents who migrated, or (3) non-left behind adolescents (i.e., no migrant parent). To determine predictors of subjective well-being, we used structural equation models. Adolescents left behind by both parents (LBB) were less likely to express life satisfaction (P = 0.038) in terms of their environments (P = 0.011) compared with NLB. A parent or parents who migrated predicts lower subjective well-being of adolescents (P = 0.051) and also lower academic performance. Being apart from their parents may affect family functioning negatively from an adolescent's viewpoint. Given the hundreds of millions of persons in China, many who are parents, migrating for work, there may be mental health challenges in some of the adolescents left behind. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  3. Families Created Through Surrogacy Arrangements: Parent-Child Relationships in the 1st Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Murray, Clare; Jadva, Vasanti; MacCallum, Fiona; Lycett,Emma

    2004-01-01

    Findings are presented of a study of families created through surrogacy arrangements. Forty-two surrogacy families were compared with 51 egg-donation families and 80 natural-conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological well-being of the parents, the quality of parent-child relationships, and infant…

  4. A Structural Approach to Unresolved Mourning in Single Parent Family Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Considers the mother's depression as a special problem in therapy of single-parent families, resulting from unresolved mourning maintained by the family system. Offers reasons why the single-parent family's structure seems inherently vulnerable to unresolved mourning. Suggests techniques of Structural Family Therapy to facilitate mourning in such…

  5. Intergenerational continuity in high conflict family environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, W. Andrew; Hussong, Andrea M.; Chassin, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we examined continuity in conflict across generations and explored potential mediators and moderators that could explain this continuity. We followed 246 targets from adolescence to adulthood and examined family conflict as reported by multiple reporters in targets' family of origin and current families. Results showed that conflict in the current family was strongly correlated with that of the family of origin in women but not in men. Continuity in family conflict across generations was mediated by patterns of elevated adolescent externalizing behavior in members of the second generation (G2). Additionally, analyses revealed an interaction between both G2 partners' externalizing behavior such that if one partner in the G2 family demonstrated high levels of externalizing behavior, elevated levels of family conflict resulted. Potential explanations and implications of these findings are considered. PMID:26018605

  6. In Vitro Fertilization and the Family: Quality of Parenting, Family Functioning, and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Chun-Shin; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parenting quality, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral adjustment of 3- to 7-year-olds. Found that IVF mothers reported greater protectiveness than mothers of naturally conceived children. Teachers rated IVF mothers as displaying greater warmth but not overprotective or…

  7. Sociodemographic Status, Parental Background, Childhood Family Structure, and Attitudes toward Family Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J.

    1992-01-01

    Used data from National Survey of Families and Households to investigate effects of individual characteristics, parental background, and childhood living arrangements on adults' attitudes toward marriage, divorce, and nonmarital childbearing. Strongest predictors were age, sex, and marital status, with older persons, men, and married persons…

  8. Parental divorce and disordered eating: an investigation of a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suisman, Jessica L; Burt, S Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Klump, Kelly L

    2011-03-01

    We investigated gene-environment interactions (GxE) for associations between parental divorce and disordered eating (DE). Participants were 1,810 female twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry and the Minnesota Twin Family Study. The Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey was used to assess DE. We tested for GxE by comparing the heritability of DE in twins from divorced versus intact families. It was hypothesized that divorce would moderate the heritability of DE, in that heritability would be higher in twins from divorced than twins from intact families. As expected, the heritability of body dissatisfaction was significantly higher in twins from divorced than intact families. However, genetic influences were equal in twins from divorced and intact families for all other forms of DE. Although divorce did not moderate heritability of most DE symptoms, future research should replicate GxEs for body dissatisfaction and identify factors underlying this unique relationship. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although childhood obesity prevalence is stabilised in developed countries including Australia, it is continuing to rise among migrants and socially disadvantaged groups in these countries. African migrants and refugees in particular, are at high risk of obesity due to changes in their family dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index. Methods A cross-sectional parent-child dyad study was conducted among 284 African families from migrant and refugee backgrounds living in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Bilingual workers were trained to collect demographic, anthropometric and questionnaire data on family functioning, parenting, family type and family communication. Results Parents and children reported different levels of family dynamics. Children reported a higher prevalence of poor family functioning (61.5 %, 95 % CI: 55.6, 67.2 versus 56.8 %, 95 % CI: 49.7, 61.6 and protective family type (29 %, 95 % CI: 23.9, 34.5 vs. 13.4 %, 95 % CI: 9.9, 17.9, but a lower prevalence of authoritative parenting style (51.6 %, 95 % CI: 45.7, 57.5 vs. 63 %, 95 % CI: 57.5, 68.8 than parents. There was a positive relationship between poor family functioning and child BMI both before (β = 1.28; 95 % CI: 0.14, 2.41; p < 0.05 and after (β = 1.73; 95 % CI: 0.53, 2.94; p < 0.001 controlling for confounders, and an inverse relationship between consensual family type and child BMI after adjustment (β = −1.92; 95 % CI: −3.59, −0.24; p < 0.05. There was no significant relationship between parental BMI and family functioning, communication, family type or parenting style. Conclusion Children’s perception of poor family functioning was associated with childhood obesity. Family interventions to reduce childhood obesity need

  10. [How do mentally ill parents evaluate their children's quality of life? Associations with the parent's illness and family functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Eva; Bullinger, Monika; Jeske, Jana; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke

    2008-01-01

    To assess health-related quality of life (hrQoL) of children with a mentally ill parent, and its associations with the parent's illness (diagnoses, severity of disease, current symptoms) and family functioning, 51 mentally ill parents rated their children's hrQoL using the KINDL-R, a multidimensional hrQoL questionnaire for children. Parents rated their current psychiatric symptoms on the SCL-14 (Symptom Checklist-14) and family functioning on the FB-A ("Familienbögen"). The parents' therapists (psychologists or psychiatrists) provided psychiatric diagnoses as well as global ratings of disease severity (CGI) and patient's family functioning. Compared to the general population, parents rated their children's hrQoL significantly lower concerning the dimensions "Psychological Well-Being" and "Family': HrQoL ratings were moderately correlated with the parent's current depressive symptoms and moderately to highly correlated with family functioning from the parent's perspective. Lower depression severity and higher family functioning were associated with higher hrQoL ratings. Parents with affective disorders rated their children's hrQoL significantly lower than did parents with a diagnosis of substance abuse. Results show the importance of family functioning for parents' view of children's hrQoL and the influence of psychiatric symptoms on ill parents' reports. These findings are in line with previous results concerning potential psychological and behavioural problems in children of mentally ill parents. Family interventions and multi-informant assessment should be used in this high-risk group.

  11. Shared activities of parents and their preschool children during family pastime

    OpenAIRE

    SOBKIN VLADIMIR S.; SKOBELTSINA KSENIA N.

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the structure of the pastime of contemporary preschool children and the importance and prevalence of various kinds of activities that parents and their children share. The emphasis is on those features of parental behavior that are determined by gender role (mother/father), family status (two-parent/separated family), style of parent-child relationship, and also child’s gender. The work is based on data from 1,936 questionnaires received from parents of preschool children...

  12. A Latent Profile Analysis of Latino Parenting: The Infusion of Cultural Values on Family Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Ayón, Cecilia; Williams, Lela Rankin; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Ayers, Stephanie; Kiehne, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to (a) examine how acculturation and social support inform Latinos’ parenting behaviors, controlling for gender and education; (b) describe parenting styles among Latino immigrants while accounting for cultural elements; and (c) test how these parenting styles are associated with family conflict. A 3 step latent profile analysis with the sample (N = 489) revealed best fit with a 4 profile model (n = 410) of parenting: family parenting (n = 268, 65%), child...

  13. The Parent-Child Relationship Competencies: How Three Infant-Parent Psychotherapists Find Paths into Diverse Infant-Family Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Maria Seymour

    2016-01-01

    This article weaves the stories of three practitioner-family relationships and describes how the Parent-Child Relationship Competencies (PCRCs; St. John, 2010) function as a map for assessment and treatment planning. The PCRCs are a set of culturally variable yet universal bi-directional (parent-to-child and child-to-parent) relational capacities…

  14. One-Parent-One-Language (OPOL) Families: Is the Majority Language-Speaking Parent Instrumental in the Minority Language Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Elizabeth; Eisenchlas, Susana A.; Schalley, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the strategies majority language-speaking parents use to support the development of the minority language in families who follow the pattern of exposure known as one-parent-one-language (OPOL). In this particular pattern of raising a child bilingually, each parent speaks only their own native language to their…

  15. Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, S; Halliday, J; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N

    2016-08-03

    Although childhood obesity prevalence is stabilised in developed countries including Australia, it is continuing to rise among migrants and socially disadvantaged groups in these countries. African migrants and refugees in particular, are at high risk of obesity due to changes in their family dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index. A cross-sectional parent-child dyad study was conducted among 284 African families from migrant and refugee backgrounds living in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Bilingual workers were trained to collect demographic, anthropometric and questionnaire data on family functioning, parenting, family type and family communication. Parents and children reported different levels of family dynamics. Children reported a higher prevalence of poor family functioning (61.5 %, 95 % CI: 55.6, 67.2 versus 56.8 %, 95 % CI: 49.7, 61.6) and protective family type (29 %, 95 % CI: 23.9, 34.5 vs. 13.4 %, 95 % CI: 9.9, 17.9), but a lower prevalence of authoritative parenting style (51.6 %, 95 % CI: 45.7, 57.5 vs. 63 %, 95 % CI: 57.5, 68.8) than parents. There was a positive relationship between poor family functioning and child BMI both before (β = 1.28; 95 % CI: 0.14, 2.41; p parental BMI and family functioning, communication, family type or parenting style. Children's perception of poor family functioning was associated with childhood obesity. Family interventions to reduce childhood obesity need to adopt an intergenerational approach to promote a clear understanding of family dynamics between children and parents. Unless these intergenerational challenges associated with family dynamics are clearly addressed in obesity interventions, current obesity prevention initiatives will continue to widen the childhood obesity gap in Australia.

  16. Parenting and the parent-child relationship in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiringa, Hilde; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between parenting behavior, the parent-child relationship, and externalizing child behavior in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). The families of a child with MBID and accompanying externalizing behavior

  17. The Role of Family Routines in the Intergenerational Transmission of Depressive Symptoms between Parents and their Adolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manczak, Erika M; Williams, Deanna; Chen, Edith

    2017-05-01

    Whereas previous research on environmental factors implicated in the intergenerational transmission of depression has tended to focus on the role of parenting quality (e.g., harshness), the current study sought to assess whether structural aspects of families may contribute to depression-relevant affective and immune processes in youths. Specifically, the present study examined the role of family routines in linking parental depressive symptoms to youth emotion regulation, a depression-relevant marker of low-grade inflammation, and depressive symptoms in youths. 261 parent-adolescent dyads reported on their own depressive symptoms, family routines, and youths' emotion regulation abilities. In addition, peripheral blood was drawn from youths to assess levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6). Path analyses provided support for a model in which parental depressive symptoms related to fewer family routines, which in turn were associated with higher IL-6 and depressive symptoms in youths as well as marginally associated with worse youth emotion regulation. Moreover, family routines were found to statistically account for part of the association between parent- and youth- depressive symptoms. Together, these results suggest that family routines may represent an additional facet of the family environment that can potentially contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms.

  18. Strengthening Incarcerated Families: Evaluating a Pilot Program for Children of Incarcerated Parents and Their Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Alison L.; Perryman, Jamie; Markovitz, Lara; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley; Brown, Shavonnea

    2013-01-01

    Parental incarceration can be devastating for families. Children may experience difficulties, and the stress on caregivers who take on unexpected childrearing is high. We implemented and evaluated a family-level intervention with caregivers and children experiencing parental (typically maternal) incarceration, in a community setting. We partnered with a community-based organization serving families with an incarcerated parent to conduct a pilot trial of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP...

  19. Effects of a Dyadic Music Therapy Intervention on Parent-Child Interaction, Parent Stress, and Parent-Child Relationship in Families with Emotionally Neglected Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; H. McKinney, Cathy; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the effect of a dyadic music therapy intervention on observed parent-child interaction (mutual attunement, nonverbal communication, emotional parental response), self-reported parenting stress, and self-reported parent-child relationship in families at risk and families...... significantly improved their nonverbal communication and mutual attunement. Similarly, parents who participated in dyadic music therapy reported themselves to be significantly less stressed by the mood of the child and to significantly improve their parent-child relationship in terms of being better at talking......-perceived autonomy, attachment, and parental competence. Conclusions: The dyadic music therapy intervention examined in this study improved emotional communication between parent and child and interaction after 6 to 10 sessions and can be considered as a viable treatment alternative or supplement for families...

  20. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.

  1. Mothers', fathers' and children's perceptions of parents' expectations about children's family obligations in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Alampay, Liane Peña; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat

    2016-10-01

    Children's family obligations involve assistance and respect that children are expected to provide to immediate and extended family members and reflect beliefs related to family life that may differ across cultural groups. Mothers, fathers and children (N = 1432 families) in 13 cultural groups in 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand and United States) reported on their expectations regarding children's family obligations and parenting attitudes and behaviours. Within families, mothers and fathers had more concordant expectations regarding children's family obligations than did parents and children. Parenting behaviours that were warmer, less neglectful and more controlling as well as parenting attitudes that were more authoritarian were related to higher expectations regarding children's family obligations between families within cultures as well as between cultures. These international findings advance understanding of children's family obligations by contextualising them both within families and across a number of diverse cultural groups in 9 countries. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Factors Associated with Parent-Child (Dis)Agreement on Child Behavior and Parenting Problems in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined familial and cultural factors predicting parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems. Immigrant Chinese parents (89.7% mothers; M age = 44.24 years) and their children (62 boys; 57.9%) between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9) completed measures of parent punitive behavior and child…

  3. Impact of Childhood Family Disruption on Young Adults' Relationships with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored implications of childhood family disruption for parent-adult child relations in sample of 4,516 young adults. Among young adults raised in single-parent families, relationships with custodial mothers and custodial fathers remained quite positive into early adulthood. Becoming noncustodial parent resulted in severe deterioration of…

  4. Perceptions of Family Relations when Mothers and Fathers Are Depicted with Different Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V.; De Lisi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian.…

  5. Latino parent acculturation stress: Longitudinal effects on family functioning and youth emotional and behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J

    2016-12-01

    Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model (FSM), parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use via parent-and youth-reported family functioning. Data came from a 6-wave, school-based survey with 302 recent (stress loaded onto a latent factor of acculturation stress at each of the first 4 time points. Earlier levels of and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted worse youth-reported family functioning. Additionally, earlier levels of parent acculturation stress predicted worse parent-reported family functioning and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted better parent-reported family functioning. While youth-reported positive family functioning predicted higher self-esteem, lower symptoms of depression, and lower aggressive and rule-breaking behavior in youth, parent-reported family positive functioning predicted lower youth alcohol and cigarette use. Findings highlight the need for Latino youth preventive interventions to target parent acculturation stress and family functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Parenting, family functioning and anxiety-disordered children: Comparisons to controls, changes after family versus child CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, L.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined (1) whether families of clinic-referred anxiety-disordered children are characterized by anxiety-enhancing parenting and family functioning, compared to control families; (2) whether family cognitive-behavioral therapy (FCBT) for anxiety-disordered children decreases anxiety-enhancing

  7. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Effects of a Culturally Adapted Intervention for Urban American Indians on Parenting Skills and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen S.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Harthun, Mary L.; Jager, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W) is a culturally grounded parenting intervention that addresses the distinctive social and cultural worlds of urban American Indian (AI) families. P2W was culturally adapted through community-based participatory research in three urban AI communities with diverse tribal backgrounds. This paper reports the immediate outcomes of P2W in a randomized controlled trial, utilizing data from 575 parents of AI children (ages 10–17). Parents were assigned to P2W or to the comparison group, an informational family health curriculum, Healthy Families in 2 Worlds (HF2W). Both the P2W and HF2W curricula consisted of 10 workshops delivered weekly by AI community facilitators. Pretests were administered at the first workshop and a post-test at the last workshop. Tests of the efficacy of P2W versus HF2W on parenting skills and family functioning were analyzed with pairwise t-tests, within intervention type, and by baseline adjusted path models using FIML estimation in Mplus. Intervention effect sizes were estimated with Cohen’s d. Participants in P2W reported significant improvements in parental agency, parenting practices, supervision and family cohesion, and decreases in discipline problems and parent-child conflict. Compared to HF2W, P2W participants reported significantly larger increases in parental self-agency and positive parenting practices, and fewer child discipline problems. Most of these desired program effects for P2W approached medium size. Culturally adapted parenting interventions like P2W can effectively strengthen parenting practices and family functioning among urban AI families and help address their widespread need for targeted, culturally grounded programs. PMID:27129476

  8. Parenting and the parent-child relationship in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuiringa, Hilde; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between parenting behavior, the parent-child relationship, and externalizing child behavior in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). The families of a child with MBID and accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=113) reported more positive discipline and physical punishment but less involvement, less positive parenting, less monitoring, a lower sense of parenting competence, less acceptance of the child, and less closeness to the child than the families of a child with MBID and no accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=71). The parent-child relationship was most strongly associated with externalizing child behavior, over and above parenting behaviors. In addition, the parent-child relationship was found to be associated with parenting behavior, over and above the child's externalizing behavior. Our results highlight the importance of both the parent-child relationship and parenting behavior in connection with the occurrence of externalizing behavior problems on the part of children with MBID. Parenting behavior and the parent-child relationship may thus be promising targets for interventions with this group of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Strengthening Effective Parenting Practices over the Long-Term: Effects of a Preventive Intervention for Parentally Bereaved Families

    OpenAIRE

    Hagan, Melissa J.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Ayers, Tim S.; Luecken, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for bereaved families, on effective parenting (e.g. caregiver warmth, consistent discipline) six years after program completion. Families (n=101; 69% female caregivers; 77% Caucasian, 11% Hispanic) with children between ages 8–16 who had experienced the death of one parent were randomized to the FBP (n=54) or a literature control condition (n=47). Multiple regression analyses conducted within a mul...

  10. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

  11. Family Structure and Eating Disorders: The Family Environment Scale and Bulimic-Like Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Carol A.

    1991-01-01

    Family variables derived from the Family Environment Scale are examined using data from 174 college women at a Pacific Northwest university and 2 universities in Houston (Texas) with varying degrees of bulimia. Subjects' self-reports indicate family dysfunctions, but the study illustrates the complexity of the family's role in bulimia. (SLD)

  12. Spilling over: Partner parenting stress as a predictor of family cohesion in parents of adolescents with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Darcy B; Szczerepa, Alexandra; Hauser-Cram, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Family cohesion relates to positive outcomes for both parents and children. Maintaining cohesion may be especially challenging for families of adolescents with developmental disabilities, yet this has been studied infrequently in this group. We investigated cohesion in these families, particularly with respect to partner stress, using the notion of the 'spillover effect' as a model. Adolescents with disabilities and their parents participated. Parents reported on teen adaptive and problem behaviours and on marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and family cohesion. The stress of one partner was tested as a predictor of the quality of family cohesion reported by the other. Adolescent behaviour problems were negative predictors of family cohesion in mothers, and marital satisfaction positively predicted cohesion for both parents. Above other factors, greater partner stress predicted poorer family cohesion for both fathers and mothers. Marital satisfaction acted as a suppressor of this relation. To improve the overall climate of families, care providers should take into consideration individual relationships, including the marital relationship. In addition, the possibility of spillover from one individual to another should be recognized as a factor in family functioning. Family-centred practices are likely to lead to greater feelings of cohesion and overall better individual and family well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parental Influence on Children's Talent Development: A Case Study with Three Chinese American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Echo H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development through a specific perspective of several Chinese American families with gifted children. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the parents, and research questions focused on the daily practice of parenting and parents' beliefs…

  14. Society, family and learning. The role of home literacy environments

    OpenAIRE

    Querejeta, Maira

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the relation between society, family, and learning. In particular, it addresses the features of home literacy environments in low income families and their impact on children's pre-literacy skills and knowledge. Sixty-two four/five-year-old children and their mothers were randomly selected for this study. The mothers were interviewed using an adaptation of a family literacy environment survey (Whitehurst, 1992). The children were assessed with specific tests to examine the...

  15. The Nature of Nurture: Using a Virtual-Parent Design to Test Parenting Effects on Children's Educational Attainment in Genotyped Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy C; Maher, Brion S; Medland, Sarah E; McAloney, Kerrie; Wright, Margaret J; Hansell, Narelle K; Kendler, Kenneth S; Martin, Nicholas G; Gillespie, Nathan A

    2018-04-01

    Research on environmental and genetic pathways to complex traits such as educational attainment (EA) is confounded by uncertainty over whether correlations reflect effects of transmitted parental genes, causal family environments, or some, possibly interactive, mixture of both. Thus, an aggregate of thousands of alleles associated with EA (a polygenic risk score; PRS) may tap parental behaviors and home environments promoting EA in the offspring. New methods for unpicking and determining these causal pathways are required. Here, we utilize the fact that parents pass, at random, 50% of their genome to a given offspring to create independent scores for the transmitted alleles (conventional EA PRS) and a parental score based on alleles not transmitted to the offspring (EA VP_PRS). The formal effect of non-transmitted alleles on offspring attainment was tested in 2,333 genotyped twins for whom high-quality measures of EA, assessed at age 17 years, were available, and whose parents were also genotyped. Four key findings were observed. First, the EA PRS and EA VP_PRS were empirically independent, validating the virtual-parent design. Second, in this family-based design, children's own EA PRS significantly predicted their EA (β = 0.15), ruling out stratification confounds as a cause of the association of attainment with the EA PRS. Third, parental EA PRS predicted the SES environment parents provided to offspring (β = 0.20), and parental SES and offspring EA were significantly associated (β = 0.33). This would suggest that the EA PRS is at least as strongly linked to social competence as it is to EA, leading to higher attained SES in parents and, therefore, a higher experienced SES for children. In a full structural equation model taking account of family genetic relatedness across multiple siblings the non-transmitted allele effects were estimated at similar values; but, in this more complex model, confidence intervals included zero. A test using the forthcoming EA3

  16. The Association between Family and Parental Factors and Obesity among Children in Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With rapid economic development in China, traditional patterns of health behaviors are changing, concurrent with a rise in childhood obesity. While the home environment and parenting behaviors are modifiable factors that could be targeted for intervention, little is known about their relationship with children’s health behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and home and parenting factors in Chinese children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Nanchang, China in 2013 with caregivers (N = 470 of a child between the ages of 2-10 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine risk factors for childhood obesity. Results: Obesity prevalence (21.7% did not differ by demographic variables. Eight physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary variables had significant relationships to obesity status. Logistic regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of obesity: the number of days the family eats meals together (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 and parental home computer use time (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.96 were related to lower levels of obesity, while parental television time (odds ratio = 1.25 95% CI 1.07-1.47 was related to higher levels of obesity. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity among children is high in Nanchang. Family and environmental risk factors are significantly related to obesity.

  17. Beyond the genetic basis of sensation seeking: The influence of birth order, family size and parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    Feij, Jan A,; Taris, Toon W.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same fa...

  18. Parental incarceration and multiple risk experiences: effects on family dynamics and children's delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H

    2010-12-01

    Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental incarceration on children. The present study examines an archival dataset, in which children aged 10-14 years and their parents/guardians reported children's risk experiences (e.g., exposure to poverty, parental substance use), family processes (e.g., level of family victimization, family conflict), and children's delinquent behaviors at two time points. Parents also reported their recent and past incarceration history. Hierarchical linear regression analyses show that a history of parental incarceration predicted family victimization, delinquent behaviors of children's older siblings, and delinquent behaviors of the child participants, over and above children's demographic characteristics and other risk experiences. Recent parental incarceration predicted family conflict, family victimization, and parent-reports of children's delinquency after also controlling for previous parental incarceration. The role of family processes in research and intervention directions involving children of incarcerated parents is discussed.

  19. Mealtime family interactions in home environments of children with loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Julia; Hartmann, Andrea Sabrina; Rief, Winfried; Hilbert, Anja

    2011-06-01

    Experimental and self-report studies have shown that parents have a strong influence on their normal or overweight children's eating behavior, i.e. through parental feeding behavior or communication. Studies in children with loss of control (LOC) eating that have investigated this relationship are scarce, and ecologically valid observational studies are missing. This study examined family functioning at mealtimes in home environments in 43 families of a child with LOC eating and 31 families of a child without LOC eating; the children were 8-13 years old. Familial interactions, child eating behavior, and parental mealtime behavior were assessed using the Mealtime Family Interaction Coding System, observation of bite speed of the child, and self-report questionnaires. Less healthy patterns of communication (U=201.53, pchild with LOC eating compared to those without LOC eating. Children with LOC eating (M=4.73, SD=1.88) ate faster than controls (M=3.71, SD=1.19; pchild's eating behavior. Parent-child communication training should be tested as an intervention for children with LOC episodes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal linkages among parent-child acculturation discrepancy, parenting, parent-child sense of alienation, and adolescent adjustment in Chinese immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2013-05-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the authors of the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account the interdependence among family members. Structural equation models showed that during early adolescence, parent-child American orientation discrepancy is related to parents' use of unsupportive parenting practices; parents' use of unsupportive parenting is related to increased sense of alienation between parents and children, which in turn is related to more depressive symptoms and lower academic performance in Chinese American adolescents. These patterns of negative adjustment established in early adolescence persist into middle adolescence. This mediating effect is more apparent among father-adolescent dyads than among mother-adolescent dyads. In contrast, parent-child Chinese orientation discrepancy does not demonstrate a significant direct or indirect effect on adolescent adjustment, either concurrently or longitudinally. The current findings suggest that during early adolescence, children are more susceptible to the negative effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancy; they also underscore the importance of fathering in Chinese immigrant families.

  1. Language Maintenance in a Multilingual Family: Informal Heritage Language Lessons in Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirkhah, Mina; Cekaite, Asta

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores language socialization patterns in a Persian-Kurdish family in Sweden and examines how "one-parent, one-language" family language policies are instantiated and negotiated in parent-child interactions. The data consist of video-recordings and ethnographic observations of family interactions, as well as…

  2. Parental Divorce, Family Functioning, and College Student Development: An Intergenerational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick; Nelson, Mark D.

    1998-01-01

    Samples college students (N=440) to assess the impact of parental divorce and family functioning on their development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning have unique effects on key developmental tasks associated with a college-age population. Discusses an intergenerational family-systems approach. (Author/MKA)

  3. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children’s Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objectives Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children’s psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. Design The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children’s adjustment was measured with parents’, teachers’, and peers’ or children’s reports. Results Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children’s externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. Conclusions Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child’s adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes. PMID:23226715

  4. Toward Improved Parenting Interventions for Disruptive Child Behavior : Engaging Disadvantaged Families and Searching for Effective Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.H.O.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting interventions are a promising strategy to prevent antisocial behavior in society. Evidence accumulates that parenting interventions can reduce disruptive child behavior, and insight rapidly increases into which families they benefit most. At the same time, however, several high risk

  5. Perceptions of family relations when mothers and fathers are depicted with different parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V; De Lisi, Richard

    2007-12-01

    College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian. Student gender and parent gender effects qualified these findings. Female students reported family relations to be less positive than did male students when parents were depicted as authoritarian or as uninvolved-neglecting, and they rated family relations more positively than did male students when parents were depicted as permissive. Participants viewed family relations as more positive when mothers rather than fathers were presented as permissive and when fathers rather than mothers were depicted as authoritarian. The authors discuss the findings of the study in relation to theories of beliefs about children and implications for future parenting styles of male and female college students.

  6. The forgotten parent: Fathers' representation in family interventions to prevent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, K K; Kitos, N; Aftosmes-Tobio, A; Ash, T; Agaronov, A; Sepulveda, M; Haines, J

    2018-06-01

    Despite recognition that parents are critical stakeholders in childhood obesity prevention, obesity research has overwhelmingly focused on mothers. In a recent review, fathers represented only 17% of parent participants in >600 observational studies on parenting and childhood obesity. The current study examined the representation of fathers in family interventions to prevent childhood obesity and characteristics of interventions that include fathers compared with those that only include mothers. Eligible studies included family-based interventions for childhood obesity prevention published between 2008 and 2015 identified in a recent systematic review. Data on intervention characteristics were extracted from the original review. Using a standardized coding scheme, these data were augmented with new data on the number of participating fathers/male caregivers and mothers/female caregivers. Out of 85 eligible interventions, 31 (37%) included mothers and fathers, 29 (34%) included only mothers, 1 (1%) included only fathers, and 24 (28%) did not provide information on parent gender. Of the interventions that included fathers, half included 10 or fewer fathers. Across all interventions, fathers represented a mere 6% of parent participants. Father inclusion was more common in interventions targeting families with elementary school-aged children (6-10 years) and those grounded in Ecological Systems Theory, and was less common in interventions focused on very young children (0-1 years) or the prenatal period and those targeting the sleep environment. This study emphasizes the lack of fathers in childhood obesity interventions and highlights a particular need to recruit and engage fathers of young children in prevention efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Strengthening Effective Parenting Practices over the Long Term: Effects of a Preventive Intervention for Parentally Bereaved Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Melissa J.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Ayers, Tim S.; Luecken, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for bereaved families, on effective parenting (e.g., caregiver warmth, consistent discipline) 6 years after program completion. Families (n = 101; 69% female caregivers; 77% Caucasian, 11% Hispanic) with children between ages 8 and 16 who had…

  8. Depression and quality of life for women in single-parent and nuclear families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landero Hernández, René; Estrada Aranda, Benito; González Ramírez, Mónica Teresa

    2009-05-01

    This is a cross-sectional study which objectives are 1) to determine the predictors for perceived quality of life and 2) to analyze the differences between women from single-parent families and bi-parent families, about their quality of life, depression and familiar income. We worked with a non-probabilistic sample of 140 women from Monterrey, N.L, Mexico, 107 are from bi-parent families and 33 from single parent families. Some of the results show that women from single-parent families have lower quality of life (Z = -2.224, p = .026), lower income (Z = -2.727, p = .006) and greater depression (Z = -6.143, p = .001) than women from bi-parental families. The perceived quality of life's predictors, using a multiple regression model (n = 140) were depression, income and number of children, those variables explaining 25.4% of variance.

  9. Family Involvement and Parent-Teacher Relationships for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, S. Andrew; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Santiago, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    Family educational involvement and parent--teacher relationships are important for supporting student outcomes and have unique implications for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little research has examined child and family characteristics among families of children with ASD as predictors of family involvement and…

  10. Dowry calculations: daughter's rights in her parental family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishwar, M

    1993-01-01

    The practice of dowry in India has become identified as the primary cause of women's oppression. It sets families apart in the fight over dowry payments and results in violence against daughters including infanticide. Daughter's get their share of inheritance at the time of marriage under traditional Hindu law. The Dowry Prohibition Act outlaws this practice. On the other hand, customary law allowed entitlements to women which Victorian norms bypassed, thereby paving the way for the disinheritance of women. The ownership of land was vested exclusively in men, and, as land became scarce and women's labor became devalued, women came to be treated as mere dependents and considered as a liability. With the entrance of men into government service as policemen and bank and postal clerks, their status increased, while women continued working in the peasant economy. Government job holders received the biggest dowries because of their access to economic opportunities. Under the Hindu Succession Act, fathers were allowed to will away property in whosoever's favor, which led to the disinheritance of daughters in favor of sons. Inheritance laws increasingly moved in favor of men and against women. Changing marriage patterns also emerged, as paying exorbitant dowries was perceived as a way of upward social mobility. The wife inherited everything at the expense of daughters, and widows automatically got a pension after the husband. Therefore, the wife's right had a stronger social sanction than the rights of daughters in parental property, especially the right to live in the parental home and take care of old parents, should be the solution to this injustice. Thus, parents would look at daughters in the same light as sons, and the culture of women's devaluation would come to an end.

  11. Elevated risk of child maltreatment in families with stepparents but not with adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Euser, Eveline M; Prinzie, Peter; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2009-11-01

    Does child maltreatment occur more often in adoptive and stepfamilies than in biological families? Data were collected from all 17 Dutch child protective services (CPS) agencies on 13,538 cases of certified child maltreatment in 2005. Family composition of the maltreated children was compared to a large national representative sample of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (NKPS). Larger families, one-parent families, and families with a stepparent showed elevated risks for child maltreatment. Adoptive families, however, showed significantly less child maltreatment than expected. The findings are discussed in the context of parental investment theory that seems to be applicable to stepparents but not to adoptive parents.

  12. Adolescent depression, family psychopathology and parent/child relations: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Séguin, Monique; Manion, Ian; Cloutier, Paula; McEvoy, Lisa; Cappelli, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate family psychopathology and relationships between family members. Three groups of adolescents were interviewed: 1) currently depressed adolescents who have at least one parent who had/or is still experiencing a mood disorder, 2) currently depressed adolescents whose parents were never diagnosed with a mood disorder, 3) never-depressed control adolescents. Personal interview data was obtained from the proband, their parent(s) and one sibling. Findi...

  13. Family social environment in childhood and self-rated health in young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roustit Christelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family social support, as a form of social capital, contributes to social health disparities at different age of life. In a life-course epidemiological perspective, the aims of our study were to examine the association between self-reported family social environment during childhood and self-reported health in young adulthood and to assess the role of family functioning during childhood as a potential mediating factor in explaining the association between family breakup in childhood and self-reported health in young adulthood. Methods We analyzed data from the first wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures Survey (SIRS, a longitudinal health and socio-epidemiological survey of a random sample of 3000 households initiated in the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. Sample-weighted logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the quality of family social environment in childhood and self-rated health (overall health, physical health and psychological well-being in young adults (n = 1006. We used structural equation model to explore the mediating role of the quality of family functioning in childhood in the association between family breakup in childhood and self-rated health in young adulthood. Results The multivariate results support an association between a negative family social environment in childhood and poor self-perceived health in adulthood. The association found between parental separation or divorce in childhood and poor self-perceived health in adulthood was mediated by parent-child relationships and by having witnessed interparental violence during childhood. Conclusion These results argue for interventions that enhance family cohesion, particularly after family disruptions during childhood, to promote health in young adulthood.

  14. Are parental concerns for child TV viewing associated with child TV viewing and the home sedentary environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    approaches despite these concerns. Interventions targeting concerned parents may be an innovative way of reaching children most in need of strategies to reduce their television viewing and harnessing this parental concern may offer considerable opportunity to change the family and home environment. PMID:21951470

  15. Gene-Environment Correlation Underlying the Association between Parental Negativity and Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Horwitz, Briana N.; Narusyte, Jurgita; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of adolescent or parent-based twins suggest that gene-environment correlation (rGE) is an important mechanism underlying parent-adolescent relationships. However, information on how parents' and children's genes and environments influence correlated parent "and" child behaviors is needed to distinguish types of rGE. The present…

  16. Adolescents’ Self-Esteem in Single and Two-Parent Families

    OpenAIRE

    Alami, Ali; Khosravan, Shahla; Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Pakravan, Fateme; Hosseni, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is one of the basic needs for all individuals especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine associations between adolescents’ self-esteem and perceived maternal parenting styles as well as its dimensions in terms of family type. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 356 high school students (250 two-parent nuclear family and 106 single-parent family) participated and filled out the Coppersmith self-esteem and the Robinson and colleagues (...

  17. Language Maintenance in a Multilingual Family: Informal Heritage Language Lessons in Parent-Child Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kheirkhah, Mina; Cekaite, Asta

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores language socialization patterns in a Persian-Kurdish family in Sweden and examines how "one-parent, one-language" family language policies are instantiated and negotiated in parent-child interactions. The data consist of video-recordings and ethnographic observations of family interactions, as well as interviews. Detailed interactional analysis is employed to investigate parental language maintenance efforts and the childs agentive orientation in relation to the rec...

  18. Initiating communication about parental mental illness in families: an issue of confidence and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihkala, Heljä; Sandlund, Mikael; Cederström, Anita

    2012-05-01

    Beardslee's family intervention (FI) is a family-based intervention to prevent psychiatric problems for children of mentally ill parents. The parents' experiences are of importance in family-based interventions. Twenty five parents were interviewed about their experiences of FI. Data were analysed by qualitative methods. Confidence and security in the professionals and in FI as a method were prerequisites for initiating communication about the parents' mental illness with the children. FI provides a solid base for an alliance with the parents and might be a practicable method when parenthood and children are discussed with psychiatric patients.

  19. Coping as a Mediator Between Parental Attachment and Resilience: An Examination of Differential Effects Between Chinese Adolescents From Single Parent Families Versus Those From Intact Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiamei

    2018-01-01

    The crude divorce rate has been increasing steadily for over a decade in China. Consequently, more and more children have to face the challenge of growing up in single parent families. The current study investigated the mediating effects of problem-oriented and emotion-oriented coping on the relationship between parental attachment and psychological resilience among a sample of Chinese adolescents from single parent families and intact families. Participants were 975 high school students (44.30% males; aged 15-19 years, M = 16.32 years, SD = 0.74), 871 from intact families and 104 from single parent families. Structural equation modeling showed that security in maternal attachment was positively associated with resilience through the indirect effect of reduced emotion-oriented coping among adolescents from single parent families. Among adolescents from intact families, security in maternal attachment was both directly associated with resilience and indirectly through enhanced problem-oriented and reduced emotion-oriented coping. Security in paternal attachment was associated with resilience both directly and indirectly through enhanced problem-oriented coping as well among those from intact families. Female adolescents exhibited significantly lower levels of resilience than male adolescents did regardless of the marital status of their parents. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  20. Parenting and the Family Check-Up: Changes in Observed Parent-Child Interaction Following Early Childhood Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Gill, Anne; Dishion, Thomas; Winter, Charlotte; Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Coercion theory posits a cyclical relationship between harsh and coercive parent-child interactions and problem behavior beginning in early childhood. As coercive interactions have been theorized and found to facilitate the development and growth of early conduct problems, early interventions often target parenting to prevent or reduce early disruptive problem behavior. This study utilizes direct observations of parent-child interactions from the Early Steps Multisite study (N = 731; 369 boys) to examine the effect of the Family Check-Up, a family-centered intervention program, on measures of parent-child positive engagement and coercion from age 2 through 5, as well as on childhood problem behavior at age 5. Results indicate that high levels of parent-child positive engagement were associated with less parent-child coercion the following year, but dyadic coercion was unrelated to future levels of positive engagement. In addition, families assigned to the Family Check-Up showed increased levels of positive engagement at ages 3 and 5, and the association between positive engagement at age 3 and child problem behavior at age 5 was mediated by reductions in parent-child coercion at age 4. These findings provide longitudinal confirmation that increasing positive engagement in parent-child interaction can reduce the likelihood of coercive family dynamics in early childhood and growth in problem behavior.

  1. Television and families: what do young children watch with their parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Peters, M; Fitch, M; Huston, A C; Wright, J C; Eakins, D J

    1991-12-01

    A sample of 271 3- and 5-year-olds and their families participated in a 2-year longitudinal study of television viewing patterns. 5 1-week diaries for all family members were collected at 6-month intervals. Programs were categorized as: (1) child informative, (2) child entertainment, (3) news and informative, (4) sports, (5) comedy, (6) drama, (7) action-adventure, and (8) variety-game. The majority of child programs were viewed without parents, while the majority of adult programs were watched with parents. Coviewing patterns of adult programs were predicted from parents' individual viewing habits, but not from the child's. Coviewing declined with age. Parental encouragement and regulation of viewing were orthogonal. Children whose parents encouraged viewing watched more child informative programming; children of restrictive parents watched less entertainment programming. Encouraging parents coviewed more than nonencouraging parents. Results support the assertion that parental viewing preferences, habits, and orientations toward television influence children's viewing, both with and without parents.

  2. Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the 1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured…

  3. Parental Incarceration, Transnational Migration, and Military Deployment: Family Process Mechanisms of Youth Adjustment to Temporary Parent Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J.; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    The temporary absence of a parent (e.g., due to incarceration, migration, or military deployment) is experienced by many youth and can have profound effects. Available research within these disparate literatures primarily has catalogued contextual and individual variables that influence youth adaptation, which are integrated and summarized here. In addition, we present a systematic review of proximal family process mechanisms by which youth and their family members adapt to periods of temporary parent absence. This systematic review across the different types of parent absence produced four themes: communication among family members, parenting characteristics during absence, negotiation of decision-making power and authority, and shifts in family roles. By juxtaposing the three types of temporary parent absence, we aim to bridge the separate research silos of parent absence due to incarceration, deployment, and migration, and to bring wide-ranging characteristics and processes of temporary parent-absent families into sharper focus. The review highlights possibilities for fuller integration of these literatures, and emphasizes the clinical value of considering these types of experiences from a family and relational perspective, rather than an individual coping perspective. PMID:25304163

  4. Adolescent depression, family psychopathology and parent/child relations: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Monique; Manion, Ian; Cloutier, Paula; McEvoy, Lisa; Cappelli, Mario

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate family psychopathology and relationships between family members. Three groups of adolescents were interviewed: 1) currently depressed adolescents who have at least one parent who had/or is still experiencing a mood disorder, 2) currently depressed adolescents whose parents were never diagnosed with a mood disorder, 3) never-depressed control adolescents. Personal interview data was obtained from the proband, their parent(s) and one sibling. Findings suggest that parental psychopathology, parent-child relations and life events are all relevant factors in adolescent depression and should be considered in combination for assessment, prevention and intervention efforts.

  5. Parents Supporting Learning: A Non-Intensive Intervention Supporting Literacy and Numeracy in the Home Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Frank; Cohrssen, Caroline; Tayler, Collette

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, emphasis in early childhood education policy is placed on the importance of the role of the family as a child's first educator, and finding effective ways to raise the effectiveness of parents in supporting children's learning, development and well-being. International studies demonstrate that the home learning environment (HLE)…

  6. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydian Veldhuis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. METHODS: This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067 collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. RESULTS: Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.

  7. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067) collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.

  8. Disentangling the relative contribution of parental antisociality and family discord to child disruptive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A; Blazei, Ryan; Malone, Stephen H; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2013-07-01

    A number of familial risk factors for childhood disruptive disorders have been identified. However, many of these risk factors often co-occur with parental antisociality, which by itself may account for both the familial risk factors and the increased likelihood of offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). The current study aimed to examine the association of parenting behaviors, marital conflict, and divorce with child DBDs while accounting for (a) coparent parenting behaviors, and (b) parental adult antisocial behavior (AAB). A series of regressions tested the association between family-level variables (namely, parent-child relationship quality, parental willingness to use physical punishment, marital adjustment, and history of divorce) and DBDs (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder) alone and after statistically adjusting for coparent variables and parental AAB. Results indicated that parents with AAB were more likely to engage in various forms of maladaptive parenting, to divorce, and to have conflictual marriages. Maladaptive parenting, marital conflict, and divorce were associated with heightened rates of child DBDs, and these associations persisted after adjusting for coparent parenting and parental AAB. Finally, the mother's parenting behaviors had a higher impact on child DBDs than the father's parenting behaviors. Thus, familial variables continue to have an effect on childhood DBDs even after accounting for confounding influences. These variables should be a focus of research on etiology and intervention.

  9. Parental Monitoring and Family Relations: Associations with Drinking Patterns among Male and Female Mexican Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A.; Fernández-Varela, Héctor; Solís-Torres, Cuauhtémoc

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parental monitoring and family relations are recognized as protective factors for youth alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived parental monitoring and family relations among subgroups of Mexican youths with different patterns of drinking behaviors and consequences. Methods A Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) identified profiles of drinking behavior in a cross-sectional survey of entering first year university students. Multinomial regression examined associations between parental monitoring, family relations and drinking profiles among 22,224 students. Results Both lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were associated with heavier drinking profiles among males and females, but more strongly associated with female than male heavier drinking profiles. Being older, having parents with lower education, and not living with parents were also associated with lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations. There was a general trend of lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations as the profiles increased from Non/Infrequent-No Consequences to Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers. Lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were more strongly associated with drinking profiles among females than among males. Both the parental monitoring and family relations scales had similar associations with drinking profiles. Conclusions Findings suggest drinking norms and values may contribute to any protective influences of parental monitoring and family relations on Mexican youths’ drinking. Research about changes in drinking norms, contextual factors, and youth-parent trust would inform the utility of parental monitoring or family relations as protective strategies against alcohol misuse among Mexican and Mexican American youths and also youths from other backgrounds. PMID:26256470

  10. Gender Gaps in the Effects of Childhood Family Environment: Do They Persist into Adulthood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenøe, Anne Ardila

    2017-01-01

    We examine the differential effects of family disadvantage on the education and adult labor market outcomes of men and women using high-quality administrative data on the entire population of Denmark born between 1966 and 1995. We link parental education and family structure during childhood...... to male–female and brother–sister differences in adolescent outcomes, educational attainment, and adult earnings and employment. Our results are consistent with U.S. findings that boys benefit more from an advantageous family environment than do girls in terms of grade-school outcomes. Father’s education......, which has not been examined in previous studies, is particularly important for sons. However, we find a very different pattern of parental influence on adult outcomes. Gender gaps in educational attainment, employment, and earnings are increasing in maternal education, benefiting daughters. Paternal...

  11. Associations of child adjustment with parent and family functioning: comparison of families of women with and without breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Kathryn; Ramsey, Rachelle R; Noll, Robert B; Gerhardt, Cynthia A

    2010-01-01

    To examine the impact of maternal breast cancer on the emotional and behavioral functioning of school-age children; evaluate whether child adjustment is associated with variations in distress, marital satisfaction, and parenting behavior evidenced by mothers and fathers; and determine whether these associations differ from families that are not contending with cancer. Participants included 40 children (age 8-16 years) of mothers with breast cancer along with their parents as well as 40 families of comparison classmates not affected by parental illness. Questionnaires assessing the domains of interest were administered in families' homes. Mothers with breast cancer and their spouses reported higher levels of distress than comparison parents; child internalizing problems were inversely associated with parental adjustment in both groups. No group differences were found in any indicators of family functioning, including parent-child relationships. Warm and supportive parenting by both mothers and fathers were associated with lower levels of child internalizing behavior, but only in families affected by breast cancer. These results suggest that children of mothers with breast cancer, such as most children, may be at risk for internalizing behavior when parents are distressed. These children may particularly benefit from interactions with mothers and fathers who are warm and supportive, and maintenance of positive parenting may partially account for the apparent resilience of these youth.

  12. Adolescents who assault their parents:a different family profile of young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Lourdes; Cano, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have proposed that the mechanisms underlying adolescent-to-parent abuse seem to be different from other forms of juvenile delinquency. Given that this aggression is exerted within the family setting, our study was aimed to explore if there was a differential family profile for those adolescents who commit a parent abuse offense compared to those who commit other types of offenses. Judicial files of 1,046 young offenders from the Juvenile Justice Service of Jaén (Spain) were examined. The final sample (654 young offenders) was divided into 2 groups: those who had committed offenses against a parent (parent abuse group) and those who had committed other types of offenses (other offenses group). Results showed that families with parent abuse have differential characteristics, especially regarding the family size, type of household, parenting styles, and the patterns of interactions between the family members.

  13. Acculturation Conflict, Cultural Parenting Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Parenting Competence in Asian American and Latino/a Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Glatz, Terese; Buchanan, Christy M

    2017-12-01

    Parents from immigrant backgrounds must deal with normative parenting demands as well as unique challenges associated with acculturation processes. The current study examines the independent and interactive influences of acculturation conflict and cultural parenting self-efficacy (PSE; e.g., parents' confidence in instilling heritage, American, and bicultural values in their children) on perceptions of general parenting competence. Using data from 58 Asian American and 153 Latin American parents of children in grades 6-12, ethnic differences were also explored. Results suggest that lower acculturation conflict is associated with higher perceptions of general parenting competence for both Asian and Latin American parents. Higher cultural PSE is associated with higher perceived general parenting competence for Latino/a parents only. One significant interaction was found, and only for Asian Americans, whereby the negative association between acculturation conflict and perceptions of parenting competence was weaker for those who felt efficacious in transmitting heritage messages. Results are discussed in light of clinical implications and the need for further recognition and study of culturally relevant factors and frameworks among families from immigrant backgrounds. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  14. Built environment, parents' perception, and children's vigorous outdoor play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Grize, Leticia; Mäder, Urs; Ruch, Nicole; Sennhauser, Felix H; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the combined effects and relative importance of socio-cultural factors as well as parents' subjectively perceived and objectively assessed environment on time children spent vigorously playing outdoors. Cross-sectional study conducted in Berne, Biel-Bienne, and Payerne (Switzerland) during the school year 2004/2005. Included 1345 parental questionnaires from children out of three age groups (6/7, 9/10, and 13/14 years). A total of 1081 (80%) provided a home address, which could be linked to environmental data using a geographic information system (GIS). GIS-derived main street density in a buffer of 100 m around the home was inversely associated with time playing outdoors in adolescents and younger children, but only in more urbanized areas. In addition and independently of GIS-based main street density, parental concern about traffic safety was associated with less time playing outdoors in primary school children. Girls, adolescents, and children from the French speaking part of the country spent less time playing outdoors. A non-Swiss nationality and having younger siblings increased time playing vigorously outdoors in adolescents. In addition to socio-cultural factors, parents' perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors were significantly associated with the time spent vigorously playing outdoors. These associations differed by age group. Copyright (c) 2010 The Institute For Cancer Prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Family Rituals and Quality of Life in Children With Cancer and Their Parents: The Role of Family Cohesion and Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, M Cristina; Kazak, Anne E

    2015-08-01

    Family rituals are associated with adaptive functioning in pediatric illness, including quality of life (QoL). This article explores the role of family cohesion and hope as mediators of this association in children with cancer and their parents. Portuguese children with cancer (N = 389), on- and off-treatment, and one of their parents completed self-report measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine direct and indirect links between family rituals and QoL. When children and parents reported higher levels of family rituals, they also reported more family cohesion and hope, which were linked to better QoL. At the dyadic level, children's QoL was related to parents' family rituals through the child's family cohesion. This model was valid across child's age-group, treatment status, and socioeconomic status. Family rituals are important in promoting QoL in pediatric cancer via family cohesion and hope individually and via family cohesion in terms of parent-child interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting Program for Families with Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and Ethnic Minority Backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van den Ban, E.; Matthys, W.

    2017-01-01

    Families with socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds are often hard to reach for the prevention and treatment of disruptive child behavior problems. We examined whether the Incredible Years parenting intervention can successfully reach and benefit families with socioeconomic

  17. What’s for dinner? Types of food served at family dinner differ across parent and family characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Berge, Jerica

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the types of food served at family dinner in the homes of adolescents and correlations with parent and family sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and meal-specific variables. Design A cross-sectional population-based survey completed by mail or telephone by parents participating in Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) in 2009–2010. Setting Homes of families with adolescents in Minneapolis/St Paul urban area. Subjects Participants included 1,923 parents/guardians (90.8% female; 68.5% from ethnic/racial minorities) of adolescents who participated in EAT 2010. Results Less than a third (28%) of parents reported serving a green salad at family dinner on a regular basis, but 70% reported regularly serving vegetables (other than potatoes). About one-fifth (21%) of families had fast food at family dinners two or more times a week. Variables from within the sociodemographic domain (low educational attainment); psychosocial domain (high work-life stress, depressive symptoms, low family functioning); and meal-specific domain (low value of family meals, low enjoyment of cooking, low meal planning, high food purchasing barriers, and fewer hours in food preparation) were associated with lower healthfulness of foods served at family dinners, in analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions There is a need for interventions to improve the healthfulness of food served at family meals. Interventions need to be suitable for parents with low levels of education; take parent and family psychosocial factors into account; promote more positive attitudes toward family meals; and provide skills to make it easier to plan and prepare healthful family meals. PMID:23083836

  18. Parent-Child Interactions Among Low-Income Mexican American Parents and Preschoolers: Do Clinic-Referred Families Differ From Nonreferred Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna; Argote, Carolina Bertely; Liang, June

    2009-01-01

    This study compared low-income Mexican American parents of young children referred for behavior problems to their nonreferred counterparts on an observational measure of parent-child interactions. Referred Mexican American parents demonstrated more negative behaviors than their nonreferred counterparts in both nondirective and highly directive situations. However, no differences were found at moderate levels of directiveness. The most and least directive situations in the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System best differentiated referred from nonreferred Mexican American families, and families differed more in their negative behaviors than positive behaviors. Many of the parenting behaviors that have been found to differ between referred and nonreferred Caucasian families were also observed to differ between their Mexican American counterparts. PMID:20171330

  19. Development of family and dietary habits questionnaires: the assessment of family processes, dietary habits and adolescents' impulsiveness in Norwegian adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, Mona; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Andersen, Lene F; Lie, Hanne C; Finset, Arnstein; Maes, Lea; Melbye, Elisabeth L; Glavin, Kari; Hanssen-Bauer, Merete W; Lien, Nanna

    2014-10-15

    There is a need for valid and comprehensive measures of parental influence on children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB). Such measures should be based on a theoretical framework, acknowledging the dynamic and complex nature of interactions occurring within a family. The aim of the Family & Dietary habits (F&D) project was to develop a conceptual framework identifying important and changeable family processes influencing dietary behaviours of 13-15 year olds. A second aim was to develop valid and reliable questionnaires for adolescents and their parents (both mothers and fathers) measuring these processes. A stepwise approach was used; (1) preparation of scope and structure, (2) development of the F&D questionnaires, (3) the conducting of pilot studies and (4) the conducting of validation studies (assessing internal reliability, test-retest reliability and confirmatory factor analysis) using data from a cross-sectional study. The conceptual framework includes psychosocial concepts such as family functioning, cohesion, conflicts, communication, work-family stress, parental practices and parental style. The physical characteristics of the home environment include accessibility and availability of different food items, while family meals are the sociocultural setting included. Individual characteristics measured are dietary intake (vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages) and adolescents' impulsivity. The F&D questionnaires developed were tested in a test-retest (54 adolescents and 44 of their parents) and in a cross-sectional survey including 440 adolescents (13-15 year olds), 242 mothers and 155 fathers. The samples appear to be relatively representative for Norwegian adolescents and parents. For adolescents, mothers and fathers, the test-retest reliability of the dietary intake, frequencies of (family) meals, work-family stress and communication variables was satisfactory (ICC: 0.53-0.99). Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Brief (BIS-Brief) was included

  20. Comparing Sexuality Communication Among Offspring of Teen Parents and Adult Parents: a Different Role for Extended Family

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Tracy, Allison J.; Richer, Amanda M.; Erkut, Sumru

    2015-01-01

    This brief report examined teenagers’ sexuality communication with their parents and extended families. It compared who teens of early parents (those who had children when they were adolescents) and teens of later parents (those who were adults when they had children) talk to about sex. Eighth grade students (N=1281) in 24 schools completed survey items about their communication about sex. Structural equation modeling was used to predict communication profiles, while adjusting for the nesting...

  1. Exploring parent-sibling communication in families of children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, J Carolyn; Hankins, Jane S; Hardy, Belinda T; Hall, Heather R; Roberts, Ruth J; Neely-Barnes, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Communication within families of children with sickle cell disease is important yet has not been adequately investigated. Focus group interviews were conducted with parents of children with sickle cell disease to explore parent-sibling communication about sickle cell disease. Communication was influenced by attributes and behaviors of the parent, the child with sickle cell disease, and the sibling; extended family, neighbors, friends, and church members or social networks; and available, accessible resources related to the child's health, child's school, and parent employment. Outcomes that influenced and were influenced by factors within and outside the parent-sibling dyad and nuclear family included parent satisfaction, parent roles, family intactness, and status attainment. These findings support previous research with African-American families and expand our views of the importance of educating parents, family members, and others about sickle cell disease. The findings suggest a need to explore sibling perception of this communication, parent and sibling perception of the impact of frequent hospitalizations and clinic visits on the sibling and family, and variations within families of children with sickle cell disease.

  2. Meet the Parents? The Causal Effect of Family Size on the Geographic Distance between Adult Children and Older Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Holmlund, Helena; Rainer, Helmut; Siedler, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    An emerging question in demographic economics is whether there is a link between family size and the geographic distance between adult children and elderly parents. Given current population trends, understanding how different configurations of fam- ily size and sibship influence patterns of child-parent proximity is vitally important, as it impacts on issues such as intergenerational care and everyday mobility. It may be the case, for example, that larger families enable the responsibility of...

  3. Attachment and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Balance in Portuguese Parents of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana Marina; AVila, Marisa; Matos, Paula Mena

    2012-01-01

    Given the increasingly challenging task of balancing multiple adult life roles in contemporary society, this study examined the influences of both conflicting and (positively) synergistic work and family roles in mediating associations between the quality of adult attachment and both parental satisfaction and parenting stress. Participants were…

  4. Linking Mother-Father Differences in Parenting to a Typology of Family Parenting Styles and Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Conger, Rand D.

    2007-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from a sample of 451 families with a child in eighth grade at the time of study, three research questions have been addressed: First, the study explored the ways in which mothers and fathers differ with regard to four parenting styles. Second, the study examined the manner in which individual parenting styles combine to…

  5. Effects of Healthy Families New York on the Promotion of Maternal Parenting Competencies and the Prevention of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M. L.; Dumont, K.; Mitchell-Herzfeld, S. D.; Walden, N. J.; Greene, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the effectiveness of the Healthy Families New York (HFNY) home visiting program in promoting parenting competencies and preventing maladaptive parenting behaviors in mothers at risk for child abuse and neglect. Methods: The study used microlevel observational assessments of mother-child interactions in the third…

  6. Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rashmi; Melanson, Stella; Levin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Youth from single-parent families report lower educational aspirations than those from two-parent families. This study explored the influence of background factors (gender, grade, parental education and SES), parental involvement with education, academic self-concept, and peer influences on educational aspirations. The participants were Canadian…

  7. Are Parents Doing Better When They Are Together? A Study on the Association between Parental Sensitivity and Family-Level Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry-Jørgensen, Laura; Tissot, Hervé; Frascarolo, France; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Favez, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of one parent's presence on the quality of the interaction between the other parent and their three-month-old infant. Family interactions were observed in a sample of 69 two-parent families. Parental sensitivity was assessed during two sessions, first in a "dyadic" context (D) and then…

  8. Childhood parental divorce and cortisol in young adulthood: evidence for mediation by family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Amy J; Luecken, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Childhood parental divorce has been linked with negative physical and psychological health in adulthood, potentially due to alterations in adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic stress. The current study evaluated cortisol in 94 young adults (mean age 19.9) from families characterized by parental divorce (n=43) or intact parental marriages (n=51). Salivary cortisol was assessed prior to and at 3 time points after a challenging speech task. Participants from divorced families had significantly lower cortisol across the experimental period than those from intact families, even after controlling for family conflict and current depression and anxiety. Lower family income was also associated with lower cortisol, and partially mediated the relationship between parental divorce and cortisol. Findings suggest that childhood parental divorce is associated with attenuated cortisol in young adulthood, which may be explained by lower income in divorced families.

  9. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrie Gilly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children’s dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1 investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children’s saturated fat intake; and (2 to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children’s saturated fat intake. Method Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environmentParent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children’s dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (p Results After adjustments for child and family demographics, higher levels of perceived food availability (β=-0.2 at baseline was associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake, where as higher perceived responsibility (β=0.2, restriction (β=0.3 and pressure to eat (β=0.3 were associated with lesser change in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2, perceived responsibility (β=-0.3 and restriction (β=-0.3 from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in

  10. Parent-offspring transaction: Mechanisms and the value of within family designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer M; McGowan, Patrick; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Parenting is best understood as a transactional process between parents and their offspring. Each responds to cues in the other, adapting their own behavior to that of their partner. One of the goals of parenting research in the past twenty years has been to untangle reciprocal processes between parents and children in order to specify what comes from the child (child effects) and what comes from the parent (parent effects). Child effects have been found to relate to genetic, pre and perinatal, family-wide, and child-specific environmental influences. Parent effects relate to stresses in the current context (e.g. financial strain, marital conflict), personality and ethnicity but also to adverse childhood experiences (e.g. parental mental health and substance abuse, poverty, divorce). Rodent models have allowed for the specification of biological mechanisms in parent and child effects, including neurobiological and genomic mechanisms, and of the causal role of environmental experience on outcomes for offspring through random assignment of offspring-mother groupings. One of the methods that have been developed in the human and animal models to differentiate between parent and child effects has been to study multiple offspring in the family. By holding the parent steady, and studying different offspring, we can examine the similarities and differences in how parents parent multiple offspring. Studies have distinguished between family average parenting, child-specific parenting and family-wide dispersion (the within family standard deviation). These different aspects of parenting have been differentially linked to offspring behavioral phenotypes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Beyond the genetic basis of sensation seeking: The influence of birth order, family size and parenting styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feij, Jan A,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same factor, are related to biologically based impulsive disorders, and have a common genetic basis. Questionnaire and biographical data obtained from 532 female and 479 male young adults (age between 18 and 30 years were analyzed using structural modeling. The results show that participants who experienced little parental care and much control were more likely to have high scores on disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. It appears that these family factors may partly explain the previously reported effects of birth order and family size on sensation seeking.

  12. The family environment predicts long-term academic achievement and classroom behavior following traumatic brain injury in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durber, Chelsea M; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2017-07-01

    This study examined how the family environment predicts long-term academic and behavioral functioning in school following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood. Using a concurrent cohort, prospective design, 15 children with severe TBI, 39 with moderate TBI, and 70 with orthopedic injury (OI) who were injured when they were 3-7 years of age were compared on tests of academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of school performance and behavior on average 6.83 years postinjury. Soon after injury and at the longer term follow-up, families completed measures of parental psychological distress, family functioning, and quality of the home environment. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined group differences in academic outcomes and their associations with measures of the early and later family environment. The severe TBI group, but not the moderate TBI group, performed worse than did the OI group on all achievement tests, parent ratings of academic performance, and teacher ratings of internalizing problems. Higher quality early and late home environments predicted stronger academic skills and better classroom behavior for children with both TBI and OI. The early family environment more consistently predicted academic achievement, whereas the later family environment more consistently predicted classroom functioning. The quality of the home environment predicted academic outcomes more strongly than did parental psychological distress or family functioning. TBI in early childhood has long-term consequences for academic achievement and school performance and behavior. Higher quality early and later home environments predict better school outcomes for both children with TBI and children with OI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Children's Family Environments and Intellectual Outcomes during Maternal Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in incarcerated mothers that has occurred in the past decades, there is a paucity of family research focusing on the children affected by maternal imprisonment. The present study investigated family environments and intellectual outcomes in 60 children between the ages of 2 and 7 years during their mothers'…

  14. A culturally adapted family intervention for African American families coping with parental cancer: outcomes of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Maureen P; Kissil, Karni; Lynch, Laura; Harmon, La-Rhonda; Hodgson, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    The primary objective of this 2-year pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally adapted family intervention in improving family communication among African American parents coping with cancer and their school-age children. A secondary objective was to determine its impact on other symptoms of psychosocial distress (depression and anxiety). The third objective was to assess for acceptability and feasibility. Using a two-arm pre-intervention and post-intervention prospective design, 12 African American families received five bi-monthly sessions of either a culturally adapted family intervention (n=7 families) or psycho-education treatment (n=5 families). Parents and their children completed pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires assessing perceptions of family communication, quality of their relationship, and symptoms of depression. School-age children additionally completed a questionnaire assessing their levels of anxiety. Consumer satisfaction was also evaluated at post-intervention. Parents and school-age children who completed the culturally adapted family intervention reported significantly better communication with each other and were more satisfied compared with the psycho-education control group. No changes were noted in symptoms of anxiety or depression. The culturally adapted family intervention was acceptable based on our findings, families' feedback, and rates of retention. Feasibility is uncertain because our oncology clinic approach to recruitment was slower than expected. Providing culturally adapted family intervention programs to African American families who are coping with parental cancer may result in improved family communication. This pilot study serves as the first step in the development of culturally adapted family intervention programs to help African American families cope with parental cancer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Congruence and Incongruence in Adolescents' and Parents' Perceptions of the Family: Using Response Surface Analysis to Examine Links with Adolescents' Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Dirks, Melanie A; DeLongis, Anita; Chen, Edith

    2016-10-01

    Parents and adolescents often hold discrepant views about the family environment and these discrepancies may in turn influence adolescents' psychological adjustment. The current study examined how adolescent-parent perceptions of family routines and chaos, and their congruence and incongruence, relate to adolescents' self-reported psychological adjustment (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), both concurrently (N dyads = 261; 53 % female) and 2 years later (N dyads = 118; 50 % female). Using polynomial regression and response surface analysis, results indicated that adolescents' perceptions of the family environment were a stronger predictor of adolescents' adjustment than parents' perceptions (76 % mothers), concurrently and over time. However, both congruence and incongruence in adolescent-parent perceptions were also related to adolescents' adjustment. Specifically, congruently negative adolescent-parent perceptions were associated with worse concurrent adolescent adjustment. Further, incongruence defined by more negativity in adolescents' versus parents' perceptions was associated with worse adolescent psychological adjustment, concurrently and over time. In sum, in addition to the strong links between adolescents' perceptions of the family and their own psychological adjustment, examining how congruent and incongruent adolescents' perceptions are with parents' perceptions may shed additional light on how the family environment relates to adolescent adjustment.

  16. Parental Involvement, Parenting Behaviors, and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income and Minority Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Singh, Kusum; Sung, Youngji Y.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the longitudinal association of parental involvement in Head Start parent-focused programs, parenting behaviors, and the cognitive development of children by specifying two longitudinal growth models. Model 1 examined the longitudinal effects of the parental involvement in three Head Start parenting programs (parenting classes,…

  17. The family context of low-income parents who restrict child screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents restrict child screen time to two hours per day, but many preschool-aged children exceed this viewing recommendation. Modifying children's viewing habits will require collaborating with parents, but little is known about the factors that influence parents' capacity for effective screen-related parenting. This study aimed to identify the demographic, family and community contextual factors associated with low-income parents' restriction of child screen time. Parents (N=146) of children (age 2-5 years) attending Head Start centers in the United States completed a self-report survey in 2010 assessing parent and child screen use (television, DVD, video, video games, and leisure-time computer use), parent restriction of child screen time, and family (parent stress, social support, and life pressures) and community (neighborhood safety and social capital) factors. Children were more likely to meet the American Academy of Pediatrics screen time recommendation if their parent reported high restriction of child screen time. Parent and child demographic characteristics were not associated with parents' restriction of child screen time. In multivariate analysis, less parent screen time, fewer parent life pressures, and greater social support were associated with parents' high restriction of screen time. Family contextual factors may play an important role in enabling low-income parents to restrict their children's screen time. When counseling low-income parents about the importance of restricting child screen time, practitioners should be sensitive to family contextual factors that may influence parents' capacity to implement this behavior change.

  18. Antecedents and outcomes of a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance in Chinese employed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Spector, Paul E; Shi, Kan

    2009-04-01

    The study provided validity evidence for a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance that comprises direction of influence (work to family vs. family to work) and types of effect (work-family conflict vs. work-family facilitation). Data were collected from 189 employed parents in China. The results obtained from a confirmatory factor analysis supported the factorial validity of the fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance with a Chinese sample. Child care responsibilities, working hours, monthly salary, and organizational family-friendly policy were positively related to the conflict component of work-family balance; whereas new parental experience, spouse support, family-friendly supervisors and coworkers had significant positive effects on the facilitation component of work-family balance. In comparison with the inconsistent effects of work-family conflict, work to family facilitation had consistent positive effects on work and life attitudes. The implications of findings in relation to China and other countries are discussed in the paper.

  19. Ties That Bind: Building and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Relationships through Family Traditions and Rituals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Diane, Ed.; Bankston, Karen, Ed.

    This booklet discusses the importance of family rituals as a way of staying connected to children as they move through adolescence. Family rituals give teens a sense of being part of a family that values its time together. Even something as simple as a family meal together can have great impact on maintaining a bond between parents and children.…

  20. Parent-Child Relationships in Nondivorced, Divorced Single-Mother, and Remarried Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Margaret Stanley; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Over time, mother-child relationships in families with remarried mothers grew increasingly similar to those in families whose parents had never divorced. Relationships in single-mother families remained different from those in the other two types of families. Stepfathers were less likely to be authoritative than were nondivorced fathers. (BC)

  1. Families Created by Assisted Reproduction: Parent-Child Relationships in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 "in vitro" fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63…

  2. Influence of family type and parenting behaviours on teenage sexual behaviour and conceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, C; Allen, E; Strange, V; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Johnson, A; Stephenson, J

    2006-06-01

    Longitudinal data were used to explore relations between teenage pregnancy, sexual behaviour, and family type. The study examined whether students from lone parent and/or teenage mother initiated families more commonly report sex, lack of contraception at first sex, and/or conceptions by age 15/16, and whether such associations can be explained by low parental strictness, difficult parent-child communication, and/or low parental input into sex education. Up to date longitudinal UK research on family influences on conceptions is lacking, as is longitudinal research on family influences on sexual behaviour. No previous studies have comprehensively examined effects of parenting behaviours. Unlike previous research, this study tested theories suggesting that parenting deficits among lone parent and teenage initiated families increase risk of teenage pregnancy among their children. Secondary analysis of data from a trial of sex education. Girls and boys from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born were more likely to report sex but not lack of contraception at first sex by age 15/16. Girls and boys with mothers having them as teenagers, and boys but not girls from lone parent families, were more likely to report being involved in conceptions by age 15/16. Only the association between teenage mother family and girls' conceptions was reduced by adjusting for a parenting behaviour measure. Students from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born are more likely to report early sexual debut and conceptions by age 15/16, but this is not generally explained by parenting style.

  3. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  4. Parenting Practices and Child Adjustment in Different Types of Households: A Study of African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 867 African American households to investigate differences in parenting practices and child outcomes by type of household. Results indicate that mothers provide similar levels of parenting regardless of family structure. Secondary caregivers, however, show a great deal of variation in quality of parenting. Fathers and…

  5. Pilot Evaluation of a Home Visit Parent Training Program in Disadvantaged Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study reported the pilot evaluation of the Healthy Start Home Visit Program for disadvantaged Chinese parents with preschool children, delivered by trained parent assistants. Home visiting was used to make services more accessible to disadvantaged families. Method: The participants included 21 parent-child dyads. Outcome measures…

  6. Parent-Child Cultural Orientations and Child Adjustment in Chinese American Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H.; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H.; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on children's and…

  7. Family Worlds: Couple Satisfaction, Parenting Style, and Mothers' and Fathers' Speech to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Michael W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relations between certain family context variables and the conversational behavior of 36 parents who were playing with their 3 year olds. Transcripts were coded for types of conversational functions and structure of parent speech. Marital satisfaction was associated with aspects of parent speech. (LB)

  8. Time with Children, Children's Well-Being, and Work-Family Balance among Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkie, Melissa A.; Kendig, Sarah M.; Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Denny, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    Cultural imperatives for "good" parenting include spending time with children and ensuring that they do well in life. Knowledge of how these factors influence employed parents' work-family balance is limited. Analyses using time diary and survey data from the 2000 National Survey of Parents (N = 933) indicate that how time with children relates to…

  9. Parent/Child Concordance about Bullying Involvement and Family Characteristics Related to Bullying and Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K.; Kaufman Kantor, Glenda; Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parent perspectives on bullying, parent/child concordance about bullying involvement, and family characteristics associated with bullying perpetration and peer victimization. Participants were 205 fifth-grade students and their parents. Students attended an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth…

  10. Perspectives on Stress, Parenting, and Children's Obesity-Related Behaviors in Black Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Elizabeth P.; Kazak, Anne; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Lewis, Lisa; Barg, Frances K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In an effort to develop targets for childhood obesity interventions in non-Hispanic-Black (Black) families, this study examined parental perceptions of stress and identified potential links among parental stress and children's eating patterns, physical activity, and screen-time. Method: Thirty-three self-identified Black parents or…

  11. The Relation Between Parental Mental Illness and Adolescent Mental Health: The Role of Family Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Witteman, C.L.M.; Hosman, C.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness are often found to be at high risk of developing psychological problems themselves. Little is known about the role of family factors in the relation between parental and adolescent mental health. The current study focused on parent-child interaction and

  12. Parents' Assessment of Their Preschool Children's Bilingual Development in the Context of Family Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Parents' assessment of children's development in the first and the second language is an essential part of their family language policy (FLP) and an important component of parent-child communication. This paper presents a pilot study focused on Russian-speaking immigrant parents' assessment of their children's language knowledge in Russian as a…

  13. Families: Influences in Children's Development and Behaviour, from Parents and Teachers' Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Claudia Rodrigues Sequeira; Dias, Filomena Valadao

    2012-01-01

    Family plays a very important role in infant's development and behaviour, being that the parents' divorce can be a very stressful experience. This is an exploratory and comparative study that aims at identifying the differences in children's behaviour with divorced parents (or separated) and married parents (or living together), based on the…

  14. Evaluation of a U.S. Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention in Rural Western Kenya: From Parents Matter! to Families Matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhoudt, Hilde; Miller, Kim S.; Ochura, Juliet; Wyckoff, Sarah C.; Obong'o, Christopher O.; Otwoma, Nelson J.; Poulsen, Melissa N.; Menten, Joris; Marum, Elizabeth; Buve, Anne

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated Families Matter! Program (FMP), an intervention designed to improve parent-child communication about sexual risk reduction and parenting skills. Parents of 10- to 12-year-olds were recruited in western Kenya. We aimed to assess community acceptability and FMP's effect on parenting practices and effective parent-child communication.…

  15. Parent-professional alliance and outcomes of child and family care: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, M. de; Pijnenburg, H.M.P.H.M.; Hattum, M.J.C. van; McLeod, B.D.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Valle, J.F. del; Bravo, A.; López, M.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation is based on a systematic review on the association between the parent-professional alliance and outcomes of youth and family care. In child and family social services, parents play an important role (Accurso, Hawley, & Garland, 2013; Chaffin & Bard, 2011). They are either the main

  16. Differences in School Behavior and Achievement between Children from Intact, Reconstituted, and Single-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Darin R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Analyzed differences in school behavior and achievement among students (n=530) in grades six through nine from intact, reconstituted, and single-parent families. Students from intact, two-parent families had fewer absences and tardies, higher grade point averages, and fewer negative and more positive teacher behavioral ratings than did those from…

  17. Resilience and the Course of Daily Parenting Stress in Families of Young Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, E. D.; Crnic, K. A.; Blacher, J.; Baker, B. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parenting stresses have consistently been found to be higher in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID); yet, some families are able to be resilient and thrive in the face of these challenges. Despite the considerable research on stress in families of ID, there is still little known about the stability and compensatory…

  18. Family Involvement in Early Intervention Service Planning: Links to Parental Satisfaction and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Tierney K.; You, Hyun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The mediating role of parental satisfaction in the relation between family involvement in early intervention service planning and parental self-efficacy was explored. Participants included families of children with disability or delay involved in early intervention (n = 2586). Data were examined upon entry into early intervention (T1) and at…

  19. Marital and Parent-Child Relationships in Families with Daughters Who Have Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…

  20. Parents with Psychosis: A Pilot Study Examining Self-Report Measures Related to Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John

    2002-01-01

    Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…

  1. Parent Perspectives: Understanding Support Systems for Kindergarteners with Special Needs and Their Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okraski, Ronni

    2017-01-01

    Having a child with special needs can be overwhelming, emotionally draining and extremely stressful for parents and their family members. Research identifies the support systems families need in order to have quality-of-life. The current study uses mixed methods to evaluate the degree to which parents and other primary caregivers in Arizona view…

  2. Employed Parents of Children with Disabilities and Work Family Life Balance: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Theresa J.; Clark, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Work family balance (WFB) is an individual's perception of the fit between work and family roles. Among employed parents of typically developing children WFB has been demonstrated to impact work functioning and physical and psychological health. Emerging from this mature field of research are examinations of WFB among parents of…

  3. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  4. Family Cohesion in the Lives of Mexican American and European American Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Andrew O.; MacDermid, Shelley M.; Coltrane, Scott L.; Parke, Ross D.; Duffy, Sharon; Widaman, Keith F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated similarities and differences in relations between stress and parenting behaviors for 509 Mexican American and European American fathers and mothers in Southern California. Our model posited that family cohesion mediates the relation between stressors and parenting behavior, and we found that family cohesion strongly…

  5. Cultural Competence of Parenting Education Programs Used by Latino Families: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, Colleen K.; Ewaida, Marriam; Anderson, Elaine A.

    2014-01-01

    The cultural competence of 13 parenting education programs for Latino families with young children was examined in this study. Based on our analyses, we make several recommendations for improving the cultural competence and effectiveness of parenting education programs for Latino families with young children. Specifically, we recommend the…

  6. A Learner-Centered Family Literacy Project for Latino Parents and Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jack; Garcia, Roberto; Tejeda-Delgado, Carmen; Garrett, Sherrye D.; Martinez-Garcia, Cynthia; Hinojosa, Roel V.

    2004-01-01

    Leaders in the field of literacy regard family literacy projects that seek to involve both children and their parents or caregivers as vital. The importance of parents as a child's first teachers has long been acknowledged. Nevertheless, the topic of family literacy is not one of those receiving attention in the field. In an annual survey of…

  7. Education and the Children of One-Parent Families: A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barb

    Current literature about children of one-parent families can provide educators with information on what effects living in a one-parent family have on a child's personality, behavior, and academic performance. Research indicates that at the elementary level children often fear abandonment, act aggressively, and display attention-seeking behaviors…

  8. Relationships between Humor Styles and Family Functioning in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Alicja; McGrail, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The humor styles and family functioning of parents of children with disabilities are understudied subjects. This study seeks to shed quantitative light on these areas. Seventy-two parents of children with disabilities completed the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales" (FACES IV) and the "Humor Styles…

  9. The Perception of Family Conflict by Parents Living with HIV/AIDS and Their Adolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Jiang, Luohua; Lord, Lynwood; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2007-01-01

    This study explores discrepancies in perceiving family conflict between HIV-infected parents and their adolescent children aged 12 to 22. A representative sample of 382 adolescent children and their HIV+ parents were recruited and assessed over 4 years. Relationships between discrepancies in perception and family demographics and the impact of…

  10. Parental Stress in Families of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2018-01-01

    Parents of children with disabilities often experience a higher level of stress than parents of children without disabilities, regardless of categories of disabilities. Understanding parental stressors can lead to appropriate interventions and supports for these parents and their children with disabilities. This article discusses issues of…

  11. Parental Stress in Families of Children With Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Lawson, Katharine; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Schechtman, Merryl; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2015-11-01

    The level of parental stress in families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities and its association with child comorbid symptoms was studied in an ethnically diverse population, in a cross-sectional study with structured interview. The sample included 50 families of children with autism and 50 families of children with other developmental disabilities, matched by age/gender. Interview included Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Gastrointestinal Questionnaire, Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and Aberrant Behavior Checklist. In this ethnically diverse sample, parental stress was significantly higher for the autism group and for non-Hispanic and US-born mothers. In both study groups, parental stress was related to child irritability. Parental stress was also related to gastrointestinal problems in the autism group and to sleep difficulties in the developmental disabilities group. Targeting child irritability may be particularly important in reducing parental stress for families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Strengthening Incarcerated Families: Evaluating a Pilot Program for Children of Incarcerated Parents and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Perryman, Jamie; Markovitz, Lara; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley; Brown, Shavonnea

    2013-10-01

    Parental incarceration can be devastating for families. Children may experience difficulties, and the stress on caregivers who take on unexpected childrearing is high. We implemented and evaluated a family-level intervention with caregivers and children experiencing parental (typically maternal) incarceration, in a community setting. We partnered with a community-based organization serving families with an incarcerated parent to conduct a pilot trial of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP). Process evaluation indicated high implementation fidelity, satisfaction, engagement, and attendance. Outcome evaluation results indicated positive changes in family-level functioning, caregivers' positive parenting, and caregiver depression symptoms from pre- to post-intervention, with some changes retained at follow-up 4 months later. Implications for preventive interventions with children of incarcerated parents, and their caregivers, are discussed.

  13. Latino Parent Acculturation Stress: Longitudinal Effects on Family Functioning and Youth Emotional and Behavioral Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B.; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel A.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan A.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J.

    2016-01-01

    Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model, parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use ...

  14. Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Grogan-Kaylor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cristina B Bares1, Jorge Delva2, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor2, Fernando Andrade31Curtis Research and Training Center, School of Social Work, 2School of Social Work, 3School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America.Methods: Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables.Results: Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion: Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children's development and potential use of marijuana.Keywords: parenting, families, adolescent

  15. Typology of Family Parenting Styles and Its Influence on Male Adolescents’ Tendency to Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Yasin Seifi, G; Majid Saffarinia; Sara Kalantari M

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Narcotics and consequences of their consumers is one of the basic challenges of modern societies. Since family and parenting styles have an important impact on children's psycho social development, the present study investigated the effects of typology of family parenting on drug tendency in adolescent. Method: To do so, a sample of 375 male students was selected of Borujen public high school students in 1389-1390 academic years by multistage cluster random sampling. Sheffer Parenting st...

  16. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yan; Nicklas Theresa A; Fisher Jennifer O; Hughes Sheryl O; Hoerr Sharon L; Shewchuk Richard M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head S...

  17. Examining the impact of child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) on family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Nick; Bratton, Sue C

    2014-07-01

    Research supports that child parent relationship therapy (CPRT), a filial therapy approach, has strong effects on participating parents and children. Some speculate that filial therapy improves the family system; however, minimal research exists to support this claim. Using a single-case design, researchers examined CPRT's impact on the functioning of 8 families. Results revealed that 6 families experienced statistically significant improvements in targeted areas of family functioning. Results from self-reported measures indicated that 7 families improved in family satisfaction, 4 in cohesion, 3 in communication, and 1 in flexibility. Observational measures also revealed improvements: 5 families in flexibility, 4 families in cohesion, and 4 families in communication. The results support that the benefits of CPRT may extend to the family system. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  18. Family and Work Predictors of Parenting Role Stress among Two-Earner Families of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Marji Erickson

    2005-01-01

    Family resources (i.e. household income and spouse support), parenting challenges (i.e. number of children, difficulty finding reliable child care, and child characteristics), work rewards (i.e. work interest) and work demands (i.e. hours and work overload) were tested as predictors of parenting role stress among mothers and fathers in two-earner…

  19. Who Shapes Whom in the Family: Reciprocal Links between Autonomy Support in the Family and Parents' and Adolescents' Coping Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante

    2011-01-01

    Coping research has neglected the study of the reciprocal links between parents' and adolescents' coping behaviors and the potential influence of parental support for the development of adolescent autonomy. This study, therefore, analyzed the coping behaviors of fathers, mothers, and children (53% females) in 196 families who participated in a…

  20. Increased Sensory Processing Atypicalities in Parents of Multiplex ASD Families versus Typically Developing and Simplex ASD Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Chelsea K.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; Donkers, Franc C. L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that sensory processing atypicalities may share genetic influences with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To further investigate this, the adolescent/adult sensory profile (AASP) questionnaire was distributed to 85 parents of typically developing children (P-TD), 121 parents from simplex ASD families (SPX), and 54…

  1. A study on family communication pattern and parenting styles with quality of life in adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanavi, Fariba Shahhraki; Baghbanian, Abdolvahab; Shovey, Mehdi Faraji; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between parenting styles and family communication patterns with adolescent's quality of life. The cross-sectional study was carried out on 439 randomly selected adolescents in the city of Zahedan, Iran, from January to July 2011.The subjects were asked to complete the KIDSCREEN-52 health-related quality of life questionnaire, while their parents were asked to complete the Diana Brinder's Test to show their parenting styles. SPSS 15 was used to analyse data. Most parents had 'authoritative' parenting style (n = 380; 86.6%). Pluralistic (n = 170; 38.7%) and consensual (n = 152; 34.6%) patterns were the most frequent styles of communication in families. Data suggested a significant relationship between parenting style and some dimensions of quality of life, including physical well-being, psychological well-being, social support and peers, and autonomy (p parent relation and home life (p parents while raising their children.

  2. Children in Beardslee's family intervention: relieved by understanding of parental mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihkala, Heljä; Sandlund, Mikael; Cederström, Anita

    2012-11-01

    Beardslee's family intervention (FI), which is a family-based preventive method for children of mentally ill parents, has been implemented on a national level in Sweden. Fourteen children and parents from nine families were interviewed about how the FI was for the children. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. A central finding was children's sense of relief and release from worry because of more knowledge and openness about the parent's illness in the family. The results indicating relief for the children are encouraging.

  3. Family socialization of adolescent's self-reported cigarette use: the role of parents' history of regular smoking and parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E; Jones, Deborah J; Olson, Ardis L; Forehand, Rex; Gaffney, Cecelia A; Zens, Michael S; Bau, J J

    2007-05-01

    To examine the main and interactive effects of parental history of regular cigarette smoking and parenting style on adolescent self-reported cigarette use. Predictors of adolescent self-reported cigarette use, including parents' history of regular cigarette smoking and two dimensions of parenting behavior, were analyzed in a sample of 934 predominately Caucasian (96.3%) parent-adolescent dyads. Families were drawn from the control group of a randomized control trial aimed at preventing adolescent substance use. In addition to the main effects of parents' history of regular smoking and parental warmth, logistic regression analysis revealed that the interaction of these two variables was associated with adolescent self-reported cigarette use. Parental warmth was associated with a decreased likelihood of the adolescent ever having smoked a cigarette; however, this was true only if neither parent had a history of regular cigarette smoking. Findings suggest that adolescent smoking prevention programs may be more efficacious if they address both parental history of regular smoking and parenting behavior.

  4. PARENTAL CHILDHOOD ADVERSITY, DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS, AND PARENTING QUALITY: EFFECTS ON TODDLER SELF-REGULATION IN CHILD WELFARE SERVICES INVOLVED FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susan J; Oxford, Monica L; Fleming, Charles B; Lohr, Mary Jane

    2018-01-01

    Parents who are involved with child welfare services (CWSI) often have a history of childhood adversity and depressive symptoms. Both affect parenting quality, which in turn influences child adaptive functioning. We tested a model of the relations between parental depression and child regulatory outcomes first proposed by K. Lyons-Ruth, R. Wolfe, A. Lyubchik, and R. Steingard (2002). We hypothesized that both parental depression and parenting quality mediate the effects of parental early adversity on offspring regulatory outcomes. Participants were 123 CWSI parents and their toddlers assessed three times over a period of 6 months. At Time 1, parents reported on their childhood adversity and current depressive symptoms. At Time 2, parents' sensitivity to their child's distress and nondistress cues was rated from a videotaped teaching task. At Time 3, observers rated children's emotional regulation, orientation/engagement, and secure base behavior. The results of a path model partly supported the hypotheses. Parent childhood adversity was associated with current depressive symptoms, which in turn related to parent sensitivity to child distress, but not nondistress. Sensitivity to distress also predicted secure base behavior. Depression directly predicted orientation/engagement, also predicted by sensitivity to nondistress. Sensitivity to distress predicted emotion regulation and orientation/engagement. Results are discussed in terms of intervention approaches for CWSI families. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Early initiation of alcohol consumption by adolescents in reconstructed families may be explained by parenting style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakunchykova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Literature about risk factors of alcohol use points at the association between alcohol use and parenting style. This study investigates the relationship between family structure of adolescents in Ukraine and their initiation of alcohol use with parenting style as a mediating variable.METHODS: Pooled data from the repeated cross-sectional nationally representative survey of classes in Ukrainian secondary schools with target group of all 15-16 year old students, held in 1999, 2003, and 2007, were used for this analysis. Complete data were available for 11019 participants. Main exposures were family structure (full, single parent and reconstructed and perceptions of the relationships with mother and father, rule-setting, control, and support provided by parents. Outcome measure was age when students started consuming alcohol.RESULTS: In bivariate analysis, children in reconstructed families had higher risk for initiating alcohol use at age of 13 or younger (odds ratio 1.37, confidence interval 1,15-1,63 compared to full families. In reconstructed families, adolescents were more likely to be dissatisfied with their relationships with mother compared to intact family structure (8.7% vs. 4.7% and dissatisfied with their relationships with father compared to intact family structure (19,8% vs. 9,1%. Parental support was lacking in higher proportion of reconstructed families, compared to intact family structure (20.7% vs. 15.1%. In the multivariate analysis, controlling for relationship with mother and father, support received from parents, and socio-demographic characteristics, the association between family structure and alcohol drinking initiation was attenuated.CONCLUSIONS: Children in reconstructed families have higher risk of early drinking initiation. This study also supports the hypothesis that dissatisfaction with relationships with parents and lack of support received from parents may mediate the association between family structure

  6. Transforming Parent-Child Interaction in Family Routines: Longitudinal Analysis with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M; Fossett, Brenda; Bakeman, Roger; Cheremshynski, Christy; Miller, Lynn; Lohrmann, Sharon; Binnendyk, Lauren; Khan, Sophia; Chinn, Stephen; Kwon, Samantha; Irvin, Larry K

    2015-12-01

    The efficacy and consequential validity of an ecological approach to behavioral intervention with families of children with developmental disabilities was examined. The approach aimed to transform coercive into constructive parent-child interaction in family routines. Ten families participated, including 10 mothers and fathers and 10 children 3-8 years old with developmental disabilities. Thirty-six family routines were selected (2 to 4 per family). Dependent measures included child problem behavior, routine steps completed, and coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. For each family, a single case, multiple baseline design was employed with three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. Visual analysis evaluated the functional relation between intervention and improvements in child behavior and routine participation. Nonparametric tests across families evaluated the statistical significance of these improvements. Sequential analyses within families and univariate analyses across families examined changes from baseline to intervention in the percentage and odds ratio of coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. Multiple baseline results documented functional or basic effects for 8 of 10 families. Nonparametric tests showed these changes to be significant. Follow-up showed durability at 11 to 24 months postintervention. Sequential analyses documented the transformation of coercive into constructive processes for 9 of 10 families. Univariate analyses across families showed significant improvements in 2- and 4-step coercive and constructive processes but not in odds ratio. Results offer evidence of the efficacy of the approach and consequential validity of the ecological unit of analysis, parent-child interaction in family routines. Future studies should improve efficiency, and outcomes for families experiencing family systems challenges.

  7. Parents of children with haemophilia at an early age: assessment of perceived stress and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ortuño, A; Cuesta-Barriuso, R; Nieto-Munuera, J

    2014-11-01

    Haemophilia is a chronic disease that requires a multidisciplinary approach for proper management and control of its clinical manifestations. The perception and management of parents of children with haemophilia can be affected by stressful situations as a result of treatment or disease progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of stress and family functioning in parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years. This is an observational clinical study involving 49 parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years who attended the VIII Workshop for Parents of Children with haemophilia, organized by the Spanish Federation of Hemophilia in La Charca, Murcia (Spain). After obtaining parental consent, the questionnaires was applied to them, FACES III (family functioning) and Pediatric Inventory for Parents (perceived stress), and a record of data on the clinical characteristics and treatment. Significant differences in the perception of stressors by gender of parents were found. A family history of haemophilia, the use of port-a-cath, inhibitor development and gender of the parents were the descriptive variables most correlated with dependents variables. These variables, together with the type of haemophilia affect significantly in the parental stress and family functioning. Parents have difficulty adjusting to disease management, perceiving many stressors. Gender and family history, can hinder the proper compliance with treatments, reducing its effectiveness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mental health status of unmarried youth living in single parent families: a case study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Atreyee; Ram, Faujdar

    2018-02-16

    In South Asian countries like India, family system lays a strong foundation in societies and therefore, the context and consequences of single parent family structures are markedly different from that of the West. In these societies single parenthood is mainly an outcome of untimely death of any one of the parents. This study tried to examine the influence of parents' survival status on the mental health of youth in India. "Youth in India: situation and Needs (2006-2007)" survey data was used in the present study. We compared two groups of unmarried young population aged 15-24 y (n = 28 637): one having both parents alive and another having only one parent alive. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to analyze the data. Results revealed that around 11% of the unmarried youth belonged to single parent families. Findings underscored a significant association between parent's survival and mental health of youth; respondents from single parent families were more likely to report metal health problems Moreover, effects of parents' survival were significant on females' mental health rather than males'. Policies must focus on reducing stress of young people growing up in single parent families through enhanced educational and employment opportunities.

  9. Parents' work-family experiences and children's problem behaviors: The mediating role of the parent-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena

    2016-06-01

    Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Understanding the relative contributions of direct environmental effects and passive genotype-environment correlations in the association between familial risk factors and child disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, M A; Cummings, J R; Hunt, E; Blazei, R; Malone, S; Iacono, W G

    2014-03-01

    Previous work reports an association between familial risk factors stemming from parental characteristics and offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). This association may reflect (a) the direct effects of familial environment and (b) a passive gene-environment correlation (r(GE)), wherein the parents provide both the genes and the environment. The current study examined the contributions of direct environmental influences and passive r(GE) by comparing the effects of familial risk factors on child DBDs in genetically related (biological) and non-related (adoptive) families. Participants were 402 adoptive and 204 biological families. Familial environment was defined as maternal and paternal maladaptive parenting and antisociality, marital conflict and divorce; offspring DBDs included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Mixed-level regressions estimated the main effects of familial environment, adoption status and the familial environment by adoption status interaction term, which tested for the presence of passive r(GE). There was a main effect of maternal and paternal maladaptive parenting and marital discord on child DBDs, indicating a direct environmental effect. There was no direct environmental effect of maternal or paternal antisociality, but maternal and paternal antisociality had stronger associations with child DBDs in biological families than adoptive families, indicating the presence of a passive r(GE). Many familial risk factors affected children equally across genetically related and non-related families, providing evidence for direct environmental effects. The relationship of parental antisociality and offspring DBDs was best explained by a passive r(GE), where a general vulnerability toward externalizing psychopathology is passed down by the parents to the children.

  11. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, EH; Zhou, Q; Ly, J; Main, A; Tao, A; Chen, SH

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and te...

  12. Parent-child cultural orientations and child adjustment in Chinese American immigrant families

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, SH; Hua, M; Zhou, Q; Tao, A; Lee, EH; Ly, J; Main, A

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on children's and their own Chinese and American orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social relationships. Parents and teachers rated children's externaliz...

  13. Parenting for Yourself and Your Child. A Parenting Curriculum for High Risk Families. Neglectful and Abusive Parents: Curriculum Development and Pilot Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Janet

    Developed for use by parent educators and others working with high risk, abusive, or neglectful families, this curriculum guide is intended to enable and facilitate the growth of this target population in key parenting learning and skill areas. Section 1 provides an overview of the manual, offers suggestions for home visits following each class…

  14. [Appearance of hepatitis B in a family environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, V; Letica, Z; Zivanović-Marinković, V; Mijusković, P; Kapulica, I; Dokić, M

    1981-01-01

    The study comprised 20 families with total of 83 members of whom 45 with hepatitis B. The selection was made of families with at least two members diseased which was the most common case, the marital couples being in question. Of other families, three families had three members and one family four members with hepatitis B virus infection. The largest number had severe clinical picture (44%) and 13 (28%) chronic active hepatitis. Four patients with the most severe clinical picture of chronic active hepatitis, together with HBeantigens, had positive HBeantigen for more than two years since the onset of the disease. Importance of damaged skin and mucosa in spreading of hepatitis B infection in family environment has been pointed out.

  15. The Family Startup Program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a universal group-based parenting support program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillingsgaard, Tea; Maimburg, Rikke Damkjær; Simonsen, Marianne

    2015-04-21

    Inadequate parenting is an important public health problem with possible severe and long-term consequences related to child development. We have solid theoretical and political arguments in favor of efforts enhancing the quality of the early family environment in the population at large. However, little is known about effect of universal approaches to parenting support during the transition to parenthood. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of group based parenting support, the Family Startup Program (FSP), currently implemented large scale in Denmark. Participants will be approximately 2500 pregnant women and partners. Inclusion criteria are parental age above 18 and the mother expecting first child. Families are recruited when attending routine pregnancy scans provided as a part of the publicly available prenatal care program at Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby. Families are randomized within four geographically defined strata to one of two conditions a) participation in FSP or b) Treatment As Usual (TAU). FSP aims to prepare new families for their roles as parents and enhance parental access to informal sources of support, i.e. social network and community resources. The program consists of twelve group sessions, with nine families in each group, continuing from pregnancy until the child is 15 months old. TAU is the publicly available pre- and postnatal care available to families in both conditions. Analyses will employ survey data, administrative data from health visitors, and administrative register based data from Statistics Denmark. All data sources will be linked via the unique Danish Civil Registration Register (CPR) identifier. Data will be obtained at four time points, during pregnancy, when the child is nine months, 18 months and seven years. The primary study outcome is measured by the Parenting Sense of Competence scale (PSOC) J Clin Child Psychol 18:167-75, 1989. Other outcomes include parenting and couple relationship quality

  16. Impact on family and parental stress of prenatal vs postnatal repair of myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiel, Ryan M; Adzick, N Scott; Thom, Elizabeth A; Burrows, Pamela K; Farmer, Diana L; Brock, John W; Howell, Lori J; Farrell, Jody A; Houtrow, Amy J

    2016-10-01

    The Management of Myelomeningocele Study was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial that compared prenatal repair with standard postnatal repair for fetal myelomeningocele. We sought to describe the long-term impact on the families of the women who participated and to evaluate how the timing of repair influenced the impact on families and parental stress. Randomized women completed the 24-item Impact on Family Scale and the 36-item Parenting Stress Index Short Form at 12 and 30 months after delivery. A revised 15-item Impact on Family Scale describing overall impact was also computed. Higher scores reflected more negative impacts or greater stress. In addition, we examined Family Support Scale and Family Resource Scale scores along with various neonatal outcomes. Repeated measures analysis was conducted for each scale and subscale. Of 183 women randomized, 171 women completed the Impact on Family Scale and 172 completed the Parenting Stress Index at both 12 and 30 months. The prenatal surgery group had significantly lower revised 15-item Impact on Family Scale scores as well as familial-social impact subscale scores compared to the postnatal surgery group (P = .02 and .004, respectively). There was no difference in total parental stress between the 2 groups (P = .89) or in any of the Parenting Stress Index Short Form subscales. In addition, walking independently at 30 months and family resources at 12 months were associated with both family impact and parental stress. The overall negative family impact of caring for a child with spina bifida, up to 30 months of age, was significantly lower in the prenatal surgery group compared to the postnatal surgery group. Ambulation status and family resources were predictive of impact on family and parental stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison between family power structure and the quality of parent-child interaction among the delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Shaghelani Lor, Hossein; Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Rahmatizadeh, Masoumeh

    2014-06-01

    Few studies indicate that most behavioral problems are due to family dysfunction and inappropriate family environment. It seems that the family of the delinquent adolescent is unbalanced in the power structure and parenting style. The present study compares the family power structure and parent-child relationship quality in delinquent and non-delinquent young subjects in Tehran. Eighty students of secondary schools aged between 15 and 18 in Tehran were enrolled with cluster sampling method and 80 delinquent adolescents of the Correction and Rehabilitation Centers aged between 15 and 18 were chosen with a convenience sampling method. They responded to an instrument of family power structure (Child-parents relationship inventory). Data was compared between these two groups by utilizing the independent and dependent t-test and Levene's test. The findings indicated there is a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents in family power structure and its subscales (P quality (P quality (P quality of parent-child relationship (P < 0.001). These results emphasize that an inappropriate decision making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior in adolescents. The fathers' parenting is more strongly linked to their sons' delinquency. So, family power structure and parent-child relationship can be considered in therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment) for adolescents' delinquency.

  18. Child, parent and family factors as predictors of adjustment for siblings of children with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, R; Gavidia-Payne, S

    2006-12-01

    Siblings adjust to having a brother or sister with a disability in diverse ways. This study investigated a range of child, parent and family factors as predictors of sibling adjustment outcomes. Forty-nine siblings (aged 7-16 years) and parents provided information about (1) sibling daily hassles and uplifts; (2) sibling coping; (3) parent stress; (4) parenting; and (5) family resilience. Multiple regression techniques were used. It was found that parent and family factors were stronger predictors of sibling adjustment difficulties than siblings' own experiences of stress and coping. Specifically, socio-economic status, past attendance at a sibling support group, parent stress, family time and routines, family problem-solving and communication, and family hardiness-predicted sibling adjustment difficulties. Finally, siblings' perceived intensity of daily uplifts significantly predicted sibling prosocial behaviour. The results revealed that the family level of risk and resilience factors were better predictors of sibling adjustment than siblings' own experiences of stress and coping resources, highlighting the importance of familial and parental contributions to the sibling adjustment process. The implications of these results for the design of interventions and supports for siblings are discussed.

  19. Family-centred service: differences in what parents of children with cerebral palsy rate important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwiel, M; Alsem, M W; Siebes, R C; Bieleman, K; Verhoef, M; Ketelaar, M

    2017-09-01

    A family-centred approach to services of children with disabilities is widely accepted as the foundational approach to service delivery in paediatric health care. The 56 items of the Measure of Processes of Care questionnaire (MPOC-56) all reflect elements of family-centred service. In this study, we investigated which elements of family-centred service are rated important by parents of children with cerebral palsy by adding a question on importance to each item of the MPOC-56 (MPOC-56-I). In total, 175 parents of children with cerebral palsy completed the MPOC-56-I. For each MPOC item, parents were asked to rate the importance on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 (not important at all) up to and including 4 (very important). We used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to further explore the variation in parents' importance ratings. Parents' importance ratings of the MPOC-56 items varied. The percentage of parents rating an item important (importance rating 3 or 4) varied between 43.8% and 96.8%. The percentage of parents rating an item unimportant (rating 0 or 1) varied between 0.0% and 20.3%, and the percentage of parents rating an item neutral (rating 2) varied between 3.0% and 36.0%. Most diverse importance ratings were found for five items concerning the provision of general information. Three correlations between these items and child and parent characteristics were found. Six items were rated important by almost all (≥95%) parents. These items concern elements of specific information about the child, co-ordinated and comprehensive care for child and family and enabling and partnership. Parents rate the importance of family-centred services for their situation in various ways. These findings endorse that family-centred services should recognize the uniqueness of families and should be tailored to what parents find important. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Typology of Family Parenting Styles and Its Influence on Male Adolescents’ Tendency to Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yasin Seifi, G

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Narcotics and consequences of their consumers is one of the basic challenges of modern societies. Since family and parenting styles have an important impact on children's psycho social development, the present study investigated the effects of typology of family parenting on drug tendency in adolescent. Method: To do so, a sample of 375 male students was selected of Borujen public high school students in 1389-1390 academic years by multistage cluster random sampling. Sheffer Parenting styles questionnaire and investigator made questionnaire of tendency to drug were completed by selected sample. Typology of family parenting styles was extracted by combining parental and maternal parenting styles. Because of low frequency of some kind of parenting styles, only 6 parenting styles were entered in the analysis and adolescents’ anxiety and depression were compared in various styles by running of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, and Scheffe Follow up test. Results: Analysis of data demonstrated that adolescents achieve the most positive outcomes and the least tendency to drugs, when both of parents are authoritative. Also, the greatest tendency has been seen in adolescents with two indulgent parents or at least one indulgent parent. Discussion: These findings indicate the importance of parental control on adolescents' attitudes to drug.

  1. Effects of preventive family service coordination for parents with mental illnesses and their children, a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Henny J; Janssens, Jan M A M; Hoencamp, Erik; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Hosman, Clemens M H

    2015-06-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, especially when parenting is compromised by multiple risk factors. Due to fragmented services, these families often do not get the support they need. Can coordination between services, as developed in the Preventive Basic Care Management (PBCM) program, improve parenting and prevent child behavioral problems? This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) compared the effectiveness of PBCM with a control condition. Ninety-nine outpatients of a community mental health center were randomized to intervention or control. Primary outcomes included parenting quality (assessed by the HOME instrument), parenting skills (parenting skills subscale of FFQ), and parenting stress (PDH). Secondary outcomes are child behavioral problems (SDQ). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 9 and 18 months. Effects were analyzed by Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. Most families were single-parent families belonging to ethnic minorities. The results of the first RCT on effects of PBCM suggest that this intervention is feasible and has a positive effect on parenting skills. There was no evidence for effects on the quality of parenting and parenting stress, nor preventive effects on child behavioral problems. Replication studies in other sites, with more power, including monitoring of the implementation quality and studying a broader palette of child outcomes are needed to confirm the positive effects of PBCM. Long-term prospective studies are needed to investigate if improved parenting skills lead to positive effects in the children in the long run. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Perception of transgenerational family relationships: Comparison of eating-disordered patients and their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; J?zefik, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbances in various elements of transgenerational family functioning patterns are not uncommon in studies of eating disorders. We examined the relationship between patients? perception of autonomy and intimacy in their families of origin and that of their parents in their own families of origin. Material/Methods The sample consisted of 112 girls who had a diagnosis of an eating disoder and their parents; 54 of the girls were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa restrictive subtype, ...

  3. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic fai...

  4. Severe congenital malformations, family functioning and parents' separation/divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, M; Côté, S M; Boivin, M; Tremblay, R E

    2016-01-01

    We aim to explore the association of a severe congenital malformation (SCM) with postnatal family functioning and parents' separation/divorce and to examine if this association might be moderated by birth order of the child and parental level of education. SCM refers to malformations that, without medical intervention, cause handicap or death. Using the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, an ongoing population-based birth cohort study initiated in 1998, we compared 1675 families of children with and without a SCM to identify if having a child with a SCM was associated with maternal perception of family functioning. We examined if an SCM was associated with parents' separation and examined parents' education level and birth order of the children to evaluate whether these factors had any moderating effect on the results. There were no significant differences in family functioning between families with and without a SCM child at 5 and 17 months. At 5 months, family functioning was significantly better (P = 0.03) for families with a SCM firstborn child than for families with a SCM child that is not firstborn. For parental separation, no significant differences were observed at 5 and 29 months and 4 years. No significant moderating effects were observed for birth order and parental education on parental separation. Families of children with a SCM do not appear to be at higher risk of family dysfunction within the first 17 months after birth nor of parental separation within the first 4 years after birth. Family functioning tends to be worst in families where the child with SCM is the second or subsequent child born. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Family functioning mediates the association between parental depression and low self-esteem in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Susann; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Knappe, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    The negative impact of parental depression on offsprings' development has been repeatedly documented. There is however little research on the potential pathways contributing to this association. The present study examined the relationship between parental depressive disorders, family functioning and adolescents' self-esteem. A community-based sample of 1040 participants aged 14-17 years and their parents was assessed including direct and indirect information on parental psychopathology based on the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). Family functioning and youth self-esteem were assessed by self-report questionnaires using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD) in parents and the "Aussagen-Liste zum Selbstwertgefühl" in adolescents. Findings from multiple regression analyses indicated positive associations between parental depressive disorders and dimensions of dysfunctional family functioning as well as between dysfunctional familial affective involvement and youth's positive self-esteem. The relationship between parental depression and self-esteem was partly mediated by familial affective involvement. Associations may be underestimated, since incidence for depressive disorders spans to the third decade of life. Consensus diagnoses for parental depressive disorders were based on direct and indirect information for maximum use of available data, neglecting familial load, chronicity of parental depressive disorders or comorbid conditions. Thus, specificity of the findings for the family transmission of depressive disorders remains yet to be determined. Findings contribute to understanding of the pathways on how parental depression impairs offsprings' view of themselves, and to consider family functioning as a possible target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Meanings of family under the perspective of parents of adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Georgina Macedo de Sousa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the meanings of family according to parents of adolescent students. A qualitative research conducted with nine parents of adolescents from a public school, Maranhão, Brazil. Data collection occurred through unstructured interview from February to April 2011, and were submitted to thematic content analysis. Eight themes emerged: Structure, values and meanings of family; Roles and functions of family members; Family and school; Family dynamics and the health-disease process in the family; Affective bonds and family relationships; Strategies for family functioning; Feelings and support network; Adolescence and the adolescent in the family. The meanings of family overtook consanguinity, extending to friendship, solidarity and affection in a dynamic relationship that involves dialogue, affection, love and responsibility.

  7. Parent and child screen-viewing time and home media environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Gama, Augusta; Carvalhal, Isabel Mourão; Nogueira, Helena; Rosado, Vítor; Padez, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Screen-viewing time has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Data on the predictors of youth screen-viewing time is predominately from older children in North America. Parental and home media environment factors that are associated with screen-viewing time could be targeted in interventions. Examine if parental screen-viewing time and electronic media (access to game equipment, TVs, PCs, and laptops) environment factors were associated with Portuguese children's screen-viewing time and if associations differed by child age (families with children aged 3-10 years. Data were collected in 2009-2010 and analyzed in 2011. Outcomes were child spending ≥2 hours watching TV and ≥1 hour per day playing with combined other media. Exposures were mothers and fathers watching ≥2 hours of TV and electronic media variables. Parental TV-viewing time was strongly associated with child weekday and weekend TV-viewing time across all four gender and age subgroups. Maternal TV-viewing time was a stronger predictor of child TV-viewing time than paternal TV-viewing time. There was very limited evidence that parental TV-viewing time was associated with combined other media time among boys or girls. Access to electronic game equipment increased the likelihood that children spent >1 hour using combined other media on weekdays and weekend days. Parental TV-viewing time was associated with Portuguese children's TV-viewing time. The numbers of TVs in the household and electronic games equipment access were also associated with TV- and combined other media-viewing/usage time. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond "Lots of Hugs and Kisses": Expressions of Parental Love From Parents and Their Young Children in Two-Parent, Financially Stable Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabey, Allen K; Rauer, Amy J; Haselschwerdt, Megan L; Volling, Brenda

    2017-10-22

    Given that parental love is essential for children's optimal development, the current study gathered examples of how parental love was demonstrated within parent-child relationships. Fifty-eight two-parent, financially stable families consisting of a mother, father, and young child (3-7 years old) from the Midwest were interviewed regarding how they demonstrated or perceived parental love. Results from an inductive thematic analysis revealed considerable variability in how parental love was demonstrated, with five themes emerging that overlapped between parents and their children: playing or doing activities together, demonstrating affection, creating structure, helping or supporting, and giving gifts or treats. Some gendered patterns among these themes were found with mothers emphasizing physical and verbal affection and fathers highlighting their more prominent role as playmates. The lay examples provided by parents and children in this exploratory study extend previous conceptualizations of parental love and underscore the importance of parents being attuned and responsive to the specific needs of their children. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  9. Parenting, family life, and well-being among sexual minorities: nursing policy and practice implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Scott

    2008-06-01

    Parenting and family life are fundamental social constructs in human society and in law and public policy. Family structures and support systems provide important economic and psychological advantages for parents as well as for their children. Stigma toward lesbian and gay parents often marginalize individuals in these families and restrict family members' full expression of social citizenship, humanity, and personhood. Stigma directly contributes to increased risk for substance abuse, anxiety, and depressive illness among both parents and children. This article reviews the relevant policy literature to deconstruct the impacts of stigma on the psychological health and well-being of sexual minority parents so that psychiatric/mental health nurses and other health care providers can identify and counter these effects in their practices and advocate for policy improvements.

  10. The experiences of Cypriot hearing adults with Deaf parents in family, school, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikakou, Kika; Christodoulou, Despina; Hadjidemetri, Eleni; Konidari, Maria; Nicolaou, Nicoletta

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the personal experiences of hearing adults with signing Deaf parents in their families, school, and society. In order to obtain relevant information, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Cypriot hearing adults with Deaf parents between the ages of 21 and 30 years with different occupation, sex, and educational background. It was found that most of the participants developed a bicultural identity, undertook the interpreter and protector role in their family, and interacted well with their parents, despite the lack of in-depth communication that they noted. The positive role of the extended family was acknowledged. The prejudices of Cypriot hearing people against the Deaf people were identified, as well as the lack of state support toward the Deaf community. This study has implications for Deaf parents, and professionals working, planning, and implementing social, psychological, and educational support services to Deaf-parented families.

  11. Theory in Highly Cited Studies of Sexual Minority Parent Families: Variations and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Rachel H; Tasker, Fiona; Goldberg, Abbie E

    2017-01-01

    This article includes a systematic review and citation analysis of the literature regarding sexual minority parent families, particularly attending to what theories have been used, and how. We consider the importance of theoretical frameworks for future research and implications for policy, practice, and law related to sexual minority parent families. Our review targets 30 highly cited studies located through Google Scholar (as an interdisciplinary search engine) and published within a specific timeframe (2005-2010). We highlight the dominant theoretical models employed across disciplines studying sexual minority parent families. Although the majority of studies reviewed referred to theoretical models or perspectives, explicit theoretical grounding was frequently lacking. Instead, the empirical work reviewed appeared to have a predominantly applied focus in addressing public debates on sexual minority parent families. We provide recommendations for how theory might be more fully integrated into the social science literature on sexual minority parents and their children.

  12. Work-family balance, participation in the family work and parental self-efficacy in Chilean Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomo Velez, G.F.P.V.

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes differences regarding work-family balance, participation in family work, and parental self-efficacy in workers (N=300) in Chile according to their sex and their status as income providers. Three instruments (Survey Work-Home Interaction-Nijmegen, Questionnaire of Participation

  13. Home Environment and Parental Involvement in Homework during Adolescence in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Toni; Escardíbul, Josep-Oriol

    2018-01-01

    It is well documented that parental behavior is a strong determinant of a child's educational achievement and general well-being. Thus, it seems relevant to analyze the determinants of parental involvement in the education of their children. While most studies analyze the effect of family characteristics (such as parents' education, ethnicity, or…

  14. Parenting stress among child welfare involved families: Differences by child placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-JenKins, Jessica; Marcenko, Maureen O.

    2014-01-01

    The intersection of parenting stress and maltreatment underscores the importance of understanding the factors associated with parenting stress among child welfare involved families. This study takes advantage of a statewide survey of child welfare involved families to examine parent and child characteristics and concrete resources, in relation to parenting stress. Separate multivariate analyses were conducted by placement status given the difference in day-to-day parenting responsibilities for families receiving in-home supervision compared to those whose children are in out-of-home care. Across both groups, parenting stress was predicted by child mental health, a finding with critical implications for intervention to this vulnerable group of families. Parent mental health also predicted parenting stress for the in-home group and food insecurity predicted parenting stress in the out-of-home group. Findings confirm that stress varies by context and that a multi-dimensional framework, considering both psychosocial and concrete resources, is required to capture contributors to parenting stress. PMID:26170514

  15. Parenting stress among child welfare involved families: Differences by child placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-JenKins, Jessica; Marcenko, Maureen O

    2014-11-01

    The intersection of parenting stress and maltreatment underscores the importance of understanding the factors associated with parenting stress among child welfare involved families. This study takes advantage of a statewide survey of child welfare involved families to examine parent and child characteristics and concrete resources, in relation to parenting stress. Separate multivariate analyses were conducted by placement status given the difference in day-to-day parenting responsibilities for families receiving in-home supervision compared to those whose children are in out-of-home care. Across both groups, parenting stress was predicted by child mental health, a finding with critical implications for intervention to this vulnerable group of families. Parent mental health also predicted parenting stress for the in-home group and food insecurity predicted parenting stress in the out-of-home group. Findings confirm that stress varies by context and that a multi-dimensional framework, considering both psychosocial and concrete resources, is required to capture contributors to parenting stress.

  16. Family Rituals and Quality of Life in Children With Cancer and Their Parents: The Role of Family Cohesion and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, M. Cristina; Kazak, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Family rituals are associated with adaptive functioning in pediatric illness, including quality of life (QoL). This article explores the role of family cohesion and hope as mediators of this association in children with cancer and their parents. Methods Portuguese children with cancer (N = 389), on- and off-treatment, and one of their parents completed self-report measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine direct and indirect links between family rituals and QoL. Results When children and parents reported higher levels of family rituals, they also reported more family cohesion and hope, which were linked to better QoL. At the dyadic level, children’s QoL was related to parents’ family rituals through the child’s family cohesion. This model was valid across child’s age-group, treatment status, and socioeconomic status. Conclusions Family rituals are important in promoting QoL in pediatric cancer via family cohesion and hope individually and via family cohesion in terms of parent–child interactions. PMID:25775914

  17. [Family Climate, Parental Partner Relationships and Symptom Formation in Children - Mentalisation- Based Family Therapy for Childhood Headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantel-Quitmann, Wolfgang; Weidtmann, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The emotional family climate is considered both an effective risk and protective factor for child development. Factors such as negative experiences parents made during their childhood or adolescence, which can reoccur as intergenerational transmission, a low partnership quality and a high level of conflict seem to be particularly relevant for the quality of the emotional family climate. Consequently, the relationship between partners, as the core relation within families, is particularly important for the family climate and subsequently for the development of the child. For this reason, problems in parent relationships should receive special attention in family therapeutic interventions. Mentalisation-based family therapy (MBF-T) offers promising approaches in this context. The key principles of mentalisation are introduced and the links between family and mentalisation are presented, followed by information on the history, objectives and the procedures of MBF-T. A case study of a family therapy, in which a child suffers from chronic headache, illustrates the connection and interrelation between family climate, family conflicts and the parental relationship, and it will further show the importance of mentalisation-based elements for therapeutic treatments.

  18. Family Environment and Childhood Obesity: A New Framework with Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child’s food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among latent and measurement variables that lead to the child weight indicator. To illustrate the accuracy, fit, reliability and validity of the introduced framework, real data collected from 630 families from Urumqi (Xinjiang, China were considered. The framework includes two categories of data comprising the normal body mass index (BMI range and obesity data. The comparison analysis between two models provides some evidence that in obesity modeling, obesity data must be extracted from the dataset and analysis must be done separately from the normal BMI range. This study may be helpful for researchers interested in childhood obesity modeling based on family environment.

  19. Understanding children's sedentary behaviour: a qualitative study of the family home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Joanna; Rosenberg, Michael; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Electronic media (EM) (television, electronic games and computer) use has been associated with overweight and obesity among children. Little is known about the time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) among children within the family context. The aim of this study was to explore how the family home environment may influence children's electronic-based SB. Focus groups and family interviews were conducted with 11- to 12-year old children (n = 54) and their parents (n = 38) using a semi-structured discussion guide. Transcripts were analysed using a thematic content approach. A brief self-completed questionnaire was also used to measure leisure behaviour and electronic devices at home. Children incorporated both sedentary and physical activities into their weekly routine. Factors influencing children's EM use included parent and sibling modelling and reinforcement, personal cognitions, the physical home environment and household EM use rules and restrictions. Participants were not concerned about the excessive time children spent with EM. This under-recognition emerged as a personal influencing factor and was viewed as a major barrier to modifying children's electronic-based SB. Efforts to reduce SB in children should focus on the influencing factors that reciprocally interact within the family home. An emphasis on increasing awareness about the risks associated with spending excessive time in screen-based activities should be a priority when developing intervention strategies aimed at modifying the time children spend in SB.

  20. Intergenerational Exchanges and Perceptions of Support within "Boomerang Kid" Family Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veevers, Jean E; Mitchell, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with a child and a parent from 218 families were conducted to examine the extent to which children returning to the parental home exchange several types of support with their parents. Also explores whether there is symmetry or incongruence in perceptions of support among families. (MKA)

  1. Elder abuse within the family environment in the Azores Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Carvalhal-Silva, Rosa María; Viera-Mendes, Maria Helena; Recio-Andrade, Beatriz; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to dimension abuse against vulnerable adults within the family and community environment in the Azores Islands, identify risk factors for abuse and describe the profile of an abused elder. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. Random sampling. The instruments used were: clinical histories of the users, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Independence in Basic Activities of Daily Living, Family APGAR Scale, Elder Abuse Suspicion Index and Social Work Assessment ...

  2. Child/Adolescent's ADHD and Parenting Stress: The Mediating Role of Family Impact and Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Silva, Alicia; Lago-Urbano, Rocio; Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel; Carmona-Márquez, José

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The demands of parenting are usually associated with some stress, and elevated levels of stress may affect the parent-child relationships and parenting practices. This is especially the case of families where children have special needs conditions or disorders, like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method: This study examined parenting stress among mothers of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample comprised 126 mothers of girls (36; 29%) and boys (90; 71%) aged 6-17 years old. Results: Mothers reported their own stress levels as well as the children and adolescents' variables (severity of their ADHD symptoms, conduct, and emotional problems) and family-contextual variables (negative impact on family's social life, impact on couple relationship, and perceived social support). Hierarchical multiple regression showed that (a) negative impact on social life and conduct problems were the strongest predictors of mother's stress. Bootstrap mediation analyses revealed that (b) the association between child and adolescent's ADHD and parenting stress was mediated by children's conduct problems and by negative impact on family's social life, and not by children's emotional problems nor by mother's perceived social support. The mediation analysis also suggested (c) a pathway from child/adolescent's ADHD through children's conduct problems and then through their negative impact on family's social life to mother's parenting stress. Conclusion: These results suggest that both child/adolescent's and family factors should be considered in the designing of interventions for reducing parenting stress in families of children and adolescents with ADHD.

  3. Parent and family impact of autism spectrum disorders: a review and proposed model for intervention evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Jeffrey S; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2012-09-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be an overwhelming experience for parents and families. The pervasive and severe deficits often present in children with ASD are associated with a plethora of difficulties in caregivers, including decreased parenting efficacy, increased parenting stress, and an increase in mental and physical health problems compared with parents of both typically developing children and children with other developmental disorders. In addition to significant financial strain and time pressures, high rates of divorce and lower overall family well-being highlight the burden that having a child with an ASD can place on families. These parent and family effects reciprocally and negatively impact the diagnosed child and can even serve to diminish the positive effects of intervention. However, most interventions for ASD are evaluated only in terms of child outcomes, ignoring parent and family factors that may have an influence on both the immediate and long-term effects of therapy. It cannot be assumed that even significant improvements in the diagnosed child will ameliorate the parent and family distress already present, especially as the time and expense of intervention can add further family disruption. Thus, a new model of intervention evaluation is proposed, which incorporates these factors and better captures the transactional nature of these relationships.

  4. The Link between National Paid Leave Policy and Work-Family Conflict among Married Working Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, T.D.; Lapierre, L.M.; Spector, P.E.; Poelmans, S.A.Y.; O'Driscoll, M.P.; Sanchez, J.I.; Cooper, G.L.; Walvoord, A.G.; Antoniou, A.S.; Brough, P.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kinnunen, U.; Pagon, M.; Shima, S.; Woo, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated relationships between four dimensions of work–family conflict (time- and strain-based work interference with family, time- and strain-based family interference with work) and three key national paid leave policies (paid parental leave, paid sick leave, paid annual leave) among a

  5. Partner Effects and Bi-Directional Parent-Child Effects in Family Alcohol Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; van der Zwaluw, C.S.; Vorst, H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The current study investigated partner effects and bidirectional parent-child effects in family alcohol use. Methods: A full family, longitudinal design was used to test the hypotheses. Participants were 428 families, including mothers, fathers, and 2 children. Associations were

  6. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  7. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  8. Family matters: infants, toddlers and preschoolers of parents affected by mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalenko, N.M.; Mares, S.P.; Newman, L.K.; Williams, A.E.S.; Powrie, R.M.; Doesum, K.T.M. van

    2012-01-01

    One in five young people in Australia, including infants, toddlers and preschoolers, lives in a family with a parent with a mental illness.1 Families affected by mental illness are more likely than other families to experience poverty and social isolation,2 and are more likely to have children taken

  9. A Weak Embrace: Popular and Scholarly Depictions of Single-Parent Families, 1900-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usdansky, Margaret L.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of single-parent families constitutes one of the most dramatic and most studied social changes of the 20th century. Evolving attitudes toward these families have received less attention. This paper explores depictions of these families in representative samples of popular magazine (N = 474) and social science journal (N = 202) articles.…

  10. Family Reminiscing Style: Parent Gender and Emotional Focus in Relation to Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivush, Robyn; Marin, Kelly; McWilliams, Kelly; Bohanek, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Family reminiscing is a critical part of family interaction related to child outcome. In this study, we extended previous research by examining both mothers and fathers, in two-parent racially diverse middle-class families, reminiscing with their 9- to 12-year-old children about both the facts and the emotional aspects of shared positive and…

  11. Relationship between Work Interference with Family and Parent-Child Interactive Behavior: Can Guilt Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunae; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its theoretical and practical importance, behavioral consequences of work-family conflict that reside in the family domain rarely have been examined. Based on two studies, the current research investigated the relationship of work-interference-with-family (WIF) with parent-child interactive behavior (i.e., educational, recreational, and…

  12. Examining the Role of Supportive Family Connection in Violence Exposure Among Male Youth in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyba, Alison J; Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Fein, Joel A; Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Miller, Elizabeth; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-04-24

    Family connection has demonstrated protective effects on violence perpetration, victimization, and witnessing in the general U.S. adolescent population. However, several studies examining the impact of family connection on violence exposure in adolescents living in low-resource urban environments have failed to demonstrate similar protective effects. We interviewed male youth in low-resource neighborhoods in Philadelphia recruited through household random sampling. Adjusted logistic regression was used to test whether a supportive relationship with an adult family member was inversely associated with violence involvement and violence witnessing. In 283 youth participants aged 10 to 24 years, 33% reported high violence involvement, 30% reported high violence witnessing, and 17% reported both. Youth who identified at least one supportive adult family member were significantly less likely to report violence involvement (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.18, 0.69]) and violence witnessing (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = [0.24, 0.88]). Youth with two supportive parents, and those with supportive mothers only, also demonstrated significant inverse associations with violence involvement. Supportive parental relationships were inversely but not significantly related to witnessing violence. The findings suggest that supportive parental relationships may not prevent youth in low-resource neighborhoods from witnessing violence but may help prevent direct violence involvement. Next studies should be designed such that the mechanisms that confer protection can be identified, and should identify opportunities to bolster family connection that may reduce adolescent violence involvement among youth in low-resource urban environments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Mediated intimacy in families: understanding the relation between children and parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsggaard, Thomas; Skov, Mikael B.; Stougaard, Malthe

    2006-01-01

    interaction phenomena that unfold between children and their parents. We used cultural probes and contextual interviews to investigate the intimate acts between children and parents in three families. Our findings show that the intimate act between children and parents share a number of similarities......Mediating intimacy between children and their parents is still limited investigated and at the same time, we find that, emerging technologies are about to change and affect the way we interact with each other. In this paper, we report from an empirical study where we investigated the social...... in families....

  14. Family factors in shaping parental attitudes in young students at the stage of entering adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Karabanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood is a process of promoting the child’s progressive development and achieving personal autonomy. Social, family and psychological factors of formation of parental attitudes of the person at the stage of entering adulthood are considered. The mechanisms of the parental family influence on parental attitudes are analyzed. Parenting and children raising are recognized by modern young students as a significant family value with priority of professional and social activity. The revealed gender differences prove a higher assessment of the importance of parenthood and the upbringing of children among males rather than females, who have strongly prioritize their professional careers as compared to parenthood. Young women’s expectations of difficulties in the future of family life are related to child birth and upbringing. The experience of emotional relations in one’s own parent family is proved to determine the importance of parenting for young adults. Positive expectations of student youth regarding future family life and a certain underestimation of the difficulties of the transitional periods of the family life cycle are revealed. The greatest difficulties are predicted by students in connection with the period of child expectation and the first year of child life. The beginning of parental function realization, child raising, economic and household functioning of the family and mutual adaptation of the spouses are listed as the most difficulties in family life cycle. Family factors that determine expectations about difficulties and subjective satisfaction with family life include gender, experience of romantic partnership, full or incomplete family in origin, chronological age.

  15. Mitigating the Effects of Family Poverty on Early Child Development through Parenting Interventions in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Weisleder, Adriana; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2016-04-01

    Poverty related disparities in early child development and school readiness are a major public health crisis, the prevention of which has emerged in recent years as a national priority. Interventions targeting parenting and the quality of the early home language environment are at the forefront of efforts to address these disparities. In this article we discuss the innovative use of the pediatric primary care platform as part of a comprehensive public health strategy to prevent adverse child development outcomes through the promotion of parenting. Models of interventions in the pediatric primary care setting are discussed with evidence of effectiveness reviewed. Taken together, a review of this significant body of work shows the tremendous potential to deliver evidence-based preventive interventions to families at risk for poverty related disparities in child development and school readiness at the time of pediatric primary care visits. We also addresss considerations related to scaling and maximizing the effect of pediatric primary care parenting interventions and provide key policy recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Home food availability, parental dietary intake, and familial eating habits influence the diet quality of urban Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Adams, Alexandra K; Carrel, Aaron L; LaRowe, Tara L; Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-10-01

    The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Hispanic children, 10-14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had "good" scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that "need improvement" (HEI, 51-80), and 14% had "poor" scores (HEI, food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health.

  17. Gene-Environment Interplay between Parent-Child Relationship Problems and Externalizing Disorders in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Bailey, Jennifer; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that genetic risk for externalizing (EXT) disorders is greater in the context of adverse family environments during adolescence, but it is unclear whether these effects are long-lasting. The current study evaluated developmental changes in gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between parent-child relationship problems and EXT at ages 18 and 25. Method The sample included 1,382 twin pairs (48% male) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, participating in assessments at ages 18 (M = 17.8 years, SD = 0.69) and 25 (M = 25.0 years, SD = 0.90). Perceptions of parent-child relationship problems were assessed using questionnaires. Structured interviews were used to assess symptoms of adult antisocial behavior and nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drug dependence. Results We detected a gene-environment interaction at age 18, such that the genetic influence on EXT was greater in the context of more parent-child relationship problems. This moderation effect was not present at age 25, nor did parent-relationship problems at age 18 moderate genetic influence on EXT at age 25. Rather, common genetic influences accounted for this longitudinal association. Conclusions Gene-environment interaction evident in the relationship between adolescent parent-child relationship problems and EXT is both proximal and developmentally limited. Common genetic influence, rather than a gene-environment interaction, accounts for the long-term association between parent-child relationship problems at age 18 and EXT at age 25. These results are consistent with a relatively pervasive importance of gene-environmental correlation in the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood. PMID:25066478

  18. New insights into parental effects and toxicity: Mate availability and diet in the parental environment affect offspring responses to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plautz, Stephanie C.; Funkhouser, Meghan A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Parental effects manifest as alterations in offspring phenotype resulting from the parental phenotype and/or parental environment. We evaluated the effects of parental diet quality and mating strategy on the toxicant tolerance of offspring in Biomphalaria glabrata snails. We raised snails either individually (self-fertilizing) or in groups of three (outcrossing) on a diet of uncooked lettuce, fish food, cooked lettuce, or cooked lettuce plus fish food. We then exposed their offspring to cadmium and malathion challenges. Cadmium tolerance varied with parental diet and was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails than self-fertilizing snails. Malathion tolerance was not affected by parental diet but was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails. These results indicate that offspring responses to stressors are heavily influenced by parental experience, but may depend on the specific stressor and the mechanism of action and/or detoxification. -- Highlights: •We reared parental snails either alone or in groups and fed them one of four diets. •We exposed their juvenile offspring to cadmium and malathion survival challenges. •Outcrossing increased toxicant tolerance of juveniles compared to self-fertilizing. •Parental diet affected juvenile offspring tolerance to cadmium but not malathion. •Toxicant characteristics likely influenced parental effects on toxicant tolerance. -- Both parental diet composition and mating strategy can significantly alter the toxicant tolerance of offspring, and toxicant characteristics likely influence the probability of parental effects

  19. The prediction of preschool children's weight from family environment factors: gender-linked differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Line; Rinaldi, Christina M

    2010-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to test an explanatory model predicting preschool girls' and boys' body weight from certain child variables (food intake, sedentary behaviors, and eating habits), as well as family variables (interaction during mealtime and level of family financial resources allocated to meeting children's eating needs). A randomized stratified subsample of parents was selected from a larger study (Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, QLSCD-1998-2002), with a breakdown of 581 girls and 611 boys of 4 years of age. Children's skin fold ratio, weight, height, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded. Questionnaires were administered to parents (usually the mother). Using structural equation modeling (SEM) separately for girls and boys, the family environment model of healthy weight development was tested. Results yielded a good fit of the model for both genders. For boys, significant predictors of body weight in the model were family food insecurity and conflicts during mealtime. Healthy eating was predicted by food insecurity, mealtime conflicts, and sedentary behaviors. Mealtime conflicts predicted sedentary behaviors. For girls, none of the variables predicted body weight, however food insecurity predicted less healthy eating. These results outline the importance of prevention and intervention within families with young children. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A study of the stressor, family environment and family burden in dissociative (conversion disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal K Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissociative disorder is a stress-related disorder usually present in adolescent and younger age group. It is also accompanied with significant impairment in activity of daily living and family relationship. Family environment plays important role in initiation and maintenance of symptoms and this put significant burden on family. Aim and Objective: To study presence of stressor, family environment, and assessment of family burden in dissociative disorder patients. Material and Method: This was a cross-sectional observational study in which 100 dissociatives disorder patients were included after fulfilling inclusion criteria from both inpatients and outpatient department of psychiatry. Results: In our study major part of the sample were women 60 (60%, among them most of were housewife and educated up to primary school. According to a stressor, 63 (63% patients had family stress/problem and out of them, 35 (58.4 were women. Seventy-four (74% patients had dissociative convulsion and out of them, 45 (75% were women. The dissociative disorder patients cause a considerable degree of burden over other family members in both men and women. There is a significant difference found in the family environment in term of personal growth dimension, relationship dimension in both men and women. Conclusion: Present study concludes that dissociative disorder patients cause a considerable degree of burden over other family members in term of leisure, physical, mental, financial, and routines family interrelationship domains. The family environment in term of personal growth dimension, relationship dimension has a casual effect on symptoms of dissociative disorder patients.