Attachment theory predicts that lack of parental care in childhood may affect the ability to relate in adulthood. While original attachment formulations have primarily focused on actual parenting experiences, more recently attachment writers increasingly emphasize the role of individual differences
Darmi, E; Bellali, T; Papazoglou, I; Karamitri, I; Papadatou, D
The care of an adult son or daughter with psychosis is filled with overwhelming demands caused by the symptomatology and illness exacerbations. Parents display disenfranchised grief over multiple losses and report increased levels of emotional burden. Most studies use quantitative methods and rely on pre-existing theoretical frameworks to investigate, through psychometric measures, the effects of being a carer. Meaning attributions to the disorder, and changes in parent-child relations over time, are poorly understood. This hermeneutic phenomenological study illuminates the subjective experience of parenting a son or daughter with psychosis, as it is lived and described by parents of young adults with psychosis. Findings suggest that the parents' perceptions of their child changes over the course of the disorder, leading to a redefinition of the parent-child relationship, causing alternations in attachment. Findings illuminate the parents' profound guilt over having contributed or not prevented the disorder, over not being 'good' parents and feeling ambivalent towards an 'intimate stranger.' Guilt is compensated by absolute dedication to the son or daughter's care, at the expense of their own well-being. Interventions for parents must be available as soon as possible, both during hospitalization and after discharge. Professionals should provide a therapeutic space, where parents could express intimate thoughts and feelings, address guilt, fear and resentment issues, be assisted in their parenting role as well as in the reconstruction of a sense of self and self-esteem. Professionals are invited to facilitate illness acceptance, provide accurate information, assist parents to redefine their relationship to the child and facilitate the integration of the traumatic experience into their personal and family narrative. Professionals must develop in depth awareness of their biases and attitudes, have an ongoing training on how to respond to the parents' needs, facilitate
Kiviniemi, Annukka Auni Inkeri; Wasz-Höckert, Ole; Seitamo, Leila Kaarina; Joskitt, Leena Orvokki; Heikkinen, Hanna Pauliina; Moilanen, Irma Kaarina; Ebeling, Hanna Elina
Experiences in one's family of origin, especially the relationship to one's parents, supposedly form the basis of relationships in adulthood. The connection between traumatic childhood events and later life has been studied intensively, whereas average childhood growth experiences have been given less attention. The aim of this study was to find out the association between images of the mother and father and the psychosocial well-being of young adults from the perspective of satisfaction in intimate relationships. Cross-sectional study. The research is a part of the Oulu University Hospital Mother-Child Follow-up Study 1971-1972. The follow-up data were collected from the young adults (n=337) in 2000 by way of mailed questionnaires, which included 17 questions about the participants' images of their parents and 18 questions about their intimate relationship satisfaction. In this study we used attachment theory as a theoretical frame of reference. Mental images of dominating parents were associated with quarrelsome intimate relationships, and the image of a dominating father, with repressive/submissive and less balanced relationships. Mental images of diligent and sociable parents were associated with a loving and balanced relationship, and the image of supportive parents, with a balanced relationship. Parental diligence was associated with a less quarrelsome relationship. The young adults' mental images of their parents were associated with their intimate relationship satisfaction. Positive mental images of the father, in particular, seemed to protect young adults from a quarrelsome and repressive/submissive intimate relationship.
Full Text Available Parents are increasingly sharing information about infants online in various forms and capacities. To more meaningfully understand the way parents decide what to share about young people and the way those decisions are being shaped, this article focuses on two overlapping areas: parental monitoring of babies and infants through the example of wearable technologies and parental mediation through the example of the public sharing practices of celebrity and influencer parents. The article begins by contextualizing these parental practices within the literature on surveillance, with particular attention to online surveillance and the increasing importance of affect. It then gives a brief overview of work on pregnancy mediation, monitoring on social media, and via pregnancy apps, which is the obvious precursor to examining parental sharing and monitoring practices regarding babies and infants. The examples of parental monitoring and parental mediation will then build on the idea of “intimate surveillance” which entails close and seemingly invasive monitoring by parents. Parental monitoring and mediation contribute to the normalization of intimate surveillance to the extent that surveillance is (resituated as a necessary culture of care. The choice to not survey infants is thus positioned, worryingly, as a failure of parenting.
D'Inverno, Ashley Schappell; Reidy, Dennis E; Kearns, Megan C
Paid parental leave policies have the potential to strengthen economic supports, reduce family discord, and provide opportunities to empower women (Basile et al., 2016; Niolon et al., 2017). In this article, we present a theory of change and evidence to suggest how paid parental leave may impact intimate partner violence (IPV). In doing so, we present three mechanisms of change (i.e., reduction in financial stress, increase in egalitarian parenting practices, and promotion of child/parent bonding) through which paid parental leave could reduce rates of IPV. We also describe limitations of the current state of knowledge in this area, as well as opportunities for future research. Ultimately, our goal is to facilitate the identification and implementation of approaches that have the potential to reduce violence at the population level. Paid parental leave embodies the potential of policies to change societal-level factors and serve as an important prevention strategy for IPV. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
Chiesa, Antonia E; Kallechey, Leigh; Harlaar, Nicole; Rashaan Ford, C; Garrido, Edward F; Betts, William R; Maguire, Sabine
Early studies examining parenting in the setting of intimate partner violence (IPV) often focus on abuse by the IPV perpetrator or effects of long term exposure. This review addresses how intimate partner violence impacts victim parenting. Seven databases were searched for the time period 1970-2015. Included were comparative studies involving children 11 years or younger. Quality ranking was based on: confirmation of victim status, consideration of co-perpetration, heterogeneity of the population, and standardization of measurements. Of 13,038 studies reviewed, 33 included studies showed that victimization is associated with negative parenting practices. Based on data presented within individual studies, 21 studies were eligible for meta-analysis which demonstrated modest effect sizes with high levels of heterogeneity. There was a negative correlation between IPV and positive parenting (r = -0.08; 95% CI: -.12, - .04); positive correlation between IPV and physical aggression (r = .17; 95% CI: .11, .23) and neglect (r = .12; 95% CI: .01, .23); and a trend toward positive correlation between IPV and psychological aggression (r = .23; 95% CI: -.94, .47). A synthesis of studies unsuitable for meta-analysis reinforced these findings. The review demonstrated ongoing methodological issues with extant literature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Laura; Scott-Tilley, Donna
Research in intimate partner violence has focused on married, cohabiting, adolescents, or college aged women. The experience of intimate partner violence by single women has not been studied separately from other groups of women. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used with feminist inquiry to gain insight into the experience of intimate partner violence by single women. The overarching theme was control and manipulation by the abuser. Subthemes included not feeling safe, poor communication skills, and caretaking. Nurses need to be aware of the occurrence of intimate partner violence in male and female partnered relationships to provide comprehensive and nonjudgmental care.
Effects of Cognitive Versus Cognitive-Behavioral Divorce-Parenting Programs on Parental Conflict, Intimate Violence, Parental Communication, Divorce-Related Parental Behaviors and Children's Behavioral Problems
.... The two-group pretest- posttest design with a three-month follow-up measured parents knowledge of divorce-related parenting behaviors, reports of intimate violence, destructive conflict tactics...
This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.
Inoue, Madoka; Chapman, Rose; Wynaden, Dianne
This paper reports a study of male nurses' experiences of providing intimate care for women clients. The number of men entering the nursing profession has increased worldwide. As a consequence of the move to a more gender-balanced profession, debate has ensued over how intimate care should be performed when this requires male nurses to be physically close to women clients. As there was little previous work on this topic, we wished to provide nurses, clients and other healthcare professionals with a better understanding of male nurses' experiences of working with women clients and within a healthcare system where they often feel excluded. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with male nurses working in various clinical settings in Western Australia. Latent content analysis was used to analyse the interviews, which were carried out between June and July 2004. Three themes were identified: the definition of intimate care, the emotional experience associated with providing intimate care and strategies used to assist in the delivery of intimate care for women clients. Providing intimate care for women clients was a challenging experience for male nurses. Participants described how it required them to invade these clients' personal space. Consequently, they often experienced various negative feelings and used several strategies to assist them during care delivery. Nurse educators should assist male nurses to be better prepared to interact with women clients in various settings. Furthermore, workplace environments need to provide additional support and guidance for male nurses to enable them to develop effective coping strategies to manage challenging situations.
McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.
This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…
Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.
Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.; Blair, Clancy
The current study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal parenting behaviors, and child effortful control in a diverse sample of 705 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities. Using structural equation modeling, the authors simultaneously tested whether observed sensitive parenting and/or harsh-intrusive parenting over the toddler years mediated the relationship between early IPV and later effortful control. Results suggest that parent...
Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de; Valongueiro, Sandra Alves; Muniz, Maria Luísa Corrêa; Silva, Elisabete Pereira
To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89-3.63) and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01-2.13), sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68-6.38) and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 - 2.12). The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43-3.02) and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07-2.47), who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86-8.27), and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57-16.45). Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help policymakers and health service managers to develop intervention strategies.
Ana Bernarda Ludermir
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. METHODS A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18–49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. RESULTS Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89–3.63 and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01–2.13, sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68–6.38 and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.12. The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43–3.02 and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07–2.47, who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86–8.27, and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57–16.45. CONCLUSIONS Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help
Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; van de Putte, Elise
Background: The loss of a parent due to intimate partner homicide has a major impact on children. Professionals involved have to make far-reaching decisions regarding placement, guardianship, mental health care and contact with the perpetrating parent, without an evidence base to guide these
Brown, Monique J; Perera, Robert A; Masho, Saba W; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A
Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela
In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women’s experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support f...
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss; And Others
This paper considers the nature of couple and parent-child relationships when family space is public rather than private, and others are present as audiences, claimants on the intimate territory, and sources of alternative ties. Research on 35 urban communal households found an initial shift in the locus of social control. (Author)
Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.
The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child's life. The results indicated that,…
Binder, Pauline; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta
to explore the sexual relationship and couples' perceptions about intimate partner support following childbirth. a hermeneutic design using a naturalistic inquiry framework as a qualitative proxy for medical anthropology. Data were collected using a fictional and culturally-specific narrative during focus group discussions (FGDs) in early 2011. Analysis was conducted by 'functional narrative analysis' and interpreted for conceptual constructions. Recruitment was by snowball and purposive sampling. a diasporic context among participants living in six urban centres across Sweden. successful recruitment included 16 Somali-Swedish fathers and 27 mothers. Three FDGs were conducted with fathers (3-7 participants) and seven with mothers (3-6 participants). within day 40 post partum, parents learn to rely on each other in the absence of traditional support networks. After the first 40 days, the re-introduction of sexual intimacy is likely to occur. Of the fathers experiencing postpartum sexual aversion, these seemed to experience 'existential angst' resulting from a combination of profound remorse over having put the partner into what they perceived as a life-threatening situation during childbirth and their perceived moral and ethical obligations to provide support in this setting. Mothers in general did not directly discuss their own sexuality. Women could imagine men's sexual aversion after witnessing childbirth. However, they seemed unaware of men's potential for angst. Mothers are situated between the loss of traditional postpartum support networks, comprised of close female kin, and their own newly-defined responsibilities in the host setting. Fathers embrace their new role. Both partners articulated the mother's new role as enhancing autonomy and independence in the host setting. However, women held mixed attitudes about fathers replacing traditional kin support. to date, late postpartum aftercare for immigrant African parents is anecdotally linked to evidence
Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J; Calton, Jenna M
This study examined the coping styles used by sexual minority men who have experienced intimate partner violence, including sexual, emotional and physical victimisation, as well as physical injury. Although sexual minority men experience intimate partner violence at least as often as do heterosexuals, there is currently limited knowledge of intimate partner violence in this community or resources for sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence. Cross-sectional design. Sexual minority men (N = 89) were recruited as part of a national online survey and completed questionnaires assessing lifetime experiences of intimate partner violence as well as various coping strategies. In terms of intimate partner violence, 34·8% of participants reported having been targets of sexual abuse, 38·2% targets of physical abuse, 69·7% targets of psychological abuse and 28·1% had experienced an injury as a result of intimate partner violence during their lifetime. Canonical correlation analyses found that intimate partner violence victimisation explained 32·5% of the variance in adaptive and 31·4% of the variance in maladaptive coping behaviours. In the adaptive coping canonical correlation, standardised loadings suggested that sexual minority men who experienced intimate partner violence resulting in injury were more likely to use religious coping, but less likely to use planning coping. In the maladaptive coping canonical correlation, sexual minority men who had been targets of intimate partner sexual victimisation and intimate partner violence resulting in injury tended to engage in increased behavioural disengagement coping. This study revealed several coping behaviours that are more or less likely as the severity of different forms of intimate partner violence increases. The identification of these coping styles could be applied to the development and modification of evidence-based interventions to foster effective and discourage ineffective coping styles
Snyder, Briana L
Women with dissociative identity disorder (DID) are significantly more likely than other women to experience intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explicate the experiences of women with DID who experience IPV and describe how they cope. Grounded theory was used to conduct this investigation. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants (N = 5) for face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were coded and categorized, and reflective memos were developed to explicate substantive categories. Women with DID used coping strategies that were consistent with their diagnoses, such as switching and dissociating. These coping mechanisms reflect past self-preservation strategies that were developed in association with severe childhood maltreatment. Women with DID who experienced IPV sought to mitigate and safeguard themselves from danger using strategies they developed as maltreated children. Nurses can use these findings to better recognize and understand the motivations and behaviors of women with DID who experience IPV. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(5), 26-32.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Rosser Limiñana, Ana; Suriá Martínez, Raquel; Mateo Pérez, Miguel Ángel
To assess the behavioural problems of children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence situations, and the moderating effect of mother parenting. We analysed, using the Child Behavior CheckList, behavioural problems of 46 children between 6 and 16 years, and the relationship between the detected problems and parenting skills shown in the mother-child interaction in shelters. Increased behavioural problems were detected in children, compared with normative population. Difficulties in parenting skills in mother-child interaction especially connect with the manifestation of externalizing problems in children. Living in a gender violence environment affects children's psychosocial adjustment and it damages the victim's parental competence. Consequently, the intervention of socio-health professionals with Intimate partner violence victims should pay more attention to detect the difficulties of children and restore the parenting skills of the mothers in order to alleviate the repercussions of gender violence on their children. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Greeson, Megan R; Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah I; Beeble, Marisa; Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris
Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has negative consequences for children's well-being and behavior. Much of the research on parenting in the context of IPV has focused on whether and how IPV victimization may negatively shape maternal parenting, and how parenting may in turn negatively influence child behavior, resulting in a deficit model of mothering in the context of IPV. However, extant research has yet to untangle the interrelationships among the constructs and test whether the negative effects of IPV on child behavior are indeed attributable to IPV affecting mothers' parenting. The current study employed path analysis to examine the relationships among IPV, mothers' parenting practices, and their children's externalizing behaviors over three waves of data collection among a sample of 160 women with physically abusive partners. Findings indicate that women who reported higher levels of IPV also reported higher levels of behavior problems in their children at the next time point. When parenting practices were examined individually as mediators of the relationship between IPV and child behavior over time, one type of parenting was significant, such that higher IPV led to higher authoritative parenting and lower child behavior problems [corrected]. On the other hand, there was no evidence that higher levels of IPV contributed to more child behavior problems due to maternal parenting. Instead, IPV had a significant cumulative indirect effect on child behavior via the stability of both IPV and behavior over time. Implications for promoting women's and children's well-being in the context of IPV are discussed.
Full Text Available In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect.
Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela
In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect.
Mustonen, Ulla; Huurre, Taina; Kiviruusu, Olli; Haukkala, Ari; Aro, Hillevi
The purpose of this 16-year prospective follow-up study was to investigate the association between parental divorce in childhood and intimate relationship quality in adulthood. The mediating role of psychosocial resources (parent-child relationships at 16 years, self-esteem and social support at 32 years) in this association was also studied. All 16 year olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school and were followed up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age (n = 1,471). Results showed that women and men from divorced families were more often divorced or separated at the age of 32 years than those from nondivorced families. However, parental divorce was associated with poorer intimate relationship quality only among women. Women from divorced families also had poorer relationships with their father and mother in adolescence, and they had lower self-esteem and satisfaction with social support in adulthood than women from intact families. No such associations were found among men. The impact of parental divorce on intimate relationship quality among women was partially mediated by mother-daughter relationship, self-esteem, and satisfaction with social support. The mediating role of mother-daughter relationship was not direct, however, but was mediated via self-esteem and satisfaction with social support. Our findings indicate that parental divorce affects daughters more than sons. In the context of parental divorce, the mother-daughter relationship in adolescence is important for the development of later psychosocial resources and, via them, for intimate relationship quality.
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue that is associated with adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs have recently gained more recognition worldwide because they increase the risk forHIV infection. However, there is ...
Latzman, Natasha E; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Holditch Niolon, Phyllis; Ghazarian, Sharon R
Exposure to adult intimate partner violence (IPV) places youth at risk for a range of outcomes, including perpetration of adolescent dating violence (ADV). However, there is variability in the effect of IPV exposure, as many youth who are exposed to IPV do not go on to exhibit problems. Thus, research is needed to examine contextual factors, such as parenting practices, to more fully explain heterogeneity in outcomes and better predict ADV perpetration. The current research draws from a multisite study to investigate the predictive power of IPV exposure and parenting practices on subsequent ADV perpetration. Participants included 417 adolescents (48.7% female) drawn from middle schools in high-risk, urban communities. IPV exposure, two types of parenting practices (positive parenting/involvement and parental knowledge of their child's dating), and five types of ADV perpetration (threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, relational abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse) were assessed at baseline (2012) and approximately 5 months later (2013) via adolescent report. Analyses (conducted in 2015) used a structural equation modeling approach. Structural models indicated that IPV exposure was positively related only to relational abuse at follow-up. Further, adolescents who reported parents having less knowledge of dating partners were more likely to report perpetrating two types of ADV (physical and verbal/emotional abuse) at follow-up. Analyses did not demonstrate any significant interaction effects. Results fill a critical gap in understanding of important targets to prevent ADV in middle school and highlight the important role that parents may play in ADV prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc.
van der Wath, Annatjie; van Wyk, Neltjie; Janse van Rensburg, Elsie
To report a study of emergency nurses' experiences of caring for survivors of intimate partner violence. Emergency nurses have the opportunity to intervene during the period following exposure to intimate partner violence when survivors are most receptive for interventions. The confrontation with the trauma of intimate partner violence can, however, affect emergency nurses' ability to engage empathetically with survivors, which is fundamental to all interventions. The research was guided by the philosophical foundations of phenomenology as founded by Husserl. A descriptive phenomenological inquiry grounded in Husserlian philosophy was used. The phenomenological reductions were applied throughout data collection and analysis. During 2010, concrete descriptions were obtained from interviewing 11 nurses working in emergency units of two public hospitals in an urban setting in South Africa. To arrive at a description of the essence, the data were analysed by searching for the meaning given to the experience of caring for survivors of intimate partner violence. Emergency nurses in South Africa are often witnesses of the emotional and physical effects of intimate partner violence. Exposure to the vulnerability and suffering of survivors elicits sympathy and emotional distress. Emergency nurses are left with the emotional impact and disruptive and recurrent memories. Exploring the tacit internal experiences related to caring for survivors of intimate partner violence revealed emergency nurses' vulnerability to the effects of secondary traumatic stress. The findings generated an opportunity to develop guidelines through which to support and empower emergency nurses. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sharabany, Ruth; Eshel, Yohanan; Hakim, Caesar
The development of intimate same- and other-sex friendships in Arab children and adolescents in Israel was investigated in relation to their perceived parenting styles. It was hypothesized that girls would show higher levels of intimacy than boys, and that cross-sex intimacy in both groups would increase with age, whereas same-sex intimate…
Stover, Carla Smith; Morgos, Dorothy
A large percentage of men who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) are fathers who continue to live with or have visitation with their children. Yet, providers rarely consider that fathers who perpetrate IPV may benefit from a parent-child focused intervention. Therapeutic work with men, who perpetrate IPV, especially with their children, is complex with issues of child safety taking precedence. This article is meant to provide: 1) a rationale for considering father-child intervention in the context of IPV; 2) specific strategies for assessment; 3) guidelines for determining if a father is appropriate for such intervention; and 4) a review of treatment approaches that have been developed that may assist clinicians in work with this population.
Tailor, Ketan; Stewart-Tufescu, Ashley; Piotrowski, Caroline
The aim of this study was to investigate associations between maternal stress, parenting behavior, and sibling adjustment in relation to child trauma symptoms in families with and without a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). Maternal report was used to measure maternal stress and child trauma symptoms, whereas parenting behavior was assessed through an observational measure. Participants consisted of mothers with 2 school-age siblings recruited from the community. Results indicated that violent families reported higher levels of maternal stress and sibling trauma symptoms than nonviolent families, although no differences were found in parenting behavior. Sibling trauma symptoms and negative maternal behavior toward a sibling were strong predictors of trauma symptoms in younger siblings exposed to IPV but only modest predictors for older siblings. Moderator analyses showed that in IPV-affected families, the trauma symptoms of older siblings were related to the trauma symptoms of younger siblings when maternal stress was high. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Crann, Sara E; Barata, Paula C
While resilience research in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasing, there remains little known about women's lived experience of resilience. Using a phenomenological approach, this study examined the experience of resilience for adult female survivors of IPV. Sixteen women who were currently experiencing or had previously experienced abuse by an intimate partner participated in semi-structured interviews. Resilience was experienced as multiple cognitive, emotional, and behavioral shifts across three theme areas: toward resistance, in the experience of control, and toward positivity. The results of this study suggest a number of applications for clinical practice and intervention. © The Author(s) 2015.
Vasquez Guerrero, Desi Alonzo
This study examines the relationships between hypermasculinity, sexual aggression, intimate partner violence, social support, and child maltreatment risk among heterosexual fathers completing parenting classes. Hypermasculinity scores were found to be significant predictors of study participants' reported verbal, physical, and sexual aggression toward their intimate partners. Only lack of social support, operationalized as the reported frequency of participants' conversations with friends, relatives, or neighbors about their problems, was found to be a significant predictor of child maltreatment risk. Alcohol frequency, education, and monthly income were not found to be unique, significant predictors of any dependent variables. Implications for clinical practice and research as well as limitations to the current study are discussed.
Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Holfeld, Brett; Temple, Jeffery R
Past research suggests that exposure to parent psychological control and peer relational aggression and victimization experienced during adolescence is associated with relational intimate partner violence (IPV) in young adults (ages 22 to 29). However, the effects of continuities in these concerns across young adulthood have not been assessed. Relational IPV is characterized by behaviors intended to damage partner's emotional well-being and security in a romantic relationship (e.g., threatening to break up, purposefully ignoring, or causing jealousy). Six waves of data were collected biennially across 10 years from 662 participants (342 females) who were 12 to 18 years old in 2003. The 334 youth who were in a current romantic relationship at the sixth wave (T6, 10 years later) are the focus of this research. Tests of hypothesized structural equation models indicated that adolescent experiences of psychological control with fathers (but not mothers) predicted relational IPV at T6, but this association was no longer significant after accounting for continuity in father psychological control in young adulthood. Adolescent experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers also predicted relational IPV at T6. This association remained significant for males, only, after continuity in experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers in young adulthood was included in the model. Implications for the prevention of relational IPV in adolescence and young adults are discussed.
Søndergaard, Marie Louise Juul
I examine how design can reflect on and critically discuss political and cultural issues of intimate technologies, such as gender and identity, embodied experiences, privacy, intimate data and sharing. In presenting my PhD project's background, research objectives, hypothesis and methodological...
While recent years have seen a rapid growth of research exploring the usefulness of parenting support programmes, no empirical research to date has specifically explored experiences of compulsory parenting support. The present study examines the narrative accounts of 17 parents who, through a Parenting Order, were made to participate in such…
Catherine Mary Naughton
Full Text Available Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. Intimate partner violence (IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female, investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention and social policy.
Tajima, Emiko A; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Moylan, Carrie A; Derr, Amelia S
We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N=416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes examined, however after accounting for co-occurring child abuse and early child behavior problems, IPV predicted only one outcome. Several moderator effects were identified. Parental "acceptance" of the child moderated the effects of IPV exposure on the likelihood of teenage pregnancy and running away from home. Both peer communication and peer trust moderated the relationship between exposure to IPV and depression and running from home. Peer communication also moderated the effects of IPV exposure on high school dropout. Interventions that influence parenting practices and strengthen peer support for youth exposed to IPV may increase protection and decrease risk of several tested outcomes.
Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija
Violence against women has been extensively studied in various disciplines, whereas less attention has been paid to the experiences of men. Even the violent behavior of men in their intimate relationships has been mostly studied as experienced by women. This study follows Husserlian descriptive phenomenology. Twenty open-ended interviews were conducted with 10 Finnish men with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The data were analyzed by the method developed by Colaizzi. Findings suggested that men considered communication and dynamics of the relationship important. Fundamentally, these abusive men had a need to be respected as men, and they sought to experience human dignity. It is necessary to readjust the framework on interpersonal violence, listen to the voice of men, and develop prevention, early identification, and supportive intervention strategies for men, couples, and families. Research on IPV should be expanded to include the experiences of both genders.
Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily W; Savage, Jane; Giarratano, Gloria
Both intimate partner violence and neighborhood crime have been associated with worse mental health outcomes, but less is known about cumulative effects. This association was studied in a sample of pregnant women who were enrolled in a study of disaster exposure, prenatal care, and mental and physical health outcomes between 2010 and 2012. Women were interviewed about their exposure to intimate partner violence and perceptions of neighborhood safety, crime, and disorder. Main study outcomes included symptoms of poor mental health; including depression, pregnancy-specific anxiety (PA), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Logistic regression was used to examine predictors of mental health with adjustment for confounders. Women who experienced high levels of intimate partner violence and perceived neighborhood violence had increased odds of probable depression in individual models. Weighted high cumulative (intimate partner and neighborhood) experiences of violence were also associated with increased odds of having probable depression when compared with those with low violence. Weighed high cumulative violence was also associated with increased odds of PTSD. This study provides additional evidence that cumulative exposure to violence is associated with poorer mental health in pregnant women.
Greene, Carolyn A; Chan, Grace; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J
Young children are at significant risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and vulnerable to exposure-related psychopathology, yet few studies investigate the effects of exposure to IPV on children under the age of 5 years. The current study investigated the role of maternal PTSD symptoms and parenting strategies in the relationship between mothers' IPV experiences and psychopathology in their young children, ages 3-6 years in a community-based cohort of 308 mother-child dyads at high risk for family violence. Data were collected from 2011 to 2014. IPV history and maternal PTSD symptoms were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Children's symptoms were assessed with a developmentally-sensitive psychiatric interview administered to mothers. Punitive/restrictive parenting was independently-coded from in-depth interviews with mothers about their disciplinary practices. Hypothesized direct and indirect pathways between physical and psychological IPV, maternal PTSD, maternal parenting style, and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms were examined with mediation models. Results indicated that neither physical nor psychological IPV experienced by mothers was directly associated with children's symptoms. However, both types of victimization were associated with maternal PTSD symptoms. Examination of indirect pathways suggested that maternal PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological and physical IPV experiences and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mothers' restrictive/punitive parenting mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological IPV and children's externalizing symptoms. In addition, there was a path from maternal physical IPV to child externalizing symptoms through both maternal PTSD symptoms and restrictive/punitive parenting. Findings highlight the importance of supporting parents in recovering from the sequelae of their own traumatic experiences, as their ensuing mental health
Marshall, Amy D; Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Chote, Daniel R
Despite substantial rates of parent to child aggression (PCA) and intimate partner aggression (IPA) co-occurrence within families, the co-occurrence of PCA and IPA within incidents of aggression has not previously been examined. To do so, we developed the Children, Intimate Relationships, and Conflictual Life Events (CIRCLE) interview to simultaneously measure incidents of psychological and physical PCA and IPA. The CIRCLE interview was administered quarterly for approximately 1 year to 109 women and 94 men from 111 couples with a first born child approximately 32 months of age at study initiation. Demonstrating the CIRCLE interview's ability to yield new knowledge about the nature of family aggression, we describe the frequency of aggressive incidents, the average number of aggressive behaviors within incidents, the daily occurrence of multiple aggressive incidents, and rates of within-incident PCA and IPA co-occurrence. With the exception of men's physical IPA, aggression scores derived from the CIRCLE interview exhibited a relatively high degree of interpartner reporting concordance, as well as structural validity and convergent validity with common aggression measures. Aggression reports via repeated testing were not influenced by social desirability or attempts to avoid aggression. Participants who perceived enhanced memory for aggression as a function of study participation reported increasing PCA and IPA frequencies over time. In the prediction of child conduct and emotional problems, the CIRCLE interview demonstrated predictive validity and incremental validity over traditional aggression measures. For the first time, within-incident co-occurrence of PCA and IPA was documented and shown to uniquely impact child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Evalina van Wijk
Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape. Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape. Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.
van Wijk, Evalina; Duma, Sinegugu E; Mayers, Pat M
Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP), irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident. The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner's rape. We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1) within 14 days of, (2) a month after, (3) three months after, and (4) six months after the rape. Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant's familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.
Evalina van Wijk
Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.
Kaljee, Linda M; Green, Mackenzie; Lerdboon, Porntip; Riel, Rosemary; Pham, Van; Tho, Le Huu; Ha, Nguyen T; Minh, Truong Tan; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita
Parent-child communication is associated with positive outcomes for youths' engagement in sexual behaviors. Limited data are available regarding parent-child communication in transitional countries. We present data from Vietnamese parent-youth dyads on parent reproductive health (RH) knowledge, comfort of communication, frequency of talk, and discordancy between youths' reported and parents' perceptions for engagement in relationships and sexually intimate behaviors. The cohort included 185 randomly selected parent-youth dyads in four communes in Hanoi and Khanh Hoa Province. Descriptive and comparative analysis included chi-squared tests, independent samples t-tests, and ANOVA. Linear regression analysis was used to assess relationships between parental knowledge, level of comfort, frequency of talk, and discordancy. Seventy-six percent of parents and 44% of youth were female. The mean age of youth was 17.2 years. The mean score for parental "RH knowledge" was 24.74 (SD, 3.84; range, 15-34). Lower parental RH knowledge was positively associated with lower levels of education (F = 2.983; df, 184; p = .014). Data indicate a linear model in which knowledge is related to "comfort" (β = .17; p = .048), and "comfort" to frequency of "talk" (β = .6; p sexual touching (β = .57; p = .60). Parent and youth in Vietnam are engaged in limited communication about RH. There is a need for more data to assess the effect of these communication patterns on youths' engagement in sexual behaviors and for development of family-centered interventions to increase parental knowledge and skills for positive communication. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie; Roselli, Tim; McCook, Sarah; Chan, Ko Ling; Haardörfer, Regine; Jewkes, Rachel
Although childhood trauma and violence against women are global public health issues, few population-based data from low-income and middle-income countries exist about the links between them. We present data from the UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific, exploring the pathways between different forms of childhood trauma and violence against women. In this multicountry study, we interviewed multistage representative samples of men and women, aged 18-49 years, in Asia and the Pacific, using standardised population-based household surveys. Men were interviewed in six countries, and women in four. Respondents were asked questions about their perpetration or experience of intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence, childhood trauma, and harsh parenting (smacking their children as a form of discipline). We used maximum likelihood multivariate logit models to explore associations between childhood trauma and violence against women, and fitted path models to explore associations between experience and perpetration of child maltreatment. Between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 1, 2012, 10 178 men and 3106 women completed interviews in this study, with between 815 and 1812 men per site and 477 and 1103 women per site. The proportion of men who experienced any childhood trauma varied between 59% (n=478, 95% CI 54·0-63·3; Indonesia rural site) and 92% (n=791, 89·4-93·8; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). For women, the results ranged from 44% (n=272, 37·7-50·8; Sri Lanka) to 84% (n=725, 80·7-86·8; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). For men, all forms of childhood trauma were associated with all forms of intimate partner violence perpetration. For women, all forms of childhood trauma were associated with physical intimate partner violence, and both physical and sexual intimate partner violence. There were significant, often gendered, pathways between men's and women's perpetration and experiences of childhood trauma, physical intimate
Emma Fulu, DrPhD
Full Text Available Summary: Background: Although childhood trauma and violence against women are global public health issues, few population-based data from low-income and middle-income countries exist about the links between them. We present data from the UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific, exploring the pathways between different forms of childhood trauma and violence against women. Methods: In this multicountry study, we interviewed multistage representative samples of men and women, aged 18–49 years, in Asia and the Pacific, using standardised population-based household surveys. Men were interviewed in six countries, and women in four. Respondents were asked questions about their perpetration or experience of intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence, childhood trauma, and harsh parenting (smacking their children as a form of discipline. We used maximum likelihood multivariate logit models to explore associations between childhood trauma and violence against women, and fitted path models to explore associations between experience and perpetration of child maltreatment. Findings: Between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 1, 2012, 10 178 men and 3106 women completed interviews in this study, with between 815 and 1812 men per site and 477 and 1103 women per site. The proportion of men who experienced any childhood trauma varied between 59% (n=478, 95% CI 54·0–63·3; Indonesia rural site and 92% (n=791, 89·4–93·8; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. For women, the results ranged from 44% (n=272, 37·7–50·8; Sri Lanka to 84% (n=725, 80·7–86·8; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. For men, all forms of childhood trauma were associated with all forms of intimate partner violence perpetration. For women, all forms of childhood trauma were associated with physical intimate partner violence, and both physical and sexual intimate partner violence. There were significant, often gendered, pathways between men's and women
Bourey, Christine; Stephenson, Rob; Hindin, Michelle J
The literature on intimate partner violence in resource-poor contexts relies primarily on cross-sectional studies. Because changes in women's status and empowerment are hypothesized to influence violence vulnerability, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the potential benefits and harms associated with such changes. Data were collected prospectively from a representative cohort of 4,749 married women in rural areas of four socially and demographically diverse states in India in 1998-1999 and 2002-2003. A multinomial regression model including social and demographic characteristics and intersurvey changes and events related to functional autonomy and reproduction was fitted to a categorical outcome measuring the absence (reference), initiation, cessation and continuation of intimate partner violence. Continued freedom of movement, increased freedom of movement and continued financial autonomy between baseline and follow-up were associated with a lower risk of violence initiation rather than no violence (relative risk ratio, 0.7 for each). Having a first child was associated with lower risk of violence initiation and continuation rather than no violence (0.6 and 0.2, respectively). Women who reported that their relative economic contribution to the household decreased or increased and women who experienced an unwanted pregnancy had a higher risk of violence continuation rather than no violence (1.8, 1.8 and 1.5, respectively). The death of a child was associated with higher risk of violence initiation rather than no violence (1.4). Future research to inform interventions to reduce intimate partner violence should consider how changes in women's reproductive experiences and functional autonomy may be linked to changes in intimate partner violence.
Islam, Md Jahirul; Rahman, Mosiur; Broidy, Lisa; Haque, Syed Emdadul; Saw, Yu Mon; Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau; Haque, Md Nurruzzaman; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Mostofa, Md Golam
We aimed to examine the influence of witnessing father-to-mother violence on: 1) perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV); and 2) endorsement of attitudes justifying wife beating in Bangladesh. This paper used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 3374 ever-married men. Exposure to IPV was determined by men's self-reports of witnessing inter-parental violence in childhood. We used adjusted binary logistic regression models to assess the influence of exposure on husbands' perpetration of IPV and their endorsement of attitudes justifying wife beating. Nearly 60% of men reported violent behaviour towards an intimate partner and 35.7% endorsed attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Men who witnessed father-to-mother violence had higher odds of reporting any physical or sexual IPV (adjusted OR [AOR] = 3.26; 95% CI = 2.61, 4.06). Men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were also 1.34 times (95% CI = 1.08, 1.65) more likely endorse attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Committing violence against an intimate partner is an all too frequent practice among men in Bangladesh. The study indicated that men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were more likley to perpetrate IPV, suggesting an intergenerational transmission of violence. This transmission of violence may operate through the learning and modelling of attitudes favourable to spousal abuse. In support of this, witnnessing inter-parental violence was also associated with the endorsement of attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Our findings indicate the continued importance of efforts to identify and assist boys who have witnessed domestic violence and suggest such efforts should aim to change not just behaviours but also attitudes that facilitate such violence.
Md. Jahirul Islam
Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to examine the influence of witnessing father-to-mother violence on: 1 perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV; and 2 endorsement of attitudes justifying wife beating in Bangladesh. Methods This paper used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 3374 ever-married men. Exposure to IPV was determined by men’s self-reports of witnessing inter-parental violence in childhood. We used adjusted binary logistic regression models to assess the influence of exposure on husbands’ perpetration of IPV and their endorsement of attitudes justifying wife beating. Results Nearly 60% of men reported violent behaviour towards an intimate partner and 35.7% endorsed attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Men who witnessed father-to-mother violence had higher odds of reporting any physical or sexual IPV (adjusted OR [AOR] = 3.26; 95% CI = 2.61, 4.06. Men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were also 1.34 times (95% CI = 1.08, 1.65 more likely endorse attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Conclusions Committing violence against an intimate partner is an all too frequent practice among men in Bangladesh. The study indicated that men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were more likley to perpetrate IPV, suggesting an intergenerational transmission of violence. This transmission of violence may operate through the learning and modelling of attitudes favourable to spousal abuse. In support of this, witnnessing inter-parental violence was also associated with the endorsement of attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Our findings indicate the continued importance of efforts to identify and assist boys who have witnessed domestic violence and suggest such efforts should aim to change not just behaviours but also attitudes that facilitate such violence.
Queen, Josie; Nurse, Army; Brackley, Margaret H; Williams, Gail B
The purpose of this study was to explore and describe individual perceptions, meanings, and definitions of emotional abuse through the lived experience of women who identified themselves as being emotionally abused by an intimate partner (IP). To answer the research question, "What is it like to live the life of a woman who is emotionally abused by her intimate partner?" A descriptive, phenomenological research design was undertaken. Unstructured individual interviews with 15 emotionally abused adult women resulted in the discovery of seven essential themes: captivity, defining moments, disassociation from self, fixing, mindful manipulation, relentless terror, and taking a stand. A combination of a hermeneutic approach and Diekelmann's approach to data analysis was used to explore differences in perceptions and develop essential themes that portrayed the essence of a woman's lived experience of being emotionally abused by her IP. The data also demonstrated that (1) IP emotional abuse has no prerequisite for partner rage or obvious emotional manipulation, (2) the absence of caring and respectful partner behaviors was just as powerful in creating an emotionally abusive experience as openly abusive behaviors, and (3) being emotionally abused was a life journey, encompassing multiple culminations, secondary physical and mental health symptoms, and quality of life issues that extended well beyond the immediate abuse experience.
McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A.; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O.; Ascione, Frank R.; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children’s relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree = .90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children’s exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children’s experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives. PMID:26520828
McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A
Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children's relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree=.90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children's exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children's experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nilsson, Ingrid; Danbjørg, Dorthe B.; Aagaard, Hanne
that included both parents, having influence on time of discharge, and getting individualised and available support focused on developing and recognising their own experiences of taking care of the baby. Conclusions and implications for practice the new parents׳ experiences of early discharge and becoming...
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P; Urrutia, Maria T; Villarruel, Antonia M; Peragallo, Nilda
Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo ) in interventions targeting Hispanics.
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Peragallo, Nilda
Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicultural moderator asked women open-ended questions regarding the experiences that Hispanic women have with these conditions. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, verified, and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants discussed substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors interchangeably, often identifying common risk factors associated with these. Nevertheless, intimate partner violence was the most salient of conditions discussed. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo) in interventions targeting Hispanics. PMID:21191036
Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a pervasive health and social problem in the United States; one in three women report being abused by an intimate partner at least once in their lifetime. IPV presents unique challenges to women living in rural areas that increase their vulnerability, limit their options for safety, and hamper efforts to leave an abusive relationship. Yet there is little research examining the lived experience of WV in a general population of women in the rural setting. Also, though there is a large body of research on TV screening and health care providers' attitudes and beliefs, little is known about rural providers specifically. A mixed methods study exploring the lived experience of IPV in women in the context of the rural setting was conducted. Along with qualitative interviews with women with experience of IPV, I conducted a survey to examine the TV-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of the health care providers who interact with the women. The results from this study form a picture of the lives of women who experience IPV in the rural setting as one of isolation, fear, and uncertainty tempered by determination to understand and overcome the violence. Six major themes were identified, 1) living with violence, 2) protect self, 3) isolation, 4) search for understanding, 5) system level abuse, and 6) creating a new life. In contrast to earlier studies, health care providers demonstrated good overall knowledge and judicious attitudes about IPV and beliefs congruent with available evidence related to IPV. When looked at together the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of the health care providers were aligned with the experiences voiced by the women participating in the interviews. The results of this study highlight the need for an interprofessional, public health approach that addresses the complex web of individual, social, cultural, economic, and political factors that create and feed the problem.
Full Text Available Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant public health issue and the most common form of violenceagainst women worldwide. Pregnancy does not protect against this phenomenon, which may cause adversehealth outcomes for both the mother and the newborn. The main aim of this study was to assess theimpact of IPV on women's pregnancies. Thirty-five Spanish women (mean age = 44.23 years, SD = 10.30who had suffered IPV were interviewed and asked to explain the violent incidents that they experienced,the mothering skills that they developed toward their children, and the difficulties that they experienced atdelivery. The results showed that most of the participants continued to experience psychological andphysical abuse during their pregnancy, whereas a few of the participants began to experience sexual abuse.As a consequence of IPV, some mothers suffered negative obstetrical outcomes at delivery. The negativeeffects of IPV on the women's mothering skills were especially remarkable.
Effects of Cognitive Versus Cognitive-Behavioral Divorce-Parenting Programs on Parental Conflict, Intimate Violence, Parental Communication, Divorce-Related Parental Behaviors and Children's Behavioral Problems
This study examines the effects of two State of Florida mandated divorce- parenting classes, one cognitive-based and the other cognitive-behavioral based, on several individual and family variables...
Gårdling, Jenny; Törnqvist, Erna; Edwinson Månsson, Marie; Hallström, Inger
The aim of radiotherapy is to provide a cure and/or symptomatic relief for children with cancer. Treatment is delivered on a daily basis, 5 days per week, over the course of 5 to 35 days. Many parents find that leaving their children alone during treatment and exposing them to radiation is a challenging experience. To gain an understanding of parents' lived experiences, 10 parents were asked to keep a diary while their children underwent radiotherapy. A descriptive inductive design with a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach was chosen to analyze the diaries. The parents were asked to write down their lived experiences while their children underwent radiotherapy. Daily notes, both short and long, were desirable. The parents described radiotherapy as a balancing act involving a constant attempt to maintain a balance between coercing and protecting their children in order to improve their children's chances of survival. Meanwhile, the parents themselves were struggling with their own despair and feelings of powerlessness. While protecting their children, they experienced a sense of hope and felt that they had gained control. Parents' daily written reflections are important for clinical practice and provide vital knowledge. Parents need support when focusing on coercing and protecting their children and help with information and routines that enable them gain control.
Laura M Schwab-Reese
Full Text Available We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4 previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV perpetration among white men and women.We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis.Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase.Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles and violence, but
Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine
The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…
Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Diderich, Hester M; Teeuw, Arianne H; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; van der Lee, Johanna H
To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy ('Hague protocol') was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care for children. If so, these children are referred to the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN), for assessment and referrals to support services. An adapted, hospital-based version of this protocol ('Amsterdam protocol') was implemented in another region. Children are identified in the same manner, but, instead of a RCCAN referral, they are referred to the pediatric outpatient department for an assessment, including a physical examination, and referrals to services. We compared results of both protocols to assess how differences between the protocols affect the outcomes on implementation, detection of child maltreatment and referrals to services. Furthermore, we assessed social validity and results of a screening physical examination. We included 212 families from the Amsterdam protocol (cohort study with reports by pediatric staff and parents) and 565 families from the Hague protocol (study of RCCAN records and telephone interviews with parents). We found that the RCCAN identified more maltreatment than pediatric staff (98% versus at least 51%), but referrals to services were similar (82% versus 80% of the total sample) and parents were positive about both interventions. Physical examination revealed signs of maltreatment in 5%. We conclude that, despite the differences, both procedures can serve as suitable methods to identify and refer children at risk for maltreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The aim of this research was to explore women's emotional and affective responses following an incident of intimate partner violence experienced during emergency department attendances. A growing body of research has explored women's experiences of emergency departments following intimate partner violence still little remains known about the experience and impact of emotional and affective responses during these attendances. A descriptive qualitative design was used, underpinned theoretically by critical realism and postmodern complexity theory to attend to multiple, intersecting mechanisms that lie behind events and experiences. Semistructured interviews with six women who had attended an emergency department directly following an incident of intimate partner violence. Interview data were transcribed and thematically analysed in nvivo9 using a coding framework. There were three interconnected key findings. First, was the commonality of acute stress experiences among women attending an emergency department following partner violence, second was that these acute stress reactions negatively impacted women's consultations, and third was the need for specialist domestic violence services at the point of first contact to assist service users navigate an effective consultation. Acute stress reactions were an important feature of women's experiences of emergency department consultations following intimate partner violence. Attending to psychological first aid; providing a safe and quiet space; and affording access to specialist violence advocacy services at the point of first contact will limit harm and improve health consultation outcomes for this population. This research provides an account of emotional and affective responses experienced by women attending emergency departments following intimate partner violence and explicates how these acute stress reactions impacted their consultation. This research has relevance for practitioners in many first contact health
Alexander C Tsai
Full Text Available Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue.We embedded a randomized survey experiment in a population-based survey of 1,334 adult men and women living in Nyakabare Parish, Mbarara, Uganda. The primary outcomes were participants' personal beliefs about the acceptability of intimate partner violence and perceived norms about intimate partner violence in the community. To elicit participants' personal beliefs and perceived norms, we asked about the acceptability of intimate partner violence in five different vignettes. Study participants were randomly assigned to one of three survey instruments, each of which contained varying levels of detail about the extent to which the wife depicted in the vignette intentionally or unintentionally violated gendered standards of behavior. For the questions about personal beliefs, the mean (standard deviation number of items where intimate partner violence was endorsed as acceptable was 1.26 (1.58 among participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant (which contained little contextual detail about the wife's intentions, 2.74 (1.81 among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as intentionally violating gendered standards of behavior, and 0.77 (1.19 among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as unintentionally violating these standards. In a partial proportional odds regression model adjusting for sex and village of residence, with participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant as the referent group, participants assigned the
Burlaka, Viktor; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Savchuk, Olena; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A
To assess the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a sample of Ukrainian mothers of schoolchildren, and to examine the relationship between IPV and family, parent, and child characteristics utilizing multilevel models. Mothers of children aged 9-16 (n = 278, 93.5% Ukrainians) answered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) assessing IPV. We also examined the relationship between IPV and maternal age, education, employment and marital status, family income, and rural or urban residence. Eighty-one percent of women reported psychological violence and 58% reported physical assault. On average, women reported 66 instances of IPV during the last year. Multilevel modeling revealed that lower maternal education, unemployment, not living with the husband or partner, and urban residency were associated with higher IPV victimization. Younger age and family income were not significantly related to IPV. IPV was a significant social problem in the present sample of Ukrainian mothers of school age children. Future policy and violence prevention programming should focus on supporting academic and employment opportunities for women, particularly for those living in urban areas.
LaMotte, Adam D; Murphy, Christopher M
Research with partner-violent men has found that a subset of this population reports dissociative experiences during their violence (e.g., inability to remember violence [despite admission that it had occurred]; flashbacks during violence). However, the literature examining this phenomenon has been primarily limited to clinical observations and case studies, and there is a need for more thorough empirical investigation regarding the prevalence and correlates of dissociative violence among individuals in intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention programs. The primary goals of this study were to provide descriptive information about the rates of endorsement of dissociative experiences during IPV perpetration and to examine their associations with trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 302 men presenting for services at a community-based IPV intervention program. All variables were assessed via self-report and clinician interview at program intake. Results indicated that 22.2% of participants reported 1 or more dissociative experiences during partner violence perpetration. Additionally, frequency of dissociative IPV perpetration showed significant positive correlations with the total number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) reported and PTSD symptoms, with effect sizes in the small and medium ranges of magnitude, respectively. Finally, PTSD symptoms significantly mediated the relationship between total number of PTEs and dissociative IPV perpetration. Findings indicate a potentially meaningful relationship between trauma, PTSD symptoms, and dissociative experiences during IPV perpetration. Further qualitative and quantitative investigation is needed to better understand this phenomenon and how it can be addressed in IPV treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Belinda Chimphamba Gombachika
May 12, 2014 ... qualitative study was to explore and describe parenting experiences of seroconcordant couples who have a child while living with HIV in Malawi. .... 2008). This development raises issues not yet much explored; par- ..... sible for instituting and maintaining life style changes necessary to reduce risk and ...
Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke; Green, Michelle M
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), defined as exposure to abuse and adverse household events, are prevalent among certain offenders including those who commit intimate partner violence (IPV). However, it is not clear how ACEs relate to criminal propensity among IPV offenders, who have been shown to exhibit less antisociality and institutional violence than other offenders. We compared 99 male offenders with a current or previous offense of IPV with 233 non-IPV violent offenders and 103 nonviolent offenders undergoing institutional forensic assessment. This convenience sample allowed for use of extensive psychosocial records as well as study of institutional violence. IPV offenders had the highest mean ACE score and more extensive criminal propensity on some measures (violent and nonviolent criminal history and psychopathy) than both other groups. ACEs were associated with most measures of criminal propensity in the whole sample but with only one (actuarial risk of violent recidivism) in the subsample of IPV offenders. Finding that ACEs are prevalent among IPV offenders even in this sample with extensive mental illness demonstrates the robustness of this phenomenon. IPV offenders, though, are similar to other violent offenders in this respect, and there is insufficient evidence that ACEs represent a criminogenic need among IPV offenders specifically. Further research could draw from the batterer typology literature and attend to IPV offenders' broader criminal careers.
Mercilene T Machisa
Full Text Available Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and binge drinking are among mental health effects of child abuse and intimate partner violence (IPV experiences among women. Emerging data show the potential mediating role of mental ill health in the relationship of child abuse and IPV. There is evidence that PTSD, depression and alcohol abuse are comorbid common mental disorders and that a bidirectional relationship exists between depression and IPV in some settings. Furthermore, the temporal direction in the relationship of alcohol abuse and women's IPV experiences from different studies is unclear. We undertook a study with women from the general population to investigate the associations of child abuse, mental ill health and IPV; and describe the underlying pathways between them.Data is from a household survey employing a multi-stage random sampling approach with 511 women from Gauteng, South Africa. IPV was measured using the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Questionnaire. Child abuse was measured using a short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Depression was measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD. PTSD symptoms were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Binge drinking was measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT scale. All data analyses were conducted in Stata 13. Regression modelling was used to test the association between variables. Structural equation modelling with full information maximum likelihood estimation accounting for missing data was done to analyse the underlying pathways between variables.Fifty percent of women experienced IPV in their lifetime and 18% experienced IPV in the 12 months before the survey. Twenty three percent of women were depressed, 14% binge drank and 11.6% had PTSD symptoms. Eighty six percent of women had experienced some form of child abuse. Sociodemographic factors associated with recent
Machisa, Mercilene T; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel
Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and binge drinking are among mental health effects of child abuse and intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences among women. Emerging data show the potential mediating role of mental ill health in the relationship of child abuse and IPV. There is evidence that PTSD, depression and alcohol abuse are comorbid common mental disorders and that a bidirectional relationship exists between depression and IPV in some settings. Furthermore, the temporal direction in the relationship of alcohol abuse and women's IPV experiences from different studies is unclear. We undertook a study with women from the general population to investigate the associations of child abuse, mental ill health and IPV; and describe the underlying pathways between them. Data is from a household survey employing a multi-stage random sampling approach with 511 women from Gauteng, South Africa. IPV was measured using the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Questionnaire. Child abuse was measured using a short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Depression was measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). PTSD symptoms were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Binge drinking was measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scale. All data analyses were conducted in Stata 13. Regression modelling was used to test the association between variables. Structural equation modelling with full information maximum likelihood estimation accounting for missing data was done to analyse the underlying pathways between variables. Fifty percent of women experienced IPV in their lifetime and 18% experienced IPV in the 12 months before the survey. Twenty three percent of women were depressed, 14% binge drank and 11.6% had PTSD symptoms. Eighty six percent of women had experienced some form of child abuse. Sociodemographic factors associated with recent IPV in
Friedman, H J
The author discusses the father-child relationship as it is influenced by divorce. Psychiatrists are often consulted by individuals considering dovorce who are concerned about its probable impact on their children. Data gathered from the treatment of fathers during divorce indicate that there can be positive changes in their parental bonds as a result of increased opportunities to relate to children in a conflict-free atmosphere. In such a setting, the father's nurturing experience provides him with a new perspective on parenting. Psychotherapeutic help can lead to a strengthening of parental bonds, with subsequent benefits to both father and child. The author encourages professionals to support men in improving their fathering during the postdivorce period.
O'Lynn, Chad; Cooper, Adam; Blackwell, Lisa
Clinical practice frequently involves the practitioner touching patients' bodies in areas that are highly personal. If inappropriately performed, such intimate touch may result in much anxiety, confusion and misinterpretation. Examination of evidence is necessary to guide practice in this area to mitigate risks and foster optimal clinician-patient relations and care. The objective of this qualitative systematic review was to identify and synthesize findings on the perceptions, experiences and preferences of patients receiving a clinician's touch during intimate care and procedures INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: The current review considered studies that included patients who had received a clinician's touch during intimate care and procedures. The current review considered qualitative studies that evaluated patients' perceptions, experiences and preferences of a clinician's touch during intimate care and procedures. The current review considered studies that collected qualitative data and included studies using designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research, qualitative description, focus group methodology and feminist research. In the absence of research studies, other text such as opinion papers and reports were considered. The current review considered studies that included patients' perceptions, experiences and preferences of a clinician's touch during intimate care and procedures. Intimate care is likely to occur in any clinical setting where patients need assistance with personal care, where physical examinations occur, or in settings were gynecologic, genitourinary, lower intestinal, dermatologic, cardiac or other procedures involving highly personal areas of the body are performed. A three-step search strategy was used to find published and unpublished studies in English from 1970 to 2016, searching various databases which included searches of reference lists of studies selected for appraisal. Included studies were
teachers are seldom trained to interact with parents, and both parents and teachers often find such encounters stressful and ineffective. This paper investigates parent and teacher perspectives on the parent-teacher conference through a qualitative inquiry. This is framed by the contributions of ecological theorists to home- ...
The most common form of direct communication between parents and teachers in schools worldwide is the parent-teacher conference. Purposeful parent-teacher conferences afford the teacher and the parent the opportunity to address a particular topic related to the child, such as academic progress and behaviour.
Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela
Being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a difficult and complex situation. Despite this, there are few studies describing women's own needs for help and support. The aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of important others in relation to changing their life situation in a pregnancy dominated by IPV. The study has a qualitative phenomenological design. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with seven Norwegian women, who were exposed to IPV during pregnancy. Being pregnant and exposed to violence in relation to important others means confronting present life, life history and future life. The essence implies striving for control in an uncontrolled situation, where other people might be experienced as both a rescuer and a risk. This is further described in four constitutions: the child needs protection; my mother is always present for me; an exhausted run for help; and a reduced, but important social network. For women exposed to violence, pregnancy can offer an opportunity for change. Midwives play a unique role in relation to care and continuity in this phase of life, as they can support pregnant women, help to identify their needs, possibilities for action and advise them about appropriate services. Midwives can encourage and support women to find people whom they can trust and who can offer assistance. It is vital that midwives ask about the women's relationship to the baby and their social networks, especially the relationship with their mothers. Ethical considerations: During the whole study process, guidelines for research on violence against women were followed, to respect the integrity, security and confidentiality of the participants. The study is ethically approved. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Tsai, Alexander C; Kakuhikire, Bernard; Perkins, Jessica M; Vořechovská, Dagmar; McDonough, Amy Q; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; Downey, Jordan M; Bangsberg, David R
Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue. We embedded a randomized survey experiment in a population-based survey of 1,334 adult men and women living in Nyakabare Parish, Mbarara, Uganda. The primary outcomes were participants' personal beliefs about the acceptability of intimate partner violence and perceived norms about intimate partner violence in the community. To elicit participants' personal beliefs and perceived norms, we asked about the acceptability of intimate partner violence in five different vignettes. Study participants were randomly assigned to one of three survey instruments, each of which contained varying levels of detail about the extent to which the wife depicted in the vignette intentionally or unintentionally violated gendered standards of behavior. For the questions about personal beliefs, the mean (standard deviation) number of items where intimate partner violence was endorsed as acceptable was 1.26 (1.58) among participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant (which contained little contextual detail about the wife's intentions), 2.74 (1.81) among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as intentionally violating gendered standards of behavior, and 0.77 (1.19) among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as unintentionally violating these standards. In a partial proportional odds regression model adjusting for sex and village of residence, with participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant as the referent group, participants assigned the survey variant
Bax, A C; Shawler, P M; Blackmon, D L; DeGrace, E W; Wolraich, M L
Factors surrounding pediatricians' parenting advice and training on parenting during residency have not been well studied. The primary purpose of this study was to examine pediatric residents' self-reported experiences giving parenting advice and explore the relationship between parenting advice given and types of parenting residents received as children. Thirteen OUHSC pediatric residents were individually interviewed to examine experiences being parented and giving parenting advice. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate themes and secondary analyses explored relationships of findings based upon Baumrind's parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive). While childhood experiences were not specifically correlated to the parenting advice style of pediatric residents interviewed, virtually all reported relying upon childhood experiences to generate their advice. Those describing authoritative parents reported giving more authoritative advice while others reported more variable advice. Core interview themes related to residents' parenting advice included anxiety about not being a parent, varying advice based on families' needs, and emphasis of positive interactions and consistency. Themes related to how residents were parented included discipline being a learning process for their parents and recalling that their parents always had expectations, yet always loved them. Pediatric residents interviewed reported giving family centered parenting advice with elements of positive interactions and consistency, but interviews highlighted many areas of apprehension residents have around giving parenting advice. Our study suggests that pediatric residents may benefit from more general educational opportunities to develop the content of their parenting advice, including reflecting on any impact from their own upbringing.
Pinto, Ricardo J; Correia-Santos, Patrícia; Levendosky, Alytia; Jongenelen, Inês
Studies of the effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on parenting have usually not examined the role of the maternal perceptions, either its stress or maternal satisfaction, on the mothers' and children's mental health functioning. The present study aimed to assess whether maternal satisfaction, parenting stress, and social support are significantly associated with women's psychological functioning. The study also assessed whether maternal perceptions of the role of parenting were significantly associated with children's emotional well-being and social behavior. The sample included 160 mothers, 79 (49.4%) who were living with the aggressors and 81 (50.6%) in shelters, and their children ( n = 61). The findings suggested that high levels of maternal satisfaction and perception of social support were significantly negatively associated with women's posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychological distress, whereas parenting stress was significantly positively associated with these outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was the only parenting variable that predicted both maternal mental health and children's emotional and behavioral problems, suggesting that it is a protective factor for both mothers and children. This study suggests that increasing maternal satisfaction with parenting and reducing parenting stress might promote better adjustment for both women and children victims of IPV.
Tsai, Laura Cordisco
This study explores the causal impact of independent management of household finances upon women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the Philippines. Propensity score matching is used to generate a casual estimate of the impact of women's roles as household financial managers on their experiences of IPV. Findings demonstrate that managing household finances independently significantly increased the severity of IPV women experienced from their partners compared with women who managed finances jointly with partners. Findings reinforce the importance of explicit attention to intrahousehold power dynamics and gender norms in the implementation of microfinance interventions intended to empower women. © The Author(s) 2016.
Hassouneh, Dena; Glass, Nancy
Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a serious problem that affects the health and safety of lesbian and bisexual women. To begin to address the paucity of research, a mixed methods study was conducted to identify shared and unique risk and protective factors for FSSIPV. This article reports on qualitative findings related to the influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of FSSIPV. Findings indicate that gender role stereotyping shapes women's experiences of FSSIPV by influencing individual, familial, community, and societal perceptions and responses to this phenomenon.
Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei; Taylor, Bruce G
Parenting behaviors such as monitoring and communications are known correlates of abusive outcomes in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study draws on separate parent (58 % female; 61 % White non-Hispanic, 12 % Black non-Hispanic, 7 % other non-Hispanic, and 20 % Hispanic) and youth (ages 12-18 years; 48 % female) surveys from the nationally representative Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence. Latent class analyses were applied to investigate whether there are distinguishable parenting profiles based on six measures of parent-youth relationship and interactions, with youth's attitudes about abusive dating behavior and both perpetration and victimization examined in a follow-up survey as distal outcomes (n = 1117 parent-youth dyads). A three-class model-a "Positive Parenting" class, a "Strict/Harsh Parenting" class, and a "Disengaged/Harsh Parenting" class-was selected to best represent the data. The selected latent class model was conditioned on parents' (anger trait, relationship quality, attitudes about domestic violence) and youth's (prior victimization and perpetration) covariates, controlling for parent's gender, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and youth's age and gender. Youth in the "Positive Parenting" class were significantly less likely 1 year later to be tolerant of violence against boyfriends under any conditions as well as less likely to perpetrate adolescent relationship abuse or to be a victim of adolescent relationship abuse. Parents' anger and relationship quality and youth's prior perpetration of adolescent relationship abuse as well as gender, age, and race/ethnicity predicted class membership, informing universal prevention program and message design, as well as indicated efforts to target communications and services for parents as well as for youth.
European Master in Social Work with Families and Children Existing empirical studies of parents in China found that this population presents features of authoritarian parenting style: greater parental demands and control together with lower parental responsiveness. However, when the investigation conducted on Chinese immigrants, parental practice is characterized as more authoritative style, combining high levels of controlling and responsiveness. Paradoxical findings between Chinese paren...
Antolin Drešar, Darja; Lipovec, Alenka
Previous studies suggest that parental involvement in children's mathematics education is more established for parents who feel competent in mathematics. This qualitative study aimed to gain an in-depth insight into the experiences of parental involvement of two different groups of parents: those who are mathematicians and those who are not. Data…
Babcock, Julia C.; Graham, Katherine; Canady, Brittany; Ross, Jody M.
This study tests the immediate impact of two interventions for intimate partner violent (IPV) men in affecting behavioral and emotional change during arguments with their partners. Couples with an abusive male partner (N=100) discussed an area of conflict twice, interrupted by a brief intervention. Men were randomly assigned to receive (a) an editing-out-the-negative skills training, (b) an accepting influence skills training, or (c) a time-out. IPV men in both skills-training conditions show...
Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M. M.; Diderich, Hester M.; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Biezeveld, Maarten H.; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Edelenbos, Esther; Flapper, Boudien C.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Mahdi, Ulrike; Poldervaart, Jacoba D.; Sanders, Marian K.; Schoonenberg, N. Jolande; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; van Sommeren, Pauwlina G. W.; Vogt, Anne; Wilms, Janneke F.; Baeten, Paul; Fekkes, Minne; Pannebakker, Fieke D.; Sorensen, Peggy J. G.; Verkerk, Paul H.
To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy ('Hague protocol') was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care
Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E.M.; Diderich, H.M.; Teeuw, A.H.; Klein Velderman, M.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Lee, J.H. van der
To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy (‘Hague protocol’) was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care
Lau, Yuk King
Chinese parenting emphasises parents' responsibility in training and governing children's appropriate and expected behaviors, including good academic performance. As reflected by the Attendance Ordinance and the strong involvement of parents in children's study, there is continuous emphasis on parental responsibility in children's education in…
Shuman, Sara J.; Falb, Kathryn L.; Cardoso, Lauren F.; Cole, Heather; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka
Background Men and women?s perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV) within crisis-affected populations are not well understood. This mixed-methods study examined the frequency of IPV against women in urban Cote d?Ivoire, and qualitatively explored how men and women perceive the impact of various forms of IPV on health, everyday activities, and feelings of shame. Methods A survey was administered to Ivorian women (N = 80) to measure the frequency of IPV, and ten focus group discussions w...
Benga Olla, Marice; Catharina Daulima, Novy Helena; Eka Putri, Yossie Susanti
To explore families' experiences who use an authoritarian parenting style in caring for school-age children. This was a qualitative study employing a phenomenological approach. The sampling method was to interview parents of school-age children living in the Central Maluku district in Indonesia. The findings of this study generated the following themes: (1) parents strictly controlled their children to achieve the parental values and expectations, (2) children failed to meet the parental values and expectations, and (3) problems experienced by the children were the results of the parenting style. This study suggested nursing professionals provide adequate information for parents with respect to parenting styles that may facilitate the optimal growth and development of the children. Future studies pertinent to cultural factors associated with authoritarian parenting were also suggested to better understand the cultural context of this parenting style. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie; Lerdboon, Porntip; Riel, Rosemary; Pham, Van; Tho, Le Huu; Ha, Nguyen T; Minh, Truong Tan; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita
Purpose Parent-child communication is associated with positive outcomes for youths’ engagement in sexual behaviors. Limited data are available regarding parent-child communication in transitional countries. We present data from Vietnamese parent-youth dyads on parent reproductive health knowledge, comfort of communication, frequency of talk, and discordancy between youths’ reported and parents’ perceptions for engagement in relationships and sexually intimate behaviors. Methods 185 randomly selected parent-youth dyads in four communes in Ha Noi and Khanh Hoa Province. Descriptive and comparative analysis included chi-square tests, independent samples t-tests, and ANOVA. Linear regression analysis was utilized to assess relationships between parental knowledge, level of comfort, frequency of talk, and discordancy. Results Seventy-six percent of parents and 44% of youth were female. Youth mean age was 17.2 years. For parental “reproductive health knowledge” mean score was 24.74 (SD 3.84: range 15–34). Lower parental reproductive health knowledge was positively associated with lower levels of education [F=2.983, df 184: p=0.014]. Data indicate a linear model in which knowledge is related to “comfort” (β =0.17; p=0.048) and “comfort” to frequency of “talk” (β =0.6; psexual touching (β =0.57; p=0.60). Conclusions Parent and youth in Viet Nam are engaged in limited communication about reproductive health. There is need for more data to assess the impact of these communication patterns on youths’ engagement in sexual behaviors and for development of family-centered interventions to increase parental knowledge and skills for positive communication. PMID:21338898
Aquilino, William S.
Examined likelihood of parent-adult child coresidence and implications of coresidence for quality of life as perceived by parents. Data from 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households showed that positive home environment was strong selection factor in predicting probability of coresidence. Middle-class parents reported more negative…
Benjamin, Lynn R.; Benjamin, Robert; Rind, Bruce
Presents a qualitative analysis of the experience of parenting of mothers with dissociative disorders. Using the mothers' words, describes how the five symptom areas of dissociation impeded their parenting efforts. Discusses the necessity of addressing parenting in the treatment of client-mothers with dissociative disorders. (Author/MKA)
Christofferson, Jennifer; Strand, Bradford
Youth sport leaders must not ignore the influence parents have on creating a positive developmental experience for young athletes. Therefore, expectations involving parental involvement and conduct must be addressed prior to athletes' participation. This article aims to examine the importance of creating mandatory parental training programs for…
Elbaum, Batya; Blatz, Erin T.; Rodriguez, Raymond J.
The aim of this study was to ascertain which dimensions of parents' experiences with schools are most strongly associated with parents' perceptions that schools are or are not facilitating parent involvement as mandated by the federal accountability system under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Participants were 92 parents…
Full Text Available Intimate partner violence (IPV is the most prevalent form of gender-based violence worldwide. IPV either before or during pregnancy has been documented as a risk factor for the health of the mother and her unborn child. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal experience of IPV and low birth weight (LBW.A hospital-based survey was conducted among women in the postnatal wards of a large public hospital at Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Data on socio-economic characteristics, reproductive health characteristics, intimate partner violence, and antenatal, delivery and newborn care were collected from 400 women between July 2015 and April 2016.Results of this study indicated that 43% of women reported experiencing any physical IPV in their lifetime, 35.5% of them experienced sexual IPV, and 32.5% experienced both physical and sexual IPV. Approximately one in every three (29.2% infants was born with LBW. Physical IPV was associated with an increased risk of having a child with low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.01, 95% CI: 2.35-5.81. The risk of infants born with LBW increased with women's lifetime experience of sexual IPV (AOR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.23-4.15 and both physical and sexual IPV (AOR: 4.05; 95% CI: 2.79-7.33.Maternal lifetime experience of IPV is positively associated with LBW children. Preventing women from the experience of IPV may help improve neonatal and child mortality in Bangladesh.
Grasso, Damion J; Henry, David; Kestler, Jacqueline; Nieto, Ricardo; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J
Young children living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are often also exposed to harsh parenting. Both forms of violence increase children's risk for clinically significant disruptive behavior, which can place them on a developmental trajectory associated with serious psychological impairment later in life. Although it is hypothesized that IPV behaviors may spillover into harsh parenting, and thereby influence risk for disruptive behavior, relatively little is known about these processes in families with young children. The current study examines the overlap of the quality and frequency of psychological and physical forms of IPV and harsh parenting, and tests whether harsh parenting mediates the relationship between IPV and child disruptive behavior in a diverse cross-sectional sample of 81 children ages 4 to 6 years. Results suggest that mothers reporting a greater occurrence of psychologically aggressive IPV (e.g., yelling, name-calling) more often engage in psychological and physical aggression toward their children (odds ratios [ORs] = 4.6-9.9). Mothers reporting a greater occurrence of IPV in the form of physical assault more often engage in mild to more severe forms of physical punishment with potential harm to the child (ORs = 3.8-5.0). Psychological and physical forms of IPV and harsh parenting all significantly correlated with maternal reports of child disruptive behavior (r = .29-.40). Psychological harsh parenting partially mediated the association between psychological IPV and child disruptive behavior. However, a significant direct effect of psychological IPV on preschool children's disruptive behavior remained. Implications for child welfare policy and practice and intervention, including the need for increased awareness of the negative impact of psychological IPV on young children, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Francine de Montigny
Full Text Available Perceiving oneself as parent is a key challenge during the transition to parenthood. The importance of health professionals in determining perceived efficacy in parents upon the birth of their child is few explored. The objective of this study is to analayze the relations between the first time parents' perceived efficacy and their perceptions of nurses' help-giving and critical events during post-partum period. SAMPLE AND METHOD: One hundred sixty couples participated in a correlational study by completing questionaires after the birth of their first child. RESULTS: A model of parents' postpartum experience was established where nurses' collaboration and help-giving practices contribute directly and indirectly to the parents' perception of control and perceptions of events. They contribute indirectly to parent's perceived self-efficacy. IMPLICATIONS: The help given by health professionals, especially nurses, to parents following the birth of a child makes a major positive difference in the parents' experiences.
Deuba, Keshab; Mainali, Anustha; Alvesson, Helle M; Karki, Deepak K
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an urgent public health priority. It is a neglected issue in women's health, especially in urban slums in Nepal and globally. This study was designed to better understand the IPV experienced by young pregnant women in urban slums of the Kathmandu Valley, as well as to identify their coping strategies, care and support seeking behaviours. Womens' views on ways to prevent IPV were also addressed. 20 young pregnant women from 13 urban slums in the Kathmandu valley were recruited purposively for this qualitative study, based on pre-defined criteria. In-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed, with qualitative content analysis used to analyse the transcripts. 14 respondents were survivors of violence in urban slums. Their intimate partner(s) committed most of the violent acts. These young pregnant women were more likely to experience different forms of violence (psychological, physical and sexual) if they refused to have sex, gave birth to a girl, or if their husband had alcohol use disorder. The identification of foetal gender also increased the experience of physical violence at the prenatal stage. Interference from in-laws prevented further escalation of physical abuse. The most common coping strategy adopted to avoid violence among these women was to tolerate and accept the husbands' abuse because of economic dependence. Violence survivors sought informal support from their close family members. Women suggested multiple short and long term actions to reduce intimate partner violence such as female education, economic independence of young women, banning identification of foetal gender during pregnancy and establishing separate institutions within their community to handle violence against young pregnant women. Diversity in the design and implementation of culturally and socially acceptable interventions might be effective in addressing violence against young pregnant women in humanitarian settings such as urban slums. These
Sabri, Bushra; Huerta, Julia; Alexander, Kamila A; St Vil, Noelle M; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Callwood, Gloria B
This study examined knowledge, access, utilization, and barriers to use of resources among Black women exposed to multiple types of intimate partner violence in Baltimore, Maryland and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). We analyzed quantitative survey data collected by 163 women recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore and the USVI. In addition we analyzed qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 11 women. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A substantial proportion of Black women with multiple types of violence experiences lacked knowledge of, did not have access to, and did not use resources. Barriers to resource use were identified at the individual, relationship, and community levels. There is need for programs to develop awareness, promote access and utilization of resources, and eliminate barriers to resource use among abused Black women.
A community-based qualitative study on the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV vulnerability from the perspectives of female sex workers and male intimate partners in North Karnataka state, India.
Blanchard, Andrea K; Nair, Sapna G; Bruce, Sharon G; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Javalkar, Prakash; Pillai, Priya; Collumbien, Martine; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy; Bhattacharjee, Parinita
Research has increasingly documented the important role that violence by clients and the police play in exacerbating HIV vulnerability for women in sex work. However few studies have examined violence in the intimate relationships of women in sex work, or drawn on community partnerships to explore the social dynamics involved. A community-based participatory research study was undertaken by community and academic partners leading intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV prevention programs in Bagalkot district, Karnataka state, India. The purpose was to explore the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV/AIDS among women in sex work and their intimate partners in Bagalkot that would inform both theory and practice. A community-based, interpretive qualitative methodology was used. Data was collected between July and October 2014 through in-depth interviews with 38 participants, including 10 couples, 13 individual female sex workers, and 5 individual male intimate partners. Purposive sampling was done to maximize variation on socio-demographic characteristics. Thematic content analysis was conducted through coding and categorization for each interview question in NVivo 10.0, followed by collaborative analysis to answer the research questions. The results showed that an array of interrelated, multi-level factors underlay the widespread acceptance and perpetuation of violence and lack of condom use in participants' intimate relationships. These included individual expectations that justified violence and reflected societal gender norms, compounded by stigma, legal and economic constraints relating to sex work. The results demonstrate that structural vulnerability to IPV and HIV must be addressed not only on the individual and relationship levels to resolve relevant triggers of violence and lack of condom use, but also the societal-level to address gender norms and socio-economic constraints among women in sex work and their partners. The study
The reduction in the mother-to-child transmission of HIV has encouraged some ... institutions and media about sources of support underpin their parenting roles. ... The study is also relevant to PLWH who, although not parents themselves, are ... where they have to accept responsibility for raising children from their kin.
Martin, Leslie R; Friedman, Howard S; Clark, Kathleen M; Tucker, Joan S
An archival prospective design was used to study mediating and moderating variables for the association between parental divorce and increased mortality risk, using a sub-group (n = 1183) of individuals from the US Terman Life Cycle Study covering the period 1921-2000. In childhood, both socioeconomic status (SES) and family psychosocial environment were related to parental divorce but did little to explain its effects. The higher mortality risk associated with experiencing parental divorce was ameliorated among individuals (especially men) who achieved a sense of personal satisfaction by mid-life. Behaviorally, smoking was the strongest mediator of the divorce-mortality link. This study extends previous work on the long-term effects of parental divorce and reveals some reasons why the stress of parental divorce in childhood need not necessarily lead to negative later-life outcomes.
Treyvaud, Karli; Rogers, Susan; Matthews, Jan; Allen, Beverley
Parents experiencing early parenting difficulties often seek support through parenting programs. Characteristics of mothers seeking parenting support and information at an early parenting center in Victoria, Australia and the relationships between these factors and parenting behavior were explored using an observational measure of parent-child interaction. Participants were 43 mothers and children attending a 5-day residential parenting program at the Queen Elizabeth Centre. Maternal and sociodemographic data as well as an observational mother-child interaction task from the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Parent Child Interaction Teaching scale were completed and scored on the first day of the program. Certain maternal factors and experiences were associated with observed parenting behavior. Poorer maternal sleeping quality, unplanned pregnancy and preterm birth were all associated with less optimal parenting behavior in certain domains. Findings are discussed with reference to the impact of past experiences around pregnancy and birth as well as the current context and well-being of mothers attending early parenting centers. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija
The purpose of this study was to describe women's perceptions of their violent behavior in a heterosexual partnership. The study followed the traditions of Husserlian descriptive phenomenology and the philosophy of existential phenomenology. Twenty-four volunteer Finnish women, aged 19 to 58 years, with a history of different manifestations of intimate partner violence (IPV) participated in open-ended interviews. The data were analyzed by the method developed by Colaizzi. The findings revealed that some of the women who opposed all violence on ethical grounds did not label their behavior as violent; some others minimized or justified their violent behavior. The findings offer professional insight into women's violent behavior and call for a readjustment in approaches to work in the area. Prevention and early identification of IPV require knowledge of the various manifestations and individual meanings of violence. Helping methods should provide women with the opportunity to talk about their abusive behavior and to confront and address their feelings of guilt, disappointment, and shame.
Holliday, Charvonne N; McCauley, Heather L; Silverman, Jay G; Ricci, Edmund; Decker, Michele R; Tancredi, Daniel J; Burke, Jessica G; Documét, Patricia; Borrero, Sonya; Miller, Elizabeth
To explore racial/ethnic differences in reproductive coercion (RC), intimate partner violence (IPV), and unintended pregnancy (UIP). We analyzed cross-sectional, baseline data from an intervention that was conducted between August 2008 and March 2009 in five family planning clinics in the San Francisco, California area, to examine the association of race/ethnicity with RC, IPV, and UIP among female patients aged 16-29 (n = 1234). RC was significantly associated with race/ethnicity, p women, with an overall range of 37.1%-50.3% among all racial/ethnic groups (p women (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.14-2.60). Black and multiracial women seeking care in family planning clinics have a disproportionately high prevalence of RC and UIP. RC may partially explain differences in UIP prevalence, with the effect of race/ethnicity slightly attenuated in RC-adjusted models. However, the impact of RC on risk for UIP was similar for White and Black women. Findings from this study support the need to understand and prevent RC, particularly among women of color. Results are foundational in understanding disparities in RC and UIP that may have implications for refinement of clinical care.
Wilson, Jonathan B; Rappleyea, Damon L; Hodgson, Jennifer L; Brimhall, Andrew S; Hall, Tana L; Thompson, Alyssa P
Migrant and seasonal farmworking (MSFW) women patients experience substantially more intimate partner violence (IPV) than the general population, but few health-care providers screen patients for IPV. While researchers have examined screening practices in health-care settings, none have exclusively focused on MSFW women. The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the experiences of health-care providers who have screened for and/or addressed IPV with MSFW women patients. Researchers utilized descriptive phenomenology to capture the lived experiences of these health-care providers. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's seven-stage framework. Interviews were conducted with nine female participants - all of whom: (i) were clinically active health-care providers within the MSFW community, (ii) were bilingual in English and Spanish or had access to a translator, (iii) had treated MSFW patients who had experienced IPV and (iv) were at least 18 years of age. Participants' experiences were reflected in four emergent themes: (i) provider-centered factors, (ii) patient-centered factors, (iii) clinic-centered factors and (iv) community-centered factors. Participants described barriers to establish routine IPV assessment, decrease patient ambivalence and increase on-site support and community resources. This study aimed to generate a greater understanding of the experiences of health-care providers with screening for and addressing IPV with MSFW patients. Implications and recommendations for research, clinical practice and policy are provided. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ballal, Divya; Navaneetham, Janardhana
Children of parents with mental illness are not routinely included in psychoeducational and supportive family interventions provided by adult mental health systems. The family, therefore, is an important and, sometimes, the only source of information and support for them. To understand the experiences of well parents in talking to their children about parental mental illness. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of the experiences of well parents in talking to their children about parental mental illness. Ten well parents whose spouses were diagnosed with a severe mental illness participated in the study. Socio-demographic information, family details and history of the spouse's mental illness along with their experiences of talking to children about parental mental illness, the perceived risks and benefits, challenges they faced and the role of others in the process were recorded. Qualitative data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The themes of 'distancing children from parental mental illness', 'avoiding conversations about the illness', 'giving and receiving emotional support', 'providing explanations of the illness' and 'regulating other sources of information' show the complex ways in which well parents influence their children's understanding of parental mental illness. The findings are examined in the background of what is known about this topic from the perspective of children or of the parent with illness. Possible ways to support well parents in families affected by parental mental illness are discussed. This study is a step forward in the understanding of how families talk to children about parental mental illness and provides the perspective of the well parent.
Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine
The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of age and examined the prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse. Then, using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the authors examined the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and IPV. Of the 624 wives, 36% had experienced at least one episode of physical, psychological, or sexual abuse by their husbands during their life time (ever abuse), and 19% had experienced such abuse during the past 12 months (current abuse). The wives were less likely to experience current abuse by husbands if they believed that "outsiders should not intervene to protect abused wives." They were more likely to experience ever and current isolated psychological abuse by husbands if they did not believe that "a good wife always obeys her husband." This study suggests that the prevalence of IPV is high in Sri Lanka. Although several published studies on IPV suggest that traditional gender role attitudes tend to increase women's vulnerability to IPV, this study suggests that in Sri Lanka, the wives who respect cultural norms tend to experience less IPV by husbands.
Brown, Felicity L; Whittingham, Koa; Sofronoff, Kate; Boyd, Roslyn N
To qualitatively explore the experiences, challenges and needs of parents of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to inform future intervention research through incorporation of participant knowledge and experience. Parents of children with TBI (n = 10) and experienced health professionals in paediatric rehabilitation (n = 5) took part in focus groups or individual interviews. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and an inductive thematic analysis performed. Participants reported that, beyond the impact of the injury on the child, TBI affects the entire family. Parents need to adjust to and manage their child's difficulties and can also experience significant emotional distress, relationship discord and burden of care, further adding to the challenges of the parenting role. Parents can feel isolated and the importance of empowerment, support and information was emphasized. Coping styles of disengagement and avoidance were often reported, despite acknowledgement that these were not beneficial. Parenting interventions may provide essential support for parents in adjusting to and managing their child's difficulties and the efficacy of existing programmes needs evaluation. Addressing parent emotional adjustment and coping strategies is vital following paediatric TBI, given the impact on parent well-being and the potential negative effects on child outcomes through reduced parenting effectiveness. Group programmes may enable connection and support.
Sriyasak, Atcharawadee; Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
In this study, we described and analyzed parents' experiences of teenage parenthood and the provision of support to their teenage children who had recently have become parents. A qualitative method was used. In-depth interviews with 24 participants were conducted, all parents of teenage parents. Data were analyzed using content analysis; four themes and 11 subthemes were identified. The results show that parents' norms and values were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. The participants had mixed emotions and reactions to their teenage children's parenthood. Also participants were sources of support to the teenage parents and assisted them in their transition to parenthood. However, the participants also expressed the importance that their teenage children continue their education and avoid repeated pregnancies. This study highlights how emotional, instrumental, and informational support provided by parents to their teenagers can assist the latter in their transition to parenthood. In their work with teenage parents, healthcare providers can benefit from teenage parent's own parents involvement and experiences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Lagdon, Susan; Armour, Cherie; Stringer, Maurice
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been known to adversely affect the mental health of victims. Research has tended to focus on the mental health impact of physical violence rather than considering other forms of violence. Objective To systematically review the literature in order to identify the impact of all types of IPV victimisation on various mental health outcomes. Method A systematic review of 11 electronic databases (2004–2014) was conducted. Fifty eight papers were identified and later described and reviewed in relation to the main objective. Results Main findings suggest that IPV can have increasing adverse effects on the mental health of victims in comparison with those who have never experienced IPV or those experiencing other traumatic events. The most significant outcomes were associations between IPV experiences with depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Findings confirm previous observations that the severity and extent of IPV exposure can increase mental health symptoms. The effect of psychological violence on mental health is more prominent than originally thought. Individual differences such as gender and childhood experience of violence also increase IPV risk and affect mental health outcomes in diverse ways. Conclusions Psychological violence should be considered as a more serious form of IPV which can affect the mental health of victims. Experiencing more than one form of IPV can increase severity of outcomes. Researchers should look at IPV as a multi-dimensional experience. A uniformed definition and measure of IPV could help advance knowledge and understanding of this disparaging global issue. PMID:25279103
Jadidi, Rahmatollah; Hekmatpou, Davood; Eghbali, Aziz; Memari, Fereshteh; Anbari, Zohreh
The quantitative studies show that due to the widespread prevalence, high death rate, high treatment expenses, and long hospital stay, leukemia influences the families and their children to a great extent. In this regard, no qualitative study has been conducted in Iran. So, this study was conducted in Arak in 2011 with the aim of expressing the experiences of the parents whose children suffered from leukemia. Using qualitative research approach, by applying content analysis method, 22 participants were interviewed in two educational hospitals during 2 months. The study was started by purposive sampling and continued by theoretical one. The data were analyzed based on the content analysis method. Data analysis showed that insolvency, knapsack problems, cancer secrecy, trust on God, self-sacrifice, adaptation, medical malpractice, and hospital facilities were the level 3 codes of parents' experiences and "parents a dead end life" was the main theme of this study. In this study, the experiences of the parents whose children suffered from cancer were studied deeply by the use of qualitative method, especially by the use of resources syncretism rather than studying quantitatively. Parents a dead end life emerged as the main theme of this study, emphasizing the necessity of paying further attention to the parents. On the other hand, making more use of parents' experiences and encouraging them helps make the treatment more effective. It is suggested that these experiences be shared with parents in the form of pamphlets distributed right at the beginning of the treatment process.
Dallaire, Danielle H.; Ciccone, Anne; Wilson, Laura C.
Children with incarcerated parents, and mothers in particular, are at increased risk for academic failure and school dropout. In two studies, we examined teachers' experiences with children with incarcerated parents and their expectations for competence of children with incarcerated mothers. In Study 1, a descriptive, qualitative study, teachers…
Kunseler, F.C.; Hankel, M.A.; Balm, K.E.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.
Parental self-efficacy (PSE) is defined as "the expectation caregivers hold about their ability to parent successfully" (Jones & Prinz, 2005, p. 342). According to Bandura (1977), self-efficacy is based on four sources, including ‘performance accomplishments’: if successful experiences are repeated
Hines, Denise A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman; Holt, Melissa K.
Objective: Researchers and policymakers typically assume that within families, individual children are at an equivalent risk of neglectful behaviors. There is evidence that siblings experience differential parental treatment, and some research suggests that parents may maltreat their children to differing degrees. However, because neglect is…
Ceballo, Rosario; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Abbey, Antonia; Stewart, Abigail J.
This study compares the experience of gaining a child through birth, adoption, or marriage, extending the focus of investigation beyond biological parenthood and the transition made by first-time parents. Using a subsample from the National Survey of Families and Households N=204, we compared reasons for having children, parental well-being,…
Gale, Gay; Franck, Linda S; Kools, Susan; Lynch, Mary
Despite numerous advances in the recognition, assessment, and management of pain in neonates over the past two decades, there has been limited improvement in the knowledge base regarding parental responses to their infant's pain. This study examined parents' views of their experiences observing and coping with their infant's pain in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Twelve participants were recruited using purposive sampling from two groups: (a) parents who had infants currently receiving care in the NICU (n=6); and (b) parents whose infants had been discharged from the NICU and were enrolled in the outpatient follow-up clinic at each hospital (n=6). An exploratory, semi-structured format was used to interview parents individually (n=5) or in focus groups (n=7) regarding their infant's clinical course, infant pain experiences, and the parenting experience during and after the NICU stay. Thematic content analysis was used to develop conceptual categories. Two broad themes were identified: (a) infant pain as a source of parental distress and (b) relief of parental distress due to infant's pain.
Kristensson-Hallström, I; Elander, G
Twenty parents of boys (ages 2-14 years) hospitalized for hypospadias repair in a pediatric surgery department in Sweden, were interviewed concerning their experience when their child was hospitalized. A qualitative analysis of the interviews indicated that the most important issue to the parents was finding security at the hospital. Parents manifested one of three different strategies that enabled them to feel secure at the hospital; (a) relinquishing the care of their children to the nursing staff; (b) obtaining a measure of control over their children's care; and (c) relying on knowing their child best. The parental strategy adopted to feel secure was found to correspond with the way parents experienced the hospitalization. Differences were found in their children's experiences of pain and the alleviation of the pain during the hospitalization.
Hrnčić, Jasna; Lončar, Nina
Cyber bullying has been widespread among youth during the last few decades, sometimes with deadly consequences. This type of violence remains too often out of adult's control since for many parents and teachers Internet and social media still represent an unknown territory. The objective of the current study is the analysis of the scope of parental involvement in children's online experience and their peer cyber bullying experience, and the analysis of connection between these two phenomena. ...
Thandi, Gursimran; Oram, S.; Verey, A.; Greenberg, N.; Fear, N. T.
Aim Currently, there is no research available on the experiences of spouses providing informal care to wounded, injured or sick (WIS) UK military personnel. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by investigating the relationship experiences of non-military partners caring for WIS UK military personnel.Methods Spouses of WIS military personnel (n=25) completed telephone interviews with the research team. The data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The transcripts were ...
Carlson, Juliana; Casey, Erin
The transition to fatherhood has been shown to be a stressful time for men, and their experiences of identifying and accessing formal and informal support are mixed. However, research on the experience of men who use intimate partner violence (IPV) during the transition to fatherhood is limited. The evidence documenting the prevalence and short- and long-term impact of violence perpetrated by men against women during pregnancy and postpartum demonstrates the seriousness of this public health issue. To understand the mechanisms of interrupting IPV by engaging men, the gap between what is known about experiences of identifying the need for and access to support during the transition to fatherhood of men with past and current histories of using IPV must be bridged. The study described explores experiences of support during the transition to fatherhood of men who have used IPV. Descriptive findings revealed that men had a range of types of supports from multiple sources; however, most also identified crucial unmet instrumental and socioemotional needs. Four themes surfaced disjunctures in how participants described resources they needed, accessed, and desired. Specifically, these disjunctures were related to men's adherence to a self-reliant identity, a lack of male-specific peer or role model support, the tendency for childbirth classes to be geared toward mothers and not seen by fathers as sources of support, and a gap between men's goals for themselves as fathers, and the actual tools, resources, and modeling that were accessible and "acceptable." The implications include suggestions for group-based programmatic efforts, and three initial steps for organizations to assess and build current capacity to engage-with safety and accountability at the forefront-fathers who use IPV.
Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Buseh, Aaron; Arunothong, Wachiraporn
To provide culturally sensitive intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programs for ethnic groups, a basic foundational understanding of Southeast Asian (SEA) women living in the United States is vital. The purpose of this study was to describe SEA college women's perceptions of IPV and how the women recognize their vulnerability to such violent situations. Qualitative methods using focus group discussions were employed to elicit participants' perceptions. Participants included 18 SEA college women, ages 18-34 (Mean=22; SD=7.22). Transcriptions were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Five themes emerged: recognition of IPV; perception of individual vulnerability to IPV; experience and responses to IPV; help seeking and support system; and strategies used for prevention of IPV. Findings yielded an understanding of intertwined issues of cultural norms associated with IPV, social and economic disparities, and challenges for IPV prevention in SEA communities. Culturally sensitive prevention programs will be more effective by reforming cultural values, while at the same time promoting non-violent relationships and increasing access to services. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a large public health problem with far-reaching consequences for those involved. The aim of this study was to explore fathers’ experiences of change during pregnancy and early parenthood in the context of IPV. Methods: The methodological approach in this interview study was hermeneutics, based on a lifeworld perspective. Ten men, who had subjected their partners to violence during the childbearing period, and had become fathers within the previous 6 years, participated. Results: The analysis revealed four themes: beginning to acknowledge that you are inflicting violence, receiving confirmation that you are more than just a perpetrator of violence, becoming aware of the child, and the desire to receive support in the process of learning how to become a father. Levinas’ concept “the face of the other” is used to interpret the findings. Conclusion: This study contributes to a more nuanced and expanded picture of IPV. It shows that men who inflict violence want to be and learn how to be fathers. We need more knowledge about how to stop violent acts and support these men in the process of fatherhood.
Nicolaidis, Christina; Gregg, Jessica; Galian, Hilary; McFarland, Bentson; Curry, Maryann; Gerrity, Martha
Little is known regarding how providers should use information about intimate partner violence (IPV) to care for depressed patients. Our objective was to explore what depressed IPV survivors believe about the relationship between abuse, mental health, and physical symptoms and to elicit their recommendations for addressing depression. Focus group study. Adult, English-speaking, female, Internal Medicine clinic patients with depressive symptoms and a history of IPV. Thematic analysis using an inductive approach (consistent with grounded theory), at a semantic level, with an essentialist paradigm. Twenty three women participated in 5 focus groups. Although selected because of their depression, participants often felt their greatest concerns were physical. They acknowledged that their abuse history, depression, and physical complaints compound each other. They appreciated the need for health care workers to know about their depression and IPV history to get a "full picture" of their health, but they were often hesitant to discuss such issues with providers because of their fear that such information would make providers think their symptoms were "all in their head" or would encourage providers to discount their pain. Participants discussed difficulties related to trust and control in relationships with providers and gave recommendations as to how providers can earn their trust. Understanding a patient's IPV history may allow providers to develop a better therapeutic relationship. To treat depression adequately, it is important for providers to reassure patients that they believe their physical symptoms; to communicate respect for patients' intelligence, experience, and complexity; and to share control.
Andersson, Lisbet; Johansson, Ingrid; Almerud Österberg, Sofia
Parents play an important part in their child's anaesthesia. When a child has to receive anaesthesia, it is of great importance that parents are there by his/her side as children depend on them for support. Many parents worry and experience fear before their child's anaesthesia and studies show that there is a correlation between a worried parent and a worried child. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the meaning of being a parent at one's child's first anaesthesia in day surgery. Six parents were interviewed and data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative approach inspired by phenomenology. The phenomenon, 'a child's first anaesthesia in day surgery as experienced by parents' is based on the following components: ambivalence between worry and relief, a feeling of losing control, needing to be prepared, being able to be present and a need of emotional support. Specific individually-adapted information with a compulsory preoperative visit, presence and participation from, if possible, both parents at their child's anaesthesia but also designated staff from the anaesthetic team to focus solely on supporting the parents at their child's anaesthesia induction can improve the conditions for security.
Thandi, Gursimran; Oram, S; Verey, A; Greenberg, N; Fear, N T
Currently, there is no research available on the experiences of spouses providing informal care to wounded, injured or sick (WIS) UK military personnel. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by investigating the relationship experiences of non-military partners caring for WIS UK military personnel. Spouses of WIS military personnel (n=25) completed telephone interviews with the research team. The data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The transcripts were cross-coded and checked for inter-rater reliability. Six major themes were identified: (1) communication between couples, (2) adverse family environment, (3) reintegration, (4) intimacy, (5) financial uncertainty and (6) transition from partner to caregiver. Partners caring for injured/ill military personnel appear to be at risk of experiencing personal distress caused by impaired relationship functioning, which may lead to diminished physical and mental well-being. Partners of WIS military personnel experience significant levels of distress and burden associated with caregiving in the form of arguments with the military partner, problems in reintegration and a lack of physical and emotional intimacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Vickers, J L; Carlisle, C
During the past decade, palliative care at home has become an alternative option to hospital care for terminally ill children. This study describes the experience of caring for a dying child at home from a parent's perspective. A qualitative research design was used to conduct and analyze data. Nonstandardized, focused interviews were conducted with 10 families. Thematic content analysis assisted in deriving themes from the transcripts of the interviews. "Choice and control" was the major theme that linked all the other concepts, and it appeared to be fundamental to parental coping strategies. Most parents were willing to take responsibility for the nursing care of their child, including administration of intravenous medication. The patient's home was the overwhelming choice of parents for delivery of terminal care, with most parents perceiving it as their child's choice also.
Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Assasnik, Nushean; Franchek-Roa, Kathy
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health threat that contributes to a wide range of mental and physical health problems for victims. The purpose of this study was to examine IPV-related experiences and mental health outcomes among college students in Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. The data were obtained from the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), the International Dating Violence Study (IDVS) 2001-2006 (ICPSR 29583; N = 981; Japan n = 207; Singapore n = 260; South Korea n = 256; Taiwan n = 258). Co-experience of physical IPV victimization and perpetration was associated with borderline personality traits and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but not with depression. Childhood sexual abuse, gender hostility and violence socialization were significant predictors of borderline personality traits, depression and PTSD. While country and gender variations in mental health are noted, there are two specific populations that may need special attention for mental health interventions: Taiwanese women especially for borderline personality traits and PTSD, and Japanese men especially for depression. IPV victimization and perpetration, childhood sexual abuse, gender hostility and violence socialization have a significant impact on the mental health of college students in Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. Since IPV and mental health are significant public health issues, research on IPV and mental health consequences of IPV victimization and perpetration in these countries should be further expanded in order to better understand the interventions that will be effective in treating victims, perpetrators and victim/perpetrators of IPV. © The Author(s) 2016.
Gates, Allison; Shave, Kassi; Featherstone, Robin; Buckreus, Kelli; Ali, Samina; Scott, Shannon D; Hartling, Lisa
Parents wish to reduce their child's pain during medical procedures but may not know how to do so. We systematically reviewed the literature on parents' experiences and information needs related to managing their child's pain for common medical procedures. Of 2678 records retrieved through database searching, 5 were included. Three additional records were identified by scanning reference lists. Five studies were qualitative, and 3 were quantitative. Most took place in North America or Europe (n = 7) and described neonatal intensive care unit experiences (n = 5). Procedures included needle-related medical procedures (eg, venipuncture, phlebotomy, intravenous insertion), sutures, and wound repair and treatment, among others. Generally, parents desired being present during procedures, wanted to remain stoic for their child, and thought that information would be empowering and relieve stress but felt unsupported in taking an active role. Supporting and educating parents may empower them to lessen pain for their children while undergoing medical procedures.
Goldberg, Abbie E
Little research has examined the school experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families. The current exploratory study examined the experiences of 79 lesbian, 75 gay male, and 112 heterosexual adoptive parents of preschool-age children with respect to their (a) level of disclosure regarding their LG parent and adoptive family status at their children's schools; (b) perceived challenges in navigating the preschool environment and advocating on behalf of their children and families; and (c) recommendations to teachers and schools about how to create affirming school environments with respect to family structure, adoption, and race/ethnicity. Findings revealed that the majority of parents were open about their LG and adoptive family status, and had not encountered challenges related to family diversity. Those parents who did experience challenges tended to describe implicit forms of marginalization, such as insensitive language and school assignments. Recommendations for teachers included discussing and reading books about diverse families, tailoring assignments to meet the needs of diverse families, and offering school community-building activities and events to help bridge differences across families.
Raymond, Marissa; Catallozzi, Marina; Lin, Alison J; Ryan, Owen; Rickert, Vaughn I
This article examines adolescent intimacy through a developmental lens. As they age, adolescents develop the relational skills necessary to gain independence from their parents and form intimate relationships with friends and romantic partners. This article details how adolescents' intimate relationships expand from parental connections to encompass friendships, dating, and sexual activity during progressing stages of development. Finally, clinical implications for adolescent health care practitioners for promoting intimacy and healthy relationships are suggested.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a major public health problem with serious consequences for women’s physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health. Reproductive health outcomes such as unwanted and terminated pregnancies, fetal loss or child loss during infancy, non-use of family planning methods, and high fertility are increasingly recognized. However, little is known about the role of community influences on women's experience of IPV and its effect on terminated pregnancy, given the increased awareness of IPV being a product of social context. This study sought to examine the role of community-level norms and characteristics in the association between IPV and terminated pregnancy in Nigeria. Methods Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on nationally-representative cross-sectional data including 19,226 women aged 15–49 years in Nigeria. Data were collected by a stratified two-stage sampling technique, with 888 primary sampling units (PSUs selected in the first sampling stage, and 7,864 households selected through probability sampling in the second sampling stage. Results Women who had experienced physical IPV, sexual IPV, and any IPV were more likely to have terminated a pregnancy compared to women who had not experienced these IPV types. IPV types were significantly associated with factors reflecting relationship control, relationship inequalities, and socio-demographic characteristics. Characteristics of the women aggregated at the community level (mean education, justifying wife beating, mean age at first marriage, and contraceptive use were significantly associated with IPV types and terminated pregnancy. Conclusion Findings indicate the role of community influence in the association between IPV-exposure and terminated pregnancy, and stress the need for screening women seeking abortions for a history of abuse.
Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.
Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with orgasm. Parental underestimation and unawareness…
Fernandez, Nadine; Jensen, Tina Gudrun
The Danish family unification policies are based on an underlying moral agenda rooted in the idea of emotional, intimate, love-based marriages as the basis of the modern nation state. This paper questions the efficacy of this moral agenda by examining the unintended consequences and false...... dichotomies that emerge with the implementation of the legislation, particularly focusing on kin relations and individual autonomy. Empirically, the article compares how the legislation affects both the intended targets (intra-ethnic marriages among Danes of immigrant descent) and the unintended targets...
McDonnell, Eilis; Ryan, Assumpta A
This study explored the experiences of sons caring for a parent with dementia. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of sons (n = 13) in a rural part of Ireland. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed for common themes. The key themes that emerged were 'the parental bond', 'a binding role', 'coordinating care and support' and a 'getting on with it' approach to care. The study highlighted the commitment of sons to their caregiving role and the strong sense of duty that motivated them to provide care. The findings suggested that while many aspects of the caregiving experience such as lack of information and support are gender neutral, there are differences in the caregiving experiences of men and women in how they view their relationship with their parent and in the management of their caregiving role that merit further investigation. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Furlong, M; McGilloway, S
Child conduct problems are a major public health priority. Group-based parenting programmes are popular in addressing such problems, but evidence for their longer-term effectiveness is limited. Moreover, process evaluations are rare and little is understood about the key facilitative and inhibitive factors associated with maintaining outcomes in the longer term. This study involved the use of qualitative methods as part of a larger process evaluation to explore the longer-term experiences of parents who participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Incredible Years Parenting Programme (IYPP) in disadvantaged settings in Ireland. A series of one-to-one in-depth interviews was conducted with parents at 12- (n = 20) and 18-month follow-up (n = 8) and analysed using constructivist grounded theory. Most parents reported positive child behaviour despite several challenges, but a substantial subset reported periods of relapse in positive outcomes. A relapse in child behaviour was linked to relinquishing skills in stressful times, the negative influence of an unsupportive environment, and the perceived ineffectiveness of parenting skills. Resilience in implementing skills despite adversity, and the utilization of available social supports, were associated with the maintenance of positive outcomes. Strengthening resilience and social support capacities may be important factors in maintaining positive longer-term outcomes. Those who design, research and deliver parenting programmes might consider the possibility of including a relapse-prevention module and/or the provision of post-intervention supports for more vulnerable families. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Purcell, Mary; Longard, Julie; Chorney, Jill; Hong, Paul
Tonsillectomy is commonly performed as same-day surgery and parents are heavily relied upon for management of children's postoperative recovery. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth description of the experiences parents face when managing their child's complicated postoperative recoveries at home. An exploratory qualitative study at an academic pediatric hospital in Eastern Canada was performed. Participants included 12 parents of children aged 3-6 years who underwent adeno/tonsillectomy and experienced unexpected outcomes or complications during the postoperative recovery period. Parents participated in semi-structured interviews within 6 months of their child's surgery. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was used to identify themes in the parents' experiences. Parents described struggling to make the decision to come back to hospital, that adequate information does not prevent emotional difficulties, and feeling somewhat responsible for the unexpected outcome or complicated course of recovery. Communication with healthcare providers was considered very important in helping with the recovery process. This research helps to inform healthcare professionals about how they might better support families during complicated recovery processes. Areas of action may include clear communication, setting expectations, and psychosocial support. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zvonkovic, Anisa; Swenson, Andrea; Cornwell, Zoë
This qualitative study focuses on different ways time is experienced by children in families who face time challenges due to a family member's job that required work travel. Data are from a family-level study that includes interviews of all family members over the age of 7. Using grounded theory methodology, this study illustrates ways in which job demands and family processes interact. Analysis centers on the 75 children's perspectives from 43 families. Holding together assessments of having enough time while wanting more time with their parents, children express emotion, generally unrecognized by parents, around the topic of family time. Children's experience of time with parents is rushed or calm, depending on the activities done in time and the gender of the parent with whom they spend time. Findings are interpreted through a feminist social constructionist lens.
Janet E Mosher
Full Text Available For women seeking to extricate themselves from the web of entrapment woven together by the multiple threads that make up the coercive control repertoire of their abusive intimate partners, it is often difficult to avoid engagement with legal systems. Yet, the legal systems they encounter—criminal, family, child welfare, immigration among them—are frequently unwelcoming (if not hostile, controlling, demeaning, fragmented and contradictory. While there has been a recent explosion of interest in “access to justice,” little attention has been paid to how we might conceptualize access to justice in a manner that speaks meaningfully to the circumstances of women who experience abuse in their intimate relationships. For such women, access to justice is curtailed not only by lack of representation, delays, costs, and procedural complexities—the obstacles commonly associated with access to justice failings—but by three inter-related phenomena: the enduring hold of an incident-based understanding of domestic violence; the failure of legal actors to curb men’s strategic use of legal systems to further their power; and the host of complications—contradictory expectations, inconsistent orders, repetitious proceedings, sweeping surveillance—that arise when women are compelled to navigate multiple intersecting legal systems. What is required, I argue, is a conceptualization of access to justice that places women’s safety and well-being at its core. Dans la plupart des cas, les femmes qui veulent se sortir de l’enfer de la violence conjugale et échapper au contrôle de leur conjoint abusif n’ont d’autre choix que de se tourner vers les systèmes judiciaires. Pourtant, ceux qui s’offrent à elles, que ce soit en matière criminelle ou familiale, ou encore en matière d’immigration ou de protection de l’enfance, sont souvent peu accueillants (sinon hostiles, en plus d’être contrôlants, rabaissants, fragmentés et
Huang, I-Chen; Mu, Pei-Fan; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye
The purpose of this study was to explore the essence of family experiences in terms of family resources and how these assist a single-parent caring for a child with cancer. When families face stresses caused by cancer, they need to readjust their roles, interactive patterns and relationships, both inside and outside the family. During the adaptation process, family resources may assist recovery from stress and a return to equilibrium. Most research has emphasised the support resources available to two-parent families during the treatment process. There is a lack of information on the experiences of single-parent families and their available resources together with the functions and roles played by family resources during the adjustment process. Qualitative. Five major themes were identified: (i) facing the disease with courage; (ii) hope kindled by professionals; (iii) constructing parental role ability; (iv) assisting the children to live with the illness; and (v) family flexibility. The results of the current study demonstrate that single-parent families with a child suffering from cancer employ family resources to assist family adjustment and to maintain family function/equilibrium. These results explain the dynamic interactions between the multiple levels of resources available to the family. The study results provide evidence-based information that identifies the nature of family resources in single-parent families and describes how these resources can be applied to assist the families.
Gladstone, Brenda M; Boydell, Katherine M; Seeman, Mary V; McKeever, Patricia D
This paper provides a review of published qualitative research on children's experiences of parental mental illness. We undertook a comprehensive search of Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Sociological Abstracts and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts databases, as well as citation searches in Web of Science and manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary papers. Although 20 studies met the search criteria, only 10 focused exclusively on children's descriptions of their experience--the remainder elicited adults' perspectives on children's experiences of parental mental illnesses. Findings are organized under three themes: the impact of illness on children's daily life, how children cope with their experiences and how children understand mental illness. Despite references to pervasive knowledge gaps in the literature, significant information has been accumulated about children's experiences of parental mental illness. Considerable variability in research findings and tensions remain unresolved. For example, evidence is mixed as to children's knowledge and understanding of mental illnesses and how best to deploy resources to help them acquire optimal information. Furthermore, children's desire to be recognized as important to their parents' well-being conflicted with adults' perceptions that children should be protected from too much responsibility. Nevertheless, the cumulative evidence remains a key reason for advocating for psychoeducation and peer-support group interventions for children, which are endorsed by child and adult study participants alike. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Schreiber, Jennifer K; Sands, Diana C; Jordan, John R
Children whose parent died by suicide are a vulnerable and underserved population. This phenomenon will be described, as well as implications for practice and research. "Double Whammy," a conceptualization of the overall experience of this marginalized group, emerged through two in-depth interviews from a phenomenological qualitative study with professionals who facilitate support groups for children bereaved by parental suicide. It was corroborated with current literature and practice experiences of the authors and their colleagues. Stigma was the largest contributor to the "Double Whammy," and the following themes emerged as well: feeling isolated, feeling abandoned, and feeling responsible. The self-volition of suicide challenges how bereaved children make meaning and internalize feelings about the deceased parent, one's self, and others. Developmentally appropriate education about suicide grief, depression, and normalizing the grief process is pivotal in helping children to effectively cope and manage their feelings.
Lewis, Jane; Noden, Philip; Sarre, Sophie
As dual-earner families have become the norm, the different kinds of "time" children spend with parents has become an important issue. We use the 2000 Time Use Survey to identify adolescent children spending time alone at home, and interviews with 50 children aged 14 and 15 to explore young people's experiences. We investigate their views on their…
Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the problems that parents or caregivers of children with mental health disabilities and disorders in Namibia experience when accessing healthcare resources for their children. Method: Data was collected through focus group discussions with the participants and ...
Premature and low birthweight infants pose particular challenges to health services in South Africa. While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low birthweight infants, limited research has been conducted locally on the experiences of parents who provide kangaroo care to their preterm ...
Assistive Technology (AT) has become an important tool used by special needs children for improving their quality of life by empowering their abilities, therefore improving their personal independence. The purpose of this Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) study was to closely examine the experiences and meaning-making of parents, of…
Witte, Amanda L.; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kasson, Sarah C.; Perry, Kyle R.
Previous research has linked talent development to four factors--early experience, coaching, practice, and motivation. In addition to these factors, contemporary talent experts suggest that parents play a critical role in talent development. The purpose of the present study was to uncover parents' in-time perspectives on the talent development…
Peterman, Amber; Palermo, Tia M; Handa, Sudhanshu; Seidenfeld, David
Social scientists have increasingly invested in understanding how to improve data quality and measurement of sensitive topics in household surveys. We utilize the technique of list randomization to collect measures of physical intimate partner violence in an experimental impact evaluation of the Government of Zambia's Child Grant Program. The Child Grant Program is an unconditional cash transfer, which targeted female caregivers of children under the age of 5 in rural areas to receive the equivalent of US $24 as a bimonthly stipend. The implementation results show that the list randomization methodology functioned as planned, with approximately 15% of the sample identifying 12-month prevalence of physical intimate partner violence. According to this measure, after 4 years, the program had no measurable effect on partner violence. List randomization is a promising approach to incorporate sensitive measures into multitopic evaluations; however, more research is needed to improve upon methodology for application to measurement of violence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sigbeku, O.A.; Fawole, O.I.; Ogunniyan, T.B.
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue that is associated with adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs have recently gained more recognition worldwide because they increase the risk for HIVinfection. However, there is dearth of information on the association between IPV and STIs particularly among married women in Nigeria. Objective: To determine the association between IPV and STIs among m...
Lefèvre, Åsa; Lundqvist, Pia; Drevenhorn, Eva; Hallström, Inger
Almost all parents in Sweden are invited to parental groups organized by the child health service (CHS) during their child's first year, but only 40% chose to attend. The aim of this study was to describe parents' experiences of participating in these parental groups. A total of 143 parents from 71 different parental groups at 27 child health-care (CHC) centres in one Swedish county completed an online questionnaire. A majority of the parents found the parental groups to be meaningful and more than 60% met someone in the group who they socialized with outside the meetings. Parents wanted a greater focus on child-related community information, existential questions, relationships and parenting in general. Group leadership seems to be of significance to how parents in a group connect and whether the parental role is affected. Making CHC nurses more aware of the topics parents desire could help them meet parents' needs. Education and training in group dynamics and group leadership could be of value in further improving the high-quality service CHC nurses already offer parents. More knowledge is needed about what would attract those parents who do not participate. © The Author(s) 2014.
Choate, Peter W
Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence on parenting and family functioning; little attention has been paid to the parents' experience. This qualitative study looks at the parental perspective as they attempted to adapt and cope with substance dependency in their teenage children. The research looks into family life and adds to family functioning knowledge when the identified client is a youth as opposed to an adult family member. Thirty-one adult caregivers of 21 teenagers were interviewed, resulting in eight significant themes: (1) finding out about the substance dependence problem; (2) experiences as the problems escalated; (3) looking for explanations other than substance dependence; (4) connecting to the parent's own history; (5) trying to cope; (6) challenges of getting help; (7) impact on siblings; and (8) choosing long-term rehabilitation. Implications of this research for clinical practice are discussed.
Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch; Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.
Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with
Whittaker, Karen A; Cowley, Sarah
To examine parental self-efficacy experiences for users of a parenting support programme and consider the pertinence of self-efficacy theory to health visiting (public health nursing) practice. Commonly, successful parenting training programmes are underpinned by social learning principles and aim to strengthen parental self-efficacy. However, research examining programme effectiveness rarely discusses how self-efficacy outcomes are achieved. A descriptive survey was completed as the first part of a realistic evaluation study examining how a UK parenting support programme worked. The first part of the realistic evaluation involved validating outcome measures (the Parenting Self-Agency Measure and Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Index subscales) and administering a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was completed by adults accessing a parenting support programme during a 10-month period (n = 168). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Women were the main users of the programme, which included informal drop-in groups as well as more formalised health visiting services and parenting training courses. The Parenting Self-Agency Measure results indicated good general parental self-efficacy; however, the task-specific Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Indexes scales suggested that parents were less self-efficacious in disciplining children. Lower self-efficacy scores correlated with high ratings for 'feeling tired', 'receiving negative comments' and 'giving-in to a child's demands'. Study results indicate that the domain general and task-specific measures provide different, but helpful, insights into parental self-efficacy experiences. By identifying factors associated with the levels of general and task-specific parental self-efficacy, health visitors can gain a fuller appreciation of support needs. To maximise potential through parenting support, attention should be given to addressing factors associated with poorer self
Schroeder, Ryan D.; Bulanda, Ronald E.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Cernkovich, Stephen A.
Parenting practices are among the strongest predictors of juvenile delinquency identified in the criminological literature and have been intimately connected to adult offending. The prior research connecting early parenting experiences with crime, however, has not systematically assessed the long-term effect of parenting style on adult criminal…
Full Text Available This study explores the experiences of four adolescents, each living with a parent who has sustained a traumatic brain injury, against the theoretical backdrop of existential-phenomenological psychology. Opsomming Hierdie navorsing verken die belewenisse van vier adolessente wat saam met ‘n ouer wat ‘n traumatiese breinbesering opgedoen het, leef. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally representative survey to assess experiences of intimate partner violence,...
Collins, Elizabeth A.; Cody, Anna M.; McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Nicotera, Nicole; Ascione, Frank R.; Williams, James Herbert
This study explores the intersection of intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal cruelty in an ethnically diverse sample of 103 pet-owning IPV survivors recruited from community-based domestic violence programs. Template analysis revealed five themes: (a) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as a Tactic of Coercive Power and Control, (b) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as Discipline or Punishment of Pet, (c) Animal Maltreatment by Children, (d) Emotional and Psychological Impact of Animal Maltreatment Exposure, and (e) Pets as an Obstacle to Effective Safety Planning. Results demonstrate the potential impact of animal maltreatment exposure on women and child IPV survivors’ health and safety. PMID:29332521
Collins, Elizabeth A; Cody, Anna M; McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Nicotera, Nicole; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert
This study explores the intersection of intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal cruelty in an ethnically diverse sample of 103 pet-owning IPV survivors recruited from community-based domestic violence programs. Template analysis revealed five themes: (a) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as a Tactic of Coercive Power and Control, (b) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as Discipline or Punishment of Pet, (c) Animal Maltreatment by Children, (d) Emotional and Psychological Impact of Animal Maltreatment Exposure, and (e) Pets as an Obstacle to Effective Safety Planning. Results demonstrate the potential impact of animal maltreatment exposure on women and child IPV survivors' health and safety.
P. Nikken (Peter); J. de Haan (Jos)
textabstractUsing an online questionnaire among 785 parents (children 0-7 years) in the Netherlands we investigated a) whether parents experience problems when guiding children’s digital media usage, b) whether they feel competent in dealing with these problems, c) whether they need parenting
Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany
Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, factors associated with incongruence between parents' and adolescents' reports of teens' sexual experience were investigated, and the consequences of inaccurate parental knowledge for adolescents' subsequent sexual behaviors were explored. Most parents of virgins accurately reported teens' lack of experience, but most parents of teens who had had sex provided inaccurate reports. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that many adolescent-, parent-, and family-level factors predicted the accuracy of parents' reports. Parents' accurate knowledge of their teens' sexual experience was not found to be consistently beneficial for teens' subsequent sexual outcomes. Rather, parents' expectations about teens' sexual experience created a self-fulfilling prophecy, with teens' subsequent sexual outcomes conforming to parents' expectations. These findings suggest that research on parent-teen communication about sex needs to consider the expectations being expressed, as well as the information being exchanged.
Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.
Abstract Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and
Full Text Available The study described perceived differences in the choice of child rearing practices aimed at correcting children’s inappropriate behaviors as remembered by the participants at young adulthood. The sample consisted of 207 students of under-graduate studies of the University of Novi Sad. The most of the participants does not have children and they grew up in complete families. On the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory (A (DDI-A, Straus, Fauchier, 2007, the participants estimated the experience and methods of disciplining which were used by their parents during their childhood. The participants describe uniform discipline behaviors of their parents regarding the estimated discipline techniques. These behaviors are dominated by the punishing ones, and the differences between fathers and mothers are visible in a stronger tendency to describe fathers as the ones who use corporal punishment, abolish privileges and give restorative tasks. The described discipline techniques for both fathers and mothers remain stable and similar, regardless of the socio-demographic characteristics of the families as family completeness, work experience and level of education of the parents, as well as estimated economic status of the family.
Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E M M; van der Lee, J H; Teeuw, A H; Lindeboom, R; Brilleslijper-Kater, S N; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, T; van Goudoever, J B; Lindauer, R J L
High levels of maltreatment are found in children who are identified because their parents visit the emergency department due to partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt. However, it is unknown if these children experience psychosocial problems. This study aims to assess their levels of post-traumatic stress, anxiety, depression, behavioural problems and health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted in six hospitals. All consecutive families of which a parent visited the emergency department due to partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt between 1 July 2012 and 1 March 2014 with children aged 1.5-17 years were approached for participation. Parents and children aged 8 years and older filled out questionnaires measuring post-traumatic stress [13-item version of Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13)], anxiety, depression (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale), behavioural problems [Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR)] and health-related quality of life (PedsQL). Scores of participants were compared with reference data obtained in children in similar age ranges from representative Dutch community samples (CRIES-13, Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, PedsQL and CBCL) and to a normed cutoff score (CRIES-13). Of 195 eligible families, 89 (46%) participated in the study. Participating children did not score different from community children, both on child-reported and parent-reported instruments. Standardized mean differences of total sum scores were 0 (CRIES-13 and CBCL 1.5-5), 0.1 (YSR), 0.2 (CBCL 6-18) and -0.3 (PedsQL) and not statistically different from community children. Thirty-five percent of the participating children scored above the cutoff score on the CRIES-13, indicating post-traumatic stress disorder, but this difference was not statistically significant from community children (mean difference 8%; 95% CI -4-22%). We found no differences in psychosocial
Berends, Tamara; van de Lagemaat, Marleen; van Meijel, Berno; Coenen, Jasmijn; Hoek, Hans W; van Elburg, Annemarie A
One of the main aims of treatment after successful recovery from anorexia nervosa (AN) is to prevent a relapse. The Guideline Relapse Prevention (GRP) Anorexia Nervosa offers a structured approach to relapse prevention. This study explores how patients and their parents experience working with the guideline. It also describes the factors that support or hinder successful application of the guideline. A descriptive qualitative research design was chosen involving in-depth interviews with seventeen patients with anorexia nervosa and six sets of parents. Patients and family members were generally satisfied with the support provided by the GRP. It contributed significantly to a better understanding of the personal process of relapse. Patients and families valued being able to keep in touch with their professional during the aftercare programme. The GRP supports the patient's use of self-management strategies for relapse prevention. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Vella, L R; Butterworth, R E; Johnson, R; Law, G Urquhart
Empirical evidence suggests that the Solihull Approach parenting group, 'Understanding Your Child's Behaviour' (UYCB), can improve child behaviour and parental well-being. However, little is known about parents' in-depth experience of participating in the UYCB programme. This study provides an in-depth qualitative evaluation of UYCB, focussing on possible moderating factors and mechanisms of change that may inform programme development. Ten parents (eight mothers and two fathers), recruited from seven UYCB groups across two locations, were interviewed within 7 weeks of completing the group and again 10 months later. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four themes were identified: 'Two Tiers of Satisfaction', 'Development as a Parent', 'Improved Self-belief' and 'The "Matthew Effect"'. In summary, the majority of parents were immensely satisfied at both completion and follow-up: they valued an experience of containment and social support and perceived improvement in specific child difficulties, their experience of parenting, their confidence and their coping. Most parents appeared to have developed more reflective and empathic parenting styles, with self-reported improved behaviour management. Theoretical material was well received, although some struggled with technical language. Positive outcomes appeared to be maintained, even reinforced, at follow-up, and were associated with having few initial child difficulties, perceiving improvement at completion and persevering with the recommendations. Two participants, whose children had the most severe difficulties, perceived deterioration and felt that the group was insufficient for their level of difficulties. Through in-depth analysis of parental experiences, UYCB appears to achieve its aims and communicate well its theoretical principles, although change may also occur through processes common to other group programmes (e.g. social support). Recommendations, stemming from the
Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine
Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner…
Dichter, Melissa E; Wagner, Clara; True, Gala
Women who have served in the military in the United States experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and non-partner sexual assault (SA). The military setting presents challenges and opportunities not experienced in other employment contexts that may compound the negative impacts of IPV/SA on women's lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the intersection of women's experiences of IPV/SA and military service through analysis of women veterans' narrative accounts. We conducted in-depth face-to-face qualitative interviews with 25 women veterans receiving primary care at a U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. We draw upon Adler and Castro's (2013) Military Occupational Mental Health Model to frame our understanding of the impact of IPV/SA as a stressor in the military cultural context and to inform efforts to prevent, and support women service members who have experienced, these forms of violence. Our findings highlight the impact of IPV/SA on women's military careers, including options for entering and leaving military service, job performance, and opportunities for advancement. Women's narratives also reveal ways in which the military context constrains their options for responding to and coping with experiences of IPV/SA. These findings have implications for prevention of, and response to, intimate partner or sexual violence experienced by women serving in the military and underscore the need for both military and civilian communities to recognize and address the negative impact of such violence on women service members before, during, and after military service.
Butcher, Rebecca L.; Gersch, Irvine S.
This paper reports the results of research into parental experiences of the Somerset (UK) "Time Together" home visiting intervention, with regards to its impact on the parent-child relationship. The research was carried out using an Attachment Theory lens in order to understand the qualitative experiences of seven parents of children in…
Kluwer, ES; de Dreu, CKW; Buunk, BP
An experiment was conducted to explore whether bias in self-other judgments pertains to conflict in intimate relationships and is overruled by gender role stereotypes in non-intimate relationships between males and females, it was predicted that when the opponent was one's intimate partner, both
Kunnuji, Michael O N
Gender-based domestic violence (DV) comes at great costs to the victims and society at large. Yet, many women hold the view that intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is appropriate behavior. This study aimed at exploring the nexus of experience of different forms of DV and acceptance of IPV as appropriate behavior. Using data from a survey of 480 out-of-school adolescent girls, the researcher shows that psychological abuse is a significant predictor of approval of DV resulting from the wife's failure to make food available for her husband with victims of abuse approving of violence against women. Conversely, victims of sexual abuse, more than nonvictims, disapproved of wife beating resulting from the wife going out without informing the husband. The implications of the findings are discussed and the study recommends deconstructing women's negative beliefs upon which DV rests. © The Author(s) 2014.
Peter W. Choate
Full Text Available Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence on parenting and family functioning; little attention has been paid to the parents’ experience. This qualitative study looks at the parental perspective as they attempted to adapt and cope with substance dependency in their teenage children. The research looks into family life and adds to family functioning knowledge when the identified client is a youth as opposed to an adult family member. Thirty-one adult caregivers of 21 teenagers were interviewed, resulting in eight significant themes: (1 finding out about the substance dependence problem; (2 experiences as the problems escalated; (3 looking for explanations other than substance dependence; (4 connecting to the parent’s own history; (5 trying to cope; (6 challenges of getting help; (7 impact on siblings; and (8 choosing long-term rehabilitation. Implications of this research for clinical practice are discussed.
... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...
This article explores parents' perspectives on, and experiences of, home and preschool collaboration. The data consist of in-depth interviews with 10 parents with one or several children attending preschool. The research process of gathering and analyzing data follows the procedures of constructivist grounded theory. The results show how parents…
Parental abuse as a societal problem has been in obscurity for years especially in Africa where utmost respect is required from children towards their parents. In African society abuse and disrespect to parents are viewed as a taboo. This study examined some factors which could contribute to parent abuse. Descriptive ...
Nichols, Emily M; Bonomi, Amy; Kammes, Rebecca; Miller, Elizabeth
To examine mental health service experiences following sexual violence (SV) and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among college women with a disability. College women (n = 27, ages 19 to 24) with a disability who experienced at least one SV/IPV occurrence; interviewed July/August 2016. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews, with thematic analysis. Women tended to wait several months (or did not seek care at all) following SV/IPV, because they downplayed their experience (e.g., not wanting to label an experience as "rape"). Those seeking services primarily did so because of escalating mental health concerns. Among service seekers, women were satisfied when professionals validated their experiences/concerns; and were dissatisfied when faced with extended wait time for care and/or professionals unskilled with SV/IPV and mental health. However, women still sought care following negative experiences. Improved access to integrated care for SV/IPV and mental health, along with skilled professionals, is essential.
Gadepalli, Samir K; Canvasser, Jennifer; Eskenazi, Yael; Quinn, Megan; Kim, Jae H; Gephart, Sheila M
Although partnering with parents is important to improving neonatal outcomes, no studies have investigated what parents are taught, remember, or experience when their child is afflicted with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). To characterize parental perceptions of communication and support they were given about NEC. An online survey was developed, reviewed for face validity, and then administered to parents whose child had experienced NEC. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and qualitative data were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Parents (N = 110) wanted to know the risk factors and warning signs for NEC and wanted to be told as soon as their child was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Information provided before diagnosis was felt to be poor by the majority of families, with only 32% feeling satisfied or very satisfied. No parent wrote that they were "scared" by information provided to them about NEC; in fact, parents were dissatisfied when they received "sugar-coated" information. Engaged parents were significantly more satisfied than those who were not informed, had their concerns and suggestions dismissed, or who had to advocate for their baby against clinician opposition (eg, activating the chain of command). Areas for quality improvement include better communication and collaboration with parents through early engagement in NEC prevention using modalities beyond verbal instruction. More research is needed on how best to engage parents, especially to engage in prevention, and how doing so affects satisfaction and outcomes.
Mat D. Duerden
Full Text Available Parental involvement is an often proposed, but rarely researched, key element of youth programs. Questions remain regarding the impact of parental involvement on program processes and outcomes. Qualitative data were collected over a one-year period with youth participants (n=46, parents (n=26, and teachers (n=5 associated with an international immersion/service learning program for adolescents. Three main research questions guided the data analysis: (1 what role does parental involvement play in the youths’ experience in the program; (2 how does parental involvement in the program influence the parent/child relationship; and (3 what role does parental involvement play in terms of the program’s long-term impact on the youth participants? Findings suggest a relationship between parental involvement in youth programs and improved parent/child communication, bonding, and perceptions of one another. Findings also suggest that having a common ground experience prolonged the experience’s positive post-participation effects.
E M Lemmer
Full Text Available The most common form of direct communication between parents and teachers in schools worldwide is the parent-teacher conference. Purposeful parent-teacher conferences afford the teacher and the parent the opportunity to address a particular topic related to the child, such as academic progress and behaviour. However, teachers are seldom trained to interact with parents, and both parents and teachers often find such encounters stressful and ineffective. This paper investigates parent and teacher perspectives on the parent-teacher conference through a qualitative inquiry. This is framed by the contributions of ecological theorists to home-school communication and an overview of extant themes in the literature. In the present qualitative inquiry, teacher, parent and learner participants were selected by purposeful and snowball sampling and data were gathered by individual and focus group interviews, school visits and the perusal of written parent-teacher conference reports. The findings indicate that parent-teacher conferences are ritualised school events in all types of schools; parents and teachers' expectations of conferences are limited; teachers are not trained to conduct parent-teacher conferences; and conferencesare overwhelmingly directed at problem solution. Parent-teacher conferences are characterised by a client orientation to parents, rather than a partnership orientation to home-school relations.
Stein, Michelle L.; Miller, Audrey K.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) constitutes the majority of assaults against women in the United States, and greater than one third of female homicide victims are murdered by an intimate partner. In a small percentage of cases, battered women kill their abusers, and evidence of battering and its effects may be used to support a plea of…
The parents of prisoners have long drawn the attention of researchers, due to their role in the etiology of criminality as well as the importance of their support of their offspring during and after incarceration. However, although studies have shown that the parents of prisoners experience high levels of distress, burden, and social stigma, research into their experience is only now beginning to emerge. This metasynthesis examined the limited body of qualitative research on the experience of prisoners' parents, as an exploratory step toward advancing the understanding of their experience. Relevant terms were used to systematically search key databases. Ten small-scale studies, which varied in focus, location, and disciplinary orientation, met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis produced four core themes, reflecting findings regarding parents' (primarily mothers') experience of their offspring's incarceration: parenting from a distance; the burden of care; troubled parental identity; and social reaction. Furthermore, the findings suggested a number of possible mediating factors of this experience, such as parents' social capital and their cognitive appraisal of their offspring's criminality. These themes imply a possible experience of "imprisonment by association" among the parents of inmates and illuminate features that may be unique to them. Given the inherent limitations regarding generalizability of a metasynthesis and the heterogeneity of the experiences of the parents represented by the articles reviewed, the findings call for future large-scale quantitative studies to explore the challenges and therapeutic needs of parents of prisoners regarding the themes identified. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Challenges to parental HIV disclosure to children are neither essential nor specific since disclosure to adults is already difficult because of perceived risk of public disclosure and subsequent stigma. However, whether aware or not of their parents' HIV-positive status, children contribute positively to the care of parents living ...
McGregor, Sharon A.; Knoll, Monja A.
Research into parental homework-related experiences has predominantly focused on parental attitudes to homework. This research has shown that parental attitudes can affect the formation of attitudes in children and subsequently their academic success. Most research has focused on a secondary school context, but there is still a lack of knowledge…
Brown, James Roger
Bully victimization takes place within a social context of youths' parents, peers, teachers, school administrators, and community. Victims often rely on parents, educators, or peers for support. However, there is a gap in the literature in understanding parents' experiences of what occurs before, during, and after reporting bullying to school…
Glazzard, Jonathan; Overall, Katy
The focus of the study was to explore parental experiences of raising a child with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). A mixed-method approach consisting of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews was used in order to elicit parental perspectives of raising a child with ASD. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of…
Besnoy, Kevin D.; Swoszowski, Nicole C.; Newman, Jane L.; Floyd, Amanda; Jones, Parrish; Byrne, Caitlin
For many parents, successfully advocating for their twice-exceptional child can be intimidating and overwhelming. Using grounded theory, we conducted a study with parents (n = 8) of elementary age, twice-exceptional children to learn about their advocacy experiences. Findings revealed that parents simultaneously advocated for their child's…
Boka, V; Arapostathis, K; Vretos, N; Kotsanos, N
The aim of this study was to examine the acceptance by Greek parents of nine behaviour-management techniques and its association with several possible confounding factors. Following ethical approval, 106 parents whose 3- to 12-year-old children had been receiving treatment in a university postgraduate paediatric dental clinic, and 123 parents of children from a private paediatric dental practice agreed to participate. After being shown a video with nine behaviour-management techniques, parents rated the acceptance of each technique on a 0-10 scale. They were then asked to complete a questionnaire about demographics, their previous dental experience and dental anxiety (modified Corah dental anxiety scale). The best accepted technique was tell-show-do (9.76 ± 0.69), followed by parental presence/absence (PPA) technique (7.83 ± 3.06) and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation (7.09 ± 3.02). The least accepted techniques were passive restraint (4.21 ± 3.84) and general anaesthesia (4.21 ± 4.02). No correlations were found between acceptance of any individual management technique and parental age, gender, income, education, dental experience and dental anxiety or the child's age, gender and dental experience. Parents whose children had been treated at the University clinic had lower income and educational levels, and rated passive restraint, oral sedation and general anaesthesia higher than those from the private practice. When the parents were specifically asked to choose between general anaesthesia over any of the active or passive restraint, hand-over-mouth and voice control techniques, 10% preferred general anaesthesia, and these parents reported statistically significant more negative dental experience but not higher dental anxiety. Statistical significance of differences was explored using the Tukey-Kramer method. There was no correlation between parental dental experience and dental anxiety and the acceptance of any specific behaviour-management technique
Abbott, Mandy; Bernard, Paul; Forge, Jenny
Not enough is known about parents' experiences of receiving the news that their child warrants a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Sharing this information with parents is an important and difficult part of Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH) practice. Qualitative methodology was used to explore the experiences of the 'feedback session' with nine sets of parents in a community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) in North East England. Parents gave vivid accounts of their experiences and described issues relating to the structure, style and content of the session. The experiences of CAMHS users should inform the development of good practice in this important area.
Al Maghaireh, Dua'a Fayiz; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Chan, Chong Mei; Piaw, Chua Yan; Al Kawafha, Mariam Mofleh
To determine the feasibility and utility of a thematic analysis approach to synthesising qualitative evidence about parental experiences in the neonatal intensive care unit. Admission of infants to the neonatal intensive care unit is usually an unexpected event for parents who can cause them to experience psychosocial difficulties. A qualitative systematic review is the best method for exploring these parents' experiences regarding this type of admission. Systematic review. Qualitative studies in peer-reviewed journals aimed at understanding parental experiences regarding infant neonatal intensive care unit admission were identified in six electronic databases. Three reviewers selected relevant articles and assessed the quality of the methodological studies using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. A thematic analysis approach was used to identify the most common themes in the studies describing parental experiences in the neonatal intensive care unit. A total of eighty articles were identified; nine studies were included in this review. Four studies used semistructured interviews, three used interviews, one used self-reporting and one used both focus group and interview methodologies. Common themes across parents' experiences were the stress of hospitalisation, alteration in parenting roles and the impact of infant hospitalisation on psychological health. Having an infant hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit is a stressful experience for parents. This experience is the result of exposure to different stressors related to the infant's condition, an alteration in parenting roles or the neonatal intensive care unit environment and staffing. These parents suffered negative psychological effects, experienced an interrupted development of a healthy parent-infant attachment and/or felt parental role alteration. The study's findings are crucial for neonatal intensive care unit nurses to develop intervention strategies and programmes that help parents to
textabstractThe aim of this thesis – the EMPATHIC studies – was to develop and implement validated parent satisfaction questionnaires for pediatric and neonatal intensive care units. Part I presents the general introduction, which justifies the construction, validation, and utilization of parent satisfaction instruments. Part II provides a review about the few existing parent and family satisfaction instruments. A theoretical framework incorporating family-centered care, parental needs and ex...
Full Text Available Parents of children with intellectual disabilities could experience difficulties associated with their care. Yet, insight into individual experiences is inadequate to guide effective responses to the needs of parents and their sons and daughters with intellectual disability. This study sought to explore the experiences of parents of children with intellectual disability with the aim of making these experiences visible to guide the design and provision of support services for the parents and their children. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 parents of children with intellectual disability between the ages of 4 and 15 years residing in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis to explore themes that describe the experiences of the parents. The study found that parents of intellectually disabled children encounter challenges looking after their children due to the negative perceptions associated with having such children. Financial costs and managing behavioral challenges of intellectually disabled children were also major sources of stressors for parents. Although informal support and assurances from professionals alleviated parental stress and gave them some hope about the future of their children, these support services seem inadequate. A more structured support programme that includes financial empowerment of the parents and recognizes the importance of early detection and intervention practices is needed. Keywords: Intellectual disability, parents, caregivers, support services, health professionals
Fingerman, Karen L; Kim, Kyungmin; Birditt, Kira S; Zarit, Steven H
Daily pleasant or stressful experiences with grown children may contribute to parental well-being. This diary study focused on midlife parents' ( N = 247) reports regarding grown children for 7 days. Nearly all parents (96%) had contact with a child that week via phone, text, or in person. Nearly all parents shared laughter or enjoyable interactions with grown children during the study week. More than half of parents experienced stressful encounters (e.g., child got on nerves) or stressful thoughts about grown children (e.g., worrying, fretting about a problem). Pleasant and stressful experiences with grown children were associated with parents' positive and negative daily moods. A pleasant experience with a grown child the same day as a stressful experience mitigated effects of those stressful experiences on negative mood, however. The findings have implications for understanding intergenerational ambivalence and stress buffering in this tie.
Smith, R L; Stagnitti, K; Lewis, A J; Pépin, G
There is minimal literature on how parents experiencing intergenerational poverty view their role as parents and the value they place on children's play. The objective of this study was to examine how these parents view their parenting role and their beliefs about children's play. Thirteen mothers of preschool-aged children who experienced intergenerational poverty were recruited to the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Parents described their role as guiding their children to become 'good' people, to teach them skills and provide a routine within the home. There were two disconnections in the data including the view that whilst parenting was hard and lonely, it was also a private matter and participants preferred not to seek support. A second disconnection was in terms of their beliefs about play. Parents believed that whilst play was valuable to their child's development, it was not their role to play with children. However, if parents did play with their child, they noticed positive changes in their child's behaviour. The views of parents who experienced intergenerational poverty were similar to other reported findings in parenting studies. However, the current sample differed on not seeking help for support as well as not seeing their role as playing with their children, even though occasions of joining their child in play were associated with a positive change in their relationship with their child. This has implications for communicating about parenting issues with parents who have experienced intergenerational poverty. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Estefan, Lianne Fuino; Coulter, Martha L.; VandeWeerd, Carla L.; Armstrong, Mary; Gorski, Peter
Families involved with child welfare services often experience a range of stressors in addition to maltreatment, including intimate partner violence, substance abuse, and mental health problems. Children in these families are at risk for developing a myriad of problems. Although parenting education programs are among the most routine interventions…
van der Geest, Ivana M M; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E; Streng, Isabelle C; Michiels, Erna M C; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M
Approximately 25% of children diagnosed with cancer eventually die. Losing a child puts parents at increased risk for developing psychological problems. To explore parents' perceptions of the interaction with health care professionals (communication, continuity of care, and parental involvement) and symptom management during the pediatric palliative phase, and to investigate the influence on long-term grief in parents who lost a child to cancer. A total of 89 parents of 57 children who died of cancer between 2000 and 2004 participated in this retrospective cross-sectional study by completing a set of questionnaires measuring grief (Inventory of Traumatic Grief), parents' perceptions of the interaction with health care professionals (communication, continuity of care, and parental involvement), and symptom management during the palliative phase. Care was assessed on a five point Likert scale (1=disagree and 5=agree). Parents highly rated communication (4.6±0.6), continuity of care (4.3±0.6), and parental involvement (4.6±0.7) during the palliative phase. Parents' most often reported physical and psychological symptoms of their child during the palliative phase were fatigue (75%), pain (74%), anxiety to be alone (52%), and anger (48%). Higher ratings of parents on communication (β=-9.08, P=0.03) and continuity of care (β=-11.74, P=0.01) were associated with lower levels of long-term parental grief. The severity of the child's dyspnea (β=2.96, P=0.05), anxiety to be alone (β=4.52, Pparental grief. Multivariate models combining the interaction with health care professionals and symptom management showed a significant influence of both aspects on long-term parental grief. Both interaction with health care professionals, especially communication and continuity of care, and symptom management in children dying of cancer are associated with long-term parental grief levels. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Childhood cancer is a life-threatening disease with a profound impact on the family. Treatment side-effects and accompanied dietary difficulties are for example severe stressors, as appropriate nutrition is important for the treatment success and quality of life. In addition, (unhealthy) dietary patterns established in childhood tend to maintain in survivors. Parents are key players in feeding and establishing these pat-terns, though, systematic research on how parents experience these dietar...
Lamela, Diogo; Jongenelen, Inês; Pinto, Ricardo; Levendosky, Alytia
Typologies of IPV and parenting practices in mothers who experienced police-reported IPV remain surprisingly unexplored, in addition to how those typologies are linked with children's externalizing problems. Using data from 162 Portuguese mother-child dyads with a police or child protection services referral of IPV, this study aimed to: (a) identify IPV-parenting typologies; (b) test the associations between typologies and children's externalizing problems, and (c) examine the moderating effect of children's exposure to other forms of family violence in those associations. Using a person-centered approach, two IPV-parenting typologies were found: a spillover typology, with high levels of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and high levels of harsh and inconsistent parenting practices; and a compartmentalized typology, with high levels of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and lower ineffective parenting practices. Results also showed that externalizing symptoms (reported by mothers and teachers) were significantly lower in children of mothers in the compartmentalized typology compared to those in the spillover typology. Children's direct exposure to other forms of family violence moderated this association. Findings suggested that children with a high exposure to other forms of family violence showed the highest levels of externalizing problems when their mothers were classified into the spillover typology, and they exhibited the lowest levels of externalizing problems when their mothers were classified in the compartmentalized typology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Breshears, Diana; Lubbe-De Beer, Carien
Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gay-parented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children's education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and…
Blanchard, Amy; Hodgson, Jennifer; Lamson, Angela; Dosser, David
Little is known about the experience among adult children who have a parent with Parkinson's Disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to explore, appreciate, and describe their experiences using a phenomenological methodology. Narratives were collected from seven participants who have a parent diagnosed with PD and analyzed according to…
Crissman Halley P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical research on psychological aspects of disorders of sex development (DSD has focused on psychosexual differentiation with relatively little attention directed toward parents' experiences of early clinical management and their influence on patient and family psychosocial adaptation. Objectives To characterize parental experiences in the early clinical care of children born with DSD. Study Design Content analysis of interviews with parents (n = 41 of 28 children, newborn to 6 years, with DSD. Results Four major domains emerged as salient to parents: (1 the gender assignment process, (2 decisions regarding genital surgery, (3 disclosing information about their child's DSD, and (4 interacting with healthcare providers. Findings suggested discordance between scientific and parental understandings of the determinants of "sex" and "gender." Parents' expectations regarding the benefits of genital surgery appear largely met; however, parents still had concerns about their child's future physical, social and sexual development. Two areas experienced by many parents as particularly stressful were: (1 uncertainties regarding diagnosis and optimal management, and (2 conflicts between maintaining privacy versus disclosing the condition to access social support. Conclusions Parents' experiences and gaps in understanding can be used to inform the clinical care of patients with DSD and their families. Improving communication between parents and providers (and between parents and their support providers throughout the early clinical management process may be important in decreasing stress and improving outcomes for families of children with DSD.
Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H
Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental incarceration on children. The present study examines an archival dataset, in which children aged 10-14 years and their parents/guardians reported children's risk experiences (e.g., exposure to poverty, parental substance use), family processes (e.g., level of family victimization, family conflict), and children's delinquent behaviors at two time points. Parents also reported their recent and past incarceration history. Hierarchical linear regression analyses show that a history of parental incarceration predicted family victimization, delinquent behaviors of children's older siblings, and delinquent behaviors of the child participants, over and above children's demographic characteristics and other risk experiences. Recent parental incarceration predicted family conflict, family victimization, and parent-reports of children's delinquency after also controlling for previous parental incarceration. The role of family processes in research and intervention directions involving children of incarcerated parents is discussed.
Parents living in the Coquitlam School District in British Columbia can choose between public and private schools and between English language and French immersion programs in the public schools. This study investigates the choice-making behavior of parents enrolling their children in kindergarten in fall 1977 in terms of socioeconomic factors,…
Kong, Ha-Kyung; Karahalios, Karrie
Music therapy (MT) is a therapeutic practice where a therapist uses music to enhance the life quality for their patients. Children have an innate enjoyment of music, making music an effective medium for exploring their potential. In this study, we explore the parental perception of MT through an online survey. Contrary to the public perception that MT only addresses emotional needs, 47 out of 59 parents reported seeing improvements in other areas including behavioral, cognitive, linguistic, and social changes. All but one parent indicated that they would recommend MT to others. The survey results further revealed that even parents of children participating in MT had misconceptions regarding MT, which we describe in the paper. Parents reported inaccessibility and cost as other major limitations surrounding MT adoption. We conclude by discussing how technology solutions could mitigate issues with definition, distance, and cost, while maintaining the benefits of MT.
Askelsdóttir, Björk; Conroy, Sherrill; Rempel, Gwen
Of 350,000 Canadian children born each year, 2% to 3% will have a serious congenital anomaly. Because of recent ultrasound diagnostic improvements and increased frequency of prenatal scans, many anomalies are determined prenatally, with more parents receiving disturbing, unanticipated news of an anomaly. This article highlights the experiences, concerns, and healthcare needs of parents who receive a prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomaly during routine ultrasound and choose to continue with the pregnancy. Examples from parent interviews describing their experience complement the sparse literature dealing with this phenomenon. Parents describe their experience from antenatal diagnosis and preparation for the child's birth and subsequent admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Attention is paid to how neonatal nurses can positively influence this process by attending to parents' feelings or moods. The conclusion includes recommendations for neonatal nursing care for these vulnerable parents.
Abuidhail, Jamila; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad; Mrayan, Lina; Salameh, Taghreed
Many international studies in the field of neonatal nursing have identified parental stress, coping difficulties, support issues, and various other experiences that are related to the birth of a preterm infant. However, no studies have assessed the interrelated issues of parental stress, social support, satisfaction, and nursing support in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Jordan. This study describes the lived experiences, needs in relation to care, and support systems of parents whose neonates were admitted to the NICU. A qualitative design using a phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences of Jordanian parents who gave birth to neonates in the NICU setting. Participants were recruited from the NICUs of government, teaching, and private hospitals. Data were collected using semistructured interviews that were conducted with parents in a suitable place. Ten participants were interviewed: eight mothers and two fathers. After interviews were transcribed, the methodology suggested by van Manen (1990) was used to analyze the data. The shock, worry, and anxiety experienced by parents; the influences of NICU admission on the experiences of parents and families; the information and assistance required and received by parents from healthcare professionals; and the emotions and satisfaction of parents were the main themes that emerged from the study to reflect the lived experience of parents of neonates in the NICU. The parents in this study were satisfied with the healthcare process in the NICUs, even when this care did not fulfill their expectations or needs for their infants. Nurses in the NICUs must develop interventions and strategies that minimize the stress experienced by parents and that support the emotional capacity of parents to deal with this stressful situation.
Provenzi, Livio; Barello, Serena; Fumagalli, Monica; Graffigna, Guendalina; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Savarese, Mariarosaria; Montirosso, Rosario
To compare maternal and paternal experiences of very preterm (VPT) birth (gestational age < 32 weeks) and the NICU stay. Qualitative study. Data collection took place at parents' homes 3 to 6 months after NICU discharge. Ten parental couples participated in the study (20 parents). All VPT infants were healthy, without any neonatal or postnatal complications or injuries. Computer-assisted content analysis was used to highlight thematic clusters from parents' narratives, which were labeled through qualitative interpretation. Two main dimensions (Adjustment Process to Preterm Birth and Parental Role Assumption) and three main thematic clusters (Facing the Unexpected, Learning to Parent, and Finally Back Home) described the parental experience. Mothers focused mostly on the Finally Back Home cluster, which was characterized by moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by awareness of their own maternal roles. Fathers focused mostly on the Learning to Parent cluster, which was characterized by low to moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by a limited assumption of paternal role. To our knowledge, this study is unique in that we compared mothers and fathers who experienced the VPT births of their infants and described their experiences of the NICU stay. We found that the VPT birth experience for parents involves a dynamic adjustment. Differences in maternal and paternal experiences may indicate the need for tailored supportive interventions in the NICU. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Understanding how parent-child communication occurs within the cultural context is an important consideration in sexual health given that culture plays a major role in the development of various beliefs and attitudes. This qualitative study explores the perceived experiences of first-generation, immigrant rural Latino parents and youths (N = 19 about parent-child communication related to sexual health. Specifically, the article explores their perceptions on (a the process of such communication when and if it occurs; (b the content of such discussions when they occur; and (c whether the content of these discussions is based on gender or familial context. Results suggest that cultural norms are followed in regards to gender of both the parent and the youth, but often going against religious and father’s expectations, with the mothers discussing birth control facts in greater frequency. We discuss implications for Latino teen pregnancy prevention efforts.
Mimila, Naomi A; Chung, Paul J; Elliott, Marc N; Bethell, Christina D; Chacon, Sandra; Biely, Christopher; Contreras, Sandra; Chavis, Toni; Bruno, Yovana; Moss, Tanesha; Coker, Tumaini R
Parent-focused Redesign for Encounters, Newborns to Toddlers (PARENT), is a well-child care (WCC) model that has demonstrated effectiveness in improving the receipt of comprehensive WCC services and reducing emergency department utilization for children aged 0 to 3 in low-income communities. PARENT relies on a health educator ("parent coach") to provide WCC services; it utilizes a Web-based previsit prioritization/screening tool (Well-Visit Planner) and an automated text message reminder/education service. We sought to assess intervention feasibility and acceptability among PARENT trial intervention participants. Intervention parents completed a survey after a 12-month study period; a 26% random sample of them were invited to participate in a qualitative interview. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis; survey responses were analyzed using bivariate methods. A total of 115 intervention participants completed the 12-month survey; 30 completed a qualitative interview. Nearly all intervention participants reported meeting with the coach, found her helpful, and would recommend continuing coach-led well visits (97-99%). Parents built trusting relationships with the coach and viewed her as a distinct and important part of their WCC team. They reported that PARENT well visits more efficiently used in-clinic time and were comprehensive and family centered. Most used the Well-Visit Planner (87%), and found it easy to use (94%); a minority completed it at home before the visit (18%). Sixty-two percent reported using the text message service; most reported it as a helpful source of new information and a reinforcement of information discussed during visits. A parent coach-led intervention for WCC for young children is a model of WCC delivery that is both acceptable and feasible to parents in a low-income urban population. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Brown, James R; Aalsma, Matthew C; Ott, Mary A
Current research offers a limited understanding of parental experiences when reporting bullying to school officials. This research examines the experiences of middle-school parents as they took steps to protect their bullied youth. The qualitative tradition of interpretive phenomenology was used to provide in-depth analysis of the phenomena. A criterion-based, purposeful sample of 11 parents was interviewed face-to-face with subsequent phone call follow-ups. Interviews were taped, transcribed, and coded. MAX qda software was used for data coding. In analyzing the interviews, paradigm cases, themes, and patterns were identified. Three parent stages were found: discovering, reporting, and living with the aftermath. In the discovery stage, parents reported using advice-giving in hopes of protecting their youth. As parents noticed negative psychosocial symptoms in their youth escalate, they shifted their focus to reporting the bullying to school officials. All but one parent experienced ongoing resistance from school officials in fully engaging the bullying problem. In the aftermath, 10 of the 11 parents were left with two choices: remove their youth from the school or let the victimization continue. One paradigm case illustrates how a school official met parental expectations of protection. This study highlights a parental sense of ambiguity of school officials' roles and procedures related to school reporting and intervention. The results of this study have implications in the development and use of school-wide bullying protocols and parental advocacy.
This article explores some core findings from a qualitative investigation of parents' experiences of their child's treatment in an adolescent mental health service in Sydney, Australia. In particular, the research question was, "How does parents' involvement in the child/adolescent's treatment influence their perception of how they can be helpful in their child's recovery?" The theme of parent hope emerged from the broad qualitative exploration of parent's experience of their involvement in their adolescent's intensive treatment program. A purposive sample of 14 sets of parents participated, being interviewed at admission, discharge, and 6 months following their adolescent's discharge. A continuum of high, moderate, and low levels of hope were evident in this parent sample 6 months after their treatment involvement. The strongly emergent theme was the relationship between parents' hope and agency/self-efficacy. Parents who remained more passive in expecting expert helpers to fix their child experienced reduced hope months after finishing the program. When parents positively changed their interaction with their child, they felt a more sustained hopefulness. These findings generate the hypothesis that if parents are actively involved in changing themselves as part of their child's treatment, they experience increased hope and effectiveness in contributing to their child's recovery.
Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena
Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Hasan, Tanvir; Muhaddes, Tisa; Camellia, Suborna; Selim, Nasima; Rashid, Sabina Faiz
This study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a sample of 226 women with disabilities living in four different districts of Bangladesh. It also explored the physical and psychological suffering of women experiencing violence and their various coping strategies. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 226 women with disabilities to measure the prevalence of IPV, and 16 in-depth interviews were conducted to document in detail the experiences of violence encountered by the abused women. Among the 226 women interviewed in the survey, about 84% reported ever having experienced at least one act of emotional abuse, physical, or sexual violence from their partner during their lifetime. Women who were older (aged above 32 years), separated, and members of economic/savings group were more likely to report ever having experienced any IPV than women with disabilities who were younger (aged 32 years and less), married, and not members of economic/savings group. Most of the women experiencing violence reported sufferings from physical and psychological problems. Of all the women who experienced violence, less than half (45%) reported seeking support to minimize or avoid violence experiences. However, seeking support from informal network such as family and relatives was commonly reported by many (81.4%) of them. Study findings suggest that women with disabilities who possess poor socio-economic status coupled with economic dependency on husbands' income and wide-spread social stigma against disability make them vulnerable to IPV. Future interventions to address IPV against women with disabilities should include building community knowledge of disability and IPV, countering the pervasive social stigma against disabilities, and improving the socio-economic conditions of women with disabilities through education and employment. © The Author(s) 2014.
Szilagyi, Moira; Kerker, Bonnie D; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Stein, Ruth E K; Garner, Andrew; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; McCue Horwitz, Sarah
Cumulative adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can have profound and lasting effects on parenting. Parents with a history of multiple ACE have greater challenges modulating their own stress responses and helping their children adapt to life stressors. We examined pediatric practice in inquiring about parents' childhood adversities as of 2013. Using data from the 85th Periodic Survey of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), we restricted analyses to the 302 pediatricians exclusively practicing general pediatrics who answered questions regarding their beliefs about childhood stressors, their role in advising parents, and whether they asked about parents' ACEs. Weighted descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Despite endorsing the influence of positive parenting on a child's life-course trajectory (96%), that their advice can impact parenting skills (79%), and that screening for social-emotional risks is within their scope of practice (81%), most pediatricians (61%) did not inquire about parents' ACE. Pediatricians who believed that their advice influences positive parenting skills inquired about more parents' ACE. As of 2013, few pediatricians inquired about parents' ACEs despite recognizing their negative impact on parenting behaviors and child development. Research is needed regarding the best approaches to the prevention and amelioration of ACEs and the promotion of family and child resilience. Pediatricians need resources and education about the AAP's proposed dyadic approach to assessing family and child risk factors and strengths and to providing guidance and management. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ballantyne, M; Orava, T; Bernardo, S; McPherson, A C; Church, P; Fehlings, D
Parents undergo multiple transitions following the birth of an ill infant: their infant's illness-health trajectory, neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization and transfers from one healthcare setting to another, while also transitioning to parenthood. The objective of this review was to map and synthesize evidence on the experiences and needs of parents of preterm or ill infants as they transition within and between healthcare settings following birth. The scoping review followed Arskey and O'Malley's () framework, enhanced by Levac et al. (). Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search strategy of scientific and grey literature databases, online networks, Web of Science and citation lists of relevant articles. Inclusion criteria encompassed a focus on infants undergoing a healthcare transition, and the experiences and needs of parents during transition. Studies were appraised for design quality, and data relevant to parent experiences were extracted and underwent thematic analysis. A total of 7773 records were retrieved, 90 full texts reviewed and 11 articles synthesized that represented a total sample of 435 parents of preterm or ill infants. Parents reported on their experiences in response to their infant's transition within and between hospitals and across levels of neonatal intensive care unit, intermediate and community hospital care. Ten studies used qualitative research methods, while one employed quantitative survey methods. Four key themes were identified: that of parent distress throughout transition, parenting at a distance, sources of stress and sources of support. Parents' stress resulted from not being informed or involved in the transition decision, inadequate communication and perceived differences in cultures of care across healthcare settings. Opportunities to improve parents' early transition experiences include enhanced engagement, communication, information-sharing and shared decision-making between health care
Jensen, J.F.; Tonnesen, L.L.; Söderström, Margareta
OBJECTIVE: The sale of paracetamol products for children is increasing, and more children are accidentally given overdoses, even though the use of paracetamol against fever is still under discussion. This study explores Danish parents' use of paracetamol for feverish children and their motives fo...... their GP for advice on fever treatment, paracetamol is sometimes given to children on vague indications. Clearer information for parents on when to give paracetamol as fever treatment may help regulate its use...
Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Swedish parental leave reform in 1974, fathers have had the same rights to use parental leave as mothers. Between 2000 and 2003, a research project at the Department of Sociology, University of Gothenburg, focused on fathers who had taken more than four months of paid parental leave. The approach of the study was mainly qualitative, based upon a combination of a survey and interviews. A majority of the fathers who answered the questionnaire had been the main caregivers for their children during their parental leave. During the interviews many of the men described their mothers as role models for their fatherhood. The men also described their own partner as both anxious to get back to her work after her own parental leave period and convinced of the importance of a nurturing father. An early decision to take part of the parental leave probably made it easier for the men to reach workplace agreements. Most of the men described themselves as both nurturing fathers and as sharing housework equally. They stressed the importance of being alone with their child during a long period, to be able to develop a deep relationship with their child.
Buraczewska, M; O'Leary, D; Walsh, O; Monavari, A; Crushell, E
We aimed to establish the profile of Irish patients with Hunter Syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, MPS II) receiving weekly intravenous Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) with recombinant iduronate-2-sulfatase and to assess the social impact and parental opinion of ERT through the use of a parental questionnaire. Nine patients aged 3.5- 14 years have received a mean of 2 (range 0.5-3.5) years of ERT. Treatment was associated with clinical improvements from baseline in hepatosplenomegaly in 6/7 (85%) respiratory manifestations in 4/6 (67%) and a mean reduction in urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion of 62%. Changes noted by parents included increased energy 3/9 (33%) and softening of skin, hair and facial features 8/9 (89%). Parents report that seven hours weekly were spent on hospitalizations for ERT. Parental employment was adversely affected in 8 (89%) families. One day of school/preschool (20%) was lost every week for 8 (89%) children. All parents believed the benefits of ERT out-weigh the difficulties involved. All families would welcome the introduction of home based therapy. In conclusion the social and educational burden of hospital-based ERT on these children and their families is significant. The introduction of home-based therapy is likely to improve overall quality of life for MPSII patients and their families.
Reti, I M; Samuels, J F; Eaton, W W; Bienvenu, O J; Costa, P T; Nestadt, G
To investigate the role of parenting in the development of adult antisocial personality traits. A total of 742 community-based subjects were assessed for adult DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder traits and for measures of parental behavior experienced as children, including by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Three fundamental dimensions of parental behavior - care, behavioral restrictiveness and denial of psychological autonomy - were derived by factor analysis from the PBI. These dimensions significantly correlated with measures of parental behavior considered influential in later antisocial behavior. Adult antisocial traits in males were associated with low maternal care and high maternal behavioral restrictiveness, and in females, antisocial traits were associated with low paternal care and high maternal denial of psychological autonomy. These dimensions did not, however, explain all variance parental behavior has on adult antisocial personality traits. Adult antisocial personality traits are associated with experiences of low parental care and maternal overprotection.
Lam, Lai Wah; Chang, Anne M; Morrissey, Jean
The introduction of unrestricted visiting hours has led to the encouragement of parents to stay with and participate in the care of their hospitalised child. In order to stay with the hospitalised child, parents have to be away from home or work, which in turn impacts on their personal and family life. However, no published study on parents' experiences of childcare participation during paediatric hospitalisation has been found for a Chinese population. This study explored Chinese parents' experiences of their participation in taking care of their hospitalised child. A qualitative exploratory design was adopted to capture parents' experiences of participation. The study was conducted in four paediatric wards of a regional acute general hospital in the New Territories, a major geographical region of Hong Kong. Nineteen parents (16 mothers and three fathers) who had a child hospitalised for more than 48 h and identified themselves as staying comparatively longer with the child than their counterpart were recruited. Data were collection by tape-recorded semi-structured interview. Four major categories that illustrated parents' experiences of participation in childcare were identified: reasons for staying with the child, rescheduling of family's routine, expectations of nurses, and comments on facility provisions. The findings highlight parents' desire for participation in caring for their hospitalised child, their unexpressed needs for communication and concern about the non-monetary costs of participation. Most parents viewed accompanying their hospitalised child as an unconditional aspect of being a parent and had a strong desire for participation. Parents' need for communication and emotional support during their participation of childcare in paediatric unit are universal. As Chinese parents are passive in seeking help, nurses should take the initiative in assessing their needs and offering them support accordingly.
Petta, Gabrielle A; Steed, Lyndall G
The issues experienced by adoptive parents when faced with an adult child's searching or reunion relationship with his or her birth family, how adoptive parents place themselves within this process, and the factors that influence their experience at this time were explored in a qualitative study of 21 adoptive parents. Themes derived from semistructured interviews are discussed, and implications for clinical practice and future research are suggested. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Flynn, A P; Carter, B; Bray, L; Donne, A J
To review the published/reported experiences and views of parents' whose child has had a tracheostomy. To date, no review has focused specifically on parents' experiences and views of having a child with a tracheostomy. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Embase were systematically searched from 1990 to 2012 and a review of reference lists was conducted. The review draws on articles where parents' views of caring for their child's tracheostomy were either the sole focus of the research or where parental views of caring for their child's tracheostomy have been sought as a subsidiary aim. Studies relating to the aims of the review were examined using quality appraisal tools and in line with criteria for inclusion of studies. Studies were excluded if findings were about adults, studies that only focused on children's or sibling's views were not based on empirical work (e.g. literature reviews or expert commentary) or were not published in the English language. Findings were summarised under thematic headings. The systematic database search identified 442 citations of which 10 were eligible for inclusion in the review. Of those 10 studies six were quantitative and four qualitative. Only one paper published qualitative data specifically on parents' experiences about their tracheotomised child. The three main themes identified were parents' experiences of caregiving, their social experiences and experiences of service delivery of having a child with a tracheostomy. Although parents encountered emotional and social challenges, some positive responses to these challenges were reported. This review identifies a lack of qualitative research on parents' views of having a child with a tracheostomy. Issues surrounding parental management of tracheostomy require further investigation. This review has identified the need to elicit parents' longitudinal experiences of having a child with a tracheostomy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard
Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients.
Pihkala, Heljä; Dimova-Bränström, Neda; Sandlund, Mikael
Many children are affected by parental substance use disorder. Beardslee's family intervention (BFI) is a family-based psycho-educative method for children of mentally ill parents, used in psychiatric practise in several Nordic countries. The method has also been used to some extent when a parent suffers from substance use disorder. The aim of the study was to explore the family members' experiences of the BFI when a parent has a diagnosis of substance use disorder, to gain new knowledge about the process of the BFI in this area. Ten children and 14 parents were interviewed about their experiences 6 months after a BFI. The interviews were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The children's psychological symptoms were measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at baseline and after 6 months. Increased openness about the substance use disorder in the families was a recurrent theme throughout the material and a central issue reported in the children's experiences. The children had a high level of psychological symptoms according to the SDQ at baseline, but the majority of them felt that the BFI made a positive difference in their families and for themselves. The parents reported improved wellbeing of their children. Positive experienced effects for children and parents are reported in families with parental substance use disorder, with possible connection to use of BFI. The present study suggests that Beardslee's family intervention is applicable as a preventive method for children in families with a parent suffering from substance use disorder.
Gibbs, Andrew; Corboz, Julienne; Jewkes, Rachel
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is exceedingly common in conflict and post-conflict settings. We first seek to describe factors associated with past 12 month IPV amongst currently married women in Afghanistan, focused on the factors typically assumed to drive IPV. Second, to describe whether IPV is independently associated with a range of health outcomes. Cross-sectional analysis of currently married Afghan women, comprising the baseline study of a trial to prevent IPV. We use multinomial regression, reporting adjusted relative-risk ratios to model factors associated with the different forms of IPV, comparing no IPV, emotional IPV only, and physical IPV and emotional IPV. Second we assessed whether experience of emotional IPV, and physical IPV, were independently associated with health outcomes, reporting adjusted ß coefficients and adjusted odds ratios as appropriate. Nine hundred thirty five currently married women were recruited, 11.8% experienced only emotional IPV and 23.1% experienced physical and emotional IPV. Emotional IPV only was associated with attending a women's group, greater food insecurity, her husband having more than one wife, experiencing other forms of family violence, and more inequitable community gender norms. Experiencing both physical IPV and emotional IPV was associated with attending a women's group, more childhood trauma, husband cruelty, her husband having more than one wife, experiencing other forms of family violence, more inequitable community gender norms, and greater reported disability. Emotional IPV and physical IPV were independently associated with worse health outcomes. IPV remains common in Afghanistan. Economic interventions for women alone are unlikely to prevent IPV and potentially may increase IPV. Economic interventions need to also work with husbands and families, and work to transform community level gender norms. NCT03236948 . Registered 28 July 2017, retrospectively registered.
Jack, Susan M; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Davidov, Danielle; MacMillan, Harriet L
To develop strategies for the identification and assessment of intimate partner violence in a nurse home visitation programme. Nurse home visitation programmes have been identified as an intervention for preventing child abuse and neglect. Recently, there is an increased focus on the role these programmes have in addressing intimate partner violence. Given the unique context of the home environment, strategies for assessments are required that maintain the therapeutic alliance and minimise client attrition. A qualitative case study. A total of four Nurse-Family Partnership agencies were engaged in this study. Purposeful samples of nurses (n = 32), pregnant or parenting mothers who had self-disclosed experiences of abuse (n = 26) and supervisors (n = 5) participated in this study. A total of 10 focus groups were completed with nurses: 42 interviews with clients and 10 interviews with supervisors. The principles of conventional content analysis guided data analysis. Data were categorised using the practice-problem-needs analysis model for integrating qualitative findings in the development of nursing interventions. Multiple opportunities to ask about intimate partner violence are valued. The use of structured screening tools at enrolment does not promote disclosure or in-depth exploration of women's experiences of abuse. Women are more likely to discuss experiences of violence when nurses initiate nonstructured discussions focused on parenting, safety or healthy relationships. Nurses require knowledge and skills to initiate indicator-based assessments when exposure to abuse is suspected as well as strategies for responding to client-initiated disclosures. A tailored approach to intimate partner violence assessment in home visiting is required. Multiple opportunities for exploring women's experiences of violence are required. A clinical pathway outlining a three-pronged approach to identification and assessment was developed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Obeng, Cecilia; Vandergriff, Alison
The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of parents of pre-K to grade four children who had food allergies. Also examined were the management strategies put in place by the participants to assist the children deal with their unique situations. An in-depth interview was conducted with ten parents whose children had food…
Weis, Janne; Lundqvist, Pia
REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this review are to explore parents' experiences of communication with healthcare professionals and to identify the meaningfulness of communication to parents in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).More specifically, the objectives are to identify....
This qualitative phenomenological study was done to better understand the school experience of adolescents after the death of a parent. The participants were adults over the age of 19 and between 3 and 43 years past the death of a parent during adolescence. The study involved personal, reflective interviews with each of the participants. The…
Clarke, Zara Jane; Thompson, Andrew R.; Buchan, Linda; Combes, Helen
There are few measures of pain for people with limited ability to communicate. Eight parents of adults with a known learning disability and associated physical health complaint were interviewed to explore their experience of identifying and managing the pain felt by their children. The parents did not often perceive their son or daughter to be in…
Siddiqua, A; Janus, M
The transition from pre-school to kindergarten can be complex for children who need special assistance due to mental or physical disabilities (children with 'special needs'). We used a convergent mixed method approach to explore parents' experiences with service provision as their children transitioned to school. Parents (including one grandparent) of 37 children aged 4 to 6 years completed measures assessing their perceptions of and satisfaction with services. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 10 parents to understand their experience with services. Post transition, parents reported lower perceptions of services and decreased satisfaction than pre-transition. The following themes emerged from the qualitative data: qualities of services and service providers, communication and information transfer, parent advocacy, uncertainty about services, and contrasts and contradictions in satisfaction. The qualitative findings indicate that parents were both satisfied and concerned with aspects of the post-transition service provision. While the quantitative results suggested that parents' experience with services became less positive after their children entered school, the qualitative findings illustrated the variability in parents' experiences and components of service provision that require improvements to facilitate a successful school entry. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Watts Pappas, Nicole; McAllister, Lindy; McLeod, Sharynne
Parental beliefs and experiences regarding involvement in speech intervention for their child with mild to moderate speech sound disorder (SSD) were explored using multiple, sequential interviews conducted during a course of treatment. Twenty-one interviews were conducted with seven parents of six children with SSD: (1) after their child's initial…
Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H.
Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental…
Leahy, Marie A.
More than five million children in the United States have a parent suffering from a severe mental illness and these children have specific experiences and needs, particularly in school. Children of mentally ill parents are at greater risk of being neglected and of developing psychological, social, emotional, and behavioral problems. They often…
Shah, Farida; Zelnik, Melvin
Analyzed data from a national probability sample of 15 through 19-year-old women to determine the influence of parents and peers on premarital sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and premarital pregnancy. Results show women with views resembling those of parents have low levels of premarital experience. (Author)
Gijzen, S.; Hoir, M.P. L; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Need, A.
Background A child’s death is an enormous tragedy for both the parents and other family members. Support for the parents can be important in helping them to cope with the loss of their child. In the Netherlands little is known about parents’ experiences of the support they receive after the death of
Crane, Laura; Chester, James W; Goddard, Lorna; Henry, Lucy A; Hill, Elisabeth
A sample of 1047 parents completed an online survey about their experiences and opinions regarding the process of attaining a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder for their children. The results revealed that parents usually waited a year from when they first had concerns about their child's development before they sought professional help. On…
Objective: This study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of South African parents whose children had received Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses. Method: A qualitative approach involving semi-structured interviews with a sample of eight parents (seven mothers and one father) of ASD children was ...
Williamson, Victoria; Creswell, Cathy; Butler, Ian; Christie, Hope; Halligan, Sarah L
Parents are often children's main source of support following fear-inducing traumatic events, yet little is known about how parents provide that support. The aim of this study was to examine parents' experiences of supporting their child following child trauma exposure and presentation at an emergency department (ED). Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using thematic analysis. The setting for this study was two National Health Service EDs in England. 20 parents whose child experienced a traumatic event and attended an ED between August 2014 and October 2015. Parents were sensitive to their child's distress and offered reassurance and support for their child to resume normal activities. However, parental beliefs often inhibited children's reinstatement of pretrauma routines. Support often focused on preventing future illness or injury, reflective of parents' concerns for their child's physical well-being. In a minority of parents, appraisals of problematic care from EDs contributed to parents' anxiety and perceptions of their child as vulnerable post-trauma. Forgetting the trauma and avoidance of discussion were encouraged as coping strategies to prevent further distress. Parents highlighted their need for further guidance and support regarding their child's physical and emotional recovery. This study provides insight into the experiences of and challenges faced by parents in supporting their child following trauma exposure. Perceptions of their child's physical vulnerability and treatment influenced parents' responses and the supportive strategies employed. These findings may enable clinicians to generate meaningful advice for parents following child attendance at EDs post-trauma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Exposure to armed conflict and/or war have been linked to an increase in intimate partner violence (IPV against women. A substantial body of work has focused on non-partner rape and sexual violence in war and post-war contexts, but research about IPV is limited, particularly in Asian settings. This paper presents the finding of a study conducted in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. The study explored women's experiences of and responses to IPV as well as how health and social service providers perceive the problem. It also explored the IPV-related services and supports available after the end of a 30-year civil war.We conducted in-depth, qualitative interviews with 15 women who had experienced IPV and 15 service providers who were knowledgeable about IPV in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. Interviews were translated into English, coded and organized using NVivo8, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis.Participants described IPV as a widespread but hidden problem. Women had experienced various forms of abusive and controlling behaviours, some of which reflect the reality of living in the post-war context. The psychological effects of IPV were common, but were often attributed to war-related trauma. Some men used violence to control women and to reinstate power when their gender roles were reversed or challenged due to war and post-war changes in livelihoods. While some service providers perceived an increase in awareness about IPV and more services to address it, this was discordant with women's fears, feelings of oppression, and perception of a lack of redress from IPV within a highly militarized and ethnically-polarized society. Most women did not consider leaving an abusive relationship to be an option, due to realistic fears about their vulnerability to community violence, the widespread social norms that would cast them as outsiders, and the limited availability of related services and supports.These findings revealed the need for
Guruge, Sepali; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen; Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Vathsala; Ganesan, Mahesan; Sivayogan, Sivagurunathan; Kanthasamy, Parvathy; Shanmugalingam, Pushparani; Vithanarachchi, Hemamala
Exposure to armed conflict and/or war have been linked to an increase in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. A substantial body of work has focused on non-partner rape and sexual violence in war and post-war contexts, but research about IPV is limited, particularly in Asian settings. This paper presents the finding of a study conducted in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. The study explored women's experiences of and responses to IPV as well as how health and social service providers perceive the problem. It also explored the IPV-related services and supports available after the end of a 30-year civil war. We conducted in-depth, qualitative interviews with 15 women who had experienced IPV and 15 service providers who were knowledgeable about IPV in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. Interviews were translated into English, coded and organized using NVivo8, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants described IPV as a widespread but hidden problem. Women had experienced various forms of abusive and controlling behaviours, some of which reflect the reality of living in the post-war context. The psychological effects of IPV were common, but were often attributed to war-related trauma. Some men used violence to control women and to reinstate power when their gender roles were reversed or challenged due to war and post-war changes in livelihoods. While some service providers perceived an increase in awareness about IPV and more services to address it, this was discordant with women's fears, feelings of oppression, and perception of a lack of redress from IPV within a highly militarized and ethnically-polarized society. Most women did not consider leaving an abusive relationship to be an option, due to realistic fears about their vulnerability to community violence, the widespread social norms that would cast them as outsiders, and the limited availability of related services and supports. These findings revealed the need for more research
Hayes, Stephanie A.; Watson, Shelley L.
Researchers commonly report that families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience more parenting stress than families of typically developing (TD) children or those diagnosed with other disabilities [e.g., Down syndrome (DS), cerebral palsy, intellectual disability]. The authors reexamined the research using comparison groups to…
Thompson-Janes, Emily; Brice, Samuel; McElroy, Rebecca; Abbott, Jennie; Ball, June
The Confident Parenting group is a therapeutic group for parents of children with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour, which is informed by the principles of behavioural theory and acceptance and commitment therapy. Parent's experiences of the group were elicited through participation in a large focus group which followed a…
Aagaard, Hanne; Hall, Elisabeth O C; Ludvigsen, Mette S; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Fegran, Liv
Transfers of critically ill neonates are frequent phenomena. Even though parents' participation is regarded as crucial in neonatal care, a transfer often means that parents and neonates are separated. A systematic review of the parents' experiences of neonatal transfer is lacking. This paper describes a meta-study addressing qualitative research about parents' experiences of neonatal transfer. Through deconstruction and reflections of theories, methods, and empirical data, the aim was to achieve a deeper understanding of theoretical, empirical, contextual, historical, and methodological issues of qualitative studies concerning parents' experiences of neonatal transfer over the course of this meta-study (2000-2017). Meta-theory and meta-method analyses showed that caring, transition, and family-centered care were main theoretical frames applied and that interviewing with a small number of participants was the preferred data collection method. The meta-data-analysis showed that transfer was a scary, unfamiliar, and threatening experience for the parents; they were losing familiar context, were separated from their neonate, and could feel their parenthood disrupted. We identified 'wavering and wandering' as a metaphoric representation of the parents' experiences. The findings add knowledge about meta-study as an approach for comprehensive qualitative research and point at the value of meta-theory and meta-method analyses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The phenomenon of parental traumatic brain injury was characterised by denial, anger, grief, guilt, anxiety, over-protectiveness, social isolation, and change in many areas of the participants' lives. The adolescents coped using both approaches and avoidance styles of coping. Religion was a theme in the lives of all four ...
Jensen, J.F.; Tonnesen, L.L.; Söderström, Margareta
OBJECTIVE: The sale of paracetamol products for children is increasing, and more children are accidentally given overdoses, even though the use of paracetamol against fever is still under discussion. This study explores Danish parents' use of paracetamol for feverish children and their motives...
Shilling, Valerie; Young, Bridget
As the number of randomised controlled trials of medicines for children increases, it becomes progressively more important to understand the experiences of parents who are asked to enroll their child in a trial. This paper presents a narrative review of research evidence on parents' experiences of trial recruitment focussing on qualitative research, which allows them to articulate their views in their own words. Parents want to do their best for their children, and socially and legally their role is to care for and protect them yet the complexities of the medical and research context can challenge their fulfillment of this role. Parents are simultaneously responsible for their child and cherish this role yet they are dependent on others when their child becomes sick. They are keen to exercise responsibility for deciding to enter a child in a trial yet can be fearful of making the 'wrong' decision. They make judgements about the threat of the child's condition as well as the risks of the trial yet their interpretations often differ from those of medical and research experts. Individual parents will experience these and other complexities to a greater or lesser degree depending on their personal experiences and values, the medical situation of their child and the nature of the trial. Interactions at the time of trial recruitment offer scope for negotiating these complexities if practitioners have the flexibility to tailor discussions to the needs and situation of individual parents. In this way, parents may be helped to retain a sense that they have acted as good parents to their child whatever decision they make. Discussing randomised controlled trials and gaining and providing informed consent is challenging. The unique position of parents in giving proxy consent for their child adds to this challenge. Recognition of the complexities parents face in making decisions about trials suggests lines for future research on the conduct of trials, and ultimately, may help
Meier, Ann; Musick, Kelly; Flood, Sarah; Dunifon, Rachel
Research studies and popular accounts of parenting have documented the joys and strains of raising children. Much of the literature comparing parents with those without children indicates a happiness advantage for those without children, although recent studies have unpacked this general advantage to reveal differences by the dimension of well-being considered and important features in parents' lives and parenting experiences. We use unique data from the 2010, 2012, and 2013 American Time Use Survey to understand emotions in mothering experiences and how these vary by key demographic factors: employment and partnership status. Assessing mothers' emotions in a broad set of parenting activities while controlling for a rich set of person- and activity-level factors, we find that mothering experiences are generally associated with high levels of emotional well-being, although single parenthood is associated with differences in the emotional valence. Single mothers report less happiness and more sadness, stress, and fatigue in parenting than partnered mothers, and these reports are concentrated among those single mothers who are not employed. Employed single mothers are happier and less sad and stressed when parenting than single mothers who are not employed. Contrary to common assumptions about maternal employment, we find overall few negative associations between employment and mothers' feelings regarding time with children, with the exception that employed mothers report more fatigue in parenting than those who are not employed.
Sadeh, A; Rubin, S S; Berman, E
Young adults' descriptions of their parents and their relationships with their parents were used to reexamine the relations between object representation and depressive experience. One hundred eight students completed (a) four open-ended descriptions, including two written descriptions of the parents (mother and father, separately), and two written descriptions of the relationships with the parents; and (b) the Depressive Experience Questionnaire. Each of the four open-ended descriptions was rated on seven scales. Factor analysis yielded four distinct factors from the 28 dimensions of the descriptions. These factors were related to: (a) the degree of elaboration and investment, (b) the structural level of the descriptions, (c) the affective tone of the description of the father, and (d) the affective tone of the description of the mother. Significant differences and interactions were found regarding the interplay between the specific significant other represented (father or mother) and the specific framework of representation (parent description or relationship description). Measures derived from parents' and relationship descriptions significantly predicted depressive experiences of self-criticism and dependency. The results indicate the advantages of a joint exploration of the representation of distinct significant others (mother and father) and the use of two modes of relatedness (describe parent and describe relationship with parent) in the process of personality assessment.
Kathleen E Kiernan
This study addresses three questions. Firstly, to what extent does divorce during childhood have long-term consequences for the educational attainment, economic situation, partnership formation and dissolution, and parenthood behaviour in adulthood? We show that in most of these domains children who experience parental divorce in childhood have more negative experiences than children reared by both their parents. However, in answering our second question, as to whether child and family charac...
Storksen, Ingunn; Roysamb, Espen; Moum, Torbjorn; Tambs, Kristian
This is a prospective Norwegian study of a group of adolescents with an experience of parental divorce or separation (n=413) and a comparison group without this experience (n=1758). Mean age at T1 was 14.4 years and mean age at T2 was 18.4 years. Parental divorce was prospectively associated with a relative change in anxiety and depression,…
Keenan, Belinda M.; Newman, Louise K.; Gray, Kylie M.; Rinehart, Nicole J.
There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with…
J.M. Latour (Jos)
textabstractThe aim of this thesis – the EMPATHIC studies – was to develop and implement validated parent satisfaction questionnaires for pediatric and neonatal intensive care units. Part I presents the general introduction, which justifies the construction, validation, and utilization of
Okabe, Shota; Kitano, Kanako; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi
Parental behavior in mammals is facilitated by sensory experiences from infant, and by endocrine hormones. However, the interactions between these factors in the parental behavior of nonreproductive adults are not understood. We examined the interactive effects of gonadal hormones and the experience of repeated pup exposure on parental behavior in sexually naive mice. We also compared oxytocin (OT) expression levels in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to behavioral outcomes. Clear sex differences were observed in retrieving tests; initial retrieving latency was shorter in females than in males, and 5-time pup exposure shortened retrieving latency in females only. Gonadectomy influenced neither initial retrieving latency nor pup sensitization in females. In contrast, gonadectomy shortened initial retrieving latency and caused pup sensitization in males. Estrogen implants given simultaneously with gonadectomy further shortened the initial retrieving latency in males, but pup sensitization was not affected and occurred in both sexes. In contrast, simultaneous testosterone implants impaired pup sensitization in both sexes. Similar to the results for responsiveness to pups, the number of OT neurons was increased by gonadectomy in males only. In comparison to gonadectomy only, OT neurons were decreased by simultaneous testosterone implants, but were not influenced by estrogen in either sex. Considering the parallel inhibitory effects of testosterone on both pup sensitization and number of OT neurons, we postulate that sex differences in parental responsiveness facilitated by repeated pup exposure were caused by an inhibitory effect of testosterone via the OT neural system in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As the number of randomised controlled trials of medicines for children increases, it becomes progressively more important to understand the experiences of parents who are asked to enrol their child in a trial. This paper presents a narrative review of research evidence on parents' experiences of trial recruitment focussing on qualitative research, which allows them to articulate their views in their own words. Discussion Parents want to do their best for their children, and socially and legally their role is to care for and protect them yet the complexities of the medical and research context can challenge their fulfilment of this role. Parents are simultaneously responsible for their child and cherish this role yet they are dependent on others when their child becomes sick. They are keen to exercise responsibility for deciding to enter a child in a trial yet can be fearful of making the 'wrong' decision. They make judgements about the threat of the child's condition as well as the risks of the trial yet their interpretations often differ from those of medical and research experts. Individual pants will experience these and other complexities to a greater or lesser degree depending on their personal experiences and values, the medical situation of their child and the nature of the trial. Interactions at the time of trial recruitment offer scope for negotiating these complexities if practitioners have the flexibility to tailor discussions to the needs and situation of individual parents. In this way, parents may be helped to retain a sense that they have acted as good parents to their child whatever decision they make. Summary Discussing randomised controlled trials and gaining and providing informed consent is challenging. The unique position of parents in giving proxy consent for their child adds to this challenge. Recognition of the complexities parents face in making decisions about trials suggests lines for future
Freeman, T; Jadva, V; Kramer, W; Golombok, S
This study investigates the new phenomenon of parents of donor offspring searching for and contacting their child's 'donor siblings' (i.e. donor offspring conceived by the same donor) and donor. Online questionnaires were completed by 791 parents (39% lone-mother, 35% lesbian-couple, 21% heterosexual-couple, 5% non-specified) recruited via the Donor Sibling Registry; a US-based international registry that facilitates contact between donor conception families who share the same donor. Data were collected on parents' reasons for searching for their child's donor siblings and/or donor, the outcome of these searches and parents' and their child's experiences of any resulting contact. Parents' principal motivation for searching for their child's donor siblings was curiosity and for their donor, enhancing their child's sense of identity. Some parents had discovered large numbers of donor siblings (maximum = 55). Most parents reported positive experiences of contacting and meeting their child's donor siblings and donor. This study highlights that having access to information about a child's donor origins is important for some parents and has potentially positive consequences. These findings have wider implications because the removal of donor anonymity in the UK and elsewhere means that increasing numbers of donor offspring are likely to seek contact with their donor relations in the future.
Full Text Available Collateral intimate partner homicide (CIPH is an underinvestigated genre of intimate partner violence (IPV where an individual(s connected to the IPV victim is murdered. We conducted a content analysis of a statewide database of CIPH newspaper articles (1990-2007. Out of 111 collateral murder victims, there were 84 IPV female focal victims and 84 male perpetrators. The most frequently reported CIPH decedent was the focal victim’s new partner (30%; 45% of focal victims were themselves killed. News reports framed CIPH as the unexpected result of interpersonal conflict, despite evidence of a systematic pattern of coercion and violence that capitulated in murder.
Verberne, Lisa M; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Yn; Bosman, Diederik K; Colenbrander, Derk A; Jagt, Charissa T; Grootenhuis, Martha A; van Delden, Johannes Jm; Kars, Marijke C
Parents of children with a life-limiting disease have to rely on themselves at home while adequate paediatric palliative care is lacking. In several countries, paediatric palliative care teams are introduced to ensure continuity and quality of care and to support the child and the family. Yet, little is known about how parents experience such multidisciplinary teams. To obtain insight into the support provided by a new paediatric palliative care team from the parents' perspective. An interpretative qualitative interview study using thematic analysis was performed. A total of 47 single or repeated interviews were undertaken with 42 parents of 24 children supported by a multidisciplinary paediatric palliative care team located at a university children's hospital. The children suffered from malignant or non-malignant diseases. In advance, parents had limited expectations of the paediatric palliative care team. Some had difficulty accepting the need for palliative care for their child. Once parents experienced what the team achieved for their child and family, they valued the team's involvement. Valuable elements were as follows: (1) process-related aspects such as continuity, coordination of care, and providing one reliable point of contact; (2) practical support; and (3) the team members' sensitive and reliable attitude. As a point of improvement, parents suggested more concrete clarification upfront of the content of the team's support. Parents feel supported by the paediatric palliative care team. The three elements valued by parents probably form the structure that underlies quality of paediatric palliative care. New teams should cover these three valuable elements.
Thomson, Samuel; Marriott, Michael; Telford, Katherine; Law, Hou; McLaughlin, Jo; Sayal, Kapil
Adolescents with anorexia nervosa rarely present themselves as having a problem and are usually reliant on parents to recognise the problem and facilitate help-seeking. This study aimed to investigate parents' experiences of recognising that their child had an eating problem and deciding to seek help. A qualitative study with interpretative phenomenological analysis applied to semi-structured interviews with eight parents of adolescents with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. Parents commonly attributed early signs of anorexia nervosa to normal adolescent development and they expected weight loss to be short-lived. As parents' suspicions grew, close monitoring exposing their child's secretive attempts to lose weight and the use of internet searches aided parental recognition of the problem. They avoided using the term anorexia as it made the problem seem 'real'. Following serial unsuccessful attempts to effect change, parental fear for their child's life triggered a desire for professional help. Parents require early advice and support to confirm their suspicions that their child might have anorexia nervosa. Since parents commonly approach the internet for guidance, improving awareness of useful and accurate websites could reduce delays in help-seeking.
Amin, M S; Harrison, R L; Weinstein, P
Caries relapse after treatment of early childhood caries (ECC) under general anaesthesia (GA) has been frequently reported. This research used a qualitative method of inquiry to explore parents' experience of their child's treatment under GA, and their perception of the impact of this treatment on their child. The participants were parents whose children had recently undergone dental rehabilitation under GA. Data was collected by semistructured, open-ended interviews scheduled at the postoperative appointment. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, checked and coded into a qualitative computer software program for analysis. Data collection and analysis were done simultaneously, and the interview guide was modified based on responses. Parents were troubled that their child needed a GA and appeared aware of the complications. While some parents felt 'guilty' and struggled to accept this mode of treatment for their child, others felt 'blameless', and were convinced that the GA was 'preferable' for their child and superior to conventional treatment. Nonetheless, all parents reported some levels of anxiety during the GA; they expressed their emotions with 'fear', 'worry' and 'concern'. After the GA, improvement was reported by most parents in their child's amount of dental pain, sleeping pattern, eating habits and acceptance of parental toothbrushing. The most common changes in their child's behaviour mentioned by parents were increased toothbrushing and decreased consumption of sugary foods. Several children who had had primary teeth extracted were distressed as a result of this 'loss'. The general anaesthetic experience was troubling in a variety of ways for both parents and children. However, an 'early' and positive outcome of the GA was a reported improvement in dental health practices. Parents were more positive about maintaining the health of primary teeth and now knew how to take care of their child's teeth. Future exploration is required to reveal if and how
Full Text Available Ann Norling-Gustafsson1,2, Katarina Skaghammar1,2, Annsofie Adolfsson1,31School of life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; 2Primary Health, MVC, Karlsborg, Sweden; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenAbstract: Being an expectant parent is a life changing event and it is something that most people will experience in their lifetime. Many people who are parents for the first time will participate in parenting education. Most of the previous studies associated with parenting education focus on subjects such as birth outcome and breastfeeding. The purpose of this study is to focus on the less investigated aspect of the parents’ experience of participating in parenting education with Maternal Healthcare Services (MVC. A qualitative, phenomenological, hermeneutical method was selected to be used to analyze our findings and we used the statements of twenty participants to accumulate enough material to develop it into twelve sub-themes and five themes. The results of this study show that these expectant parents had few or no expectations of the parenting education that they were going to participate in. Generally speaking the parents seemed to be satisfied with the program. They described their reasons for participating as a chance to get together with other people in similar circumstances and to share information and they found a midwife to be a trustworthy professional person to confirm the information that was available to them from other sources.Keywords: parent education, parents' experiences, parents’ expectations
Donelan, Sarah C; Trussell, Geoffrey C
Because phenotypic plasticity can operate both within and between generations, phenotypic outcomes are often shaped by a complex history of environmental signals. For example, parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk can both independently and interactively influence prey offspring traits early in their life. Parental and embryonic risk experiences can also independently shape offspring phenotypes throughout an offspring's ontogeny, but the persistence of their interactive effects throughout offspring ontogeny is unknown. We examined the effects of parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk on the response of 1-year-old prey (the carnivorous snail, Nucella lapillus ) offspring to current predation risk. We found that parental and embryonic risk experiences had largely independent effects on offspring performance and that these effects were context dependent. Parental experience with risk had strong impacts on multiple offspring traits in the presence of current risk that generally improved offspring performance under risk, but embryonic risk experience had relatively weaker effects and only operated in the absence of current risk to reduce offspring growth. These results illustrate that past environmental experiences can dynamically shape organism phenotypes across ontogeny and that attention to these effects is key to a better understanding of predator/prey dynamics in natural systems. © 2018 The Author(s).
Conn, Anne-Marie; Szilagyi, Moira A; Jee, Sandra H; Manly, Jody T; Briggs, Rahil; Szilagyi, Peter G
Pediatricians recognize a need to mitigate the negative impact that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can have on health and development. However, ACEs screening and interventions in primary care pediatrics may be inhibited by concerns about parental perceptions. We assessed parent perspectives of screening for ACEs in the pediatric primary care setting, to understand their views on the potential impact of their ACEs on their parenting and to identify opportunities for pediatric anticipatory guidance. We used purposive sampling to recruit parents of children <6 years receiving care at an urban, pediatric clinic. Semistructured questions guided 1:1 interviews that were later coded by multiple researchers to verify reliability. A thematic framework approach guided analysis and identified main themes and subthemes. We reached thematic saturation after 15 parent interviews, which consistently revealed 3 interrelated themes. First, parents strongly supported ACEs screening as a bridge to needed services, and they recommended using a trauma-sensitive, person-centered approach in pediatric practices. Second, parents understood the intergenerational impact of ACEs and expressed a desire to break the cycle of adversity. Finally, parents saw their child's pediatrician as a potential change-agent who could provide support to meet their parenting goals. Parents want to discuss their ACEs and receive help and guidance from pediatricians. Furthermore, they perceive their child's pediatrician as having an important role to play in meeting their parenting goals. It is important to ensure that pediatricians have the training, skills and familiarity with available resources to meet parental expectations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Scime, Natalie V; Bartlett, Doreen J; Brunton, Laura K; Palisano, Robert J
This study investigated the experiences and perceptions of parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP) when classifying their children using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS). The second aim was to collate parents' recommendations for service providers on how to interact and communicate with families. A purposive sample of seven parents participating in the On Track study was recruited. Semi-structured interviews were conducted orally and were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded openly. A descriptive interpretive approach within a pragmatic perspective was used during analysis. Seven themes encompassing parents' experiences and perspectives reflect a process of increased understanding when classifying their children, with perceptions of utility evident throughout this process. Six recommendations for service providers emerged, including making the child a priority and being a dependable resource. Knowledge of parents' experiences when using the GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS can provide useful insight for service providers collaborating with parents to classify function in children with CP. Using the recommendations from these parents can facilitate family-provider collaboration for goal setting and intervention planning.
Full Text Available Text treats parent's experiences and perceives and the significant of their newborn premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit in the Ljubljana maternity hospital. Aim of health promotion, the significance of health education in health education counselling are presented. The purpose of this study was to introduction parent' s experiences and make an implementation in nursing practice. The advantage is represent by performing health education counselling for parents in intensive care unit permanently. Perceives of parents during living their newborn infant in neonatal intensive care unit are present on five concepts: perceive parents themselves, perceive their infant, perceive the staff and the intensive care setting and perceive their home setting. Results are showing statistic important differences between mothers and fathers at the time of deliver and at the time charging infant home. A questionare was used for collecting data. Process of development instrument is represent. Descriptive statistics and T-test was used for quantitative data analysed. Using method of internal consistent Chronbach alpha tested reliability of scales and mean differences in time are graf protrayed by 95% confident intervals. Results show statistical significant differences on all five concepts of parent's experiences. Methodological findings and reseaarch limitations are also present. Authoress positive evaluates the effect of health education counselling program and find out its positive effect on parent's critical thinking and contributes to quality assurance nursing.
Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS epidemic has continued to pose significant challenges to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Millions of African children and youth have lost parents to HIV/AIDS leaving a generation of orphans to be cared for within extended family systems and communities. The experiences of youth who have lost parents to the HIV/AIDS epidemic provide an important ingress into this complex, evolving, multi-dimensional phenomenon. A fundamental qualitative descriptive study was conducted to develop a culturally relevant and comprehensive description of the experiences of orphanhood from the perspectives of Ugandan youth. A purposeful sample of 13 youth who had lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS and who were affiliated with a non-governmental organization providing support to orphans were interviewed. Youth orphaned by HIV/AIDS described the experience of orphanhood beginning with parental illness, not death. Several losses were associated with the death of a parent including lost social capitol, educational opportunities and monetary assets. Unique findings revealed that youth experienced culturally specific stigma and conflict which was distinctly related to their HIV/AIDS orphan status. Exploitation within extended cultural family systems was also reported. Results from this study suggest that there is a pressing need to identify and provide culturally appropriate services for these Ugandan youth prior to and after the loss of a parent(s.
This study examines the stigma experiences of middle-class parents whose children have physical, psychological and behavioural problems. Qualitative interviews with 34 mothers and 21 fathers demonstrate that parents experience two types of stigma: courtesy stigma and the stigma of being a bad parent. While the former stems from close social proximity to stigmatised children, the latter stems from ostensible culpability for children's problems. Both characteristics are social constructs embedded in the larger contexts of an anxious, intensive parenting culture and the problematisation and medicalisation of childhood. As a consequence, mothers, parents whose children have invisible disabilities, and the parents of young children are particularly susceptible to negative labelling. These findings highlight the constructed and political nature of parents' stigmatisation. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Wills, B S
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Chinese parents of children diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Respondents consisted of a convenience sample of nine mothers and eight fathers. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and were scheduled to coincide with the disease trajectory, and were analyzed using the matrix system described by Miles and Huberman. Major categories identified include parental reactions, methods used by the parents to disclose the child's diagnosis to others, changes in the family routine, and the preferred sources of parental support. Implications for health professionals include a need for thorough psychosocial assessment of the affected children, parents, and siblings. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
Hadjikakou, Kika; Christodoulou, Despina; Hadjidemetri, Eleni; Konidari, Maria; Nicolaou, Nicoletta
This paper investigates the personal experiences of hearing adults with signing Deaf parents in their families, school, and society. In order to obtain relevant information, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Cypriot hearing adults with Deaf parents between the ages of 21 and 30 years with different occupation, sex, and educational background. It was found that most of the participants developed a bicultural identity, undertook the interpreter and protector role in their family, and interacted well with their parents, despite the lack of in-depth communication that they noted. The positive role of the extended family was acknowledged. The prejudices of Cypriot hearing people against the Deaf people were identified, as well as the lack of state support toward the Deaf community. This study has implications for Deaf parents, and professionals working, planning, and implementing social, psychological, and educational support services to Deaf-parented families.
Full Text Available Newborn screening enabling early diagnosis of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD has dramatically improved health outcomes in children with MCADD. Achieving those outcomes depends on effective management by parents. Understanding parental management strategies and associated anxieties and concerns is needed to inform provision of appropriate care and support. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of parents of children aged 2 to 12 years. Thematic analysis identified two main themes. Managing dietary intake examined how parents managed day-to-day dietary intake to ensure adequate intake and protection of safe fasting intervals. Managing and preventing illness events explored parental experiences of managing illness events and their approach to preventing these events. Management strategies were characterized by caution and vigilance and influenced by a lack of confidence in others to manage the condition. The study identifies the need for increased awareness of the condition, particularly in relation to emergency treatment.
Zimmermann, Karin; Cignacco, Eva; Eskola, Katri; Engberg, Sandra; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Bergstraesser, Eva
To develop and test the Parental PELICAN Questionnaire, an instrument to retrospectively assess parental experiences and needs during their child's end-of-life care. To offer appropriate care for dying children, healthcare professionals need to understand the illness experience from the family perspective. A questionnaire specific to the end-of-life experiences and needs of parents losing a child is needed to evaluate the perceived quality of paediatric end-of-life care. This is an instrument development study applying mixed methods based on recommendations for questionnaire design and validation. The Parental PELICAN Questionnaire was developed in four phases between August 2012-March 2014: phase 1: item generation; phase 2: validity testing; phase 3: translation; phase 4: pilot testing. Psychometric properties were assessed after applying the Parental PELICAN Questionnaire in a sample of 224 bereaved parents in April 2014. Validity testing covered the evidence based on tests of content, internal structure and relations to other variables. The Parental PELICAN Questionnaire consists of approximately 90 items in four slightly different versions accounting for particularities of the four diagnostic groups. The questionnaire's items were structured according to six quality domains described in the literature. Evidence of initial validity and reliability could be demonstrated with the involvement of healthcare professionals and bereaved parents. The Parental PELICAN Questionnaire holds promise as a measure to assess parental experiences and needs and is applicable to a broad range of paediatric specialties and settings. Future validation is needed to evaluate its suitability in different cultures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Turner, Joyce; Biesecker, Barbara; Leib, Jennifer; Biesecker, Leslie; Peters, Kathryn F
Courtesy stigma refers to the stigmatization an unaffected person experiences due to his or her relationship with a person who bears a stigma. Parents of children with genetic conditions are particularly vulnerable to courtesy stigma, but little research has been done to explore this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to investigate the courtesy stigma experiences of parents of children with Proteus syndrome (PS) and related overgrowth conditions. Thematic analysis of transcripts from 31 parents identified three distinct themes: stigma experiences, social-emotional reactions to stigmatizing encounters, and coping responses. Four types of stigmatizing experiences were identified: intrusive inquires, staring and pointing, devaluing remarks, and social withdrawal. Additionally, we uncovered eight strategies parents used to cope with courtesy stigma: attributing cause, assigning meaning to social exchanges, concealing, withdrawing socially, taking the offensive, employing indifference, instructing and learning from family, and educating others. Parents' choices of strategy type were found to be context dependent and evolved over time. This is the first study to document the adaptive evolution of coping strategies to offset courtesy stigma by parents of children with genetic conditions. These results provide groundwork for genetic counseling interventions aimed at addressing issues of courtesy stigma and further investigation of the phenomenon itself. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
van der Meer, G T; Schultz, W C M Weijmar; Nijman, J M
The popularity of (intimate) body piercing has increased as well as the chances of being confronted with (the complications) of it. This article provides information about the various types of intimate body piercings in women, the complications and concerns regarding the treatment of patients with intimate bodypiercings.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intimate partner abuse is common worldwide, damaging the short- and long-term physical, mental, and emotional health of survivors and children. Advocacy may contribute to reducing abuse, empowering women to improve their situation by providing informal counselling and support for safety planning and increasing access to different services. Advocacy may be a stand-alone service, accepting referrals from healthcare providers, or part of a multi-component (and possibly multi-agency intervention provided by service staff or others. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of advocacy interventions within or outside healthcare settings in women who have experienced intimate partner abuse. SEARCH METHODS In April 2015, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 10 other databases. We also searched WHO ICTRP, mRCT, and UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN, and examined relevant websites and reference lists with forward citation tracking of included studies. For the original review we handsearched six key journals. We also contacted first authors of eligible papers and experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing advocacy interventions for women with experience of intimate partner abuse versus no intervention or usual care (if advocacy was minimal and fewer than 20% of women received it. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. We contacted authors for missing information needed to calculate statistics for the review and looked for adverse events. MAIN RESULTS We included 13 trials involving 2141 participants aged 15 to 65 years, frequently having low socioeconomic status. The studies were quite heterogeneous in terms of methodology, study processes and design, including with regard to the duration of follow-up (postintervention to three years, although this was not associated with differences in effect. The studies also
Rasch, Vibeke; Van, Toan Ngo; Nguyen, Hanh Thi Thuy
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global problem that affects one-third of all women. The present study aims to develop and determine the validity of a screening instrument for the detection of IPV in pregnant women in Tanzania and Vietnam and to determine the minimum number...
Victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) may experience num ... Women who refuse to have sex without a condom have an increased likelihood of becoming ... of these students study towards careers in which they will need to .... different types of abuse. ... insulting things or threatens them, is disagreeable, or may try to hurt.
Hattar-Pollara, M; Meleis, A I
Having their children enter adolescence presents new demands on the role functions of Jordanian immigrant women in the United States. Such demands require modifications in traditional parenting approaches. The authors attempted to uncover and describe the experiences of Jordanian immigrant mothers (N = 30) in parenting their adolescents in the United States. Content and narrative analysis revealed the dynamic processes that the mothers used in raising their children. They continuously attempted to balance the need for their teens to maintain a Jordanian ethnic identity and the need for them to become integrated into the new community. Their parenting was driven by an attempt to avoid loss of honor and bad reputation. Four aspects of the maternal role emerged from the analysis: mothering through nurturing the adolescents and promoting cultural identity, disciplining for cultural adherence, advocacy and mediation, and vigilant parenting. The findings support a dynamic interplay between cultural and structural conditions in shaping the experiences of Jordanian immigrant women.
Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others
This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…
Gilpin, Andrew R.; Glanville, Bradley B.
Surveyed 94 couples to determine effects on child care experience associated with gender, parity, and various other demographic variables. As expected, women had higher scores than men. Experience was a linear function of parity for men, but not for women, and was unrelated to attitudes toward women. Implications for child care responsibility are…
Munde, V; Vlaskamp, C; Ter Haar, A
While the medical profession often terms behaviours in individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT) in the second stage as 'autistic-like', parents disagree with this description. The present study focuses on a comparison of parents' experiences with the social-emotional behaviour of the child with RTT in the second and subsequent stages. In collaboration with the Dutch Rett Syndrome Organization, 51 parents of children with RTT in the Netherlands took part in the present study. Parents completed an online questionnaire to clarify their experiences of the social-emotional behaviour of their children during and after the second stage of RTT. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques have been used. The results of the paired-samples t-test show that parents see significantly less social-emotional behaviour in the children during the second stage of RTT than in the subsequent stages. Parents reported that their children did not seek as much interaction. From the parents' descriptions, it would seem that the children are willing but unable to interact with their environment. Like previous research, our study leads to doubts about the appropriateness of the label 'autistic-like' for the behaviour of individuals in the second stage of RTT. While behaviours of individuals with autism and individuals with RTT may resemble each other, quality and intentions may differ. Still, future studies are needed for further clarification. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Blomgren Mannerheim, Ann; Siouta, Eleni
As a consequence of the latest psychiatry-related reform in Sweden and its implementation, relatives and family members have taken over from the formal healthcare system significant responsibility for the care of persons with a mental disability and illness. The aim of this study was to systematically describe and analyze the experiences of parents' informal care responsibility. The questions were, what are the experiences around parents' informal care activities and responsibilities and how do parents construct and manage their caring responsibility and with what consequences? Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted (16 hours of recorded material) with eight parents who were all members of the Interest Association for Schizophrenia (Intresseföreningen för Schizofreni (IFS)) in Sweden. A mixed hermeneutic deductive and inductive method was used for the interpretation of the material. The parents endow their informal caring responsibility with meaning of being a good, responsible, and accountable parent with respect to their social context and social relationships as well as with respect to the psychiatric care representatives. In this tense situation, parents compromise between elements of struggle, cooperation, avoidance, and adaption in their interaction with the world outside, meaning the world beyond the care provision for their child, as well as with the world inside themselves. PMID:26966575
Nilsson, Stefan; Gustafsson, Lisa; Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt
There are several concerns in relation to children living with a parent suffering from a mental illness. In such circumstances, the health-care professionals need to involve the whole family, offering help to the parents on parenting as well as support for their children. These children are often helped by participating in meetings that provide them with contact with others with similar experiences. The aim of this study was to investigate young adults' childhood experiences of support groups when living with a mentally ill parent. Seven young women were chosen to participate in this study. A qualitative descriptive method was chosen. The main category emerged as 'the influence of life outside the home because of a parent's mental illness' from the two generic categories: 'a different world' and 'an emotion-filled life'. The participants' friends did not know that their parent was ill and they 'always had to…take responsibility for what happened at home'. These young adults appreciated the support group activities they participated in during their childhood, stating that the meetings had influenced their everyday life as young adults. Despite this, they associated their everyday life with feelings of being different. This study highlights the need for support groups for children whose parents suffer from mental illness. © The Author(s) 2014.
So, Stephanie; Rogers, Alaine; Patterson, Catherine; Drew, Wendy; Maxwell, Julia; Darch, Jane; Hoyle, Carolyn; Patterson, Sarah; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey
This study investigates parental experiences and perceptions of the care received during their child's prolonged hospitalization. It relates this care to the Beanstalk Program (BP), a develop-mentally focused care program provided to these families within an acute care hospital setting. A total of 20 parents (of children hospitalized between 1-15 months) completed the Measures of Processes of Care (MPOC-20) with additional questions regarding the BP. Scores rate the extent of the health-care provider's behaviour as perceived by the family, ranging from 'to a great extent' (7) to 'never' (1). Parents rated Respectful and Supportive Care (6.33) as highest, while Providing General Information (5.65) was rated lowest. Eleven parents participated in a follow-up, qualitative, semi-structured interview. Interview data generated key themes: (a) parents strive for positive and normal experiences for their child within the hospital environment; (b) parents value the focus on child development in the midst of their child's complex medical care; and (c) appropriate developmentally focused education helps parents shift from feeling overwhelmed with a medically ill child to instilling feelings of confidence and empowerment to care for their child and transition home. These results emphasize the importance of enhancing child development for hospitalized infants and young children through programs such as the BP. © The Author(s) 2013.
Wilson, Valerie; Chando, Shingisai
To present survey findings on parental experiences with a hospital-based bead programme for children with congenital heart disease. The Heart Beads programme commenced at a paediatric hospital in Australia in 2008. Children enrolled in the programme are awarded a distinctive bead for every procedure/treatment they have while in hospital. A previous evaluation study on the programme revealed that the beads are therapeutic for the child and parents; however, due to a small sample size, the results were representative of the experiences of a small number of families who participated in the programme. This was an evaluation study which employed a nonexperimental descriptive design. Surveys were mailed to all eligible families who enrolled in the programme. Data collection occurred between July-December 2012. Questions on parental experiences with the Heart Beads programme were divided into three categories: understanding, acknowledgement and quality. Descriptive statistics were obtained and analysed. One hundred and sixty-two mothers and 136 fathers responded to the survey. Heart Beads assisted mothers (83%) and fathers (80%) with understanding their child's condition and helped them with communication (mothers 80%, fathers 58%). The majority of fathers felt that their experience was acknowledged by nursing staff (64%) and medical staff (62%), while mothers indicated a higher response from nurses (76%) compared to medical staff (67%). Overall, parents rated the programme positively; however, there was some concern that children at times missed out on beads. Understanding how mothers and fathers experience the programme differently can guide staff in their communication with parents and inform future initiatives. The Heart Beads help nurses understand how parents are experiencing care and ways in which they can provide support and acknowledgement of the parent's experience. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE
Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.
Lee, Dong Hun; Khang, Minsoo; Shin, Jiyoung; Lee, Hwa Jung; Brown, Jacqueline A
The aim of this study was to identify the outcomes of parental bereavement and the changes in life experience that follow the traumatic death of a teenage child. The results of the study are aimed to assist counselors and educators who work with themes of grief and loss. From 17 in-depth interviews from parents bereaved by the Sewol ferry disaster of 2014 in South Korea, three main categories were found to capture the reality for parents after the sudden and traumatic death of a teenage child: (a) personal changes, (b) changes in close relationships, and (c) changes in social life. Recommendations for future research and potential implications were discussed.
Boyer, Glenda J.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe how family members experience the phenomenon of adolescent pregnancy and parenting in the family unit, over time, and to examine the meanings family members attach to the experience. The participants were six nuclear families (20 individuals) of six adolescent mothers who had previously…
Lencová, Erika; Pikhart, Hynek; Broukal, Zdenek; Tsakos, Georgios
Due to high prevalence and serious impacts, childhood caries represents a public health issue. Behavioural risk factors such as locus of health control have been implicated in the development of the disease; however their association with childhood caries has not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the relationship between parental locus of health control and caries experience and untreated caries of their preschool children in a representative sample in Czech Republic, adjusting for relevant sociodemographic characteristics. A representative sample of 285 preschool children and their parents was recruited. Study data included children's dental status recorded in nurseries and parental questionnaires with 13 attitudinal items regarding locus of control (LoC) in caries prevention. The association between parental locus of control and children's caries experience and level of untreated caries was analysed using logistic regression, adjusting for the effect of key sociodemographic variables. There was a statistically highly significant linear trend between increased parental LoC and higher probability of the children to be free from untreated caries, independent from the effect of sociodemographic variables of children and parents. A similar highly statistically significant trend, although not entirely linear, and independent from sociodemographic variables was observed with respect to the chance of the children to be free from caries experience with increasing strength of parental LoC. After full adjustment, children in the strongest parental LoC quintile were 2.81 (1.23-6.42, pcontrol of both untreated caries and caries experience in their preschool children and highlight that a more internal LoC within the family is advantageous in the prevention of dental caries.
Heidari, Haydeh; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Fooladi, Marjan
Background: In recent years significant medical science advances have been made in the field midwifery and infant care. The premature, low birth weight and ill infants are admitted to the technologically advanced NICU for care and they often require long-term stay. This study addresses parental experiences with the infant care in NICU, explores their concerns regarding nursing supports for parents and offers nurses? perspectives on performing duties. Materials and Methods: A qualitative induc...
Target, M.; Hertzmann, L.; Midgley, N.; Casey, P.; Lassri, D.
Child contact arrangements with parents following separation and divorce are strongly endorsed for children in both public policy and law where safe, but can be difficult to sustain. Entrenched high-conflict post-separation relationships between parents can cause substantial emotional risks to children as well as impacting severely on parents’ mental health. This paper describes a qualitative study, aimed at examining parents’ experiences of contact arrangements post-separation, undertaken wi...
Wilson, Ruth; Weaver, Tim; Michelson, Daniel; Day, Crispin
Evidence-based parenting programmes are recommended for the treatment of child mental health difficulties. Families with complex psychosocial needs show poorer retention and outcomes when participating in standard parenting programmes. The Helping Families Programme (HFP) is a 16-week community-based parenting intervention designed to meet the needs of these families, including families with parental personality disorder. This study aimed to explore the help seeking and participatory experiences of parents with a diagnosis of personality disorder. It further aimed to examine the acceptability of referral and intervention processes for the HFP from the perspectives of (i) clinicians referring into the programme; and (ii) referred parents. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents recruited to receive HFP (n = 5) as part of a research case series and the referring NHS child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) clinicians (n = 5). Transcripts were analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Four themes were identified for parents: (i) the experience of parenthood, (ii) being a parent affected by personality disorder, (iii) experience of the intervention, and (iv) qualities of helping. Three themes emerged for clinicians: (i) challenges of addressing parental need, (ii) experience of engaging parents with personality disorders and (iii) limited involvement during HFP. Comparison of parent and clinician themes led to the identification of two key interlinked themes: (i) concerns prior to receiving the intervention, and (ii) the challenges of working together without a mutual understanding. This pilot study identifies potentially significant challenges of working with parents affected by personality disorder and engaging them in HFP and other similar interventions. Results have important wider clinical implications by highlighting potential barriers to engagement and participation and providing insights on how these barriers might be
Wang, Jinjiao; Kearney, Joan A
Life-limiting childhood illness is a traumatic experience presenting parents with psychological, physical, and social challenges. While cultural influences affect all parents coping with the life-limiting illness and end-of-life period of their child, little is known about the experiences of Chinese American parents. The purpose of this comprehensive literature review was to describe Chinese American parents' experiences during their children's end-of-life period from a culturally informed perspective. Important themes in the literature are revealed including culture-based phenomena regarding philosophy of life and illness that can affect treatment choices, cultural mores that influence parental behaviour in Western health-care systems, specific communication patterns within families and between families and providers, certain coping risks, and gender-based roles and caregiving activities that have implications for provider communication patterns. The findings are consonant with the larger literature regarding the impact of traditional culture and values on Chinese family and health behaviours. Health professionals must be sensitive to Chinese American parents' communication styles, unspoken concerns, and unresolved cultural conflicts in American health-care settings. Educational interventions may be very helpful in this regard.
Keenan, Belinda M; Newman, Louise K; Gray, Kylie M; Rinehart, Nicole J
There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with high-functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (ASD; aged 7-14 years) and 24 typically developing children (aged 7-12 years), and their primary caregiver. Children with ASD were no less secure, but their caregivers were more stressed and reported more attachment-related anxiety, compared to typically developing dyads. Child attachment security was related to caregiver psychological distress and attachment style, but only amongst typically developing children. Impacts of emotion processing impairments on caregiver-child relationships in ASD are discussed.
To explore the naming, or classification, of physical assaults by a partner as 'intimate partner violence' during emergency department consultations. Research continues to evidence instances when intimate partner physical violence is 'missed' or unacknowledged during emergency department consultations. Theoretically, this research was approached through complexity theory and the sociology of diagnosis. Research design was an applied, descriptive and explanatory, multiple-method approach that combined qualitative semistructured interviews with service-users (n = 8) and emergency department practitioners (n = 9), and qualitative and quantitative document analysis of emergency department health records (n = 28). This study found that multiple classifications of intimate partner violence were mobilised during emergency department consultations and that these different versions of intimate partner violence held different diagnostic categories, processes and consequences. The construction of different versions of intimate partner violence in emergency department consultations could explain variance in people's experiences and outcomes of consultations. The research found that the classificatory threshold for 'intimate partner violence' was too high. Strengthening systems of diagnosis (identification and intervention) so that all incidents of partner violence are named as 'intimate partner violence' would reduce the incidence of missed cases and afford earlier specialist intervention to reduce violence and limit its harms. This research found that identification of and response to intimate partner violence, even in contexts of severe physical violence, was contingent. By lowering the classificatory threshold so that all incidents of partner violence are named as 'intimate partner violence', practitioners could make a significant contribution to reducing missed intimate partner violence during consultations and improving health outcomes for this population. This
Carmen Massé García
Full Text Available The decision to undergo medically assisted reproduction techniques involves a series of ethical questions that men and women of all times have had to answer: why do so? Wwho decides? Why so? Why not? How to face the process? We look at History to help them respond from the experience of so many women and couples who have needed to react toattend their impossible reproduction with the most unlikely resources. Looking at the subject and theirhis experience of meaning may be a more fruitful bioethical proposal than resorting toducing reflecting solely onion only to techniques.
Wadsworth, Pamela; Kothari, Catherine; Lubwama, Grace; Brown, Cathy L; Frank Benton, Jennifer
Intimate partner violence (IPV) predicts poor health for victims and their children, but little is known about the perspective of victims. This study reports the perspectives of adult female IPV victims about the impact of IPV on their health and barriers of health care access for themselves and their children. The majority rated their health as good to excellent (69%). However, 83.5% indicated that IPV negatively affected their health; 53.5% had unmet health care needs. Mental health care was the most common unmet need for women; children's unmet needs were immunizations and preventive care. Transportation difficulties posed the biggest barrier to health care access.
Hugill, Melanie; Fletcher, Ian; Berry, Katherine
A robust amount of research indicates that childhood adverse experiences can have a detrimental impact on later relational experiences and mental health as an adult. Adverse childhood experiences, such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA), or other interpersonal traumas can affect the formation of secure attachments to caregivers. These insecure attachment styles persist into adulthood, affecting all subsequent relationships including that between parent and child. This thesis firstly examines the...
Lenahan, Patricia M
Intimate partner violence is one of the most pervasive global public health problems affecting women. It results in untold costs to the healthcare system and is positively linked to eight out of ten leading indicators for Healthy People 2010. Intimate partner violence also is one of the factors associated with adverse childhood experiences that result in negative healthcare behaviours. Intimate partner violence has been the subject of film, made for television movies and music videos. The use of film as an innovative tool to teach about common health and mental health disorders is well-documented. Film also has been used as an adjunctive therapeutic tool in counselling. This paper will provide an overview of intimate partner violence, its portrayal in popular film and ways in which educators may use film to teach intimate partner violence-related topics.
Full Text Available Introduction: Well-functioning collaboration between professionals in the welfare sector has a strong influence on the contact with parents of children and adolescents with mental illness, and it is a precondition for the availability of support for these parents. This paper reports how such parents experience collaboration between professionals in mental health care, social services, and schools.Methods: Data were collected by in-depth interviews with seven parents of children and adolescents diagnosed with anxiety and depression. The families were selected from the Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH patient records kept by the Stockholm County Council (Sweden, and they all lived in a catchment area for CAMH outpatient services in Stockholm.Results and discussion: We conclude that when the encounter between parents and professionals is characterized by structure and trust, it is supportive and serves as a holding environment. Coordination and communication links are needed in the collaboration between the professionals, along with appropriately scheduled and well-performed network meetings to create structure in the parent-professional encounter. Indeed, establishment of trust in this interaction is promoted if individual professionals are available, provide the parents with adequate information, are skilled, and show empathy and commitment.
Full Text Available Introduction: Well-functioning collaboration between professionals in the welfare sector has a strong influence on the contact with parents of children and adolescents with mental illness, and it is a precondition for the availability of support for these parents. This paper reports how such parents experience collaboration between professionals in mental health care, social services, and schools. Methods: Data were collected by in-depth interviews with seven parents of children and adolescents diagnosed with anxiety and depression. The families were selected from the Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH patient records kept by the Stockholm County Council (Sweden, and they all lived in a catchment area for CAMH outpatient services in Stockholm. Results and discussion: We conclude that when the encounter between parents and professionals is characterized by structure' and trust', it is supportive and serves as a holding environment'. Coordination and communication links are needed 'in the collaboration between the professionals, along with appropriately scheduled and well-performed network meetings 'to create structure in the parent-professional encounter. Indeed, establishment of trust in this interaction is promoted if individual professionals are available, provide the parents with adequate information, are skilled, and show empathy and commitment.
Gates, Allison; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Featherstone, Robin; Scott, Shannon D; Hartling, Lisa
As a first step toward the development of an animated video and infographic to increase parents' knowledge of pediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs), we conducted a systematic review of their experiences and information needs. We searched Ovid Medline, Ovid PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global for studies published in 2000 or thereafter. We appraised quality using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. We summarised the quantitative data narratively and the qualitative data thematically. We identified 1493 records and included four. Sample size ranged from 20 to 2726 parents. The children ranged from 10 UTIs. Parents were not always aware of UTI symptoms and generally received little information. Parents sought information online, and desired it via other means. Some parents were not confident in healthcare providers' (HCPs') knowledge of UTIs. Inadequate information about diagnostic tests sometimes resulted in fear and non-compliance. From the limited literature, it appears that parents would like information about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis, but do not always consider HCPs good information sources. Care providers should communicate information in ways that suit parents' self-identified needs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Mei-Chi; Tu, Chun-Hsien
To describe the lived experiences of aggression and violence among patients with schizophrenia and their victimized biological parent as the major caregiver being aggressed by their child (parent-adult-child dyads), and to gain an understanding of the precipitating factors influencing violence. Child-to-parent violence, particularly in the mentally ill adult child, is arguably the most stressful and under-researched issue of family violence. Violence in patients with mental illness is most frequently targeted at family members, and most often takes place at home. Both patients and their parents' experiences of violence are relatively unexplored. Qualitative study design. Data were collected using individual in-depth interviews between August 2010-August 2011 in Taiwan. Purposive sample of 14 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia who had aggression and violence in the past year directed towards their biological parent of either gender. Five main themes were identified: violence occurring beyond control in a particular situation translated into parent and patient's possible endangerment, the repetitive nature of violence, distress, ineffective communication, and management of violence and help-seeking. Repetitive violent episodes and tension made both the parent and patient feel uncontrollable. Parents had a perceived fear of adverse consequences such as being punished by receiving more retribution and they also had concerns related to their parental responsibility. Health professionals should be aware of the complexity of phenomena and the interplay of factors inducing violence. A comprehensive dyadic parent-child intervention is suggested for violence prevention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Sexual training is one of the most important and sensitive aspects of upbringing of children, to which little attention is paid for some reasons, such as shame, pudency, and being a taboo subject in some societies. Parents also do not have sufficient knowledge and insight into this context, and by gaining knowledge from invalid sources, maybe they cannot play this important educational role. This study has dealt with exploring parents' experiences about children sexual training, through a qualitative approach. This study was designed as a qualitative content analysis method. Thirty seven qualified parents were selected using a purposeful sampling method. Data collection was performed by holding 6 focus group discussions (FGDs and 5 individual interviews. FGDs and individual interviews were written and data analysis was performed using a conventional content analysis. Analyzing participants` experiences in the sexual training of children, led to the emergence of three main categories; control and punishment of the child, restricting the child and trying to educate the child, as parenting strategies. The parents adopted several strategies for the sexual training of their children, most of them associated with control and restriction and some of which could have led to subsequent injuries. They had not received any education in this area and experienced frequent worry, doubt, and wandering during their children sexual training. Hence it seems necessary to provide valid educational resources according to the cultural and religious teachings, create opportunities to educate parents,and respond to their problems.
Full Text Available Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gayparented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children’s education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and administrators wishing better to support lesbian/ gay-parented families. The results of our study offer an understanding of the challenges and needs of this diverse family in the school system, as well as a starting point for administrators and teachers wanting to create inclusive environments for all family types.
Buus, Niels; Caspersen, Jimmy; Hansen, Rasmus
problem and relatives are understood as playing an important role in suicide prevention; however, suicide and suicidal behaviour affect the relatives' lives profoundly, both emotionally and socially, and the psychosocial impact on families is underresearched. DESIGN: Focus groups with parents of sons......AIM: The aim of this exploratory study was to gain further insights into the experiences of parents of sons or daughters who have attempted suicide and how these parents respond to the increased psychosocial burden following the suicide attempt(s). BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major public health...... or daughters who have attempted suicide. METHODS: In January and February 2012, we interviewed two groups of parents recruited at a counselling programme for relatives of persons who have attempted suicide. The analysis combined a thematic analysis with a subsequent analysis of how the themes were negotiated...
Trondsen, Marianne V
Although a considerable body of research has described the implications of parental mental illness, the perspectives of children and adolescents have rarely been addressed. In this article, I explore adolescents' experiences in everyday life, based on an action-oriented study of a Norwegian online self-help group for adolescents (aged 15 to 18) with mentally ill parents. The analysis was conducted through participant observation of the group for 2 years. The adolescents experienced a variety of difficult challenges related to their parent's mental illness: lack of information and openness; unpredictability and instability; fear; loneliness; and loss and sorrow. However, they also discussed strategies for active management of the challenges arising from the family situation. I argue that these adolescents can be understood as vulnerable as well as active participants in managing their everyday lives. I emphasize the importance of including perspectives of children and adolescents in further research so as to improve health care for families with parental mental illness.
Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X
Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender.
Cashmore, Aaron W.; Noller, Jennifer; Johnson, Bronwyn; Ritchie, Jan; Blinkhorn, Anthony S.
Objective: The Tooth Smart Programme is a hospital-based parent-counselling programme established to stabilize existing carious lesions and prevent new caries in children. The purpose of this qualitative study was to: explore participating parents' experiences of and views about parent counselling; identify and describe factors that influence the…
Aiyelaagbe, Esther; Scott, Rebecca E; Holmes, Victoria; Lane, Emma; Heazell, Alexander E P
Understanding parents' experience of care is essential to develop high-quality perinatal bereavement services. This study aimed at developing a questionnaire to identify parents' needs and record their experience of care. The patient experience questionnaire was developed by professionals and parents, and piloted in a tertiary maternity unit. Responses were received from 58 parents. Sensitivity and kindness of staff and time spent with their baby were ranked as 'very important' by 95% of parents. Care in these areas largely met their needs (90%), although 5% of respondents stated that partners could have been more involved. Between 8% and 15% of respondents did not feel that language used at the diagnosis of fetal death was sensitive, clear and unambiguous. Parents did not always receive written information about their care (5%) or post-mortem (13%). Analysis of bereaved parents' responses identified areas for improvement including greater involvement of partners and a need for timely information. Impact statement What is already known on this subject?: Good quality bereavement care after perinatal death reduces the negative emotional, psychological and social effects for parents. Description of parents' experiences is a potential means to improve the quality of perinatal bereavement care. What do the results of this study add?: Parents' needs and experiences of care after perinatal death were recorded using a patient-experience questionnaire designed by a multi-professional team and parents. Staff behaviour, particularly sensitivity and kindness was highly valued by parents. Giving both verbal and written information could be improved. Training is needed for professionals, particularly those who come into contact with bereaved parents less frequently. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research?: Description of parents' priorities and views can be used to identify areas for improvement in perinatal bereavement care
The aim of this study was to describe Danish parents' experiences when their newborn or small child was critically ill. Thirteen parents were interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The child's transfer to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) meant either help...... or death for the parents. The back transfer was experienced as joy and despair. The parents had confidence in most nurses, and they were kind, helpful, informative and capable. Less capable and distressed nurses made the parents feel uncomfortale and insecure. Parents need help and support during...... their child's transfer to and from the PICU. Critical care nurses have to discuss the policy of family-centred care....
Benoit Allen, Kristy; Silk, Jennifer S; Meller, Suzanne; Tan, Patricia Z; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Sheeber, Lisa B; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Siegle, Greg J; McMakin, Dana L; Ryan, Neal D
Childhood anxiety is associated with low levels of parental autonomy granting and child perceived control, elevated child emotional reactivity and deficits in child emotion regulation. In early childhood, low levels of parental autonomy granting are thought to decrease child perceived control, which in turn leads to increases in child negative emotion. Later in development, perceived control may become a more stable, trait-like characteristic that amplifies the relationship between parental autonomy granting and child negative emotion. The purpose of this study was to test mediation and moderation models linking parental autonomy granting and child perceived control with child emotional reactivity and emotion regulation in anxious youth. Clinically anxious youth (N = 106) and their primary caregivers were assessed prior to beginning treatment. Children were administered a structured diagnostic interview and participated in a parent-child interaction task that was behaviorally coded for parental autonomy granting. Children completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they reported on perceived control, emotional reactivity (anxiety and physiological arousal) and emotion regulation strategy use in response to daily negative life events. The relationship between parental autonomy granting and both child emotional reactivity and emotion regulation strategy use was moderated by child perceived control: the highest levels of self-reported physiological responding and the lowest levels of acceptance in response to negative events occurred in children low in perceived control with parents high in autonomy granting. Evidence for a mediational model was not found. In addition, child perceived control over negative life events was related to less anxious reactivity and greater use of both problem solving and cognitive restructuring as emotion regulation strategies. Both parental autonomy granting and child perceived control play important roles in the
Darren Flynn PhD
Full Text Available Objective: To establish preferences of parents and guardians of preschool children for the organization of preschool vaccination services, including financial incentives. Design: An online discrete choice experiment. Participants: Parents and guardians of preschool children (up to age 5 years who were (n = 259 and were not (n = 262 classified as at high risk of incompletely vaccinating their children. High risk of incomplete vaccination was defined as any of the following: aged less than 20 years, single parents, living in one of the 20% most deprived areas in England, had a preschool child with a disability, or had more than three children. Main Outcome Measures: Participant preferences expressed as positive (utility or negative (disutility on eight attributes and levels describing the organization of preschool vaccination programs. Results: There was no difference in preference for parental financial incentives compared to no incentive in parents “not at high risk” of incomplete vaccination. Parents who were “at high risk” expressed utility for cash incentives. Parents “at high risk” of incomplete vaccination expressed utility for information on the risks and benefits of vaccinations to be provided as numbers rather than charts or pictures. Both groups preferred universally available, rather than targeted, incentives. Utility was identified for shorter waiting times, and there were variable preferences for who delivered vaccinations. Conclusions: Cash incentives for preschool vaccinations in England would be welcomed by parents who are “at high risk” of incompletely vaccinating their children. Further work is required on the optimal mode and form of presenting probabilistic information on vaccination to parents/guardians, including preferences on mandatory vaccination schemes.
Full Text Available This article discusses the suitability of the focus group method for conducting research early in post-resettlement among refugee parents and carers in South Australia. This method was employed to uncover the refugee parenting experience in pre-resettlement contexts. There were three refugee focus groups, consisting of a Sudanese women’s group, an African men’s group, and an Afghani and Iraqi women’s group. To illustrate each group’s differential parenting ecologies in milieus of forced migration ecological matrixes were devised which are presented in the results section. An ecological matrix was also developed to unpack, code and analyse transcripts. The matrix was designed to include categories and actions so as to construct meaning units and subsequent condensed meaning units to determine the concluding themes. These provided an analytical framework with which to illuminate the constructed meanings participants attributed to their refugee parenting experiences. The findings provide insights into the ecology of the refugee parenting experience and might be of considerable importance for Australian resettlement services and state systems of child protection seeking to develop culturally appropriate and relevant services.
Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie
The outcome of studies about the experience of parental divorce and its effects on mental and physical health differs, a result possibly caused by the use of different questionnaires and instruments, varying length of time since the divorce and divergent drop-out of participants. To study the presence of psychiatric records and number of diagnosed somatic and mental healthcare visits in a group of young adults with childhood experience of parental divorce in comparison to a group without this experience. The presence of records at public psychiatric clinics and 10 years of administrative healthcare data (somatic and mental) were checked for both groups. Significantly more persons from the divorce group appeared in child and adolescent psychiatric care; this was most pronounced in females. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in the number of persons seeking adult psychiatry or in the number of psychiatric consultations. Experience of parental divorce was not found to be an indicator of larger somatic health problems. Experience of parental divorce in childhood is not an indicator of adult psychiatric or somatic need of care.
McDonald, Glenda; O'Brien, Louise; Jackson, Debra
This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study that used a hermeneutic phenomenological methodology to develop insights into the experience of parents of young people who engage in self-harming behaviour. Six mothers (and one father who accompanied his wife) participated in the study. Findings reveal that mothers experienced guilt and shame, and that these feelings shaped their reactions and responses. These mothers described experiencing emotional dilemmas, such as the degree to which they could be responsible, uncertainty about how to understand self harm, and the best course of action to take with their child. They also encountered difficulties in combating the negative emotional effects for themselves and other family members. Findings provide insights that can help nurses and family health workers to understand and assist parents with greater effectiveness; by maintaining a non-judgemental stance, acknowledging the difficulties of their experiences, encouraging confidence in their parenting abilities, and promoting effective stress management strategies.
Afzelius, M; Plantin, L; Östman, M
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Coping with parental mental illness in families can be challenging for both children and parents. Providing evidence-based family interventions to families where a parent has a mental illness can enhance the relationships in the family. Although psychiatric research has shown that evidence-based family interventions may improve the communication and understanding of parental mental illness, there is a lack in this area of research from an everyday clinical context. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study reinforces the fact that parents with mental illnesses are searching for support from psychiatric services in order to talk to their children about their illness. The finding that under-age children comply when they are told by their parents to join an intervention in psychiatric services supporting the family is something not observed earlier in research. This study once more illuminates the fact that partners of a person with parental mental illness are seldom, in an obvious way, included in family support interventions. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Psychiatric services, and especially mental health nurses, have an important task in providing families with parental mental illness with support concerning communication with their children and in including the "healthy" partner in family support interventions. Introduction Although research has shown that evidence-based family interventions in research settings improve the communication and understanding of parental mental illness, there is a lack of knowledge about interventions in an everyday clinical context. Aim This study explores how families with parental mental illness experience family interventions in a natural clinical context in psychiatric services. Method Five families with children aged 10-12 were recruited from psychiatric services in southern Sweden and interviewed in a manner inspired by naturalistic inquiry and content analysis. Both
DosReis, Susan; Barksdale, Crystal L; Sherman, Andrea; Maloney, Kate; Charach, Alice
The experiences of parents of a child who received an initial diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined to determine the ways in which they may have encountered stigmatizing situations. Forty-eight parents of children aged six to 18 years were interviewed about their experiences leading up to their child's ADHD diagnosis, including their decisions to seek treatment. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory methods. Codes were identified using a constant comparative approach, which led to theoretically defined thematic constructs of stigma. Stigmatizing experiences were noted by 77% of the sample. Nearly half (N=21, 44%) were concerned about how society would label their child, 40% (N=19) felt social isolation and rejection, and 21% (N=10) perceived health care professionals and school personnel as being dismissive of their concerns. Parents' own attitudes about ADHD treatment were shaped by their exposure to negative media (N=10, 21%), their mistrust of medical assessments (N=8, 17%), and the influence of general public views (N=3, 6%). These stigmatizing views were related to parental concerns about the impact that diagnosis and treatment would have on their child's self-esteem and opportunities for future success. The range of ways in which parents in the study experienced stigma highlights the need for multiple perspectives for community outreach and public health programs that are aimed at addressing and eliminating mental health stigma. Even though stigma is a well-established barrier to mental health service use, the anticipated benefits of treatment may outweigh parents' experiences with stigma.
Ertmann, Ruth K; Reventlow, Susanne; Söderström, Margareta
Parents of sick children frequently visit their general practitioners (GPs). The aim was to explore parents' interpretation of their child's incipient signs and symptoms when falling ill and their subsequent unsatisfactory experience with the GP in order to make suggestions for improvements in the medical encounter. Semi-structured interviews. Twenty strategically selected families with a child from a birth cohort in Frederiksborg County, Denmark were interviewed. Parents wanted to consult their GP at the right time, i.e. neither too early nor too late. Well-educated parents experienced a discrepancy between their knowledge about their child, the information they had sought about the illness and the consultation with the GP, when they were dismissed with phrases such as "it will disappear" or "it is just a virus". The parents went along with the GP's advice if the child only occasionally became sick. However, parents of children with recurrent illnesses seemed very frustrated. During the course of several consultations with their GP, they started to question the GP's competence as the child did not regain health. Parents want to be acknowledged as competent collaborators. The GP's failure to acknowledge the parents' knowledge of their child's current illness, and the parents' attempt to identify what is wrong with the child and make the child feel better before the encounter may have consequences for the GP's credibility. It is therefore recommended that parents of children with recurrent illnesses receive extra attention and information.
Huang, Jianjun; Napolitano, Lisa A; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Yunping; Xi, Yingjun; Li, Yawen; Li, Kai
The primary purposes of this study were to (1) compare the characteristics of childhood experiences of parental rearing patterns in China reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), patients with other personality disorders and patients without personality disorders; (2) identify the reported parental rearing patterns associated with BPD in China; and (3) determine whether these patterns differ for males and females. One hundred and fifty-two patients with BPD, 79 patients with other personality disorders and 55 patients without Axis II diagnoses were administered the Chinese version of the McLean Screening Instrument for BPD and completed the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU), a self-report measure of childhood parental rearing patterns. Parental rearing patterns reported by the BPD group were characterized by less emotional warmth, and greater punishment, rejection and control than patterns reported by the other two groups. Within the BPD group, males were more likely than females to report parental punishment, rejection and control. Paternal punishment, low maternal emotional warmth and female gender predicted BPD diagnosis. Negative parental rearing patterns appear to contribute to the development of BPD in China and vary with the gender of the child. Maternal emotional warmth may be a protective factor against BPD. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
Pinkham, J R
The role of the parent during their child's dental experience, in contemporary society, has changed during the past decade and should be addressed by pediatric dentists. Included in this matter are issues regarding risk management and practice management. Behavioral pediatric dentistry is in flux, much like the world that it serves; there appear to be schisms within the profession regarding one aspect of this: the presence of parents in the dental operatory. Presented here is an analysis of the paradigm-shifts in society since World War II, when a postfigurative parenting strategy was in vogue. An explication of noted anthropologist Margaret Mead's descriptions of this and two subsequent parenting styles, including configurative (or transitional) and prefigurative (contemporary) are presented. They are analyzed in terms of parental attitudes concerning trusting their child to authority figures, including the dental clinician. This emerging protective instinct is termed "social hypertrophy", based on social biologist Edward O. Wilson's work. Dentists are encouraged to understand parental attitudes and avoid unnecessary conflict.
Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.
Mothers and fathers in 156 African American families reported on racial discrimination experiences, gendered traits, and warmth and conflict in family relationships. Discrimination was linked with relationship quality, but links differed for mothers and fathers. More expressive parents and less instrumental fathers had more positive relationships…
Jahng, Kyung Eun; Song, Seung Hee
These multiple case studies show what in divorced mother-headed families of South Korea, mothers experience with regard to parenting their children aged 6 to 12 years. Data were collected from participant observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants, including mothers and their children in four divorced mother-headed families…
Rose, Sarah E.; Jolley, Richard P.; Burkitt, Esther
In this article we argue that research into children's drawings should consider the context in which drawing occurs and that it is crucial to investigate the attitudes and practices of teachers, parents and children themselves that shape children's drawing experience and the drawings which they produce. We review the findings of seven empirical…
Dr. A.L. van Staa; O.K. Helder; J.C.M. Verweij
To explore parents' and nurses' experiences with the transition of infants from the neonatal intensive care unit to a special care nursery. Qualitative explorative study in two phases. Level IIID neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital and special care nurseries (level II) in five
Grace, Rebekah; Russell, Cherry
This article reports on research exploring the school experiences of 26 children (aged between 8 and 15.5 years) diagnosed with Tourette's Syndrome. The research adopted a qualitative methodology, and is reported here from the perspective of both the parents and the children themselves. Three different groups of families emerged: those who were…
McDougall, Allyson; Kerr, Alison M.; Espie, Colin A.
Background: Sleep problems in children with intellectual disability can be precipitated and maintained by intrinsic and external factors. The present study comprised a qualitative investigation of the experiences of parents of children with Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder where sleep disturbance is common. Method: Audio-taped…
Nam, Yunju; Wikoff, Nora; Sherraden, Michael
Objective: We examine the effects of Child Development Accounts (CDAs) on parenting stress and practices. Methods: We use data from the SEED for Oklahoma Kids (SEED OK) experiment. SEED OK selected caregivers of infants from Oklahoma birth certificates using a probability sampling method, randomly assigned caregivers to the treatment (n = 1,132)…
This Canadian study reports on the experiences of parents whose children use cochlear implants and on their perspectives prior to and following the transition to Auditory-Verbal therapy. A qualitative case study design, framed in social-ecological theory, guided this research. Data collection procedures included a family information questionnaire,…
Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a rare childhood disorder that is often misdiagnosed as autism or childhood psychosis because of overlapping symptom presentation. Favorable prognoses in LKS depend on early diagnosis and treatment. While much is known about the clinical basis for LKS diagnosis, little is known about parents' lived experience with…
Gibbons, Melinda M.; Woodside, Marianne; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.; Davison, John
There is a dearth of research exploring the career and work development of adults and the influence of family of origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the authors used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of women whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family on…
Christ, Sharon L; Kwak, Yoon Young; Lu, Ting
Psychological or emotional neglect is a recognized form of child maltreatment in the United States. However, neglect as a form of maltreatment and particularly psychological neglect as a subtype are understudied relative to other forms of maltreatment. One reason for this is that few measures of psychological (or emotional) neglect are available and there remains some uncertainty about how to define and measure it. In this article, we put forth a theoretical definition of psychological caregiving, including omission of care or psychological neglect of adolescents by their primary caregivers. We present an operationalization of psychological caregiving/neglect using adolescent self-reported survey items. A confirmatory latent variable modeling approach was used to measure and validate psychological caregiving/neglect in 2 adolescent (age 11 to 17) population cohorts involved with Child Protective Services (CPS) in the United States. The latent variable fits the samples well in both cohort populations indicating a valid construct, is mostly invariant across gender and age, is stable over time, and has good reliability. The measure also shows concurrent validity, associating strongly with all problem behavior domains. Questionnaire items similar to those used in this measure could be included along with other items in future studies of adolescent populations. We recommend further dialogue and development of this construct as a potential major contributing factor to the health and well-being of individuals and to advance research in the area of emotional care and neglect experiences in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold
Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows that involvem......Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows...... that involvement of the father increases the fatherhood and thereby the bonding to the child. The parents’ self-esteem seems to be affected negatively by the premature birth. Objective: To gain further knowledge and a deeper understanding of the parents’ experience of their self-esteem during the admission...... phases: 1) Three weeks from birth and 2) eight months after discharge. Results: The findings of the research are based on a theoretical frame concerning self-esteem from a psychological point of view. The data from the first phase three weeks after birth show that, individual, relational and structural...
Full Text Available Objectives: Amblyopia is most common binocular vision anomalies. To comprise is decrease of visual acuity witch doesn't remove by optical correction. Nowadays because of the psychosocial problem with amblyopia, is a functional disability. Awareness of parents of children with amblyopic life experience, when facing with curing system can provide effective for promotion of self-assessment, treatment and rehabilitation. Methods: To explore parent's experience in relation with health care provider utilize a qualitative study with phenomenological method. This study involving semi-structured on-depth interviews with 9 parents of child with amblyopia. Interviews were tape recorded. Data analysis was based on Van manen method. Results: Parents of children describe five subjects in relation with health care providers include: on time and correct diagnosis, consultation, therapist's behavior, change the therapist and visual screening. Discussion: This study indicates that on time diagnosis and intervention, therapists appropriate behavior, consultation and prescribe an appropriate treatment can effect on parental and child acceptance and successful treatment.
This study aimed to seek parents\\' experiences of how they learned their child had leukaemia and therefore identify ways of improving this process. To achieve this task a questionnaire was designed to ask parents about specific elements of the initial interview and give them opportunity to add their thoughts and feelings on the subject. All children with a diagnosis of leukaemia over an eighteen-year period were identified and parents of those children still alive were invited to partake in the study. 49 out of 50 families agreed to participate of which 35 (72%) returned completed questionnaires. The majority 29 (83%) expressed overall satisfaction. Their replies confirmed some findings of previous studies, and also offered some new insights. Examples of new findings or expansion on previous findings include observations on the presence of young children at the initial interview; the importance of the language used in conveying the diagnosis and prognostic information, and a preference for actuarial terms when discussing prognosis. Telling parents their child has leukaemia is a challenging and important task. The experience of parents gives us valuable insights into our own communication skills and highlights areas of possible improvement in this difficult area.
Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria
Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Hurtubise, Karen; Carpenter, Christine
To better understand the learning experiences of parents of children with developmental disabilities and the strategies they develop to support their caregiving role. A qualitative secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with parents of children with developmental disability was conducted to better understand parents' learning experiences and the strategies they developed to use this learning in supporting their children. A foundational thematic analysis process was used to identify the main themes, and the interpretive process was influenced by adult education theories. Findings suggest that participants are highly motivated to learn by a need to understand, to do, and to belong. They also demonstrated varying levels of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning. Learning style preferences are evident in participants' narratives and in their self-reported learning strategies. Conceptualizing parents, as adult learners, can be helpful in designing clinical interactions and education initiatives. Knowledge of adult learning principles may enable pediatric therapists to better meet the needs of parents and fulfill their information sharing responsibilities.
Islam, Md Shahidul; Scott, John; Minichiello, Victor
With much of the focus on the "risk" groups, families have often been less studied in HIV research. Further, because of a focus on the aetiology and epidemiology of HIV, the social impacts associated with HIV on families and neighbours are sometimes overlooked. This study examined parental experiences of stigma and discrimination while living with HIV within a family context in Bangladesh. A qualitative research design using a grounded theory approach was used for this research. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with 19 HIV-positive parents, recruited with the support of two self-help groups of HIV-positive people, in two settings namely Khulna and Dhaka in Bangladesh. The findings indicate that HIV-positive parents held the view that they continue to experience significant stigma and their narratives clearly show how this affected them and their children. A range of informal practices were enacted in everyday contexts by extended family and community members to identify, demarcate and limit the social interaction of HIV-positive parents. Parents highlighted a number of factors including negative thoughts and behaviours, rejection, isolation and derogatory remarks as manifestations of stigma and discrimination, impacting upon them and their children because of their association with HIV.
Stewart, D E; Richardson, B; Lent, B
To analyze psychiatrists' self-reports on a survey of faculty parental leaves conducted in 5 Ontario faculties of medicine. A self-report questionnaire was mailed to all Ontario academic medical faculty members requesting information on demographics, parenting status, knowledge of parental-leave policies, personal and collegial experience of recent parental leave, and opinions about ideal parental-leave policies. The survey yielded a 48.6% response rate (3104 respondents). Of the respondents, 318 (10.2%) were academic psychiatrists and 113 (35.5%) of them had or adopted children since 1990. Of the 113 recent parents, 59 (53.2%) did not know their official university parental-leave policy. Fifty-one (48.1%) psychiatrists had recently taken parental leave (30 female, 21 male). Of these, females (26, 86.7%) were more likely than males (0%) to take more than 8 weeks' leave (P = 0.001). The income paid during parental leave was highly variable. Although 192 (64.4%) psychiatrists recommended that temporary replacements be hired and 175 (59.1%) recommended that the replacements be paid from a common faculty risk pool, replacements were hired for only 7 (13.7%) recent leaves. This replacement rate for psychiatry parental leaves was the second lowest of 8 medical specialties. Several leave takers felt that the leave negatively affected their research (32, 32.7%), administration (24, 23.3%), overall career course (23, 21.5%), colleagues' workload (27, 26.2), clinical work (19, 18.3%), teaching (18, 17.3%) and colleagues' attitudes toward them (11, 10.4%). Although 220 (71.5%) academic psychiatrists recommended paid leave to the primary caregiver for 16 or more weeks, 88 (28.6%) recommended less than the 17-week national standard. For secondary caregivers, 202 (66.0%) academic psychiatrists recommended a paid leave of 1-8 weeks, but 63 (20.6%) recommended paid leave for less than 1 week. One hundred and fifty-four psychiatrists (53.1%) recommended that parental-leave income
Borgestig, Maria; Rytterstrom, Patrik; Hemmingsson, Helena
Objective: To describe and explore parents' experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based assistive technology (AT)) for use in daily life. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents' experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis...
Leadbitter, Kathy; Aldred, Catherine; McConachie, Helen; Le Couteur, Ann; Kapadia, Dharmi; Charman, Tony; Macdonald, Wendy; Salomone, Erica; Emsley, Richard; Green, Jonathan; Barrett, Barbara; Barron, Sam; Beggs, Karen; Blazey, Laura; Bourne, Katy; Byford, Sarah; Cole-Fletcher, Rachel; Collino, Julia; Colmer, Ruth; Cutress, Anna; Gammer, Isobel; Harrop, Clare; Houghton, Tori; Howlin, Pat; Hudry, Kristelle; Leach, Sue; Maxwell, Jessica; Parr, Jeremy; Pickles, Andrew; Randles, Sarah; Slonims, Vicky; Taylor, Carol; Temple, Kathryn; Tobin, Hannah; Vamvakas, George; White, Lydia
There is a lack of measures that reflect the intervention priorities of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that assess the impact of interventions on family experience and quality of life. The Autism Family Experience Questionnaire (AFEQ) was developed through focus groups and online consultation with parents, and…
Johnson, Sophia Alice
This paper seeks to contribute to an understanding of the changing nature of support and information-seeking practices for women in the transition to first-time motherhood. In the context of increasing digitalisation, the significance of new virtual spaces for parenting is discussed. The paper demonstrates how women seek out alternative forms of expertise (specifically, non-medical expertise) and social support. The author argues for the importance of 'intimate mothering publics' through which women gather experiential information and practical support. These publics can act as a space for women to 'test' or legitimise their new identity as a mother. Intimate mothering publics are particularly useful for thinking about the meaning-making practices and learning experiences that occur during intimate online and face-to-face interactions. A variety of types of online support may be used during pregnancy. Surreptitious support in particular involves users invisibly receiving advice, information and reassurance that might otherwise be lacking. Access to intimate mothering publics is motivated by a number of factors, including feelings of community or acceptance, the desire to be a good mother or parent, emotional support and the need for practical and experiential advice.
Tierney, Stephanie; O'Brien, Kevin; Harman, Nicola L; Sharma, Ravi K; Madden, Colm; Callery, Peter
To explore the views of children with cleft palate and their parents about daily life with otitis media with effusion and associated hearing loss. A qualitative study. Semistructured interviews were used to collect data from parents. Participatory techniques, including activities on a tablet computer, were used to collect data from children. Framework analysis was applied to interview transcripts. Two English cleft units. A purposive sample of parents of 37 children aged 0 to 11 years with experience of otitis media with effusion. Their children also took part if aged 6 to 11 years (n = 22). Themes related to the following: (1) emotions (frustration, anger, sadness, happiness, anxiety), (2) educational experiences (struggling at school, having to sit at the front of the class, requiring extra support, missing lessons for appointments or due to ear infections), (3) social interactions (isolation, communication, reliance on siblings, participation in activities). A number of areas of interviewees' everyday life were affected by the presence of otitis media with effusion. Parents may need to be forewarned about the possible ongoing nature of this condition and its impact on a child's social and emotional experiences. Children may also benefit from age-appropriate information about otitis media with effusion and its treatment, including information on hearing tests, to help reduce any anxiety.
Kwon, Suhye; Tae, Young Sook
The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the experience of adult Korean children who are caregivers for parents institutionalized with dementia. Participants were fourteen adult children caregivers of elders institutionalized with dementia. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews with individual participants from August to November, 2012. Theoretical sampling was used to the point of theoretical saturation. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's Grounded Theory Method. From open coding, 67 concepts, 29 sub-categories, and 14 categories were identified. Analysis revealed that the core category of the experience of adult children caring for their parents institutionalized with dementia was 'enduring the role of a prop' consisting of four phases: initial turmoil, exploration, role adjustment, and acclimation. To manage the role of a prop, participants utilized various action/interactional strategies such as overcoming the unfamiliarity, overseeing the nursing home care, and counterbalancing the caring roles. As a result, participants experienced ambivalence towards the existence of parents with dementia, changes in family relationships, altered viewpoint towards nursing homes, and restructuring of life. In-depth understanding of the experience will guide nurses to promote effective interventions in order to better support the Korean family caregivers of parents institutionalized with dementia.
Cullen, Lesley; Barlow, Julie
The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and meaning of touch between parents and children with autism before and after attending a Touch Therapy Programme. The sample comprised 12 parents (1 father and 11 mothers) of children (1 female and 11 male) with autism. Parents were interviewed before and immediately after the 8-week programme. Pre-programme results suggested that children were controlling the experience of touch. Parents felt 'hurt' in response to the 'aloof nature of autism, and natural parenting instincts (e.g. spontaneous cuddles) were restricted. Post-programme results suggested that children appeared to tolerate touch. Parents reported that routine tasks (e.g. dressing) were accomplished more easily and that children appeared generally more relaxed. Parents reported feeling 'closer' to their children and felt that the touch therapy had opened a communication channel between themselves and their children.
Brady, Ellen; Guerin, Suzanne
Support groups in online communities provide an anonymous place to exchange information and advice. Previous research has suggested that these groups offer a safe, nonjudgmental forum for new parents to share experiences and interact anonymously. This study investigated how participants in online parenting groups experience support via the…
Balkin, Emily M; Wolfe, Joanne; Ziniel, Sonja I; Lang, Peter; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Dillis, Shay; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; Blume, Elizabeth D
Little is known about how physician and parent perspectives compare regarding the prognosis and end-of-life (EOL) experience of children with advanced heart disease (AHD). The study's objective was to describe and compare parent and physician perceptions regarding prognosis and EOL experience in children with AHD. This was a cross-sectional survey study of cardiologists and bereaved parents. Study subjects were parents and cardiologists of children with primary cardiac diagnoses who died in a tertiary care pediatric hospital between January 2007 and December 2009. Inclusion required both physician and parent to have completed surveys respective to the same patient. A total of 31 parent/physician pairs formed the analytic sample. Perceptions were measured of cardiologists and bereaved parents regarding the EOL experience of children with AHD. Nearly half of parents and physicians felt that patients suffered 'a great deal,' 'a lot,' or 'somewhat' at EOL, but there was no agreement between them. At diagnosis, parents more often expected complete repair and normal lifespan while the majority of physicians expected shortened lifespan without normal quality of life. Parents who expected complete repair with normal life were more likely to report 'a lot' of suffering at EOL (p=0.002). In 43% of cases, physicians reported that the parents were prepared for the way in which their child died, while the parents reported feeling unprepared. Both parents and physicians perceive suffering at EOL in patients who die of AHD. Moreover, parent expectations at diagnosis may influence perceptions of suffering at EOL. Physicians overestimate the degree of parent preparedness for their child's death.
Lopez Hartmann, Maja; Anthierens, Sibyl; Van Assche, Elisa; Welvaert, Joanna; Verhoeven, Véronique; Wens, Johan; Remmen, Roy
The objective of this study is to describe how adult daughters experience caring for a frail older parent at home. In the near future the ageing of the population will have a major impact on the demand for formal and informal long-term care. Relatives, especially spouses and adult children are the main providers of informal care. Qualitative research methodology was used to study the experience of adult daughters caring for their frail older parents. A phenomenological research perspective was used to better understand the daily experiences of caring for an ageing parent. Data were collected using open-ended interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were subject to thematic analysis. Eleven women between 40-70 years of age participated in this study. Inductive coding of the interview data led to four main themes: being a caregiver as a natural process in life, the perception and consequences of caregiving activities, sharing care and finding a good balance between caring for an ageing parent and other responsibilities. Caregiving activities could be divided into visible and invisible activities and generated different feelings. The visible activities were more easily shared with other family members and professionals than the invisible ones. The women who struggled the most and tended to have a higher level of burden were those who experienced less support from their family. This study provided more insight into the experiences women have when caring for a parent. Supporting family networks that help in both visible and invisible activities may prevent overburden. Consumer-led care and the active participation of the informal caregiver in the decision-making process for building the care plan need to become more prominent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Richards, M H; Duckett, E
This study examines how maternal work may shape pre- and young adolescents' daily life experience. According to the procedures of the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 295 10-13-year-old children carried electronic pagers for 1 week and completed self-report forms in response to random signals sent every other hour. Their daily experience did not differ by maternal employment status, with the following exceptions: full-time maternal employment was associated with more time doing homework with mothers and less time in general leisure, while part-time employment was associated with more time doing sports with parents. Relative to those with nonemployed mothers, youth with part-time employed mothers reported more positive daily moods and higher self-esteem, while youth reported time with full-time employed mothers to be the friendliest. While children with employed mothers spent no less time with family, parents, friends, in class or alone, they spent more time alone with fathers.
Lim, Siew Hoon; Mackey, Sandra; Liam, Joanne Li Wee; He, Hong-Gu
To enhance understanding of the experience of parents in managing their children's postoperative pain in Singapore. Parents play a significant role in their hospitalised child's postoperative pain care. Their active involvement may contribute to accurate pain assessment and effective pain management for their child. However, there is a lack of in-depth research exploring the experience of parents involved in their children's postoperative pain management. This study adopted a descriptive qualitative approach, which is situated in the interpretive paradigm. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data from 14 parents whose children were hospitalised in one of the three paediatric surgical wards in a hospital in Singapore in December 2009. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Three themes were identified: 'Actions used by parents to alleviate their child's postoperative pain', 'Factors influencing parents' management of their child's postoperative pain' and 'Parents' needs in the process of caring for their child's postoperative pain'. Parents used a range of non-pharmacological pain relief interventions for their child. Parental roles and expectations, bond between parent and child, support from nurses, family and own religious beliefs, as well as children's age and maturity level were factors which promoted parental participation, whereas parents' negative feelings, knowledge deficit and nurses' busy schedule were hindering factors. Parents expressed needs for more involvement in their child's care, adequate rest and information support from nurses. This study highlights the importance of involving parents in their child's postoperative pain management. It provides evidence for health care professionals to pay attention to factors that may influence parental participation and, therefore, guide their practice. Nurses need to provide parents with support and education to facilitate their roles and improve their child's postoperative pain
Aagaard, Hanne; Storm, Ida; Klitgaard, Jeannett
and revealed tree overall themes. These themes indicate that besides struggling with grief related to the loss of one infant, the parents were challenged by the medical discourse, the lack of staff continuity and space to develop parenthood. This case study emphasizes how the loss of a premature twin......The aim of this case study was to generate a deeper understanding of parents’ experiences of losing one twin in the NICU. In an in-depth interview the parents told their story of giving birth to twins born extremely preterm and shortly after losing one of them. A thematic analysis was conducted...... reinforced the parents’ need of an understandable dialogue with a team of nurses. Furthermore the nurses have to offer a close partnership and create the necessary space for parents to develop parenthood while simultaneously dealing with the unexpected and traumatising circumstances related to the loss...
Coxeter, Peter D; Mar, Chris Del; Hoffmann, Tammy C
Primary care visits for children with acute respiratory infections frequently result in antibiotic prescriptions, although antibiotics have limited benefits for common acute respiratory infections and can cause harms, including antibiotic resistance. Parental demands are often blamed for antibiotic prescription. We aimed to explore parents' beliefs about antibiotic necessity, quantify their expectations of antibiotic benefit, and report experiences of other management options and exposure to and preferences for shared decision making. We conducted computer-assisted telephone interviews in an Australia-wide community sample of primary caregivers, hereafter referred to as parents, of children aged 1 to 12 years, using random digit dialing of household landline telephones. Of the 14,505 telephone numbers called, 10,340 were eligible numbers; 589 potentially eligible parents were reached, of whom 401 were interviewed. Most believed antibiotics provide benefits for common acute respiratory infections, especially for acute otitis media (92%), although not using them, particularly for acute cough and sore throat, was sometimes acceptable. Parents grossly overestimated the mean benefit of antibiotics on illness symptom duration by 5 to 10 times, and believed they reduce the likelihood of complications. The majority, 78%, recognized antibiotics may cause harm. Recalling the most recent relevant doctor visit, 44% of parents reported at least some discussion about why antibiotics might be used; shared decision making about antibiotic use was inconsistent, while 75% wanted more involvement in future decisions. Some parents have misperceptions about antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections, highlighting the need for improved communication during visits, including shared decision making to address overoptimistic expectations of antibiotics. Such communication should be one of several strategies that is used to reduce antibiotic use. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
van der Meer, G. T.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Nijman, J. M.
The popularity of (intimate) body piercing has increased as well as the chances of being confronted with (the complications) of it. This article provides information about the various types of intimate body piercings in women, the complications and concerns regarding the treatment of patients with
Neilson, Sue J; Gibson, Faith; Greenfield, Sheila M
This qualitative study set in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom, aimed to examine the role of the general practitioner (GP) in children's oncology palliative care from the perspective of GPs who had cared for a child with cancer receiving palliative care at home and bereaved parents. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 18 GPs and 11 bereaved parents following the death. A grounded theory data analysis was undertaken; identifying generated themes through chronological comparative data analysis. Similarity in GP and parent viewpoints was found, the GPs role seen as one of providing medication and support. Time pressures GPs faced influenced their level of engagement with the family during palliative and bereavement care and their ability to address their identified learning deficits. Lack of familiarity with the family, coupled with an acknowledgment that it was a rare and could be a frightening experience, also influenced their level of interaction. There was no consistency in GP practice nor evidence of practice being guided by local or national policies. Parents lack of clarity of their GPs role resulted in missed opportunities for support. Time pressures influence GP working practices. Enhanced communication and collaboration between the GP and regional childhood cancer centre may help address identified GP challenges, such as learning deficits, and promote more time-efficient working practices through role clarity. Parents need greater awareness of their GP's wide-ranging role; one that transcends palliative care incorporating bereavement support and on-going medical care for family members.
Klingberg, Gunilla; Hallberg, Ulrika; Oskarsdóttir, Sólveig
22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes, and many dentists are likely to meet patients with the syndrome. Odontological research has focused on describing and analysing conditions/concepts based on the current state of knowledge within the dental profession. Yet, these research topics are not necessarily the most important issues for the patients. To explore and describe, by use of Grounded theory, parents' experiences of oral health issues and needs for dental care in their children with 22q11DS. Twelve parents from different regions in Sweden were interviewed. Analyses were carried out according to Grounded theory. Parents recognised good oral health as important for the wellbeing of their children. Oral health was a concern and the parents described the fight for this as struggling in vain for good oral health in their child. Parents not only described their children's oral health as important but also hard to gain. Thus, it is important that all patients with disabilities, regardless of whether there is a defined medical diagnosis or not, are identified and well taken care of in the dental care system.
Wilson, Rene M.
Parent involvement is considered a vital educational factor that is associated with students' academic success. Engaging parents in the educational process is a challenge confronting many school districts across the United States. This is a significant problem for schools in low socioeconomic communities where lack of resources for parents and…
Knutsson-Medin, L; Edlund, B; Ramklint, M
Children of mentally ill parents have increased rates of psychopathology and reduced adaptive functioning. However, there are very few studies examining the subjective experiences of those children and their opinions concerning their previous contact with psychiatric services. This study followed up a group of children of former psychiatric inpatients by sending them a questionnaire asking about their experiences. Thirty-six individuals responded. Answers were analysed qualitatively by using manifest content analysis. Participants reported negative experiences and lack of information and support from psychiatric care. They had wanted more explanations and more support for themselves. Quantitative data are used to establish the significance of the results.
Mehus, Christopher J; Watson, Ryan J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Corliss, Heather L; Porta, Carolyn M
It is well known that parental and community-based support are each related to healthy development in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth, but little research has explored the ways these contexts interact and overlap. Through go-along interviews (a method in which participants guide the interviewer around the community) with 66 youth in British Columbia, Massachusetts, and Minnesota, adolescents (aged 14-19 years) reported varying extent of overlap between their LGBTQ experiences and their parent-youth experiences; parents and youth each contributed to the extent of overlap. Youth who reported high overlap reported little need for resources outside their families but found resources easy to access if wanted. Youth who reported little overlap found it difficult to access resources. Findings suggest that in both research and practice, considering the extent to which youth feel they can express their authentic identity in multiple contexts may be more useful than simply evaluating parental acceptance or access to resources.
Peters, Kathleen; Jackson, Debra
This paper is a report of a study to explore the perceptions and experiences of mothers parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Previous quantitative studies have focussed on parenting styles and treatments, and highlight that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has a negative impact on family functioning. However, fewer researchers have explored maternal experiences of parenting a child with this disorder. A narrative-based feminist approach can provide greater insights into complex issues related to mothering a child with this disorder. Data were collected in 2007 with a volunteer sample of 11 mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder via in-depth interviews. Analysis was completed by listening for self-evaluative statements, paying attention to meta-statements and by identifying both consistencies and incongruities within participant's narratives. Dominant issues identified were: It's been 10 years of being on edge: The caring responsibility as overwhelming; If I had my time over again, I wouldn't tell the truth: Stigmatized, scrutinized and criticized; What have I done? What did I do? How come I've got this child: Guilt and self-blame and He doesn't stand a chance: Mother as advocate. Mothering a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is stressful and demanding, and mothers felt marginalized. Media portrayal of this disorder contributes to confusion related to causes, diagnosis and treatment choices. More education for healthcare professionals is needed to enable them to give appropriate guidance and support to enhance outcomes for children and their parents.
Van Zyl, Lenka
Full Text Available This qualitative study aimed to illuminate the pregnancy and parenting experiences of adolescents from Sir Lowry’s Pass Village in the Helderberg Basin. Participants were recruited through snowball sampling and participated in unstructured interviews. Findings highlight factors contributing to the pregnancies and the challenges participants experienced during pregnancy and parenting such as poverty, stigma, loss, and lack of parenting skills. The complexity of being a child in the house of their parents while having their own child is illuminated. Positive experiences include their children as source of meaning and the aspirations they have for their children.
Muirhead, Vanessa; Levine, Alissa; Nicolau, Belinda; Landry, Anne; Bedos, Christophe
This study aimed to better understand low-income parents' child dental care decisions through a life course approach that captured parents' experiences within the social context of poverty. We conducted 43 qualitative life history interviews with 10 parents, who were long-term social assistance recipients living in Montreal, Canada. Thematic analysis involved interview debriefing, transcript coding, theme identification and data interpretation. Our interviews identified two emergent themes: lay diagnosis and parental oral health management. Parents described a process of 'lay diagnosis' that consisted of examining their children's teeth and interpreting their children's oral signs and symptoms based on their observations. These lay diagnoses were also shaped by their own dental crises, care experiences and oral health knowledge gained across a life course of poverty and dental disadvantage. Parents' management strategies included monitoring and managing their children's oral health themselves or by seeking professional recourse. Parents' management strategies were influenced both by their lay diagnoses and their perceived ability to manage their children's oral health. Parents felt responsible for their children's dental care, empowered to manage their oral health and sometimes forgo dental visits for their children because of their own self-management life history. This original approach revealed insights that help to understand why low-income parents may underutilize free dental services. Further research should consider how dental programs can nurture parental empowerment and capitalize on parents' perceived ability to diagnose and manage their children's oral health.
Conway, Mary F; Pantaleao, Ashley; Popp, Jill M
This study examined the role and importance of hopefulness for parents of children with cancer, how hope relates to parents' experience with the diagnosis, and the influence nurses and other health care professionals have on parents' hope. Using an interview format, 50 parents of children diagnosed with cancer were given the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview, and asked 5 open-ended questions about hope. Answers were analyzed using content analysis. Parents' adaptation to their child's diagnosis was compared with answers to the hope questions. Parents defined hope as a knowing, belief, or wish regarding their child's health. They emphasized the importance of hope over the course of their child's treatment. Staff increased parents' hope by providing care to children and families, educating parents, and by connecting with and providing a positive outlook for families. Most parents felt there was nothing staff did to decrease their hope. Understanding parents' experiences validates the quality care and connections we make with children and families, and encourages us to consider the effects of our interactions. This underscores the importance of education and support as a means of instilling hope in parents, who are valued, critical members of their child's health care team.
Tähtinen, Paula A; Boonacker, Chantal W B; Rovers, Maroeska M; Schilder, Anne G M; Huovinen, Pentti; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Ruuskanen, Olli; Ruohola, Aino
Both treatment guidelines and the amount of antibiotics used for acute otitis media (AOM) vary across western countries. Parental expectations and their awareness of antimicrobial use and resistance, which may also be influenced by the guidelines, are not yet completely known. To compare parental experiences and opinions regarding the management of AOM in children with AOM in Finland and The Netherlands. We sent the questionnaires via public day care in Turku, Finland, and Utrecht, The Netherlands. We asked about family background, child's history of AOM and parental experiences and attitudes about AOM treatment and antimicrobial resistance. Of 1151 participants, 83% in Finland and 49% in The Netherlands had had at least one episode of AOM. Antibiotics were used more frequently in Finland than in The Netherlands, 99% versus 78%, respectively. More Finnish parents reported to believe that antibiotics are necessary in the treatment of AOM as compared to Dutch parents. Use of analgesics for AOM was similar (80% in Finland and 86% in The Netherlands). One-third of the parents had discussed resistance with their doctor. According to parental experiences, antimicrobial resistance had caused more problems in Finland than in The Netherlands (20% versus 2%). Finally, 88% of parents in Finland and 65% in The Netherlands were worried that bacteria could become resistant to antibiotics. Treatment practices and parental expectations seem to interact with each other. Therefore, if we aim to change AOM treatment practices, we have to modify both guidelines and parental expectations.
Cantwell-Bartl, Annie M; Tibballs, James
To evaluate the experiences of parenting a child with hypoplastic left heart syndrome after the child has been discharged home from hospital. A study of the parents' experiences using face-to-face interviews and psychometric measures with parents whose child had survived stage surgery. Parents were interviewed within the home environment or within the hospital if that was their choice. A total of 29 parents (16 mothers and 13 fathers) of surviving children. Intervention A semi-structured face-to-face interview plus psychometric tests (parent demographics, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Impact on Family Scale, and the Psychological Check List - Civilian). Measurements and main results The parents' experience in supporting a child with hypoplastic left heart syndrome is one of stress, of commitment, and of love. Although parents experienced joy in their child, they were also subjected to anxiety with four parents test positive to post-traumatic stress disorder and hypervigilance while monitoring their child's condition. Parents lived with many difficulties, and demands.
Tully, Lucy A; Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Collins, Daniel A J; Mairet, Kathleen S; Black, Nicola; Kimonis, Eva R; Hawes, David J; Moul, Caroline; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Frick, Paul J; Anderson, Vicki; Dadds, Mark R
Early childhood interventions can have both immediate and long-term positive effects on cognitive, behavioural, health and education outcomes. Fathers are underrepresented in interventions focusing on the well-being of children. However, father participation may be critical for intervention effectiveness, especially for parenting interventions for child externalising problems. To date, there has been very little research conducted to understand the low rates of father participation and to facilitate the development of interventions to meet the needs of fathers. This study examined fathers' experiences of, and preferences for, parenting interventions as well as perceptions of barriers to participation. It also examined how these factors were associated with child externalising behaviour problems, and explored the predictors of participation in parenting interventions. A community sample of 1001 fathers of children aged 2-16 years completed an online survey about experiences with parenting interventions, perceived barriers to participation, the importance of different factors in their decision to attend, and preferred content and delivery methods. They also completed ratings of their child's behaviour using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Overall, 15% of fathers had participated in a parenting intervention or treatment for child behaviour, with significantly higher rates of participation for fathers of children with high versus low levels of externalising problems. Fathers rated understanding what is involved in the program and knowing that the facilitator is trained as the two most important factors in their decision to participate. There were several barriers to participation that fathers of children with high-level externalising problems were more likely to endorse, across practical barriers and help-seeking attitudes, compared to fathers of children with low-level externalising problems. Almost two-thirds of fathers of children with high
Lucy A. Tully
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood interventions can have both immediate and long-term positive effects on cognitive, behavioural, health and education outcomes. Fathers are underrepresented in interventions focusing on the well-being of children. However, father participation may be critical for intervention effectiveness, especially for parenting interventions for child externalising problems. To date, there has been very little research conducted to understand the low rates of father participation and to facilitate the development of interventions to meet the needs of fathers. This study examined fathers’ experiences of, and preferences for, parenting interventions as well as perceptions of barriers to participation. It also examined how these factors were associated with child externalising behaviour problems, and explored the predictors of participation in parenting interventions. Methods A community sample of 1001 fathers of children aged 2–16 years completed an online survey about experiences with parenting interventions, perceived barriers to participation, the importance of different factors in their decision to attend, and preferred content and delivery methods. They also completed ratings of their child’s behaviour using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Overall, 15% of fathers had participated in a parenting intervention or treatment for child behaviour, with significantly higher rates of participation for fathers of children with high versus low levels of externalising problems. Fathers rated understanding what is involved in the program and knowing that the facilitator is trained as the two most important factors in their decision to participate. There were several barriers to participation that fathers of children with high-level externalising problems were more likely to endorse, across practical barriers and help-seeking attitudes, compared to fathers of children with low-level externalising problems
Andersson, Ewa; Christensson, Kyllike; Hildingsson, Ingegerd
group-based antenatal care consists of six to nine two-hour sessions in which information is shared and discussed during the first hour and individual examinations are conducted during the second hour. Groups generally consist of six to eight pregnant women. Parent education is built into the programme, which originated in the United States and was introduced in Sweden at the beginning of the year of 2000. to investigate parents' experiences of group antenatal care in four different clinics in Sweden. a qualitative study was conducted using content analysis five group interviews and eleven individual interviews with parents who experienced group-based antenatal care. An interview guide was used. the study was set in four antenatal clinics that had offered group-based antenatal care for at least one year. The clinics were located in three different areas of Sweden. the participants were women and their partners who had experienced group-based antenatal care during pregnancy. Other criteria for participation were mastery of the Swedish language and having followed the care programme. three themes emerged, 'The care-combining individual physical needs with preparation for parenthood, refers to the context, organisation, and content of care'. Group antenatal care with inbuilt parent education was appreciated, but respondents reported that they felt unprepared for the first few weeks after birth. Their medical needs (for physical assessment and screening) were, however, fulfilled. The theme, 'The group-a composed recipient of care', showed the participants role and experience. The role could be passive or active in groups or described as sharers. Groups helped parents normalise their symptoms. The theme, 'The midwife-a controlling professional', showed midwives are ignorant of gender issues but, for their medical knowledge, viewed as respectable professionals. in the four clinics studied, group-based antenatal care appeared to meet parents' needs for physical assessment
Diaz-Serrano, Luis; Meix-Llop, Enric
The recognition of homosexual rights is a controversial issue in many countries. Spain was the third country in the world (after Netherlands and Belgium) to introduce a law recognizing homosexual marriage and adoption of children. In this paper, we examine for the first time whether schools are more hesitant to give feedback to homosexual parents during children's pre-registration period in Spain. In order to do that, we designed an internet field experiment to be conducted in ...
Full Text Available This article considers the ‘co-affective’ power of the new media artwork Intimate Transactions. This co-affective power operates at the ‘trans-subjective’ level of experience. In order to explore this level of experience the article draws on the work of Brian Massumi, Bracha Ettinger and Felix Guattari amongst others. For these thinkers the ‘trans-subjective’ level of experience, precisely because it is ‘co-affective’, holds ethical potential. The article argues for the importance of tending to ‘co-affective’ level of experience – both in designing “interactive” art, such as Intimate Transactions, and in life more generally.
M.Ed. The way in which an adolescent experiences authority is an important element of the educational process. Without authority, it can be said, there is no education. But adolescents’ experience of authority is something that is developed outside the classroom, primarily during their interactions with parents. This study explores how South African adolescents experience authority, but focused on the effect of living in institutions, and not at home with their parents. A 47-item questionn...
Rico, Emily; Fenn, Bridget; Abramsky, Tanya; Watts, Charlotte
If effective interventions are to be used to address child mortality and malnutrition, then it is important that we understand the different pathways operating within the framework of child health. More attention needs to be given to understanding the contribution of social influences such as intimate partner violence (IPV). To investigate the relationship between maternal exposure to IPV and child mortality and malnutrition using data from five developing countries. Population data from Egypt, Honduras, Kenya, Malawi and Rwanda were analysed. Logistic regression analysis was used to generate odds ratios of the associations between several categories of maternal exposure to IPV since the age of 15 and three child outcomes: under-2-year-old (U2) mortality and moderate and severe stunting (Honduras) to 46.2% (Kenya). For child stunting, prevalence ranged from 25.4% (Egypt) to 58.0% (Malawi) and for U2 mortality from 3.6% (Honduras) to 15.2% (Rwanda). In Kenya, maternal exposure to IPV was associated with higher U2 mortality (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.42, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.71) and child stunting (adjusted OR=1.36, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.61). In Malawi and Honduras, marginal associations were observed between IPV and severe stunting and U2 mortality, respectively, with strength of associations varying by type of violence. The relationship between IPV and U2 mortality and stunting in Kenya, Honduras and Malawi suggests that, in these countries, IPV plays a role in child malnutrition and mortality. This contributes to a growing body of evidence that broader public health benefits may be incurred if efforts to address IPV are incorporated into a wider range of maternal and child health programmes; however, the authors highlight the need for more research that can establish temporality, use data collected on the basis of the study's objectives, and further explore the causal framework of this relationship using more advanced statistical analysis.
Maastrup, Ragnhild; Weis, Janne; Engsig, Anne B; Johannsen, Kirsten L; Zoffmann, Vibeke
Based on the Family-Centred Care philosophy, skin-to-skin contact is a key activity in neonatal care, and use of this practice is increasing also with extremely preterm infants. Little is known about parents' immediate experiences of and readiness for skin-to-skin contact, while their fragile infant may still not be 'on safe ground'. Knowledge about parents' experiences might reduce doubt and reluctance among healthcare professionals to use skin-to-skin contact with extremely preterm infants and thus increase its dissemination in practice. To explore parents' immediate experiences of skin-to-skin contact with extremely preterm infants parents after skin-to-skin contact with their extremely preterm infants analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Parents' experiences were related to the process before, during and after skin-to-skin contact and moved from ambivalence to appreciating skin-to-skin contact as beneficial for both parents and infant. The process comprised three stages: (i) overcoming ambivalence through professional support and personal experience; (ii) proximity creating parental feelings and an inner need to provide care; (iii) feeling useful as a parent and realising the importance of skin-to-skin contact. Having repeatedly gone through stages 2 and 3, parents developed an overall confidence in the value of bonding, independent of the infant's survival. Parents progressed from ambivalence to a feeling of fundamental mutual needs for skin-to-skin contact. Parents found the bonding facilitated by skin-to-skin contact to be valuable, regardless of the infant's survival. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Desai, Miraj U; Divan, Gauri; Wertz, Frederick J; Patel, Vikram
The current study investigated the lived experience of 12 parents of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in everyday cultural contexts in Goa, India. Narratives from parents collected between 2009 and 2010 were analyzed using the procedures of phenomenological psychology. Four temporal phases of parents' experience emerged from these data. Findings showed that the earliest phase of the child's life was a period of relative normalcy and social cohesion. In the second phase, the child's behaviors began to disrupt the everyday social order, but parents viewed these unexpected behaviors as temporary. In the third phase, parents' observations in public situations, along with assessments of others, led to a qualitative shift in which parents began to perceive that there was a persisting problem interfering with their child's social and practical activities. In the fourth phase, parents grappled with developing their child's capacities to meet existing practical opportunities in the local society, while attempting to reshape the social world to accommodate the abilities and limits of children like their own. Parents' fundamental concerns throughout their journey were: learning to meet new and unfamiliar challenges as parents, caring for their child's basic needs, and finding an engaging niche with a sense of belonging for their child in the everyday milieu. Both culture-specific and potentially universal levels of experience are delineated in the overall findings. Implications for culturally sensitive research and practice in India and other low- and middle-income countries are discussed.
River, Laura M; Borelli, Jessica L; Nelson-Coffey, S Katherine
Evidence has suggested that parental romantic attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms are related to experiences of caregiving (Creswell, Apetroaia, Murray, & Cooper, 2013; Jones, Cassidy, & Shaver, 2014; Lovejoy, Graczyk, O'Hare, & Neuman, 2000), but more research is necessary to clarify the nature of these relations, particularly in the context of attachment-salient events such as reunions. In a cross-sectional study of 150 parents of children ages 1 to 3 years, we assessed participants' attachment styles (self-reported anxiety and avoidance) and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants generated a narrative describing their most recent reunion with their child, which we coded for caregiving outcomes of negative emotion and secure base script content. Attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms separately predicted each caregiving outcome. Depressive and anxiety symptoms mediated the associations between attachment style and caregiving outcomes. These results suggest that parental attachment insecurity and depressive and anxiety symptoms contribute to negative emotion and reduced secure base script content. Further, depressive and anxiety symptomatology partially accounts for the relation between attachment insecurity and caregiving outcomes, suggesting that parental mental health is a critical point for intervention. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Brooks, Seraina; Eckerli-Wäspi, Irene; Händler Schuster, Daniela
Background: In daily communication, children with hearing impairment are restricted and dependent on their parents’ help. In case of a hospitalisation, the risk of insufficient information and resulting traumatisation for those children is high. The aim of this study is the investigation of the communicative needs of the children concerned in order to avoid negative consequences of a hospitalisation and of inappropriate communication by nursing staff. Aim: This study explores how parents of a child with hearing impairment experience the communication between the nursing staff and their hospitalised child. Method: The study was conducted together with an advisory centre for hearing-impaired children, where most of the parents could be recruited. Narrative, semi-structured interviews were conducted. The transcribed interviews were analysed according to the method of interpretative phenomenology. Results: The parents expressed their wish for affectionate verbal and nonverbal love and care for their child. They often experienced the nursing staff having little time, that there was no continuity and that the communicative needs of the child were not recognised. Since the parents did not think the nursing staff were capable of communicating with the child and because they wanted to protect him or her, they adopted a mediating role. Conclusions: Besides the sensitisation of the nursing staff, time resources, continuity, professional knowledge and benevolence in the nursing care of a child with hearing impairment play a fundamental role.
Ogden, Jane; Cordey, Phillipa; Cutler, Laura; Thomas, Hayley
Two naturalistic experiments are reported exploring the impact of parental restriction on children's diets. For study 1, 53 parents gave 75 g of chocolate coins to their child over a weekend. For study 2, 86 parents were recruited prior to the 2 week Easter break when their children would be receiving chocolate Easter eggs. For both studies, parents were randomly allocated to either the non-restriction or restriction conditions and rated their child's preoccupation with the target food and other sweet foods (demanding and eating) at the start and end of the interventions. Perceived and actual food intake was assessed. Children in the restriction conditions consumed fewer chocolate coins and Easter eggs. All children showed decreased preoccupation with chocolate coins or Easter eggs over the course of the studies yet by the end the restriction group were more preoccupied with the target food. In contrast, all children showed an increased preoccupation with other sweet foods as the studies progressed which was greater in the non-restriction group for the chocolate coins study. Overall, restriction resulted in reduced intake but relative increased preoccupation with the food being restricted. Non-restriction resulted in a greater preoccupation with other sweet foods once the target foods had been consumed. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hansson, Emma; Ostman, Jenny; Becker, Magnus
Adoption of Chinese children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) has become increasingly more common in Sweden. The aim of this study was to examine parents' experience when adopting a child with CLP. Since 2008, 34 adopted children with CLP have been treated in our department. A questionnaire was sent to 33 of the families and 30 of them answered (91%). The parents had queued from 1 month to 8 years before they were offered a child. Eighteen families reported that they received information on CLP from the adoption agency and 87% contacted the department of plastic surgery for additional information. In 15 cases (45%) previously unknown medical conditions or birth defects other than CLP were discovered in Sweden. Most parents (67%) had been informed before the adoption that their child could be a carrier of resistant bacteria, but not all had received enough information to grasp what it implies to be a carrier. The great majority of the families did not feel that the early hospitalisation for the first operation had a negative impact on the attachment between them and their adopted child. They thought that the aesthetic and functional results of the operations were "better than expected". Seventeen families stated that people react to the cleft and four of them think that the reactions are a problem. Presumptive adoptive parents should be informed that the child might have unsuspected medical conditions, resistant bacteria, what carriage implies, and that needed treatment and long-term results are not predictable.
Keller, Heidi; Yovsi, Relindis; Borke, Joern; Kärtner, Joscha; Jensen, Henning; Papaligoura, Zaira
This study relates parenting of 3-month-old children to children's self-recognition and self-regulation at 18 to 20 months. As hypothesized, observational data revealed differences in the sociocultural orientations of the 3 cultural samples' parenting styles and in toddlers' development of self-recognition and self-regulation. Children of Cameroonian Nso farmers who experience a proximal parenting style develop self-regulation earlier, children of Greek urban middle-class families who experience a distal parenting style develop self-recognition earlier, and children of Costa Rican middle-class families who experience aspects of both distal and proximal parenting styles fall between the other 2 groups on both self-regulation and self-recognition. Results are discussed with respect to their implications for culturally informed developmental pathways.
Ellis, Alison; Chebsey, Caroline; Storey, Claire; Bradley, Stephanie; Jackson, Sue; Flenady, Vicki; Heazell, Alexander; Siassakos, Dimitrios
2.7 million babies were stillborn in 2015 worldwide; behind these statistics lie the experiences of bereaved parents. The first Lancet series on stillbirth in 2011 described stillbirth as one of the "most shamefully neglected" areas of public health, recommended improving interaction between families and frontline caregivers and made a plea for increased investment in relevant research. A systematic review of qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method studies researching parents and healthcare professionals experiences of care after stillbirth in high-income westernised countries (Europe, North America, Australia and South Africa) was conducted. The review was designed to inform research, training and improve care for parents who experience stillbirth. Four thousand four hundred eighty eight abstracts were identified; 52 studies were eligible for inclusion. Synthesis and quantitative aggregation (meta-summary) was used to extract findings and calculate frequency effect sizes (FES%) for each theme (shown in italics), a measure of the prevalence of that finding in the included studies. Researchers' areas of interest may influence reporting of findings in the literature and result in higher FES sizes, such as; support memory making (53%) and fathers have different needs (18%). Other parental findings were more unexpected; Parents want increased public awareness (20%) and for stillbirth care to be prioritised (5%). Parental findings highlighted lessons for staff; prepare parents for vaginal birth (23%), discuss concerns (13%), give options & time (20%), privacy not abandonment (30%), tailored post-mortem discussions (20%) and post-natal information (30%). Parental and staff findings were often related; behaviours and actions of staff have a memorable impact on parents (53%) whilst staff described emotional, knowledge and system-based barriers to providing effective care (100%). Parents reported distress being caused by midwives hiding behind 'doing' and ritualising
Wright, J; Elwell, L; McDonagh, J E; Kelly, D A; Wray, J
Predictors of successful transition from pediatric to adult services include ability to self-manage and engage with healthcare services. Parents have a key role in healthcare management throughout childhood and adolescence including encouraging development of self-management skills in their children. Transition to adult services can be challenging for parents and young people, yet parents' views regarding transition remain largely unexplored. Nine parents of pediatric liver transplant recipients (15.2-25.1 yr) participated in semistructured interviews. Interviews were analyzed using IPA. Analysis revealed three key themes: "emotional impact of transplantation," "protection vs. independence," and "ending relationships and changing roles." Parents expressed the dichotomous nature of the desire to promote independence in their child while still maintaining control and protection, and discussed how changing roles and relationships were difficult to navigate. Parents are important facilitators of young people's development of self-management skills for successful transfer to adult services. Parents should be supported to move from a "managerial" to a "supervisory" role during transition to help young people engage independently with the healthcare team. Findings support the development of interventions for parents to emphasize their role in transition and guide the transfer of self-management skills from parent to young person. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gabriels, karlijn; Brouwer, AJ; maat, Jessica; van den Hoogen, Agnes
Abstract This review is focusing on the experiences and needs of parents with infants within NICU regarding Kangaroo Care. Ten studies with qualitative designs were included. Kangaroo Care was overall experienced as positive; giving parents the opportunity to get to know their babies and (re-)
Brink, Helle L; Thomsen, Anja K; Laerkner, Eva
OBJECTIVE: 'To identify parents' experience of a follow up meeting and to explore whether the conversation was adequate to meet the needs of parents for a follow-up after their child's death in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative method utilising semi...
McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Kaplan, Rachel; Purtell, Kelly M.; Huston, Aletha C.
The impacts of New Hope, a 3-year work-based antipoverty program to increase parent employment and reduce poverty, on youth ages 9-19 (N = 866) were assessed 5 years after parents left the program. New Hope had positive effects on the future orientation and employment experiences of boys, especially African American boys. Compared to boys in…
Raikes, Helen; Torquati, Julia; Wang, Cixin; Shjegstad, Brinn
Research Findings: This study investigated parents' experiences using Child Care and Development Fund and other state-dispersed child care subsidies, reasons for choosing their current child care program, and perceptions of the quality of child care received from their current program. A telephone survey of 659 parents receiving child care…
Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun
The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and…
Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.
Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…
Glynne-Owen, Ruth Elizabeth
Parents of children with autism have been identified across research as having unique experiences in comparison to parents of children with other disabilities. The focus to date has been on identifying factors impacting on parental well-being post-diagnosis, with some more recent studies looking more specifically at parent experience of the diagnostic process. However, there is less literature that explores the impact that this diagnosis may have on parental perspectives of, an...
Aplin, Tammy; Thornton, Heloise; Gustafsson, Louise
The aim of this paper was to investigate the experience of home for parents and carers of children with disabilities in Australia. Data for this qualitative study were gathered using semi-structured interviews with four families living in their own homes. An inductive thematic analysis revealed two main themes. The first was titled 'Aspects making everyday life easier' explored the aspects of the home environment that facilitated home life for the child, including access to transport, services, family and home modifications. The second theme 'Decisions and efforts to create opportunities for the child' emphasized the efforts made by parents and carers to promote their child's independence and participation including a strong consideration for their children's future needs. The study indicated that the location of home, appropriate home modifications and planning for the future defined the experience of home for parents and carers. These findings identify some important considerations for occupational therapists when providing services in the homes of families with children who have a disability.
Lee, Shih-Yu; Weiss, Sandra J
To explore the experiences of first-generation Chinese American parents while their infants are cared for in intensive care units (ICUs). Because the study focus was on understanding the experiences of parents, a phenomenological approach was used, with open-ended questions that encouraged participants to describe events they perceived to be important. The data analysis procedure suggested by van Manen was used for the qualitative data analysis. A convenience sample of 25 first-generation Chinese American families, with infants hospitalized in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in the San Francisco area. Seven themes were identified: perceived incompetence, self-blame, blame from others, filial piety, lack of support in the US, communication issues, and cultural differences. Both fathers and mothers experienced stress related to all identified themes. Findings suggest the need for more resources to educate and support families as well as culturally competent care within pediatric ICUs. Further study is critical to understand how the Chinese American's personal and family characteristics may influence stress perceptions when coping with their children's hospitalization. This study can help healthcare providers to understand Chinese American parents' perceptions while their infants are hospitalized in the ICU, which can enhance cultural competence care services.
Shahnavaz, Shervin; Rutley, Sara; Larsson, Karin; Dahllöf, Göran
There is a high prevalence of dental anxiety in children and adolescents. Cognitive behavioral therapy is emerging as a treatment option. The purpose of this study is to explore how children with dental anxiety and their parents experience cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in dentistry. We interviewed 12 children and one of their parents and conducted a thematic analysis of the transcribed interviews. Perspective shift emerged as overarching theme in our thematic analysis. This theme consisted of three main themes, which were mastery, safety, and reduced fear. Six subthemes were also identified according to our analyses. Mastery includes two subthemes, gradual exposure and autonomy and control. Subthemes and sources for safety feeling were therapeutic alliance and changed appraisal. The theme reduced fear also consisted of two subthemes; reduced anticipatory anxiety and coping. The results show that parents and children had positive experiences of CBT and its outcome and were able to benefit from this psychological treatment when dealing with dental anxiety. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fowler, Cathrine; Reid, Sharon; Minnis, Jeannie; Day, Carolyn
To understand the experiences of women with a history of substance dependence when they attempted to gain parenting support. Becoming a mother provides a window of opportunity to support women with a substance dependence make changes to their lives and the way they will parent their infants and young children. Yet there are many barriers and a constant fear of the removal of their children from their care. Focus groups were conducted using a qualitative interpretive descriptive approach to enable exploration of the women's experiences as mothers with infants and young children. A series of three focus groups were facilitated with three to six women per group. Thirteen women who were substance dependent participated in this study. Semi-structured interviews guided the collection of data. Thematic content analysis was used to work with the data. Four themes were identified: (1) feelings of guilt, (2) judged by others, (3) normalising and (4) support and learning to be a mother. The mothers expressed alienation from mainstream health services. Providing parenting and child health services, which avoid mothers feeling judged by the staff and other mothers, is an important step to enabling these women to appropriately and sensitively care for their infants and young children. Midwives and nurses working with mothers and their infants and young children are well positioned to support women who are or have experienced substance dependence. Working with this group of mothers requires the development of a therapeutic relationship to provide optimum support, education and, if necessary, intervention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gates, Allison; Shave, Kassi; Featherstone, Robin; Buckreus, Kelli; Ali, Samina; Scott, Shannon; Hartling, Lisa
There exist many evidence-based interventions available to manage procedural pain in children and neonates, yet they are severely underutilized. Parents play an important role in the management of their child's pain; however, many do not possess adequate knowledge of how to effectively do so. The purpose of the planned study is to systematically review and synthesize current knowledge of the experiences and information needs of parents with regard to the management of their child's pain and distress related to medical procedures in the emergency department. We will conduct a systematic review using rigorous methods and reporting based on the PRISMA statement. We will conduct a comprehensive search of literature published between 2000 and 2016 reporting on parents' experiences and information needs with regard to helping their child manage procedural pain and distress. Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid PsycINFO, CINAHL, and PubMed will be searched. We will also search reference lists of key studies and gray literature sources. Two reviewers will screen the articles following inclusion criteria defined a priori. One reviewer will then extract the data from each article following a data extraction form developed by the study team. The second reviewer will check the data extraction for accuracy and completeness. Any disagreements with regard to study inclusion or data extraction will be resolved via discussion. Data from qualitative studies will be summarized thematically, while those from quantitative studies will be summarized narratively. The second reviewer will confirm the overarching themes resulting from the qualitative and quantitative data syntheses. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative Research Checklist and the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies will be used to assess the quality of the evidence from each included study. To our knowledge, no published review exists that comprehensively reports on the experiences and information needs of parents
Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha; Björk, Maria
Background: In research the relationships between parents and their adolescent daughters have been viewed from problem oriented perspectives, usually exploring negative effects and health-related problems. Health and well-being are complex phenomena and knowledge is needed on how parents can support the health and well-being of their daughter.…
Abstract This article situates breastfeeding politics in the context of intimate citizenship, where women's capability to care in a range of social spaces is at stake. Drawing on the work of Lefebvre and Fenster, the article considers the extent to which recent breastfeeding promotion work by the Health Promotion Agency in Northern Ireland has sought to reconceive of social spaces in ways that have the potential to improve intimate citizenship for breastfeeding women. L.Smyth@qu...
Wallström, Rebecca; Persson, Renée Ståleborg; Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
Children who grow up in families with parental substance abuse are exposed to increased risk of developing a variety of disorders. As nurses encounter these children, it is important for them to be supportive. The aim of the current study was to describe nurses' experiences and reflections regarding their work with children in families with parental substance abuse. A qualitative descriptive approach was adopted. Seven nurses were interviewed, and data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The results were presented in four categories: (a) nurses' responsibilities; (b) identification of children's social network; (c) ethical concerns; and (d) assessment and evaluation of children's behavior. Nurses' preventive work and intervention in dysfunctional families may have direct consequences on children's present and future development and well-being. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(6), 38-44.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Dellenmark-Blom, Michaela; Wigert, Helena
A descriptive study of parents' experiences with neonatal home care following initial care in the neonatal intensive care unit. As survival rates improve among premature and critically ill infants with an increased risk of morbidity, parents' responsibilities for neonatal care grow in scope and degree under the banner of family-centred care. Concurrent with medical advances, new questions arise about the role of parents and the experience of being provided neonatal care at home. An interview study with a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Parents from a Swedish neonatal (n = 22) home care setting were extensively interviewed within one year of discharge. Data were collected during 2011-2012. The main theme of the findings is that parents experience neonatal home care as an inner emotional journey, from having a child to being a parent. This finding derives from three themes: the parents' experience of leaving the hospital milieu in favour of establishing independent parenthood, maturing as a parent and processing experiences during the period of neonatal intensive care. This study suggests that neonatal home care is experienced as a care structure adjusted to incorporate parents' needs following discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal home care appears to bridge the gap between hospital and home, supporting the family's adaptation to life in the home setting. Parents become empowered to be primary caregivers, having nurse consultants serving the needs of the whole family. Neonatal home care may therefore be understood as the implementation of family-centred care during the transition from NICU to home. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hinton, Denise; Kirk, Susan
Background There is growing recognition that multiple sclerosis is a possible, albeit uncommon, diagnosis in childhood. However, very little is known about the experiences of families living with childhood multiple sclerosis and this is the first study to explore this in depth. Objective Our objective was to explore the experiences of parents of children with multiple sclerosis. Methods Qualitative in-depth interviews with 31 parents using a grounded theory approach were conducted. Parents were sampled and recruited via health service and voluntary sector organisations in the United Kingdom. Results Parents' accounts of life with childhood multiple sclerosis were dominated by feelings of uncertainty associated with four sources; diagnostic uncertainty, daily uncertainty, interaction uncertainty and future uncertainty. Parents attempted to manage these uncertainties using specific strategies, which could in turn create further uncertainties about their child's illness. However, over time, ongoing uncertainty appeared to give parents hope for their child's future with multiple sclerosis. Conclusion Illness-related uncertainties appear to play a role in generating hope among parents of a child with multiple sclerosis. However, this may lead parents to avoid sources of information and support that threatens their fragile optimism. Professionals need to be sensitive to the role hope plays in supporting parental coping with childhood multiple sclerosis.
Gombachika, Belinda Chimphamba; Sundby, Johanne; Chirwa, Ellen; Malata, Address
The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has allowed couples living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to live longer and healthier lives. The reduction in the mother-to-child transmission of HIV has encouraged some people living with HIV (PLWH) to have children. However, little is known about the parenting experiences of couples living with HIV (CLWH). The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and describe parenting experiences of seroconcordant couples who have a child while living with HIV in Malawi. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 14 couples purposively sampled in matrilineal Chiradzulu and patrilineal Chikhwawa communities from July to December 2010. The research findings shows that irrespective of kinship organization, economic hardships, food insecurity, gender-specific role expectations and conflicting information from health institutions and media about sources of support underpin their parenting roles. In addition, male spouses are directly involved in household activities, childcare and child feeding decisions, challenging the existing stereotyped gender norms. In the absence of widow inheritance, widows from patrilineal communities are not receiving the expected support from the deceased husband relatives. Finally, the study has shown that CLWH are able to find solutions for the challenges they encounter. Contrary to existing belief that such who have children depend solely on public aid. Such claims without proper knowledge of local social cultural contexts, may contribute to stigmatizing CLWH who continue to have children. The study is also relevant to PLWH who, although not parents themselves, are confronted with a situation where they have to accept responsibility for raising children from their kin. We suggest the longer-term vision for ART wide access in Malawi to be broadened beyond provision of ART to incorporate social and economic interventions that support the rebuilding of CLWH social and economic lives. The
Taris, T W; Semin, G R
This study examined the role of family environment in determining early or later adolescent sexual behavior. Data were obtained from a 2-wave panel survey during 1989-1990, in the Brighton and Hove areas of Sussex, England. Interviews were conducted among 302 mother-adolescent pairs in the first wave and 255 pairs in the second follow-up wave. The study explored the links between intrafamily conflict (IC) and parent characteristics and adolescent sexual behavior to determine how effective selected factors are in preventing early sex. The theoretical model relates variables to sex at 2 time periods with IC as an intervening variable. The model accounted for 44% of the variance in the amount of IC. Key factors were a mother's suspicion that her child has had sex, the effort put into maintaining good relationships, and the importance attached to child discipline. 23% of the variance in permissiveness was related to adolescent age and religiosity and maternal religiosity. 37% of sexual experience at Time 1 was explained by the duration of the sexual experience, adolescent's age, and adolescent's permissiveness. The likelihood of Time 2 sexual experience was explained by older mothers, more permissive mothers, steady relationships at Time 1, and mother-child intrafamily conflict. Findings suggest that a good argument over matters one cares about is effective in bringing about desired results. An increase in better intrafamily relations did not lead to later sexual experience. Parents may sacrifice clarity as to what they expect from their children as a trade-off for good parent-child relationships.
Barrera, Maru; Granek, Leeat; Shaheed, Jenny; Nicholas, David; Beaune, Laura; D'Agostino, Norma M; Bouffet, Eric; Antle, Beverly
The meaning and role of hope in parents of children with life-threatening illnesses remain relatively unstudied. The objectives of this study were to explore parental hope when a child is being treated for a malignancy resistant to treatment and to identify facilitators and barriers to maintaining hope in this context. Thirty-five parents of children with difficult-to-treat cancer were interviewed 3 months after diagnosis. Line-by-line coding of transcripts was used to establish categories and themes. Constant comparison was used to examine relationships within and across codes and categories. Parental hope was related to the child's cure and future. The concept, however, oscillated between being tenacious and robust, and tenuous and elusive, depending on how the child was responding to treatment and the psychosocial context. Focusing on positive outcomes and experiences, spirituality, and social support facilitated being hopeful. Awareness of negative outcomes, information overload, physical and emotional depletion, and fear and uncertainty challenged parental hope. Developing a model that identifies the nature of parental hope as well as barriers and facilitators to maintaining hope shortly after childhood cancer diagnosis may assist healthcare professionals in supporting parents. Understanding parental hope may assist healthcare professionals to avoid overloading parents with too much information at once. Healthcare professionals can also ensure that social support from family, community, and the medical center is available for parents and that their physical and emotional needs are being met to ensure that they maintain hope to best care for their child with cancer.
Beveridge, Briony; Feltracco, Deanna; Struyf, Jillian; Strauss, Emily; Dang, Saniya; Phelan, Shanon; Wright, F Virginia; Gibson, Barbara E
Innovative robotic technologies hold strong promise for improving walking abilities of children with cerebral palsy (CP), but may create expectations for parents pursuing the "newest thing" in treatment. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore parents' values about walking in relation to their experiences with robotic gait training for their children. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of five ambulatory children with CP participating in a randomized trial investigating robotic gait training effectiveness. Parents valued walking, especially "correct" walking, as a key component of their children's present and future well-being. They continually sought the "next best thing" in therapy and viewed the robotic gait trainer as a potentially revolutionary technology despite mixed experiences. The results can help inform rehabilitation therapists' knowledge of parents' values and perspectives, and guide effective collaborations toward meeting the therapeutic needs of children with CP.
Borgestig, Maria; Rytterström, Patrik; Hemmingsson, Helena
To describe and explore parents' experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based assistive technology (AT)) for use in daily life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents' experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis. The findings demonstrate that for parents, children's gaze-based AT usage meant that children demonstrated agency, provided them with opportunities to show personality and competencies, and gave children possibilities to develop. Overall, children's gaze-based AT provides hope for a better future for their children with severe physical impairments; a future in which the children can develop and gain influence in life. Gaze-based AT provides children with new opportunities to perform activities and take initiatives to communicate, giving parents hope about the children's future.
Staberg, Marie; Norén, Jörgen G; Johnson, Mats; Kopp, Svenny; Robertson, Agneta
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric condition characterized by age-inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsiveness or a combination of these. The aim of this study was to analyze parental attitudes to and experience of dental care, oral hygiene and dietary habits in children/adolescents with ADHD. Twenty- six parents of 31 subjects, 20 boys and 11 girls, aged 5-19 years with ADHD registered at the Gothenburg Child Neuropsychiatric Clinic, were invited. The parents answered a questionnaire regarding different oral problems when visiting the Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Gothenburg, for an oral examination of their child. The parents felt the dental care at the Public Dental Service was good, but noted a lack of knowledge regarding child neuropsychiatry among the dental staff which may influence the dental treatment. Fifteen parents reported their children had experienced mouth pain and 15 reported their child had suffered from both discomfort and pain from local anesthesia. Thirteen of the children had a dental trauma and 12 parents reported pain in connection to the dental treatment. Pain related to filling therapy was stated by 11 parents. According to the parents, five children suffered from dental fear but 15 reported the child had a general fear. Pursuant to the parents, the beverage for dinner was mainly milk or water, while sweet drinks were more frequent when thirsty. Seventeen parents reported their children had poor oral hygiene or could not manage to brush their teeth and 14 of the 31 children only brushed once a day or less. The results show that the parents experience a lack of child neuropsychiatric knowledge, care and patience from the dental staff, which may influence the treatment. Oral hygiene/tooth brushing is neglected and the frequent consumption of sugar is difficult for the parents to handle.
Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra
This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…
Berry, Nina J; Henry, Alexandra; Danchin, Margie; Trevena, Lyndal J; Willaby, Harold W; Leask, Julie
Increasingly, the experiences and perceptions of parents who decline vaccination are the subject of investigation. However, the experiences of clinicians who encounter these parents in the course of their work has received little academic attention to date. This study aimed to understand the challenges faced and strategies used when general practitioners and immunising nurses encounter parents who choose not to vaccinate their children. Primary care providers were recruited from regions identified through the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) as having higher than national average rates of registered objection to childhood vaccination. Interviews began with an exploration of provider experiences with parents who accept, are hesitant towards, and who decline vaccination. Participants were asked specifically about how they addressed any difficulties they encountered in their interactions. Thematic analysis focused on encounters with parents - challenges and strategies. Twenty-six general practitioners (GPs), community and practice nurses (PNs) were interviewed across two regions in NSW, Australia. Providers' sense of professional identity as health advocates and experts became conflicted in their encounters with vaccine objecting parents. Providers were dissatisfied when such consultations resulted in a 'therapeutic roadblock' whereby provider-parent communication came to a standstill. There were mixed views about being asked to sign forms exempting parents from vaccinating their children. These ranged from a belief that completing the forms rewarded parents for non-conformity to seeing it as a positive opportunity for engagement. Three common strategies were employed by providers to navigate through these challenges; 1) to explore and inform, 2) to mobilise clinical rapport and 3) to adopt a general principle to first do no harm to the therapeutic relationship. Many healthcare providers find consultations with vaccine objecting parents challenging
Chen, Yu-Ting; Chung, Mei-Chen; Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Ling
The purpose of this study was to explore parents' experience and perceptions of smoking in the presence of children. Findings regarding patterns of parents' smoking in the presence of children were situation specific. When thinking of smoking with children around, parents engaged in a process of weighing the importance of the need to smoke and adverse effects from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, a consideration based mostly on their experience. A pattern of correspondence was identified between family's level of concern and promoting change among smokers. Many strategies participants used to prevent children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure were relatively ineffective and needed to be addressed.
Rachel M. Hershberg
Full Text Available This exploratory narrative inquiry examines the lives of four Central American females with one or more U.S.-based undocumented migrant parents. Each participant is between 10 and 16 years old and is part of a transnational family living between the U.S. and Central America. Their narratives provide a window into transnational girls' experiences at the intersections of gender, ethnicity, family role, and legal status. Specifically, through thematic narrative analysis we learn about each girl's position in her transnational family, her encounters with U.S. immigration and deportation systems, and her experiences with domestic abuse or male desertion. Based on findings, this study urges social scientists and educators to attend to girls' transnational family experiences, including how they contest and make meaning of their own or their relatives' migrations and returns and the gendering of familial and migration processes. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130157
Azer, Samy A; Bokhari, Raghad A; AlSaleh, Ghadah S; Alabdulaaly, May M; Ateeq, Khawlah I; Guerrero, Anthony P S; Azer, Sarah
The aims of this study were to determine the following: first, are there educationally useful videos of parents of children with autism sharing their experiences? Second, do any of the data related to videos help in identifying useful videos? And third, what do posted comments tell us? YouTube was searched for videos of parents sharing their experiences. The following parameters were collected: title, creator, URL, duration, number of viewers, likes, dislikes, comments, days on YouTube, and country. Based on agreed-upon criteria, videos were divided independently into educationally useful and non-useful categories. A critical thematic analysis of comments was conducted. A total of 180 videos were finally identified, of which 106 (59%) provided useful information, scoring 15.3 ± 0.7 (mean ± SD); 74 (41%) were determined to be not educationally useful, scoring 8.6 ± 2.1. The differences in scores were significant (p YouTube in sharing experiences.
Mirlashari, Jila; Demirkol, Apo; Salsali, Mahvash; Rafiey, Hassan; Jahanbani, Jahanfar
Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Full Text Available Aim: To describe parental experiences of providing skin-to-skin care (SSC to their newborn infants. Background: SSC care for newborn infants has been reported to have positive physiological and psychological benefits to the infants and their parents. No systematic review regarding parental experiences has been identified. Design: In this first part of a meta-study, the findings of a systematic literature review on parental experience of SSC care are presented. Data sources: Four databases were searched, without year or language limitations, up until December 2013. Manual searches were performed in reference lists and in a bibliography of the topic. Review methods: After a quality-appraisal process, data from the original articles were extracted and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The systematic and manual searches led to the inclusion of 29 original qualitative papers from nine countries, reporting experiences from 401 mothers and 94 fathers. Two themes that characterized the provision of SSC emerged: a restoring experience and an energy-draining experience. Conclusion: This review has added scientific and systematic knowledge about parental experiences of providing SSC. Further research about fathers’ experiences is recommended.
Tavallali, Azar Gashasb; Jirwe, Maria; Kabir, Zarina Nahar
Because of worldwide migration, the healthcare staff in general as well as in paedi"atric care specifically is challenged increasingly by people from various ethnic backgrounds. The challenge is related to providing culturally competent care and effectively communicating with people from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds who have different health beliefs, practices, values and languages. This also applies to the Swedish society and to Swedish paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to describe the expectations and experiences of cross-cultural care encounters among minority ethnic parents in Swedish paediatric care. A qualitative design was used in the study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews between October 2011 and March 2012. The sample consisted of 12 parents of minority ethnic backgrounds who had their child in a ward at a children's hospital in the Stockholm County Council. The interviews were analysed using manifest content analysis. The Regional Ethical Review Committee approved the study (Ref: Nr: 2011/927-31/5). The analysis of the interviews led to three categories: fundamentals in nursing, cultural sensitivity and understanding, and influencing conditions. Generic knowledge and skills of nurses outweighed the need for the nurses to have culture-specific knowledge of their patients or relatives in cross-cultural care encounters. Language skills and the availability of bilingual nurses in a multi-ethnic society can facilitate communication and increase parents' satisfaction in cross-cultural care encounters. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Becerra, Tracy A; Massolo, Maria L; Yau, Vincent M; Owen-Smith, Ashli A; Lynch, Frances L; Crawford, Phillip M; Pearson, Kathryn A; Pomichowski, Magdalena E; Quinn, Virginia P; Yoshida, Cathleen K; Croen, Lisa A
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are lifelong neurodevelopmental disorders, and little is known about how parents address the health and psychosocial consequences of ASD. Few studies have examined use of various treatments and services in a large, diverse sample of children with ASD and their families. This paper presents methods to create an autism research resource across multiple large health delivery systems and describes services and treatments used by children with ASD and their families. Four study sites conducted a Web survey of parents of children and adolescents with ASD who were members of Kaiser Permanente. We tabulated data distributions of survey responses and calculated χ 2 statistics for differences between responders and nonresponders. The children of the 1155 respondents were racially and ethnically diverse (55% white, 6% black, 5% Asian, 9% multiracial, 24% Hispanic) and representative of the total population invited to participate with respect to child sex (83% male), child age (57% Education Programs (85%), family physician visits (78%), and occupational and speech therapy (55% and 60%, respectively). Home-based programs frequently included implementation of social skills training (44%) and behavior management (42%). Prescription medication use was high (48%). Caregivers reported disruption of personal and family routines because of problem behaviors. These survey data help to elucidate parents' experiences with health services for their children with ASD and serve as a potential resource for future research.
Steyn, Erika; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris
Many of the 15 million premature babies born worldwide every year survive because of advanced medical interventions. Their parents have intense experiences when their babies are in the intensive care unit (ICU), and these have an impact on their thoughts, feelings and relationships, including their relationships with their premature babies. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of parents of premature babies in an ICU. Research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample of parents with premature babies in an ICU in a private hospital in Johannesburg Gauteng in South Africa was used. Eight parents, four mothers and four fathers, married and either Afrikaans or English-speaking, were included in the study. Data were collected by conducting in-depth phenomenological interviews with them and making use of field notes. Trustworthiness was ensured by implementing the strategies of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice were adhered to throughout the research process. Thematic analyses were utilised to analyse the data. Two themes in the experiences of parents with premature babies in ICU became apparent. Parents experienced thoughts, emotions and hope while their premature babies were in the ICU as well as challenges in their relationships and these challenges influenced their experiences. Mindfulness of intensive care nurses should be facilitated so that intensive care nurses can promote the mental health of parents with premature babies in the ICU. Parents with premature babies in the ICU have thoughts and emotional experiences which include hope and they affect parents' relationships.
This paper examines the historical origins of violence against women, in contrast to earlier literature, which focused only on short-term determinants. It analyses the relationship between traditional family patterns (stem versus nuclear) and intimate-partner violence (IPV). Stem families are those in which one child stays in the parental household with spouse and children, so that at least two generations live together. I model the behavior of a traditional peasant family and show how coresi...
Laborde, Nicole D; Pleasants, Elizabeth; Reddy, Krishnaveni; Atujuna, Millicent; Nakyanzi, Teopista; Chitukuta, Miria; Naidoo, Sarita; Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Baeten, Jared M; Montgomery, Elizabeth T
Vaginally-inserted HIV prevention methods have been reported to impact the sexual experience for women and their partners, and hence impacts acceptability of and adherence to the method. We analyzed in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about participants' sexual experiences while wearing the ring, collected during the MTN-020/ASPIRE phase 3 safety and effectiveness trial of a dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV prevention in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Most women reported that partners did not feel the ring during sex, however, women felt they had to manage their partners' interaction with or reaction to the ring. In maintaining positive relationships, women were concerned about partners' discovering ring use and about ensuring that partners had a good sexual experience with them. Finally women were concerned about how they themselves experienced sex with the ring. Some found that the ring made the vaginal environment more desirable for their partners and themselves.
Pleasants, Elizabeth; Reddy, Krishnaveni; Atujuna, Millicent; Nakyanzi, Teopista; Chitukuta, Miria; Naidoo, Sarita; Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Baeten, Jared M.; Montgomery, Elizabeth T.
Vaginally-inserted HIV prevention methods have been reported to impact the sexual experience for women and their partners, and hence impacts acceptability of and adherence to the method. We analyzed in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about participants’ sexual experiences while wearing the ring, collected during the MTN-020/ASPIRE phase 3 safety and effectiveness trial of a dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV prevention in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Most women reported that partners did not feel the ring during sex, however, women felt they had to manage their partners’ interaction with or reaction to the ring. In maintaining positive relationships, women were concerned about partners’ discovering ring use and about ensuring that partners had a good sexual experience with them. Finally women were concerned about how they themselves experienced sex with the ring. Some found that the ring made the vaginal environment more desirable for their partners and themselves. PMID:29151197
Full Text Available Parents play a key role in the emotional development of child especially in preschool age. There are many related factors in the relationship of child and parent. It is important to understand childrens subjective experiences with their parents. Temperamental characteristics of the mother have an important role to play in the quality of this relationship. Most parents desire to have deep, intimate relationships between their children. Also, children need emo-tional closeness, safety and security. Attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between child and primary caregiver. The secure attachment style increases the emotional development of child positively and it may serve as a protective factor for psychological well-being. Childrens well-being often depends on how children perceive or interpret their parents behaviors. Poor parenting practices represent some of the most risk factors for psychological problems in childhood. There are many research results show that correlation between the parental negative attitudes and the psychopathology of the children. The present study aimed to review the relationship between parent and preschool children.
Full Text Available Background: Many of the 15 million premature babies born worldwide every year survive because of advanced medical interventions. Their parents have intense experiences when their babies are in the intensive care unit (ICU, and these have an impact on their thoughts, feelings and relationships, including their relationships with their premature babies. Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of parents of premature babies in an ICU. Method: Research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample of parents with premature babies in an ICU in a private hospital in Johannesburg Gauteng in South Africa was used. Eight parents, four mothers and four fathers, married and either Afrikaans or English-speaking, were included in the study. Data were collected by conducting in-depth phenomenological interviews with them and making use of field notes. Trustworthiness was ensured by implementing the strategies of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice were adhered to throughout the research process. Results: Thematic analyses were utilised to analyse the data. Two themes in the experiences of parents with premature babies in ICU became apparent. Parents experienced thoughts, emotions and hope while their premature babies were in the ICU as well as challenges in their relationships and these challenges influenced their experiences. Recommendations: Mindfulness of intensive care nurses should be facilitated so that intensive care nurses can promote the mental health of parents with premature babies in the ICU. Conclusion: Parents with premature babies in the ICU have thoughts and emotional experiences which include hope and they affect parents’ relationships.
Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi
This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…
Nabors, Erin L.
College students experience an extremely high level of violence among intimate partners during their college careers, with prevalence rates ranging between 20% and 50%. Because intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students is such a widespread problem, it is important to understand the factors that contribute to this type of abuse.…
The purpose of this study was to explore the parent adaptation process for parents of children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Professionals widely recognize the importance of parental involvement in achieving successful outcomes for children with disabilities, however, few studies have explored parents' views and perspectives, in…
Gokturk, Soheyda; Dinckal, Selin
Parental involvement has been associated with numerous student benefits. However, related literature reveals that neither parents nor teachers are content with the scope and depth of parental involvement in schools. This may be partly due to differential understandings that both sides have on the concept of parental involvement. In this study,…
Danbjørg, D B; Wagner, L; Kristensen, B R; Clemensen, J
a move towards earlier postnatal discharge raises the challenge of finding new ways to support families when they are discharged early after childbirth. to explore how postnatal parents experienced the use of telemedicine following early discharge from hospital (i.e. 24 hours after childbirth) by investigating if they consider that their postnatal needs are met, and whether or not they experience a sense of security and parental self-efficacy. intervention followed by a qualitative interview study. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1000 births a year. An app including chat, a knowledgebase and automated messages was trialled between postnatal parents at home and the hospital. Parents had access to the app for seven days after discharge. 42 new mothers were recruited from the postnatal ward in accordance with the inclusion criteria (i.e. discharged within 24 hours of childbirth). Both parents were invited for interview. 42 sets of parents participated in the trial, and 28 sets agreed to be interviewed. Interviews (n=28) were conducted with 27 mothers and 11 fathers. Parents were interviewed together in 10 cases, 17 mothers were interviewed alone, and one father was interviewed alone. The data analysis was inspired by systematic text condensation based on Giorgi׳s descriptive phenomenological method. parents were confident in use of the app, and did not experience any barriers in contacting the nurses via asynchronous communication. Parents received timely information and guidance by communicating online, and felt that their follow-up support needs were met. parents viewed the app as a lifeline, and saw it as a means of informing and guiding them following early discharge from hospital after childbirth. As such, this app shows potential for enhancing self-efficacy and postnatal sense of security. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Bont, Eefje G P M; Loonen, Nicole; Hendrix, Dagmar A S; Lepot, Julie M M; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Cals, Jochen W L
Fever in children is common and mostly caused by benign self-limiting infections. Yet consultation rates in primary care are high, especially during GP out-of-hours care. Therefore, we aimed to explore experiences of parents when having visited GP out-of-hours services with their febrile child. We performed a qualitative study using 20 semi-structured interviews among parents from different backgrounds presenting to GP out-of-hours care with a febrile child rationality and emotion, (3) expecting reassurance from a professional and (4) a need for consistent, reliable information. Not one symptom, but a combination of fever with other symptoms, made parents anxious and drove care seeking. Although parents carefully considered when to seek care, they experienced increased anxiety with increases in their child's temperature. Because parents work during the day and fever typically rises during the early evening, the decision to seek care was often made during out-of-hours care. When parents consulted a GP they did not have any set expectations other than seeking reassurance, however a proper physical examination diminished their anxiety. Parents did not demand antibiotics, but trusted on the expertise of the GP to assess necessity. Parents requested consistent, reliable information on fever and self-management strategies. Parents were inexperienced in self-management strategies and had a subsequent desire for reassurance; this played a pivotal role in out-of-hours help seeking for childhood fever. These factors provide clues to optimise information exchange between GPs and parents, by providing written, tailored, consistent information on self-management strategies for current and future fever episodes. GPs' had incorrect assumptions that parents expected antibiotic treatment.
Arnott, Janine; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; Nunn, Anthony J; Peak, Matthew; Pirmohamed, Munir; Smyth, Rosalind L; Turner, Mark A; Young, Bridget
There is little research on parents' experiences of suspected adverse drug reactions in their children and hence little evidence to guide clinicians when communicating with families about problems associated with medicines. To identify any unmet information and communication needs described by parents whose child had a suspected adverse drug reaction. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with parents of 44 children who had a suspected adverse drug reaction identified on hospital admission, during in-patient treatment or reported by parents using the Yellow Card Scheme (the UK system for collecting spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions). Interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone; most interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed. Analysis was informed by the principles of the constant comparative method. Many parents described being dissatisfied with how clinicians communicated about adverse drug reactions and unclear about the implications for their child's future use of medicines. A few parents felt that clinicians had abandoned their child and reported refusing the use of further medicines because they feared a repeated adverse drug reaction. The accounts of parents of children with cancer were different. They emphasised their confidence in clinicians' management of adverse drug reactions and described how clinicians prospectively explained the risks associated with medicines. Parents linked symptoms to medicines in ways that resembled the established reasoning that clinicians use to evaluate the possibility that a medicine has caused an adverse drug reaction. Clinicians' communication about adverse drug reactions was poor from the perspective of parents, indicating that improvements are needed. The accounts of parents of children with cancer indicate that prospective explanation about adverse drug reactions at the time of prescription can be effective. Convergence between parents and clinicians in their reasoning for linking children
Full Text Available There is little research on parents' experiences of suspected adverse drug reactions in their children and hence little evidence to guide clinicians when communicating with families about problems associated with medicines.To identify any unmet information and communication needs described by parents whose child had a suspected adverse drug reaction.Semi-structured qualitative interviews with parents of 44 children who had a suspected adverse drug reaction identified on hospital admission, during in-patient treatment or reported by parents using the Yellow Card Scheme (the UK system for collecting spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions. Interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone; most interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed. Analysis was informed by the principles of the constant comparative method.Many parents described being dissatisfied with how clinicians communicated about adverse drug reactions and unclear about the implications for their child's future use of medicines. A few parents felt that clinicians had abandoned their child and reported refusing the use of further medicines because they feared a repeated adverse drug reaction. The accounts of parents of children with cancer were different. They emphasised their confidence in clinicians' management of adverse drug reactions and described how clinicians prospectively explained the risks associated with medicines. Parents linked symptoms to medicines in ways that resembled the established reasoning that clinicians use to evaluate the possibility that a medicine has caused an adverse drug reaction.Clinicians' communication about adverse drug reactions was poor from the perspective of parents, indicating that improvements are needed. The accounts of parents of children with cancer indicate that prospective explanation about adverse drug reactions at the time of prescription can be effective. Convergence between parents and clinicians in their reasoning for
Arnott, Janine; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; Nunn, Anthony J.; Peak, Matthew; Pirmohamed, Munir; Smyth, Rosalind L.
Background There is little research on parents' experiences of suspected adverse drug reactions in their children and hence little evidence to guide clinicians when communicating with families about problems associated with medicines. Objective To identify any unmet information and communication needs described by parents whose child had a suspected adverse drug reaction. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews with parents of 44 children who had a suspected adverse drug reaction identified on hospital admission, during in-patient treatment or reported by parents using the Yellow Card Scheme (the UK system for collecting spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions). Interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone; most interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed. Analysis was informed by the principles of the constant comparative method. Results Many parents described being dissatisfied with how clinicians communicated about adverse drug reactions and unclear about the implications for their child's future use of medicines. A few parents felt that clinicians had abandoned their child and reported refusing the use of further medicines because they feared a repeated adverse drug reaction. The accounts of parents of children with cancer were different. They emphasised their confidence in clinicians' management of adverse drug reactions and described how clinicians prospectively explained the risks associated with medicines. Parents linked symptoms to medicines in ways that resembled the established reasoning that clinicians use to evaluate the possibility that a medicine has caused an adverse drug reaction. Conclusion Clinicians' communication about adverse drug reactions was poor from the perspective of parents, indicating that improvements are needed. The accounts of parents of children with cancer indicate that prospective explanation about adverse drug reactions at the time of prescription can be effective. Convergence between parents and
Hoogsteen, Lindsey; Woodgate, Roberta L
This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of parents parenting a child with autism while living in a rural area. The philosophy of hermeneutic phenomenology was used to guide this inquiry, and interviews of 26 families served as primary data. Thematic statements were isolated using van Manen's (1990) selective highlighting approach. "Making the invisible, visible" emerged as the essence of the parents' experience. Parents shared that although autism was an invisible disability, they in fact made it visible in their constant battles to ensure their child received the best quality of life. The major themes of this essence included a) he's not the Rain Man, b) society's lack of knowledge and understanding, and c) doing it on our own. Findings from this study may be used to guide program development that is concerned with improving the quality of life of families of children with autism living in rural areas.
Güeita-Rodríguez, Javier; García-Muro, Francisco; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel L; Lambeck, Johan; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo
To explore the experiences regarding aquatic physiotherapy among parents of children with cerebral palsy and to identify a list of relevant intervention categories for aquatic physiotherapy treatments. We conducted semi-structured interviews and focus groups using the components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a frame of reference to explore and code experiences regarding aquatic physiotherapy. A non-probabilistic purposive sampling strategy was used. Content analysis methods and ICF linking processes were used to analyze data. From the parents' perspective (n = 34), both the Body Functions and Activities and Participation components were mainly influenced by aquatic physiotherapy. Also, parents described Environmental Factors acting as barriers affecting progress during therapy. Parents identified a wide range of categories influenced by aquatic physiotherapy. Social and contextual aspects were highlighted, as well as a series of changes related to the illness as a result of treatment.
Lindgren, Britt-Marie; Aström, Sture; Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren
The aim of the study was to discover and describe lived experiences of professional care and caregivers among parents of adults who self-harm. Narrative interviews were conducted with six parents of daughters with self-harming behaviours and analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. The meanings of the parents' narratives of their lived experiences of professional care and caregivers were interpreted as their being involved in 'limit situations' comparable to hostage dramas. Several meaningful themes contributed to this interpretation: being trapped in a situation with no escape; being in the prisoner's dock; groping in the dark; and finding glimmers of hope. Parents of daughters who were in care because of self-harming often felt obliged to pay an emotional ransom, which included feelings of being accused, being 'broken', being confused, and feeling lost. Moments of peace occurred as welcome breaks offering a short time of rest for the parents. Situations that were understood by the parents and solved in a peaceful way were experienced as a respite and inspired parents with hope for their daughters' recovery.
Liu, Shu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Ru; Lu, Frank L; Lee, Tzu-Ying
The purpose of this project was to explore the parental experience of making a "do not resuscitate" (DNR) decision for their child who is or was cared for in a pediatric intensive care unit in Taiwan. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted following parental signing of a standard hospital DNR form on behalf of their critically ill child. Sixteen Taiwanese parents of 11 children aged 1 month to 18 years were interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, analyzed and sorted into themes by the sole interviewer plus other researchers. Three major themes were identified: (a) "convincing points to sign", (b) "feelings immediately after signing", and (c) "post-signing relief or regret". Feelings following signing the DNR form were mixed and included "frustration", "guilt", and "conflicting hope". Parents adjusted their attitudes to thoughts such as "I have done my best," and "the child's life is beyond my control." Some parents whose child had died before the time of the interview expressed among other things "regret not having enough time to be with and talk to my child". Open family visiting hours plus staff sensitivity and communication skills training are needed. To help parents with this difficult signing process, nurses and other professionals in the pediatric intensive care unit need education on initiating the conversation, guiding the parents in expressing their fears, and providing continuing support to parents and children throughout the child's end of life process. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Wright, Kevin; Stead, Joan; Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet
Partnerships with parents, particularly in the field of education, have featured prominently in policy rhetoric for many years, but routes of redress have not had much attention until relatively recently. The development of Alternative Dispute Resolution in the UK reflects the situation in several jurisdictions (e.g. Norway, Germany, the…
... 2015 Special Report NCJ 2392 03 Intimate Partner Violence, 1993–2010 Shannan Catalano, Ph.D., BJS Statistician ... to 2010, the overall rate of intimate partner violence in the United States declined by 64%, from ...
Full Text Available To describe the experience of parenting a child diagnosed with cancer by examining particularly negative and positive experiences reported by parents of childhood cancer survivors and parents of children lost to cancer.168 parents (88 mothers, 80 fathers participated. Data were collected five years after the end of successful treatment or the child's death. The parents' experiences were identified by open-ended semi-structured questions about particularly negative and positive experiences of the child's cancer. An inductive approach was used in which the manifest verbal content of the answers was analysed using content analysis.The analysis revealed eight categories of negative experience (child late effects; distressing events; healthcare; impaired relationships; long-term psychological consequences; own reactions; surrounding institutions; the fact that the child got cancer and seven categories of positive experience (healthcare; improved relationships; long-term consequences for the child; personal development; support systems; treatment outcome; unexpected joy. The categories were related to past events or to the present situation. The findings indicate variations in experiences between parents of survivors and bereaved parents, and between fathers and mothers, as some experiences were only reported by parents of survivors and some experiences were only reported by mothers.The results highlight the importance of past and present events to parents, and accordingly the long-lasting impact of paediatric cancer on parents. The results also point to the wide range of negative as well as positive experiences involved in parenting a child diagnosed with cancer, and provide a comprehensive understanding of the overall experience for parents of children with cancer. Specifically, the findings give guidance to healthcare providers by illustrating the need to provide healthcare personnel with continuous training in communication skills, offering
Coyne, Imelda; Amory, Aislinn; Kiernan, Gemma; Gibson, Faith
Despite decision-making featuring throughout the trajectory of cancer care, children's participation in decision-making remains an area much under-researched and complicated by conflicting opinions. This study explored children's participation in shared decision-making (SDM) from multiple perspectives from one haematology/oncology unit in Ireland. Qualitative research design was used to explore participants' experiences of children's decision-making. Interviews were conducted with children(1) aged 7-16 years (n = 20), their parents (n = 22) and healthcare professionals (n = 40). Data were managed with the aid of NVivo (version 8). Parents and children's roles in decision-making were significantly influenced by the seriousness of the illness. Cancer is a life-threatening illness and so the treatment 'had to be done'. Children were not involved in major decisions (treatment decisions) as refusal was not an option. They were generally involved in minor decisions (choices about care delivery) with the purpose of gaining their cooperation, making treatment more palatable, giving back a sense of control and building trusting relationships. These choices were termed 'small' decisions that would not compromise the child's welfare. Some adolescents were aware that choices were not 'real' decisions since they were not allowed to refuse and expressed feelings of frustration. Healthcare professionals and parents controlled the process of SDM and the children's accounts revealed that they held a minimal role. Children appeared content that adults held responsibility for the major treatment decisions. However, they desired and valued receiving information, voicing their preferences and choosing how treatments were administered to them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cooper, Diane; Moore, Elena; Mantell, Joanne E
This paper explores marriage attitudes and practices among Xhosa-speaking women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Cape Town, South Africa. It reports on a study that assessed the fertility intentions of a cohort of people living with HIV, aimed at informing an HIV care intervention. It draws on qualitative data generated from 30 successive interviews with WHLIV in wave 1, 23 interviews in wave 2 and 20 follow-up interviews in wave 3. Gender inequality, marriage and HIV are strongly intertwined. Broader layers of South Africa's history, politics and socio-economic and cultural contexts have consequences for the fluidity in intimate relations, marriage and motherhood for WLHIV. Key and conflicting themes emerge that impact on marriage and motherhood. Firstly, marriage is the 'last on a list of priorities' for WLHIV, who wish to further their children's education, to work, to earn money, and to achieve this rapidly because of their HIV-positive status. We demonstrate that the pressure women face in marriage to bear children creates a different attitude to and experience of marriage for WLHIV. Some WLHIV wish to avoid marriage due to its accompanying pressure to have children. Other WLHIV experience difficulties securing intimacy. WLHIV may find it easier to seek partners who are also living with HIV. A partner living with HIV is perceived as sharing similar fertility goals. In this study, HIV accentuates existing issues and highlights new ones for WLHIV negotiating intimacy. The findings contribute to the existing knowledge base regarding the fluidity of marriage and fertility intentions within the dynamic context of living with HIV. These are likely to have broader relevance in currently rapidly urbanising and economically developing countries with high HIV prevalence in southern Africa.
Becher, Christine; Regamey, Nicolas; Spichiger, Elisabeth
Cystic Fibrosis is the most common autosomal-recessive hereditary disease among white Europeans. The average survival of CF patients has increased to above 40 years and transition from paediatric to adult care has therefore become a significant issue. With this study, experiences of adolescents with CF and their parents with the transition from the paediatric to the adult care were explored. At a Swiss university CF centre, six adolescents and their mothers were recruited. Twelve narrative interviews were conducted on how the phase of transition was experienced. The transcribed interviews were analysed according to the method of hermeneutic phenomenology. Positive and negative experiences with long term routine care in the paediatric service, general themes of adolescence and the quality of the relationship with paediatric doctors influenced the families' experience during transition significantly. For mothers, insensitive information on the CF diagnosis might have influenced the transition experience. The adolescents welcomed an individualized and age appropriate care. Continuity in care, the announcement of, and involvement in the planning of the transfer were of great importance. The families particularly appreciated the timed adaptations of the transfer to individual needs. Flexibility and a strong collaboration between paediatric and adult CF teams are most relevant in the care of families.
Begen, Fiona M; Barnett, Julie; Barber, Miriam; Payne, Ros; Gowland, M Hazel; Lucas, Jane S
For parents and caregivers of food hypersensitive (FH) children, accommodating their child's dietary needs when eating out can be a challenging experience. This study explored caregivers' experiences and behaviours when eating out with their FH child in order to gain insights into how they support and prepare their child in negotiating safe eating out experiences. A cross-sectional, qualitative design was used. In depth, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 caregivers of children with FH. Interviews were analysed using framework analysis. Caregivers reported a number of issues relating to eating out with their FH child, or allowing their child to eat out without their supervision. Through themes of 'family context', 'child-focused concerns', and 'venue issues', caregivers described how they managed these and explained the limitations and sacrifices that FH imposed on their child, themselves, and family members. Through deeper understanding of the anxieties, negotiations and compromises experienced by caregivers of children with FH when they are eating out, clinicians and support charities can tailor their support to meet the needs of caregivers and children. Support and education provision should focus on providing caregivers of children with FH the tools and strategies to help enable safe eating out experiences.
Andersen, Anna-Eva; Moberg, Catherine; Bengtsson Tops, Anita; Garmy, Pernilla
To describe lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences of nurses' attitudes in child healthcare. Lesbian, gay and bisexual people are often reluctant to disclose their gender identity for fear of discrimination. This fear may lead to avoidance of healthcare for themselves or their children and may negatively affect families' health and well-being. A qualitative inductive design was employed. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 lesbian, gay or bisexual parents (11 mothers and three fathers) with child health care experiences in southern Sweden. Interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Two themes were identified. One, a "sense of marginalisation," included lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences of heteronormative attitudes among child healthcare nurses which led them to feel alienated and questioned as parents. Another, "being respected for who you are," included experiences of being respected and included at child healthcare appointments. Findings paint a complex picture of lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' interactions with child healthcare nurses in that they experienced both positive and negative attitudes. Knowledge gaps about lesbian, gay and bisexual families within the child healthcare field must be filled. Child health care nurses should work with the entire family to provide the best care for the child; however, discrimination in health care is common and often caused by a lack of knowledge. The number of children living with same-sex parents has increased more than ten-fold since the end of the 1990s. It is therefore important to explore lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences with child healthcare nurses' attitudes to improve quality of care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Coomer, R A
The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the problems that parents or caregivers of children with mental health disabilities and disorders in Namibia experience when accessing healthcare resources for their children. Data was collected through focus group discussions with the participants and individual interviews with the key informants. Overall, a total of 41 people provided information for this study. Thematic data analysis was used to assess the data. The main barriers experienced by the parents were poor service provision, transport and money, whilst access to education services facilitated access to healthcare services. The challenges go beyond commonly-reported problems such as sub-optimal service provision and include the basic challenge of lack of transportation to reach healthcare services. Many of the barriers identified in this study have been related to general problems with the healthcare system in Namibia. Therefore there is a need to address general concerns about healthcare provision as well as improve specific services for children with mental health disabilities and disorders in Namibia.
Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Simunovic, Nicole; Godin, Katelyn; Pham, Ngan K.; Bhandari, Mohit; Goslings, J. C.
Background: Health care providers play a vital role in the detection of intimate partner violence among their patients. Despite the recommendations for routine intimate partner violence screening in various medical settings, health care providers do not routinely screen for intimate partner
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…
Moody, Louise; Atkinson, Lou; Kehal, Isher; Bonham, James R
With further expansion of the number of conditions for which newborn screening can be undertaken, it is timely to consider the impact of positive screening results and the confirmatory testing period on the families involved. This study was undertaken as part of a larger programme of work to evaluate the Expanded Newborn Screening (ENBS) programme in the United Kingdom (UK). It was aimed to determine the views and experiences of healthcare professionals (HCPs) and parents on communication and interaction during the period of confirmatory testing following a positive screening result. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with parents of children who had received a positive ENBS result and HCPs who had been involved with the diagnosis and support of parents. Ten parents and 11 healthcare professionals took part in the in-depth interviews. Questions considered the journey from the positive screening result through confirmatory testing to a confirmed diagnosis and the communication and interaction between the parents and HCPs that they had been experienced. Key themes were identified through thematic analysis. The results point to a number of elements within the path through confirmatory testing that are difficult for parents and could be further developed to improve the experience. These include the way in which the results are communicated to parents, rapid turnaround of results, offering a consistent approach, exploring interventions to support family relationships and reviewing the workload and scheduling implications for healthcare professionals. As technology enables newborn screening of a larger number of conditions, there is an increasing need to consider and mediate the potentially negative effects on families. The findings from this study point to a number of elements within the path through confirmatory testing that are difficult for parents and could be further developed to benefit the family experience.
Silva, Josianne Maria Mattos da; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda
The objective of this study is to analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and maternal educational practice directed to children at the beginning of formal education. This is a cross-sectional study, carried out between 2013 and 2014, with 631 mother/child pairs, registered in the Family Health Strategy of the Health District II of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. It integrates a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the consequences of exposure to intimate partner violence in relation to the child who was born between 2005 and 2006. The maternal educational practice has been assessed by the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale and the intimate partner violence by a questionnaire adapted from the Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence of the World Health Organization. Intimate partner violence referred to the last 12 months and was defined by specific acts of psychological, physical, and sexual violence inflicted to women by the partner. The crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated for the association studied, using log-binomial regression. The prevalence of intimate partner violence was 24.4%, and violent maternal educational practice was 93.8%. The use of non-violent discipline was mentioned by 97.6% of the women, coexisting with violent strategies of discipline. Children whose mothers reported intimate partner violence presented a higher chance of suffering psychological aggression (PR = 2.2; 95%CI 1.0-4.7). The violence suffered by the mother interferes in the parental education. The findings show high prevalence of violent maternal educational practice, pointing to the need for interventions that minimize the damage of violence in women and children. Analisar a associação entre a violência pelo parceiro íntimo contra a mulher e a prática educativa materna direcionada às crianças no início da escolaridade formal. Estudo transversal, realizado entre 2013 e 2014, com
Mostert, S; Njuguna, F; Langat, S C; Slot, A J M; Skiles, J; Sitaresmi, M N; van de Ven, P M; Musimbi, J; Vreeman, R C; Kaspers, G J L
The principal reason for childhood cancer treatment failure in low-income countries is treatment abandonment, the most severe form of nonadherence. Two often neglected factors that may contribute to treatment abandonment are as follows: (a) lack of information and guidance by doctors, along with the negative beliefs of family and friends advising parents, which contributes to misconceptions regarding cancer and its treatment, and (b) a widespread policy in public hospitals by which children are retained after doctor's discharge until medical bills are settled. This study explored parents' experiences with hospital retention policies in a Kenyan academic hospital and the impact of attitudes of family and friends on parents' decisions about continuing cancer treatment for their child. Home visits were conducted to interview parents of childhood cancer patients who had been diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and who had abandoned cancer treatment. Retrospective chart review revealed 98 children diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 whose parents had made the decisions to abandon treatment. During 2011-2012, 53 families (54%) could be reached, and 46 (87%) of these agreed to be interviewed. Parents reported the attitudes of community members (grandparents, relatives, friends, villagers, and church members); 61% believed that the child had been bewitched by some individual, and 74% advised parents to seek alternative treatment or advised them to stop medical treatment (54%). Parents also reported that they were influenced by discussions with other parents who had a child being treated, including that their child's life was in God's hands (87%), the trauma to the child and family of forced hospital stays (84%), the importance of completing treatment (81%), the financial burden of treatment (77%), and the incurability of cancer (74%). These discussions influenced their perceptions of cancer treatment and its usefulness (65%). Thirty-six families (78%) had no health insurance, and
Pattern of intimate partner violence disclosure among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Oyo East Local Government, Nigeria. ... South African Family Practice ... Results: Of 252 (72.0%) women who had been exposed to violence by their partner in pregnancy, 72 (28.6%) disclosed their IPV experience.
McMahon, Sarah; Armstrong, D'edra Y.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major problem in the United States, with estimates that 3 percent to 17 percent of women experience violence during the perinatal period. Research indicates that IPV during pregnancy is associated with serious, negative health outcomes for the mother and her unborn child. As such, many…
Di Ceglie, Domenico; Thümmel, Elizabeth Coates
This article gives an account of an experience of group work with parents and carers who had children or adolescents with gender identity disorder (GID). The history of this intervention within the context of a service for children with gender identity problems is outlined. The limited literature on the subject is reviewed. Group meetings were held monthly for 6 months, facilitated by two therapists (the authors). Selection criteria for group participants, the aims of the group and the methodology for achieving those aims are described. Some information about the group's composition is provided. The structure and content of the group sessions are outlined together with details of some group interactions. Finally, we present the results of an evaluation of the intervention through feedback questionnaires and discuss the value for the children and young people of running such groups.
Rodgers, Ali B; Bale, Tracy L
Altered stress reactivity is a predominant feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may reflect disease vulnerability, increasing the probability that an individual will develop PTSD following trauma exposure. Environmental factors, particularly prior stress history, contribute to the developmental programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Critically, the consequences of stress experiences are transgenerational, with parental stress exposure impacting stress reactivity and PTSD risk in subsequent generations. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying this transmission have been explored in rodent models that specifically examine the paternal lineage, identifying epigenetic signatures in male germ cells as possible substrates of transgenerational programming. Here, we review the role of these germ cell epigenetic marks, including posttranslational histone modifications, DNA methylation, and populations of small noncoding RNAs, in the development of offspring stress axis sensitivity and disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hampton, Sarah; Rabagliati, Hugh; Sorace, Antonella; Fletcher-Watson, Sue
Research into how bilingual parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) make choices about their children's language environment is scarce. This study aimed to explore this issue, focusing on understanding how bilingual parents of children with ASD may make different language exposure choices compared with bilingual parents of children without ASD. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 bilingual parents with a child with ASD and 18 bilingual parents with a typically developing (TD) child. Thematic analysis revealed that, in contrast to parents of TD children, parents with a child with ASD expressed concerns that a bilingual environment would cause confusion for their child and exacerbate language delays. This was particularly common for parents of children with lower verbal ability. Parents also identified potential benefits of bilingualism, particularly in terms of maintaining a close and affectionate bond with their child. Parents of children with ASD have concerns about bilingualism not present for parents of TD children, and these concerns are greater for parents of children with lower verbal ability. Future research in this area should take into account factors such as parent-child bonds as well as communication and language development.
Sarrett, Jennifer C
The home is a critical place to learn about cultural values of childhood disability, including autism and intellectual disabilities. The current article describes how the introduction of autism into a home and the availability of intervention options change the structure and meaning of a home and reflect parental acceptance of a child's autistic traits. Using ethnographic data from Kerala, India and Atlanta, GA USA, a description of two types of homes are developed: the custodial home, which is primarily focused on caring for basic needs, and the therapeutic home, which is focused on changing a child's autistic traits. The type of home environment is respondent to cultural practices of child rearing in the home and influences daily activities, management, and care in the home. Further, these homes differ in parental acceptance of their autistic children's disabilities, which is critical to understand when engaging in international work related to autism and intellectual disability. It is proposed that parental acceptance can be fostered through the use of neurodiverse notions that encourage autism acceptance.
Stickney, Carolyn A; Ziniel, Sonja I; Brett, Molly S; Truog, Robert D
To compare the experiences and attitudes of healthcare providers and parents regarding parental participation in morning rounds, in particular to evaluate for differences in perception of parental comprehension of rounds content and parental comfort with attendance, and to identify subgroups of parents who are more likely to report comfort with attending rounds. Cross-sectional survey of 100 parents and 131 healthcare providers in a tertiary care pediatric medical/surgical intensive care unit. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey responses; univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare parent and healthcare provider responses. Of parents, 92% reported a desire to attend rounds, and 54% of healthcare providers reported a preference for parental presence. There were significant discrepancies in perception of understanding between the 2 groups, with healthcare providers much less likely to perceive that parents understood both the format (30% vs 73%, P parents. Analysis of parent surveys did not reveal characteristics correlated with increased comfort or desire to attend rounds. A majority of parents wish to participate in morning rounds, whereas healthcare provider opinions are mixed. Important discrepancies exist between parent and healthcare provider perceptions of parental comfort and comprehension on rounds, which may be important in facilitating parental presence. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Nelson, P; Glenny, A-M; Kirk, S; Caress, A-L
This review brings together for the first time the existing quantitative and qualitative research evidence about the experiences of parents caring for a child with a cleft. It summarizes salient themes on the emotional, social and service-related experiences of parents and critiques the literature to date, comparing it with wider, selected literature from the field of children's long-term conditions, including disability. The review suggests that there are similarities and differences between the literatures, in terms of research focus and approach. Similarities are found across children's conditions in the perspectives of parents on emotional, social and service-related aspects, although much of the cleft literature is focused on the early stages of children's lives. However, the quality of cleft research to date about parents' experiences has also been variable, with a narrow emphasis on cross-sectional, deficit-orientated psychological approaches focused mainly on mothers. Despite a substantial literature, little qualitative research has examined parents' perspectives in-depth, particularly about their child's treatment journey. This contrasts with the wider children's literature, which has traditionally drawn not only on psychological approaches but also on the broader perspectives of sociology, social policy, nursing and health services research, using both qualitative and quantitative methods, often in integrated ways. Such approaches have been able to highlight a greater range of experiences from both mothers and fathers, about caring for a child with a long-term condition and views about treatment. The review identifies a lack of comparable research in the cleft field to examine parents' experiences and needs at different stages of their children's lives. Above all, research is needed to investigate how both mothers and fathers might experience the long-term and complex treatment journey as children become older and to elicit their views about decision
Harvey, Merryl; Nongena, Phumza; Edwards, David; Redshaw, Maggie
Studies exploring parents' trial experiences generally relate to their understanding of the consent process and the development of researcher strategies to facilitate recruitment and retention. The aim was to better understand parents' experience of being part of a trial at the time and their perceptions of trial participation in retrospect. Data were collected in a number of ways: from recorded discussions between parents and clinicians about the MRI or ultrasound, in open-text responses to questionnaires and in qualitative interviews at 1 and 2 years after participation. Thematic analysis was undertaken using NVivo10. Key themes identified were 'deciding to take part', with subthemes associated with 'benefitting self', 'benefitting others' and 'being prepared'; 'the randomisation process' with subthemes relating to 'acceptance' and 'understanding' and 'actual engagement' with subthemes of 'practicalities' and 'care from responsive staff'. Parents' perspectives on the trial and the processes and information received reflect their understanding and experience of the trial and the value of parent-friendly information-giving about participation, randomisation and follow-up. The practical and logistical points raised confirm the key issues and parents' need for sensitive care and support in the course of a trial. Looking back, almost all parents were positive about their experience and felt that the family had benefitted from participation in the trial and follow-up studies, even when the developmental outcomes were poor. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT01049594. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01049594 . Registered on 13 January 2010. EudraCT: EudraCT: 2009-011602-42. https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ .
This conceptual article employs critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical framework to explore the importance of intersectionality in critical race parenting. In particular, I focus on intersectionality to understand better how Whiteness and racial power play out in intimate relationships within the family, particularly between White parents and…
Paterson, Pauline; Schulz, Will; Utley, Martin; Larson, Heidi J
The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of parents' experience and views of vaccinating their four to six-year-old child against influenza at school and at the general practice (GP). A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted between March-June 2016 with parents of children in Reception and Year 1 in four randomly selected schools in Bury, Leicestershire, and Surrey, England. Twenty-five outreach forms were completed and returned, and seven interviews were conducted. Interview transcripts were coded by theme in NVivo (version 11, QSR International Pty Ltd., Melbourne, Australia). The primary reason parents gave for vaccinating their child was to prevent their child from contracting influenza. Parents' perceived benefits of vaccinating in schools were to avoid the inconvenience of having to take their child to the GP, and that their child would behave better at school. Parents viewed that accompanying their child for the vaccination at school would undermine the convenience and peer-pressure advantages of the school as a venue. No parents expressed concern about their child being too young to be vaccinated in school. This research suggests that the school is a desirable venue for childhood influenza vaccination, both from the parents' view and given that influenza vaccination coverage is higher when delivered through schools than GPs.
Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sommer, Rachel; Petzold, Sophie; Bullinger-Naber, Monika
How do Affected Children and Adolescents Experience their Short Stature, and what is the Point of View of their Parents? Despite a large number of publications on the psychosocial situation of short statured children and their parents only a few qualitative studies focus on the perspective of the affected families. Within the European QoLISSY study ("Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth") an instrument to assess the health related quality of life of short statured children was developed. The aim of this project was to examine the self-perceived quality of life of the children themselves in comparison to their parents' perspective. During the development of the QoLISSY instrument, focus groups were conducted as a first step of this study. A total of 23 short statured children and 31 parents participated and discussed their experiences in separate groups with trained moderators. The discussions were analyzed qualitatively und results were used to generate a first list of items for the questionnaire to be developed. While parents focused on socio-emotional problems, children talked much more about their growth hormone treatment and problems in their social environment. In comparison to other studies children rated their quality of life worse than their parents. Not only medical treatment but also a psychological and socio-emotional intervention seems to be indicated.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to discover and describe lived experiences of professional care and caregivers among parents of adults who self-harm. Narrative interviews were conducted with six parents of daughters with self-harming behaviours and analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. The meanings of the parents’ narratives of their lived experiences of professional care and caregivers were interpreted as their being involved in ‘limit situations’ comparable to hostage dramas. Several meaningful themes contributed to this interpretation: being trapped in a situation with no escape; being in the prisoner's dock; groping in the dark; and finding glimmers of hope. Parents of daughters who were in care because of self-harming often felt obliged to pay an emotional ransom, which included feelings of being accused, being ‘broken’, being confused, and feeling lost. Moments of peace occurred as welcome breaks offering a short time of rest for the parents. Situations that were understood by the parents and solved in a peaceful way were experienced as a respite and inspired parents with hope for their daughters’ recovery.
Nelson, LaRon E; Thach, Chia T; Shelton, Melissa M; Boyer, Cherrie B
We conducted an interpretive description of co-parenting relationship experiences of romantically involved Black adolescent mothers and fathers with shared biological children. The study was conducted in Brooklyn, New York, using data from individual in-depth interviews with adolescent mothers and fathers (n = 10). Four themes were identified: (a) putting our heads together; (b) balancing childhood and parenthood; (c) less money, more problems; and (d) if we use condoms, it is for contraception. The co-parenting couples managed very complex relationships, but their mutual interest in the welfare of their children was a relational asset. Co-parents had sparse financial resources but used a moral economy strategy to provide mutual support. Future research is needed that focuses on identifying other co-parent relationship assets and integrating and evaluating their utility for enhancing interventions for adolescent families. © The Author(s) 2014.
Masman, Dirkjan; Dijkstra, Cornelis; Daan, Serge; Bult, Ab
We studied the limiting factors for brood size in the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, by measuring parental effort in natural broods of different size and parental response to manipulation of food satiation of the brood. Parental effort was quantified as total daily time spent in flight, and total daily
Burusic, Josip; Sakic, Marija; Koprtla, Natalija
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore parental perceptions of adolescent health behaviours and to examine to what extent parents' perceptions of their children's health behaviours are determined by the family's socio-demographic characteristics. Method: Participants in the study were 605 parents. They completed questionnaires in which…
Advocates of students with ADHD in the school system are usually parents who must become advocates in response to the child's need for support and a call for parental involvement from the school. Parent advocates are confronted with many challenges, the primary being the daunting, often solitary task of advocating for a child who is often viewed…
Hampton, Sarah; Rabagliati, Hugh; Sorace, Antonella; Fletcher-Watson, Sue
Purpose: Research into how bilingual parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) make choices about their children's language environment is scarce. This study aimed to explore this issue, focusing on understanding how bilingual parents of children with ASD may make different language exposure choices compared with bilingual parents of…
Lick, David J.; Schmidt, Karen M.; Patterson, Charlotte J.
According to two decades of research, parental sexual orientation does not affect overall child development. Researchers have not found significant differences between offspring of heterosexual parents and those of lesbian and gay parents in terms of their cognitive, psychological, or emotional adjustment. Still, there are gaps in the literature…
Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.
The association of marital satisfaction with parenting burden and quality of the parent-child relationship was examined in 91 married mothers and fathers of co-residing adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Within-couple differences between mothers and fathers in how child characteristics related to these parenting experiences…
Watt, L; Dix, D; Gulati, S; Sung, L; Klaassen, R J; Shaw, N T; Klassen, A F
Over the past two decades, there is increasing emphasis being placed upon providing family-centred care (FCC) in paediatric oncology settings. However, there is a lack of knowledge of FCC in paediatric oncology from the perspectives of immigrant parents. The purpose of this paper is to describe Chinese and South Asian immigrant parents' experiences of FCC in paediatric oncology settings in Canada. This study adopted a constructivist grounded theory approach. Fifty first generation Chinese and South Asian parents of children with cancer who were at least 6 months post-diagnosis were recruited from six Canadian paediatric oncology centres. Interviews were conducted in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, Urdu, Punjabi or Hindi, and transcribed into English. Analysis involved line-by-line, focused and theoretical coding, and the use of the constant comparison method. Findings indicated that overall parents were highly satisfied with the care and services they received, and their experiences were reflective of the key elements of FCC. However, there were some areas of concern identified by participants: parents not perceiving themselves as a member of the medical team; inconsistency in the quality and co-ordination of services among healthcare providers; disrespectful and mechanical manner of a few healthcare providers; and parents' discomfort with healthcare providers communicating sensitive health-related information directly with their child. In order to successfully provide family-centred services to immigrant parents of children with cancer, better communication of the elements of FCC between healthcare staff and families is needed to negotiate a clear role for the parents as partners of the healthcare team. Moreover, a better understanding of how family relationships are structured in immigrant families will assist healthcare providers to balance the best interests of the child with that of the family as a unit. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Anne Solveig Iversen
Full Text Available This study explored the experiences of parents of children with cerebral palsy undergoing surgery as they describe them from a lived experience perspective. When children undergo surgical procedures, they have to stay at hospital for a long time, which represents a great challenge for the children as well as their parents. We collected data by using open-ended interviews with 12 parents of 9 children and analyzed these data in accordance with Max van Manen's methodological themes. Based on the parents’ stories, the essential theme is: At the edge of vulnerability—being parents at hospital to a child with CP undergoing surgery, which consisted of three subthemes: establishing trust, awareness of a child who cannot speak, and sensing bodily reactions. Parents experienced demanding challenges as they entered the hospital, in a situation that meant both familiarity and unfamiliarity. Judgments about how to care for the child relied on what they normally did. Sitting bedside for hours and days, thoughts about the legitimacy of letting their child go through the suffering surgery were tormenting the parents. They felt vulnerable and very much dependent on health care workers’ competence and at the same time doubting them in seeing and taking care of their child's specific needs. It was experienced as an ambivalent situation, and even more so for the parents of a child without speech. The findings indicate that establishing trust implies being met at an existential level and a deeply felt need for health care workers that are really engaged in taking care of their child and their parents.
Jouriles, Ernest N; Brown, Alan S; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David; Leahy, Matthew M; Silver, Cheryl
This research examines whether parents' intimate partner physical violence (IPV) relates to their preschoolers' explicit memory functioning, whether children's symptoms of hyperarousal mediate this relation, and whether mothers' positive parenting moderates this relation. Participants were 69 mothers and their 4- or 5-year-old child (34 girls). Mothers completed measures of IPV, children's hyperarousal symptoms, parent-child aggression, and positive parenting. Measures of explicit memory functioning were administered to preschoolers. As expected, IPV correlated negatively with preschoolers' performance on explicit memory tasks, even after controlling for parent-child aggression and demographic variables related to preschoolers' memory functioning. Preschoolers' hyperarousal symptoms did not mediate the relation between IPV and explicit memory functioning, but mothers' positive parenting moderated this relation. Specifically, the negative relation between IPV and preschoolers' performance on 2 of the 3 explicit memory tasks was weaker when mothers engaged in higher levels of positive parenting. These findings extend research on IPV and children's adjustment difficulties to explicit memory functioning in preschoolers and suggest that mothers can ameliorate the influence of IPV on preschoolers' memory functioning via their parenting. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Young, Bridget; Ward, Joanne; Salmon, Peter; Gravenhorst, Katja; Hill, Jonathan; Eden, Tim
We aimed to examine parents' views regarding their preadolescent child's presence during discussions about serious illnesses. In-depth qualitative interviews with parents of children receiving treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia were conducted. Parents were sampled from 6 UK treatment centers. Analysis was informed by the constant comparative method and content analysis. We report on interviews with 53 parents (33 mothers, 20 fathers). Parents acknowledged the benefits of communicating openly with children, but few thought that their child's presence in discussions was straightforwardly desirable. They described how their child's presence restricted their own communication with physicians, made concentrating difficult, and interfered with their efforts to care for their child emotionally. Children's presence was particularly difficult when significant issues were being discussed, including prognoses, adverse results, and certain medical procedures. Parents felt that such discussions posed a potential threat to their child, particularly when they had not first had an opportunity to discuss information with the physician separately from the child. In contrast, separate meetings enabled parents to absorb information and to convey it to their child at an appropriate time and in a reassuring way. Some parents experienced difficulties in accessing separate meetings with physicians. The difficulties parents described could potentially be addressed by extending, beyond the diagnosis period, the practice of sequencing significant information so that it is communicated to parents in separate meetings before being communicated to the child and by periodically exploring with parents what information would be in each child's interests.
Lynn E. McCutcheon
Full Text Available Previous research indicates that persons who self-report a high level of preoccupation with celebrities tend to have lower levels of well-being. We administered the “Romantic Partner Conflict Scale”, the “Love Attitudes Scale”, the soulmate subscale from the “Relationship Theories Questionnaire”, and the anxiety subscale from the “Experiences in Close Relationships Scale” to 330 students from four universities to see how well scores on these measures would predict scores on each of the three subscales from the “Celebrity Attitude Scale” (CAS. We predicted that persons whose scores on these measures of intimate relationships indicated a troubled, anxious, or poor quality relationship would have higher scores on the CAS, especially on its two problematic subscales. In three multiple regressions, specific measures of behavior during conflict with a romantic partner and certain love styles significantly predicted scores on all three of the CAS subscales. We discuss the implications of being a celebrity worshiper on one’s relationship with an intimate partner.
Aagaard, Hanne; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Spliid, Mette; Fegran, Liv
The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available studies exploring parents' experiences of transition when their infants are discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).The review questions are: Giving birth to a premature or sick infant is a stressful event for parents. The parents' presence and participation in the care of the infant is fundamental to reduce this stress and to provide optimal care for both the premature or sick infant and family. A full term pregnancy is estimated to last between 37 and 40 weeks. Preterm infants born before 28 week (5.1%) are defined as extremely preterm, while those who are born between 28 to 31 weeks (10.3%) are defined as very preterm. The majority of the preterm (84.1%) are born between 32 to 37 week and may have significant medical problems requiring prolonged hospitalization.The prevalence of preterm birth is increasing worldwide. More than one in ten babies are born preterm annually. This is equal to 15 million preterm infants born globally and the second largest direct cause of deaths in children below five. The highest rates of preterm birth are in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (more than 60%) and the lowest rates are in Northern Africa, Western Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. The preterm birth rates in the developing countries vary widely and follow a different pattern than in high income countries.The preterm birth rate has increased between 1990 and 2010 with an average of 0.8% annually in almost all countries. Morbidity among critically ill newborn and preterm infants vary widely from no late effects to severe complications, such as visual or hearing impairment, chronic lung disease, growth failure in infancy and specific learning impairments, dyslexia and reduced academic achievement. Full term infants may also experience significant health problems requiring neonatal intensive care. The most common reasons for a full term infant to be admitted to a NICU
Kavanagh, A; Priest, N; Emerson, E; Milner, A; King, T
This study sought to compare the prevalence of bullying victimization between adolescents with and without a disability and between adolescents with and without borderline intellectual functioning or intellectual disability (BIF/ID). We also sought to assess whether the relationships between either disability or BIF/ID and bullying victimization vary by gender and parental education. The sample included 3,956 12- to 13-year-old adolescents who participated in Wave 5 of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Three indicators of bullying were used: physical bullying victimization, social bullying victimization, and "any bullying victimization." We used Poisson regression to obtain the prevalence risk ratios (PRR) of bullying by disability status adjusting for potential confounders. In adjusted models, we found evidence that social bullying victimization was more prevalent among adolescents with a disability than those without a disability (PRR 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.42) and between adolescents with BIF/ID than those without (PRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.44). Adolescents with BIF/ID were also more likely to experience "any bullying victimization"(PRR 1.10, 95% CI 1.00-1.22). Having a disability and living in a family with low parental education were associated with an elevated risk of social bullying victimization BIF/ID. Adolescents with disabilities and BIF/ID are at elevated risk of social bullying victimization. School-based antibullying initiatives should concentrate on enhancing the inclusion of adolescents with disabilities, with an emphasis on adolescents from disadvantaged backgrounds. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wittenberg, Eve; Lichter, Erika L; Ganz, Michael L; McCloskey, Laura A
One in 4 women is affected by intimate partner violence in her lifetime. This article reports on a cross-sectional survey to estimate community preferences for health states resulting from intimate partner violence. A secondary analysis was conducted of data from a convenience sample of 93 abused and 138 nonabused women (231 total) recruited for in-person interviews from hospital outpatient department waiting rooms in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts. SF-12 data were converted to utilities to describe community-perspective preferences for health states associated with intimate partner violence. Linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between violence and utility while controlling for other health and demographic factors. Median utility for intimate partner violence was between 0.58 and 0.63 on a scale of 0 (equivalent to death) to 1.0 (equivalent to optimal health), with a range from 0.64 to 0.66 for less severe violence to 0.53 to 0.62 for more severe violence. The data do not reveal whether violence itself is responsible for lower utility or whether a constellation of factors contributes to disutility experienced by women victims of abuse. The utility of health states experienced by women exposed to intimate partner violence is substantially diminished compared with optimal health and even other health conditions. These values quantify the substantial negative health impact of the experience of intimate partner violence in terms that allow comparison across diseases. They can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses to identify the benefits and potential returns from resources allocated to violence prevention and intervention efforts.
Ames, Heather MR; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon
Background Childhood vaccination is an effective way to prevent serious childhood illnesses, but many children do not receive all the recommended vaccines. There are various reasons for this; some parents lack access because of poor quality health services, long distances or lack of money. Other parents may not trust vaccines or the healthcare workers who provide them, or they may not see the need for vaccination due to a lack of information or misinformation about how vaccinations work and the diseases they can prevent. Communication with parents about childhood vaccinations is one way of addressing these issues. Communication can take place at healthcare facilities, at home or in the community. Communication can be two-way, for example face-to-face discussions between parents and healthcare providers, or one-way, for instance via text messages, posters or radio programmes. Some types of communication enable parents to actively discuss vaccines and their benefits and harms, as well as diseases they can prevent. Other communication types simply give information about vaccination issues or when and where vaccines are available. People involved in vaccine programmes need to understand how parents experience different types of communication about vaccination and how this influences their decision to vaccinate. Objectives The specific objectives of the review were to identify, appraise and synthesise qualitative studies exploring: parents' and informal caregivers' views and experiences regarding communication about childhood vaccinations and the manner in which it is communicated; and the influence that vaccination communication has on parents' and informal caregivers' decisions regarding childhood vaccination. Search methods We searched MEDLINE (OvidSP), MEDLINE In-process and Other Non-Index Citations (Ovid SP), Embase (Ovid), CINAHL (EbscoHOST), and Anthropology Plus (EbscoHost) databases for eligible studies from inception to 30 August 2016. We developed search
Thomet, Corina; Lindenberg, Carina; Schwerzmann, Markus; Spichiger, Elisabeth
Background: Up to 90 % of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) now reach adulthood. To avoid lapses in care during the change from pediatric to adult care, a nurse-led transition program (TP) was implemented at a Swiss University Hospital. Aim: This study explored the experiences and expectations of adolescents with CHD and their parents regarding a nurse-led TP. Method: This qualitative study used an interpretive, phenomenological approach. Individual interviews were conducted with seven adolescent CHD patients in the transition period and their parents (six mothers, two fathers). Analysis followed an iterative process. Results: For most study participants, the transfer from pediatric to adult medicine as part of the TP went smoothly. They experienced the TP positively. Patients valued the provision of a constant contact person to provide CHD-related information; parents welcomed the support of an informed, neutral clinician for their children. To varying degrees, adolescents were willing to take over self-responsibility; conversely, parents found it difficult to turn their responsibility over to their children. Parents wished to give the adolescent as much time as needed to act responsibility on their own. Conclusions: A transition program is a key element for establishing a continuous care in adolescents with a chronic disease. It facilitates the parents' process of allowing their youths to assume increasing responsibility for their own health.
Forslund Frykedal, Karin; Rosander, Michael; Berlin, Anita; Barimani, Mia
The aim of the study was to describe and to understand midwives' and child healthcare nurses' experiences of working with parent education groups through their descriptions of the role and what they find rewarding and challenging in that work. Data were collected through three open-ended questions from a web survey: 'How do you refer to your role when working in parent education?', 'What is the biggest challenge or difficulty for you when working in parent education?' and 'What is most rewarding when working in parent education?' The answers were analysed by using qualitative content analysis and correlation analysis. The results show that the midwives and child healthcare nurses either included or excluded the group when describing their role as leaders and their influence on parents. The same applies to what they found rewarding and what was difficult and challenging for them in working with the groups. Primarily, the leaders who excluded the group expressed a lack of competence on a professional level in managing groups and using the right teaching methods to process the knowledge content. One important question to deal with is how to best support midwives and nurses in child healthcare to be prepared for working with parent education groups. One obvious thing is to provide specialized training in an educational sense. An important aspect could also be providing supervision, individually or in groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bowtell, Evelyn Cecile; Aroni, Rosalie; Green, Julie; Sawyer, Susan M.
Schools in Australia are required to promote equitable access to education and provide support services to students with chronic health conditions (CHCs). This qualitative study was conducted to explore stakeholders' experiences and perceptions regarding school-based support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 parents of upper secondary…
Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi; Lederer, Leslie
Despite initiatives supporting young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) to engage in post-secondary education and integrated employment, those with more intensive support needs are not as easily involved in these post-school experiences. In an effort to learn from positive examples, we examined parent involvement in…
Peterson, Sarah E.; Williams, R. Craig; Myer, Rick A.; Tinajero, Josefina V.
We examined experiences of participants in "Do the Write Thing" national violence prevention program for middle-level students. Using mixed methods, we conducted surveys and focus groups with students, parents, and teachers who attended the program's National Recognition Week in Washington, DC. Results revealed important affective,…
Mander, David J.
This study explored the experience of having a child educated away from home at boarding school for Aboriginal parents living in regional and remote communities in Western Australia (WA). In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants and thematic analysis found the following major themes emerged from the data: (1) Access, Standards and…
Senel, Hatice Gunayer
Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been increasing for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, 38 Turkish parents of children with ASD were surveyed related with their use of CAM treatments, experiences, and views for each treatment. They mentioned "Vitamins and minerals",…
Liu, Ting; Fuller, Jeffrey; Hutton, Alison; Grant, Julian
Chinese adolescents are increasingly engaging in romantic experiences and high-risk sexual behaviors within a rapidly-changing cultural and socio-economic context. Parental communication about sexuality has been recognized as protective for adolescents to make informed decisions about sexual practice. In this study, we explored what was discussed about adolescent romantic experience between parents and adolescents in China. Twenty-seven parents and 38 adolescents from a northern-eastern city of China were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using a social constructionism framework. Four themes were identified: (i) detriments of romantic experience to education and future prospect; (ii) health and sociocultural risks of romantic and sexual engagement; (iii) ways of handling romantic experience; and (iv) marriage and family building. The messages were mainly prohibitive and consequence oriented in nature, and lacked specific romantic and sexual information. These messages reflected sociocultural beliefs in education, sexuality, marriage, and family in China, but did not meet the needs of current adolescents. External support from health professionals, such as nurses, is important for parents and adolescents to improve their sexual knowledge and communication skills. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Rosenfeld, Sarah; Buchbinder, Eli
This article is based on a qualitative study examining the experiences of parents that lost a son during military service in Israel and consequently choose to give birth to another child. Seven couples and 3 mothers were interviewed for the study, and their interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Three main themes…
Elford, Helen; Beail, Nigel; Clarke, Zara
Background: Restraint is sometimes used on people with intellectual disabilities who display challenging behaviours, and may be justifiable as a last resort to prevent harm. A substantial proportion of such people are cared for within the family home. The aim of this paper is to explore parents' experiences of using restraint with their…
Izaguirre, Ainhoa; Cater, Åsa
Witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) may have damaging effects on children's well-being and development. How children understand IPV affects the risk of their developing negative outcomes. Talking with children about the violent episodes they have experienced can change their beliefs regarding their parents' IPV, and therefore may also be a way to help them deal with these adverse experiences. The purpose of the current study was to use the children's narratives to explore the relationship between how IPV was perceived by the children and their experience of talking about it. Interviews with 31 children between 9 and 13 years of age were analyzed using a thematic method. Two main groups of children were identified: children who described the violence as a horrifying experience and children who preferred not to think about the violence. The findings showed that children who described the violence as a horrifying experience perceived talking about the violence as a positive, yet sometimes distressing, experience that made a real difference in their lives; whereas, children who preferred not to think about the violence did not see much need to talk about it and benefit from talking about it. The study confirms previous research indicating that talking about IPV experiences sometimes leads to feelings of relief in children. Thereby, professionals play an important role by providing an appropriate setting to help children reduce their distressing feelings. © The Author(s) 2016.
Li-ying ZHANG; Iqbal Shah; Wendy Baldwin
Objective To analyze the status of parent-child communication on sexual matters and its relationship to the sexual behaviors of adolescents.Methods The data were obtained from a study which was conducted in Changchun city of China in 2001. Unmarried adolescents aged 15-19 years old(322 males and 360 females) were selected for this analysis.Results Ten percent of adolescents reported having experience of sexual intercourse (16% of male and 5% of female). The percentages of adolescents communicating with peers, mothers and fathers were 35%, 30% and 17%, respectively. Males were more likely to talk about sexual issues with peer, while females were more likely to talk with mothers. Significant difference was also noted between the ratio of communication on sexual matters and having a girl/boy friend with peers and with parents. There was a statistically significant relationship between sexual experience and communication with fathers among male adolescents. Despite the fact that parents are the most closest care providers, adolescents obtained most of the sex information from "reading materials"and from "teachers ", but not from their parents. There was an age difference in the main source of obtaining sexual information. Younger adolescents obtained sexual information mainly from teachers while older adolescents mainly from reading materials.Conclusion In addition to schools and reading materials, parents should serve as an important source of information on sexual education as well.
Mehdizadeh, Milad; Nordfjaern, Trond; Mamdoohi, Amir Reza; Shariat Mohaymany, Afshin
Walking to school could improve pupils' health condition and might also reduce the use of motorized transport modes, which leads to both traffic congestion and air pollution. The current study aims to examine the role of parental risk judgements (i.e. risk perception and worry), transport safety attitudes, transport priorities and accident experiences on pupils' walking and mode choices on school trips in Iran, a country with poor road safety records. A total of 1078 questionnaires were randomly distributed among pupils at nine public and private schools in January 2014 in Rasht, Iran. Results from valid observations (n=711) showed that parents with high probability assessments of accidents and strong worry regarding pupils' accident risk while walking were less likely to let their children walk to school. Parents with high safety knowledge were also more likely to allow their pupils to walk to school. Parents who prioritized convenience and accessibility in transport had a stronger tendency to choose motorized modes over walking modes. Also, parents who prioritized safety and security in transport were less likely to allow pupils to walk to school. Elasticities results showed that a one percent increase in priorities of convenience and accessibility, priorities of safety and security, car ownership and walking time from home to school reduced walking among pupils by a probability of 0.62, 0.20, 0.86 and 0.57%, respectively. A one percent increase in parental safety knowledge increased the walking probability by around 0.25%. A 1 unit increase in parental probability assessment and worry towards pupils' walking, decreased the probability of choosing walking mode by 0.11 and 0.05, respectively. Policy-makers who aim to promote walking to schools should improve safety and security of the walking facilities and increase parental safety knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baird, Kathleen; Creedy, Debra; Mitchell, Theresa
In this qualitative study, we explored women's pregnancy intentions and experiences of intimate partner violence before, during and after pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies in the context of intimate partner violence can have serious health, social and economic consequences for women and their children. Feminist and phenomenological philosophies underpinned the study to gain a richer understanding of women's experiences. Eleven women who had been pregnant in the previous two years were recruited from community-based women's refuges in one region of the UK. Of the 11 women, eight had unplanned pregnancies, two reported being coerced into early motherhood, and only one woman had purposively planned her pregnancy. Multiple in-depth interviews focused on participants' accounts of living with intimate partner violence. Experiential data analysis was used to identify, analyse and highlight themes. Three major themes were identified: men's control of contraception, partner's indiscriminate response to the pregnancy and women's mixed feelings about the pregnancy. Participants reported limited influence over their sexual relationship and birth control. Feelings of vulnerability about themselves and fear for their unborn babies' safety were intensified by their partners' continued violence during pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This could be attributed to male dominance and fear, which impacts on a woman's ability to manage her birth control options. The women's initial excitement about their pregnancy diminished in the face of uncertainty and ongoing violence within their relationship. Women experiencing violence lack choice in relation to birth control options leading to unintended pregnancies. Interpreting the findings from the victim-perpetrator interactive spin theory of intimate partner violence provides a possible framework for midwives and nurses to better understand and respond to women
Errington, Julie; Malik, Ghada; Evans, Julie; Baston, Jenny; Parry, Annie; Price, Lisa; Johnstone, Hina; Peters, Selena; Oram, Victoria; Howe, Karen; Whiteley, Emma; Tunnacliffe, Jane; Veal, Gareth J
While the majority of childhood cancer clinical trials are treatment related, additional optional research investigations may be carried out that do not directly impact on treatment. It is essential that these studies are conducted ethically and that the experiences of families participating in these studies are as positive as possible. A questionnaire study was carried out to investigate the key factors that influence why families choose to participate in optional nontherapeutic research studies, the level of understanding of the trials involved, and the experiences of participation. A total of 100 participants from six UK centers were studied; 77 parents, 10 patients >16 years, and 13 patients aged 8-15 years. Ninety-seven percent of parents and 90% of patients felt that information provided prior to study consent was of the right length, with 52% of parents and 65% of patients fully understanding the information provided. Seventy-four percent of parents participated in research studies in order to "do something important", while 74% of patients participated "to help medical staff". Encouragingly, <5% of participants felt that their clinical care would be negatively affected if they did not participate. Positive aspects of participation included a perception of increased attention from medical staff. Negative aspects included spending longer periods in hospital and the requirement for additional blood samples. Ninety-six percent of parents and 87% of patients would participate in future studies. The study provides an insight into the views of childhood cancer patients and their parents participating in nontherapeutic clinical research studies. Overwhelmingly, the findings suggest that participation is seen as a positive experience. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Background An increasing proportion of immigrants to Western countries in the past decade are from war affected countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of war experience among adolescents and their parents and to investigate possible differences in internalizing and externalizing mental health problems between adolescents exposed and unexposed to own and parental war experience. Method The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 1,758 aadolescents were included, all with both parents born outside of Norway. Internalizing and externalizing mental health problems were measured by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 and subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. Own and parental war experience is based on adolescent self-report. Results The proportion of adolescents with own war experience was 14% with the highest prevalence in immigrants from Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. The proportion of parental war experience was 33% with Sub-Saharan Africa being highest. Adolescents reporting own war experience had higher scores for both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems compared to immigrants without war experience, but only externalizing problems reached statistically significant differences. For parental war experience there was a statistically significant relationship between parental war experience and internalizing mental health problems. The association remained significant after adjustment for parental educational level and adolescents' own war experience. Conclusion War exposure is highly prevalent among immigrants living in Oslo, Norway, both among adolescents themselves and their parents. Among immigrants to Norway, parental war experience appears to be stronger associated with mental health problems than adolescents own exposure to war experience. PMID:17081315
Ames, Heather Mr; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon
Childhood vaccination is an effective way to prevent serious childhood illnesses, but many children do not receive all the recommended vaccines. There are various reasons for this; some parents lack access because of poor quality health services, long distances or lack of money. Other parents may not trust vaccines or the healthcare workers who provide them, or they may not see the need for vaccination due to a lack of information or misinformation about how vaccinations work and the diseases they can prevent.Communication with parents about childhood vaccinations is one way of addressing these issues. Communication can take place at healthcare facilities, at home or in the community. Communication can be two-way, for example face-to-face discussions between parents and healthcare providers, or one-way, for instance via text messages, posters or radio programmes. Some types of communication enable parents to actively discuss vaccines and their benefits and harms, as well as diseases they can prevent. Other communication types simply give information about vaccination issues or when and where vaccines are available. People involved in vaccine programmes need to understand how parents experience different types of communication about vaccination and how this influences their decision to vaccinate. The specific objectives of the review were to identify, appraise and synthesise qualitative studies exploring: parents' and informal caregivers' views and experiences regarding communication about childhood vaccinations and the manner in which it is communicated; and the influence that vaccination communication has on parents' and informal caregivers' decisions regarding childhood vaccination. We searched MEDLINE (OvidSP), MEDLINE In-process and Other Non-Index Citations (Ovid SP), Embase (Ovid), CINAHL (EbscoHOST), and Anthropology Plus (EbscoHost) databases for eligible studies from inception to 30 August 2016. We developed search strategies for each database, using
This article is based on a research project drawing upon in-depth qualitative interviews (N=61) and data from a survey (N=628) of young people and parents belonging to the five largest ethnic minority groups in Denmark. The theoretical framework combines conceptualisations about conflict...... and the family with theories about modernisation/individualisation and discrimination effects. The dominating tendencies in the inter-generational relationships between young people and their parents on the subject of the young people's intimate partnership formation are analysed and discussed. The ethic...... minority youth and parents' reflections on the ethnic majority partnership formation patterns are delineated. The analyses indicate that relationships between young people and parents on the issue of intimate partnership formation can be cooperative or in opposition. This is contrary to the widespread...
Thomas, Nicole; Blake, Sharon; Morris, Christopher; Moles, David R
Accessing and receiving preventative dental treatment can be difficult for children with autism due to sensory processing disorders and/or challenging behaviours coupled with a reported reluctance by dentists to treat these children. To gather dental experiences of UK parents of children with autism or working diagnosis of autism and explore how they feel primary care dental services can be improved. A total of 17 parents of children with a diagnosis or working diagnosis of autism took part in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed thematically. Key themes identified were flexibility of the dental team and environment, confidence of the parents to advocate for their children's needs, continuity of services and clear referral pathways to specialist services. Cross-cutting all themes was the value of clear communication. The experiences provide greater understanding of issues such as hyper-empathy, the dental chair, challenges of the waiting room, perceived medical authority, and the importance of continuation of care. In line with previous research about the importance of family-centred care, a strong relationship between parents and the whole dental team is essential for children with autism to access dental examinations and have satisfactory experience of care. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jessup, Melanie; Li, Anne; Fulbrook, Paul; Bell, Scott C
To explore the experiences of men and women with cystic fibrosis in becoming parents. As lifespan for people with cystic fibrosis increases, and reproductive technology advances, having a child of their own becomes a possibility. This study used a phenomenological framework. Seven Australian adults with cystic fibrosis were invited to describe their experiences of becoming parents in the context of a semi-structured interview. Analysis of the data involved highlighting recurrent phrases and isolating emergent themes. Two overarching themes characterised the participants' experience: Counting the cost, as they recalled Concentric communication and Pathways to pregnancy; and Living the dream, as they cast a retrospective view over this, their major achievement, in the light of their Reaction: a dream comes true, Coping: a question of balance, Conjecture: the future redefined and Confidence: recalibrating. While advances in cystic fibrosis care and reproductive technology have increased the possibility of individuals with cystic fibrosis becoming parents, the passage to becoming a parent is a complex process. These findings can inform health professionals to support the adaptive work necessary for families that include members with cystic fibrosis. A contemporary understanding of this phenomenon is necessary for facilitating clinically relevant communication. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Parisien, Rachel B; Gillanders, Kirstie; Hennessy, Erin K; Herterich, Lisa; Saunders, Kendra; Lati, Jamil; Dos Santos, Stephanie; Hassall, Alison; O'Brien, Kelly K
The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into parents' experiences of physical therapy and early mobility (EM) for their children in a pediatric critical care unit (PCCU). We conducted a series of four qualitative case studies using in-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews. We recruited parents of children who had undergone surgery and received at least one EM physical therapy intervention while intubated. We conducted a thematic analysis of transcribed interviews to illuminate the factors that influenced EM experiences. Four parents participated in the study. We developed an overview of Parental Experiences with Physical Therapy and Early Mobility in a PCCU, which includes four themes that parents believed influenced their experiences: (1) environmental factors; (2) awareness of physical therapist and health care professional (HCP) roles; (3) communication among parents and HCPs; and (4) parental participation in their child's EM, within the overarching parental experiences in the PCCU. This study affords a preliminary understanding of parents' experiences with physical therapy and EM in a PCCU setting. Results provide an important foundation for future research on mobility in the context of pediatric critical care research and practice.
Full Text Available Family planning involves planning the number of children and timing of birth or adoption. A family and its planning are the rights guaranteed by the Constitution, but the question is whether they are equally guaranteed to all or homosexuals are discriminated against legislation, the practice of States and their authorities. The results of the analysis of longitudinal studies done in this field in the United States in the last decade, dealing with the experiences of same-sex couples in the role of parents and their children would get a better insight into the challenges and the problems that they face every day. Also, the emphasis will be on the assessment of the effects of family environment on the life and development of the children, and the ways in which they overcome the challenges that children in traditional families do not face. Given the fact, that the adoption is one way of planning and implementing family, one of the questions that arises is whether the adoption of a child by a same-sex couple in accordance with their best interests, which is the standard that the law expressly provides as requirement for adoption. Adjustment of the child to the same-sex families and the same-sex families to the society, which is often not friendly to diversity, currently, I dare say, is one of the most important issues in the field of family law, from the biological, medical, demographic, social, economic and psychological aspects.