WorldWideScience

Sample records for parenting domains limitations

  1. Inviscid incompressible limits on expanding domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Nečasová, Šárka; Sun, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2014), s. 2465-2477 ISSN 0951-7715 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes system * large domain * inviscid limit * incompressible limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0951-7715/27/10/2465/

  2. Parenting and Parenthood as Research Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polivanova K.N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of a number of publications which concern the modern socio-cultural situation and its consequences on contemporary parenthood. The constructs "parenthood" and "parenting" are presented:. the first one refers to a social role of an adult with a child in relation to other social roles and the latter with the process of child rearing. The major social trends are presented: Contemporary parenthood is analyzed and problematized due to the nature of modern challenges faced by educated parents. The following trends are discussed: erosion of understandable, clearly presented stereotypes and patterns of child rearing in the family, increase of variability of practices of child-parent interaction, growth of supply on the market of goods and services. All these major social trends bring to the sunset of "natural" parenthood and the decision to have a child turns to be a consciously planned strategy. The article shows that the appeal to expert knowledge in child rearing which is characteristic of postmodern era leads to new uncertainties due to the variety of inconsistent advice and expertise. Discussion of the transformations experienced by the family shows the transition from child-centered to adult-centered pattern. Thus, the conclusion is that contemporary parenting takes place against many (conscious and unconscious contradictions, particularly between the growing importance of the values of self-realization and commitment and the value of parenthood. This contradiction brings to stress and anxiety which in turn damages the perception of oneself as a parent. The growth of interest in the study of parental identity and self-efficacy is considered to be a promising direction of research

  3. INITIAL VALIDATION OF THE ASSESSMENT OF PARENTING TOOL: A TASK- AND DOMAIN-LEVEL MEASURE OF PARENTING SELF-EFFICACY FOR PARENTS OF INFANTS FROM BIRTH TO 24 MONTHS OF AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Tracy E; Polanin, Joshua R; Evenson, Amber L; Troutman, Beth R; Franklin, Christina L

    2016-05-01

    Parenting self-efficacy (PSE) includes parents' self-perceptions regarding their capabilities in performing the numerous and changing tasks associated with parenting a specific child (i.e., domain-specific PSE) as well as their self-perceptions in the parenting role overall (i.e., domain-general PSE). Prior literature has demonstrated PSE's relations with numerous constructs significant to mental health and the parent-infant relationship. Prior measures of PSE have been limited by focusing on only domain-specific or domain-general PSE, ignoring the importance of infant development to PSE, and other psychometric limitations. This article presents sound psychometric data for a new measure of PSE, the Assessment of Parenting Tool (APT). The APT includes task-level items on the Domain-Specific subscale (APT-DS) for each age-referenced version of the measure as well as a domain-general subscale that taps overall PSE within the first 24 months' postpartum. Initial construct validity of the measure is established, particularly for parents of infants aged 3 months and older. A stable, three-factor structure for the domain-general subscale includes "coping with being a parent," "attuned parenting," and "self-perceived model parenting." Future directions for the APT, including a revised checklist format for the domain-specific subscale, are included. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Parental Provision of Structure: Implementation and Correlates in Three Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolnick, Wendy S.; Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Marbell, Kristine N; Flamm, Elizabeth S.; Cardemil, Esteban V.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parents' provision of "structure," defined as the organization of the environment to facilitate competence, and the degree to which it supports versus controls children's autonomy, in the domains of homework and studying, unsupervised time, and responsibilities in a diverse sample of sixth-grade children and their…

  5. Raising Emotionally Intelligent Teenagers: Parenting with Love, Laughter, and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Maurice J.; Tobias, Steven E.; Friedlander, Brian S.

    Based on the formula of love, laughter, limits, and linkages, this book presents practical, parent-tested ways parents can help their adolescent children become emotionally intelligent. The book is presented in three parts. Part 1 concerns parent preparation for raising an emotionally intelligent teenager, discusses the importance of parenting by…

  6. What influences parents' decisions to limit or withdraw life support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Mahesh; Meert, Kathleen L; Sarnaik, Ashok P

    2005-09-01

    Decisions to forgo life support from critically ill children are commonly faced by parents and physicians. Previous research regarding parents' perspectives on the decision-making process has been limited by retrospective methods and the use of closed-ended questionnaires. We prospectively identified and described parents' self-reported influences on decisions to forgo life support from their children. Deeper understanding of parents' views will allow physicians to focus end-of-life discussions on factors important to parents and help resolve conflicts. Prospective, qualitative pilot study. Pediatric intensive care unit of a university-affiliated children's hospital. A total of 14 parents of ten children whose pediatric intensive care unit physician had made a recommendation to limit or withdraw life support. : In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with parents during their decision-making process. Factors influencing the parents in this study in their decision to forgo life support included their previous experience with death and end-of-life decision making for others, their personal observations of their child's suffering, their perceptions of their child's will to survive, their need to protect and advocate for their child, and the family's financial resources and concerns regarding life-long care. Parents in this study expressed the desire to do what is best for their child but struggled with feelings of selfishness, guilt, and the need to avoid agony and sorrow. Physician recommendations, review of options, and joint formulation of a plan helped parents gain a sense of control over their situation. Parents of eight children agreed to forgo life support and parents of two did not. Prospective interviews with open-ended questions identified factors influencing parents' decision making not previously described in the critical care literature such as parents' past experiences with end-of-life decisions and their anticipated emotional adjustments and

  7. The limits of parental responsibility regarding medical treatment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Sarah L

    2011-11-01

    Parental responsibility (PR) was a concept introduced by the Children Act (CA) 1989 which aimed to replace the outdated notion of parental rights and duties which regarded children as parental possessions. Section 3(1) CA 1989 defines PR as 'all the rights, duties, powers, responsibilities and authority which by law a parent of a child has in relation to the child'. In exercising PR, individuals may make medical treatment decisions on children's behalf. Medical decision-making is one area of law where both children and the state can intercede and limit parental decision-making. Competent children can consent to treatment and the state can interfere if parental decisions are not seemingly in the child's 'best interests'. This article examines the concept, and limitations, of PR in relation to medical treatment decision-making.

  8. Predictors of parents' intention to limit children's television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy

    2013-12-01

    Scientific evidence demonstrates a link between viewing time and several poor health outcomes. We use a reasoned action approach to identify the determinants and beliefs associated with parents' intention to limit their children's television viewing. We surveyed a random sample of 516 caregivers to children ages 3-16 in a large Northeastern city. Multiple regression analyses were used to test a reasoned action model and examine the differences across demographic groups. The intention to limit viewing (-3 to 3) was low among parents of adolescents (M: 0.05) compared with parents of 3-6 year olds (M: 1.49) and 7-12 year olds (M: 1.16). Attitudes were the strongest determinant of intention (β = 0.43) across all demographic groups and normative pressure was also significantly related to intention (β = 0.20), except among parents of adolescents. Relevant beliefs associated with intention to limit viewing included: limiting television would be associated with the child exercising more, doing better in school, talking to family more and having less exposure to inappropriate content. Attitudes and normative pressure play an important role in determining parents' intention to limit their child's television viewing. The beliefs that were associated with parents' intention to limit should be emphasized by health professionals and in health communication campaigns.

  9. Parents who use drugs: accounting for damage and its limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmoller, Kathrin

    2010-10-01

    Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection as well as self protection. This illuminates tensions in the multiple functions that accounts of damage limitation can serve. We draw a distinction between accounts in which damage is qualified and those in which damage is accepted. Accounts of damage qualification highlight a theme of 'good enough' parenting. Accounts of damage acceptance highlight a theme of 'recovery'. We find that the interview accounts operate in response to a regulative norm of 'good parenting' in which one strives to deflect damaged identity through narratives of damage qualification and to seek understanding and acceptance through narratives of recovery. Noting the absence of space for parents who use drugs to openly reflect or talk about the challenges they face, we identify the need for social change interventions to create enabling environments for earlier help seeking and talking. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relations with parents and identity statuses in the relational domain in emerging adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Michałek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Emerging adulthood is a core developmental period in which individuals can develop a meaningful identity in the relational domain (with a romantic partner. The aim of the study was to examine relationships between relations with parents and identity statuses in the relational domain in emerging adults. Participants and procedure Participants were 266 (47.30% males emerging adults (M = 22.50, SD = 1.73. They completed self-report measures of relations with parents and identity. Results More than half of the participants were in the moratorium status or were not involved in a romantic relationship (35% and 29%, respectively. Relations with parents were linked to identity statuses in the relational domain. Particularly, the perception of low autonomy given by the father was related to less mature identity statuses. Conclusions This study highlighted that transition from singleness to stable partnerships seems to be challenging. Therefore, it is important to examine correlates of identity statuses in this domain.

  11. Adaptation of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) to the measurement of the parental identity domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Konrad

    2018-04-01

    The present studies examined the psychometric properties of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) adapted to the measurement of identity formation in the parental identity domain. As the parental identity domain has only been studied within the neo-Eriksonian approach to a very limited extent, the aim of these studies was to prepare a short, valid and reliable tool for the measurement of parental identity in order to fill this gap. The associations of commitment, in-depth exploration and reconsideration of commitment in the parental domain with well-being and with other identity constructs were analyzed. The results showed that parental identity formation is associated with mothers' satisfaction with life and trait anxiety and with identity formation in other areas as well. The initial results suggest that the adapted version of the U-MICS is a valid and reliable measure that can be used in future studies on parental identity formation. © 2017 The Author. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Energetic limitation of avian parental effort : Field experiments in the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Dirkjan; Dijkstra, Cornelis; Daan, Serge; Bult, Ab

    1989-01-01

    We studied the limiting factors for brood size in the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, by measuring parental effort in natural broods of different size and parental response to manipulation of food satiation of the brood. Parental effort was quantified as total daily time spent in flight, and total daily

  13. The home literacy and numeracy environment in preschool: Cross-domain relations of parent-child practices and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Amy R; Purpura, David J

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence indicating that home literacy and numeracy environments are predictive of children's literacy and numeracy skills within their respective domains. However, there is limited research on the relations between the home literacy environment and numeracy outcomes and between the home numeracy environment and literacy outcomes. Specifically, there is limited information on relations between the home numeracy environment and specific literacy outcomes (e.g., vocabulary). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relations of the home literacy and numeracy environments to children's literacy and numeracy outcomes both within and across domains. Participants were 114 preschool children and their parents. Children ranged in age from 3.01 to 5.17 years (M = 4.09 years) and were 54% female and 72% Caucasian. Parents reported the frequency of parent-child literacy (code-related practices and storybook reading) and numeracy practices. Children were assessed in the fall and spring of their preschool year on their literacy (definitional vocabulary, phonological awareness, and print knowledge) and numeracy skills. Four mixed-effects regression analyses were conducted to predict each of the child outcomes. Results indicate that although code-related literacy practices and storybook reading were not broadly predictive of children's literacy and numeracy outcomes, the home numeracy environment was predictive of numeracy and definitional vocabulary outcomes. These findings demonstrate a relation between the home numeracy environment and children's language development and contribute to the growing body of research indicating the important relations between early numeracy and language development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Do neonatologists limit parental decision-making authority? A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersheim, Susan G; Lavoie, Pascal M; Keidar, Yaron D

    2010-12-01

    According to the principles of family-centered care, fully informed parents and health care professionals are partners in the care of sick neonates. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of Canadian neonatologists towards the authority of parents to make life-and-death decisions for their babies. We interviewed 121 (74%) of the 164 practicing neonatologists in Canada (June 2004-March 2005), using scripted open-ended questions and common clinical scenarios. Data analysis employed interpretive description methodology. The main outcome measure was the intention of neonatologists to limit parental life-and-death decision-making authority, when they disagree with parental decisions. Neonatologists' self-rated respect for parental decision-making authority was 8/10. Most neonatologists thought that parents should be either primary decision-makers or part of the decision-making team. Fifty-six percent of neonatologists would limit parental decision-making authority if the parents' decision is not in the baby's "best interest". In response to common neonatal severe illness scenarios, up to 18% of neonatologists said they would limit parental decision-making, even if the chance of intact survival is very poor. For clinical scenarios with equally poor long-term outcomes, neonatologists were more likely to comply with parental wishes early in the life of a baby, particularly with documented brain injury. Canadian neonatologists espouse high regard for parental decision-making authority, but are prepared to limit parental authority if the parents' decision is not thought to be in the baby's best interest. Although neonatologists advise parents that treatment can be started at birth, and stopped later, this was only for early severe brain injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Domains of quality of life of people with profound multiple disabilities : The perspective of parents and direct support staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petry, K; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C

    Background This study considered the general validity of the basic domains of quality of life that appear in theoretical models, in relation to people with profound multiple disabilities. The authors examined how parents and direct support staff operationalized these basic domains for people with

  16. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yan; Nicklas Theresa A; Fisher Jennifer O; Hughes Sheryl O; Hoerr Sharon L; Shewchuk Richard M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head S...

  17. Limitations in imaging common conjunctival and corneal pathologies with fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Hakan; Steen, Daniel W

    2014-01-01

    To describe the limitations of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in imaging common conjunctival and corneal pathology. Retrospective, single-center case series of 40 patients with conjunctival and cornea pathology. Fourier-domain OCT imaged laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flaps in detail, including its relation to other corneal structures and abnormalities. Similarly, in infectious or degenerative corneal disorders, Fourier-domain OCT successfully showed the extent of infiltration or material deposition, which appeared as hyper-reflective areas. In cases with pterygium, the underlying cornea could not be imaged. All cases of common conjunctival pathologies, such as nevus or pinguecula, were successfully imaged in detail. Nevi, scleritis, pterygium, pinguecula, and subconjunctival hemorrhage were hyper-reflective lesions, while cysts and lymphangiectasia were hyporeflective. The details of the underlying sclera were not uniformly imaged in conjunctival pathologies. Fourier-domain OCT imaged the trabeculectomy bleb in detail, whereas the details of structures of the anterior chamber angle were not routinely visualized in all cases. Light scatter through vascularized, densely inflamed, or thick lesions limits the imaging capabilities of Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT.

  18. Asssociations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited inc...

  19. On incompressible limits for the Navier-Stokes system on unbounded domains under slip boundary conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Donatelli, D.; Feireisl, Eduard; Novotný, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2010), s. 783-798 ISSN 1531-3492 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06052; GA ČR GA201/08/0315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equations * singular limits * low Mach number * compressible fluids * unbounded domains Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.874, year: 2010 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=4976

  20. Stability with respect to domain of the low Mach number limit of compressible viscous fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Karper, T.; Kreml, Ondřej; Stebel, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 13 (2013), s. 2465-2493 ISSN 0218-2025 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : incompressible limit * domain dependence * Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.351, year: 2013 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0218202513500371

  1. On the low Mach number limit of compressible flows in exterior moving domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Kreml, Ondřej; Mácha, Václav; Nečasová, Šárka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2016), s. 705-722 ISSN 1424-3199 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes system * incompressible limit * moving domain Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00028-016-0338-2

  2. Parents' Socioeconomic Status and Health Literacy Domains among Shokrof Preparatory School Students , Shokrof Village, Algarbia Governorate, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alseraty, Wafaa Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Parents' socioeconomic status is mainly impact their children health outcomes, cognitive, social and emotional development. It also had a great impact on children health-related knowledge, health-related attitudes, health-related communication, health-related behavior, and self-efficiency level. Enhancing health literacy domains are the keystone…

  3. The experience of Chinese American parents of children with life-limiting illness: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiao; Kearney, Joan A

    2013-07-01

    Life-limiting childhood illness is a traumatic experience presenting parents with psychological, physical, and social challenges. While cultural influences affect all parents coping with the life-limiting illness and end-of-life period of their child, little is known about the experiences of Chinese American parents. The purpose of this comprehensive literature review was to describe Chinese American parents' experiences during their children's end-of-life period from a culturally informed perspective. Important themes in the literature are revealed including culture-based phenomena regarding philosophy of life and illness that can affect treatment choices, cultural mores that influence parental behaviour in Western health-care systems, specific communication patterns within families and between families and providers, certain coping risks, and gender-based roles and caregiving activities that have implications for provider communication patterns. The findings are consonant with the larger literature regarding the impact of traditional culture and values on Chinese family and health behaviours. Health professionals must be sensitive to Chinese American parents' communication styles, unspoken concerns, and unresolved cultural conflicts in American health-care settings. Educational interventions may be very helpful in this regard.

  4. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Hughes, Sheryl O; Fisher, Jennifer O; Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2009-08-13

    Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%), Hispanic (29%), and White (28%). The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes) was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent), indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 +/- 0.09 vs 1.45 +/- 0.09 and 1.42 +/- 0.11 cups) as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 +/- 0.05 vs 0.67 +/- 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups), respectively. Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime.

  5. Quenched lattice QCD with domain wall fermions and the chiral limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, T.; Wingate, M.; Chen, P.; Christ, N.; Cristian, C.; Fleming, G.; Kaehler, A.; Liao, X.; Liu, G.; Malureanu, C.; Mawhinney, R.; Siegert, G.; Sui, C.; Wu, L.; Zhestkov, Y.; Dawson, C.; Soni, A.; Ohta, S.; Vranas, P.

    2004-01-01

    Quenched QCD simulations on three volumes 8 3 x, 12 3 x and 16 3 x32 and three couplings β=5.7, 5.85 and 6.0 using domain wall fermions provide a consistent picture of quenched QCD. We demonstrate that the small induced effects of chiral symmetry breaking inherent in this formulation can be described by a residual mass (m res ) whose size decreases as the separation between the domain walls (L s ) is increased. However, at stronger couplings much larger values of L s are required to achieve a given physical value of m res . For β=6.0 and L s =16, we find m res /m s =0.033(3), while for β=5.7, and L s =48, m res /m s =0.074(5), where m s is the strange quark mass. These values are significantly smaller than those obtained from a more naive determination in our earlier studies. Important effects of topological near zero modes which should afflict an accurate quenched calculation are easily visible in both the chiral condensate and the pion propagator. These effects can be controlled by working at an appropriately large volume. A non-linear behavior of m π 2 in the limit of small quark mass suggests the presence of additional infrared subtlety in the quenched approximation. Good scaling is seen both in masses and in f π over our entire range, with inverse lattice spacing varying between 1 and 2 GeV

  6. The C terminus of the polerovirus p5 readthrough domain limits virus infection to the phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Kari A; Gildow, Frederick; Palukaitis, Peter; Gray, Stewart M

    2009-06-01

    Poleroviruses are restricted to vascular phloem tissues from which they are transmitted by their aphid vectors and are not transmissible mechanically. Phloem limitation has been attributed to the absence of virus proteins either facilitating movement or counteracting plant defense. The polerovirus capsid is composed of two forms of coat protein, the major P3 protein and the minor P3/P5 protein, a translational readthrough of P3. P3/P5 is required for insect transmission and acts in trans to facilitate long-distance virus movement in phloem tissue. Specific potato leafroll virus mutants lacking part or all of the P5 domain moved into and infected nonvascular mesophyll tissue when the source-sink relationship of the plant (Solanum sarrachoides) was altered by pruning, with the progeny virus now being transmissible mechanically. However, in a period of months, a phloem-specific distribution of the virus was reestablished in the absence of aphid transmission. Virus from the new phloem-limited infection showed compensatory mutations that would be expected to restore the production of full-length P3/P5 as well as the loss of mechanical transmissibility. The data support our hypothesis that phloem limitation in poleroviruses presumably does not result from a deficiency in the repertoire of virus genes but rather results from P3/P5 accumulation under selection in the infected plant, with the colateral effect of facilitating transmission by phloem-feeding aphid vectors.

  7. The C Terminus of the Polerovirus P5 Readthrough Domain Limits Virus Infection to the Phloem▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Kari A.; Gildow, Frederick; Palukaitis, Peter; Gray, Stewart M.

    2009-01-01

    Poleroviruses are restricted to vascular phloem tissues from which they are transmitted by their aphid vectors and are not transmissible mechanically. Phloem limitation has been attributed to the absence of virus proteins either facilitating movement or counteracting plant defense. The polerovirus capsid is composed of two forms of coat protein, the major P3 protein and the minor P3/P5 protein, a translational readthrough of P3. P3/P5 is required for insect transmission and acts in trans to facilitate long-distance virus movement in phloem tissue. Specific potato leafroll virus mutants lacking part or all of the P5 domain moved into and infected nonvascular mesophyll tissue when the source-sink relationship of the plant (Solanum sarrachoides) was altered by pruning, with the progeny virus now being transmissible mechanically. However, in a period of months, a phloem-specific distribution of the virus was reestablished in the absence of aphid transmission. Virus from the new phloem-limited infection showed compensatory mutations that would be expected to restore the production of full-length P3/P5 as well as the loss of mechanical transmissibility. The data support our hypothesis that phloem limitation in poleroviruses presumably does not result from a deficiency in the repertoire of virus genes but rather results from P3/P5 accumulation under selection in the infected plant, with the colateral effect of facilitating transmission by phloem-feeding aphid vectors. PMID:19297484

  8. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  9. When it is costly to have a caring mother: food limitation erases the benefits of parental care in earwigs

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier Joel; Koelliker Mathias

    2012-01-01

    The aggregation of parents with offspring is generally associated with different forms of care that improve offspring survival at potential costs to parents. Under poor environments, the limited amount of resources available can increase the level of competition among family members and consequently lead to adaptive changes in parental investment. However, it remains unclear as to what extent such changes modify offspring fitness, particularly when offspring can survive without parents such a...

  10. Are Negative Peer Influences Domain Specific? Examining the Influence of Peers and Parents on Externalizing and Drug Use Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ronald B; Criss, Michael M; Harrist, Amanda W; Zapata-Roblyer, Martha

    2017-10-01

    Most studies tend to characterize peer influences as either positive or negative. In a sample of 1815 youth from 14 different schools in Caracas, Venezuela, we explored how two types of peer affiliations (i.e., deviant and drug-using peers) differentially mediated the paths from positive parenting to youth's externalizing behavior and licit and illicit drug use. We used Zero Inflated Poisson models to test the probability of use and the extent of use during the past 12 months. Results suggested that peer influences are domain specific among Venezuelan youth. That is, deviant peer affiliations mediated the path from positive parenting to youth externalizing behaviors, and peer drug-using affiliations mediated the paths to the drug use outcomes. Mediation effects were partial, suggesting that parenting explained unique variance in the outcomes after accounting for both peer variables, gender, and age. We discuss implications for the development of screening tools and for prevention interventions targeting adolescents from different cultures.

  11. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Methods Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%, Hispanic (29%, and White (28%. The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent, indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Results Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 ± 0.09 vs 1.45 ± 0.09 and 1.42 ± 0.11 cups as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 ± 0.05 vs 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime.

  12. Faith, Hope, and Spirituality: SUPPORTING PARENTS WHEN THEIR CHILD HAS A LIFE-LIMITING ILLNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    When a child has a life-limiting illness, parents' goals and strategies for their child's life may need to be drastically altered, especially if early death looms. This article reviews literature and research about how families employ faith, hope, spirituality, and biblical perspectives as their child becomes critically ill and faces death. Suggestions are made for best caring practices for families and children encountering this difficult journey.

  13. Can limited area NWP and/or RCM models improve on large scales inside their domain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinger, Fedor; Veljovic, Katarina

    2017-04-01

    In a paper in press in Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics at the time this abstract is being written, Mesinger and Veljovic point out four requirements that need to be fulfilled by a limited area model (LAM), be it in NWP or RCM environment, to improve on large scales inside its domain. First, NWP/RCM model needs to be run on a relatively large domain. Note that domain size in quite inexpensive compared to resolution. Second, NWP/RCM model should not use more forcing at its boundaries than required by the mathematics of the problem. That means prescribing lateral boundary conditions only at its outside boundary, with one less prognostic variable prescribed at the outflow than at the inflow parts of the boundary. Next, nudging towards the large scales of the driver model must not be used, as it would obviously be nudging in the wrong direction if the nested model can improve on large scales inside its domain. And finally, the NWP/RCM model must have features that enable development of large scales improved compared to those of the driver model. This would typically include higher resolution, but obviously does not have to. Integrations showing improvements in large scales by LAM ensemble members are summarized in the mentioned paper in press. Ensemble members referred to are run using the Eta model, and are driven by ECMWF 32-day ensemble members, initialized 0000 UTC 4 October 2012. The Eta model used is the so-called "upgraded Eta," or "sloping steps Eta," which is free of the Gallus-Klemp problem of weak flow in the lee of the bell-shaped topography, seemed to many as suggesting the eta coordinate to be ill suited for high resolution models. The "sloping steps" in fact represent a simple version of the cut cell scheme. Accuracy of forecasting the position of jet stream winds, chosen to be those of speeds greater than 45 m/s at 250 hPa, expressed by Equitable Threat (or Gilbert) skill scores adjusted to unit bias (ETSa) was taken to show the skill at large scales

  14. Children, parents and home energy use: Exploring motivations and limits to energy demand reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, Michael J.; Chiu, Lai Fong

    2014-01-01

    While almost 30% of UK households include children, little research has attempted to present children's perspectives on home energy use. This study used focus groups with children and parents at two primary (elementary) schools in London, UK, to explore home energy use and energy feedback. Energy was found to be a little-discussed subject at home. Children derived more motivation to save energy from responsibility conferred by school activities than other (e.g. environmental) concerns, and some connected energy saving with dangers of using electricity (e.g. fire). Material and social constraints (e.g. access to outside space, parents' environmental attitudes) meant that it was sometimes difficult for children to save energy even when motivated. However, parents showed greater inclination to pay attention to energy saving when framed as supporting their child's learning than as a financial or environmental concern. Children were disinclined to reduce energy-consuming activities such as watching television, and while parents complained about children's energy use most saw it as a low priority issue. Policy implications of these findings are considered, and the approach employed is argued to be an effective way of investigating children's perceptions around energy use. - Highlights: • Separate focus groups were conducted with children and parents on home energy use. • Children were motivated to save energy by being given responsibility. • Parents viewed saving energy more positively when framed as educating their child. • Material and social factors limit children's ability to save energy. • The method may encourage openness by decreasing power imbalances

  15. Continuum limit of Bk from 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    We determine the neutral kaon mixing matrix element B K in the continuum limit with 2+1 flavors of domain wall fermions, using the Iwasaki gauge action at two different lattice spacings. These lattice fermions have near exact chiral symmetry and therefore avoid artificial lattice operator mixing. We introduce a significant improvement to the conventional nonperturbative renormalization (NPR) method in which the bare matrix elements are renormalized nonperturbatively in the regularization invariant momentum scheme (RI-MOM) and are then converted into the MS - scheme using continuum perturbation theory. In addition to RI-MOM, we introduce and implement four nonexceptional intermediate momentum schemes that suppress infrared nonperturbative uncertainties in the renormalization procedure. We compute the conversion factors relating the matrix elements in this family of regularization invariant symmetric momentum schemes (RI-SMOM) and MS - at one-loop order. Comparison of the results obtained using these different intermediate schemes allows for a more reliable estimate of the unknown higher-order contributions and hence for a correspondingly more robust estimate of the systematic error. We also apply a recently proposed approach in which twisted boundary conditions are used to control the Symanzik expansion for off-shell vertex functions leading to a better control of the renormalization in the continuum limit. We control chiral extrapolation errors by considering both the next-to-leading order SU(2) chiral effective theory, and an analytic mass expansion. We obtain B K MS- (3 GeV) = 0.529(5) stat (15) χ (2) FV (11) NPR . This corresponds to B - K RGI- = 0.749(7) stat (21) χ (3) FV (15) NPR . Adding all sources of error in quadrature, we obtain B - K RGI- = 0.749(27) combined , with an overall combined error of 3.6%.

  16. Antenatal counselling for parents facing an extremely preterm birth: limitations of the medical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Annie; Lorenz, John M; Lantos, John D

    2012-08-01

    When physicians are asked for a consult for women in premature labour, they face a complex set of challenges. Policy statements recommend that women be given detailed information about the risks of various outcomes, including death, long-term disability and various specific neonatal problems. Both personal narratives and studies suggest that parents also base their decisions on factors other than the probabilistic facts about expected outcomes. Statistics are difficult to understand at any time. Rational decision-making may be difficult when taking life-and-death decisions. Furthermore, the role of emotions is not discussed in peri-viability guidelines. We argue against trying to tell parents every fact that we think might be relevant to their decision. This may be overwhelming for many parents. Instead, doctors should try to discern, on a case-by-case basis, what particular parents want and need. Information and delivery of information should be personalized. Unfortunately, evidence in this area is limited. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  17. Relationship between Perceived Limit-Setting Abilities, Autism Spectrum Disorder Severity, Behaviour Problems and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Howse, Jessie; Ho, Ben; Osborne, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high and impacts perceptions about parenting. This study examined the relationship between parenting stress and observer-perceived limit-setting ability. Participants' perceptions of other parents' limit-setting ability were assessed by showing participants video clips…

  18. Limited angle CT reconstruction by simultaneous spatial and Radon domain regularization based on TV and data-driven tight frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenkun; Zhang, Hanming; Wang, Linyuan; Cai, Ailong; Li, Lei; Yan, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Limited angle computed tomography (CT) reconstruction is widely performed in medical diagnosis and industrial testing because of the size of objects, engine/armor inspection requirements, and limited scan flexibility. Limited angle reconstruction necessitates usage of optimization-based methods that utilize additional sparse priors. However, most of conventional methods solely exploit sparsity priors of spatial domains. When CT projection suffers from serious data deficiency or various noises, obtaining reconstruction images that meet the requirement of quality becomes difficult and challenging. To solve this problem, this paper developed an adaptive reconstruction method for limited angle CT problem. The proposed method simultaneously uses spatial and Radon domain regularization model based on total variation (TV) and data-driven tight frame. Data-driven tight frame being derived from wavelet transformation aims at exploiting sparsity priors of sinogram in Radon domain. Unlike existing works that utilize pre-constructed sparse transformation, the framelets of the data-driven regularization model can be adaptively learned from the latest projection data in the process of iterative reconstruction to provide optimal sparse approximations for given sinogram. At the same time, an effective alternating direction method is designed to solve the simultaneous spatial and Radon domain regularization model. The experiments for both simulation and real data demonstrate that the proposed algorithm shows better performance in artifacts depression and details preservation than the algorithms solely using regularization model of spatial domain. Quantitative evaluations for the results also indicate that the proposed algorithm applying learning strategy performs better than the dual domains algorithms without learning regularization model

  19. Early unexpected diagnosis of fetal life-limiting malformation; antenatal palliative care and parental decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariona, Federico; Burnett, Marianne; Zoma, Melody; Blake, Janice; Khouri, Hanna

    2017-11-02

    Conjoined twins are an infrequent occurrence in obstetric practice. Live-conjoined twins on a late preterm triplet pregnancy is an even rarer event. The objective of this study is to emphasize the critical importance of perinatal palliative care and non-directive parental counseling, informed decision making and respect for autonomy following full disclosure of findings, fetal life-limiting diagnosis, treatment alternatives, maternal-fetal potential complications, and most likely perinatal outcomes. Early surprise prenatal diagnosis, comprehensive parental counseling, palliative care, and perinatal care of a set of conjoined twins and a singleton. Cesarean delivery of a set of conjoined twins and a singleton at 34 weeks' gestation. Immediate neonatal death of the conjoined twins, intact survival, and discharge of the singleton. Review of the database on previously reported similar cases. It is very important to utilize simple and direct language for parents to understand the grave prognosis to the pregnancy. Care alternatives in view of the maternal physical risks and psychological impact of carrying a high order abnormal multiple pregnancy, along with the possible side effects on the singleton.

  20. Identity Exploration in the Dating Domain: The Role of Attachment Dimensions and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joe F.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Soto, Janet B.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined relations among perceived parenting practices (support and psychological control), attachment dimensions for romantic relationships (anxiety and avoidance) and exploration of the dating identity among actively dating adolescents in two high school aged samples. In the all female sample of Study 1 (n = 653) and the gender balanced…

  1. Parent-Teacher Association, Soup Kitchen, Church, or the Local Civic Club? Life Stage Indicators of Volunteer Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Dawn C; King, Katherine; Matz-Costa, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Gaps in existing literature hinder our knowledge of how life stage-related identities (e.g., worker, parent, student, etc.) influence individuals' decisions about whether and how to get involved in community service. Interventions to increase volunteerism throughout the life course require a more nuanced understanding of this relationship. We use multinomial logistic models to analyze how life phase factors relate to involvement in different types of voluntary organizations across the adult life course in the Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Half of the adults did not volunteer. Those who did volunteer were categorized as charitable, youth-oriented, religious, civic, or multidomain volunteers. Age, employment, family structure, demographics, and self-rated health differentially predicted volunteering in specific domains. Findings from this study suggest that recruitment and retention efforts employed by different nonprofit organizations may be more effective if they take into consideration the life phase factors that enhance or detract from likelihood of engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Dissipative solutions and the incompressible inviscid limits of the compressible magnetohydrodynamic system in unbounded domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Novotný, A.; Sun, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2014), s. 121-143 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible MHD system * inviscid limit * incompressible limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.826, year: 2014 http://aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=8717

  3. Suggested Safeguards and Limitations for Effective and Permissible Parenting Coordination (Facilitation or Case Management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelene (Leentjie de Jong

    2015-07-01

    arbitration in respect of matrimonial matters. Lastly, the cost of parenting coordination is indicated as an area of contention. To properly address these problems, various safeguards for and limitations on parenting coordination practice are considered. It is proposed that the internationally accepted term "parenting coordination" is also consistently used in South Africa. It is further proposed that adequate qualifications, proper training and sufficient experience for parenting coordinators are set. To counter the argument that parenting coordination is an unlawful delegation of judicial power, the necessary authority for courts to refer parties for parenting coordination is sought, firstly in the inherent power of the High Court as upper guardian to ensure the best interests of children, and secondly in the Children's Act and the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 as far as the children's court and divorce courts are concerned. In addition, various limitations regarding the conditions under which and the stage at which a parenting coordinator should be appointed, the scope of a parenting coordinator's decision-making powers and the finality of his or her directives are suggested. Lastly, the issue of the affordability of parenting coordination is addressed and suggestions are made on ways to provide fair access to this new intervention

  4. Parental limited English proficiency and health outcomes for children with special health care needs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneriz-Wiemer, Monica; Sanders, Lee M; Barr, Donald A; Mendoza, Fernando S

    2014-01-01

    One in 10 US adults of childbearing age has limited English proficiency (LEP). Parental LEP is associated with worse health outcomes among healthy children. The relationship of parental LEP to health outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) has not been systematically reviewed. To conduct a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature examining relationships between parental LEP and health outcomes for CSHCN. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Social Science Abstracts, bibliographies of included studies. Key search term categories: language, child, special health care needs, and health outcomes. US studies published between 1964 and 2012 were included if: 1) subjects were CSHCN; 2) studies included some measure of parental LEP; 3) at least 1 outcome measure of child health status, access, utilization, costs, or quality; and 4) primary or secondary data analysis. Three trained reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data. Two separate reviewers appraised studies for methodological rigor and quality. From 2765 titles and abstracts, 31 studies met eligibility criteria. Five studies assessed child health status, 12 assessed access, 8 assessed utilization, 2 assessed costs, and 14 assessed quality. Nearly all (29 of 31) studies used only parent- or child-reported outcome measures, rather than objective measures. LEP parents were substantially more likely than English-proficient parents to report that their CSHCN were uninsured and had no usual source of care or medical home. LEP parents were also less likely to report family-centered care and satisfaction with care. Disparities persisted for children with LEP parents after adjustment for ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Parental LEP is independently associated with worse health care access and quality for CSHCN. Health care providers should recognize LEP as an independent risk factor for poor health outcomes among CSHCN. Emerging models of chronic disease care should integrate and

  5. Informing social work practice through research with parent caregivers of a child with a life-limiting illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadell, Susan; Kennedy, Kimberly; Hemsworth, David

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric palliative care is an evolving field of practice in social work. As such, research plays a critical role in informing best social work practices in this area. For parents, caring for a child with a life-limiting illness (LLI) is a stressful experience that compounds the usual challenges of parenting. The negative aspects of caring for a child with an LLI are well documented. In the face of such adversity, parent caregivers can also experience positive changes caring for children with even the most serious conditions. This article presents results from a research study of posttraumatic growth in parents who are caring for a child with a LLI. Using mixed methods, two overarching themes were prominent in both the quantitative and qualitative data. The first describes stress related to financial burden associated with caregiving. The second theme concerns the posttraumatic growth experienced by the parent caregivers. The quantitative and qualitative data have been woven together to underscore issues and parental perspectives related to these two themes. This provides a unique and important platform for parent caregivers' experiences that can inform the work of social workers and other pediatric palliative care professionals.

  6. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  7. Limited concordance between teachers, parents and healthcare professionals on the presence of chronic diseases in ID-adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on teachers' knowledge about somatic and mental chronic diseases among ID-adolescent compared to the knowledge parents and healthcare professionals have, is limited. The aim of this study is: (1) to assess the knowledge of teachers on the presence of chronic diseases in ID-adolescents; (2)

  8. Associations between Parental Limits, School Vending Machine Purchases, and Soft Drink Consumption among Kentucky Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Roseman, Mary G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between parental limits on soft drinks and purchasing soft drinks from school vending machines and consuming soft drinks among middle school students. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the middle school Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Setting: Eight public middle schools in central Kentucky.…

  9. Domain IV voltage-sensor movement is both sufficient and rate limiting for fast inactivation in sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capes, Deborah L; Goldschen-Ohm, Marcel P; Arcisio-Miranda, Manoel; Bezanilla, Francisco; Chanda, Baron

    2013-08-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for the generation and propagation of electrical signals in most excitable cells. Activation of Na(+) channels initiates an action potential, and fast inactivation facilitates repolarization of the membrane by the outward K(+) current. Fast inactivation is also the main determinant of the refractory period between successive electrical impulses. Although the voltage sensor of domain IV (DIV) has been implicated in fast inactivation, it remains unclear whether the activation of DIV alone is sufficient for fast inactivation to occur. Here, we functionally neutralize each specific voltage sensor by mutating several critical arginines in the S4 segment to glutamines. We assess the individual role of each voltage-sensing domain in the voltage dependence and kinetics of fast inactivation upon its specific inhibition. We show that movement of the DIV voltage sensor is the rate-limiting step for both development and recovery from fast inactivation. Our data suggest that activation of the DIV voltage sensor alone is sufficient for fast inactivation to occur, and that activation of DIV before channel opening is the molecular mechanism for closed-state inactivation. We propose a kinetic model of sodium channel gating that can account for our major findings over a wide voltage range by postulating that DIV movement is both necessary and sufficient for fast inactivation.

  10. Relationship between perceived limit-setting abilities, autism spectrum disorder severity, behaviour problems and parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Howse, Jessie; Ho, Ben; Osborne, Lisa A

    2017-11-01

    Parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high and impacts perceptions about parenting. This study examined the relationship between parenting stress and observer-perceived limit-setting ability. Participants' perceptions of other parents' limit-setting ability were assessed by showing participants video clips of parenting behaviours. Mothers of 93 children with autism spectrum disorder completed an online survey regarding the severity of their own child's autism spectrum disorder (Social Communication Questionnaire), their child's behaviour problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and their own levels of parenting stress (Questionnaire on Resources and Stress). They were shown five videos of other parents interacting with children with autism spectrum disorder and were asked to rate the limit-setting abilities observed in each video using the Parent-Child Relationship Inventory. Higher parenting stress negatively related to judgements about others' limit-setting skills. This mirrors the literature regarding the relationship between self-reported parenting stress and rating child behaviour more negatively. It suggests that stress negatively impacts a wide range of judgements and implies that caution may be required when interpreting the results of studies in which parenting skills are assessed by self-report.

  11. Lived experiences of parents caring for a child with a life-limiting condition in Australia: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anna; Hennessy-Anderson, Nicole; Hosking, Sarah; Hynson, Jenny; Remedios, Cheryl; Thomas, Kristina

    2016-12-01

    Experiential studies in paediatric palliative care are needed to enable an ongoing international agenda which supports the development of responsive family supports. To provide an in-depth exploration of the prevalent lived experiences of parents who are currently providing care for a child with a life-limiting condition in Australia. Cross-sectional, prospective, qualitative study guided by an advisory group and reported according to the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative studies. Transcripts were subjected to a thematic analysis, underpinned by an interpretative phenomenological framework. Purposively sampled parents (n = 14) recruited from a statewide paediatric hospice who self-identified as a 'primary caregiver' for one or more children and/or adolescents (⩽18 years) with a life-limiting condition. Four key themes represented the prevalent experiences of parents: (1) trapped inside the house, (2) the protector, (3) living with the shadow and (4) travelling a different pathway. They describe parents' physical and social isolation, exclusion from the workforce, pervasive grief and associated impacts to their health and well-being. Limited professional and diminished social supports resulted in full ownership of care responsibility. Yet, parents embraced their role as 'protector', reporting acquired meaning and purpose. This study builds upon the growing body of evidence available in paediatric palliative care internationally. The key themes highlight the substantial demand for both physical and emotional support beyond what is currently offered and call for the implementation of carefully planned support services and other societal initiatives which seek to alleviate the broad health impacts to caregivers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Self-Efficacy for Limiting Sexual Risk Behavior and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, Mary Ann; Scoloveno, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy for sexual risk behaviors, and parental monitoring in a sample of 140 7th and 9th grade adolescents studying in an urban high school in the United States. Further, the study examined differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy and parental monitoring by grade and gender. This study also investigated the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS peer education program, Teens for AIDS Prevention (TAP), on improving adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine effects of the peer education program (TAP) on adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. Pearson-product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationships among the variables. Independent t-tests were used to compare adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy, and parental monitoring scores by grade and gender. Paired t-tests were used to determine differences in pre-intervention and post-intervention HIV/AIDS knowledge. The results showed that HIV/AIDS knowledge improved significantly in both 7th and 9th grade students after the intervention. HIV/AIDS knowledge was associated with self-efficacy; however it was not associated with parental monitoring. There were no significant differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge and self-efficacy by gender. However, there was a significant difference in parental monitoring by gender. Pediatric nurses are well-positioned to develop and implement evidence-based programs for adolescents. It is essential that pediatric nurses, in conjunction with other professionals and parent groups, take the initiative in implementing peer education programs in schools and community centers to promote healthy behaviors among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Limits of corporal punishment of children by parents from legal and jurisprudential perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Borhani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Article 59, paragraph 1 of the Islamic penal code of the Islamic Republic of Iran recognizes the parental treatment in the form of punishment, as a justification as long as it is reasonable. This legal right of parents to punish their children is stated as a general rule and as the article 167 of the constitution sets it out, the elaboration of any generality has to be settled by referring to Shariah where there are four restrictions on the corporal punishment of children;(a it is limited to the ages of 7,8 or 10 ; (b it is applied when children fail to perform prayers; (c it is applied without any injury and; (d it should involve no risks. This article will elaborate on these limits. در بند اول ماده 59 قانون مجازات اسلامی، یکی از علل موجهه‌ی جرم اقدامات تربیتی والدین در تنبیه اولاد در حدود متعارف دانسته شده است. این حق قانونی در تنبیه اولاد، در قانون مجازات اسلامی دارای اجمال است و بنا بر اصل 167 قانون اساسی برای رفع اجمال آن باید به منابع شرعی مراجعه نمود. روایات چهار قید مختلف بر تأدیب والدین بار می‌نمایند. سه قیدی که مرتبط با عنصر مادی است عبارتند از محدود بودن تأدیب بدنی به سن هفت یا هشت و یا ده سال، محدود بودن تنبیه بدنی به استنکاف از بجا آوردن نماز، منجرنشدن تأدیب به آسیب بدنی. تحدید مرتبط با عنصر روانی عبارت است از این‌که این تأدیب نباید در حال عصبانیت تحقق پیدا نماید. در مقاله‌ی پیش‌رو به تفصیل به بررسی این پیش‌شرط‌ها اقدام خواهد شد.

  14. Assaying embryotoxicity in the test tube: current limitations of the embryonic stem cell test (EST) challenging its applicability domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling, Christian; Hayess, Katrin; Peters, Annelieke K; Steemans, Margino; Spielmann, Horst; Luch, Andreas; Seiler, Andrea E M

    2012-05-01

    Testing for embryotoxicity in vitro is an attractive alternative to animal experimentation. The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is such a method, and it has been formally validated by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. A number of recent studies have underscored the potential of this method. However, the EST performed well below the 78% accuracy expected from the validation study using a new set of chemicals and pharmaceutical compounds, and also of toxicity criteria, tested to enlarge the database of the validated EST as part of the Work Package III of the ReProTect Project funded within the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union. To assess the performance and applicability domain of the EST we present a detailed review of the substances and their effects in the EST being nitrofen, ochratoxin A, D-penicillamine, methylazoxymethanol, lovastatin, papaverine, warfarin, β-aminopropionitrile, dinoseb, furosemide, doxylamine, pravastatin, and metoclopramide. By delineation of the molecular mechanisms of the substances we identify six categories of reasons for misclassifications. Some of these limitations might also affect other in vitro methods assessing embryotoxicity. Substances that fall into these categories need to be included in future validation sets and in validation guidelines for embryotoxicity testing. Most importantly, we suggest conceivable improvements and additions to the EST which will resolve most of the limitations.

  15. When it is costly to have a caring mother: food limitation erases the benefits of parental care in earwigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Joël; Kölliker, Mathias

    2012-08-23

    The aggregation of parents with offspring is generally associated with different forms of care that improve offspring survival at potential costs to parents. Under poor environments, the limited amount of resources available can increase the level of competition among family members and consequently lead to adaptive changes in parental investment. However, it remains unclear as to what extent such changes modify offspring fitness, particularly when offspring can survive without parents such as in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Here, we show that under food restriction, earwig maternal presence decreased offspring survival until adulthood by 43 per cent. This effect was independent of sibling competition and was expressed after separation from the female, indicating lasting detrimental effects. The reduced benefits of maternal presence on offspring survival were not associated with higher investment in future reproduction, suggesting a condition-dependent effect of food restriction on mothers and local mother-offspring competition for food. Overall, these findings demonstrate for the first time a long-term negative effect of maternal presence on offspring survival in a species with maternal care, and highlight the importance of food availability in the early evolution of family life.

  16. Parental influences on adolescent video game play: a study of accessibility, rules, limit setting, monitoring, and cybersafety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa J; Gradisar, Michael; King, Daniel L

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents' video gaming is increasing at a rapid rate. Yet, little is known about what factors contribute toward more hours of gaming per week, as well as what factors may limit or protect adolescents from excessive gaming. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between adolescents' accessibility to video gaming devices, the locations played (i.e., bedroom, shared rooms), parental regulation of technology use, and the amount of hours spent video gaming during the week (weekdays vs. weekends). Adolescents (N=422; age 16.3±2.0 years, 41% male) completed an online questionnaire battery, including demographics, video gaming behaviors (e.g., hours played weekdays/weekends, time of day played, devices owned, locations played, etc.), and a questionnaire measuring aspects of parents' regulation of game playing (e.g., rules, limit setting, co-gaming). Accessibility to the adolescents' own devices, but not shared devices or device portability, was predictive of hours gaming on weekdays and weekends. Location (i.e., bedroom) was associated with increased gaming across the week. Parents discussing cybersafety was predictive of lower hours of gaming (weekdays and weekends). However, limit setting, monitoring, and co-gaming showed no significant effects. Adolescents' access to their own gaming equipped devices, as well as gaming in their bedrooms, were linked to increased hours of gaming. The findings suggest that in order to curb the increase in hours gaming, parents are advised to delay the ownership of adolescents' devices, encourage use in shared rooms, and discuss aspects of cybersafety with their teenage children.

  17. A Cross-Cultural Perspective of Parental Influence on Female Adolescents' Achievement Beliefs and Behaviors in Sport and School Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…

  18. Communication and support from health-care professionals to families, with dependent children, following the diagnosis of parental life-limiting illness: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Rachel; Boland, Jason W

    2017-03-01

    Communication between parents and their children about parental life-limiting illness is stressful. Parents want support from health-care professionals; however, the extent of this support is not known. Awareness of family's needs would help ensure appropriate support. To find the current literature exploring (1) how parents with a life-limiting illness, who have dependent children, perceive health-care professionals' communication with them about the illness, diagnosis and treatments, including how social, practical and emotional support is offered to them and (2) how this contributes to the parents' feelings of supporting their children. A systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ASSIA ProQuest were searched in November 2015 for studies assessing communication between health-care professionals and parents about how to talk with their children about the parent's illness. There were 1342 records identified, five qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria (55 ill parents, 11 spouses/carers, 26 children and 16 health-care professionals). Parents wanted information from health-care professionals about how to talk to their children about the illness; this was not routinely offered. Children also want to talk with a health-care professional about their parents' illness. Health-care professionals are concerned that conversations with parents and their children will be too difficult and time-consuming. Parents with a life-limiting illness want support from their health-care professionals about how to communicate with their children about the illness. Their children look to health-care professionals for information about their parent's illness. Health-care professionals, have an important role but appear reluctant to address these concerns because of fears of insufficient time and expertise.

  19. A new frequency-domain criterion for elimination of limit cycles in fixed-point state-space digital filters using saturation arithmetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vimal

    2007-01-01

    In [Singh V. Elimination of overflow oscillations in fixed-point state-space digital filters using saturation arithmetic. IEEE Trans Circ Syst 1990;37(6):814-8], a frequency-domain criterion for the suppression of limit cycles in fixed-point state-space digital filters using saturation overflow arithmetic was presented. The passivity property owing to the presence of multiple saturation nonlinearities was exploited therein. In the present paper, a new notion of passivity, namely, that involving the state variables is considered, thereby arriving at an entirely new frequency-domain criterion for the suppression of limit cycles in such filters

  20. A psychosocial analysis of parents' decisions for limiting their young child's screen time: An examination of attitudes, social norms and roles, and control perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Spinks, Teagan; White, Katherine M; Kavanagh, David J; Walsh, Anne M

    2016-05-01

    Preschool-aged children spend substantial amounts of time engaged in screen-based activities. As parents have considerable control over their child's health behaviours during the younger years, it is important to understand those influences that guide parents' decisions about their child's screen time behaviours. A prospective design with two waves of data collection, 1 week apart, was adopted. Parents (n = 207) completed a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-based questionnaire, with the addition of parental role construction (i.e., parents' expectations and beliefs of responsibility for their child's behaviour) and past behaviour. A number of underlying beliefs identified in a prior pilot study were also assessed. The model explained 77% (with past behaviour accounting for 5%) of the variance in intention and 50% (with past behaviour accounting for 3%) of the variance in parental decisions to limit child screen time. Attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, parental role construction, and past behaviour predicted intentions, and intentions and past behaviour predicted follow-up behaviour. Underlying screen time beliefs (e.g., increased parental distress, pressure from friends, inconvenience) were also identified as guiding parents' decisions. Results support the TPB and highlight the importance of beliefs for understanding parental decisions for children's screen time behaviours, as well as the addition of parental role construction. This formative research provides necessary depth of understanding of sedentary lifestyle behaviours in young children which can be adopted in future interventions to test the efficacy of the TPB mechanisms in changing parental behaviour for their child's health. What is already known on this subject? Identifying determinants of child screen time behaviour is vital to the health of young people. Social-cognitive and parental role constructions are key influences of parental decision-making. Little is known about the

  1. Distinct domains within the NITROGEN LIMITATION ADAPTATION protein mediate its subcellular localization and function in the nitrate-dependent phosphate homeostasis pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NITROGEN LIMITATION ADAPTATION (NLA) protein is a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays an essential role in the regulation of nitrogen and phosphate homeostasis. NLA is localized to two distinct subcellular sites, the plasma membrane and nucleus, and contains four distinct domains: i) a RING...

  2. Limited cross-reactivity among domains of the Plasmodium falciparum clone 3D7 erythrocyte membrane protein 1 family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Louise; Turner, Louise; Magistrado, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    The var gene-encoded Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family is responsible for antigenic variation and sequestration of infected erythrocytes during malaria. We have previously grouped the 60 PfEMP1 variants of P. falciparum clone 3D7 into groups A and B/A (category A......) and groups B, B/C, and C (category non-A). Expression of category A molecules is associated with severe malaria, and that of category non-A molecules is associated with uncomplicated malaria and asymptomatic infection. Here we assessed cross-reactivity among 60 different recombinant PfEMP1 domains derived...... from clone 3D7 by using a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a pool of plasma from 63 malaria-exposed Tanzanian individuals. We conclude that naturally acquired antibodies are largely directed toward epitopes varying between different domains with a few, mainly category A, domains...

  3. Sensitivity study of heavy precipitation in Limited Area Model climate simulations: influence of the size of the domain and the use of the spectral nudging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Jeanne; Déqué, Michel; Radu, Raluca; Somot, Samuel

    2010-10-01

    We assess the impact of two sources of uncertainties in a limited area model (LAM) on the representation of intense precipitation: the size of the domain of integration and the use of the spectral nudging technique (driving of the large-scale within the domain of integration). We work in a perfect-model approach where the LAM is driven by a general circulation model (GCM) run at the same resolution and sharing the same physics and dynamics as the LAM. A set of three 50 km resolution simulations run over Western Europe with the LAM ALADIN-Climate and the GCM ARPEGE-Climate are performed to address this issue. Results are consistent with previous studies regarding the seasonal-mean fields. Furthermore, they show that neither the use of the spectral nudging nor the choice of a small domain are detrimental to the modelling of heavy precipitation in the present experiment.

  4. The effect of positive parenting program on parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research indicates that impaired hearing is one of the most stressful disabilities. The parenting stress involved could lead to family malfunction and improper parenting. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of positive parenting programs on the parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children.Methods: The statistical population comprised mothers of all 7-12-year-old impaired hearing children in Tehran city. Thereafter, using the random sampling method, 24 individuals were shortlisted as research participants and were randomly assigned to two groups: control and experimental. The experimental group was trained with a positive parenting program based on the Sanders program (1993 over eight sessions. The measurement instrument was the Abidin parenting stress questionnaire.Results: The mean score for grades in the experimental groups’ parent and child domains at the pre- and post-test stages had reduced more than that in the control group. In addition, the results of a multivariate covariance analysis indicated that positive parenting training was effective in the reduction of parenting stress scores, reinforcement, and child mood components in the child domain, and in the feelings of competence, relationships with the spouse, and role limitation components (p<0.05 in the parent domain.Conclusion : Considering the benefits of training parents for the reduction of parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children, this method is recommended in all learning centers for the deaf.

  5. Time-domain simulations for metallic nano-structures - a Krylov-subspace approach beyond the limitations of FDTD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Michael [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe School of Optics and Photonics (KSOP), Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Niegemann, Jens; Tkeshelashvili, Lasha; Busch, Kurt [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Forschungszentrum Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe School of Optics and Photonics (KSOP), Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Numerical simulations of metallic nano-structures are crucial for the efficient design of plasmonic devices. Conventional time-domain solvers such as FDTD introduce large numerical errors especially at metallic surfaces. Our approach combines a discontinuous Galerkin method on an adaptive mesh for the spatial discretisation with a Krylov-subspace technique for the time-stepping procedure. Thus, the higher-order accuracy in both time and space is supported by unconditional stability. As illustrative examples, we compare numerical results obtained with our method against analytical reference solutions and results from FDTD calculations.

  6. Nonlinear diffusion equations as asymptotic limits of Cahn-Hilliard systems on unbounded domains via Cauchy's criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukao, Takeshi; Kurima, Shunsuke; Yokota, Tomomi

    2018-05-01

    This paper develops an abstract theory for subdifferential operators to give existence and uniqueness of solutions to the initial-boundary problem (P) for the nonlinear diffusion equation in an unbounded domain $\\Omega\\subset\\mathbb{R}^N$ ($N\\in{\\mathbb N}$), written as \\[ \\frac{\\partial u}{\\partial t} + (-\\Delta+1)\\beta(u) = g \\quad \\mbox{in}\\ \\Omega\\times(0, T), \\] which represents the porous media, the fast diffusion equations, etc., where $\\beta$ is a single-valued maximal monotone function on $\\mathbb{R}$, and $T>0$. Existence and uniqueness for (P) were directly proved under a growth condition for $\\beta$ even though the Stefan problem was excluded from examples of (P). This paper completely removes the growth condition for $\\beta$ by confirming Cauchy's criterion for solutions of the following approximate problem (P)$_{\\varepsilon}$ with approximate parameter $\\varepsilon>0$: \\[ \\frac{\\partial u_{\\varepsilon}}{\\partial t} + (-\\Delta+1)(\\varepsilon(-\\Delta+1)u_{\\varepsilon} + \\beta(u_{\\varepsilon}) + \\pi_{\\varepsilon}(u_{\\varepsilon})) = g \\quad \\mbox{in}\\ \\Omega\\times(0, T), \\] which is called the Cahn--Hilliard system, even if $\\Omega \\subset \\mathbb{R}^N$ ($N \\in \\mathbb{N}$) is an unbounded domain. Moreover, it can be seen that the Stefan problem is covered in the framework of this paper.

  7. Child abuse and the balance of power in parental relationships: an evolved domain-independent mental mechanism that accounts for behavioral variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handwerker, W P

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies use zero-order analyses to show a link between child abuse and exposure to "stepfathers." These studies rest on a proposed evolved, domain-specific cognitive mechanism that induces adult males to abuse or kill offspring not their own and, so, contribute directly to reproductive success. However, child abuse may reflect an evolved neurological mechanism that creates behavioral plasticity and adaptability by assigning emotional weights (which in consciousness appear rationalized as costs and benefits) to choice alternatives in all behavioral domains. This mechanism should act as a selective mechanism to create enhanced ability to avoid predation (social exploitation) and to obtain access to resources, given the properties of specific ecosystems, and should control behavioral responses to variation in the balance of power in social relationships. Power equalities should elicit good treatment for both parties; power inequalities, by contrast, should elicit exploitative and coercive behavior on the part of those who hold the balance of power. This paper reports a test of both hypotheses simultaneously, controlling for a standard social science risk factor (growing up in poverty). Once we control for the balance of power in parental relationships, exposure to a stepfather and growing up in poverty show no effect on the intensity of child abuse. Powerful women negotiated affectionate behavior from their partners for both themselves and their children; powerless women's negotiations with partners usually left both themselves and their children open to violence.

  8. Launch and recovery of ROV: Investigation of operational limit from DNV Recommended Practices and time domain simulations in SIMO

    OpenAIRE

    Valen, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Offshore contractors seek to operate their remotely operated vehicles for the widest range of sea conditions where particularly launch and recovery through splash zone are critical phases in the offshore operation. The analytical methods for calculation of operational limit proposed by guidelines from DNV Recommended Practices may lead to an over-estimation of the hydrodynamic forces and consequently to an unduly restrictive operational limit. Accurate predictions of the hydrodynamic forces a...

  9. Impact, meaning and need for help and support: The experience of parents caring for children with disabilities, life-limiting/life-threatening illness or technology dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Parenting a child with complex needs or disabilities is a challenging proposition. This study, which drew upon of the experiences of the parents of 34 children (in 33 families), set out to explore the themes of impact, need for help and support and meaning/sense-making as they were related by parents. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, and an emerging theoretical framework was validated through the use of a series of mind-maps(®) which were presented to individual parents as the basis for a second round (verificational) interview. Parents were nominated into the study by health care professions who were asked to identify the subject children to one of three separate sub-groups: children with a disability; children with a life-limiting/life-threatening illness or children with a technology dependence. Comparisons were made between the three study sub-groups in order to identify areas of consistency and of inconsistency. A fourth study theme - 'battleground' emerged from entirely within the data set. Sense-making occupied a central position within the overall theoretical framework for the study and parental perception of 'battleground' presented as significant element of parental sense-making, particularly in the context of their relationships with professional staff. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. Frequency-domain cascading microwave superconducting quantum interference device multiplexers; beyond limitations originating from room-temperature electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohjiro, Satoshi; Hirayama, Fuminori

    2018-07-01

    A novel approach, frequency-domain cascading microwave multiplexers (MW-Mux), has been proposed and its basic operation has been demonstrated to increase the number of pixels multiplexed in a readout line U of MW-Mux for superconducting detector arrays. This method is an alternative to the challenging development of wideband, large power, and spurious-free room-temperature (300 K) electronics. The readout system for U pixels consists of four main parts: (1) multiplexer chips connected in series those contain U superconducting resonators in total. (2) A cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor amplifier (HEMT). (3) A 300 K microwave frequency comb generator based on N(≡U/M) parallel units of digital-to-analog converters (DAC). (4) N parallel units of 300 K analog-to-digital converters (ADC). Here, M is the number of tones each DAC produces and each ADC handles. The output signal of U detectors multiplexed at the cryogenic stage is transmitted through a cable to the room temperature and divided into N processors where each handles M pixels. Due to the reduction factor of 1/N, U is not anymore dominated by the 300 K electronics but can be increased up to the potential value determined by either the bandwidth or the spurious-free power of the HEMT. Based on experimental results on the prototype system with N = 2 and M = 3, neither excess inter-pixel crosstalk nor excess noise has been observed in comparison with conventional MW-Mux. This indicates that the frequency-domain cascading MW-Mux provides the full (100%) usage of the HEMT band by assigning N 300 K bands on the frequency axis without inter-band gaps.

  11. Suggested Safeguards and Limitations for Effective and Permissible Parenting Coordination (Facilitation or Case Management) in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Madelene (Leentjie) de Jong

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the Children's Act 38 of 2005 greater emphasis was placed on the importance of both parents' involvement in their children's day-to-day lives. An unintended negative consequence of an otherwise laudable shift in social policy which supported a shared parental involvement was that the courts became the forum for co-parents to dispute a lot of day-to-day issues in respect of their children. To alleviate the negative effects of high-conflict co-parenting cases on our court sys...

  12. The C-terminus of the Polerovirus P5 readthrough domain limits virus infection to the phloem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike most plant viruses, poleroviruses are restricted to vascular phloem tissues, from which they are transmitted by their aphid vectors. Phloem limitation has been attributed to the absence of virus proteins facilitating movement or counteracting plant defense. The polerovirus capsid is composed ...

  13. Assessing Parenting Behaviors in Euro-Canadian and East Asian Immigrant Mothers: Limitations to Observations of Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kathy; Penner, Kailee; Mah, Janet W. T.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The use of parenting measures that are developed for use with Western families without testing their validity among families from non-Western cultural backgrounds may not be appropriate. Similar parenting behaviors may affect child outcomes in different ways across different cultures. This study examined the cross-cultural validity of an…

  14. Parental perceptions of participation of preschool children with and without mobility limitations : validity and reliability of the PART

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemps, R. J. J. K.; Siebes, R. C.; Gorter, J. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study provides information on the psychometric properties of a newly developed Dutch-language instrument for measuring parental perceptions of participation of preschool children (aged 2+ to 5+ years): the PART. Method. The PART was administered to parents of preschool children with (n

  15. The Bacteriophage lambdaDNA packaging enzyme: Identification of four structural domains of the gpNu1 subunit using limited proteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAMELA ARAYA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lambda DNA terminase, the enzyme that cleaves virion-length chromosomes from multigenomic concatemers and packages them into the bacteriophage head, is composed of two subunits, gpNu1 and gpA. Direct determination of the structure of gpNu1, the smaller subunit, has not been possible because of its insolubility in aqueous solutions. Therefore, to identify smaller and potentially water-soluble domains of gpNu1, we analyzed the nature of the products obtained by limited digestion of the protein with several proteases. The gpNu1 subunit was obtained from E.coli cells transfected with the plasmid pH6-Nu1 that overproduces the protein. Incubation of gpNu1 solubized in 2.5 M guanidinium chloride with chymotrypsin resulted in the formation of at least eight discrete protein bands, while treatment with endoproteinase glu-C and bromelain yielded three and one major bands, respectively. The peptides generated by digestion with the various proteases were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and transferred to Immobilon membranes. Amino acid sequencing of the peptides allowed for the precise assignment of their N-terminal amino acid, while their estimated molecular weights permitted the identification of their C-terminal ends. The results reveal that in the presence of 2.5 M guanidinium chloride, gpNu1 is partially folded in at least four distinct structural domains that correspond to functional domains as determined by previously reported genetic experiments. This information is key to design new plasmids to overproduce these domains for further structural analysis.

  16. Leaders' limitations and approaches to creating conditions for interaction and communication in parental groups: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykedal, Karin Forslund; Rosander, Michael; Barimani, Mia; Berlin, Anita

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and understand parental group (PG) leaders' experiences of creating conditions for interaction and communication. The data consisted of 10 interviews with 14 leaders. The transcribed interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that the leaders' ambition was to create a parent-centred learning environment by establishing conditions for interaction and communication between the parents in the PGs. However, the leaders' experience was that their professional competencies were insufficient and that they lacked pedagogical tools to create constructive group discussions. Nevertheless, they found other ways to facilitate interactive processes. Based on their experience in the PG, the leaders constructed informal socio-emotional roles for themselves (e.g. caring role and personal role) and let their more formal task roles (e.g. professional role, group leader and consulting role) recede into the background, so as to remove the imbalance of power between the leaders and the parents. They believed this would make the parents feel more confident and make it easier for them to start communicating and interacting. This personal approach places them in a vulnerable position in the PG, in which it is easy for them to feel offended by parents' criticism, questioning or silence.

  17. Domains and domain loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    politicians and in the media, especially in the discussion whether some languages undergo ‘domain loss’ vis-à-vis powerful international languages like English. An objection that has been raised here is that domains, as originally conceived, are parameters of language choice and not properties of languages...

  18. The Integration of Family and Group Therapy as an Alternative to Juvenile Incarceration: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation Using Parenting with Love and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Eli A; Sterrett, Emma M; Kiaer, Lynn

    2017-06-01

    The current study employed a quasi-experimental design using both intent-to-treat and protocol adherence analysis of 155 moderate- to high-risk juvenile offenders to evaluate the effectiveness of Parenting with Love and Limits® (PLL), an integrative group and family therapy approach. Youth completing PLL had significantly lower rates of recidivism than the comparison group. Parents also reported statistically significant improvements in youth behavior. Lengths of service were also significantly shorter for the treatment sample than the matched comparison group by an average of 4 months. This study contributes to the literature by suggesting that intensive community-based combined family and group treatment is effective in curbing recidivism among high-risk juveniles. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  19. When Can the Child Speak for Herself? The Limits of Parental Consent in Data Protection Law for Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark J; Dove, Edward S; Laurie, Graeme; Townend, David

    2017-11-13

    Draft regulatory guidance suggests that if the processing of a child's personal data begins with the consent of a parent, then there is a need to find and defend an enduring consent through the child's growing capacity and on to their maturity. We consider the implications for health research of the UK Information Commissioner's Office's (ICO) suggestion that the relevant test for maturity is the Gillick test, originally developed in the context of medical treatment. Noting the significance of the welfare principle to this test, we examine the implications for the responsibilities of a parent to act as proxy for their child. We argue, contrary to draft ICO guidance, that a data controller might legitimately continue to rely upon parental consent as a legal basis for processing after a child is old enough to provide her own consent. Nevertheless, we conclude that data controllers should develop strategies to seek fresh consent from children as soon as practicable after the data controller has reason to believe they are mature enough to consent independently. Techniques for effective communication, recommended to address challenges associated with Big Data analytics, might have a role here in addressing the dynamic relationship between data subject and processing. Ultimately, we suggest that fair and lawful processing of a child's data will be dependent upon data controllers taking seriously the truism that consent is ongoing, rather than a one-time event: the core associated responsibility is to continue to communicate with a data subject regarding the processing of personal data. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Probing the 3-D Structure, Dynamics, and Stability of Bacterial Collagenase Collagen Binding Domain (apo- versus holo-) by Limited Proteolysis MALDI-TOF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, Cynthia R.; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O.; Philominathan, Sagaya Theresa Leena; Matsushita, Osamu; Sakon, Joshua

    2012-03-01

    Pairing limited proteolysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to probe clostridial collagenase collagen binding domain (CBD) reveals the solution dynamics and stability of the protein, as these factors are crucial to CBD effectiveness as a drug-delivery vehicle. MS analysis of proteolytic digests indicates initial cleavage sites, thereby specifying the less stable and highly accessible regions of CBD. Modulation of protein structure and stability upon metal binding is shown through MS analysis of calcium-bound and cobalt-bound CBD proteolytic digests. Previously determined X-ray crystal structures illustrate that calcium binding induces secondary structure transformation in the highly mobile N-terminal arm and increases protein stability. MS-based detection of exposed residues confirms protein flexibility, accentuates N-terminal dynamics, and demonstrates increased global protein stability exported by calcium binding. Additionally, apo- and calcium-bound CBD proteolysis sites correlate well with crystallographic B-factors, accessibility, and enzyme specificity. MS-observed cleavage sites with no clear correlations are explained either by crystal contacts of the X-ray crystal structures or by observed differences between Molecules A and B in the X-ray crystal structures. The study newly reveals the absence of the βA strand and thus the very dynamic N-terminal linker, as corroborated by the solution X-ray scattering results. Cobalt binding has a regional effect on the solution phase stability of CBD, as limited proteolysis data implies the capture of an intermediate-CBD solution structure when cobalt is bound.

  1. Separation of parent homopolymers from diblock copolymers by liquid chromatography under limiting conditions of desorption 4. Role of eluent and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berek, Dušan

    2010-11-01

    Liquid chromatography under limiting conditions of desorption (LC LCD) enables fast, base-line discrimination of both parent homopolymers from various diblock copolymers in one single step. The low molecular admixtures are fully separated, as well. General rules are discussed in detail for selection of mobile phases and temperature applied in LC LCD of block copolymers. Typical practical separation examples are presented. It is shown that both the composition of the well-selected LC LCD mobile phase and the temperature of experiment may vary in a broad range without affecting the basics of method. This implies that the method is robust and user friendly.

  2. Limitations on the Estimation of Parental Magma Temperature Using Olivine-melt Equilibria: Hotspots Not So Hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    Estimates of temperatures of magmas parental to picritic tholeiites using olivine-melt equilibria and FeO-MgO relationships depend strongly on the assumption that a liquid composition, usually a glass, is related to the most magnesian olivine in the rock, or to an olivine composition in equilibrium with mantle peridotite, along an olivine-controlled liquid line of descent. The liquid Fe2+/Fe3+ also has to be known; where data exist, average values from wet chemical determinations are used. Crystallization histories of tholeiitic picrites from islands, spreading ridges, and large igneous provinces, however, usually reveal them to be hybrid rocks that are assembled by two types of magma mixing: 1) between a) differentiated magmas that are on olivine-plagioclase or olivine-plagioclase-clinopyroxene cotectics and b) crystal sludges with abundant olivine that may have accumulated from liquids crystallizing olivine alone; and 2) between primitive magma strains in which olivine crystallized either alone or with other silicate minerals at elevated pressure on separate liquid lines of descent. Many picrites give evidence that both types of mixing have occurred. If either type has occurred, the assumption of olivine-control linking a glass and an olivine composition can only circumstantially be correct. Oxidation state can also be underestimated and therefore FeO contents overestimated if basalts have degassed S, as at Hawaii. In Case 1, hybrid host glass compositions often have higher FeO at given MgO content than liquids which produced many olivine crystals in the rock. In Case 2, the separate parental melt strains are revealed by diversity of compositions of both melt inclusions and Cr-spinel and are most often interpreted to mean local heterogeneity of the mantle source. The inclusions do not always affirm an olivine-controlled liquid line of descent. Instead, inclusions with Gorgona, but not in MORB. Where fresh glass is lacking (e.g., Gorgona), bulk-rock compositions

  3. Longitudinal relations between parenting and child adjustment in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquière, Pol; Onghena, Patrick

    2004-06-01

    We studied the predictive relations between reports of parenting behavior on the one hand and academic achievement and reported behavior problems of young children on the other hand. Data were gathered for 352 children and their parents from kindergarten to 2nd grade. The results indicated that in the academic domain, low supportive and high controlling parenting practices were modestly related to poor subsequent math achievement. Children's externalizing and attention problem behavior was clearly predictive of high levels of control in mothers and low levels of support in fathers. The combination of high parental support and control was especially associated with high levels of problem behavior. However, when previous parenting and child adjustment were taken into account, the magnitude of the predictive power of parenting for child adjustment, and of child adjustment for parenting, remained limited.

  4. Trusted Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    remote access via IP-based devices such as smartphones. The Trusted Domain platform fits existing legacy technologies by managing their interoperability and access controls, and it seeks to avoid the security issues of relying on third-party servers outside the home. It is a distributed system...... of wireless standards, limited resources of embedded systems, etc. Taking these challenges into account, we present a Trusted Domain home automation platform, which dynamically and securely connects heterogeneous networks of Short-Range Wireless devices via simple non-expert user. interactions, and allows......In the digital age of home automation and with the proliferation of mobile Internet access, the intelligent home and its devices should be accessible at any time from anywhere. There are many challenges such as security, privacy, ease of configuration, incompatible legacy devices, a wealth...

  5. Family-Centered Services for Children with ASD and Limited Speech: The Experiences of Parents and Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandak, Kelsey; Light, Janice

    2018-01-01

    Although family-centered services have long been discussed as essential in providing successful services to families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ideal implementation is often lacking. This study aimed to increase understanding of how families with children with ASD and limited speech receive services from speech-language…

  6. Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, J G

    1995-04-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 110 primarily white, middle-class sixth, eighth, and tenth graders (M = 11.98, 13.84, and 16.18 years of age) and their parents (108 mothers and 92 fathers). Parents judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated family conflict and rules regarding 24 hypothetical moral, conventional, personal, multifaceted (containing conventional and personal components), prudential, and friendship issues. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Parents' parenting styles differentiated their conceptions of parental authority, but adolescents' perceptions did not. Differences were primarily over the boundaries of adolescents' personal jurisdiction. Furthermore, conceptions of parental authority and parenting styles both contributed significantly to emotional autonomy and adolescent-parent conflict. The implications of the findings for typological models of parenting and distinct domain views of social-cognitive development are discussed.

  7. Domain analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studies....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  8. Depression in adoptive parents: a model of understanding through grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Karen J

    2010-04-01

    A limited number of studies have explored parental depression in the postadoption time periods and these studies frequently lack a social context of the adoptive parent experience. The objective of this study is to form a midrange theoretical interpretation of parental postadoption depression as shared by adoptive parents and experts through a grounded theory approach. Semistructured interviews of adoptive parents, who acknowledge being depressed after the child is placed in the home, and adoption experts are audiotaped, transcribed, and coded to reveal themes. In total, 30 interviews are conducted. Researchers are also participant-observers during an adoptive parent support group meeting. Data reveal recurrent themes in relation to postadoption depression. These themes take into account the various contexts of adoption (international and domestic, public and private, etc.). Parents express unfulfilled and unrealistic expectations in the domains of self, child, family or friends, and society or others. A theoretical model is presented to facilitate the understanding of depression reported by adoptive parents.

  9. Structure of the starch-debranching enzyme barley limit dextrinase reveals homology of the N-terminal domain to CBM21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Barley limit dextrinase (HvLD) is a debranching enzyme from glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 13 (GH13_13) that hydrolyses α-1,6-glucosidic linkages in limit dextrins derived from amylopectin. The structure of HvLD was solved and refined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure has a glycerol...

  10. Concrete domains

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, G.; Plotkin, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of a particular kind of computation domains called concrete domains. The purpose of this theory is to find a satisfactory framework for the notions of coroutine computation and sequentiality of evaluation.

  11. American parent perspectives on quality of life in pediatric cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Roshini; Warner-Czyz, Andrea; Silver, Cheryl H; Loy, Betty; Tobey, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implantation influences not only communication but also psychosocial outcomes in children with severe to profound hearing loss. Focusing on issues specific to cochlear implantation (e.g., self-reliance, social relations, education, effects of implantation, and supporting the child) may provide a more accurate and relative view of functional status of pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients. The present study analyzes parental perspectives of CI-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with CIs to determine (a) if parents differentially rate their child's quality of life according to psychosocial domain (e.g., communication, self-reliance, education); (b) if associations exist between quality of life domains specific to cochlear implantation in pediatric implant recipients; and (c) if demographic variables (i.e., chronologic age, age at cochlear implantation, duration of device experience) mediate parent ratings of quality of life in pediatric CI recipients. Parents of 33 children with CIs (mean age, 9.85 years; mean age of CI activation, 2.47 years; mean device experience, 7.47 years) completed a validated condition-specific questionnaire, Children With Cochlear Implants: Parental Perspectives. Parents positively rated most HRQoL domains, although education and effects of implantation received significantly less positive ratings (p self-reliance, and well-being) significantly correlated with at least 5 other domains, suggesting that positivity in one domain co-occurs with positivity in other domains. Demographic variables (chronologic age, CI activation age, and duration of CI use) did not correlate significantly with psychosocial outcomes; rather, parents reported positive HRQoL and successful functional use of CI across demographic variables. Parents of children and adolescents with CIs rate overall HRQoL positively across psychosocial domains. Significantly less positive ratings of education and effects of implantation may result

  12. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Iacolino, Calogero; Mannino, Giuseppe; Formica, Ivan; Zabbara, Simona Maria

    2017-01-01

    The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders. This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females) living in Sicily (Italy) aged between 20 and 60 years ( M = 37.52; SD = 11.42). The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns. Data show that being a younger adult male with mother's parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and rejection domain, whereas, being a younger adult woman, with a higher level of maternal control is predictive of the impaired limits domain. This study underlines that because mothers and fathers establish different bonds with their children, care and control by both parents might impact different domains of development.

  13. A longitudinal investigation of parenting stress in caregivers of children with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Lu; Russell, Kathryn M; Brennan, Rachel; Wilson, Matthew W; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Phipps, Sean

    2017-04-01

    Retinoblastoma is typically diagnosed in young children and may present unique parenting challenges. Qualitative research suggests that parents experience distress related to the initial diagnosis and treatment that subsequently resolves. The objectives were to systematically assess parenting stress over time in parents of young children with retinoblastoma and to examine associations between parenting stress and child outcomes. Parents of children with retinoblastoma completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) during serial psychological assessments scheduled based on the child's age (6 months to 5 years). Caregivers of 92 patients (85.9% mothers) completed the assessments. Child outcomes included developmental functioning and parent-reported adaptive functioning. At baseline and age 5, all subscales on the PSI were within normal limits, and most were significantly below normative means (i.e., demonstrating low levels of stress). All domains remained relatively stable over time. Associations between parenting stress and child outcomes were much stronger at age 5 than at baseline. Child-directed parenting stress was a small but significant contributor to declines in child functioning over time. Parents of children with retinoblastoma report normal levels of parenting stress while their children are young. However, baseline parenting stress appears to contribute to changes in child functioning over time. Future studies should assess illness-related aspects of adjustment to further understand the parenting experience of young children with cancer and/or having a visually impaired child. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Domain Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Dines

    Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.

  15. Parent and child asthma illness representations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonney, Jennifer T; Gerald, Lynn B; Insel, Kathleen C

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize the current literature on parent and child asthma illness representations and their consequent impact on parent-child asthma shared management. This systematic review was conducted in concordance with the PRISMA statement. An electronic search of five computerized databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE) was conducted using the following key words: asthma, illness representation, and child. Due to the limited number of articles identified, the search was broadened to include illness perceptions as well. Studies were included if they were specific to asthma and included parent and/or child asthma illness representations or perception, were published after 2000, and available in English. Fifteen articles were selected for inclusion. All of the articles are descriptive studies that used cross-sectional designs. Seven of the studies used parent and child participants, eight used parents only, and none used only child participants. None of the selected studies describe child asthma illness representations, and only three describe parental asthma illness representations. Domains of illness representations, including symptoms, timeline, consequences, cause, and controllability were described in the remaining articles. Symptoms and controllability appear to have the most influence on parental asthma management practices. Parents prefer symptomatic or intermittent asthma management and frequently cite concerns regarding daily controller medication use. Parents also primarily rely on their own objective symptom observations rather than the child's report of symptoms. Asthma illness representations are an important area of future study to better understand parent-child shared asthma management.

  16. Comparison of the frequency of functional SH3 domains with different limited sets of amino acids using mRNA display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Tanaka

    Full Text Available Although modern proteins consist of 20 different amino acids, it has been proposed that primordial proteins consisted of a small set of amino acids, and additional amino acids have gradually been recruited into the genetic code. This hypothesis has recently been supported by comparative genome sequence analysis, but no direct experimental approach has been reported. Here, we utilized a novel experimental approach to test a hypothesis that native-like globular proteins might be easily simplified by a set of putative primitive amino acids with retention of its structure and function than by a set of putative new amino acids. We performed in vitro selection of a functional SH3 domain as a model from partially randomized libraries with different sets of amino acids using mRNA display. Consequently, a library rich in putative primitive amino acids included a larger number of functional SH3 sequences than a library rich in putative new amino acids. Further, the functional SH3 sequences were enriched from the primitive library slightly earlier than from a randomized library with the full set of amino acids, while the function and structure of the selected SH3 proteins with the primitive alphabet were comparable with those from the 20 amino acid alphabet. Application of this approach to various combinations of codons in protein sequences may be useful not only for clarifying the precise order of the amino acid expansion in the early stages of protein evolution but also for efficiently creating novel functional proteins in the laboratory.

  17. Can Mindful Parenting Be Observed? Relations between Observational Ratings of Mother-Youth Interactions and Mothers’ Self-Report Mindful Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Geier, Mary H.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Research on mindful parenting, an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child relationships, has been limited by its reliance on self-report assessment. The current study is the first to examine whether observational indices of parent-youth interactions differentiate between high and low levels of self-reported mindful parenting. The Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (IFIRS) were used to code interactions between mothers and their 7th grade youth. Mothers drawn from the top and bottom quartiles (n = 375) of a larger distribution of self-reported interpersonal mindfulness in parenting (N = 804) represented clearly defined high and low mindful parenting groups. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze how well six composite IFIRS observational rating variables (e.g., parental warmth, consistent discipline) discriminated between high and low self-reports of mindful parenting. DFA results were cross-validated, with statistically significant canonical correlations found for both subsamples (p parenting and the observational ratings was also provided through hierarchical regression analyses conducted with a continuous predictor of mindful parenting using the full sample. Thus, the present study provides preliminary evidence for a link between self-reported mindful parenting and observed interactions between parents and youth. PMID:25844494

  18. Parent-Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Communication Is Very Limited and Associated with Adolescent Poor Behavioral Beliefs and Subjective Norms: Evidence from a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadeta Dessie

    Full Text Available While parent-adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH communication is one potential source of SRH information for adolescents, it appears to be inadequately practiced in Ethiopia. This study was designed to investigate the factors that limit or improve parent-adolescent SRH communication in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia.A community based cross-sectional study was done on 4,559 adolescents of age 13-18. SRH communication was measured using a nine-item scale whose response ranged from "not at all" to "always." Summated composite score ranging from 0-36 was generated; higher score indicates high SRH communication. A median value of the composite score was 4 out of the possible 36 with an Interquartile Range (IQR of 7. Respondents were ranked as very poor, poor and satisfactory communicators based on 33rd and 67th percentiles values. Generalized ordered logit model was applied to investigate the factors associated with SRH communication.Results showed that the adolescents who were more likely to practice poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication were those who had poor behavioral beliefs on and poor subjective norms of communicating sexual issues with parents and those who perceived their parents' reproductive health (RH knowledge as poor. Nonetheless, the probability of poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication was less with high adolescent-parent communication quality, television co-viewing and discussions, and self-disclosure.Curtailing the adolescents' underlying poor beliefs and norms, and improving adolescent-parent communication quality, self-disclosure, and television co-viewing and discussions are essential to engage the parents in sexual and reproductive health education of the adolescents.

  19. Patterns of Parental Authority and Adolescent Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    2005-01-01

    In proposing connections among the paradigms represented by domain theory, parental control theory, and Baumrind's configural approach to parental authority, the worldview of each paradigm must be respected and ambiguities in core concepts must be resolved.

  20. [Pediatrician-parent interaction and early prevention : A review about the limits in addressing psychosocial risks during well-child visits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Pediatricians can be a door opener to early prevention for families at risk. The German well-child program is well-established, but there is a gap between the structural possibilities and the observed placements. The aim of this review is to show how pediatricians and parents talk about psychosocial risks under the very structured conditions of well-child visits. The challenges and traps of the framed interactions will be described and options for early prevention will be shown. The review is primarily based on the work of conversational and ethnomethodological studies reconstructing the pediatrician's discussion with parents about psychosocial issues in the family. Well-child visits are a highly routinized practice. Talking about family issues for both partners is a difficult task. Discussions about psychosocial issues are seldom and vague . Predominantly, they work cooperatively on reciprocal normalization of the child's development. Based on this shared orientation, pediatricians make an early, mostly general, prescription of parental tasks, supporting the child in the next developmental step. This kind of routine anticipatory counselling puts some pressure on the parents. Parents under unknown stress could be overburdened with this advice. In the script of well-child visits, there are no slots that indicate to pediatricians and parents when, which, how and for what purpose psychosocial issues can be discussed and negotiated. For implementing such slots in well-child visits, three steps are necessary: a structured and regular assessment of psychosocial issues, a trained pediatrician in motivational interviewing and a social worker guiding the family in the network of early prevention.

  1. Parental Stress and Related Factors in Parents of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yi Wang

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Children with cerebral palsy display prominent motor dysfunction associated with other developmental disorders. Parenting a child with cerebral palsy presents a number of challenges and stresses. The first purpose of this study was to compare parental stress in parents of children with cerebral palsy to that in parents of children with typical development. The second purpose was to analyze the correlations between parental stress and parents' characteristics, the child's characteristics, the child's earliest age when rehabilitation was first commenced, and weekly frequency of rehabilitation for the child. A convenience sample of 63 parents of children with cerebral palsy (mean age of children, 4.3 ± 1.8 years was recruited. Forty parents of children with typical development were recruited as a comparison group. All parents filled out the Chinese version of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI, which consists of child domain and parent domain scales. The scores reported by parents of children with cerebral palsy in the child domain, parent domain, and PSI total scale were significantly higher than those for parents in the comparison group. The child domain score was significantly correlated to the child's age and severity of motor disability. A significant correlation was also found between the parent domain score and the child's earliest age of commencing rehabilitation. The PSI total scale score was significantly associated with both the child's severity of motor disability and age of commencing rehabilitation. Clinical professionals should be concerned about parental stress in parents of children with cerebral palsy and provide resources to support such parents. We suggest some strategies to reduce parental stress by strengthening parents' child-care skills.

  2. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...... on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection...

  3. Regulatory domain limits of unilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.

    1986-06-01

    Simple in its principle unilateral agreement application in practice arise nevertheless some problems, not only for international transport when interpretation is somewhat different between countries, but also in domestic transport. This report tries to determine what being misapprehension and to propose a way to solve misapprehension which does not facilitate radioactive materials transport [fr

  4. Domain crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraefel, M. C.; Rouncefield, Mark; Kellogg, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a “how long is a piece of string” question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts a...

  5. Parenting Stress in Parents of Infants With Congenital Heart Disease and Parents of Healthy Infants: The First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfenshtein, Nadya; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Deatrick, Janet A; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    While we know that the parents of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD), the most prevalent group of congenital anomalies, experience increased parenting stress, the stress levels throughout infancy have yet to be studied. Stress experienced by parents beyond the normative stress of parenting can interfere with parenting processes, and bear adverse family outcomes. This prospective cohort study was conducted to describe and compare parenting stress levels during infancy between parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants. The Parenting Stress Index-Long Form was distributed to parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants (N = 129). T-tests were used to compare stress between groups at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Parents of infants with complex CHD had higher parenting stress than parents of healthy infants on multiple subscales on the Child and Parent Domains, at 3 months of age. The stress remained higher on the demandingness subscale throughout infancy. Parents of CHD infants also demonstrated significantly higher stress scores on the life stress subscale at 12 months of age. Findings highlight stressful periods related to parenting infants with CHD, which may increase existing psycho-social risk for parents of infants with CHD. Early family intervention may promote parental adaptation to the illness, and help establishing healthy parenting practices.

  6. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  7. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2017-02-01

    rejection domain, whereas, being a younger adult woman, with a higher level of maternal control is predictive of the impaired limits domain.Conclusion: This study underlines that because mothers and fathers establish different bonds with their children, care and control by both parents might impact different domains of development. Keywords: parenting, maladaptive cognitive domains, behavioral strategies, emotional responses

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALEXITHYMIA, PARENTING STYLE, AND PARENTAL CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Barberis, Nadia; Costa, Sebastiano; Larcan, Rosalba

    2015-10-01

    Research on the relationship between parental alexithymia and parenting is relatively scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parental alexithymia and three styles of parenting (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the relationships between parental alexithymia and two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The participants were 946 parents ages 29-60 years (mothers: n = 473, M age = 44.6 yr., SD = 4.7; fathers: n = 473, M age = 48.1 yr., SD = 5.1) of children ages 11-18 years. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R), and the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine whether alexithymia could predict the three parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The first model showed that alexithymia was a positive predictor of authoritative and permissive parenting and a negative predictor of authoritarian parenting in both paternal and maternal data. The second model showed that, in both paternal and maternal data, alexithymia was a positive predictor of both dependency-oriented psychological control (DPC) and achievement-oriented psychological control (APC).

  9. Do parents of obese children use ineffective parenting strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; West, Felicity

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown mixed findings about the relationship between parenting style and child lifestyle outcomes. This paper describes a cross-sectional study that aimed to clarify the relationship between ineffective parenting and childhood obesity by using multiple measures of child and family functioning. Sixty-two families with an obese child (aged four to 11 years) were matched with 62 families with a healthy weight child on key sociodemographic variables. Significant differences were found on several measures, including general parenting style, domain-specific parenting practices, and parenting self-efficacy (d = .53 to 1.96). Parents of obese children were more likely to use permissive and coercive discipline techniques, and to lack confidence in managing children's lifestyle behaviour. In contrast, parents of healthy weight children were more likely to implement specific strategies for promoting a healthy lifestyle.

  10. Funciones parentales: Indagación sobre las actitudes hacia el juego infantil y la puesta de límites en un grupo de padres. Elaboración de una escala para evaluarlas Parental functions: Inquiry on attitudes towards children's game and putting limits on group of parents. Development of a scale to evaluate them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Paolicchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la investigación UBACyT (2010-2012 "Juego, apego y poblaciones vulnerables. El juego como facilitador del desarrollo infantil y su relación con las modalidades de apego en poblaciones vulnerables", se comenzó a construir una escala para evaluar las actitudes de los padres hacia el juego infantil y otros tópicos como la puesta de límites y la calidad vincular con sus hijos. Solidariamente a esta tarea, se implementan Talleres a padres -en el marco del Programa de Extensión Universi- taria "Juegotecas Barriales"- en que se que actualizan, entre otros temas, el lugar y el valor del juego en la infancia. Con el fin de diagnosticar la percepción parental sobre el juego infantil y la puesta de límites, al inicio de cada taller se administró una escala tipo Likert. En el presente escrito se presenta esta metodología de carácter cuantitativo, así como se sintetizan algunos de los resultados derivados del uso de este instrumento en un grupo de 104 padres de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, que corresponde a la primera etapa de la construcción de la escala y otro grupo de 367 padres de la ciudad de Salta, sobre la que se aplicó la escala para continuar con el proceso de construcción y ajuste de los items.With the research UBACyT (2010-2012 "Game, attachment and vulnerable populations. The game as a facilitator of child development and its relation with patterns of affection in vulnerable populations" began to build upa a scale to assess attitudes of parentes towards children´s play and other topics such as setting limits and quality links with their children. The project is consistent with the University Extension Program "Neighborhood playground" in which workshops are deployed to parents whom updates, among other topics, the place and value of playing in childhood. In order to diagnose the parental perception of children's game and a limits setting, at the beginning of each workshop were given a Likert's scale. This paper presents the

  11. Parenting adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    and the influence of different parenting styles on the adolescents’ adherence to treatment is still limited. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the types of parental support that adolescents and young adults with CF want and find helpful in terms of preparing them for adult life. Methods: Sixteen Danish...... was conducted. Results: The adolescents and young adults wanted their parents educated about the adolescent experience. They wanted their parents to learn a pedagogical parenting style, to learn to trust them, and to learn to gradually transfer responsibility for their medical treatment. Additionally......: chronic illness, parenting style, qualitative research, patient preferences, interpretive description...

  12. "Mixed Blessings": Parental Religiousness, Parenting, and Child Adjustment in Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life. Methods: We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and…

  13. Parenting Stress of Parents of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Biondic, Daniella; Grimbos, Teresa; Herbert, Monique

    2016-04-01

    This study examined parenting stress among parents of adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 138 adolescents (84 ADHD, 52 boys, 32 girls; 54 non-ADHD, 24 boys, 30 girls) age 13 to 18 and their parents. Mothers (n = 135) and fathers (n = 98) of participating teens completed the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents. Mothers and fathers of adolescents with ADHD reported more stress than parents of adolescents without ADHD with regard to their children's challenging behaviors (Adolescent domain stress). Mothers of adolescents with ADHD also reported that they experienced elevated levels of stress in terms of role restrictions, feelings of social alienation, conflict with their partner, feelings of guilt and incompetence (Parent domain stress), and relationship with their children (Adolescent-Parent Relationship domain stress; APR). The extent to which clinical levels of adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms or externalizing behavior in general were associated with parenting stress depended on the rater of these behaviors. Parenting stress was associated with higher levels of ODD and other externalizing behaviors when these behaviors were rated by parents but not when they were rated by teachers. In addition, over and above adolescent ADHD classification, mothers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with higher parenting stress in the Adolescent and Parent domains, and fathers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with lower APR stress. The results suggest directions that should be considered for addressing parenting stress when designing interventions for families of adolescents with ADHD.

  14. Prematurity and parental self-efficacy: the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Claire; Whittingham, Koa; Boyd, Roslyn; Sanders, Matthew; Colditz, Paul

    2012-12-01

    There is a lack of research investigating parental self-efficacy in parents of infants born preterm as well as a paucity of parental self-efficacy measures that are domain-specific and theoretically grounded. This study aimed to compare parental self-efficacy in parents of infants born term, preterm and very preterm as well as to test whether parental self-efficacy mediates the relationship between psychological symptoms and parental competence. In order to achieve this, a new measure of parental self-efficacy and parental competence relevant for the preterm population and consistent with Bandura's (1977, 1986, 1989) conceptualisation of self-efficacy was developed. Participants included 155 parents, 83 of whom were parents of very preterm (GAparents of preterm (GAparents of term born infants. Parents completed the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist (the new measure), Family Demographic Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. This initial study indicates that the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist has adequate content validity, construct validity, internal consistency and split half reliability. Contrary to expectations, parents of very preterm infants did not report significantly lower overall levels of parental self-efficacy or significantly higher levels of psychological symptoms compared to parents of preterm and term infants. Parental self-efficacy about parenting tasks mediated the relationship between psychological symptoms and self perceived parental competence as predicted. Clinical implications of the results and suggestions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parent training support for intellectually disabled parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Hutchfield, Jemeela; Thomae, Manuela; Gustafsson, Carina

    2010-06-16

    included studies, with limited information available to assess possible bias and to fully assess the findings of one included study. Whilst the evidence presented here does seem promising with regard to the ability of such interventions to improve parenting knowledge and skill in this population, there is a need for larger RCTs of interventions before conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of parent training for this group of parents.

  16. Parenting Style as a Context for Emotion Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Bowes, Jennifer; Wyver, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine parenting style in the domain of emotion socialization through studying the relationships among parenting styles, emotion-related parental practices, and parental goals of Hong Kong-Chinese mothers. Data were collected from 189 Hong Kong-Chinese mothers of 6- to 8-year-old children. Hong…

  17. Nouvelles formes de gouvernance dans le domaine de l’eau. Apports et limites de la coopération décentralisée dans les pays en développement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoudha Makkaoui

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La problématique de cet article porte sur le rôle de la coopération décentralisée dans le domaine de l’eau, dans la mesure où celle-ci semble pouvoir apporter des réponses concrètes au problème de l’accès universel à l’eau et constituer une nouvelle option pour la communauté internationale. Dans une première partie, on présentera les problèmes rencontrés par les différents modes de gestion de l’eau dans les pays en développement et la façon dont ils ont successivement tenté de satisfaire à certains objectifs bien précis (accès universel à l’eau, réduction des coûts, prise en compte des besoins prioritaires. Dans une deuxième partie, sur la base d’une initiative de coopération décentralisée entre le Conseil régional de Seine-Saint-Denis et la ville marocaine de Figuig, on s’interrogera sur les apports et limites de cette nouvelle forme de partenariat participatif afin d’en évaluer la pérennité ainsi que la « soutenabilité sociale », montrant, de ce fait, sa proximité avec l’économie solidaire.Our paper builds on this issue of decentralized cooperation in the field of water management. Cooperation between decentralized entities in order to ensure the access to safe drinking water for all now constitutes in many places a preferred water governance option. Therefore, in the first part, we will provide an overview of the current difficulties encountered by the various forms of water management in developing countries, showing the solutions that they successively brought to specific issues (access for all, cost reduction, priority needs. In the second part, we will address the particular case of decentralized cooperation between the General Council of Seine-Saint-Denis in the suburbs of Paris, France, in partnership with the city of Figuig in Morocco. We review the insights and limits of such processes that refer to the people’s capabilities, at both individual and collective levels, in

  18. .Gov Domains API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset offers the list of all .gov domains, including state, local, and tribal .gov domains. It does not include .mil domains, or other federal domains outside...

  19. 45 CFR 98.30 - Parental choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Parental Rights and Responsibilities § 98.30 Parental choice. (a... category of care; or (2) Having the effect of limiting parental access to or choice from among such... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parental choice. 98.30 Section 98.30 Public...

  20. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  1. Parenting stress in parents of children with refractory epilepsy before and after vagus nerve stimulation implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Tse Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate parenting stress in parents of children with refractory epilepsy before and after their children received vagus nerve stimulation (VNS implantation. Methods: Parents of children with refractory epilepsy completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI under a psychologist's assessment before and at least 12 months after their children received VNS implantation. The PSI questionnaire measures parenting stress in two domains; a parent domain with seven subscales, and a child domain with six. Age, gender, epilepsy comorbidity, VNS implantation date, seizure frequency, and anticonvulsant history before and after VNS implantation were obtained from reviews of medical charts. Results: In total, 30 parents completed the first and follow-up PSI questionnaires. Seventeen of their children (56.7% were boys. The children aged from 1 to 12 years (7.43 ± 3.59 years, mean ± SD. After VNS implantation, the mean total parenting stress scores decreased from 282.1 ± 38.0 to 272.4 ± 42.9. A significant decrease was found on the spouse subscale of the parent domain. For the parents of boys, the mean total parenting stress scores decreased significantly. The mean total parenting stress scores also decreased significantly for parents of epileptic children without autism and who did not taper off the number of different anticonvulsants used after VNS. Conclusions: VNS is an advisable choice to treat refractory epilepsy. Our study showed that 12 months or more after VNS implantation, seizure frequency and parenting stress typically decreased. However, in some special cases the parenting stress may increase, and external help may be required to support these patients and their parents. Key Words: children, refractory epilepsy, parenting stress, vagus nerve stimulation

  2. Parenting stress and child behaviour problems among parents with intellectual disabilities: the buffering role of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelder, M; Hodes, M; Kef, S; Schuengel, C

    2015-07-01

    Parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at risk for high levels of parenting stress. The present study evaluated resources, including parental adaptive functioning, financial resources and access to a support network, as moderators of the association between child behaviour problems and parenting stress. A total of 134 parents with ID and their children (ages 1-7 years) were recruited from 10 Dutch care organisations. Questionnaires were administered to the parents to obtain information on parenting stress in the parent and child domain, financial resources and their support network. Teachers and care workers reported on child behaviour problems and parental adaptive functioning, respectively. Parents experienced more stress with regard to their children than towards their own functioning and situation. Parenting stress was less in parents who were not experiencing financial hardship. Child behaviour problems were associated with high child-related parenting stress, not parent-related parenting stress. Large support networks decreased the association between child behaviour problems and child-related parenting stress. Financial resources did not significantly moderate the association. Parenting stress among parents with ID is focused on problems with the child, especially when little social support is available. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Legal size limit implies strong fisheries selection on sexually selected traits in a temperate wrasse providing male-only parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Aleksander Tallaksen Halvorsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops is a temperate wrasse displaying both sex and male dimorphism and is targeted in a size selective commercial fishery which has increased dramatically since 2008. Wrasses are supplied alive to salmon farms as cleaner fish to combat infestations of Salmon lice. In previous studies, growth and maturation has been found to differ among male morphs and sexes and these groups might therefore be targeted unevenly by the size selective fishery. In the present study, we address this by comparing size regulations and fishing practice with data on sex specific growth and maturation from Western and Southern Norway, two regions varying in density and life histories. Two years of field data on density and length measures was used together with a subsample of otoliths to determine sex specific growth patterns. In the region with high density, nesting males were found to grow faster and mature later than sneaker males and females. Here, most nesting males will reach the minimum size as juveniles, one and two years before females and sneakers respectively. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was much less pronounced in the low density region, and relaxed male-male competition over nesting sites seems a likely explanation for this pattern. Intensive harvesting with selective removal of the larger nesting males could potentially lead to short term effect such as sperm limitation and reduced offspring survival and thus affect the productivity of juveniles. In addition, the current fishing regime may select for reduced growth rates and earlier maturation and oppose sexual selection.

  4. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudodepth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2013-02-01

    Wavefields are commonly computed in the Cartesian coordinate frame. Its efficiency is inherently limited due to spatial oversampling in deep layers, where the velocity is high and wavelengths are long. To alleviate this computational waste due to uneven wavelength sampling, we convert the vertical axis of the conventional domain from depth to vertical time or pseudodepth. This creates a nonorthognal Riemannian coordinate system. Isotropic and anisotropic wavefields can be extrapolated in the new coordinate frame with improved efficiency and good consistency with Cartesian domain extrapolation results. Prestack depth migrations are also evaluated based on the wavefield extrapolation in the pseudodepth domain.© 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  5. Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G

    2017-06-01

    For decades, parenting has been characterized in terms of broad global styles, with authoritative parenting seen as most beneficial for children's development. Concerns with greater sensitivity to cultural and contextual variations have led to greater specificity in defining parenting in terms of different parenting dimensions and greater consideration of the role of parenting beliefs in moderating links between parenting and adjustment. New research includes 'domain-specific' models that describe parents as flexibly deploying different practices depending on their goals, children's needs, and the types of behaviors towards which parenting is directed. These trends are described, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trending Longitudinal Agreement between Parent and Child Perceptions of Quality of Life for Pediatric Palliative Care Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghann S. Weaver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric palliative care studies often rely on proxy-reported instead of direct child-reported quality of life metrics. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally evaluate quality of life for pediatric patients receiving palliative care consultations and to compare patient-reported quality of life with parent perception of the child’s quality of life across wellness domains. The 23-item PedsQL™ V4.0 Measurement Model was utilized for ten child and parent dyads at time of initial palliative care consultation, Month 6, and Month 12 to assess for physical, emotional, social, and cognitive dimensions of quality of life as reported independently by the child and by the parent for the child. Findings were analyzed using Bland–Altman plots to compare observed differences to limits of agreement. This study revealed overall consistency between parent- and child-reported quality of life across domains. Physical health was noted to be in closest agreement. At the time of initial palliative care consult, children collectively scored their social quality of life higher than parental perception of the child’s social quality of life; whereas, emotional and cognitive quality of life domains were scored lower by children than by the parental report. At the one year survey time point, the physical, emotional, and social domains trended toward more positive patient perception than proxy perception with congruence between quality of life scores for the cognitive domain. Findings reveal the importance of eliciting a child report in addition to a parent report when measuring and longitudinally trending perceptions on quality of life.

  7. The influence of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication on Bahamian adolescent risk involvement: A three-year longitudinal examination

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Cottrell, Lesley; Deveaux, Lynette; Kaljee, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests that parental monitoring can best be conceptualized and measured through the domains of parental knowledge, youth disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control. Using longitudinal data on 913 grade-six Bahamian students followed over a period of three years, we examined the unique and independent roles of these domains of parental monitoring and parent–adolescent communication in relation to adolescent involvement in delinquency, substance use, and sexual ris...

  8. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  9. SH2 Domain Histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Sophia; Nollau, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Among posttranslational modifications, the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is a key modification in cell signaling. Because of its biological importance, characterization of the cellular state of tyrosine phosphorylation is of great interest. Based on the unique properties of endogenously expressed SH2 domains recognizing tyrosine phosphorylated signaling proteins with high specificity we have developed an alternative approach, coined SH2 profiling, enabling us to decipher complex patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation in various normal and cancerous tissues. So far, SH2 profiling has largely been applied for the analysis of protein extracts with the limitation that information on spatial distribution and intensity of tyrosine phosphorylation within a tissue is lost. Here, we describe a novel SH2 domain based strategy for differential characterization of the state of tyrosine phosphorylation in formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. This approach demonstrates that SH2 domains may serve as very valuable tools for the analysis of the differential state of tyrosine phosphorylation in primary tissues fixed and processed under conditions frequently applied by routine pathology laboratories.

  10. Follow-Up Study of Behavioral Development and Parenting Stress Profiles in Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Chyn Chao; Pinchen Yang; Hsiu-Yi Hsu; Yuh-Jyh Jong

    2009-01-01

    Recent longitudinal experiences have emphasized that the follow-up of children with treated congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) should not be limited to the cognitive domain. This study attempted to evaluate the emotional–behavioral profiles in children with CHT together with maternal parenting stress profiles. Data for child and family characteristics were collected from 47 families with a 3–12-year-old CHT child diagnosed and treated since the newborn period. Cognitive assessments were performe...

  11. Parent-Teacher Relationships in Elementary School: An Examination of Parent-Teacher Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rachel T.; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Beattie, Tiffany; Moore, Christabelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Trust is an important dimension of parent educational involvement and parent-teacher relationships. Preliminary research suggests that parent trust in teachers and schools is associated with student learning and behavior. However, examinations of parent trust in children's education are limited. The present study investigated the influence of…

  12. Reflections on Parental Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela LUPŞAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The movement in the European Union territory of the family members de jure or de facto - parents married or not, on the one hand, and their children, on the other hand, the birth of litigation related to the content, exercising or limiting the parental authority in the event at least one holder of parental authority is in a Member State other than where the minor child is, and the interest of achieving a good administration of justice within the European Union, led to the development of Community instruments in the area of parental authority, which has provisions on conflicts of jurisdiction, conflict of laws, recognition and enforceability, enforcement, legal aid and cooperation between central authorities, designating the applicable law. In the first part of the study we have analyzed the rules of jurisdiction by establishing the jurisdiction of the court hearing with an application for parental responsibility, whether there are pending divorce proceeding or not. In the second part of the study, we have limited the analysis to the rules applicable to the law causes that have as object parental authority.

  13. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  14. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  15. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parental Separation, Parental Alcoholism, and Timing of First Sexual Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Doran, Kelly A.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined timing of first voluntary sexual intercourse as a joint function of parental separation during childhood and parental history of alcoholism. Methods Data were drawn from a birth cohort of female like-sex twins (n=569 African Ancestry [AA], n=3415 European or other Ancestry [EA]). Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first sex from dummy variables coding for parental separation and parental alcoholism. Propensity score analysis was also employed comparing intact and separated families, stratified by predicted probability of separation. Results Earlier sex was reported by EA twins from separated and alcoholic families, compared to EA twins from intact nonalcoholic families, with effects most pronounced through age 14. Among AA twins, effects of parental separation and parental alcoholism were largely nonsignificant. Results of propensity score analyses confirmed unique risks from parental separation in EA families, where consistent effects of parental separation were observed across predicted probability of separation. For AA families there was poor matching on risk-factors presumed to predate separation, which limited interpretability of survival-analytic findings. Conclusions In European American families, parental separation during childhood is an important predictor of early-onset sex, beyond parental alcoholism and other correlated risk-factors. To characterize risk for African Americans associated with parental separation, additional research is needed where matching on confounders can be achieved. PMID:25907653

  17. Parental separation, parental alcoholism, and timing of first sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Doran, Kelly A; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Duncan, Alexis E; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Sartor, Carolyn E; Heath, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    We examined timing of first voluntary sexual intercourse as a joint function of parental separation during childhood and parental history of alcoholism. Data were drawn from a birth cohort of female like-sex twins (n = 569 African ancestry [AA]; n = 3,415 European or other ancestry [EA]). Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first sex from dummy variables coding for parental separation and parental alcoholism. Propensity score analysis was also employed to compare intact and separated families, stratified by predicted probability of separation. Earlier sex was reported by EA twins from separated and alcoholic families, compared to EA twins from intact nonalcoholic families, with effects most pronounced through the age of 14 years. Among AA twins, effects of parental separation and parental alcoholism were largely nonsignificant. Results of propensity score analyses confirmed unique risks from parental separation in EA families, where consistent effects of parental separation were observed across predicted probability of separation. For AA families, there was poor matching on risk factors presumed to predate separation, which limited interpretability of survival-analytic findings. In European American families, parental separation during childhood is an important predictor of early-onset sex, beyond parental alcoholism and other correlated risk factors. To characterize risk for African Americans associated with parental separation, additional research is needed where matching on confounders can be achieved. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  19. 'Mixed blessings': parental religiousness, parenting, and child adjustment in global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Lansford, Jennifer E; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-08-01

    Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life. We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and children's adjustment in a 3-year longitudinal investigation of 1,198 families from nine countries. We included four religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, and Islam) plus unaffiliated parents, two positive (efficacy and warmth) and two negative (control and rejection) parenting practices, and two positive (social competence and school performance) and two negative (internalizing and externalizing) child outcomes. Parents and children were informants. Greater parent religiousness had both positive and negative associations with parenting and child adjustment. Greater parent religiousness when children were age 8 was associated with higher parental efficacy at age 9 and, in turn, children's better social competence and school performance and fewer child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. However, greater parent religiousness at age 8 was also associated with more parental control at age 9, which in turn was associated with more child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. Parental warmth and rejection had inconsistent relations with parental religiousness and child outcomes depending on the informant. With a few exceptions, similar patterns of results held for all four religions and the unaffiliated, nine sites, mothers and fathers, girls and boys, and controlling for demographic covariates. Parents and children agree that parental religiousness is associated with more controlling parenting and, in turn, increased child problem behaviors. However, children see religiousness as related to parental rejection, whereas parents see religiousness as related to parental efficacy and warmth, which have different

  20. Child-rearing in the context of childhood cancer: perspectives of parents and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin A; Keeley, Lauren; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Noll, Robert B

    2014-02-01

    Elevated distress has been well documented among parents of children with cancer. Family systems theories suggest that cancer-related stressors and parental distress have the potential to affect child-rearing practices, but this topic has received limited empirical attention. The present work examined self-reported child-rearing practices among mothers and fathers of children with cancer and matched comparisons. Medical and psychosocial professionals with expertise in pediatric oncology selected items from the Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) likely to differentiate parents of children with cancer from matched comparison parents. Then, responses on these targeted items were compared between parents of children with cancer (94 mothers, 67 fathers) and matched comparisons (98 mothers, 75 fathers). Effect sizes of between-group differences were compared for mothers versus fathers. Pediatric oncology healthcare providers predicted that 14 items would differentiate child-rearing practices of parents of children with cancer from parents of typically developing children. Differences emerged on six of the 14 CRPR items. Parents of children with cancer reported higher levels of spoiling and concern about their child's health and development than comparison parents. Items assessing overprotection and emotional responsiveness did not distinguish the two groups of parents. The effect size for the group difference between mothers in the cancer versus comparison groups was significantly greater than that for fathers on one item related to worry about the child's health. Parents of children with cancer report differences in some, but not all, domains of child-rearing, as predicted by healthcare professionals. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Do parents of adolescents request the same universal parental support as parents of younger children? A random sample of Swedish parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorslund, Karin; Johansson Hanse, Jan; Axberg, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    Universal parental support intended to enhance parents' capacity for parenting is an important aspect of public health strategies. However, support has mostly been aimed at parents, especially mothers, of younger children. There is a gap in the research concerning parents of adolescents and fathers' interest in parenting support. To investigate and compare the interest in parenting support of parents of adolescents and younger children, potential differences between mothers and fathers, and their knowledge of what is being offered to them already, and to explore their requirements for future universal parental support. Telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 1336 parents. Quantitative methods were used to analyze differences between groups and qualitative methods were used to analyze open-ended questions in regard to parents' requirements for future universal parental support. About 82% of the parents of adolescents interviewed think that offering universal parental support is most important during child's adolescence. There is a substantial interest, particularly among mothers, in most forms of support. Despite their interest, parents have limited awareness of the support available. Only 7% knew about the local municipality website, although 70% reported a possible interest in such a website. Similarly, 3% knew that a parent phone line was available to them, while 59% reported a possible interest. It poses a challenge but is nevertheless important for municipalities to develop support targeted at parents of adolescents which is tailored to their needs, and to reach out with information.

  2. Online Coaching of Emotion-Regulation Strategies for Parents: Efficacy of the Online Rational Positive Parenting Program and Attention Bias Modification Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Oana A; Capris, David; Jarda, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Parenting programs are currently treatment of choice for behavioral disorders in children and one of their main components is reducing the negativity bias in the child-parent dyad. The Rational Positive Parenting Program (rPPP) is a program with a special focus on parent emotion-regulation functional reappraisal strategies, which has recently received consistent support for reducing child externalizing and internalizing disorders. In the last years, online interventions were proliferated and the Attention Bias Modification (ABM) becoming a promising implicit therapeutic intervention based on attention deployment emotion-regulation strategy, or adjunctive module to usual treatments, with results in multiple domains, varying from pain to self-esteem and emotional disorders (e.g., anxiety). We conducted two studies to investigate (1) the efficacy of the ABM procedures applied to parents and (2) the efficacy of the online version of the rPPP augmented with an ABM module. A total of 42 parents of children aged 2-12 years old participated in the first study, being allocated either to the ABM training or wait-list. Positive results were reported by the parents participating in the ABM group for own distress, satisfaction, positive interactions with the child, and child's strengths. In the second study, 53 parents and their children were allocated either in the rPPP group or in the rPPP + ABM group. Results show that ABM training can boost the effects of the rPPP on the strengths of children reported by the parents after the intervention. Findings are discussed in the light of limited research on using online tools for coaching effective emotion-regulation strategies for parents.

  3. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  4. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...

  5. Identification of preliminary core outcome domains for communication about childhood vaccination: An online Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jessica; Ryan, Rebecca; Lewin, Simon; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Glenton, Claire; Cliff, Julie; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Oku, Afiong; Ames, Heather; Rada, Gabriel; Cartier, Yuri; Hill, Sophie

    2017-08-20

    Communication interventions for childhood vaccination are promising strategies to address vaccine hesitancy, but current research is limited by the outcomes measured. Most studies measure only vaccination-related outcomes, with minimal consideration of vaccine hesitancy-relevant intermediate outcomes. This impedes understanding of which interventions or elements are effective. It is also unknown which outcomes are important to the range of stakeholders affected by vaccine hesitancy. Outcome selection shapes the evidence base, informing future interventions and trials, and should reflect stakeholder priorities. Therefore, our aim was to identify which outcome domains (i.e. broad outcome categories) are most important to different stakeholders, identifying preliminary core outcome domains to inform evaluation of three common vaccination communication types: (i) communication to inform or educate, (ii) remind or recall, and (iii) enhance community ownership. We conducted a two-stage online Delphi survey, involving four stakeholder groups: parents or community members, healthcare providers, researchers, and government or non-governmental organisation representatives. Participants rated the importance of eight outcome domains for each of the three communication types. They also rated specific outcomes within one domain ("attitudes or beliefs") and provided feedback about the survey. Collectively, stakeholder groups prioritised outcome domains differently when considering the effects of different communication types. For communication that aims to (i) inform or educate, the most important outcome domain is "knowledge or understanding"; for (ii) reminder communication, "vaccination status and behaviours"; and for (iii) community engagement communication, "community participation". All stakeholder groups rated most outcome domains as very important or critical. The highest rated specific outcome within the "attitudes or beliefs" domain was "trust". This Delphi survey

  6. Parental ADHD symptoms and parenting behaviors: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joanne L; Hudec, Kristen L; Johnston, Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists throughout the lifespan, and there are known impairments associated with adult ADHD. Understanding ADHD-related impairments in the parenting domain is particularly important given that the children of adults with ADHD also are likely to have ADHD, and there is potential for parenting to alter the developmental outcomes of these children. The present study quantitatively synthesizes evidence regarding the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting behaviors. Across 32 studies, this meta-analysis found that parental ADHD symptoms accounted for 2.9%, 3.2%, and 0.5% of the variance of harsh, lax, and positive parenting, respectively. Greater parental ADHD symptoms were associated with less positive and more harsh and lax parenting behaviors. Variables, such as the proportion of children in the sample diagnosed with ADHD, child gender, and method/rater variance, moderated the strength of these relations. Results also suggest more similarities than differences in the associations between parenting behaviors and the two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. Overall, parental ADHD symptoms are significantly associated with parenting behaviors with effect sizes similar to the associations found between other parental psychopathologies and parenting, although the associations remain relatively small. The paper concludes with comments regarding remaining gaps in the literature that warrant further research and the clinical implications of the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Asian-American Parents: Are They Really Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Qi, Sen

    2004-01-01

    Using the base year data of parent interviews (n=15,376) conducted by the U. S. Department of Education for the national Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), this study examined patterns of parenting style of Asian-American parents (n=536) in six domains. Descriptive and ANOVA analyses revealed significant differences between…

  8. Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J.; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult’s ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD — cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785

  9. Parent education: an evaluation of STEP on abusive parents' perceptions and abuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, D C; Fishel, A H

    1998-01-01

    To examine the effects of a structured, time-limited parent training group on abusive or potentially abusive parents. A pretest-posttest control group design was used with consenting parents (N = 18) to examine the effects of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) on abusive parents' perceptions of their children's behaviors and on the parents' potential to physically abuse. The Adlerian Parental Assessment of Child Behavior Scale and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory were used to measure treatment effects. After participating in STEP, abusive parents had significantly more positive perceptions of their children and were significantly less potentially abusive. Using volunteers, the project cost an average of $100 for each parent. The research lends empirical support to individual psychology and family systems theory. Future research is indicated using larger samples to examine lay vs. professional leadership of the groups, as well as comparisons of different parenting programs with abusive parents.

  10. Stress in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploration of Demands and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakovich, Teri M.; McGrew, John H.; Yu, Yue; Ruble, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    We applied the ABCX model of stress and coping to assess the association between child and family demands, school-based resources (i.e., parent-teacher alliance and COMPASS, a consultation intervention), and two measures of parent stress: perceptions of the demands of raising a child (Child domain) and reactions to those demands (Parent domain).…

  11. Children Who Are Hearing Impaired with Additional Disabilities and Related Aspects of Parental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermair, Manfred

    2000-01-01

    In this German study, 317 parents of children with hearing impairments and additional disabilities completed both the Parenting Stress Index and an additional questionnaire on demographics and related information. Analysis showed consistently high stress scores in the Child Domain, whereas the Parent Domain showed only a slight tendency toward…

  12. Patterns in Parent-Child Conversations about Animals at a Marine Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigney, Jennifer C.; Callanan, Maureen A.

    2011-01-01

    Parent-child conversations are a potential source of children's developing understanding of the biological domain. We investigated patterns in parent-child conversations that may inform children about biological domain boundaries. At a marine science center exhibit, we compared parent-child talk about typical sea animals with faces (fish) with…

  13. Phylogeny of the TRAF/MATH domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Juan M; Martínez-García, Vanesa; Lefebvre, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    The TNF-receptor associated factor (TRAF) domain (TD), also known as the meprin and TRAF-C homology (MATH) domain is a fold of seven anti-parallel p-helices that participates in protein-protein interactions. This fold is broadly represented among eukaryotes, where it is found associated with a discrete set of protein-domains. Virtually all protein families encompassing a TRAF/MATH domain seem to be involved in the regulation of protein processing and ubiquitination, strongly suggesting a parallel evolution of the TRAF/MATH domain and certain proteolysis pathways in eukaryotes. The restricted number of living organisms for which we have information of their genetic and protein make-up limits the scope and analysis of the MATH domain in evolution. However, the available information allows us to get a glimpse on the origins, distribution and evolution of the TRAF/MATH domain, which will be overviewed in this chapter.

  14. Ferroelectric domain continuity over grain boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantri, Sukriti; Oddershede, Jette; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Formation and mobility of domain walls in ferroelectric materials is responsible for many of their electrical and mechanical properties. Domain wall continuity across grain boundaries has been observed since the 1950's and is speculated to affect the grain boundary-domain interactions, thereby...... impacting macroscopic ferroelectric properties in polycrystalline systems. However detailed studies of such correlated domain structures across grain boundaries are limited. In this work, we have developed the mathematical requirements for domain wall plane matching at grain boundaries of any given...... orientation. We have also incorporated the effect of grain boundary ferroelectric polarization charge created when any two domains meet at the grain boundary plane. The probability of domain wall continuity for three specific grain misorientations is studied. Use of this knowledge to optimize processing...

  15. Parent-Child Communication about Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use: What Do Parents Say and Does It Affect Youth Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Pemberton, Michael; Hicks, Katherine A.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent-parent pairs (N=537) were interviewed concerning their communication about tobacco and alcohol use. Parent communication reports identified three domains: rules and discipline; consequences and circumstances; and media influences. Results show that parent-child communication was not related to initiation of smoking or drinking. However,…

  16. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......, to reconstruct the distribution of the Cole-Cole parameters of the earth. The accurate modeling of the transmitter waveform had a strong influence on the forward response, and we showed that the difference between a solution using a step response and a solution using the accurate modeling often is above 100...

  17. Fictitious domain methods for elliptic problems with general boundary conditions with an application to the numerical simulation of two phase flows; Methodes de domaine fictif pour des problemes elliptiques avec conditions aux limites generales en vue de la simulation numerique d'ecoulements diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramiere, I

    2006-09-15

    This work is dedicated to the introduction of two original fictitious domain methods for the resolution of elliptic problems (mainly convection-diffusion problems) with general and eventually mixed boundary conditions: Dirichlet, Robin or Neumann. The originality lies in the approximation of the immersed boundary by an approximate interface derived from the fictitious domain Cartesian mesh, which is generally not boundary-fitted to the physical domain. The same generic numerical scheme is used to impose the embedded boundary conditions. Hence, these methods require neither a surface mesh of the immersed boundary nor the local modification of the numerical scheme. We study two modelling of the immersed boundary. In the first one, called spread interface, the approximate immersed boundary is the union of the cells crossed by the physical immersed boundary. In the second one, called thin interface, the approximate immersed boundary lies on sides of mesh cells. Additional algebraic transmission conditions linking both flux and solution jumps through the thin approximate interface are introduced. The fictitious problem to solve as well as the treatment of the embedded boundary conditions are detailed for the two methods. A Q1 finite element scheme is implemented for the numerical validation of the spread interface approach while a new cell-centered finite volume scheme is derived for the thin interface approach with immersed jumps. Each method is then combined to multilevel local mesh refinement algorithms (with solution or flux residual) to increase the precision of the solution in the vicinity of the immersed interface. A convergence analysis of a Q1 finite element method with non-boundary fitted meshes is also presented. This study proves the convergence rates of the present methods. Among the various industrial applications, the simulation on a model of heat exchanger in french nuclear power plants enables us to appreciate the performances of the fictitious domain

  18. Follow-Up Study of Behavioral Development and Parenting Stress Profiles in Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chyn Chao

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent longitudinal experiences have emphasized that the follow-up of children with treated congenital hypothyroidism (CHT should not be limited to the cognitive domain. This study attempted to evaluate the emotional–behavioral profiles in children with CHT together with maternal parenting stress profiles. Data for child and family characteristics were collected from 47 families with a 3–12-year-old CHT child diagnosed and treated since the newborn period. Cognitive assessments were performed. The main caregiver completed the following questionnaires: (1 Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which rated behavioral symptoms in children; (2 Parenting Stress Index, which determined the quality and magnitude of parenting stress experienced by the caregiver; and (3 Symptom Checklist-90-R, which evaluated the psychopathological symptoms of the caregiver. In addition, 31 unaffected siblings were recruited as a comparative control group. The results revealed that children with treated CHT had normal intelligence quotients (mean, 93.6 ± 16.2 at the time of the study. However, CHT children had more problems in emotional–behavioral domains than sibling controls (p = 0.01. Overall, 29.8% (14/47 of the CHT children had emotional–behavioral problems above the clinical cutoff. In addition, 13% of the caregivers of CHT children had parenting stress above the clinical cutoff. Therefore, professional intervention is warranted in these subgroups of CHT children and parents.

  19. Follow-up study of behavioral development and parenting stress profiles in children with congenital hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Mei-Chyn; Yang, Pinchen; Hsu, Hsiu-Yi; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2009-11-01

    Recent longitudinal experiences have emphasized that the follow-up of children with treated congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) should not be limited to the cognitive domain. This study attempted to evaluate the emotional-behavioral profiles in children with CHT together with maternal parenting stress profiles. Data for child and family characteristics were collected from 47 families with a 3-12-year-old CHT child diagnosed and treated since the newborn period. Cognitive assessments were performed. The main caregiver completed the following questionnaires: (1) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which rated behavioral symptoms in children; (2) Parenting Stress Index, which determined the quality and magnitude of parenting stress experienced by the caregiver; and (3) Symptom Checklist-90-R, which evaluated the psychopathological symptoms of the caregiver. In addition, 31 unaffected siblings were recruited as a comparative control group. The results revealed that children with treated CHT had normal intelligence quotients (mean, 93.6 +/- 16.2) at the time of the study. However, CHT children had more problems in emotional-behavioral domains than sibling controls (p = 0.01). Overall, 29.8% (14/47) of the CHT children had emotional-behavioral problems above the clinical cutoff. In addition, 13% of the caregivers of CHT children had parenting stress above the clinical cutoff. Therefore, professional intervention is warranted in these subgroups of CHT children and parents.

  20. Cross-Cultural Issues in Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach-Tuyet Pham; And Others

    Four papers address cultural issues related to the involvement of limited-English-proficient parents in public schools in the United States. "Cultural Issues in Indochinese Parent Involvement" (Bach-Tuyet (Pham) Tran) outlines the linguistic, social, and practical barriers to Indochinese immigrant parent involvement and makes suggestions for…

  1. Comparing parents' and overweight adolescents' reports on parent mealtime actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Carolina Bertagnoli; Petty, Maria Luiza Blanques; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Escrivão, Maria Arlete Meil Schimith

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare answers given by parents and their adolescent children to the Portuguese version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS) and to assess associations among the reported behaviors. To compare these answers, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 72 patients of the Obesity Clinic of the Division of Nutrology of the Pediatrics Department at the Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), Brazil. These patients were aged from 10 years to 19 years and 11 months, and their parents or legal guardians also participated. First, parents were interviewed and instructed to answer how often they perform each behavior measured by the PMAS (never, sometimes or always). Next, the same questions were answered by the adolescents. The general linear model (GLM) showed the effects of the interviewees and of the interaction between interviewees and sex. We also observed a triple interaction effect (sex x interviewees x categorized age). The internal reliability of the PMAS was higher for parental answers than for those given by the children. This finding is probably observed because the scale has been developed and validated to evaluate the pattern of parental responses concerning their eating practices during their children's meals. In addition, although parents believe they are engaging in certain behaviors, the effectiveness of these strategies may not be recognized by their children. Very low intraclass correlation coefficients were observed between parents' and children's answers to the original domains of the PMAS (ICC: 0.130-0.578), suggesting that the factorial structure of the PMAS may only be used to assess parental behavior, as it is not sufficiently accurate to assess the children's understanding of parent mealtime actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  3. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  4. Parental affectionless control and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschin, Simona; Briggs, Jessica; Blanco-Lutzen, Sally; Cohen, Lisa J; Galynker, Igor

    2013-10-01

    Although poor parental bonding is a known risk factor for suicidality, current literature is inconsistent about the relative role of low parental care and parental overprotection, as well as the combination of the two, termed "affectionless control". This review presents the current state of knowledge of the relationship between suicidality and these two aspects of parental bonding. The computerized databases Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, PsychLit, and Google Scholar were searched using combinations of the following keywords: suicidality, suicide, suicide attempt, suicidal behavior, parental bonding, and parental bonding instrument. Using the results, we reviewed the reports on the relationship between suicidality and parental bonding as measured by validated parental bonding instruments. Twelve papers were analyzed. All of them used the parental bonding instrument (PBI) and one used both the PBI and the object representation inventory (ORI). Most reports agreed that, in mothers, either lack of maternal care and/or overprotection was associated with an increase in suicidal behavior, while in fathers only low care was consistently associated with suicidality. This lack of constancy with regard to the effect of paternal overprotection appears to be due to cultural differences in fathers' role in child rearing. With these differences acknowledged, affectionless control in both parents emerges as the parenting style most strongly associated with suicidal behavior. Common methodological problems included low numbers of subjects, inconsistent control groups, and the lack of a uniform definition of suicidality. Despite methodological limitations, current literature consistently indicates that parental affectionless control is associated with suicidal behavior. Recognizing affectionless control as a risk factor for suicide and developing early interventions aimed at modifying affectionless and overprotective parenting style in families with a history of affective disorders

  5. Strengthening Parent-Child Relationships through Co-Playing Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Anneliese; Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Parent-child relationships may be strengthened when parents and children play video games together. Literature is limited in addressing the impact of co-playing video games on parent-child relationships. Family systems theory, in particular, parental mediation through co-play, may provide insights into parent-child relationships. Parents who…

  6. Effects of parent personality, upbringing, and marijuana use on the parent-child attachment relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, J S; Richter, L; Whiteman, M

    2000-02-01

    To examine the predictors of the quality of the parent-child attachment relationship among a sample of 248 young adults with children. In this longitudinal study, data were collected during early adulthood in 1992 and in 1996/1997 via a structured questionnaire. Using logistic regression and multiple regression analyses, the authors assessed the extent to which participants' personality attributes, substance use, and relationships with their mothers predicted the quality of the parent-child bond. Logistic regression models showed that participants with certain personality attributes (e.g., high sensitivity), less frequent marijuana use, or a close relationship with their mothers had a greater likelihood of having a close parent-child attachment relationship with their own children at a later time. Regression analysis also showed that the risk of earlier substance use on the parent-child relationship was offset by protective factors in the parents' personality domain. In addition, protective factors in the various parental domains synergistically interacted with a low frequency of marijuana use, relating to a closer parent-child attachment relationship. The findings suggest that certain parenting styles are transmitted across generations and interventions in the personality and drug use domains can help increase the likelihood that parents will form close attachment relationships with their own children.

  7. Agreement between child self-reported and parent-reported scores for chronic pain secondary to specific pediatric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez Rodriguez-Labajo, A; Castarlenas, E; Miró, J; Reinoso-Barbero, F

    2017-03-01

    Parental report on a child's secondary chronic pain is commonly requested by anesthesiologists when the child cannot directly provide information. Daily pain intensity is reported as highest, average and lowest. However, it is unclear whether the parents' score is a valid indicator of the child's pain experience. Nineteen children (aged 6-18years) with secondary chronic pain attending our anesthesiologist-run pediatric pain unit participated in this study. Identification of highest, average and lowest pain intensity levels were requested during initial screening interviews with the child and parents. Pain intensity was scored on a 0-10 numerical rating scale. Agreement was examined using: (i) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and (ii) the Bland-Altman method. The ICC's between the children and the parents' pain intensity reports were: 0.92 for the highest, 0.68 for the average, and 0.50 for the lowest pain intensity domains. The limits of agreement set at 95% between child and parental reports were respectively +2.19 to -2.07, +3.17 to -3.88 and +5.15 to -5.50 for the highest, average and lowest pain domains. For the highest pain intensity domain, agreement between parents and children was excellent. If replicated this preliminary finding would suggest the highest pain intensity is the easiest domain for reporting pain intensity when a child cannot directly express him or herself. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Parenting Stress in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Tárraga, Raul; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla; Pastor, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 121 children from 5 to 9 years old with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), comorbid ASD+ADHD, and typical development in different domains related to child and parent characteristics using the Parenting Stress…

  9. The paediatrician and middle childhood parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Peter D; Wong, Jonathan P; van den Heuvel, Meta; Feller, Andrea E; Silver-Cohen, Justine; Talarico, Susanna; Humphreys, Joanna; Ford-Jones, Lee

    2017-03-01

    The 'forgotten years' of middle childhood, from age 6 to 12, represent a critical period in child development. Emotional, social and physical development during this time have a lifelong impact on health and adult contributions to society. Mental health conditions have displaced physical illness as the leading childhood disability. Positive parenting can improve child behaviour, prevent early-onset conduct problems and provide a buffer from adverse childhood events resulting in decreased toxic stress and improved health. Medical homes can play a key role in supporting parents with positive parenting skills that are practical, evidence-based and useful in everyday life. Paediatricians need to explore the domains that promote healthy development, including caring environments, fundamental needs and nurturing relationships. Our objective is to promote high-quality positive parenting through middle childhood by identifying opportunities for paediatricians to frame parenting discussions in the context of development, behaviour and safety and to provide access to valuable parenting resources.

  10. Parent Readiness to Change Differs for Overweight Child Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, KE; McEachern, R; Jelalian, E

    2014-01-01

    Parent involvement is important to help overweight children lose weight. However, parent readiness to make changes around child eating and physical activity (PA) behaviors can differ across domains. Using a cross-sectional design, our aim was to examine which factors were associated with parents being in the action/maintenance stage of change (SOC) in each domain. From November 2008 – August 2009, parents of overweight/obese children (n=202) attending a tertiary care obesity clinic in Provide...

  11. Parental Power and Adolescents' Parental Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acock, Alan C.; Yang, Wen Shan

    1984-01-01

    Combines McDonald's social power of parental identification with sex-linked models of parental identification to account for the identification of daughters (N=199) and sons (N=147) with their parents. Found that because of a halo effect, a gain in identification with one parent is not at the other parent's expense. (JAC)

  12. When Parenting Does Not "Come Naturally": Providers' Perspectives on Parenting Education for Incarcerated Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Cathrine; Dawson, Angela; Rossiter, Chris; Jackson, Debra; Power, Tamara; Roche, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Learning to parent sensitively and safely can be challenging for adults with childhood abuse and neglect experiences. Such childhood experiences are prevalent among incarcerated parents whose ability to parent their own children is also limited by separation from them. Several prisons have developed programs to foster pro-social parenting skills…

  13. A thermodynamic definition of protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lauren L; Rose, George D

    2012-06-12

    Protein domains are conspicuous structural units in globular proteins, and their identification has been a topic of intense biochemical interest dating back to the earliest crystal structures. Numerous disparate domain identification algorithms have been proposed, all involving some combination of visual intuition and/or structure-based decomposition. Instead, we present a rigorous, thermodynamically-based approach that redefines domains as cooperative chain segments. In greater detail, most small proteins fold with high cooperativity, meaning that the equilibrium population is dominated by completely folded and completely unfolded molecules, with a negligible subpopulation of partially folded intermediates. Here, we redefine structural domains in thermodynamic terms as cooperative folding units, based on m-values, which measure the cooperativity of a protein or its substructures. In our analysis, a domain is equated to a contiguous segment of the folded protein whose m-value is largely unaffected when that segment is excised from its parent structure. Defined in this way, a domain is a self-contained cooperative unit; i.e., its cooperativity depends primarily upon intrasegment interactions, not intersegment interactions. Implementing this concept computationally, the domains in a large representative set of proteins were identified; all exhibit consistency with experimental findings. Specifically, our domain divisions correspond to the experimentally determined equilibrium folding intermediates in a set of nine proteins. The approach was also proofed against a representative set of 71 additional proteins, again with confirmatory results. Our reframed interpretation of a protein domain transforms an indeterminate structural phenomenon into a quantifiable molecular property grounded in solution thermodynamics.

  14. Parents' common pitfalls of discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoonchart, Chatree; Fangsa-ard, Thitiporn; Chaoaree, Supamit; Ketumarn, Panom; Kaewpornsawan, Titawee; Phatthrayuttawat, Sucheera

    2005-11-01

    Problems of discipline are common among parents. These may be the results of the parents' pitfalls in disciplining their children. To find out common pitfalls of parents in disciplining their children. Parents of students with ages ranged between 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, were selected by random sampling. Total number of 1947 children ages between 60-72 months were recruited. Parents of these children were interviewed with a questionnaire designed to probe into problems in child rearing. There hindered and fifty questionnaires were used for data analyses. Parents had high concerns about problems in discipline their children and needed support from professional personnel. They had limited knowledge and possessed lots of wrong attitude towards discipline. Common pitfalls on the topics were problems in, 1) limit setting 2) rewarding and punishment 3) supervision on children watching TV and bedtime routines. Parents of children with ages 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, had several common pitfalls in disciplining their children, including attitude, knowledge and practice.

  15. Maternal factors and experiences associated with observed parenting behavior in mothers attending a residential parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Rogers, Susan; Matthews, Jan; Allen, Beverley

    2010-01-01

    Parents experiencing early parenting difficulties often seek support through parenting programs. Characteristics of mothers seeking parenting support and information at an early parenting center in Victoria, Australia and the relationships between these factors and parenting behavior were explored using an observational measure of parent-child interaction. Participants were 43 mothers and children attending a 5-day residential parenting program at the Queen Elizabeth Centre. Maternal and sociodemographic data as well as an observational mother-child interaction task from the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Parent Child Interaction Teaching scale were completed and scored on the first day of the program. Certain maternal factors and experiences were associated with observed parenting behavior. Poorer maternal sleeping quality, unplanned pregnancy and preterm birth were all associated with less optimal parenting behavior in certain domains. Findings are discussed with reference to the impact of past experiences around pregnancy and birth as well as the current context and well-being of mothers attending early parenting centers. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Neurobiological basis of parenting disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Louise K; Harris, Melissa; Allen, Joanne

    2011-02-01

    It has been proposed that early attachment relationships shape the structure and reactivity of social brain structures that underlie later social capacities. We provide a review of the literature surrounding the development of neurological regulatory systems during infancy and outline recent research suggesting these systems go on to underlie adaptive parental responses. We review evidence in the peer-reviewed psychiatric literature including (i) observational human literature on the neurobiological and social sequelae of early parenting experiences, (ii) experimental animal literature on the effects of early maternal care on neurological development, (iii) experimental animal literature on the neurobiological underpinnings of parenting behaviours, (iv) observational and fMRI evidence on the neurobiological correlates of parenting behaviours, (v) functional and volumetric imaging studies on adults affected by borderline personality disorder. The development of infant regulatory systems is influenced by early parenting experiences. These frontolimbic regulatory systems are also heavily implicated in normal parental responses to infant cues. These frontolimbic disturbances are also observed in studies of borderline personality disorder; a disorder associated with poor emotional regulation, early trauma and disturbed parenting. While the current literature is limited to animal models of abnormal care giving, existing disorders associated with deficits in regulatory capacity and abnormal frontolimbic functioning may yet provide a human model of the neurobiology of parenting disturbance.

  17. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention intervention, on parent-reported measures. Bahamian parent-youth dyads (N = 1,833) participating in the randomized control trial were assigned to receive one of four conditions. Parents were assessed longitudinally at baseline and 6 and 12 months later. Through 12 months follow-up, parents exposed to Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together showed higher knowledge of condom use skills, perceptions of improved condom use competence on the part of their youth, and perceived improved parent-child communication about sex-related information. Although youth were the targeted beneficiary, parents also benefited directly from the sexual risk reduction parenting program. Parents demonstrated improved perceptions and knowledge that would enable them to more effectively guide their child and also protect themselves from sexual risk. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  18. Parental hope for children with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihara, Junne; Nyborn, Justin A; Olcese, Maura E; Nickerson, Taylor; Mack, Jennifer W

    2015-05-01

    Previous work suggests that parents of children with cancer can remain hopeful despite receiving prognostic information, but we know little about what hope means to such parents, or the extent to which parents can feel hopeful even while facing the child's impending death. We audiotaped conversations between clinicians and parents of 32 children with relapsed or refractory cancer, and then interviewed parents about their hopes and expectations for their child. Parent statements about prognosis in interviews mirrored those made by clinicians during discussions about the child's diagnosis with refractory or relapsed cancer. Clinicians used language referring to hope during these conversations but did not ask parents directly about their hopes. Parents expressed a range of hopes for their children, from hopes related to cure or treatment response, to quality of life, normalcy, and love and relationships for the child. For most parents, expectations about prognosis were not aligned with their hopes for the child; for example, many parents hoped for a cure and also reported that they did not believe cure was possible. Many parents were able to acknowledge this incongruence. Parents accurately conveyed the reality of their child's serious condition in the setting of advanced cancer, and yet maintained hope. Hopes were not limited to hope for cure/treatment response. Clinicians should be encouraged to engage in direct conversations about hope with parents as a means to elicit realistic hopes that can help to focus the most meaningful plans for the child and family. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. [Parents' and Children's Perspectives of Parental Mediation Strategies in Association with Children's Internet Skills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold

    2018-02-01

    Parents' and Children's Perspectives of Parental Mediation Strategies in Association with Children's Internet Skills The purpose of this study was to examine the association of parental mediation strategies (from parents' and children's perspective) and children's internet skills. In total 194 parent-child dyads were questioned about their parent's mediation strategies. The children (fifth to ninth grade) additionally answered questions about their internet skills and the amount of time they spent daily on the internet. Parents' and children's ratings of the parental mediation strategies showed moderate associations. Parents reported to use more often mediation strategies than was perceived by their children. The mediation strategies had only limited value for the prediction of the children's internet skills. Parents' and children's perspective about restrictive content mediation were both negatively associated to children's internet skills. After controlling for children's age, sex and time spent daily on the internet, results showed that only congruencies between children's and parental perspectives regarding the parental restrictive content mediation were associated with decreased technical and social internet skills. Additionally, discrepancies between the children's and parental perspectives regarding the parental use of technical mediation were associated with decreased technical internet skills. Discrepancies regarding the parental mediation strategy monitoring were related to increased information navigation skills.

  20. Barriers to Participation in Parenting Programs: The Relationship between Parenting Stress, Perceived Barriers, and Program Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Whitney L; Moreland, Angela D; Valle, Linda Anne; Chaffin, Mark J

    2018-04-01

    Families experiencing child maltreatment or risk factors for child maltreatment often receive referrals to interventions focused on changing parenting practices. Compliance with specific parenting programs can be challenging as many of the stressors that place families at-risk may also interfere with program participation. Because families may receive limited benefit from programs they do not fully receive, it is critical to understand the relationship between parenting stress and barriers to program completion. We used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among parenting stress, perceived barriers to program participation, and program completion in two datasets involving low-income parents. Data were collected at two time points from a sample of parents involved with child welfare services and a sample of parents considered at-risk of future involvement (total study n = 803). Direct paths from parenting stress at time 1 to barriers to participation and parenting stress at time 2, and from parenting stress at time 2 to program completion were significant. Interestingly, increased barriers to participation were related to increased parenting stress at time 2, and greater parenting stress was related to increased program completion. Results suggest that with increasing levels of parenting stress, parents have an increased likelihood of completing the program. Assessing and addressing the influence of perceived barriers and parenting stress on program participation may decrease the likelihood of treatment attrition.

  1. Who's doing the talking? Teacher and parent experiences of parent-teacher conferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E M Lemmer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common form of direct communication between parents and teachers in schools worldwide is the parent-teacher conference. Purposeful parent-teacher conferences afford the teacher and the parent the opportunity to address a particular topic related to the child, such as academic progress and behaviour. However, teachers are seldom trained to interact with parents, and both parents and teachers often find such encounters stressful and ineffective. This paper investigates parent and teacher perspectives on the parent-teacher conference through a qualitative inquiry. This is framed by the contributions of ecological theorists to home-school communication and an overview of extant themes in the literature. In the present qualitative inquiry, teacher, parent and learner participants were selected by purposeful and snowball sampling and data were gathered by individual and focus group interviews, school visits and the perusal of written parent-teacher conference reports. The findings indicate that parent-teacher conferences are ritualised school events in all types of schools; parents and teachers' expectations of conferences are limited; teachers are not trained to conduct parent-teacher conferences; and conferencesare overwhelmingly directed at problem solution. Parent-teacher conferences are characterised by a client orientation to parents, rather than a partnership orientation to home-school relations.

  2. Parenting with Mild Intellectual Deficits: Parental Expectations and the Educational Attainment of their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how educational expectations parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children’s attainment, and how parents’ own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study that followed participants from ages 18 to 64. Compared to the norm, parents with mild intellectual deficits expected thei...

  3. Individual psychology lifestyles and parenting style in Lithuanian parents of 6-to 12-year-olds

    OpenAIRE

    Jonynienė, Jolita; Kern, Roy M

    2012-01-01

    Background. Although numerous research studies related to the connection between parents’ personality and parenting have continually supported the significance of personality as an important variable in predicting parenting behaviors, the findings are mostly limited to the five-trait personality model, parental psychopathology or the samples of adolescents’ parents. Purpose. In this research study we examined the relationship of the personality construct of lifestyle proposed in the theory of...

  4. Influence of parental alcohol-related attitudes, behavior and parenting styles on alcohol use in late and very late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafström, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Parents influence adolescent drinking behavior, but to what extent does this association diminish with age, however? The cross-sectional data was drawn from the Scania drug use survey 2007, consisting of 4,828 secondary education students in the 9th and 11th grade. The age- and gender-adjusted findings indicate that having parents who are consenting to alcohol use (OR 1.4), having been provided with alcohol by one's parents (OR 1.8), having parents with an authoritarian (OR 1.5) or neglectful (OR 2.1) parenting style, and having parents who both have a university degree (OR 1.3) were factors significantly associated with monthly heavy episodic drinking. These findings lead to the conclusion that parenting styles as well as parental attitudes and behaviors are important throughout the high school years. Thus, prevention targeting parents should emphasize both these domains. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Identification of structural domains in proteins by a graph heuristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernisch, Lorenz; Hunting, M.M.G.; Wodak, Shoshana J.

    1999-01-01

    A novel automatic procedure for identifying domains from protein atomic coordinates is presented. The procedure, termed STRUDL (STRUctural Domain Limits), does not take into account information on secondary structures and handles any number of domains made up of contiguous or non-contiguous chain

  6. The influence of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication on Bahamian adolescent risk involvement: a three-year longitudinal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Cottrell, Lesley; Deveaux, Lynette; Kaljee, Linda

    2013-11-01

    The literature suggests that parental monitoring can best be conceptualized and measured through the domains of parental knowledge, youth disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control. Using longitudinal data on 913 grade-six Bahamian students followed over a period of three years, we examined the unique and independent roles of these domains of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication in relation to adolescent involvement in delinquency, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. The results obtained with mixed-effects models indicate that parental knowledge, youth disclosure, and parental control are negatively associated with both delinquency and substance use. Open parent-adolescent communication was associated with decreased sexual risk behavior, whereas problematic parent-adolescent communication was associated with increased sexual risk behavior. The results obtained with path models indicate that youth disclosure is a significant longitudinal predictor of reduced adolescent delinquency and that parental control during early adolescence predicted reduced substance use in middle adolescence. The findings suggest that parental knowledge, youth disclosure and parental control differ in their impacts on substance use, delinquency and sexual risk behaviors. Problematic parent-adolescent communication is consistently associated with increases in all three types of adolescent risk behaviors. Future parental monitoring interventions should focus on enhancing parents' interpersonal communication skills and emphasize the differences in and importance of the unique components of parental monitoring. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Four Parenting Programs and Bibliotherapy for Parents of Children with Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Filipa; Enebrink, Pia; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Feldman, Inna

    2016-12-01

    "recovered and improved" and of intervention completers held Cope as the cheapest alternative. Exclusion of parents' time and training costs did not change the cost-effectiveness results. The time horizon for this evaluation is very short. This study also had a limited costing perspective. Results may be interpreted with caution when considering decision-making about value for money. The inclusion of a multi-attribute utility instrument sensitive to domains of quality-of-life impacted by CP in children would be valuable so that pragmatic value for money estimations can be made. Further studies are needed with longer follow-up periods to ascertain on the sustainability of the effects, and fuller economic evaluations and economic modeling to provide insights on longer-term cost-effectiveness. These results also raise the need to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the provision of these interventions as a "stepped care" approach. The results suggest the delivery of different programs according to budget constraints and the outcome desired. In the absence of a WTP threshold, bibliotherapy could be a cheap and effective option to initially target CP within a limited budget, whereas Comet could be offered to achieve greater effects based on decision-makers' willingness to make larger investments. In its turn, Cope could be offered when targeting broader outcomes, such as symptom improvement, rather than clinical caseness.

  8. Stress in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploration of Demands and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakovich, Teri M; McGrew, John H; Yu, Yue; Ruble, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    We applied the ABCX model of stress and coping to assess the association between child and family demands, school-based resources (i.e., parent-teacher alliance and COMPASS, a consultation intervention), and two measures of parent stress: perceptions of the demands of raising a child (Child domain) and reactions to those demands (Parent domain). Data were analyzed from seventy-nine parents of children ages 3-9 with ASD participating in two randomized controlled trials of COMPASS. Stronger parent-teacher alliance correlated with decreased Parent domain stress and participation in COMPASS correlated with decreased Child domain stress after controlling for baseline stress. The study indicates that school-based resources can help reduce parent stress.

  9. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  10. Time domain electromagnetic metal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation focuses on illustrating by case histories the range of applications and limitations of time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems for buried metal detection. Advantages claimed for TDEM metal detectors are: independent of instrument response (Geonics EM61) to surrounding soil and rock type; simple anomaly shape; mitigation of interference by ambient electromagnetic noise; and responsive to both ferrous and non-ferrous metallic targets. The data in all case histories to be presented were acquired with the Geonics EM61 TDEM system. Case histories are a test bed site on Molokai, Hawaii; Fort Monroe, Virginia; and USDOE, Rocky Flats Plant. The present limitations of this technology are: discrimination capabilities in terms of type of ordnance, and depth of burial is limited, and ability of resolving targets with small metallic ambient needs to be improved

  11. Psychological Impact of Chemotherapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on Patients and Their Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Sherief, Laila M.; Kamal, Naglaa M.; Abdalrahman, Hadel M.; Youssef, Doaa M.; Alhady, Mohamed A Abd; Ali, Adel SA; Elbasset, Maha Aly Abd; Hashim, Hiatham M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To assess the self-esteem of pediatric patients on chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and psychological status of their parents. The psychological status of 178 children receiving chemotherapy for ALL and their parents was assessed using parenting stress index (PSI) to determine the degree of stress the parents are exposed to using parent's and child's domains. Self-esteem Scale was used to determine the psychological status of patients. The study revealed significan...

  12. Parenting narcissus: what are the links between parenting and narcissism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Robert S; Bleau, Geoff; Drwecki, Brian

    2006-04-01

    Previous theorizing by clinical psychologists suggests that adolescent narcissism may be related to parenting practices (Kernberg, 1975; Kohut, 1977). Two studies investigated the relations between parenting dimensions (i.e., warmth, monitoring, and psychological control) and narcissism both with and without removing from narcissism variance associated with trait self-esteem. Two hundred and twenty-two college students (Study 1) and 212 high school students (Study 2) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, a trait self-esteem scale, and standard measures of the three parenting dimensions. Parental warmth was associated positively and monitoring was associated negatively with both types of narcissism. Psychological control was positively associated with narcissism scores from which trait self-esteem variance had been removed. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed, limitations are addressed, and future research directions are suggested.

  13. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  14. Do peers' parents matter? A new link between positive parenting and adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Michael J; Feinberg, Mark E; Osgood, D Wayne; Moody, James

    2012-05-01

    Although studies have demonstrated that an adolescent's parents and friends both influence adolescent substance use, it is not known whether the parenting experienced by one's friends also affects one's own use. Drawing on conceptions of shared parenting and the tenets of coercion theory, we investigated the extent to which three domains of parenting behaviors (parental knowledge, inductive reasoning, and consistent discipline) influenced the alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use of not only their own adolescent children but also of members of their adolescents' friendship groups. Analyses of friendship nominations within each of two successive ninth-grade cohorts in 27 Iowa and Pennsylvania schools (N = 7,439 students, 53.6% female) were used to identify 897 friendship groups. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine prospective associations between 9th-grade friendship group-level parenting behaviors and adolescent self-reported alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in 10th grade. Adolescent substance use in 10th grade was significantly related to parenting behaviors of friends' parents, after controlling for adolescents' reports of their own substance use and their own parents' behaviors at the 9th grade level. These associations were particularly strong for parents' knowledge about their children and use of inconsistent discipline strategies. Significant interaction effects indicated that these relationships were strongest when adolescents received positive parenting at home. Some, but not all, of the main effects of friends' parents' parenting became nonsignificant after friends' substance use in ninth grade was included in the model. The findings suggest that the parenting style in adolescents' friends' homes plays an important role in determining adolescent substance use. Implications of the joint contribution of parents and peers for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  15. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  16. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  17. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  18. Gravity, God and Ghosts? Parents' Beliefs in Science, Religion, and the Paranormal and the Encouragement of Beliefs in Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S.; Rosengren, Karl S.; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Using a questionnaire, the present study examined parents' beliefs regarding the development of children's beliefs about science, religion, and the paranormal. The study also investigated parental encouragement of children's beliefs, as well as parents' own beliefs within these domains. Results revealed that parents make distinctions between…

  19. Parent Identification of the Talents of Gifted Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Suk-un; Feldhusen, John F.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 204 parents of gifted students (ages 3-14) found a majority reported their child showed high potential in more than two talent domains. Twenty-seven percent of parents reported that their child's school offers services for special talents and 60 percent reported their child participates regularly in sports activities. (Contains five…

  20. Parenting Styles and Life Satisfaction of Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya

    2012-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' perception of satisfaction from various life domains according to gender and parenting styles among 562 Turkish adolescents [53.2% girls; Mean (M) age = 14.1, Standard Deviation (SD) = 0.85]. The participants completed the multidimensional students' life satisfaction scale and the parenting style inventory. The…

  1. Conserved Domain Database (CDD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDD is a protein annotation resource that consists of a collection of well-annotated multiple sequence alignment models for ancient domains and full-length proteins.

  2. General and food-selection specific parenting style in relation to the healthfulness of parent-child choices while grocery shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Graham, Dan J; Ullrich, Emily; MacPhee, David

    2017-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that parenting style is related to children's health and eating patterns, and that parenting can vary across time and context. However, there is little evidence about similarities and differences between general, self-reported parenting style and observed parenting during grocery shopping. The goals of this study were to investigate links between general parenting style, parental warmth and limit setting (important dimensions of parenting style) during grocery shopping, and the healthfulness of foods chosen. Participants were 153 parent (88 mothers) - child (6-9 years old) dyads. Dyads were brought to a laboratory set up like a grocery store aisle and asked to choose two items from each of three categories (cookies/crackers, cereals, chips/snacks). Parents were observed in terms of warmth, responsiveness, autonomy granting, and limit setting; children were observed in terms of resistance and negotiation. Parents reported behaviors related to general parenting. Regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses. Observed parental limit setting was related to general parenting style; observed warmth was not. Observed limit setting (but not observed warmth or self-reported parenting style) was related to the healthfulness of food choices. Limit setting appears to be the dimension of parenting style that is expressed during grocery shopping, and that promotes healthier food choices. Implications are discussed regarding consistencies in parenting style across situations as well as contributions of parenting style to the development of children's healthy eating. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Parent-child relationships between Korean American adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heeseung; Kim, Minju; Park, Chang Gi; Dancy, Barbara L

    2012-09-01

    This cross-sectional correlational study examined the association between Korean American adolescents' and their parents' reports of parent-child relationships. A total of 61 Korean American families completed a questionnaire assessing parental knowledge, parental/filial self-efficacy, parent-child communication, and parent-child conflicts. T tests, Pearson's correlations, a scatter diagram, and bivariate regression were used to analyze the data. Both Korean American adolescents and their parents reported that fathers were less knowledgeable about their child's school life and less likely to communicate with their children than were mothers. Fathers reported a significantly lower level of parental self-efficacy than mothers, and adolescents also reported a significantly higher level of filial self-efficacy in mother-child relationships than in father-child relationships. Positive correlations between parents' and adolescents' reports of parent-child relationships were observed. These findings indicated a need for parent education programs or counseling services for Korean American parents of adolescents, particularly fathers with inadequate parental skills and limited communication with their children. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. The Public Use Limitation in Eminent Domain: "Handley v. Cook."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Donna P.

    1979-01-01

    It is time for the courts to rigorously scrutinize allegations of public use in order to protect the property rights of private individuals. Available from West Virginia Law Review, W.V.U. Law Center, Morgantown, WV 26506. (Author)

  5. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapinski, M.

    2012-01-01

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  6. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  7. Internal Consistency and Concurrent Validity of the Questionnaire for Limitations and Restrictions Assessment in Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Matilde Salamanca-Duque

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ADHD is one of the most common diagnoses in child psychiatry, its early diagnosis is of great importance for intervention at family, school and social environment. Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, a questionnaire was designed to assess activity limitations and participation restrictions in children with ADHD. The questionnaire was called “CLARP-ADHD Parent and Teacher Version”. Objective: To determine the degree of internal consistency of the CLARP-ADHD questionnaire, and its concurrent validity with the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire SDQ parent and teacher version”. Material and Methods: A sample of 203 children aged 6 to 12 with ADHD, currently attending school in five Colombian cities. The questionnaires were applied to parents and teachers. The internal consistency analysis was performed through Cronbach coefficient and concurrent validity using the Spearman correlation coefficient utilizing multiple and unique predictors through multiple linear regression as well as simple regression models. Results: A high internal consistency was found for global questionnaires for each of its domains. The CLARP-ADHD for parents gave as result an internal consistency of 0.83, and the CLARP-ADHD for teachers one of 0.93. Concurrent validity was found between the CLARP-ADHD and the SDQ Parent and Teacher version; also, concurrence between the CLARPADHD for Teachers and the SDQ Teachers was found, as well as between CLARP ADHD for Parents and CLARP ADHD Teachers, given by p values of p < 0.001.

  8. Proactive Parent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Sharel; Backlund, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Presents examples of teacher-parent interactions designed to help teachers communicate with parents. The scenarios involve a teacher communicating with parents about a struggling student, a teacher communicating with parents about a student's behavior problems, and a teacher attempting to communicate with a confrontational parent. Teacher prompts…

  9. Clinical Perspective Attachment, parenting styles and bullying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent–adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents.

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Parent's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anna M.

    1996-01-01

    A parent and educator who has spent the past 10 years struggling to help her own ADHD (attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder) child offers suggestions for managing the challenges facing such children and enhancing the quality of their lives. Since drug regimens have limitations, parents need to read appropriate literature and receive…

  11. Derecho u Obligacion?: Parents' and Youths' Understanding of Parental Legitimacy in a Mexican Origin Familial Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Leticia

    2007-01-01

    This study draws from a social domain framework to explore judgments of parental authority in a Mexican origin familial context. The sample included 277 ninth-grade youth (M = 14.53 years, SD = 0.61) and one of each of their parents. The average age of mothers was 39.88 years (SD = 5.85), and for fathers it was 41.65 years (SD = 5.51). As…

  12. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  13. Parental responsibility beliefs: associations with parental anxiety and behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetroaia, Adela; Hill, Claire; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-12-01

    High levels of parental anxiety are associated with poor treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Associated parental cognitions and behaviours have been implicated as impediments to successful treatment. We examined the association between parental responsibility beliefs, maternal anxiety and parenting behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders. Anxious and non-anxious mothers of 7-12 year old children with a current anxiety disorder reported their parental responsibility beliefs using a questionnaire measure. Parental behaviours towards their child during a stressor task were measured. Parents with a current anxiety disorder reported a greater sense of responsibility for their child's actions and wellbeing than parents who scored within the normal range for anxiety. Furthermore, higher parental responsibility was associated with more intrusive and less warm behaviours in parent-child interactions and there was an indirect effect between maternal anxiety and maternal intrusive behaviours via parental responsibility beliefs. The sample was limited to a treatment-seeking, relatively high socio-economic population and only mothers were included so replication with more diverse groups is needed. The use of a range of stressor tasks may have allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of parental behaviours. The findings suggest that parental anxiety disorder is associated with an elevated sense of parental responsibility and may promote parental behaviours likely to inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes. Parental responsibility beliefs may therefore be important to target in child anxiety treatments in the context of parental anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Parenting Across the Social Ecology Facilitated by Information and Communications Technology: Implications for Research and Educational Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Walker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To inform parenting research and aid educators seeking to deliver programs that support effective parenting, this study explored types of information and communications technology (ICT used to fulfill childrearing goals. Mothers’ (N = 1,804 reports of ICT activity frequency were examined from data collected from an online survey. Results suggest that mothers’ ICT use for parenting is less frequent than general use in adulthood. Mothers employ ICT to fulfill parenting goals within and across five domains of the parenting social ecology: (a parent development, (b parent-child relationships, (c child development, (d, family development, and (e culture and community. Several types of ICT activities may strengthen parenting in a single domain, and a single ICT activity may help fulfill multiple domains. Implications for research and for promoting and selecting ICT for effective parent learning and education design are discussed.

  15. Cultural orientations, parental beliefs and practices, and latino adolescents' autonomy and independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Kathleen M; Caughy, Margaret O; Schuster, Mark A; Bogart, Laura M; Dittus, Patricia J; Franzini, Luisa

    2014-08-01

    Despite the salience of behavioral autonomy and independence to parent-child interactions during middle adolescence, little is known about parenting processes pertinent to youth autonomy development for Latino families. Among a diverse sample of 684 Latino-origin parent-adolescent dyads in Houston, Texas, this study examines how parents' cultural orientations are associated directly and indirectly, through parental beliefs, with parenting practices giving youth behavioral autonomy and independence. Informed by social domain theory, the study's parenting constructs pertain to youth behaviors in an "ambiguously personal" domain-activities that adolescents believe are up to youth to decide, but which parents might argue require parents' supervision, knowledge, and/or decision-making. Results for latent profile analyses of parents' cultural identity across various facets of acculturation indicate considerable cultural heterogeneity among Latino parents. Although 43% of parents have a Latino cultural orientation, others represent Spanish-speaking/bicultural (21%), bilingual/bicultural (15%), English-speaking/bicultural (15%), or US (6%) cultural orientations. Structural equation modeling results indicate that bilingual/bicultural, English-speaking/bicultural, and US-oriented parents report less emphasis on the legitimacy of parental authority and younger age expectations for youth to engage in independent behaviors than do Latino-oriented parents. Parental beliefs endorsing youth's behavioral independence and autonomy, in turn, are associated with less stringent parental rules (parental report), less parental supervision (parental and youth report), and more youth autonomy in decision-making (parental and youth report). Evidence thus supports the idea that the diverse cultural orientations of Latino parents in the US may result in considerable variations in parenting processes pertinent to Latino adolescents' development.

  16. Exploring Children's Passion for Learning in Six Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Laurence J.; Guo, Aige

    2013-01-01

    Passion for learning (PFL) in children is a phenomenon that is little understood. The experience of PFL was studied with phenomenological and qualitative modes of inquiry. Case studies of six domains (acting, reading, filmmaking, spelling, math, and preaching) describe how the passion developed using the voices of children and parents. Their…

  17. Non-slipping domains of a pulled spool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Clemens; Vaterlaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the pulled spool by considering pulling angles up to 360 ∘ . Our focus was on downward pulling forces with pulling angles in the range of 180 ∘ to 360 ∘ . In this range we have found a domain of pulling angles where the spool never starts to slip independent of the strength of the pulling force. The size of the domain depends on the static friction coefficient and on the moment of inertia of the spool. The non-slipping domain is mainly formed around the critical angle where the static friction force becomes zero. For low static friction the non-slipping domain decays into two different domains. We have determined the limiting angles of the non-slipping domains and explored the transitions from a single domain to two separated domains in parameter space. (paper)

  18. Booted domain wall and charged Kaigorodov space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen

    2003-01-01

    The Kaigorodov space is a homogeneous Einstein space and it describes a pp-wave propagating in anti-de Sitter space. It is conjectured in the literature that M-theory or string theory on the Kaigorodov space times a compact manifold is dual to a conformal field theory in an infinitely-boosted frame with constant momentum density. In this Letter we present a charged generalization of the Kaigorodov space by boosting a non-extremal charged domain wall to the ultrarelativity limit where the boost velocity approaches the speed of light. The finite boost of the domain wall solution gives the charged generalization of the Carter-Novotny-Horsky metric. We study the thermodynamics associated with the charged Carter-Novotny-Horsky space and discuss its relation to that of the static black domain walls and its implications in the domain wall/QFT (quantum field theory) correspondence

  19. Parenting while Being Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  20. Nursemaid's Elbow (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... For Parents / Nursemaid's Elbow Print About Nursemaid's Elbow Toddlers and preschoolers are at risk for a common ...

  1. Peer and Professional Parenting Support on the Internet: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer; Prof.Dr. Ruben G. Fukkink; Prof.Dr. Jo M.A. Hermanns

    2013-01-01

    The Internet offers many opportunities to provide parenting support. An overview of empirical studies in this domain is lacking, and little is known about the design of web based parenting resources and their evaluations, raising questions about its position in the context of parenting intervention

  2. Peer and professional parenting support on the Internet : a systematic review (versie: Dissertatie 2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer

    2014-01-01

    The Internet offers many opportunities to provide parenting support. An overview of empirical studies in this domain is lacking, and little is known about the design of webbased parenting resources and their evaluations, raising questions about its position in the context of parenting intervention

  3. Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

  4. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  5. Social Variations in Perceived Parenting Styles among Norwegian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Jon Ivar; Stefansen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented the associations between parenting and parenting styles and child and adolescent outcomes. Little is known, however, about the social structuring of parenting in contemporary Nordic welfare states. A possible hypothesis is that socioeconomic variations in parenting styles in present-day Norway will be small because of material affluence, limited income inequality, and an active welfare state. This study examines social variations in parenting as perceived by Norwegian adolescents ( N  = 1362), with a focus on four parenting style dimensions: responsiveness, demandingness, neglecting, and intrusive. Responsiveness seems to capture major divisions in parenting. Adolescents in families with fewer economic resources experienced their parents as somewhat less responsive, but responsiveness was not related to parents' education. Low parental education was on the other hand associated with perceptions of parents as neglecting and intrusive. Viewing parents as demanding did neither vary with parental education nor with family economy. Substantial variations in parenting styles persist in present-day Norway, and these variations correspond moderately with the families' placement in the social structure. Indicators of parenting and parenting styles may be useful indicators of some aspects of child and adolescent well-being.

  6. Multivariate trajectories across multiple domains of health-related quality of life in children with new-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajobi, Tolulope T; Wang, Meng; Ferro, Mark A; Brobbey, Anita; Goodwin, Shane; Speechley, Kathy N; Wiebe, Samuel

    2017-10-01

    The diagnosis of epilepsy in children is known to impact the trajectory of their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over time. However, there is limited knowledge about variations in longitudinal trajectories across multiple domains of HRQOL. This study aims to characterize the heterogeneity in HRQOL trajectories across multiple HRQOL domains and to evaluate predictors of differences among the identified trajectory groups in children with new-onset epilepsy. Data were obtained from the Health Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study (HERQULES), a prospective multi-center study of 373 children newly diagnosed with new-onset epilepsy who were followed up over 2years. Child HRQOL and family factors were reported by parents, and clinical characteristics were reported by neurologists. Group-based multi-trajectory modeling was adopted to characterize longitudinal trajectories of HRQOL as measured by the individual domains of cognitive, emotional, physical, and social functioning in the 55-item Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess potential factors that explain differences among the identified latent trajectory groups. Three distinct HRQOL trajectory subgroups were identified in children with new-onset epilepsy based on HRQOL scores: "High" (44.7%), "Intermediate" (37.0%), and "Low" (18.3%). While most trajectory groups exhibited increasing scores over time on physical and social domains, both flat and declining trajectories were noted on emotional and cognitive domains. Less severe epilepsy, an absence of cognitive and behavioral problems, lower parental depression scores, better family functioning, and fewer family demands were associated with a "Higher" or "Intermediate" HRQOL trajectory. The course of HRQOL over time in children with new-onset epilepsy appears to follow one of three different trajectories. Addressing the clinical and psychosocial determinants identified

  7. Parental overprotection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1993-01-01

    Dimensions of parental overprotection are clarified in a critical review of the research and clinical literature. An indulgent style of parenting is distinguished from an overprotective parent-child relationship. Differential antecedents and outcomes are proposed for each of these forms of parent-child interaction. Measures of protection are reviewed. A new conceptual model of parental overprotection is presented which takes into account child, parent, family, socio-cultural, environmental and resiliency factors. Directions for future research are suggested.

  8. Amblyopia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  9. When Parents Argue

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  10. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  11. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  12. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  13. Syphilis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  14. Chemotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  15. Yersiniosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  16. Amebiasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  17. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  18. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  19. Headaches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  20. Strep Throat (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  1. Tourette Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  2. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ...

  3. Sinusitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  4. Laryngoscopy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  5. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  6. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  7. Eczema (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  8. Parent and adolescent effects of a universal group program for the parenting of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Joanna Ting Wai; Bullen, Pat; Farruggia, Susan P; Dittman, Cassandra K; Sanders, Matthew R

    2015-05-01

    There is growing support for the large-scale implementation of parenting programs for the prevention of child behavior disorders and child maltreatment in younger children. However, there is only limited evidence on the efficacy of parenting programs in modifying risk and protective factors relating to adolescent behavior problems. This study examined the efficacy of Group Teen Triple P (GTTP), an eight-session parenting program specifically designed for parents of young adolescents. Seventy-two families with adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years were randomly assigned to either GTTP (n = 35) or a care as usual (CAU) control condition (n = 37). Compared to CAU parents, parents who received GTTP reported significant improvements in parenting practices, parenting confidence, the quality of family relationships, and fewer adolescent problem behaviors at post-intervention. Several of the parent-reported effects were corroborated by reports from adolescents, including decreases in parent-adolescent conflict and increases in parental monitoring. Adolescents whose parents participated in GTTP also reported significantly fewer behavioral problems than adolescents in the CAU condition. Many of these improvements were maintained at 6-month follow-up.

  9. Parenting gifted and talented children: what are the key child behaviour and parenting issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R

    2008-09-01

    The literature on gifted and talented children is limited. Little is known about the types and nature of difficulties experienced by gifted and talented children, and even less known about parenting issues related to parenting a gifted and talented child. The aim of the present study was to describe children's behavioural and emotional adjustment, and the factors that contribute to children's difficulties, as well as to examine the styles of discipline used by parents of gifted and talented children and their level of confidence in managing specific parenting tasks. A survey of parents of gifted and talented children was conducted, with 211 parents meeting criteria for the study. For a community sample, in general gifted and talented children exhibit no more behavioural difficulties than do other children. But children in this sample seemed to show higher levels of emotional symptoms and peer problems. Children's behavioural and emotional difficulties were best predicted by parenting factors, particularly parental confidence. Parents reported that they were less likely to be permissive with their child, but they tended to use a more authoritarian style of parenting characterized by lecturing and a strong reaction to any problems. There are a number of implications for future research, clinical practice, and the development of parenting interventions for this group of parents.

  10. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  11. [Parenting styles and their relationship with hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya Trenas, Antonio Félix; Herreruzo Cabrera, Javier; Pino Osuna, María José

    2008-11-01

    The present study aims to determine the relationship among factors that make up the parenting styles according to the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory) and hyperactivity reported by parents through the BASC (Behaviour Assessment System for Children). We selected a sample of 32 children between 3 and 14 years old (23 male and 9 female) with risk scores in hyperactivity and another similar group with low scores in hyperactivity. After administering both instruments to the parents, we carried out a binomial logistic regression analysis which resulted in a prediction model for 84.4% of the sample, made up of the PCRI factors: fathers' involvement, communication and role orientation, mothers' parental support, and both parents' limit-setting and autonomy. Moreover, our analysis of the variance produced significant differences in the support perceived by the fathers and mothers of both groups. Lastly, the utility of results to propose intervention strategies within the family based on an authoritative style is discussed.

  12. The relationship between maternal self-efficacy and parenting practices: implications for parent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, M R; Woolley, M L

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between maternal self-efficacy, dysfunctional discipline practices and child conduct problems. Specifically, three levels of self-efficacy, global, domain and task-specific self-efficacy, were assessed in mothers of 2- to 8-year-old children with conduct problems (clinic group, n=45) and non-clinic mothers from the community (non-clinic group, n=79). Measures of global, domain and task-specific self-efficacy were completed by mothers. Clinic mothers reported significantly lower self-efficacy than non-clinic mothers for all but one of the parenting tasks assessed. Both groups of mothers reported lowest self-efficacy for similar parenting tasks. In the sample as a whole self-efficacy measures were significant predictors of maternal discipline style after controlling for other parent, child and risk factors. Of the self-efficacy variables behavioural self-efficacy was the best predictor of mothers discipline style. The findings support the importance of developing parenting strategies that enable parents to generalize their parenting skills to a diverse range of diverse parenting contexts both in the home and in the community.

  13. Parenting stress in mothers of children with an intellectual disability: the effects of parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, R; Rose, J; McDonald, J

    2005-06-01

    Recent theories of stress and coping in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) emphasize the importance of cognitive appraisals in influencing parents' levels of stress and their adaptations to difficulties presented by the children. This study investigated the relationships between parental cognitions, child characteristics, family support and parenting stress. The aspects of cognitions studied were: parenting self-esteem (including efficacy and satisfaction) and parental locus of control. The group studied consisted of 46 mothers of children with ID. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Maladaptive Behavior Domain were administered by interview. Mothers also completed four questionnaires: the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened form of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index (Short Form). Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, partial correlations and a regression analysis. The results indicated that most of the variance in parenting stress was explained by parental locus of control, parenting satisfaction and child behaviour difficulties. Whilst there was also a strong correlation between family support and parenting stress, this was mediated by parental locus of control. The results demonstrate the potential importance of parental cognitions in influencing parental stress levels. It is argued that these results have implications for clinical interventions for promoting parents' coping strategies in managing children with ID and behavioural difficulties.

  14. Parental satisfaction in the traditional system of neonatal intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Traditional systems of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) care predispose parents to increased levels of stress and anxiety due to parental separation from their infant. Parental satisfaction, an indicator of the quality of care, is significantly compromised during prolonged NICU stay. The research is limited in ...

  15. Parenting Latino Toddlers and Preschoolers: Clinical and Nonclinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Maria E.; Fox, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Parenting practices contribute significantly to the social-emotional development of young children. There is limited literature that addresses the role of culture in parenting, particularly among Latino families who have very young children with significant behavior problems. The current study compared the parenting practices of 30 low-income…

  16. Neglected and Abused Children of Mentally Retarded Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagull, Elizabeth A. W.; Scheurer, Susan L.

    1986-01-01

    Follow-up of 64 neglected and abused children, seen one to seven years earlier, with mentally retarded parent revealed that six children had been relinquished voluntarily for adoption; that courts had terminated parental rights for 34 children; and that nine had been placed in foster care. Cognitive limitations prevented parents from utilizing…

  17. A Profile of Undergraduate Student Parents in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn, Tricia M.; Quosai, Trudy Smit; Lero, Donna S.

    2011-01-01

    Student parents are a significant minority population on Canadian post-secondary campuses. As research exploring this population has been extremely limited to date, this study provides the first national profile of Canadian student parents. We explore student parent enrolment patterns over time and examine current demographic characteristics. The…

  18. Parental Divorce and Sibling Relationships: A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of parental divorce on sibling contact and relationship…

  19. Health Communication Practices among Parents and Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2014-01-01

    Positive perceptions of parent-child communication can influence behavioral outcomes such as sexual behavior and substance use among young people. Parent-child communication has been effective in modifying adverse health outcomes among heterosexual youth; however, limited research has examined the perceptions of parent-child communication among…

  20. The Role of Parents, Parenting and the Family Environment in Children's Post-Disaster Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobham, Vanessa E; McDermott, Brett; Haslam, Divna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    There is widespread support for the hypothesis that, post-disaster, children's mental health is impacted--at least in part--via the impact on parents, parenting, parent-child interactions, and the family environment. To some degree, the enthusiasm with which this hypothesis is held outstrips the evidence examining it. The current paper critically evaluates the empirical evidence for this hypothesis and concludes that although limited (both in terms of number of existing studies and methodological flaws), the extant literature indicates some parent-related variables, as well as some aspects of the family environment are likely to constitute risk or protective factors for children. Given that parenting is modifiable, it is proposed that the identified parent- and family-related factors represent important therapeutic targets, and a universal post-disaster parenting intervention (Disaster Recovery Triple P) is described.

  1. [Social reasoning of early adolescents and parents regarding parent-child conflicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Shoka

    2015-08-01

    Few researches have delineated how adolescents and parents view conflict in familial settings in Japan. Seventh and eighth grade junior high school students (n = 63) and parents (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire using four hypothetical stories to investigate their judgments and reasoning about parent-child situations. Vignettes described health management, household chores, and two situations involving personal choice (clothes and friends) situations. Participants responded differently to personal, prudential, and conventional conflict. Parental acceptance of the child's demands and discretion and the child's tendency to reject parental authority were significantly higher for personal than for conventional or prudential conflict, and for conventional than for prudential conflict. Children rejected parental authority more than adults rejected parental authority when the child's choice was central to the child's identity; on the other hand, children accepted parents' conventional demands more often than adults accepted parents' conventional demands. These results suggest that early adolescents assert their rights when they judge the situation to be in the personal domain.

  2. Domain: Labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.

    This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual

  3. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  4. Domain-Specific Multimodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders

    the overall level of abstraction. It does, however, also introduce a new problem of coordinating multiple different languages in a single system. We call this problem the coordination problem. In this thesis, we present the coordination method for domain-specific multimodeling that explicitly targets...

  5. GlycoDomainViewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Hiren J; Jørgensen, Anja; Schjoldager, Katrine T

    2018-01-01

    features, which enhances visibility and accessibility of the wealth of glycoproteomic data being generated. The GlycoDomainViewer enables visual exploration of glycoproteomic data, incorporating information from recent N- and O-glycoproteome studies on human and animal cell lines and some organs and body...

  6. Children of parents with BED have more eating behavior disturbance than children of parents with obesity or healthy weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-06-01

    A limited literature suggests an association between parental eating disorders and child eating-disorder behaviors although this research has focused primarily on restrictive-type eating disorders and very little is known about families with binge-eating disorder (BED). The current study focused on parents (N = 331; 103 fathers and 226 mothers), comparing parents with core features of BED (n = 63) to parents with obesity and no eating disorder (OB; n = 85) and parents with healthy-weight and no eating disorder (HW; n = 183). Parents with BED were significantly more likely than OB and HW parents to report child binge eating, and more likely than HW parents to report child overeating. Parents with BED felt greater responsibility for child feeding than OB parents, and felt more concern about their child's weight than OB and HW parents. Dietary restriction of the child by the parents was related to child binge eating, overeating, and child overweight, and parental group was related to child binge eating (parental BED), overeating (parental BED), and child weight (parental OB). Parents with BED report greater disturbance in their children's eating than OB and HW parents, and OB parents report higher child weight than HW parents. This suggests that it is important to consider both eating-disorder psychopathology and obesity in clinical interventions and research. Our cross-sectional findings, which require experimental and prospective confirmations, provide preliminary evidence suggesting potential factors in families with parental BED and obesity to address in treatment and prevention efforts for pediatric eating disorders and obesity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:648-656). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Three-Year Trajectories of Parenting Behaviors among Physically Abusive Parents and Their Link to Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Haskett, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited knowledge about how positive and negative parenting practices differ across individuals and change over time in parents with substantiated physical abuse history, and how trajectories of these parenting practices affect child adjustment. Objective: The present study examined latent trajectories of positive and negative…

  8. Food parenting practices for 5 to 12 year old children: A concept map analysis of parenting and nutrition experts input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents are an important influence on children's dietary intake and eating behaviors. However, the lack of a conceptual framework and inconsistent assessment of food parenting practices limits our understanding of which food parenting practices are most influential on children. The aim of this study...

  9. Acceptability of HPV vaccine implementation among parents in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Proma; Tanner, Amanda E; Gravitt, Patti E; Vijayaraghavan, K; Shah, Keerti V; Zimet, Gregory D; Study Group, Catch

    2014-01-01

    Due to high cervical cancer rates and limited research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in India, the research team examined parental attitudes toward HPV vaccines. Thirty-six interviews with parents were conducted to assess sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge and HPV-specific vaccine awareness and acceptability. Despite limited knowledge, parents had positive views toward HPV vaccines. Common barriers included concerns about side effects, vaccine cost, and missing work to receive the vaccine. Parents were strongly influenced by health care providers' recommendations. Our findings suggest that addressing parental concerns, health worker training and polices, and efforts to minimize cost will be central to successful HPV vaccine implementation.

  10. The framing of scientific domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Christensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    domains, and UNISIST helps understanding this navigation. Design/methodology/approach The UNISIST models are tentatively applied to the domain of art history at three stages, respectively two modern, partially overlapping domains, as well as an outline of an art historical domain anno c1820...

  11. Parent Perspectives on Home-Based Intervention for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities: The Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) Project in Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Stoner, Julia B.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2015-01-01

    Parents' perspectives on a home-based, parent-implemented social-pragmatic communication intervention for young children aged 37 to 60 months with limited expressive language are presented in this report. The researchers analyzed the perspectives of seven parent participants in the Institute of Education Sciences-funded Parent-Implemented…

  12. SH3 Domains Differentially Stimulate Distinct Dynamin I Assembly Modes and G Domain Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Krishnan

    Full Text Available Dynamin I is a highly regulated GTPase enzyme enriched in nerve terminals which mediates vesicle fission during synaptic vesicle endocytosis. One regulatory mechanism involves its interactions with proteins containing Src homology 3 (SH3 domains. At least 30 SH3 domain-containing proteins bind dynamin at its proline-rich domain (PRD. Those that stimulate dynamin activity act by promoting its oligomerisation. We undertook a systematic parallel screening of 13 glutathione-S-transferase (GST-tagged endocytosis-related SH3 domains on dynamin binding, GTPase activity and oligomerisation. No correlation was found between dynamin binding and their potency to stimulate GTPase activity. There was limited correlation between the extent of their ability to stimulate dynamin activity and the level of oligomerisation, indicating an as yet uncharacterised allosteric coupling of the PRD and G domain. We examined the two variants, dynamin Iab and Ibb, which differ in the alternately splice middle domain α2 helix. They responded differently to the panel of SH3s, with the extent of stimulation between the splice variants varying greatly between the SH3s. This study reveals that SH3 binding can act as a heterotropic allosteric regulator of the G domain via the middle domain α2 helix, suggesting an involvement of this helix in communicating the PRD-mediated allostery. This indicates that SH3 binding both stabilises multiple conformations of the tetrameric building block of dynamin, and promotes assembly of dynamin-SH3 complexes with distinct rates of GTP hydrolysis.

  13. Comparing Multi-Informant Assessment Measures of Parental Monitoring and Their Links with Adolescent Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenstein, Tara M.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Daruwala, Samantha; Reyes, Shelby M.; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S.; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Parents’ poor monitoring of adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is commonly linked to adolescents’ increased engagement in delinquent behaviors. Yet, different domains of parental monitoring (parental monitoring behaviors vs. parental knowledge) and reports from multiple informants (parent vs. adolescent) may vary in their links to delinquent behavior. Design Seventy-four parental caregivers and 74 adolescents completed survey measures of parental monitoring and knowledge, and adolescents completed self-report surveys of delinquent behavior. Results We observed low-to-moderate magnitudes of correspondence between parent- and adolescent-reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge. Adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior related to parent and adolescent reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge, with adolescents who self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidencing lower levels of parental knowledge and higher levels of poor monitoring compared to adolescents who did not self-report engagement in delinquent behaviors. Adolescent self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidenced stronger links to parental monitoring when based on adolescent reports of monitoring (relative to parent reports), whereas stronger links held between adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior and parental knowledge when based on parent reports of knowledge (relative to adolescent reports). Conclusions Links between monitoring and adolescents’ delinquent behavior vary by the kind of monitoring measure completed as well as the informant completing the measure. These findings inform measurement selection in research and clinical assessments of parental monitoring and adolescent delinquent behavior. PMID:27482171

  14. Parent training interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwi, Morris; Jones, Hannah; Thorgaard, Camilla; York, Ann; Dennis, Jane A

    2011-12-07

    meta-analysis were limited and most data that we have reported are based on single studies. We found five studies including 284 participants that met the inclusion criteria, all of which compared parent training with de facto treatment as usual (TAU). One study included a nondirective parent support group as a second control arm.  Four studies targeted children's behaviour problems and one assessed changes in parenting skills. Of the four studies targeting children's behaviour, two focused on behaviour at home and two focused on behaviour at school. The two studies focusing on behaviour at home had different findings: one found no difference between parent training and treatment as usual, whilst the other reported statistically significant results for parent training versus control. The two studies of behaviour at school also had different findings: one study found no difference between groups, whilst the other reported positive results for parent training when ADHD was not comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder. In this latter study, outcomes were better for girls and for children on medication.We assessed the risk of bias in most of the studies as unclear at best and often as high. Information on randomisation and allocation concealment did not appear in any study report. Inevitably, blinding of participants or personnel was impossible for this intervention; likewise, blinding of outcome assessors (who were most often the parents who had delivered the intervention) was impossible.We were only able to conduct meta-analysis for two outcomes: child 'externalising' behaviour (a measure of rulebreaking, oppositional behaviour or aggression) and child 'internalising' behaviour (for example, withdrawal and anxiety). Meta-analysis of three studies (n = 190) providing data on externalising behaviour produced results that fell short of statistical significance (SMD -0.32; 95% CI -0.83 to 0.18, I(2) = 60%). A meta-analysis of two studies (n = 142) for internalising

  15. [Intra-rater Reliability for the Questionnaire on Activity Limitations and Participation Restrictions of Children With ADHD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca Duque, Luisa Matilde; Naranjo Aristizábal, María Mercedes; Gutiérrez Ríos, Gladys Helena; Prieto, Jaime Bayona

    2014-03-01

    Questionnaires for evaluating activity limitations and participation restrictions in children with ADHD (CLARP-TDAH) has recently been developed in Colombia, based on the suggestions made by the WHO from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), allowing clinical evaluation beyond an evaluation of the functionality and functioning of children in their family and school environments. Previous research with the questionnaire proved useful in the multidisciplinary approach of Colombian children with ADHD. This study determines the level of intra-rater reliability for questionnaires CLARP-TDAH Parents and Teachers. The study included a non-random sample of 203 Colombian children attending school and diagnosed with ADHD. Intra-rater reliability and the reproducibility of the results was determined using the Kappa index. The informants were parents and teachers. Kappa values >0.7 were obtained for the intra-rater reliability of the questionnaire domains of CLARP-TDAH Parents, while for CLARP-TDAH Teachers domains these values were >0.8. CLARP-TDAH questionnaires are a tool with a good level of intra-rater reliability, which allows a reliable assessment of activity limitations and participation restrictions in order to determine the level of functioning at home and school. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. A survey of parental self-efficacy experiences: maximising potential through health visiting and universal parenting support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Karen A; Cowley, Sarah

    2012-11-01

    To examine parental self-efficacy experiences for users of a parenting support programme and consider the pertinence of self-efficacy theory to health visiting (public health nursing) practice. Commonly, successful parenting training programmes are underpinned by social learning principles and aim to strengthen parental self-efficacy. However, research examining programme effectiveness rarely discusses how self-efficacy outcomes are achieved. A descriptive survey was completed as the first part of a realistic evaluation study examining how a UK parenting support programme worked. The first part of the realistic evaluation involved validating outcome measures (the Parenting Self-Agency Measure and Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Index subscales) and administering a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was completed by adults accessing a parenting support programme during a 10-month period (n = 168). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.   Women were the main users of the programme, which included informal drop-in groups as well as more formalised health visiting services and parenting training courses. The Parenting Self-Agency Measure results indicated good general parental self-efficacy; however, the task-specific Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Indexes scales suggested that parents were less self-efficacious in disciplining children. Lower self-efficacy scores correlated with high ratings for 'feeling tired', 'receiving negative comments' and 'giving-in to a child's demands'. Study results indicate that the domain general and task-specific measures provide different, but helpful, insights into parental self-efficacy experiences. By identifying factors associated with the levels of general and task-specific parental self-efficacy, health visitors can gain a fuller appreciation of support needs. To maximise potential through parenting support, attention should be given to addressing factors associated with poorer self

  17. Determinants of child-parent agreement in quality-of-life reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White-Koning, Melanie; Arnaud, Catherine; Dickinson, Heather O

    2007-01-01

    children aged 8 to 12 years who had cerebral palsy and were living in 7 countries in Europe. RESULTS: The mean child-reported scores of quality of life were significantly higher than the parent proxy reports in 8 domains, significantly lower for the finances domain, and similar for the emotions domain...

  18. Individual and Contextual Parameters Associated with Adolescents' Domain Specific Self-Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Hatzinikolaou, Stamatia

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the role of adolescents' self-esteem and perceptions of family and classroom contexts on their domain specific self-perceptions. 345 Greek junior high school adolescents aged 14-16 completed measures of domain specific self-perceptions, self-esteem, parenting styles and classroom climate. Hierarchical regression analyses…

  19. The Parental Overprotection Scale: Associations with child and parental anxiety☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kiri; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background Parental overprotection has commonly been implicated in the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders. Overprotection has been assessed using questionnaire and observational methods interchangeably; however, the extent to which these methods access the same construct has received little attention. Edwards et al. (2008, 2010) developed a promising parent-report measure of overprotection (OP) and reported that, with parents of pre-school children, the measure correlated with observational assessments and predicted changes in child anxiety symptoms. We aimed to validate the use of the OP measure with mothers of children in middle childhood, and examine its association with child and parental anxiety. Methods Mothers of 90 children (60 clinically anxious, 30 non-anxious) aged 7–12 years completed the measure and engaged in a series of mildly stressful tasks with their child. Results The internal reliability of the measure was good and scores correlated significantly with observations of maternal overprotection in a challenging puzzle task. Contrary to expectations, OP was not significantly associated with child anxiety status or symptoms, but was significantly associated with maternal anxiety symptoms. Limitations Participants were predominantly from affluent social groups and of non-minority status. Overprotection is a broad construct, the use of specific sub-dimensions of behavioural constructs may be preferable. Conclusions The findings support the use of the OP measure to assess parental overprotection among 7–12 year-old children; however, they suggest that parental responses may be more closely related to the degree of parental rather than child anxiety. PMID:23916305

  20. Parenting Style and the Development of Human Capital in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Cosconati

    2011-01-01

    There is little consensus among social science researchers about the effectiveness of alternative parenting strategies in producing desirable child outcomes. Some argue that parents should set strict limits on the activities of their adolescent children, while others believe that adolescents should be given relatively wide discretion. In this paper, I develop and estimate a model of parent-child interaction in order to better understand the relationship between parenting styles and the develo...

  1. Science homework with video directions for parents: The impact on parental involvement and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Kathy L.

    The benefits of effective parental involvement in education have been well documented and can be far reaching. When educators make an effort to involve families, parental involvement can be even more meaningful. Homework is a commonly practiced and accepted connection between school and home and affords parents many opportunities to interact with their children on educational endeavors. However, parental involvement may be limited because educators do not reach out to parents, parents feel their children do not need their help, or parents are unfamiliar with the content and therefore unable to help. The purpose of this study was too develop and implement a tool to enhance parental involvement and academic achievement of fourth grade science students. The tool used in this study was a weekly science video to be viewed by parents when it accompanied science homework assignments. To begin, the researcher created six science videos for parents to watch that supplemented weekly homework assignments. Consequently, the researcher set up treatment and comparison groups to test the effectiveness of the supplemental videos in terms of parental involvement and academic achievement. A mixed methods approach was used to collect data from parents and students throughout the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data was collected throughout this study from both parents and students. Additionally, data was collected from a variety of sources including baseline, midpoint, and endpoint surveys; scores on homework assignments; and focus group interview sessions with parents and students. Data analysis revealed an overall positive impact on parental involvement and academic achievement when the videos were utilized.

  2. Parental body mass index and blood pressure are associated with higher body mass index and blood pressure in their adult offspring: a cross-sectional study in a resource-limited setting in northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Sal Y Rosas, Víctor G; Sacksteder, Katherine A; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Cárdenas, María K; Gilman, Robert H; Miranda, J Jaime

    2018-05-01

    High body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) are major contributors to the high burden of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. Individual high-risk and population approaches for prevention require newer strategies to target these risk factors and focusing on the family to introduce prevention initiatives appears as a promising scenario. Characterisation of the relationship between BMI and BP among the adult members of a given family merits evaluation. We conducted a secondary analysis of an implementation study in Tumbes, Peru, benefiting from data derived from families with at least one adult offspring. The exposures of interest were the BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) of the mother and father. The outcomes were the BMI, SBP and DBP of the offspring. Mixed-effects linear regression models were conducted. The mean age of the offspring, mothers and fathers was 29 (SD: 9.5), 54 (SD: 11.8) and 59 (SD: 11.6) years, respectively. Father's BMI was associated with a quarter-point increase in offspring BMI, regardless of the sex of the offspring. Mother's BMI had a similar effect on the BMI of her sons, but had no significant effect on her daughters'. Mother's SBP was associated with almost one-tenth of mmHg increase in the SBP of the adult offspring. There was no evidence of an association for DBP. In families with adult members, the higher the parents' BMI and SBP, the higher their adult offspring's levels will be. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Don't trust anyone over 30: parental legitimacy as a mediator between parenting style and changes in delinquent behavior over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S; Rebellon, Cesar J; Van Gundy, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Both law and society scholars and developmental psychologists have focused on the legitimacy of authority figures, although in different domains (police versus parents). The purpose of the current research is to bridge these two fields by examining the relations among parenting style (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive), the perception of parental legitimacy, and changes in delinquency over time. It is hypothesized that parental legitimacy mediates the relation between parenting style and future delinquent behavior. Middle school and high school students completed questionnaires three times over a period of 18 months. Parenting style and delinquent behavior were measured at time 1, parental legitimacy at time 2, and delinquency again at time 3. The results show that authoritative parenting was positively related to parental legitimacy, while authoritarian parenting was negatively associated with parental legitimacy. Furthermore, parental legitimacy was negatively associated with future delinquency. Structural equation modeling indicated that parental legitimacy mediated the relation between parenting styles and changes in delinquency over the 18-month time period. The implications for parenting style and parental legitimacy affecting delinquent behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Authoritative parenting and cigarette smoking among multiethnic preadolescents: the mediating role of anti-tobacco parenting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Cassandra A; Highland, Krista B; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Luta, Gheorghe; Niaura, Raymond S

    2014-01-01

    Parenting has been shown to affect smoking among children in U.S. majority groups, but less is known about this association among multiethnic urban populations. Our study examines the role of parenting on smoking among a highly diverse sample. Health surveys were collected from eighth graders (N = 459) in 2 low-income urban schools. Structural equation models examined the direct and indirect effects of authoritative parenting on lifetime smoking. A moderated mediation analysis examined whether indirect effects of authoritative parenting vary among racial/ethnic groups. Authoritative controlling parenting, characterized by limit setting, was positively associated with anti-tobacco parenting. Anti-tobacco parenting was inversely associated with smoking, mediating the relationship between controlling parenting and smoking. There was no evidence that mediation was moderated by race/ethnicity. Parent training, which focuses on setting rules and expectations, can be an important and universal element of smoking prevention programs targeted to youth in diverse communities.

  5. Functional Limitations in Severe Haemophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, F.R. van

    2006-01-01

    This thesis aims to describe the Disablement Process (DP) in Dutch adult patients with severe haemophilia, with specific focus on the domain of “Functional Limitations”. Four main questions underlie this thesis: How can Functional Limitations in severe haemophilia be investigated? Can the

  6. Understanding the association between authoritative parenting and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Brian C; Gerlach, Karen K

    2006-03-01

    Research on adolescent cigarette smoking has attempted to measure the role of parents in preventing smoking experimentation and uptake. However, aspects of parental influence have often been limited to parental smoking behavior or antismoking socialization. Only a limited number of studies considered the hypothesis that the influence of parenting on adolescent current cigarette smoking may extend beyond parental behavior and antismoking socialization to consider broader measures of the parent-child relationship, such as parenting style. The sample was nationally representative and included 17,287 high school students nationwide. Data were used to categorize the parenting style--authoritative, permissive, autocratic, and unengaged--experienced by each respondent. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between parenting style and adolescent current cigarette smoking. Authoritative parenting was associated with a reduction in the odds of adolescent current cigarette smoking (OR: 0.74, 99% CI: 0.58, 0.95). When authoritative parenting is simultaneously considered with believing parents' opinions about smoking are important, authoritative parenting was no longer a significant correlate of adolescent current cigarette smoking, while believing parents' opinions about smoking are important was associated with a 45% (99% CI: 0.48, 0.64) reduction in the odds of adolescent current cigarette smoking. Authoritative parenting was associated with a more than three-fold increase (OR: 3.65, 99% CI: 2.87, 4.66) in the odds of believing parents' opinions about smoking are important. Interventions may want to educate parents about authoritative parenting, which includes the importance of having appropriate and routine conversations with their children, requiring chores, and implementing general rules and boundaries.

  7. Dimers in Piecewise Temperleyan Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russkikh, Marianna

    2018-03-01

    We study the large-scale behavior of the height function in the dimer model on the square lattice. Richard Kenyon has shown that the fluctuations of the height function on Temperleyan discretizations of a planar domain converge in the scaling limit (as the mesh size tends to zero) to the Gaussian Free Field with Dirichlet boundary conditions. We extend Kenyon's result to a more general class of discretizations. Moreover, we introduce a new factorization of the coupling function of the double-dimer model into two discrete holomorphic functions, which are similar to discrete fermions defined in Smirnov (Proceedings of the international congress of mathematicians (ICM), Madrid, Spain, 2006; Ann Math (2) 172:1435-1467, 2010). For Temperleyan discretizations with appropriate boundary modifications, the results of Kenyon imply that the expectation of the double-dimer height function converges to a harmonic function in the scaling limit. We use the above factorization to extend this result to the class of all polygonal discretizations, that are not necessarily Temperleyan. Furthermore, we show that, quite surprisingly, the expectation of the double-dimer height function in the Temperleyan case is exactly discrete harmonic (for an appropriate choice of Laplacian) even before taking the scaling limit.

  8. Receiving Instrumental Support in Late Parent-Child Relationships and Parental Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djundeva, Maja; Mills, Melinda; Wittek, Rafael; Steverink, Nardi

    This study investigates the role of gender, functional limitations, and social interaction in the association between instrumental support from adult children and parental depression. We apply self-determination theory to hypothesize about the role of physical needs and social resources on parental

  9. Allowing Imprisoned Fathers to Parent: Maximising the Potential Benefits of Prison Based Parenting Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Butler, Michelle; Devaney, John; Percy, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    During imprisonment, fathers are separated from their families and contact is limited. When delivering a prison based parenting programme, providing an opportunity to rehearse newly acquired parenting skills can be key for mastering the performance of these skills and using these skills to improve father-child relationships. This paper takes an…

  10. Parenting paradox: parenting after infant loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warland, Jane; O'Leary, Joann; McCutcheon, Helen; Williamson, Victoria

    2011-10-01

    to gain an in-depth understanding of the parenting experiences of bereaved parents in the years following an infant death. an exploratory qualitative study. semi-structured interview in the participants' homes. Data were collected over a five-month period in 2008 and analysed using thematic analysis. a purposive sample of 13 bereaved parents (10 mothers and three fathers) was used. Parents who had accessed the support services offered by two bereavement support agencies were recruited. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of raising their subsequent child. Interviews were conducted when the next born child was at least three years of age. the parents described a 'paradoxical' parenting style where they were trying to parent using two diametrically opposed unsustainable options. For example, they described trying to hold their subsequent child emotionally close but aloof at the same time. the results from this study indicate that the impact of a loss of an infant has far-reaching consequences on subsequent parenting. Support and early intervention at the time of the stillbirth and subsequent pregnancy are likely to be useful. However, further research is required to determine the extent to which early intervention can alter the tendency towards bereaved parents adopting a paradoxical parenting style. The impact of this style on mental health and the emotional health and well-being of the next born child/ren after perinatal loss should also be further examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TENCompetence Domain Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    This is the version 1.1 of the TENCompetence Domain Model (version 1.0 released at 19-6-2006; version 1.1 at 9-11-2008). It contains several files: a) a pdf with the model description, b) three jpg files with class models (also in the pdf), c) a MagicDraw zip file with the model itself, d) a release

  12. Parent-child communication patterns during the first year after a parent's cancer diagnosis: the effect on parents' functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazendam-Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald; van der Graaf, Winette; van de Wiel, Harry; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette

    2009-09-15

    Good parent-child communication is thought to help families adjust more easily during stressful events such as parental cancer. Families dealing with cancer who communicate openly have reported less psychological distress. The first year after diagnosis may be particularly stressful. The authors investigated parents' quality of life (QOL) and stress-response symptoms and parent-child communication during the first year after diagnosis and examined possible relationships between communication and parents' functioning. Recently-diagnosed cancer patients (N=70) and spouses (N=55) participated within 4 months of diagnosis (T1) and 6 months (T2) and 12 months later (T3). Parents reported on communication with the children (PACS) and on their own physical and psychosocial functioning (RAND-36) and stress-response symptoms (IES). Parent-child communication remained stable throughout the first year after diagnosis and was similar to communication in families 1 year to 5 years after diagnosis. Patients' functioning improved and cancer-related distress decreased significantly. Spouses' cancer-related distress decreased; their functioning fluctuated through the year. In concurrent analyses, patients' open communication with the children related only to T1 intrusion. Spouses' open communication related to T3 psychosocial functioning; problem communication related to T1 and T2 psychosocial functioning and T2 avoidance. In prospective analyses, no significant relationships were found between parent-child communication and change in parents' functioning. Communication between parents and children remained stable over time; patients' and spouses' functioning improved. Parent-child communication seems to have a limited affect on parents' functioning. Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  13. Communication difficulties perceived by parents of children with developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ingrid Ya I; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2014-01-01

    The child's inclusion in his/her social-cultural context is very important to his/her adaptation and well-being. The family has a major role as a facilitator of this process. Therefore the difficulties of these families in communicating with children with communication disorders are an important issue to be assessed in order to support orientations to families. The present study aimed to identify and compare communication difficulties perceived by parents of children with Down Syndrome (DS), Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Information was gathered with the use of a questionnaire with 24 questions regarding the perception of parents about their child communication disorders and the difficulties they identify. The questions were divided into four domains: 1 - Parents' personal difficulties; 2 - Parents' impression about themselves regarding their child; 3 - Parents' impressions about other persons' reactions to their child and 4 - Parents' impression about their child. Sixty parents were the subjects of this study: 20 had children with DS, 20 with SLI and 20 with ASD. All children had ages between 6 and 12 years. It was possible to observe that there was significant difference between the parents of ASD children with those of DS and SLI on the second, third and fourth domains. The questionnaire is effective to the identification of the communication disorders of ASD children based on their parents' reports but not to other developmental disorders.

  14. Parents as passengers during pediatric transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M M; Holditch-Davis, D; Brunssen, S

    1997-01-01

    The transport environment presents a unique setting in which the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of passengers accompanying a patient must be assessed carefully. The purpose of this study was to describe the current practice of including parents as passengers during pediatric interfacility transport. One-hundred-eighty-eight critical care transport programs in the United States responded to a voluntary mail survey, providing information about current policies, practices, and crew perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of carrying parents as passengers. Extra seating for passengers was available in 96% of ambulances, 86% of fixed-wing aircraft, and 54% of helicopters used for pediatric transport. Parents traveled as passengers in all types of vehicles; most frequently in ambulances and fixed-wing aircraft. Twenty percent of helicopter programs allowed parent passengers on more than half of their pediatric transports in this vehicle. Advantages of parent passengers included emotional benefit for the parent and child, availability of parents for history and consent, good public relations, and having the parent present if the child dies. Disadvantages included potential parent anxiety, crew distraction, and space limitations. This study reflects the widely diverse policies, practices, and opinions relevant to this topic and confirms a need for further study.

  15. Health Literacy Among Parents of Newborn Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackley, Amy; Winter, Michael; Guillen, Ursula; Paul, David A.; Locke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Health Literacy is the ability to obtain, process, and understand health information to make knowledgeable health decisions. PURPOSE To determine baseline health literacy of NICU parents at a tertiary care hospital during periods of crucial information exchange. METHODS Health Literacy of English speaking NICU parents was assessed using the Newest vital Sign (NVS) on admission (n=121) and discharge (n=59). A quasi-control group of well newborn (WBN) parents (n=24) and prenatal obstetric clinic (PRE) parents (n=18) were included. A single, Likert-style question measured nurse’s assessment of parental comprehension with discharge teaching. Suspected limited health literacy (SLHL) was defined as NVS score of ≤3. FINDINGS / RESULTS Forty-three percent of parents on NICU admission and 32% at NICU discharge had SLHL (pNICU parents and 25% of WBN parents with SLHL at time of admission/infant birth had a college education. Nurse subjective measurement of parental comprehension of discharge instructions was not correlated to the objective measurement of health literacy (p=0.26). IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE SLHL is common during peak time periods of complex health discussion in the NICU, WBN, and PRE settings. NICU providers may not accurately gauge parent’s literacy status. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH Methods for improving health communication are needed. Studies should evaluate SLHL in a larger NICU population and across different languages and cultures. PMID:27391562

  16. A Parent-to-Parent Program in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kae

    2018-01-01

    Parent-to-parent programs provide emotional and informational support to parents of children with special needs by matching trained and experienced parents with parents needing support. This study examined the implementation and effects of a Parent-to-Parent Program in Taiwan that supported 3 families of youngsters with special needs. Based on the…

  17. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335

  18. Domain decomposition method for solving elliptic problems in unbounded domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoromskij, B.N.; Mazurkevich, G.E.; Zhidkov, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    Computational aspects of the box domain decomposition (DD) method for solving boundary value problems in an unbounded domain are discussed. A new variant of the DD-method for elliptic problems in unbounded domains is suggested. It is based on the partitioning of an unbounded domain adapted to the given asymptotic decay of an unknown function at infinity. The comparison of computational expenditures is given for boundary integral method and the suggested DD-algorithm. 29 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Parenting and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen; Netsi, Elena; Redinger, Stephanie; Stein, Alan

    2017-06-01

    With the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission the development of HIV-negative children with HIV-positive parents has become an important focus. There is considerable evidence that children's developmental risk is heightened because a parental HIV-diagnosis is associated with a range of potential problems such as depression, stigma and financial difficulties. Up to a third of children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are cared for by an HIV-positive parent or caregiver. We review the mechanisms by which HIV affects parenting including its negative effects on parental responsiveness in the early years of parenting and parental avoidant coping styles and parenting deficits in the later years. We describe low-cost parenting interventions suited for low resourced HIV endemic settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Bragg projection ptychography on niobium phase domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdet, Nicolas; Shi, Xiaowen; Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian

    2017-07-01

    Bragg projection ptychography (BPP) is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging technique which combines the strengths of scanning microscopy with the phase contrast of x-ray ptychography. Here we apply it for high resolution imaging of the phase-shifted crystalline domains associated with epitaxial growth. The advantages of BPP are that the spatial extent of the sample is arbitrary, it is nondestructive, and it gives potentially diffraction limited spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate the application of BPP for revealing the domain structure caused by epitaxial misfit in a nanostructured metallic thin film. Experimental coherent diffraction data were collected from a niobium thin film, epitaxially grown on a sapphire substrate as the beam was scanned across the sample. The data were analyzed by BPP using a carefully selected combination of refinement procedures. The resulting image shows a close packed array of epitaxial domains, shifted with respect to each other due to misfit between the film and its substrate.

  1. Domain Adaptation for Opinion Classification: A Self-Training Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu, Ning

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Domain transfer is a widely recognized problem for machine learning algorithms because models built upon one data domain generally do not perform well in another data domain. This is especially a challenge for tasks such as opinion classification, which often has to deal with insufficient quantities of labeled data. This study investigates the feasibility of self-training in dealing with the domain transfer problem in opinion classification via leveraging labeled data in non-target data domain(s and unlabeled data in the target-domain. Specifically, self-training is evaluated for effectiveness in sparse data situations and feasibility for domain adaptation in opinion classification. Three types of Web content are tested: edited news articles, semi-structured movie reviews, and the informal and unstructured content of the blogosphere. Findings of this study suggest that, when there are limited labeled data, self-training is a promising approach for opinion classification, although the contributions vary across data domains. Significant improvement was demonstrated for the most challenging data domain-the blogosphere-when a domain transfer-based self-training strategy was implemented.

  2. Development, evaluation and validation of a new instrument for measurement quality of life in the parents of children with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnik, Małgorzata; Brożek, Grzegorz; Pierzchała, Władysław; Zejda, Jan E; Skrzypek, Michał; Walczak, Łukasz

    2010-12-23

    Childhood chronic disease may affect patients' and their family's functioning. Particularly parents, who play an important role in cooperation between patient and health care professionals, report impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The aim of this study was development, evaluation and validation of a new instrument: Quality of Life in a Child's Chronic Disease Questionnaire (QLCCDQ). The questionnaire is addressed to parents of children with a chronic disease. Study design included semi structured interview and qualitative study, which allowed to identify most troublesome problems. Following the results the questionnaire was developed, which consists of 15 questions and covers domains--emotions, patients -perceived symptoms, roles limitations. An observational study involving parents of asthma and diabetes children was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the measure. Psychometric testing was based on the reliability of defined subscales, construct validity, reproducibility assessment, as well as comparison between stable/unstable disease stages and parents of healthy children. Most troublesome concerns for parents of child with chronic disease included emotional distress and feeling depressed due to child's disease, avoiding social interactions due to child's disease or symptoms. 98 parents of children with asthma or insulin - depended diabetes participated in the psychometric testing of QLCCDQ. Internal consistency reliability for the defined subscales ranged between 0.77 and 0.93. Reproducibility based on the weighted kappa coefficients showed expected level of agreement and was almost perfect in case of 8 questions, substantial for 5 questions and moderate for 2 questions. QLCCDQ demonstrated very good construct validity--all subscales showed statistically significant correlations ranging from 0.4 to 0.9. QLCCDQ scores differed significantly by clinical status--parents of children qualified as stable presented higher scores in

  3. Alike and Different: Parenting a Child with Special Needs in the Jewish Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrman, Abigail L.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is limited research examining the parenting experiences of parents with a child with special needs, and there is virtually no research on the experience of these parents in the Jewish community. In addressing this gap in the scholarship, this study describes the experiences of parents with a child with special needs and explores the…

  4. Parents' work patterns and adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Alfred; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth

    2009-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that non-standard work schedules undermine the stability of marriage and reduce family cohesiveness. Limited research has investigated the effects of parents working non-standard schedules on children's health and wellbeing and no published Australian studies have addressed this important issue. This paper contributes to bridging this knowledge gap by focusing on adolescents aged 15-20 years and by including sole parent families which have been omitted in previous research, using panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. Multilevel linear regression models are estimated to analyse the association between parental work schedules and hours of work and measures of adolescents' mental health derived from the SF-36 Health Survey. Evidence of negative impacts of parents working non-standard hours upon adolescent wellbeing is found to exist primarily within sole parent families.

  5. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  6. Functional Domain Driven Design

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Guzmán, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Las tecnologías están en constante expansión y evolución, diseñando nuevas técnicas para cumplir con su fin. En el desarrollo de software, las herramientas y pautas para la elaboración de productos software constituyen una pieza en constante evolución, necesarias para la toma de decisiones sobre los proyectos a realizar. Uno de los arquetipos para el desarrollo de software es el denominado Domain Driven Design, donde es importante conocer ampliamente el negocio que se desea modelar en form...

  7. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Birdi, Gurkiran; Cooke, Richard; Knibb, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population complet...

  8. Feature-level domain adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouw, Wouter M.; Van Der Maaten, Laurens J P; Krijthe, Jesse H.

    2016-01-01

    -level domain adaptation (flda), that models the dependence between the two domains by means of a feature-level transfer model that is trained to describe the transfer from source to target domain. Subsequently, we train a domain-adapted classifier by minimizing the expected loss under the resulting transfer...... modeled via a dropout distribution, which allows the classiffier to adapt to differences in the marginal probability of features in the source and the target domain. Our experiments on several real-world problems show that flda performs on par with state-of-the-art domainadaptation techniques.......Domain adaptation is the supervised learning setting in which the training and test data are sampled from different distributions: training data is sampled from a source domain, whilst test data is sampled from a target domain. This paper proposes and studies an approach, called feature...

  9. Compensating for Incomplete Domain Knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Lynn M; Drezner, Steve; Rue, Rachel; Reyes, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    .... First, many senior leader positions require experience in more than one functional or operational domain, but it is difficult to develop a corps of senior leaders with all the required combinations of domain knowledge...

  10. Psychosocial implications of disorders of sex development treatment for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Amy B

    2017-01-01

    Historically, studies of caregivers of children with disorders of sex development (DSD) have been limited. Recent data reveal that parents of young children with DSD report increased stress, anxiety, depression, and decreased quality of life in ways that are similar to parents of children with other types of chronic illnesses. Also similar to other chronic illnesses of childhood, parents of children with DSD exhibit overprotective parenting and perceive their child as being vulnerable. These emotions and behaviors exhibited by parents are concerning as they may limit an affected child's emotional and social development over time. Perhaps, more unique to the situation of DSD is the perceived, or real, child-focused stigma experienced by parents of children with DSD. Interventions to improve parents' psychosocial adaptation to their child's medical condition, including coaching in how to discuss their child's condition in a manner that makes them feel safe and supported, are needed to optimize outcomes for families.

  11. Continuity of care for children with complex chronic health conditions: parents' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Nicola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuity of care has been explored largely from academic and service provider perspectives, and in relation to adult patient/client groups. We interviewed parents of children with complex chronic health conditions to examine how their experiences and perceptions of continuity of care fit with these perspectives; and to identify the salient factors in the experience of, and factors contributing to, continuity in this population. Methods Parents of 47 elementary school-aged children with spina bifida, Down syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Duchenne muscular dystrophy or cystic fibrosis participated in semi-structured interviews. Parents described and mapped the pattern of their interactions with service providers over time in all domains relevant to their child's health, well-being, and development (medical, rehabilitational, educational, and social supportive services, with particular attention paid to their perceptions of connectedness or coherency in these interactions. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed thematically using a framework approach to impose structure regarding parents' perspectives on continuity of care. Results Existing academic concepts of relational, informational and management continuity were all discernable in parents' narratives. A thorough knowledge of the child on the part of service providers emerged as extremely important to parents; such knowledge was underpinned by continuity of personal relationships, principally, and also by written information. For this population, notions of continuity extend to the full range of service providers these children and families need to achieve optimal health status, and are not limited to physicians and nurses. Communication among providers was seen as integral to perceived continuity. Compartmentalization of services and information led to parents assuming a necessary, though at times, uncomfortable, coordinating role. Geographic factors

  12. Pharmacotherapy for parents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): impact on maternal ADHD and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Stein, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    Given the high heritability of the disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common among parents of children with ADHD. Parental ADHD is associated with maladaptive parenting, negative parent-child interaction patterns and a diminished response to behavioural parent training. We describe our previous research demonstrating that stimulant medications for mothers with ADHD are associated with reductions in maternal ADHD symptoms. Although limited beneficial effects on self-reported parenting were also found in our study, the impact of ADHD medications on functional outcomes related to parenting and family interactions may not be sufficient for many families. Many questions remain with regard to how best to treat multiplex ADHD families in which a parent and child have ADHD. In particular, future studies are needed: (1) to evaluate how best to sequence pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment for adult ADHD and behavioural parenting interventions; (2) to determine the best approach to maintaining treatment effects over the long term for both parents and children; and (3) to identify individual predictors of treatment response.

  13. Parental quality of life in the framework of paediatric chronic gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Rajna; Francisković, Tanja; Samarin, Radenka Munjas; Niksić, Milan

    2011-09-01

    Chronic gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease (CD), might have impact not only on the affected child but also on their parents since inside the family framework, a change in each member may have influence on the whole system. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that parents whose children have IBD or CD will have a lower quality of life (QoL) compared to parents of healthy children, as well as that lower QoL will be found among parents who perceive lower health related quality of life (HRQOL) of their child. 55 parents of children with IBD, 49 of CD and 53 parents of healthy children were included in the study. Children were aged 7-18 years. In order to measure parental QoL, a Croatian version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was administered, with four domains: physical health, psychological health, social relationship and environment. The Total QoL was calculated as a sum of all domain items. The parent-proxy report of children's HRQOL, PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales was used. Main result shows that parents of children with IBD report a significantly lower psychological health, compared to parents of other children, and significantly lower physical health compared to parents of healthy children. Among parents of children with CD and parents of healthy children, better parental Total QoL was significantly correlated with better parental report of children's HRQOL, while for parents of children with IBD those associations were not found. Results of study show association between presence of the disease in offspring with poorer parental QoL, thus highlight the importance of supporting not only children with chronic disease but also involving their parents in psychosocial interventions, as well as supporting the patient's association groups which gather both children with chronic disease and their parents.

  14. Filipino Mothers’ Self-Efficacy in Managing Anger and in Parenting, and Parental Rejection as Predictors of Child Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daganzo, Mary Angeline A.; Peña Alampay, Liane; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    The authors tested a model in which Filipino mothers’ self-efficacy in managing anger/irritation influenced child delinquency via two parenting variables: parental self-efficacy and parental rejection. Structured interviews were conducted with 99 mothers twice with an interval of one year with efficacy beliefs and rejection measured in the first year and child delinquency data collected in the following year. Path analyses showed that self-efficacy in managing anger/irritation negatively predicted child delinquency indirectly through the sequential mediation of parental self-efficacy and parental rejection. Results provided further evidence for the importance of efficacy beliefs, particularly self-efficacy in managing anger/irritation and parental self-efficacy, in the domain of child development. PMID:26635423

  15. Ligand binding by PDZ domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Celestine N.; Bach, Anders; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    , for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, signaling, and trafficking events. The many functions of PDZ domains under normal physiological as well...... as pathological conditions have been reviewed recently. In this review, we focus on the molecular details of how PDZ domains bind their protein ligands and their potential as drug targets in this context....

  16. Summarization by domain ontology navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    of the subject. In between these two extremes, conceptual summaries encompass selected concepts derived using background knowledge. We address in this paper an approach where conceptual summaries are provided through a conceptualization as given by an ontology. The ontology guiding the summarization can...... be a simple taxonomy or a generative domain ontology. A domain ontology can be provided by a preanalysis of a domain corpus and can be used to condense improved summaries that better reflects the conceptualization of a given domain....

  17. Vortex Ring Dynamics in Radially Confined Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley; Niebel, Casandra; Jung, Sunghwan; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2010-11-01

    Vortex ring dynamics have been studied extensively in semi-infinite quiescent volumes. However, very little is known about vortex-ring formation in wall-bounded domains where vortex wall interaction will affect both the vortex ring pinch-off and propagation velocity. This study addresses this limitation and studies vortex formation in radially confined domains to analyze the affect of vortex-ring wall interaction on the formation and propagation of the vortex ring. Vortex rings were produced using a pneumatically driven piston cylinder arrangement and were ejected into a long cylindrical tube which defined the confined downstream domain. A range of confinement domains were studied with varying confinement diameters Velocity field measurements were performed using planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV) and were processed using an in-house developed cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The experimental analysis was used to facilitate the development of a theoretical model to predict the variations in vortex ring circulation over time within confined domains.

  18. Building and Using Object-Oriented Frameworks for Semi-Structures Domains: The Sales Promotion Domain as Example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dalebout; J. van Hillegersberg (Jos); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractObject-oriented (00) frameworks are considered an important step forward in developing software applications efficiently. Success of frameworks has however predominantly been limited to structured domains.This paper describes a method for developing 00 domainframeworks for

  19. Parenting children with down syndrome: An analysis of parenting styles, parenting dimensions, and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B Allyson; Conners, Frances; Curtner-Smith, Mary Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Effective parenting is vital for a child's development. Although much work has been conducted on parenting typically developing children, little work has examined parenting children with Down syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to compare the parenting styles and dimensions in mothers of children with DS and mothers of TD children. Thirty-five mothers of children with DS and 47 mothers of TD children completed questionnaires about parenting, parental stress, child behavior problems, and child executive function. We found that mothers of children with DS use an authoritative parenting style less and a permissive parenting style more than mothers of TD children. Additionally, we found that mothers of children with DS use reasoning/induction and verbal hostility less and ignoring misbehavior more than mothers of TD children. All of these differences, except for those of reasoning/induction, were at least partially accounted for by the higher levels of parental stress in the DS group. Parenting interventions should be focused on reducing parental stress and training mothers to parent under stress in an effort to improve parenting techniques, which would, in theory, improve long-term child outcomes for children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Parental Grief and Marital Issues Aftermath: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Atikah Mohamed Hussin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The death of a child is difficult to the bereaved parents. Literature had associated the loss with marriage disruption. The issues on that the difficulties to communicate, gender-related coping mechanisms and sexual need were discussed as reasons for bereaved parents to have conflict in their relationship. However there is limited knowledge about this issue. A pilot study has been conducted among six bereaved parents. The bereaved parents were Malaysian Muslim bereaved parents. They were interviewed individually to explore the challenges or conflicts that they had experienced after the death of their child. This study revealed that there were situations which bereaved parents described as having difficulties in their relationship. However, this study also revealed that the mutual understanding and respect to each other are the most of important components for bereaved parents to maintain their relationship post-loss. This study suggested the importance of suggesting couple counselling to bereaved parents after the death of their child.

  1. Parenting Role's Tasks in Parents of Children with Disability (Physical-Mental Less than 7 Years Old in the City of Arak in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Fatehi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: With regards to importance of the role of parents in children's life, imbalance in the roles of parents can lead to serious mental, emotional and physical damages of the child. The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks in parents of children with disability (physical- mental younger than 7 years in the city of Arak in 2016. Materials and Methods: In this study, the parenting role's tasks questionnaire for 120 parents of children with disability was completed. The effect of demographic characteristics on how to perform the role of parents was studied. Results: Based on data collected and analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient for the relationship between the parents and other factors, we have found no significant relationship between role of parents with the child's age. In disabled children, between parent's role and maternal age was significant difference which its correlation coefficient was -0.18, represented the inverse association between maternal age and the parent's role with disabled children. In comparison of parent's role based on child's gender, significant difference was not seen in any of cases. The impact of the seizure on performance of parenting role's tasks implied no relationship between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks. Economic situation as well as on how to do tasks was ineffective. Conclusion: Imbalance in performance of parenting role's tasks in primary care, education, leisure and cognition promotion showed that existence of a disabled child in the family had negative impact on the parenting role's tasks in different aspects, for example further focus on one of the domains lead to ignorance of other domains. Total score confirmed the negative impact of disabled children on efficient implementation of parenting role's tasks.

  2. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…

  3. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & ... Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & Things ...

  4. Parental Involvement in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tessa

    1979-01-01

    Arguments in favor of increased parental involvement, particularly in nursery education, are presented. Opposition to participation from parents and teachers is discussed and specific areas in which cooperation might be possible are suggested along with different levels of participation. (JMF)

  5. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  6. Naps (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... during a 24-hour period. For example, one toddler may sleep 13 hours at night with only ...

  7. Playground Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... designed for three different age groups: infants and toddlers under 2, 2- to 5-year-olds (preschoolers), ...

  8. Toxocariasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... with a pet dog or cat (wash a toddler's hands yourself) discourage toddlers from putting dirty hands ...

  9. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  10. The Ups and Downs of Parenting Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes: A Crowdsourcing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jessica S; Aroian, Karen; Caldwell, Cindy; Ross, Judith L; Lee, Joyce M; Schifano, Elizabeth; Novotny, Rebecca; Tamayo, Anthony; Wysocki, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Parenting young children with type 1 diabetes (YC-T1D) entails pervasive challenges; parental coping may influence child and parent outcomes. This study used a qualitative descriptive design to describe these challenges comprehensively to inform the user-centered design of an Internet coping resource for parents. A "Parent Crowd" of 153 parents of children with T1D onset at ≤ 5 years old submitted textual responses online to open-ended questions about parenting YC-T1D. Systematic coding organized responses into domains, themes, and examples. A supplemental focus group of racial/ethnic minority parents enhanced the sample's diversity and validated findings from the Parent Crowd. Similar domains and themes emerged from responses of crowdsourcing and focus group participants. In each domain, parenting YC-T1D was challenging, but there was also substantial evidence of positive coping strategies and adaptability. The study yielded rich data to inform user-centered design of an Internet resource for parents of YC-T1D. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Psychological Impact of Chemotherapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on Patients and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherief, Laila M; Kamal, Naglaa M; Abdalrahman, Hadel M; Youssef, Doaa M; Abd Alhady, Mohamed A; Ali, Adel S A; Abd Elbasset, Maha Aly; Hashim, Hiatham M

    2015-12-01

    To assess the self-esteem of pediatric patients on chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and psychological status of their parents.The psychological status of 178 children receiving chemotherapy for ALL and their parents was assessed using parenting stress index (PSI) to determine the degree of stress the parents are exposed to using parent's and child's domains. Self-esteem Scale was used to determine the psychological status of patients.The study revealed significant low level of self-esteem in 84.83% of patients. Their parents had significant psychological stress. PSI was significantly associated with parents' low sense of competence, negative attachment to their children, feeling of high restriction, high depression, poor relation to spouse, high social isolation variables of parent's domains. It was significantly associated with low distraction, negative parents' reinforcement, low acceptability, and high demanding variables of child's domains. Long duration of disease was the most detrimental factor among demographic data of the patients.Chemotherapy for ALL has a significant impact on the psychological status of both patients and their parents with high prevalence of low self-esteem in children and high degree of stress in their parents.

  12. Differences between time domain and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography in imaging tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W; Wu, X

    2017-11-01

    It has been numerously demonstrated that both time domain and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) can generate high-resolution depth-resolved images of living tissues and cells. In this work, we compare the common points and differences between two methods when the continuous and random properties of live tissue are taken into account. It is found that when relationships that exist between the scattered light and tissue structures are taken into account, spectral interference measurements in Fourier domain OCT (FDOCT) is more advantageous than interference fringe envelope measurements in time domain OCT (TDOCT) in the cases where continuous property of tissue is taken into account. It is also demonstrated that when random property of tissue is taken into account FDOCT measures the Fourier transform of the spatial correlation function of the refractive index and speckle phenomena will limit the effective limiting imaging resolution in both TDOCT and FDOCT. Finally, the effective limiting resolution of both TDOCT and FDOCT are given which can be used to estimate the effective limiting resolution in various practical applications. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  14. Intra-Household Allocation of Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbi, Paula Eugenia; Parys, Juliane; Schwerhoff, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce childcare sharing in a collective model of household behavior to investigate which factors make spouses increase or decrease their share of parental leave. The concern about future consumption motivates parents to invest in their human capital and to limit their leave duration. Using relative income and the age difference between spouses as distribution factors, we cannot reject Pareto efficiency in childcare sharing. Higher relative incomes and larger age differences shift the c...

  15. Parenting begets parenting: A neurobiological perspective on early adversity and the transmission of parenting styles across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomanowska, A M; Boivin, M; Hertzman, C; Fleming, A S

    2017-02-07

    The developing brains of young children are highly sensitive to input from their social environment. Nurturing social experience during this time promotes the acquisition of social and cognitive skills and emotional competencies. However, many young children are confronted with obstacles to healthy development, including poverty, inappropriate care, and violence, and their enhanced sensitivity to the social environment means that they are highly susceptible to these adverse childhood experiences. One source of social adversity in early life can stem from parenting that is harsh, inconsistent, non-sensitive or hostile. Parenting is considered to be the cornerstone of early socio-emotional development and an adverse parenting style is associated with adjustment problems and a higher risk of developing mood and behavioral disorders. Importantly, there is a growing literature showing that an important predictor of parenting behavior is how parents, especially mothers, were parented themselves. In this review, we examine how adversity in early-life affects mothering behavior in later-life and how these effects may be perpetuated inter-generationally. Relying on studies in humans and animal models, we consider evidence for the intergenerational transmission of mothering styles. We then describe the psychological underpinnings of mothering, including responsiveness to young, executive function and affect, as well as the physiological mediators of mothering behavior, including hormones, brain regions and neurotransmitters, and we consider how development in these relevant domains may be affected by adversity experienced in early life. Finally, we explore how genes and early experience interact to predict mothering behavior, including the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding how adverse parenting begets adverse parenting in the next generation is critical for designing interventions aimed at preventing this intergenerational cycle of early adversity

  16. Parental Invalidation and the Development of Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Elizabeth; Bizumic, Boris

    2017-02-17

    Parenting behaviors and childhood experiences have played a central role in theoretical approaches to the etiology of narcissism. Research has suggested an association between parenting and narcissism; however, it has been limited in its examination of different narcissism subtypes and individual differences in parenting behaviors. This study investigates the influence of perceptions of parental invalidation, an important aspect of parenting behavior theoretically associated with narcissism. Correlational and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using a sample of 442 Australian participants to examine the relationship between invalidating behavior from mothers and fathers, and grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Results indicate that stronger recollections of invalidating behavior from either mothers or fathers are associated with higher levels of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism when controlling for age, gender, and the related parenting behaviors of rejection, coldness, and overprotection. The lowest levels of narcissism were found in individuals who reported low levels of invalidation in both parents. These findings support the idea that parental invalidation is associated with narcissism.

  17. What's the fuss about? Parent presentations of fussy eating to a parenting support helpline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly A; Ria-Searle, Bonnie; Jansen, Elena; Thorpe, Karen

    2018-06-01

    To characterise parent presentations of fussy eating and mealtime interactions at a point of crisis, through analyses of real-time recordings of calls to a parenting helpline. Qualitative analysis included an inductive thematic approach to examine clinical parent presentations of fussy eating and derive underlying themes relating to mealtime interactions. Calls made to the Child Health Line regarding feeding concerns were recorded and transcribed verbatim. From a corpus of 723 calls made during a 4-week period in 2009, twelve were from parents of children aged 6-48 months. Parents of infants (≤12 months, n 6) presented feeding concerns as learning challenges in the process of transitioning from a milk-based to a solid-based diet, while parents of toddlers (13-48 months, n 6) presented emotional accounts of feeding as an intractable problem. Parents presented their child's eating behaviour as a battle (conflict), in which their children's agency over limited intake and variety of foods (child control) was constructed as 'bad' or 'wrong'. Escalating parent anxiety (parent concern) had evoked parent non-responsive feeding practices or provision of foods the child preferred. Real-time descriptions of young children's fussy eating at a time of crisis that initiated parents' call for help have captured the highly charged emotional underpinnings of mealtime interactions associated with fussy eating. Importantly, they show the child's emerging assertion of food autonomy can escalate parents' emotional distress that, in the short term, initiates non-responsive feeding practices. The current study identifies the importance of educational and emotional support for parents across the period of introducing solids.

  18. EARLY PARENTING SUPPORT AND INFORMATION: A CONSUMER PERSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Weston, Kate; Bowd, Courtney

    2018-03-01

    The transition to parenthood is a period of both joy and challenge for most parents. There is a recognized need to support parents during this period, yet existing interventions have shown limited evidence of efficacy. This study takes a consumer-focused approach to examine the needs and preferences of parents both prenatally (n = 77) and postnatally (n = 123) for parenting support. The study used a cross-sectional design with a purpose-built online survey. Parents were recruited via online forums, Facebook and parenting blogs, childcare centers, and playgroups. In general, all parents were satisfied with their current levels of both formal and informal support, and about one fourth of parents had accessed a parenting intervention. Parents expressed a moderate level of interest in additional parenting information, and parents expecting their first baby indicated preferences for information about basic baby care needs whereas postnatally, parents expressed more interest in topics around self-care and behavior management. The implications for developing interventions and engaging families are discussed. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. High energy transients: The millisecond domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    The search for high energy transients in the millisecond domain has come to the focus in recent times due to the detection of gravitational wave events and the identification of fast radio bursts as cosmological sources. Here we highlight the sensitivity limitations in the currently operating hard X-ray telescopes and give some details of the search for millisecond events in the AstroSat CZT Imager data.

  20. New Parent Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and tactics to help keep children and families healthy, safe and strong. MilParent Power is Help for Parents May 22, 2018 @ 9: ... that’s your job — helping your kids cope in healthy ways to changing circumstances. 6 Tips to Harness Your MilParent Power March 15, 2018 @ 10:42 AM | 4 Min ...

  1. Children of Incarcerated Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Charlene Wear

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the children of incarcerated parents in California. The report estimates the number of children in California who have parents in the state's criminal justice system (jail, prison, parole, and probation) and summarizes key findings from the research literature on the impact of parental arrest and…

  2. The Parent Loan Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Marian; Supiano, Beckie; Fuller, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As the cost of college has spiraled ever upward and median family income has fallen, the loan program, called Parent PLUS, has become indispensable for increasing numbers of parents desperate to make their children's college plans work. Last year the government disbursed $10.6-billion in Parent PLUS loans to just under a million families. Even…

  3. Parenting after Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  4. Evaluation of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach by Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcinar, Zehra; Ekizoglu, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of parent involvement in children's education, research clearly shows that it is difficult to effectively involve parents. This study aims to capture parents' views of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach (BPIA) designed to secure parent involvement in education by strengthening school-parent communication. Data…

  5. Parenting Beliefs, Parental Stress, and Social Support Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee

    2012-01-01

    The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…

  6. Personality and Parenting Style in Parents of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…

  7. 5 CFR 1651.7 - Parent or parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parent or parents. 1651.7 Section 1651.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.7 Parent or parents. If the account is to be paid to the participant's parent or parents under § 1651.2(a)(4), the following...

  8. Parental attitudes and social competence in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drózdz, E; Pokorski, M

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationships among perceived parental attitudes and domains of social competence in late adolescents. Forty boys and 40 girls, all aged 18, representing a population sample of high school second graders were examined. Self-report data were collected using questionnaires of parent-child relations and of social competence. Analyses detected a significant association between the maternal loving or protective attitude and competence in interpersonal relations in the combined sample of adolescents. However, gender was a moderator of this general relationship. Maternal control fostered their sons' interpersonal relations, and no such relationship was observed toward daughters. Adolescents' behavior was somehow less influenced by fatherly control. The findings are in line with the concept of familism as a dominant form of family organization, but implicate constraints in parental sentiments whose overly expression may backfire and do more harm than good in other domains of social competence of adolescents, such as assertiveness and performance during social exposure. The study may contribute to future research on how parenting style shapes adolescent social outcomes.

  9. Intergenerational Transmission of Harsh Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined harsh parenting across generations by means of parents' and adolescents' reports. Found that grandparents who had engaged in aggressive parenting produced parents who used similar practices. Harsh discipline of male children was a function of socioeconomic characteristics. (BC)

  10. Parent-reported quality of life of children with cerebral palsy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaud, Catherine; White-Koning, Melanie; I. Michelsen, Susan

    2008-01-01

    : The parental response rates were >93% for all domains except one. Gross motor function and IQ level were found to be associated independently with quality of life in most domains. However, greater severity of impairment was not always associated with poorer quality of life; in the moods and emotions, self-perception......, social acceptance, and school environment domains, less severely impaired children were more likely to have poor quality of life. Pain was associated with poor quality of life in the physical and psychological well-being and self-perception domains. Parents with higher levels of stress were more likely...

  11. Work-Family Conflict within the Family: Crossover Effects, Perceived Parent-Child Interaction Quality, Parental Self-Efficacy, and Life Role Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Weisel, Amatzia; Tzuk, Kineret

    2007-01-01

    To better understand the work-family interface within the family domain, this study investigated crossover effects of two types of work-family conflict among 120 participants (60 married couples), these conflicts' relations with parental self-efficacy and perceived quality of parent-child interaction, and the contribution of attributions of…

  12. Don't Trust Anyone over 30: Parental Legitimacy as a Mediator between Parenting Style and Changes in Delinquent Behavior over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S.; Rebellon, Cesar J.; Van Gundy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Both law and society scholars and developmental psychologists have focused on the legitimacy of authority figures, although in different domains (police versus parents). The purpose of the current research is to bridge these two fields by examining the relations among parenting style (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive), the perception…

  13. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  14. Personal Freedom beyond Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Sellés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we distinguish between freedom in the human manifestations (intelligence, will,actions and personal freedom in the personal intimacy. This second is beyond the freedom reached bythe classic and modern thought, since it takes root in the personnel act of being. Because of it, it is not possible to characterize this freedom like the classic description as ‘domain over the own acts’, becauseit is a description of ‘categorial’ order; neither like present day ‘autonomy’ or ‘independence’, becausethe existence of one person alone is impossible, since ‘person’ means relation, personal free openingto other persons, description of the ‘transcendental’ order and, therefore, to the margin of limits.

  15. Parenting Culture Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ellie J.; Faircloth, Charlotte; Macvarish, Jan; Bristow, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    Why do we live at a time when the minutiae of how parents raise their children – how they feed them, talk to them, play with them or discipline them – have become routine sources of public debate and policy making? Why are there now so-called 'parenting experts', and social movements like Attachment Parenting, telling us that 'science says' what parents do is the cause of and solution to social problems? \\ud \\ud Parenting Culture Studies provides in-depth answers to these features of contempo...

  16. Parent-child interaction: Does parental language matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2016-11-01

    Although parental language and behaviour have been widely investigated, few studies have examined their unique and interactive contribution to the parent-child relationship. The current study explores how parental behaviour (sensitivity and non-intrusiveness) and the use of parental language (exploring and control languages) correlate with parent-child dyadic mutuality. Specifically, we investigated the following questions: (1) 'Is parental language associated with parent-child dyadic mutuality above and beyond parental behaviour?' (2) 'Does parental language moderate the links between parental behaviour and the parent-child dyadic mutuality?' (3) 'Do these differences vary between mothers and fathers?' The sample included 65 children (M age  = 1.97 years, SD = 0.86) and their parents. We observed parental behaviour, parent-child dyadic mutuality, and the type of parental language used during videotaped in-home observations. The results indicated that parental language and behaviours are distinct components of the parent-child interaction. Parents who used higher levels of exploring language showed higher levels of parent-child dyadic mutuality, even when accounting for parental behaviour. Use of controlling language, however, was not found to be related to the parent-child dyadic mutuality. Different moderation models were found for mothers and fathers. These results highlight the need to distinguish parental language and behaviour when assessing their contribution to the parent-child relationship. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Parental TV viewing, parental self-efficacy, media equipment and TV viewing among preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Thompson, Janice L

    2013-11-01

    This study examined if parental TV viewing, parental self-efficacy or access to media equipment were associated with TV viewing among UK preschool-aged children. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 252 parents of 3-5-year-old children. Parents reported child and parent TV viewing and the number of TVs, DVDs, computers, games consoles, hand-held games consoles, music players and laptop computers in the home. Parents also completed scales which assessed their self-efficacy to limit the screen viewing (SV) and promote the physical activity (PA) and their own PA self-efficacy. Analysis indicated that around two thirds of the children spent two or more hours per day watching TV while 75 % of parents watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Logistic regression models showed that children who had a parent who watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day were over five times more likely to also watch ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Each unit increase in parental self-efficacy to limit SV was associated with a 77 % reduction in the likelihood that the child watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Each additional piece of media equipment in the home was associated with a 28 % increase in the likelihood that parents watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Family-based interventions focusing on changing access to home media equipment and building parental self-efficacy to reduce child TV viewing could form part of efforts to reduce TV viewing among preschool children.

  18. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  19. Protein domain organisation: adding order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2009-01-29

    Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected degree of clustering and more domain pairs in forward and

  20. Regional climate model sensitivity to domain size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Martin; Laprise, René

    2009-05-01

    Regional climate models are increasingly used to add small-scale features that are not present in their lateral boundary conditions (LBC). It is well known that the limited area over which a model is integrated must be large enough to allow the full development of small-scale features. On the other hand, integrations on very large domains have shown important departures from the driving data, unless large scale nudging is applied. The issue of domain size is studied here by using the “perfect model” approach. This method consists first of generating a high-resolution climatic simulation, nicknamed big brother (BB), over a large domain of integration. The next step is to degrade this dataset with a low-pass filter emulating the usual coarse-resolution LBC. The filtered nesting data (FBB) are hence used to drive a set of four simulations (LBs for Little Brothers), with the same model, but on progressively smaller domain sizes. The LB statistics for a climate sample of four winter months are compared with BB over a common region. The time average (stationary) and transient-eddy standard deviation patterns of the LB atmospheric fields generally improve in terms of spatial correlation with the reference (BB) when domain gets smaller. The extraction of the small-scale features by using a spectral filter allows detecting important underestimations of the transient-eddy variability in the vicinity of the inflow boundary, which can penalize the use of small domains (less than 100 × 100 grid points). The permanent “spatial spin-up” corresponds to the characteristic distance that the large-scale flow needs to travel before developing small-scale features. The spin-up distance tends to grow in size at higher levels in the atmosphere.

  1. Regional climate model sensitivity to domain size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, Martin [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canadian Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics (CRCMD) Network, ESCER Centre, Montreal (Canada); UQAM/Ouranos, Montreal, QC (Canada); Laprise, Rene [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canadian Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics (CRCMD) Network, ESCER Centre, Montreal (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Regional climate models are increasingly used to add small-scale features that are not present in their lateral boundary conditions (LBC). It is well known that the limited area over which a model is integrated must be large enough to allow the full development of small-scale features. On the other hand, integrations on very large domains have shown important departures from the driving data, unless large scale nudging is applied. The issue of domain size is studied here by using the ''perfect model'' approach. This method consists first of generating a high-resolution climatic simulation, nicknamed big brother (BB), over a large domain of integration. The next step is to degrade this dataset with a low-pass filter emulating the usual coarse-resolution LBC. The filtered nesting data (FBB) are hence used to drive a set of four simulations (LBs for Little Brothers), with the same model, but on progressively smaller domain sizes. The LB statistics for a climate sample of four winter months are compared with BB over a common region. The time average (stationary) and transient-eddy standard deviation patterns of the LB atmospheric fields generally improve in terms of spatial correlation with the reference (BB) when domain gets smaller. The extraction of the small-scale features by using a spectral filter allows detecting important underestimations of the transient-eddy variability in the vicinity of the inflow boundary, which can penalize the use of small domains (less than 100 x 100 grid points). The permanent ''spatial spin-up'' corresponds to the characteristic distance that the large-scale flow needs to travel before developing small-scale features. The spin-up distance tends to grow in size at higher levels in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  2. Prediction Reweighting for Domain Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang Li; Shiji Song; Gao Huang

    2017-07-01

    There are plenty of classification methods that perform well when training and testing data are drawn from the same distribution. However, in real applications, this condition may be violated, which causes degradation of classification accuracy. Domain adaptation is an effective approach to address this problem. In this paper, we propose a general domain adaptation framework from the perspective of prediction reweighting, from which a novel approach is derived. Different from the major domain adaptation methods, our idea is to reweight predictions of the training classifier on testing data according to their signed distance to the domain separator, which is a classifier that distinguishes training data (from source domain) and testing data (from target domain). We then propagate the labels of target instances with larger weights to ones with smaller weights by introducing a manifold regularization method. It can be proved that our reweighting scheme effectively brings the source and target domains closer to each other in an appropriate sense, such that classification in target domain becomes easier. The proposed method can be implemented efficiently by a simple two-stage algorithm, and the target classifier has a closed-form solution. The effectiveness of our approach is verified by the experiments on artificial datasets and two standard benchmarks, a visual object recognition task and a cross-domain sentiment analysis of text. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is competitive with the state-of-the-art domain adaptation algorithms.

  3. Parental Alienation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Torun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Children who have been programmed by one parent to be alienated from the other parent are commonly seen in the context of child-custody disputes. Its primary manifestation is the child’s campaign of denigration against a parent, a campaign that has no justification. It is said to result from a combination of a programming (brainwashing parent’s indoctrinations and the child’s own contributions to the vilification of the targeted parent. Many evaluators use the term parental alienation syndrome to refer to the disorder engendered in such children. However, there is significant controversy going on about the validity of parental alienation syndrome. The purpose of this article has been to describe and help to differentiate parental alienation syndrome and abuse for mental health professionals working in the field, and discuss the arguments about the validity of this syndrome.

  4. Parent proxy-reported quality of life for children with cerebral palsy: is it related to parental psychosocial distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E; Mackinnon, A; Waters, E

    2012-07-01

    Parent-proxy reports of quality of life (QOL) are often used to guide decisions about children with cerebral palsy (CP), although little is known about the factors that influence parent-proxy reports. The aim of this study was to examine (i) the relationship between parental psychosocial distress and parent proxy-reported QOL; and (ii) whether parental psychosocial distress mediates the relationship between child impairment and proxy-reported QOL. A sample of 201 primary caregivers of children aged 4-12 years with CP completed the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children, a condition-specific QOL instrument, and a measure of psychosocial distress, the Kessler 10. The children, evenly distributed by gender (56% male) were sampled across Gross Motor Function Classification System levels (Level I = 18%, II = 28%, III = 14%, IV = 11%, V = 27%). Consistent with the hypotheses, parental distress was negatively correlated with all domains of parent proxy-reported QOL (r = -0.18 to r = -0.55). The relationship between impairment and proxy-reported QOL was mediated by parental distress for five of the seven domains of QOL (social well-being and acceptance, feelings about functioning, participation and physical health, emotional well-being and self-esteem, and pain and impact of disability). Child impairment did not predict access to services or family health. This is the first study that assesses the relationship between parental distress and proxy-reported QOL for children with CP. Although the cross-sectional nature of the available data precludes any statements of causality, the results suggest that, when using parent proxy, the parents' psychological state should also be measured. This is particularly important when, as is often the case for child disability research, proxy-reported QOL are the only available data. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Substance Use and Delinquency among Adolescents with Childhood ADHD: The Protective Role of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Belendiuk, Katharine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Several domains of parenting have been identified as important for adolescent well-being. Whether these same domains are equally beneficial for adolescents with ADHD histories remains an empirical and clinically important question. This study examined whether parental knowledge of their teen’s activities and whereabouts, consistency, support, and parent-adolescent conflict are associated with substance use and delinquency similarly for adolescents with and without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. A sample of 242 adolescents, 142 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and prospectively followed into adolescence, and 100 without ADHD in childhood, were the focus of study. The relations between adolescent-reported outcomes (i.e. substance use and delinquency) and parenting behaviors were tested using latent variable modeling to determine both the effects of general (common) and specific (unique) parenting behaviors for participants with and without a history of ADHD. Adolescents’ report of parental knowledge was a significant correlate of delinquency and substance use above and beyond other parenting variables and the variance in common across the parenting variables. More knowledge was associated with less delinquency and substance use for all participants, but parental knowledge was more strongly associated with alcohol use for adolescents with versus without childhood ADHD. These correlational findings suggest that, despite the increased difficulty of parenting youths with ADHD histories, actions taken by parents and youth to increase parental awareness may provide some protection against behavioral transgressions known to be elevated in this population. PMID:22329747

  6. Substance use and delinquency among adolescents with childhood ADHD: the protective role of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Christine A P; Cheong, JeeWon; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E; Wymbs, Brian T; Belendiuk, Katharine A; Pedersen, Sarah L

    2012-09-01

    Several domains of parenting have been identified as important for adolescent well-being. Whether these same domains are equally beneficial for adolescents with ADHD histories remains an empirical and clinically important question. This study examined whether parental knowledge of their teen's activities and whereabouts, consistency, support, and parent-adolescent conflict are associated with substance use and delinquency similarly for adolescents with and without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. A sample of 242 adolescents, 142 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and prospectively followed into adolescence, and 100 without ADHD in childhood, were the focus of study. The relations between adolescent-reported outcomes (i.e., substance use and delinquency) and parenting behaviors were tested using latent variable modeling to determine both the effects of general (common) and specific (unique) parenting behaviors for participants with and without a history of ADHD. Adolescents' report of parental knowledge was a significant correlate of delinquency and substance use above and beyond other parenting variables and the variance in common across the parenting variables. More knowledge was associated with less delinquency and substance use for all participants, but parental knowledge was more strongly associated with alcohol use for adolescents with versus without childhood ADHD. These correlational findings suggest that, despite the increased difficulty of parenting youths with ADHD histories, actions taken by parents and youth to increase parental awareness may provide some protection against behavioral transgressions known to be elevated in this population. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Multifunctionalities driven by ferroic domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. C.; Huang, Y. L.; He, Q.; Chu, Y. H.

    2014-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to ferroic systems in pursuit of advanced applications in past decades. Most recently, the emergence and development of multiferroics, which exhibit the coexistence of different ferroic natures, has offered a new route to create functionalities in the system. In this manuscript, we step from domain engineering to explore a roadmap for discovering intriguing phenomena and multifunctionalities driven by periodic domain patters. As-grown periodic domains, offering exotic order parameters, periodic local perturbations and the capability of tailoring local spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom, are introduced as modeling templates for fundamental studies and novel applications. We discuss related significant findings on ferroic domain, nanoscopic domain walls, and conjunct heterostructures based on the well-organized domain patterns, and end with future prospects and challenges in the field.

  8. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  9. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  10. Parental anxiety in childhood epilepsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chloe; Reilly, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to systematically review studies that have focused on symptoms of anxiety reported by parents of children (0-18 years) with epilepsy. PubMed was used to identify relevant studies. Selected studies were reviewed with respect to prevalence of above threshold scores and comparisons with controls on standardized measures of anxiety. Studies are also reported with respect to factors associated with parental anxiety, impact on child outcomes, and comparisons with studies that have included equivalent measures of symptoms of depression. Fifteen studies that met inclusion criteria were identified. None of the studies were population based. The percentage of parents scoring above cutoffs on standardized measures of anxiety was 9-58%. In comparison with parents of healthy controls, parents of children with epilepsy had higher mean scores in two of three studies where this was measured. Possible correlates of parental anxiety in childhood epilepsy that were considered varied widely across studies. Factors such as seizure frequency and use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been associated with parental anxiety in some but not all studies. With respect to child outcome, increased parental anxiety has been associated with lower quality of life and lower scores on adaptive behavior domains. Symptoms of anxiety are common among parents of children with epilepsy. There is a need for more systematic, representative studies to identify the prevalence of clinically significant anxiety and track the course of symptoms. Such studies will help to identify more clearly factors associated with parental anxiety and impact of symptoms on child and parent outcomes. Intervention studies are needed to evaluate approaches that target a reduction in symptoms and the potential impact on parental and child functioning. Furthermore, there is a need to evaluate the impact of antiepileptic therapies and interventions that focus on child neurobehavioral comorbidities on parental anxiety

  11. Mapping the Moral Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  12. The Cosmological Constant and Domain Walls in Orientifold Field Theories and N=1 Gluodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, Adi

    2003-01-01

    We discuss domain walls and vacuum energy density (cosmological constant) in N=1 gluodynamics and in non-supersymmetric large N orientifold field theories which have been recently shown to be planar equivalent (in the boson sector) to N=1 gluodynamics. A relation between the vanishing force between two parallel walls and vanishing cosmological constant is pointed out. This relation may explain why the cosmological constant vanishes in the orientifold field theory at leading order although the hadronic spectrum of this theory does not contain fermions in the limit N-->infinity. The cancellation is among even and odd parity bosonic contributions, due to NS-NS and R-R cancellations in the annulus amplitude of the underlying string theory. We use the open-closed string channel duality to describe interaction between the domain walls which is interpreted as the exchange of composite ``dilatons'' and ``axions'' coupled to the walls. Finally, we study some planar equivalent pairs in which both theories in the parent...

  13. Are parents eating their greens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grønhøj, Alice

    2014-01-01

    /implications - The consumption data is limited to self-report. Practical implications - The results indicate that parents can be influenced indirectly by school-based interventions targeted at their children. Future interventions should include the family with the intent to support positive interaction that might further......Purpose - We study the extent of change in parents’ fruit and vegetable consumption during a period when their children participate in a school-based healthy eating intervention. Design/methodology/approach - 256 12-year old Danish schoolchildren took part in a text-message feedback intervention...... promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. One parent of each child filled out self-administered questionnaires at three points during the 40-week long study period. In the questionnaire, stated consumption, perceived influence factors on their consumption and self-efficacy and self-regulation were measured...

  14. Contemporary research on parenting: conceptual, methodological, and translational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M

    2013-08-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered.

  15. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927

  16. Human infancy and parenting in global perspective: specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Park, Yoonjung; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Haynes, O Maurice

    2017-12-20

    We address three long-standing fundamental questions about early human development and parental caregiving within a specificity framework using data from 796 infant-mother dyads from 11 societies worldwide. Adopting a cross-society view opens a vista on universal biological origins of, and contextual influences on, infant behaviours and parenting practices. We asked: how do infant behaviours and parenting practices vary across societies? How do infant behaviours relate to other infant behaviours, and how do parent practices relate to other parent practices? Are infant behaviours and parent practices related to one another? Behaviours of firstborn five-month infants and parenting practices of their mothers were microanalysed from videorecords of extensive naturally occurring interactions in the home. In accord with behavioural specificity, biological expectations and cultural influences, we find that infants and mothers from diverse societies exhibit mean-level society differences in their behaviours and practices; domains of infant behaviours generally do not cohere, nor do domains of maternal practices; and only specific infant behaviours and mother practices correspond. Few relations were moderated by society. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Domain wall networks on solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Domain wall networks on the surface of a soliton are studied in a simple theory. It consists of two complex scalar fields, in 3+1 dimensions, with a global U(1)xZ n symmetry, where n>2. Solutions are computed numerically in which one of the fields forms a Q ball and the other field forms a network of domain walls localized on the surface of the Q ball. Examples are presented in which the domain walls lie along the edges of a spherical polyhedron, forming junctions at its vertices. It is explained why only a small restricted class of polyhedra can arise as domain wall networks

  18. Topological domain walls in helimagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, P.; Müller, J.; Köhler, L.; Rosch, A.; Kanazawa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Garst, M.; Meier, D.

    2018-05-01

    Domain walls naturally arise whenever a symmetry is spontaneously broken. They interconnect regions with different realizations of the broken symmetry, promoting structure formation from cosmological length scales to the atomic level1,2. In ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, domain walls with unique functionalities emerge, holding great promise for nanoelectronics and spintronics applications3-5. These walls are usually of Ising, Bloch or Néel type and separate homogeneously ordered domains. Here we demonstrate that a wide variety of new domain walls occurs in the presence of spatially modulated domain states. Using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we show three fundamental classes of domain walls to arise in the near-room-temperature helimagnet iron germanium. In contrast to conventional ferroics, the domain walls exhibit a well-defined inner structure, which—analogous to cholesteric liquid crystals—consists of topological disclination and dislocation defects. Similar to the magnetic skyrmions that form in the same material6,7, the domain walls can carry a finite topological charge, permitting an efficient coupling to spin currents and contributions to a topological Hall effect. Our study establishes a new family of magnetic nano-objects with non-trivial topology, opening the door to innovative device concepts based on helimagnetic domain walls.

  19. The BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaochun; Chini, Claudia Christiano Silva; He, Miao; Mer, Georges; Chen, Junjie

    2003-10-24

    The carboxyl-terminal domain (BRCT) of the Breast Cancer Gene 1 (BRCA1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved module that exists in a large number of proteins from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Although most BRCT domain-containing proteins participate in DNA-damage checkpoint or DNA-repair pathways, or both, the function of the BRCT domain is not fully understood. We show that the BRCA1 BRCT domain directly interacts with phosphorylated BRCA1-Associated Carboxyl-terminal Helicase (BACH1). This specific interaction between BRCA1 and phosphorylated BACH1 is cell cycle regulated and is required for DNA damage-induced checkpoint control during the transition from G2 to M phase of the cell cycle. Further, we show that two other BRCT domains interact with their respective physiological partners in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thirteen additional BRCT domains also preferentially bind phospho-peptides rather than nonphosphorylated control peptides. These data imply that the BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain involved in cell cycle control.

  20. Psychosocial Implications of DSD Treatment for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Amy B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the review Historically, studies of caregivers of children with DSD have been limited. Recent findings Recent data reveal that parents of young children with DSD report increased stress, anxiety, depression and decreased quality of life (QoL) in ways that are similar to parents of children with other types of chronic illnesses. Also similar to other chronic illnesses of childhood, parents of children with DSD exhibit overprotective parenting and perceive their child as being vulnerable. These emotions and behaviors exhibited by parents are concerning as they may limit an affected child’s emotional and social development over time. Perhaps more unique to the situation of DSD is the perceived, or real, child-focused stigma experienced by parents of children with DSD. Summary Interventions to improve parents’ psychosocial adaptation to their child’s medical condition, including coaching in how to discuss their child’s condition in a manner that makes them feel safe and supported, are needed to optimize outcomes for families. PMID:27584026

  1. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  2. Mexican-origin parents' work conditions and adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. [Parental alienation and the controversy surrounding psychiatric diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migchels, C; De Wachter, D

    The phenomenon of parental alienation can arise when a child allies with one parent and refuses to have contact with the other parent. The concept has attracted a great deal of attention over the last few years. There has been controversy about whether parental alienation should be recognised as a psychiatric syndrome of the alienated child caught up in a conflict between supporters and opponents. AIM: To try to determine whether parental alienation belongs to psychiatric diagnostics. METHOD: We made a careful study of various databases in order to find literature relating to parental alienation. RESULTS: Parental alienation is situated on the border between psychiatry, sociology and justice. One of the main tasks of psychiatry in this border area is to safeguard the domain of diagnostics. CONCLUSION: Because so much attention is being given to the question of whether parental alienation syndrome should be recognised as a diagnosis, there is often a tendency to ignore the possible impact of parental alienation and to pay very little attention to ways of coping with the problem.

  4. Conduct disorder in girls: neighborhoods, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chien-Ni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the social context of girls with conduct disorder (CD, a question of increasing importance to clinicians and researchers. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between three social context domains (neighborhood, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors and CD in adolescent girls, additionally testing for race moderation effects. We predicted that disadvantaged neighborhoods, family characteristics such as parental marital status, and parenting behaviors such as negative discipline would characterize girls with CD. We also hypothesized that parenting behaviors would mediate the associations between neighborhood and family characteristics and CD. Methods We recruited 93 15–17 year-old girls from the community and used a structured psychiatric interview to assign participants to a CD group (n = 52 or a demographically matched group with no psychiatric disorder (n = 41. Each girl and parent also filled out questionnaires about neighborhood, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors. Results Neighborhood quality was not associated with CD in girls. Some family characteristics (parental antisociality and parenting behaviors (levels of family activities and negative discipline were characteristic of girls with CD, but notll. There was no moderation by race. Our hypothesis that the association between family characteristics and CD would be mediated by parenting behaviors was not supported. Conclusion This study expanded upon previous research by investigating multiple social context domains in girls with CD and by selecting a comparison group who were not different in age, social class, or race. When these factors are thus controlled, CD in adolescent girls is not significantly associated with neighborhood, but is associated with some family characteristics and some types of parental behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships need to be further

  5. Self-image profile in children and adolescents with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and the quality of life in their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormez, Vahdet; Forbes, Fiona C M

    2015-01-01

    We explored the impact of clinical response to treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents on the subsequent changes in their self-image profile, the quality of life of their parents, and its effect on socio-demographic variables. Conners Rating Scales for Parents (CPRS-R) and for Teachers (CTRS-R) completed at the time of entry to the service were repeated to measure clinical response to treatment; the Self-image Profiles for Children (SIP-C) and Adolescents (SIP-A), the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL) questionnaire and postcode data were used to evaluate other domains. Data was collected for 53 boys (84%) and 10 girls (16%) with current mean age 11.5 years. Four-fifths (51/63) received pharmacological treatment and all parents were offered group parent training program. The only subscale in CPRS-R to show significance was the ADHD Index. The CTRS-R demonstrated statistically significant improvement (p Self-image Profile, children reported themselves as more Kind (p Self-image Profile of children and adolescents, but its impact on the QoL in parents was limited. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. The effectiveness of mindful parenting programs in promoting parents' and children's wellbeing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townshend, Kishani; Jordan, Zoe; Stephenson, Matthew; Tsey, Komla

    2016-03-01

    parents. Eight databases were searched for studies evaluating mindful parenting programs from 1997 to November 2014. A three-step search strategy was utilized to retrieve both published and unpublished studies written in English from PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Scopus, Psychological and Behavioral Sciences Collection, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses databases. A logic grid was developed for each of the eight databases to identify the indexing terms and synonyms for the keywords "mindful" and "parenting". Methodological limitations included small sample sizes leading to lack of statistical power, multiple testing leading to increased alpha errors in addition to information bias caused by a lack of blinding in the implementation and assessment phase. The data extraction process entailed using the standardized data extraction form from Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument to extract data from the selected studies. The heterogeneity of the samples, the measurement tools and outcomes measured precluded data synthesis through meta-analysis. Conclusions on intervention effects were based on comparisons of the overall statistical significance of the outcomes data. The search yielded 1232 articles, from which seven randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. The findings indicate mindful parenting programs may reduce parental stress, increase parents' emotional awareness of their 10-14-year-old children and reduce preschool children's symptoms associated with externalizing disorders. A recurring finding was that the mindful parenting programs reduced parents' emotional dismissal of their adolescents and preschoolers. At present, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that mindful parenting programs can improve parents' and children's wellbeing because of the methodological quality of the few studies that met the inclusion criteria. Although there is currently insufficient evidence

  7. Children's violent television viewing: are parents monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Brenner, Ruth A; Wright, Joseph L; Sachs, Hari Cheryl; Moyer, Patricia; Rao, Malla R

    2004-07-01

    Violent media exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counseling requires an understanding of norms regarding parental attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both theories of reasoned action and planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people's perceptions and intended behavior. Few data exist on violent television viewing and monitoring from a cross-section of families. By understanding the spectrum of parental attitudes, community-sensitive interventions for violence prevention can be developed. The objective of this study was to assess attitudes about and monitoring of violent television viewing from the perspective of parents. An anonymous self-report assisted survey was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians who visited child health providers at 3 sites: an urban children's hospital clinic, an urban managed care clinic, and a suburban private practice. The parent questionnaire included questions on child-rearing attitudes and practices and sociodemographic information. A total of 1004 adults who accompanied children for health visits were recruited for the study; 922 surveys were completed (participation rate: 92%). A total of 830 (90%) respondents were parents and had complete child data. Of the 830 respondents, 677 had questions on television viewing included in the survey and were the focus of this analysis. Seventy-five percent of families reported that their youngest child watched television. Of these, 53% reported always limiting violent television viewing, although 73% believed that their children viewed television violence at least 1 time a week. Among television viewers, 81% reported usually or always limiting viewing of sexual content on television and 45% reported usually or always watching television with their youngest child. Among children who watched

  8. Parent and Adolescent Reports of Parenting When a Parent Has a History of Depression: Associations with Observations of Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9% female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4% female...

  9. What Works for Parents: How Parents Support Their Children with Math Homework in Rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Tackie-Ofosu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS programs target families in deprived rural and urban communities with the objective of equipping them with skills to improve family well-being, education, and relationships. In recent years, the focus of FCS in Ghana has been on parental styles and education that foster parents’ involvement in their children's school work. Using a child-parent interactive model, a series of math activities were delivered to children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Group activities were also facilitated by the FCS staff. Parents used local materials, such as small empty cans, bottles, leaves, stones, sticks, old newspapers, and sand, to explain math concepts. Staff, parents, and children used fun activities and role plays to demonstrate developmental processes that enhance effective child development. The lessons identified were tied to the understanding of appropriate parenting styles that foster acquisition of skills for basic math concepts. At the end of the 12-week program, parents reported increased interest and confidence in math and were more proactive in supervising their children to complete their homework. The importance of the model lies in its simplicity in conveying fundamental knowledge that relates to the interwoven aspect of developmental domains to ensure children experience maximal success with math-related activities. The model also promotes acquisition of basic math skills in a naturalistic setting.

  10. Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family: Relations with parents' cultural orientations and children's emotion-related regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Main, Alexandra; Lee, Erica H

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined 2 measures of Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family context: self-reported emotional expressivity and observed emotional expression during a parent-child interaction task. Path analyses were conducted to examine the concurrent associations between measures of emotional expression and (a) parents' American and Chinese cultural orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social affiliation domains, and (b) parents' and teachers' ratings of children's emotion-related regulation. Results suggested that cultural orientations were primarily associated with parents' self-reported expressivity (rather than observed emotional expression), such that higher American orientations were generally associated with higher expressivity. Although parents' self-reported expressivity was only related to their own reports of children's regulation, parents' observed emotional expression was related to both parents' and teachers' reports of children's regulation. These results suggest that self-reported expressivity and observed emotional expression reflect different constructs and have differential relations to parents' cultural orientations and children's regulation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. When and Why Parents Prompt Their Children to Apologize: The Roles of Transgression Type and Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jee Young; Rizzo, Michael T.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Young children are sensitive to the importance of apologies, yet little is known about when and why parents prompt apologies from children. We examined these issues with parents of 3-10-year-old children (N = 483). Parents judged it to be important for children to apologize following both intentional and accidental morally-relevant transgressions, and they anticipated prompting apologies in both contexts, showing an ‘outcome bias’ (i.e., a concern for the outcomes of children’s transgressions rather than for their underlying intentions). Parents viewed apologies as less important after children’s breaches of social convention; parents recognized differences between social domains in their responses to children’s transgressions. Irrespective of parenting style, parents were influenced in similar fashion by particular combinations of transgressions and victims, though permissive parents were least likely to anticipate prompting apologies. Parents endorsed different reasons for prompting apologies as a function of transgression type, suggesting that they attend to key features of their children’s transgressions when deciding when to prompt apologies. PMID:28405175

  12. When and Why Parents Prompt Their Children to Apologize: The Roles of Transgression Type and Parenting Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig E; Noh, Jee Young; Rizzo, Michael T; Harris, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    Young children are sensitive to the importance of apologies, yet little is known about when and why parents prompt apologies from children. We examined these issues with parents of 3-10-year-old children ( N = 483). Parents judged it to be important for children to apologize following both intentional and accidental morally-relevant transgressions, and they anticipated prompting apologies in both contexts, showing an 'outcome bias' (i.e., a concern for the outcomes of children's transgressions rather than for their underlying intentions). Parents viewed apologies as less important after children's breaches of social convention; parents recognized differences between social domains in their responses to children's transgressions. Irrespective of parenting style, parents were influenced in similar fashion by particular combinations of transgressions and victims, though permissive parents were least likely to anticipate prompting apologies. Parents endorsed different reasons for prompting apologies as a function of transgression type, suggesting that they attend to key features of their children's transgressions when deciding when to prompt apologies.

  13. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  14. Resource Unavailability (RU) Per Domain Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Westberg, L.; Bader, A.; Tschofenig, Hannes; Tschofenig, H.

    2006-01-01

    This draft specifies a Per Domain Behavior that provides the ability to Diffserv nodes located outside Diffserv domain(s), e.g., receiver or other Diffserv enabled router to detect when the resources provided by the Diffserv domain(s) are not available. The unavailability of resources in the domain

  15. Effects of parental cultural and economic status on adolescents’ life course preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijer, M.G.; Nagel, I.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent adolescents' ideas about their future life course in the professional and family domain are influenced by the cultural and economic status of their parents, and to what extent these influences are mediated by parents' own preferences for their child's future life

  16. Longitudinal Associations between Adolescent Perceived Degree and Style of Parental Prohibition and Internalization and Defiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Van Petegem, Stijn; Duriez, Bart

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived degree and style of parental prohibition and adolescents' internalization of and oppositional defiance against parental rules in the friendship and moral domain. Relations were investigated in 2 longitudinal adolescent samples (total N = 532). Results indicated that perceived style but not…

  17. Non-volatile polarization switch of magnetic domain wall velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.; Stolichnov, I.; Setter, N. [Ceramics Laboratory, EPFL-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland); Bernand-Mantel, A.; Schott, Marine; Pizzini, S.; Ranno, L. [University of Grenoble Alpes, Institut Néel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut Néel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Auffret, S.; Gaudin, G. [SPINTEC, UMR-8191, CEA/CNRS/UJF/GINP, INAC, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-21

    Controlled propagation speed of individual magnetic domains in metal channels at the room temperature is obtained via the non-volatile field effect associated with the switchable polarization of P(VDF-TrFE) (polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) ferroelectric polymer. Polarization domains directly written using conducting atomic force microscope probe locally accelerate/decelerate the magnetic domains in the 0.6 nm thick Co film. The change of the magnetic domain wall velocity is consistent with the magnetic anisotropy energy modulation through the polarization upward/downward orientation. Excellent retention is observed. The demonstrated local non-destructive and reversible change of magnetic properties via rewritable patterning of ferroelectric domains could be attractive for exploring the ultimate limit of miniaturization in devices based on ferromagnetic/ferroelectric bilayers.

  18. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  19. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huver, R.M.E.; Otten, R.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived

  20. Parental Involvement in Mathematics: Giving Parents a Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, S.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why parents become involved in their children's education is crucial in strengthening the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement. The present study focuses on the parental role construction and parental self-efficacy. The resulting trends suggest that parents, regardless of their self-efficacy, may assume…

  1. Parenting Training for Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Cochrane Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…

  2. Parenting Styles and Conceptions of Parental Authority during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1995-01-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 100 mostly white, middle-class, 6th, 8th, and 10th graders and their parents. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Differences were primarily over the…

  3. Parents' Perspectives on Parental Notification of College Students' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosden, Merith; Hughes, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Although many colleges and universities use "parental notification" to inform parents of students' alcohol use, the impact of this intervention on student and parent behavior is unclear. Surveys were obtained from 326 parents of university undergraduates, 56 of whom had received a notification. Parent responses to the notification were…

  4. Scaling properties of domain wall networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, A. M. M.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the cosmological evolution of domain wall networks, taking advantage of recent improvements in computing power. We carry out high-resolution field theory simulations in two, three and four spatial dimensions to study the effects of dimensionality and damping on the evolution of the network. Our results are consistent with the expected scale-invariant evolution of the network, which suggests that previous hints of deviations from this behavior may have been due to the limited dynamical range of those simulations. We also use the results of very large (1024 3 ) simulations in three cosmological epochs to provide a calibration for the velocity-dependent one-scale model for domain walls: we numerically determine the two free model parameters to have the values c w =0.5±0.2 and k w =1.1±0.3.

  5. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  6. Social Support and Parental Stress among Parents of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An International Comparison of United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to experience high parental stress compared to other parents, and social support has been identified in previous research as an effective buffer against stress. However, limited research has evaluated the associations between different types of social support and stress…

  7. Parenting and childhood atopic dermatitis: A cross-sectional study of relationships between parenting behaviour, skin care management, and disease severity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amy E; Fraser, Jennifer A; Morawska, Alina; Ramsbotham, Joanne; Yates, Patsy

    2016-12-01

    ineffective parenting strategies. Self-efficacy for managing difficult child behaviour and self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis were positively correlated (rho=0.48, ppermissive (r=0.35, p=0.005) and less authoritarian (r=0.41, p=0.001) parenting. Directly observed aversive child behaviour was associated with more severe atopic dermatitis, parent stress, and parent-reported child behaviour problems. This study revealed relationships between parents' self-efficacy and parenting practices across the domains of child behaviour management and atopic dermatitis management. Parents of children with more severe atopic dermatitis may have difficulty responding to child behaviour difficulties appropriately, potentially impacting on illness management. Incorporating parent and parenting support within treatment plans may improve not only child and family wellbeing, but also treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First ...

  9. Review of parental activation interventions for parents of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, M; Krischer, A; Stolley, M; Magaña, S; Martin, M

    2018-05-01

    A large number of U.S. children are identified as having special health care needs (CSHCN). Despite parents' central role in managing their child's needs, many parents report difficulties in navigating service systems, finding information about their child's condition, and accessing health care and community resources. Therefore, there is a need for interventions that "activate" parents of children with special health care needs to increase their knowledge, skills, and confidence in managing, coordinating, and advocating for their child's needs. This study sought to review the existing literature and examine the effects of parent support interventions that focus on parental activation either in part or whole, on child, parent, or family outcomes. Specific aims included (a) summarizing the nature and content of interventions; (b) describing changes in relevant outcomes; (c) identifying limitations and making recommendations for future research. Following electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO via ProQuest, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health via EBSCO, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) via ProQuest, The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register), and Google Scholar. Twenty-two studies were selected, data were extracted, and quality was assessed using standardized procedures. Five intervention categories were identified: parent-to-parent supports, psycho-educational groups, content-specific groups, community health worker model, and self-management-based interventions. Although most studies showed positive effects of the intervention, evidence was inconsistent for parental outcomes such as self-efficacy, confidence, strain, depression, and perceived social support. Evidence was more consistent in showing improvement in parent coping and in use of community-based services and resources. There is a need to boost active

  10. Positive parenting: a randomised controlled trial evaluation of the Parents Plus Adolescent Programme in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, Eileen; Hannon, Geraldine; Rickard, Eóin; Houghton, Sharon; Sharry, John

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Parents Plus Adolescents Programme (PPAP)-a parent training course specifically targeting parents of young adolescents (aged 11-16 years)-when delivered as a preventative programme in community school settings. A sample of 126 parents (mean age of children = 12.34 years; range = 10-16 years) were randomly assigned to either a treatment (PPAP; n = 82) or a waiting-list control condition (WC; n = 44). Analyses are based on a study-completer sample post-treatment (n = 109 parents: PPAP n = 70; WC n = 39) and sample at 6 month follow up (n = 42 parents). Both post-treatment (between groups) and 6-month follow-up comparisons of study completers (within PPAP group) revealed significant positive effects of the parenting intervention with respect to adolescent behaviour problems and parenting stress. The post treatment comparisons demonstrated large effect sizes on global measures of child difficulties (partial eta squared = 0.15) and self-reported parent stress (partial eta squared = 0.22); there was a moderate effect size on the self-reported parent satisfaction (partial eta squared = 0.13). This study provides preliminary evidence that PPAP may be an effective model of parent-training implemented in a community-based setting. The strengths and limitations of the study are discussed.

  11. Cultural Orientation and Parent Emotion in the Chinese American Immigrant Family:

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    The present dissertation used a developmental, sociocultural models approach to culture and emotion, and examined the prospective relations of immigrant parents' cultural orientations and their expression of emotion in the family context. Chinese American immigrant parents (n=210) with elementary-aged children were assessed at two time points approximately two years apart. Parents reported on their own and their children's patterns of engagement in both Chinese and American cultural domains. ...

  12. Apoplastic domains and sub-domains in the shoots of etiolated corn seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, B. L.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Light Green, an apoplastic probe, was applied to the cut mesocotyl base or to the cut coleoptile apex of etiolated seedlings of Zea mays L. cv. Silver Queen. Probe transport was measured and its tissue distribution determined. In the mesocotyl, there is an apoplastic barrier between cortex and stele. This barrier creates two apoplastic domains which are non-communicating. A kinetic barrier exists between the apoplast of the mesocotyl stele and that of the coleoptile. This kinetic barrier is not absolute and there is limited communication between the apoplasts of the two regions. This kinetic barrier effectively creates two sub-domains. In the coleoptile, there is communication between the apoplast of the vascular strands and that of the surrounding cortical tissue. No apoplastic communication was observed between the coleoptile cortex and the mesocotyl cortex. Thus, the apoplastic space of the coleoptile cortex is a sub-domain of the integrated coleoptile domain and is separate from that of the apoplastic domain of the mesocotyl cortex.

  13. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...... chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method...

  14. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Maternal Parenting Stress: The Role of Structural Disadvantages and Parenting Values

    OpenAIRE

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albe...

  15. The Incredible Years Parent-Toddler Programme and parental language: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, N; Hutchings, J; Baker-Henningham, H

    2015-01-01

    Parental language is associated with children's later language development. Parenting programmes, based on social learning theory, enhance a range of parenting behaviours, yet there is limited evidence for their effect on parental language. To assess the benefits of a behavioural-based parenting programme, which features components of language and communication, to enhance parental language. Parents of toddlers, aged 12 to 36 months, were recruited from eight Flying Start early intervention centres across Wales. Participants were randomised 2:1 either to a parenting programme (n = 60) or to a wait-list control group (n = 29). Researchers were blind to participant allocation throughout the trial. Fifteen-minute video-recorded observations of parents and children interacting during free-play, both at a pre-intervention and at 6-month follow-up, provided the data for the study. Five observed measures of parental language were assessed; quantity and variety, encouraging, critical, child-led and parent led interactions. The Incredible Years Parent-Toddler Programme (IYPTP) is a 12-week group-based behavioural intervention that teaches effective relationship and behavioural management skills including social, emotional and persistence coaching to enable parents to better support their children's development. Of 89 dyads that completed pre-intervention assessments 81 (54 intervention and 27 control) met the criteria for the current study. Intention to treat analysis indicated that child-led language interactions significantly benefited from the intervention [regression coefficient (B) = -1.44, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = -2.59 to -0.29, P = 0.015, effect size (ES) = 0.47] and a positive trend for encouraging language in favour of the intervention sample was evident. Per-protocol sample analysis replicated these findings with encouraging language reaching statistical significance (B = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.11 to 2.03, P = 0.03, ES = 0.52). No further benefits were evident

  16. Parental decision making about the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D; Othus, Megan K D; Shelton, Rachel C; Li, Yi; Norman, Nancy; Tom, Laura; del Carmen, Marcela G

    2010-09-01

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are available, but uptake is suboptimal. Information on factors influencing parental decisions regarding vaccination will facilitate the development of successful interventions. Parents of girls ages 9 to 17 years (n = 476; cooperation rate = 67%) from a panel of U.S. households completed online surveys between September 2007 and January 2008, documenting vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and intentions. Among those aware of the vaccine, 19% had already vaccinated their daughter(s), 34% intended to, 24% were undecided, and 24% had decided against vaccination. Awareness of HPV was high but knowledge levels were suboptimal (mean 72%, SEM 0.8%). Black and Hispanic parents were significantly less likely to be aware of the vaccine compared with White parents. In multivariate analyses, compared with parents who opposed vaccination, those who had already vaccinated their daughter(s) or who intended to do so had more positive attitudes, reported fewer barriers, and were more likely to perceive that family and friends would endorse vaccination. They also reported higher levels of trust in pharmaceutical companies that produce the vaccine. Despite limited knowledge, most parents had decided to vaccinate their daughter(s). Given evidence of diminished access to information among Black and Hispanic parents, programs should focus on reaching these groups. Interventions should address parental concerns about behavioral consequences, reduce structural barriers, and promote the perception that vaccination is endorsed by significant others. Moreover, interventions may need to address mistrust of pharmaceutical companies. IMPACT STATEMENT: This study documents factors associated with parental decisions about HPV vaccination for their daughter(s) and provides direction for intervention development. (c)2010 AACR.

  17. Parental sedentary restriction, maternal parenting style, and television viewing among 10- to 11-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K; Thompson, Janice L; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-09-01

    To examine whether parenting styles or practices were associated with children's television (TV) viewing. A total of 431 parent-child dyads (10- to 11-year-old children) from Bristol, United Kingdom, were included. Child and parent TV viewing were self-reported and categorized as 4 hours/day. Children reported maternal parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive). Child-reported maternal and paternal sedentary restriction scores were combined to create a family-level restriction score. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether child TV viewing was predicted by parenting style or family restriction. A greater proportion of children with permissive mothers watched >4 hours of TV per day, compared with children with authoritarian or authoritative mothers (P = .033). A greater proportion of children for whom both parents demonstrated high restriction watched 4 hours (vs 4 hours of TV per day was 5.2 times higher for children with permissive (versus authoritative) mothers (P = .010). Clinicians need to talk directly with parents about the need to place limitations on children's screen time and to encourage both parents to reinforce restriction messages.

  18. Polar Domain Discovery with Sparkler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ottilingam, N. K.; Singh, K.; Lopez, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific web is vast and ever growing. It encompasses millions of textual, scientific and multimedia documents describing research in a multitude of scientific streams. Most of these documents are hidden behind forms which require user action to retrieve and thus can't be directly accessed by content crawlers. These documents are hosted on web servers across the world, most often on outdated hardware and network infrastructure. Hence it is difficult and time-consuming to aggregate documents from the scientific web, especially those relevant to a specific domain. Thus generating meaningful domain-specific insights is currently difficult. We present an automated discovery system (Figure 1) using Sparkler, an open-source, extensible, horizontally scalable crawler which facilitates high throughput and focused crawling of documents pertinent to a particular domain such as information about polar regions. With this set of highly domain relevant documents, we show that it is possible to answer analytical questions about that domain. Our domain discovery algorithm leverages prior domain knowledge to reach out to commercial/scientific search engines to generate seed URLs. Subject matter experts then annotate these seed URLs manually on a scale from highly relevant to irrelevant. We leverage this annotated dataset to train a machine learning model which predicts the `domain relevance' of a given document. We extend Sparkler with this model to focus crawling on documents relevant to that domain. Sparkler avoids disruption of service by 1) partitioning URLs by hostname such that every node gets a different host to crawl and by 2) inserting delays between subsequent requests. With an NSF-funded supercomputer Wrangler, we scaled our domain discovery pipeline to crawl about 200k polar specific documents from the scientific web, within a day.

  19. A systematic review investigating associations between parenting style and child feeding behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C; Duncanson, K; Burrows, T

    2014-12-01

    A direct association between parenting style and child feeding behaviours has not been established. This review explores whether an authoritative, authoritarian or permissive parenting style is associated with parental pressure to eat, responsibility, monitoring or restriction of child dietary intake. A search of eight electronic health databases was conducted. Inclusion criteria were children aged parenting style and child feeding behaviours. Seven studies (n = 1845) were identified in the review. An authoritarian parenting style was associated with pressuring a child to eat and having restrictive parental food behaviours. Authoritative parenting was associated with parental monitoring of child food intake. A permissive parenting style was inversely related to monitoring of child dietary intake. Parenting styles showed only weak to moderate associations with individual domains of child feeding. The most consistent relationship found was a negative association between permissive parenting and monitoring for both mothers and fathers in two studies. Progress in this field could be achieved by conducting studies targeting fathers and culturally diverse populations, and development of a tool which could reflect overall child feeding behaviour rather than individual domains. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Parenting behavior is associated with the early neurobehavioral development of very preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Anderson, Vicki A; Howard, Kelly; Bear, Merilyn; Hunt, Rod W; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Woodward, Lianne; Anderson, Peter J

    2009-02-01

    There is an increasing focus on social and environmental factors that promote and support the early development of highly vulnerable children such as those born very preterm. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between parenting behavior, parent-child synchrony, and neurobehavioral development in very preterm children at 24 months of age. Participants were 152 very preterm children (Cognitive and motor development was assessed by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, and the Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment was used to assess socioemotional development (social-emotional competence and internalizing and externalizing behavior). fter controlling for social risk, most parenting domains were associated with cognitive development, with parent-child synchrony emerging as the most predictive. Greater parent-child synchrony was also associated with greater social-emotional competence, as was parenting that was positive, warm, and sensitive. Parents who displayed higher levels of negative affect were more likely to rate their children as withdrawn, anxious, and inhibited, but, unexpectedly, higher negative affect was also associated with more optimal psychomotor development. Parenting was not associated with externalizing behaviors at this age. Specific parenting behaviors, particularly parent-child synchrony, were associated with neurobehavioral development. These findings have implications for the development of targeted parent-based interventions to promote positive outcomes across different developmental domains during the first 2 years of life for very preterm children.

  1. Children with Autism: Quality of Life and Parental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca A.; Louie, Brian B.; Newschaffer, Craig J.

    2008-01-01

    Past research has shown that children with autism and their families have compromised quality of life (QOL) in several domains. This study examined QOL and parental concerns in children with autism during early childhood, childhood, and adolescence compared to children with Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder…

  2. Japanese Adolescents' Disclosure and Information Management with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Larry; Smetana, Judith; Araki, Noriyuki; Nakaue, Masataka; Comer, Jessamy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' obligation to disclose and their actual disclosure about their activities to parents, justifications for nondisclosure, and strategies for information management were examined in different domains in 460 middle adolescents (M[subscript age] = 16.6 years) from working and middle-class families in Japan. Adolescents felt most obligated…

  3. Reaching Out to Single Parent Children through Filial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivandi Vafa, Marziyeh; Khaidzir Hj. Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Single parenthood as a common psychosocial phenomenon seems to be regarded as one of the most significant issues in the psychological domain and needs to be taken into serious consideration due to emotional, psychological, and social problems created by it. With regard to the rapidly growing population of single parents and their children…

  4. Seven Ways Parents Help Children Unleash Their Talents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    In his work, psychologist Benjamin Bloom concluded that almost all people can learn anything if provided with the right conditions, and that when a child commits to a talent area, parents must commit as well. Author Ken Kiewra studied real-world prodigies in various domains and shares his perspective on the conditions necessary for success and on…

  5. School Violence: The Role of Parental and Community Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesneskie, Eric; Block, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This study utilizes the School Survey on Crime and Safety to identify variables that predict lower levels of violence from four domains: school security, school climate, parental involvement, and community involvement. Negative binomial regression was performed and the findings indicate that statistically significant results come from all four…

  6. Parental perceptions of teen driving: Restrictions, worry and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A; Bhat, Geeta

    2016-12-01

    Parents play a critical role in preventing crashes among teens. Research of parental perceptions and concerns regarding teen driving safety is limited. We examined results from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey that queried parents about restrictions placed on their teen drivers, their perceived level of "worry" about their teen driver's safety, and influence of parental restrictions regarding their teen's driving. We produced frequency distributions for the number of restrictions imposed, parental "worry," and influence of rules regarding their teen's driving, reported by teen's driving license status (learning to drive or obtained a driver's license). Response categories were dichotomized because of small cell sizes, and we ran separate log-linear regression models to explore whether imposing all four restrictions on teen drivers was associated with either worry intensity ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all") or perceived influence of parental rules ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all"). Among the 456 parent respondents, 80% reported having restrictions for their teen driver regarding use of safety belts, drinking and driving, cell phones, and text messaging while driving. However, among the 188 parents of licensed teens, only 9% reported having a written parent-teen driving agreement, either currently or in the past. Worrying "a lot" was reported less frequently by parents of newly licensed teens (36%) compared with parents of learning teens (61%). Parents report having rules and restrictions for their teen drivers, but only a small percentage formalize the rules and restrictions in a written parent-teen driving agreement. Parents worry less about their teen driver's safety during the newly licensed phase, when crash risk is high as compared to the learning phase. Further research is needed into how to effectively support parents in supervising and monitoring their teen driver. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. One size does not fit all-qualitative process evaluation of the Healthy School Start parental support programme to prevent overweight and obesity among children in disadvantaged areas in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Åsa; Nyberg, Gisela; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer; Berlin, Anita

    2016-01-14

    Parental support interventions have shown some effectiveness in improving children's dietary and physical activity habits and preventing overweight and obesity. To date, there is limited research on barriers and facilitators of school-based parental support interventions targeting overweight and obesity. This study aimed to describe barriers and facilitators influencing implementation of the Healthy School Start (HSS) intervention in disadvantaged areas in Stockholm, Sweden, from the perspective of parents and teachers. Focus groups and individual interviews with teachers (n = 10) and focus groups with parents (n = 14) in the intervention group of the HSS were undertaken, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Transcriptions were analysed using qualitative content analysis in two steps: deductive sorting in two domains of the CFIR (intervention characteristics and process), and subsequent inductive analysis. The overarching theme "tailoring the intervention to increase participant engagement" was found. Among teachers, barriers and facilitators were related to how the intervention was introduced, perceptions of the usefulness of the classroom material, preparation ahead of the start of the intervention, cooperation between home and school and children's and parents' active engagement in the intervention activities. For parents, barriers and facilitators were related to the perceived relevance of the intervention, usefulness of the material, experiences of the Motivational Interviewing (MI) sessions, the family member targeted by the intervention, cooperation between home and school and parents' ability to act as good role models. It seems important to tailor the intervention to the abilities of the target group in order to increase participant engagement. Including activities that focus on parents as role models and cooperation between parents seems important to bring about changes in the home environment. It also appears important

  8. Domain shape instabilities and dendrite domain growth in uniaxial ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, Andrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of domain wall shape instabilities and the formation of nanodomains in front of moving walls obtained in various uniaxial ferroelectrics are discussed. Special attention is paid to the formation of self-assembled nanoscale and dendrite domain structures under highly non-equilibrium switching conditions. All obtained results are considered in the framework of the unified kinetic approach to domain structure evolution based on the analogy with first-order phase transformation. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  9. Separated matter and antimatter domains with vanishing domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Godunov, S.I.; Rudenko, A.S.; Tkachev, I.I., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: sgodunov@itep.ru, E-mail: a.s.rudenko@inp.nsk.su, E-mail: tkachev@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Physics Department and Laboratory of Cosmology and Elementary Particle Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova st. 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-01

    We present a model of spontaneous (or dynamical) C and CP violation where it is possible to generate domains of matter and antimatter separated by cosmologically large distances. Such C(CP) violation existed only in the early universe and later it disappeared with the only trace of generated baryonic and/or antibaryonic domains. So the problem of domain walls in this model does not exist. These features are achieved through a postulated form of interaction between inflaton and a new scalar field, realizing short time C(CP) violation.

  10. What matters most - what parents model or what parents eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Martin, Chantel L; Ward, Dianne S

    2018-03-28

    Parents have a strong influence on their children's eating habits; however, researchers struggle to identify which food parenting practices to recommend. This study examined the influence of parents modeling of healthy eating ("parent role modeling") and parents' actual food intake ("parent dietary intake") on child diet quality, and explored whether these practices work together to influence children's diets. Baseline data from a larger intervention trial were used for this analysis. The sample included parents of preschool-age children from households with at least one overweight parent. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire was used to assess parent modeling of healthy eating ("healthy modeling"). Three days of dietary recalls were used to collect parents' report of their own intake and their children's intake (excluding food at child care). Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent intake of healthy and unhealthy foods were explored using Pearson correlations. Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score on child HEI score were examined with linear regression. Additionally, the interaction between parent healthy modeling and HEI score on child HEI score was tested. Parent healthy modeling was significantly correlated with parent intake of healthy foodsLinear regression showed a significant association between parent modeling and child HEI score, even after controlling for parent diet (β = 3.08, SE = 0.87, p parents had high parent healthy modeling scores had higher HEI scores (mean = 61.5 ± 10.4) regardless of parent HEI score. We did not find evidence that parent healthy modeling and diet quality interact to influence child diet quality. Parents' healthy modeling is an important practice in influencing children's diet quality, possibly more so than the quality of parents' diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A systematic review of interventions to promote social support and parenting skills in parents with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S; McKenzie, K; Quayle, E; Murray, G

    2014-01-01

    The family support needs of parents with an intellectual disability (ID) are relatively unknown. This paper reviewed two types of intervention for parents with ID: those designed to strengthen social relationships and those teaching parenting skills. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases and a limited number of evaluative studies were found. The evidence for interventions aimed at strengthening social relationships was inconclusive; although positive changes were observed, there were limitations in study design which restricted the generalizability of the results. The evidence for parental skills teaching suggested that behavioural based interventions are more effective than less intensive forms such as lesson booklets and the provision of normal services, although these studies also had limitations. There is a need for further large scale controlled studies in this area to provide clearer evidence and to explore additional factors relating to child, parent and family which may impact on outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A parent-child dyad approach to the assessment of health status and health-related quality of life in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Wendy J; Boydell, Katherine; Dell, Sharon; Feldman, Brian M; Marshall, Deborah; Willan, Andrew; Wright, James G

    2012-08-01

    Assessment of health state and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) are limited by a child's age and cognitive ability. Parent-proxy reports are known to differ from children's reports. Simultaneous assessment using a parent-child dyad is an alternative approach. Our objective was to assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of a parent-child dyad approach to utility and HR-QOL assessment of paediatric asthma health states. The setting was specialist care in a hospital-based asthma clinic. Participants were 91 girls and boys with asthma aged 8 to 17 years and 91 parents. The intervention employed was parent-child dyad administration of the Health Utilities Index (HUI) 2 and 3, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Core and Asthma modules, and the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). Questionnaires were administered by interview to children and parents separately and then together as a dyad to assess the child's health state. The dyad interview was repeated at the next clinic visit. Dyad-child agreement was measured by intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient; Spearman correlations were used to assess convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 28 children who remained clinically stable between visits with a two-way ICC coefficient. Responsiveness to change from baseline was assessed with Spearman coefficients in 30 children who demonstrated clinical change between visits. There was no significant agreement between parent and child for the HUI2 or HUI3 whereas agreement between dyad and child was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36, 0.69) for the HUI2 and 0.74 (95% CI 0.61, 0.82) for the HUI3 overall. With respect to dyad performance characteristics, both HUI2 and HUI3 overall scores demonstrated moderate convergent validity with the generic PedsQL™ Core domains (range r = 0.30-0.52; p  0.4; p < 0.05) was observed for dyad HUI2 total score change over time as correlated with dyad

  13. Attachment, parenting styles and bullying during pubertal years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Watt, Ronél

    2014-01-01

    Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent-adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents. Attachment processes and parenting styles may elicit dissimilar perceptions. These processes are also associated with the multifaceted dynamics of bullying. The aim of the article is to advocate for research on the possible link between the implications of attachment, parenting styles and bullying. Exploring the association between attachment, parenting styles and bullying can deepen the understanding of the developmental challenges within the parent-adolescent relationship, add insight to the different perceptions of adolescents and parents, and complement intervention programmes accordingly. Firstly, this article outlines bio-psychosocial changes in the pubertal years as related to the social realities of the adolescent. Secondly, a discussion on the concepts 'attachment', 'parenting styles', 'bullying', and the potential link between these concepts will follow. Thirdly, an outline of the clinical implications of the apparent association between these concepts is given. The article concludes with recommendations that researchers can consider while exploring the relationship between attachment, parenting styles, and bullying and the delineation thereof in the parent-adolescent relationship.

  14. The Discourse of Parent Involvement in Special Education: A Critical Analysis Linking Policy Documents to the Experiences of Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yuan; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement is acknowledged as a crucial aspect of the education of students with special needs. However, the discourse of parent involvement represents parent involvement in limited ways, thereby controlling how and the extent to which parents can be involved in the education of their children. In this article, critical discourse analysis…

  15. Expectations of Parents of First-Year Students regarding Collegiate Teaching and Caring at a Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Christina J.

    2010-01-01

    Parental involvement in higher education has greatly increased, specifically in the last 30 years. Some parents are hyper-involved in their children's lives, and educational leaders often spend almost as much time working with parents as they do students. The body of literature on parental involvement in higher education is limited. Therefore, the…

  16. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  17. Parental divorce and sibling relationships : a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, A.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of

  18. Children's Reported Communication with Their Parents about War

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Colleen J.; Blankemeyer, Maureen; Walker, Kathleen K.; Dellmann-Jenkins, Mary

    2007-01-01

    There is increased interest by parents in communicating with their children about political violence. However, limited attention in the scholarly literature has focused on parent-child communication about war and terrorism. In response, the purpose of this study is to assess, within their respective ecological contexts, American and Northern Irish…

  19. Interventions Designed To Promote Parent-Teen Communication about Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Douglas; Miller, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes different approaches used to increase parent-child communication about sexuality and summarizes studies that have measured their impact. Focuses primarily on the impact of programs on parent-child communication, but also summarizes the limited research on the impact of such programs on adolescent sexual behavior, or on other determinants…

  20. Latino Parent Perspectives: How to Promote and Implement Additive Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enstice, Emily M.

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research that investigates parent perspectives with respect to their early elementary school children's home language use. The findings reported in this article are part of a dissertation study on parent perceptions of bilingualism conducted in Northern California. To fill the gap in research, this study investigates how first…

  1. Increasing Responsive Parent-Child Interactions and Joint Engagement: Comparing the Influence of Parent-Mediated Intervention and Parent Psychoeducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing immediate and contingent responding by caregivers to children's signals is an important strategy to support social interactions between caregivers and their children with autism. Yet, there has been limited examination of parents' responsive behaviour in association with children's social behaviour post caregiver-mediated intervention.…

  2. Interactions with parents and friends among chronically ill children: examining social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzer, Michele; Umfress, Kris; Aljadeff, Gabriel; Ghai, Kanika; Zakowski, Sandra G

    2009-12-01

    Children with medical conditions often experience a combination of positive and negative social interactions with parents and friends. Adult research examining cross-domain buffering effects has documented that supportive social ties can make up for shortcomings in other social relationships. This study examined whether negative effects of strained relationships with loved ones can be buffered when children feel supported by individuals in different support networks (i.e., cross-domain buffering effects). Children with Type I diabetes (n = 56), chronic asthma (n = 54), and cystic fibrosis (n = 17) completed questionnaires during an outpatient hospital visit that assessed perceptions of support and strain from parents and friends, quality of life, self-concept, and emotional/behavioral difficulties. Parental strain was conceptualized as parental overprotection and parental rejection. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that friend support buffered the adverse effects of parental strain on child quality of life, self-concept, and emotional/behavioral difficulties. Interestingly, parental support did not buffer the negative effects of experiencing strained relationships with friends; only main effects on outcome were found. These findings partially support our hypotheses of cross-domain buffering. In this study, friendships were a protective factor for children who experienced strained relationships with parents. In contrast, although parent support had a direct impact on child outcome, it did not make up for feeling rejected by friends. Because close relationships are often strained during medical stressors, findings underscore the importance of promoting social connectedness in chronically ill children to maximize opportunities for experiencing positive social relationships.

  3. Exploring Filipino Adolescents' Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Parental Authority over Academic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2010-01-01

    Filipino adolescents' perceptions regarding the legitimacy of parental control over academic behaviors was investigated. It was assumed that the adolescents would differentiate between the issues inherent in various types or domains of academic behaviors. The results revealed three domains of academic behaviors: learning processes, college major…

  4. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Ellison, Christopher G

    2012-12-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one's custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family-but not a stepparent family-is positively associated with religious disaffiliation and religious switching and negatively associated with regular religious attendance. Accounting for parental religious characteristics, however, explains sizable proportions of these relationships. Accounting for parental religious affiliation and attendance, growing up with a single parent does not significantly affect religious attendance. Parental religiosity also moderates the relationship between growing up with a single parent and religious attendance: being raised in a single-parent home has a negative effect on religious attendance among adults who had two religiously involved parents.

  5. Building Relationships with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullaj, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Communicating with parents may seem like one more task on top of an overwhelming workload, but creating a positive relationship with parents has many benefits for all involved. The author discusses the steps to creating these relationships and communicating with families.

  6. Handling "Helicopter Parents"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Once upon a time, parents would help their children move into dorm rooms and apartments, then wave good-bye for the semester. Not anymore. Baby boomers have arguably been more involved in their children's educations--and their lives in general--than any preceding generation of parents, university observers say. And boomers see no reason why that…

  7. Parenting, Pressures and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Graham W.

    2000-01-01

    In the 1990s, parenting became a difficult effort to balance work demands with children's needs. However, Canadian and U.S. government policies have not met changing family needs for child care, other services, paid parental leave, and work flexibility. Canada's long-awaited National Children's Agenda has the potential to modernize family policy…

  8. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ...

  9. Parents, Peers and Pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Marsha

    This book looks at the problem of drug abuse, particularly the use of marihuana by children ages 9 to 14, and describes one strategy parents can use to prevent drug use by their children. On the premise that nonmedical drug use is not acceptable for children, parents need to provide guidance and exercise discipline with respect to drug use among…

  10. Parent Involvement Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arna

    This handbook on parent involvement, designed to be used with preschool programs, was developed by the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado. Included are: (1) a general statement about parent involvement in an early childhood program, (2) a description of the Jefferson County Early Childhood Program, (3) a description of the…

  11. Pinterest for Parent Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, Brianna; Langworthy, Sara; Jastram, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    As more parents are using the Internet to answer their questions, Extension needs to provide practical, research-based resources in an accessible format. Pinterest is a platform that can be used by Extension educators to provide continued education and make reputable resources more discoverable for parents. Based on Knowles adult learning theory…

  12. Gay and Lesbian Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Gay and Lesbian Parents Page Content Article Body I am gay. Should I worry how this will affect my children? Millions of children have one or more gay and/or lesbian parents. For some children, having ...

  13. Sexism in Parenting Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrain, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Parental roles, as delineated in many of the popular parenting manuals on the market, are reviewed and assessed. It is concluded that the vast majority of authors of child-rearing guides implicity or explicitly endorse the traditional roles of father as the dominant breadwinner and mother as the nurturant caretaker. (Author)

  14. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  15. Parenting: An Ecological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom, Ed.; Okagaki, Lynn, Ed.

    This book examines various aspects of parenting and influences on parents, including such key contexts affecting child development as school, neighborhood, and culture. After a forward by Urie Bronfenbrenner and a preface by Tom Luster and Lynn Okagaki, which together help to introduce the topics to be discussed, the book is divided into nine…

  16. Parents on education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex Herweijer; Ria Vogels

    2004-01-01

    Original title: Ouders over opvoeding en onderwijs. The position of parents with regard to children' education has been changing in recent years: the government believes that they should have a major influence on what happens at their children's school, and also that parents and schools should

  17. Evolution and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardwick, Judith M.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the theory and research on the physiological or genetic origins of parenting behavior, noting that an ethological or evolutionary analysis of parenting behavior supports the idea that primates, including man, have evolved psychological structures which are particularly adapted to respond to cues from young children. (Author/JM)

  18. Intergenerational transmission of values, attitudes, and behaviours in the environmental domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    household practices: purchasing environmentally friendly products, curtailing electricity use, and handling waste responsibly. Significant, but weak correlations between parents and adolescents were found across all of Schwartz's ten value domains, which suggests a clear, albeit not necessarily strong......, parental influence on values. The IG influence was found to be much stronger as regards specific environmental attitudes and behaviours. Mothers seem to influence their offspring more than fathers, and some indications of sex-typed gender socialization are found. On average, the younger generation...... is significantly less environmentally conscious than their parents' generation. Still, family socialization exerts a significant influence on young consumers' proenvironmental orientation....

  19. College Student Video Gaming and Parental Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Maechi

    2011-01-01

    Video gaming is prevalent among college students, and researchers have documented negative consequences from some students' excessive video gaming, but the study of past and current parental influence on college student video gaming is limited. This study collected data from college students from several Midwestern U.S. universities using an…

  20. Parental Migration and Children's Outcomes in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Although Eastern European migration has increased greatly, the research on its impact on children and families has been limited. In this study I examined the impact of parental economic migration on children psychosocial and academic outcomes in Romania, one of largest Eastern European migrant sending country. Surveys were conducted with 382…

  1. Puntos Basicos para Padres: Apoyo Padre a Padre (Basics for Parents: Parent to Parent Support).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, Betsy

    This Spanish language information brief describes the Parent to Parent Program, which provides information and one-to-one emotional support to parents of children with special needs. The program trains experienced parents in the program and matches them with similar parents new to the program. Benefits of the program include: (1) providing parents…

  2. Actividades Para Padres: A Parent Handbook (Activities for Parents: A Parent Handbook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Benjamin

    Thirty Mora, New Mexico parents attended a 13-session parent involvement workshop (The Mora Adventure) designed to help parents foster successful school experiences through non-school activities with their children. A parent involvement model was used as the basis of the workshop in which the parents developed more effective communication skills;…

  3. Foster Parents' Involvement in Authoritative Parenting and Interest in Future Parenting Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Kraemer, Linda K.; Bernard, Amy L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed 191 Southwest Ohio foster parents regarding their involvement in authoritative parenting and interest for additional parenting education. Our results showed that most respondents reported using an authoritative parenting style and were interested in receiving future training. Involvement in authoritative parenting differed…

  4. Parental Cognitions, Parental Behavior, and the Child's Understanding of the Parent-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekovic, Maja; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Studied the relationship of parental reasoning complexity to parental behavior during parent-child interactions, and the effect of this relationship on children's social cognitions. Results indicate that parental reasoning complexity is related to parental behaviors of restrictive control, authoritative control, and support, which, in turn, are…

  5. Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A. Oenema (Anke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8. years. One parent completed

  6. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  7. About Teen Suicide (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thoughts. Teens going through major life changes (parents' divorce, moving, a parent leaving home due to military service or parental separation, financial changes) and those who are victims of ...

  8. Engaging Parents in Parent Engagement Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Steven; List, John; Metcalfe, Robert; Sadoff, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, policymakers, and educators have long recognized the role of parents in shaping student achievement. A large body of observational studies documents the strong relationship between family background and educational outcomes, but to date there have been very few experimental studies in this area. In this study, the authors offer a…

  9. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Zecevic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.

  10. Transformational change in parenting practices after child interpersonal trauma: A grounded theory examination of parental response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A

    2018-02-01

    Child interpersonal trauma is associated with a host of negative outcomes, both concurrently and in adulthood. Parental responses following trauma can play an important role in modulating child responses, symptoms, and post-trauma functioning. However, parents themselves are also impacted after their child experiences trauma, reporting distress, psychopathology, concerns about the child's safety, changes in discipline and protectiveness, and feelings of blame. Most of this previous research, however, suffers from methodological limitations such as focusing on description and correlations, providing static "one shot" assessments of parenting after trauma, and relying mainly on results related to child sexual abuse. This project developed a comprehensive, explanatory theory of the dynamic process by which parenting changes in response to a range of child trauma, using a sample of parents whose children had experienced a range of interpersonal trauma types. Grounded theory analyses revealed a three-phase dynamic model of discontinuous transformation, in which parents experienced destabilization, recalibration, and re-stabilization of parenting practices in response to child trauma. Parents were focused on Protecting and Healing the child victim, often at the expense of their own needs. Most parents reached a phase of posttraumatic growth, labelled Thriving Recovery, but processes that hindered this recovery are also discussed. This study provides the first evidence that dynamic systems of change as well as vicarious posttraumatic growth can apply to parents of child trauma victims. Generating an explanatory theory provides important avenues for future research as well as interventions and services aimed at families who have experienced child trauma. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Topology Based Domain Search (TBDS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manning, William

    2002-01-01

    This effort will explore radical changes in the way Domain Name System (DNS) is used by endpoints in a network to improve the resilience of the endpoint and its applications in the face of dynamically changing infrastructure topology...

  12. Domain Discretization and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    A circle packing is a configuration of circles which are tangent with one another in a prescribed pattern determined by a combinatorial triangulation, where the configuration fills a planar domain or a two-dimensional surface. The vertices in the triangulation correspond to centers of circles...... to domain discretization problems such as triangulation and unstructured mesh generation techniques. We wish to ask ourselves the question: given a cloud of points in the plane (we restrict ourselves to planar domains), is it possible to construct a circle packing preserving the positions of the vertices...... and constrained meshes having predefined vertices as constraints. A standard method of two-dimensional mesh generation involves conformal mapping of the surface or domain to standardized shapes, such as a disk. Since circle packing is a new technique for constructing discrete conformal mappings, it is possible...

  13. Heliborne time domain electromagnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD), are using heliborne and ground time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) system for the exploration of deep seated unconformity type uranium deposits. Uranium has been explored in various parts of the world like Athabasca basin using time domain electromagnetic system. AMD has identified some areas in India where such deposits are available. Apart from uranium exploration, the TDEM systems are used for the exploration of deep seated minerals like diamonds. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is involved in the indigenous design of the heliborne time domain system since this system is useful for DAE and also it has a scope of wide application. In this paper we discuss about the principle of time domain electromagnetic systems, their capabilities and the development and problems of such system for various other mineral exploration. (author)

  14. Anisotropy of domain wall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret; Samson; Warin; Marty; Ott; Sondergard; Klein; Fermon

    2000-10-30

    The resistive effect of domain walls in FePd films with perpendicular anisotropy was studied experimentally as a function of field and temperature. The films were grown directly on MgO substrates, which induces an unusual virgin magnetic configuration composed of 60 nm wide parallel stripe domains. This allowed us to carry out the first measurements of the anisotropy of domain wall resistivity in the two configurations of current perpendicular and parallel to the walls. At 18 K, we find 8.2% and 1.3% for the domain wall magnetoresistance normalized to the wall width (8 nm) in these two respective configurations. These values are consistent with the predictions of Levy and Zhang.

  15. Health Concerns of Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Youth and Their Parents Upon Presentation to a Transgender Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlis, Shauna M; Donkin, Hillary R; Bates, Justin R; Britto, Maria T; Conard, Lee Ann E

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of specific health concerns identified by transgender and gender nonconforming patients and their parents at initial clinic visit. Checklists were developed in an iterative process and distributed to both patients and parents at their initial visit to a transgender clinic. Retrospective chart review and secondary data analyses were performed to determine the number of items endorsed, frequency with which each item was endorsed, and provider domain of each item endorsed: physician, social work, or both physician and social work. Checklists were collected from 118 patients and 103 parents. Patients endorsed a mean of 8.4 concerns (range 0-22) and parents 7.9 concerns (range 0-20). The most commonly endorsed patient concerns included use of gender-affirming hormones, steps for transition, gender-affirming surgery, restroom/dressing room use, and legal issues. Common parent concerns included general resources, child safety at school, acute mental health concerns, restroom/dressing room use, and steps for transition. Of the concerns endorsed by patients, 44% were in the social work domain, 37% in the physician domain, and 19% in both the social work and physician domain. Of the concerns endorsed by parents, 40% were in the social work domain, 31% in the physician domain, and 29% in the social work and physician domain. Although patients and parents had similar numbers of concerns, they primarily focused on different topics. Youth were more interested in hormones and transition, while parents were more interested with transition and acceptance. Many concerns for both patients and parents fell within the social work domain. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effective Domain Partitioning for Multi-Clock Domain IP Core Wrapper Design under Power Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Thomas Edison; Yoneda, Tomokazu; Zhao, Danella; Fujiwara, Hideo

    The rapid advancement of VLSI technology has made it possible for chip designers and manufacturers to embed the components of a whole system onto a single chip, called System-on-Chip or SoC. SoCs make use of pre-designed modules, called IP-cores, which provide faster design time and quicker time-to-market. Furthermore, SoCs that operate at multiple clock domains and very low power requirements are being utilized in the latest communications, networking and signal processing devices. As a result, the testing of SoCs and multi-clock domain embedded cores under power constraints has been rapidly gaining importance. In this research, a novel method for designing power-aware test wrappers for embedded cores with multiple clock domains is presented. By effectively partitioning the various clock domains, we are able to increase the solution space of possible test schedules for the core. Since previous methods were limited to concurrently testing all the clock domains, we effectively remove this limitation by making use of bandwidth conversion, multiple shift frequencies and properly gating the clock signals to control the shift activity of various core logic elements. The combination of the above techniques gains us greater flexibility when determining an optimal test schedule under very tight power constraints. Furthermore, since it is computationally intensive to search the entire expanded solution space for the possible test schedules, we propose a heuristic 3-D bin packing algorithm to determine the optimal wrapper architecture and test schedule while minimizing the test time under power and bandwidth constraints.

  17. Levels and domains in personality: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, R A

    1995-09-01

    This special issue is centered around the problem of levels and domains in personality functioning. What kind of constructs--and at what levels and in what domains--are needed to understand what a person is like? To account for the complexity and scope of human lives, personality psychologists have traditionally put forth lists and taxonomies of factors, features, and variables that must be taken into consideration in formulating an adequate psychological portrait of the whole person. The five-factor model of personality traits has recently been offered as a comprehensive framework; however, critical analyses of the trait concept have revealed the limitations of a trait-based model of personality. Recognizing that the concept of trait is indispensable to a vital psychology of personality, this special issue aims to (a) communicate recent developments and organizational frameworks for understanding the person at multiple levels and in varied domains, and (b) articulate and elaborate units of analysis that, when combined with trait assessments, yield a psychology of personality that is commensurate with the complexity of individual functioning and that offers greater potential for the attainment of the original goals of the discipline.

  18. 24 CFR 891.665 - Project size limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... complexes for chronically mentally ill individuals may not be designed to serve more than 20 persons on one... handicapped families of one or two parents with children. (b) Additional limitations. Based on the amount of...

  19. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M E; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved) from scores on the underlying dimensions of support and strict control. Regression analyses were used to determine which personality traits were associated with parenting dimensions and styles. As regards dimensions, the two aspects of personality reflecting interpersonal interactions (extraversion and agreeableness) were related to supportiveness. Emotional stability was associated with lower strict control. As regards parenting styles, extraverted, agreeable, and less emotionally stable individuals were most likely to be authoritative parents. Conscientiousness and openness did not relate to general parenting, but might be associated with more content-specific acts of parenting.

  20. Maneuver from the Air Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Overload From the previous discussion, cognitive maneuver seeks to degrade the enemy’s capacity for...in all domains, the ability to maneuver from the air domain in the cognitive sense, comes primarily from air power’s unique ability to overload the... cognitive maneuver mechanisms developed in the 1980s as part of broader maneuver warfare theory. The result is a proposed definition of maneuver from

  1. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  2. Gravity and domain wall problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, B.; Senjanovic, G.

    1992-11-01

    It is well known that the spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries may lead to conflict with big-bang cosmology. This is due to formation of domain walls which give unacceptable contribution to the energy density of the universe. On the other hand, it is expected that gravity breaks global symmetries explicitly. In this work we propose that this could provide a natural solution to the domain-wall problem. (author). 17 refs

  3. Incompleteness in the finite domain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2017), s. 405-441 ISSN 1079-8986 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : finite domain Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016 https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/bulletin-of-symbolic-logic/article/incompleteness-in-the-finite-domain/D239B1761A73DCA534A4805A76D81C76

  4. von Willebrand Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  5. Childhood Cancer: Leukemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  6. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  7. Learning about the X from our parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison S. Wise

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The X chromosome is generally understudied in association studies, in part because the analyst has had limited methodological options. For nuclear-family-based association studies, most current methods extend the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT to the X chromosome. We present a new method to study association in case-parent triads: the parent-informed likelihood ratio test for the X chromosome (PIX-LRT. Our method enables estimation of relative risks and takes advantage of parental genotype information and the sex of the affected offspring to increase statistical power to detect an effect. Under a parental exchangeability assumption for the X, if case-parent triads are complete, the parents of affected offspring provide an independent replication sample for estimates based on transmission distortion to their affected offspring. For each offspring sex we combine the parent-level and the offspring-level information to form a likelihood ratio test statistic; we then combine the two to form a composite test statistic. Our method can estimate relative risks under different modes of inheritance or a more general co-dominant model. In triads with missing parental genotypes, the method accounts for missingness with the Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We calculate non-centrality parameters to assess the power gain and robustness of our method compared to alternative methods. We apply PIX-LRT to publically available data from an international consortium of genotyped families affected by the birth defect oral cleft and find a strong, internally-replicated signal for a SNP marker related to cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

  8. EH domain of EHD1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieken, Fabien; Jovic, Marko; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve, E-mail: scaplan@unmc.edu; Sorgen, Paul L. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Eppley Cancer Center (United States)], E-mail: psorgen@unmc.edu

    2007-12-15

    EHD1 is a member of the mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EH) containing protein family, and regulates the recycling of various receptors from the endocytic recycling compartment to the plasma membrane. The EH domain of EHD1 binds to proteins containing either an Asn-Pro-Phe or Asp-Pro-Phe motif, and plays an important role in the subcellular localization and function of EHD1. Thus far, the structures of five N-terminal EH domains from other proteins have been solved, but to date, the structure of the EH domains from the four C-terminal EHD family paralogs remains unknown. In this study, we have assigned the 133 C-terminal residues of EHD1, which includes the EH domain, and solved its solution structure. While the overall structure resembles that of the second of the three N-terminal Eps15 EH domains, potentially significant differences in surface charge and the structure of the tripeptide-binding pocket are discussed.

  9. EH domain of EHD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieken, Fabien; Jovic, Marko; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve; Sorgen, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    EHD1 is a member of the mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EH) containing protein family, and regulates the recycling of various receptors from the endocytic recycling compartment to the plasma membrane. The EH domain of EHD1 binds to proteins containing either an Asn-Pro-Phe or Asp-Pro-Phe motif, and plays an important role in the subcellular localization and function of EHD1. Thus far, the structures of five N-terminal EH domains from other proteins have been solved, but to date, the structure of the EH domains from the four C-terminal EHD family paralogs remains unknown. In this study, we have assigned the 133 C-terminal residues of EHD1, which includes the EH domain, and solved its solution structure. While the overall structure resembles that of the second of the three N-terminal Eps15 EH domains, potentially significant differences in surface charge and the structure of the tripeptide-binding pocket are discussed

  10. Preventing intimate partner violence through paid parental leave policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Inverno, Ashley Schappell; Reidy, Dennis E; Kearns, Megan C

    2018-05-30

    Paid parental leave policies have the potential to strengthen economic supports, reduce family discord, and provide opportunities to empower women (Basile et al., 2016; Niolon et al., 2017). In this article, we present a theory of change and evidence to suggest how paid parental leave may impact intimate partner violence (IPV). In doing so, we present three mechanisms of change (i.e., reduction in financial stress, increase in egalitarian parenting practices, and promotion of child/parent bonding) through which paid parental leave could reduce rates of IPV. We also describe limitations of the current state of knowledge in this area, as well as opportunities for future research. Ultimately, our goal is to facilitate the identification and implementation of approaches that have the potential to reduce violence at the population level. Paid parental leave embodies the potential of policies to change societal-level factors and serve as an important prevention strategy for IPV. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Parental spirituality in life-threatening pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B; Barrera, Maru; Granek, Leeat; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Shaheed, Jenny; Beaune, Laura; Bouffet, Eric; Antle, Beverley

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed parental spirituality in the context of pediatric cancer with a poor prognosis. Drawing upon previous research implementing a longitudinal grounded theory design examining parental hope, 35 parents were interviewed regarding their experiences with an emergent description of the role of spirituality in parents' daily lives. Spirituality included religious beliefs and practices, notions of a higher force or cosmos, relationship with a divine being, as well as elements emerging from meaning-making and relationships. Parental expectations of spirituality remained relatively constant across data collection time points (3-9 months postdiagnosis), although limited variation occurred relative to shifting circumstance (e.g., deterioration of the child's condition). Spirituality appeared to offer: greater acceptance of parents' inability to protect their child from harm related to her/his life-threatening illness, guidance and emotion decompression, and support from one's faith community. Recommendations for integrating spiritual assessment in clinical care practice are offered.

  12. Parenting style impacts on quality of life in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Adi; Shalev, Ruth S; Biran, Gali; Gross-Tsur, Varda

    2007-07-01

    To assess the impact of parenting style and disease severity on quality of life (QOL) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirty-nine children with CP, their siblings, and their parents participated in the study. Probands and siblings, ages 6 to 18 years, completed questionnaires on parenting style (accepting, rejecting, controlling, and autonomy allowing) using the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory. Parents completed generic (Child Health Questionnaire [CHQ]) and disease-specific (Pediatric Outcomes Data Collecting Instrument [PODCI]) QOL questionnaires for both children. A physician determined disease severity with the Gross Motor Function Classification System. In children with CP, parenting style positively correlated with the CHQ scores: physical summary and psychosocial summary (r = 0.40, P = .01) and family activities scale (r = 0.34, P = .03). Autonomy allowing parenting style impacted on psychosocial aspects of QOL, as reflected by CHQ scores, more than the degree of disability. In other domains of QOL, the effect of parenting style was greater than IQ, anxiety, and socioeconomic status. Parenting style is a significant factor in QOL in CP and the only known factor to impact on the psychosocial domains of the CHQ, exceeding the effect of disease severity. Because QOL is an important treatment goal in children with CP, early family interventions, particularly those focusing on parenting style, should be considered.

  13. Parenting and Digital Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Radesky, Jenny; Collier, Kevin M; Gentile, Douglas A; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Nathanson, Amy I; Rasmussen, Eric E; Reich, Stephanie M; Rogers, Jean

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the family dynamic surrounding media use is crucial to our understanding of media effects, policy development, and the targeting of individuals and families for interventions to benefit child health and development. The Families, Parenting, and Media Workgroup reviewed the relevant research from the past few decades. We find that child characteristics, the parent-child relationship, parental mediation practices, and parents' own use of media all can influence children's media use, their attitudes regarding media, and the effects of media on children. However, gaps remain. First, more research is needed on best practices of parental mediation for both traditional and new media. Ideally, this research will involve large-scale, longitudinal studies that manage children from infancy to adulthood. Second, we need to better understand the relationship between parent media use and child media use and specifically how media may interfere with or strengthen parent-child relationships. Finally, longitudinal research on how developmental processes and individual child characteristics influence the intersection between media and family life is needed. The majority of children's media use takes place within a wider family dynamic. An understanding of this dynamic is crucial to understanding child media use as a whole. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Coparenting Competence in Parents of Children with ASD: A Marker of Coparenting Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Chris D; St George, Jennifer M; Fletcher, Richard J; Dempsey, Ian; Newman, Louise K

    2017-10-01

    The coparenting relationship has been linked to parenting stress, parenting self-efficacy and many other concerns associated with the development of children with ASD. Parents of children with ASD (N = 22) were interviewed to explore three domains of their coparenting relationship; (1) adaptation to the emergence of their child's autism, (2) parenting their child with ASD, (3) expectations for their child's developmental outcomes. The concept of coparenting competence, developed during analysis, describes collective perceptions of parenting efficacy. Parents linked perceptions of coparenting competence to their, ability to cope with diagnosis and parenting, motivation to do what they could for their child, and hopes for their child's development. The concept of coparenting competence could play an important role in future research and intervention.

  15. Parents' Faith and Hope during the Pediatric Palliative Phase and the Association with Long-Term Parental Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Ivana M M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Falkenburg, Nette; Michiels, Erna M C; van Vliet, Liesbeth; Pieters, Rob; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E

    2015-05-01

    The loss of a child is associated with an increased risk for developing psychological problems. However, studies investigating the impact of parents' faith and hope for a cure during the palliative phase on long-term parental psychological functioning are limited. The study's objective was to explore the role of faith and hope as a source of coping and indicator of long-term parental adjustment. Eighty-nine parents of 57 children who died of cancer completed questionnaires retrospectively, exploring faith, hope, and sources of coping, and measuring parents' current level of grief and depression. For 19 parents (21%) faith was very important during the palliative phase. The majority of parents remained hopeful for a meaningful time with their child (n=68, 76%); a pain-free death (n=58, 65%); and a cure (n=30, 34%). Their child (n=70, 79%) was parents' main source of coping. Twelve parents (14%) suffered from traumatic grief, and 22 parents (25%) showed symptoms of depression. Parents' faith was not associated with less long-term traumatic grief (OR=0.86, p=0.51) or symptoms of depression (OR=0.95, p=0.74), and parents' hope for a cure was not related to more long-term traumatic grief (OR=1.07, p=0.71) or symptoms of depression (OR=1.12, p=0.47). Faith was important for a minority of parents and was not associated with less long-term traumatic grief or symptoms of depression. The majority of parents remained hopeful. Hope for a cure was not associated with more long-term traumatic grief or symptoms of depression.

  16. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  17. Time with Children, Children's Well-Being, and Work-Family Balance among Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkie, Melissa A.; Kendig, Sarah M.; Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Denny, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    Cultural imperatives for "good" parenting include spending time with children and ensuring that they do well in life. Knowledge of how these factors influence employed parents' work-family balance is limited. Analyses using time diary and survey data from the 2000 National Survey of Parents (N = 933) indicate that how time with children relates to…

  18. Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

  19. Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

  20. Parenting Practices that can Prevent or Reduce Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Eldridge

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Overweight in children is more prevalent than ever before. What can parents do to try to promote health and prevent obesity in their own children? The present paper reviews research related to parenting and childhood obesity. The review describes what food-related parenting practices may be helpful: modeling healthy eating behaviors, making time for family meals, making sure healthy food is available and accessible, becoming aware of appropriate portion sizes, encouraging children to eat breakfast, and limiting soda and fast food intake. The paper also discusses food-related parenting practices that may not work to help prevent obesity: pressure to eat, food rewards, restriction, permissiveness, and modeling of unhealthy eating behaviors. Additional parenting practices such as supporting and engaging in physical activity, encouraging an adequate amount of sleep, and limiting television and other screen-media may also help children to maintain healthy weights. Suggestions are also given for professionals working with youth.