Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.
Parent training is often a required component of effective treatment for a variety of common childhood problems. Although behavior analysts have developed several effective parent-training technologies, we know little about the contingencies that affect parent behavior. Child behavior is one source of control for parent behavior that likely…
Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B
Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.
Jaggers, Jeremiah W.; Bolland, Anneliese C.; Tomek, Sara; Bolland, Kathleen A.; Hooper, Lisa M.; Church, Wesley T., II; Bolland, John M.
An extensive body of work shows that parental monitoring reduces the likelihood of risky behaviors among youth, yet little attention has been given to the factors compelling parents to engage in monitoring behaviors. The current study examines the association between non-familial, adolescent relationships (i.e., school connectedness, community…
Caes, Line; Vervoort, Tine; Devos, Patricia; Verlooy, Joris; Benoit, Yves; Goubert, Liesbet
Treatment for childhood leukemia requires frequent lumbar punctures (LP) and bone marrow aspirations (BMA), often described by children and parents as more distressing than the disease itself. Findings in schoolchildren and chronic pain samples indicate that increased parental distress may increase parental protective, pain-attending behavior, which is associated with more child pain and distress. However, in the context of invasive medical procedures, it is unknown which parents are likely to become most distressed and engage in pain-attending behavior, and how this impacts the children's experiences. The present study investigated the impact of parental catastrophic thoughts upon parental distress and pain-attending behavior (verbal and nonverbal). Furthermore, the association between parental responses and the children's pain behavior, pain, and distress was examined. A total of 46 parents of children with leukemia (range, 0.6 to 15 y) who underwent a LP/BMA procedure participated in this study. Parental catastrophizing was assessed before and parental and child distress was assessed after the LP/BMA procedure. Parental pain-attending behavior and the child's pain behavior were observed before and after the LP/BMA procedure. Findings indicated that heightened parental catastrophic thinking contributed to increased parental distress during LP/BMA and less pain-attending behavior before the LP/BMA procedure, especially in young children. In contrast, heightened distress in parents with high levels of catastrophizing contributed to increased engagement in postprocedural pain-attending behavior. For young children, increased preprocedural pain-attending behavior was related to more child distress, pain, and pain behavior. The findings demonstrate the importance of parental catastrophic thinking in understanding their caregiving responses and preparing parents and children for painful invasive medical procedures.
Johnson, Kaprea; Hannon, Michael D.
This study investigates the relationship between academic achievement and reports of student problem behavior from teachers, parents, and child self-reports. Participants included 108 teachers, 113 parents/caregivers, and 129 students from an urban school in the Northeast region of the United States. Results suggest parent and child reports were…
Garbacz, S. Andrew; Sheridan, Susan M.; Koziol, Natalie A.; Kwon, Kyongboon; Holmes, Shannon R.
The present study examined parent-teacher congruent communication within conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC). Specifically, the study purpose was to determine the extent to which congruence in parent-teacher communication (i.e., the degree to which parents and teachers view their communication in a similar fashion) moderated CBC's effects on…
Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…
Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral Parent Training (BPT is often provided for childhood psychiatric disorders. These disorders have been shown to be associated with working memory impairments. BPT is based on operant learning principles, yet how operant principles shape behavior (through the partial reinforcement (PRF extinction effect, i.e., greater resistance to extinction that is created when behavior is reinforced partially rather than continuously and the potential role of working memory therein is scarcely studied in children. This study explored the PRF extinction effect and the role of working memory therein using experimental tasks in typically developing children.Methods: Ninety-seven children (age 6–10 completed a working memory task and an operant learning task, in which children acquired a response-sequence rule under either continuous or PRF (120 trials, followed by an extinction phase (80 trials. Data of 88 children were used for analysis.Results: The PRF extinction effect was confirmed: We observed slower acquisition and extinction in the PRF condition as compared to the continuous reinforcement (CRF condition. Working memory was negatively related to acquisition but not extinction performance.Conclusion: Both reinforcement contingencies and working memory relate to acquisition performance. Potential implications for BPT are that decreasing working memory load may enhance the chance of optimally learning through reinforcement.
McElwain, Alyssa D.; Bub, Kristen L.
The present study investigated how changes in specific dimensions of the parent-adolescent relationship predict adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse and oral sex. Longitudinal data from 1,364 participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were gathered at…
Full Text Available Among early adolescents (10–14 years, poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions.
Neece, Cameron L.
Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…
Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita
Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.
Neece, Cameron L
Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems; however, it is rarely addressed in interventions aimed at reducing child behaviour problems. The current study examined the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for parents of children with DD by investigating whether this intervention is effective in reducing parenting stress and whether decreases in parenting stress lead to reductions in behaviour problems among children with DD. Forty six parents of children with DD were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or wait list-control group. Participants completed questionnaires assessing parental stress and child behaviour problems at intake and at a second assessment, which took place after only the immediate treatment group had received the MBSR. Parents who participated in MBSR reported significantly less stress and depression as well as greater life satisfaction compared with wait list-control parents. Regarding child outcomes, children whose parents participated in MBSR were reported to have fewer behaviour problems following the intervention, specifically in the areas of attention problems and ADHD symptomatology. Results indicated that MBSR may be an effective intervention for ameliorating parental stress and mental health problems among parents of children with DD. Additionally, these benefits may 'spill over' and improve behaviour challenges among these children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Park, Joanne L; Hudec, Kristen L; Johnston, Charlotte
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists throughout the lifespan, and there are known impairments associated with adult ADHD. Understanding ADHD-related impairments in the parenting domain is particularly important given that the children of adults with ADHD also are likely to have ADHD, and there is potential for parenting to alter the developmental outcomes of these children. The present study quantitatively synthesizes evidence regarding the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting behaviors. Across 32 studies, this meta-analysis found that parental ADHD symptoms accounted for 2.9%, 3.2%, and 0.5% of the variance of harsh, lax, and positive parenting, respectively. Greater parental ADHD symptoms were associated with less positive and more harsh and lax parenting behaviors. Variables, such as the proportion of children in the sample diagnosed with ADHD, child gender, and method/rater variance, moderated the strength of these relations. Results also suggest more similarities than differences in the associations between parenting behaviors and the two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. Overall, parental ADHD symptoms are significantly associated with parenting behaviors with effect sizes similar to the associations found between other parental psychopathologies and parenting, although the associations remain relatively small. The paper concludes with comments regarding remaining gaps in the literature that warrant further research and the clinical implications of the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jinnah, Hamida A; Stoneman, Zolinda
Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injuries and premature deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Increased parental permissiveness is positively associated with many different types of high-risk behaviors in youth. This study explored whether permissive parenting (fathering and mothering) predicts youth unsafe behaviors on the farm. Data were analyzed for 67 youth and their parents. Families were recruited from a statewide farm publication, through youth organizations (i.e., FFA [Future Farmers of America]), local newspapers, farmer referrals, and through the Cooperative Extension Network. Hierarchical multiple regression was completed. Results revealed that fathers and mothers who practiced lax-inconsistent disciplining were more likely to have youth who indulged in unsafe farm behaviors. Key hypotheses confirmed that permissive parenting (lax-inconsistent disciplining) by parents continued to predict youth unsafe farm behaviors, even after youth age, youth gender, youth personality factor of risk-taking, and father's unsafe behaviors (a measure associated with modeling) were all taken into account. A key implication is that parents may play an important role in influencing youth farm safety behaviors. Parents (especially fathers) need to devote time to discuss farm safety with their youth. Farm safety interventions need to involve parents as well as address and respect the culture and values of families. Interventions need to focus not only on safe farm practices, but also promote positive parenting practices, including increased parent-youth communication about safety, consistent disciplining strategies, and increased monitoring and modeling of safe farm behaviors by parents.
Carter, Don; Welch, David
This study analyzes adults authoritarian responses to vignettes of differing behaviors of preschool children. Single persons saw themselves as more authoritarian and were less child-oriented than parents. Males were less authoritative in a one-to-one relationship. (KMF)
Kershaw, Trace; Murphy, Alexandrea; Lewis, Jessica; Divney, Anna; Albritton, Tashuna; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick
Assess the influence of relationship and family factors during pregnancy on parenting behavior 6 months postpartum among low-income young parents. Some 434 young expectant couples were recruited from obstetrics clinics during pregnancy and followed 6 months postpartum. Using a series of general estimating equations to control for the correlated nature of the data, we assessed the influence of relationship factors (e.g., relationship satisfaction, attachment) and family factors (e.g., family functioning, family history) during pregnancy on parenting (e.g., parenting involvement, time spent caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence) 6 months postpartum controlling for covariates. Relationship functioning related to parenting involvement, caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence. In addition, several family factors related to parenting. Mother involvement during childhood was related to more parenting involvement, parenting positive experiences, and parenting sense of competence. History of being spanked as a child related to less time spent caregiving and less positive life change from being a parent. Further, gender significantly moderated the associations between relationship and family factors and parenting behavior. Male parenting behavior was more influenced by relationship and family factors than female parenting. This study suggests the importance of relationship and family contexts for parenting behaviors of young mothers and fathers, highlighting the potential utility of involving both young mothers and fathers in parenting programs, and developing interventions that focus on strengthening young parents' romantic relationships and that address negative parenting experienced during childhood. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dekovic, Maja; And Others
Studied the relationship of parental reasoning complexity to parental behavior during parent-child interactions, and the effect of this relationship on children's social cognitions. Results indicate that parental reasoning complexity is related to parental behaviors of restrictive control, authoritative control, and support, which, in turn, are…
Pratt, Keeley J; Van Fossen, Catherine; Cotto-Maisonet, Jennifer; Palmer, Elizabeth N; Eneli, Ihuoma
The study explores female caregivers' reflections on their relationship with their child (2-5 years old) and the development of their child's dietary and physical activity behaviors. Five, 90-minute semistructured focus groups were conducted to inquire about children's growth, eating behaviors and routines, physical activity, personality, and the parent-child relationship. Nineteen female caregivers diverse in race/ethnicity, age, and educational attainment participated. Participants reported that they maintained a schedule, but needed to be flexible to accommodate daily responsibilities. Family, social factors, and day care routines were influences on their children's behaviors. The main physical activity barriers were safety and time constraints. Guidance from pediatric primary care providers aimed at supporting female caregivers to build a positive foundation in their parent-child relationship, and to adopt and model healthy diet and physical activity behaviors that are respectful of schedules and barriers should be a priority for childhood obesity prevention.
Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor
The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption.
Shucksmith, J.; And Others
Examines parenting models and parent-child relationships from early to middle adolescence. Focuses on implications for adolescent functioning, including school integration and psychological well being. Results identify four distinct types of parenting styles characterized by different degrees of acceptance and control of young people's behavior.…
Studies using narratives with children and parents offer ways to study affective meaning-making processes that are central in many theories of developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews theory regarding affective meaning making, and argues that narratives are particularly suited to examine such processes. The review of narrative studies and methods is organized into three sections according to the focus on child, parent, and parent-child narratives. Within each focus three levels of analysis are considered: (a) narrative organization and coherence, (b) narrative content, and (c) the behavior/interactions of the narrator(s). The implications of this research for developmental psychopathology and clinical work are discussed with an emphasis on parent-child jointly constructed narratives as the meeting point of individual child and parent narratives.
Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G
To examine whether parental incarceration is significantly associated with a number of sleep and eating behaviors among offspring during early childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, an at-risk sample of parents and their offspring, were employed to test this possibility. Both maternal and paternal incarceration history were examined as predictors of whether children manifested high levels of the following 7 health behaviors: sleep problems, short sleep duration, salty snack consumption, starch consumption, sweets consumption, soda consumption, and fast food consumption. Logistic regression techniques were used to carry out the analyses. Both maternal and paternal incarceration significantly increased the odds of a number of risky sleep and eating behaviors during childhood. Ancillary analysis also revealed that the predicted probability of exhibiting multiple risky behaviors across the sleep and eating domains was twice as large among children whose parents had both been incarcerated, relative to children whose parents had not been incarcerated. Parental incarceration may have important implications for the sleep and eating behaviors of offspring. Both scholars and practitioners may, therefore, want to consider the possible negative repercussions of parental incarceration for the sleep and eating behaviors of children, and the potential for these high-risk health behaviors to compromise the health and well-being of children as they age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fan, Hsiu-Ping; Lin, Mau-Roung; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Huang, Ping-Wen; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Chiu, Wen-Ta
Motorcycles are the leading cause of road traffic deaths in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia, where Mandarin Chinese is the most commonly used language. Sensation seeking (SS) is reported to correlate with many risky motor vehicle behaviors, and therefore a culture-adapted Chinese instrument is needed to assess this personality trait in Chinese-speaking motorcycling populations. The standard front and blinded-backward process was carried out to formulate the Chinese-language Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (C-BSSS). 193 parental motorcyclists who rode with their young children were interviewed concerning their SS levels, demographics, riding behaviors, and the driving/riding experiences. A random sample of 30 subjects was re-interviewed 1-2 weeks later to examine the test-retest reliability. Psychometric analyses revealed satisfactory item characteristics, internal consistency, intraobserver reliability, and interobserver reliability. Additionally, parental motorcyclists who had the following characteristics were more likely to be the high sensation seekers (SSers), including male, younger age, presenting risky motor vehicle behaviors of themselves (e.g., higher riding speeds, operating after drinking, using a mobile phone while operating, and receiving a traffic ticket), and carrying child passengers who demonstrated dangerous motorcycling behaviors (e.g., a younger age, non-helmeted, and overloaded). We conclude that the C-BSSS is a useful and reliable measure of SS for ethnic Chinese populations. This instrument may be helpful to develop the future prevention strategy of motorcycle injuries in Chinese parental motorcyclists and their young child passengers. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Maughan, Andrea L; Weiss, Jonathan A
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) benefit from parent involvement in their therapy, and there is evidence that this involvement may improve parent functioning as well. We examined changes in parent mental health, parenting, and expressed emotion, following participation in a randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavior therapy for 57 children with ASD. Post-intervention, improvements occurred in the treatment group in parent depression and emotion regulation, compared to waitlisted parents. Treatment effects also occurred across all parents in depression, emotion regulation, perceptions of their children and mindful parenting. Though preliminary, these results have implications for intervention development and evaluation by focusing on parent outcomes in child treatment.
Albertos, A. (Aranzazu); Osorio, A. (Alfonso); Lopez-del-Burgo, C. (Cristina); Carlos, S. (Silvia); Beltramo, C. (Carlos); Trullols, F. (Fernando)
In this paper we study whether parental knowledge of adolescents’ activities varies according to socio-demographic variables, and we analyze the possible association between parental knowledge patterns and certain risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with representative samples of high-school students in Peru and El Salvador. A questionnaire assessed risk behaviors, as well as possible determinants, including parental knowledge. The questionnaire was answere...
Becker-Haimes, Emily M; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Birmaher, Boris; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda S
Greater parent-youth disagreement on youth symptomatology is associated with a host of factors (e.g., parental psychopathology, family functioning) that might impede treatment. Parent-youth disagreement may represent an indicator of treatment prognosis. Using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study, this study used polynomial regression and longitudinal growth modeling to examine whether parent-youth agreement prior to and throughout treatment predicted treatment outcomes (anxiety severity, youth functioning, responder status, and diagnostic remission, rated by an independent evaluator). When parents reported more symptoms than youth prior to treatment, youth were less likely to be diagnosis-free post-treatment; this was only true if the youth received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) alone, not if youth received medication, combination, or placebo treatment. Increasing concordance between parents and youth over the course of treatment was associated with better treatment outcomes across all outcome measures ( ps < .001). How parents and youth "co-report" appears to be an indicator of CBT outcome. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.
Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy
High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.
Shannon K Bennetts
Full Text Available Parenting behaviors are commonly targeted in early interventions to improve children’s language development. Accurate measurement of both parenting behaviors and children’s language outcomes is thus crucial for sensitive assessment of intervention outcomes. To date, only a small number of studies have compared parent-reported and directly measured behaviors, and these have been hampered by small sample sizes and inaccurate statistical techniques, such as correlations. The Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression represent more reliable alternatives because they allow us to quantify fixed and proportional bias between measures. In this study, we draw on data from two Australian early childhood cohorts (N= 201 parents and slow-to-talk toddlers aged 24 months; and N=218 parents and children aged 6-36 months experiencing social adversity to (1 examine agreement and quantify bias between parent-reported and direct measures, and (2 to determine socio-demographic predictors of the differences between parent-reported and direct measures. Measures of child language and parenting behaviors were collected from parents and their children. Our findings support the utility of the Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression in comparing measurement methods. Results indicated stronger agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language, and poorer agreement between measures of parenting behaviors. Child age was associated with difference scores for child language; however the direction varied for each cohort. Parents who rated their child’s temperament as more difficult tended to report lower language scores on the parent questionnaire, compared to the directly measured scores. Older parents tended to report lower parenting responsiveness on the parent questionnaire, compared to directly measured scores. Finally, speaking a language other than English was associated with less responsive parenting behaviors on the
Sweenie, Rachel; Mackey, Eleanor R; Streisand, Randi
Interactions between parents and children can influence behavioral and emotional functioning related to Type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet have been relatively unexplored during preadolescence. The present study examined associations among child problem behaviors, critical parenting behaviors, and pediatric parenting stress in a sample of preadolescent youth with T1D. Data are available from 86 preadolescent-parent dyads who participated in the initial baseline assessment of a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of an adherence promotion program. Measures included the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, the Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist, and the Pediatric Inventory for Parents. After controlling for significant demographic and medical characteristics, parents who reported their child's behavior as more problematic reported more difficulty with pediatric parenting stress, which was also associated with more child-reported critical parenting behaviors. Child problem behaviors and critical parenting behaviors were associated with one another, partially via their association with increased pediatric parenting stress. Potential clinical applications include interventions geared toward helping parents manage difficult child behaviors as well as cope with pediatric parenting stress, with the ultimate goal of improving the parent-child relationship and management of T1D.
Wisniewski, Amy B.
Purpose of the review Historically, studies of caregivers of children with DSD have been limited. Recent findings Recent data reveal that parents of young children with DSD report increased stress, anxiety, depression and decreased quality of life (QoL) in ways that are similar to parents of children with other types of chronic illnesses. Also similar to other chronic illnesses of childhood, parents of children with DSD exhibit overprotective parenting and perceive their child as being vulnerable. These emotions and behaviors exhibited by parents are concerning as they may limit an affected child’s emotional and social development over time. Perhaps more unique to the situation of DSD is the perceived, or real, child-focused stigma experienced by parents of children with DSD. Summary Interventions to improve parents’ psychosocial adaptation to their child’s medical condition, including coaching in how to discuss their child’s condition in a manner that makes them feel safe and supported, are needed to optimize outcomes for families. PMID:27584026
Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU（Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998, and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965. The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.
Bigner, J J; Jacobsen, R B
Responses of 33 homosexual (gay) fathers were compared with those of 33 heterosexual (nongay) fathers on the Iowa Parent Behavior Inventory, an empirical measure of dimensions of parenting behavior. Gay fathers did not differ significantly from nongay fathers in their reported degree of involvement nor in intimacy level with children. Gay fathers tended to be more strict, more responsive to children's needs, and to provide reasons for appropriate behavior to children more consistently than nongay fathers. Several explanations are explored for these similarities and differences in parenting styles.
Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee
This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire-Revised (PBFQ-R). These self-report parenting behavior assessment measures may be utilized as pre- and post-parent education program measures, with parents as well as…
McCabe, Jennifer E
A substantial literature has examined the association between parenting behavior and maternal psychological characteristics (i.e., personality and psychopathology). Although research has provided evidence indicating that personality and psychopathology are not independent of one another, parenting research has mainly focused on these characteristics separately. In the present study, I quantitatively integrated these literatures through meta-analytic path analysis. First, meta-analyses were conducted on articles, book chapters, and dissertations that examined associations between personality or psychopathology and warmth or control in mothers of children age 12 months or older. Using mixed-effects regression, meta-analyses revealed significant, small effect sizes suggesting that low levels of neuroticism and psychopathology and high levels of agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness were associated with adaptive parenting. Moderator analyses indicated that variability among individual studies was partially explained by report method, study design, and conceptualizations of parenting behavior. Meta-analytic path analyses showed that the observed associations between maternal personality/psychopathology and parenting behaviors as reported in the literature may be explained by variance shared among these psychological characteristics. Furthermore, some maternal psychological characteristics explained a significantly larger portion of variance in parenting behavior than others. Findings supported the proposal that maternal personality and psychopathology are not independent in the associations they demonstrate with parenting behaviors and that these areas of research can be integrated. The present study is limited by including only mothers, excluding infants, and using cross-sectional analyses. However, results have implications for future conceptualizations of maternal psychological characteristics as determinants of parenting behaviors and for the refinement
Effects of Cognitive Versus Cognitive-Behavioral Divorce-Parenting Programs on Parental Conflict, Intimate Violence, Parental Communication, Divorce-Related Parental Behaviors and Children's Behavioral Problems
.... The two-group pretest- posttest design with a three-month follow-up measured parents knowledge of divorce-related parenting behaviors, reports of intimate violence, destructive conflict tactics...
Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E
Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Lindell, Anna K; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Killoren, Sarah E
Little is known about the role of parents in promoting their children's successful transition to adulthood, particularly for college students who may maintain stronger ties to parents than other emerging adults. The present study therefore investigated longitudinal implications of parent-child relationship qualities during emerging adults' first year of college for their feelings about the upcoming transition to adulthood 3 years later, as well as implications of 3 types of parental control (behavioral control, psychological control, helicopter parenting) for these associations. Multilevel models indicated that emerging adults who reported less negativity in their relationships with mothers and fathers felt more like adults 3 years later compared with emerging adults with low-quality relationships, while high levels of psychological control and helicopter parenting had detrimental implications for their vocational identity development and perceived competence regarding their transition to adulthood. However, nuanced interactions between parent-child relationship quality and parental control indicated that behavioral control had positive implications for outcomes if it occurred within the context of high-quality relationships, or when utilized with sons. The present study highlights the complex role that parents may play during college students' transition to adulthood, and future work should continue to examine ways that clinicians can incorporate parents as a potential resource for promoting emerging adults' successful transition to adulthood and the workforce. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Watts, Stephen J; McNulty, Thomas L
Self-control has been found to predict a wide variety of criminal behaviors. In addition, studies have consistently shown that parenting is an important influence on both self-control and offending. However, few studies have examined the role that biological factors may play in moderating the relationship between parenting, self-control, and offending. Using a sample of adolescent males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 3,610), we explore whether variants of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene interact with parenting to affect self-control and offending. Results reveal that parenting interacts with these genes to influence self-control and offending, and that the parenting-by-gene interaction effect on offending is mediated by self-control. The effects of parenting on self-control and offending are most pronounced for those who carry plasticity alleles for both MAOA and DAT1. Thus, MAOA and DAT1 may be implicated in offending because they increase the negative effects of parenting on self-control. Implications for theory are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Evans, Robert C.; And Others
Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…
Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.
Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on
Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Petty, Carter; Micco, Jamie A; Henin, Aude; Park, Jennifer; Beilin, Ari; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph
Although the offspring of parents with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk to develop disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in addition to MDD, it remains unclear whether this heightened risk is due to MDD or to comorbid DBD in the parents. In a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from offspring at risk for MDD and panic disorder and comparison children, we stratified 169 children of parents who had been treated for MDD based upon presence (n=50) or absence (n=119) of parental history of DBD (ADHD, oppositional disorder, and conduct disorder) and contrasted them with children of parents with DBD but without MDD (n=19) and children whose parents had neither MDD nor DBD (n=106). The children had been assessed in middle childhood using structured diagnostic interviews. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD had significantly higher rates of MDD, DBD in general, and ADHD in particular, compared with offspring of parents with MDD alone. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD also had higher rates of mania than controls. Both parental MDD and DBD conferred independent risk for MDD and DBD in the offspring. However, only parental DBD conferred independent risk for conduct disorder and ADHD and only parental MDD conferred independent risk for oppositional defiant disorder. Elevated rates of DBD in the offspring of parents with MDD appear to be due in part to the presence of DBD in the parents. Further studies of samples not selected on the basis of parental panic disorder are needed to confirm these results.
Children are tomorrow's leaders and parents have enormous responsibility to cater for their welfare. Proper parenting is very necessary for any nation to get rid of anti-social behavior in youths. In this study, we explored the influence of parental literacy level on childcare and parenting styles, using the Ex-post-facto design.
Mackler, Jennifer S; Kelleher, Rachael T; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P; O'Brien, Marion
The association between parenting stress and child externalizing behavior, and the mediating role of parenting, has yielded inconsistent findings; however, the literature has typically been cross-sectional and unidirectional. In the current study the authors examined the longitudinal transactions among parenting stress, perceived negative parental reactions, and child externalizing at 4, 5, 7, and 10 years old. Models examining parent effects (parenting stress to child behavior), child effects (externalizing to parental reactions and stress), indirect effects of parental reactions, and the transactional associations among all variables, were compared. The transactional model best fit the data, and longitudinal reciprocal effects emerged between parenting stress and externalizing behavior. The mediating role of parental reactions was not supported; however, indirect effects suggest that parenting stress both is affected by and affects parent and child behavior. The complex associations among parent and child variables indicate the importance of interventions to improve the parent-child relationship and reducing parenting stress.
Smith, Douglas K.; And Others
Studies examining the behavior management styles of parents as a function of family intactness and parent employment status are lacking. To assess parental style of behavior management, the Parental Management Questionnaire (PMQ) was completed by 1,957 parents of elementary school children (50% response rate). The PMQ is based on Aronfreed's…
Albertos, Aranzazu; Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-Del Burgo, Cristina; Carlos, Silvia; Beltramo, Carlos; Trullols, Fernando
In this paper we study whether parental knowledge of adolescents' activities varies according to socio-demographic variables, and we analyze the possible association between parental knowledge patterns and certain risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with representative samples of high-school students in Peru and El Salvador. A questionnaire assessed risk behaviors, as well as possible determinants, including parental knowledge. The questionnaire was answered by 6208 adolescents. We observed that the greater the degree of knowledge, the lower the frequency of risk behaviors among youth. The degree of knowledge was inversely associated with children's age, and we observed that being female was associated with a greater degree of parental knowledge. The study shows that parents' supervision criteria might be influenced by gender stereotypes, which would have a harmful effect on young males, as the lower degree of knowledge puts them at higher odds of risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J
Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.
Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo"…
Horton-Parker, Radha J.
Focuses on how counselors can help parents understand that parenting styles influence children's behavior. Offers ideas for humanistic parenting to elicit socially desirable outcomes behavior in children. Presents strategies that parents can use to increase the likelihood that young children will develop prosocial behavior and learn to respond to…
Elam, Kit K; Harold, Gordon T; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D
Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children's social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children's socially disruptive behavior using genetically sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation [rGE]) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-birth design, the present study controlled for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examined evocative rGE while examining the associations between family processes and children's peer behavior. Specifically, the present study examined the evocative effect of genetic influences underlying toddler low social motivation on mother-child and father-child hostility and the subsequent influence of parent hostility on disruptive peer behavior during the preschool period. Participants were 316 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Path analysis showed that birth mother low behavioral motivation predicted toddler low social motivation, which predicted both adoptive mother-child and father-child hostility, suggesting the presence of an evocative genotype-environment association. In addition, both mother-child and father-child hostility predicted children's later disruptive peer behavior. Results highlight the importance of considering genetically influenced child attributes on parental hostility that in turn links to later child social behavior. Implications for intervention programs focusing on early family processes and the precursors of disrupted child social development are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Song, Hyojong; Woo, Youngki; Lee, Heeuk D; Cochran, John K
The current study examines effects of changes in intra-family relationships after parental incarceration on internalizing behaviors of the children of incarcerated parents. Using data from a sample of 249 incarcerated parents with minor children in South Korea, the present study found that perceived degradation of family relationships among inmate parents, their non-incarcerated spouses, and children was a significant risk factor of internalizing behaviors of children of incarcerated parents. The current study also found that inmate parents who had more frequent family contact were more likely to perceive improvements of all forms of intra-family relationships during incarceration. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Singh, Kusum; Sung, Youngji Y.
The study examined the longitudinal association of parental involvement in Head Start parent-focused programs, parenting behaviors, and the cognitive development of children by specifying two longitudinal growth models. Model 1 examined the longitudinal effects of the parental involvement in three Head Start parenting programs (parenting classes,…
Bliss, Melanie J; Emshoff, James; Buck, Chad A; Cook, Sarah L
This study explores perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence in a sample of 202 parents interviewed in the wake of nationally publicized school shootings. We also investigate the effects the school shootings had on children, parents' perceptions regarding firearms, and changes in parenting behavior. Parents exhibited strong support for almost all proposed causes and solutions, and we address their desire for immediate and often invasive interventions to prevent future violence. We contrast parents' perceptions with their own parenting behaviors and with literature on effective interventions. Results are discussed within the context of policy implications.Editors' Strategic Implications: Parents' perceptions and behaviors are frequently influenced by history effects. The national attention received by school shootings provided an opportunity for exploration of those perceptions and self-reported behaviors. The authors provide evidence from timely surveys that parents struggle with identifying causal factors that may contribute to school violence and consequently support a myriad of strategies for intervention including very invasive environmental preventive strategies. The findings suggest that social scientists should play a proactive role in translating research-supported preventive strategies to effective replications in the community and make research available in formats that are available and comprehensible by the lay public.
Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron
Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.
Greeson, Megan R; Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah I; Beeble, Marisa; Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris
Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has negative consequences for children's well-being and behavior. Much of the research on parenting in the context of IPV has focused on whether and how IPV victimization may negatively shape maternal parenting, and how parenting may in turn negatively influence child behavior, resulting in a deficit model of mothering in the context of IPV. However, extant research has yet to untangle the interrelationships among the constructs and test whether the negative effects of IPV on child behavior are indeed attributable to IPV affecting mothers' parenting. The current study employed path analysis to examine the relationships among IPV, mothers' parenting practices, and their children's externalizing behaviors over three waves of data collection among a sample of 160 women with physically abusive partners. Findings indicate that women who reported higher levels of IPV also reported higher levels of behavior problems in their children at the next time point. When parenting practices were examined individually as mediators of the relationship between IPV and child behavior over time, one type of parenting was significant, such that higher IPV led to higher authoritative parenting and lower child behavior problems [corrected]. On the other hand, there was no evidence that higher levels of IPV contributed to more child behavior problems due to maternal parenting. Instead, IPV had a significant cumulative indirect effect on child behavior via the stability of both IPV and behavior over time. Implications for promoting women's and children's well-being in the context of IPV are discussed.
Stephenson, Michael T; Quick, Brian L; Atkinson, Joshua; Tschida, David A
This research employed the theory of reasoned action to investigate the role of authoritative parenting in 3 drug-prevention behaviors: (a) parental monitoring, (b) parent-child discussions, and (c) awareness of the child's environment. A phone survey of 158 parents of adolescents in 7th, 9th, and 11th grades revealed that authoritative parenting was correlated with parenting practices that reduce the likelihood of adolescent drug use, including discussing family rules about drugs, discussing strategies to avoid drugs, discussing those in trouble with drugs, parental monitoring, knowing the child's plans for the coming day, and personally knowing the child's friends well. Additionally, authoritative parenting moderated the attitude-behavioral intention relation for parental monitoring and awareness of the child's environment, with the weakest relation detected for low-authoritative parents. The utility of these findings in helping design and target antidrug messages for parents more effectively is discussed.
Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian
Prior research indicates that early pubertal timing is associated with aggressive behavior, particularly in the context of adversity as postulated in the contextual amplification hypothesis. However, few studies have examined harsh parenting as the context for the effect of early pubertal timing. Even fewer studies have tested the interactive effect of early pubertal timing and positive parenting on aggressive behavior. In this study, we tested the proposition that early pubertal timing, contrary to the general conception of it as a vulnerability, indexed susceptibility, and thus early maturing individuals were affected more by their environment in a "for better and for worse" manner. The sample consisted of 411 community-recruited youth aged 11-12 years (51% boys, 80% African Americans). Participants reported Tanner Stages of pubertal development, aggressive behavior and harsh parenting practice of their parents. Puberty scores were standardized with groups of the same age, sex, and ethnicity, and those that scored the top one-third were defined as early maturing individuals. Parents reported youth's aggressive behavior and their parenting practices towards the youth, including harsh parenting and positive parenting. Early pubertal timing significantly moderated the relationship between harsh/positive parenting and aggressive behavior. Specifically, harsh parenting was positively associated with aggressive behavior to a larger degree among early maturing individuals than among on-time/late-maturing individuals. Positive parenting was inversely associated with aggressive behavior but only among early maturing individuals. This study is the first to document support for early pubertal timing as susceptibility to the environmental influences in relation to aggressive behavior. Theoretical and intervention implications are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Klahr, Ashlea M; Burt, S Alexandra; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M
Negative parenting is shaped by the genetically influenced characteristics of children (via evocative rGE) and by parental antisocial behavior; however, it is unclear how these factors jointly impact parenting. This study examined the effects of birth parent and adoptive parent antisocial behavior on negative parenting. Participants included 546 families within a prospective adoption study. Adoptive parent antisocial behavior emerged as a small but significant predictor of negative parenting at 18 months and of change in parenting from 18 to 27 months. Birth parent antisocial behavior predicted change in adoptive father's (but not mother's) parenting over time. These findings highlight the role of parent characteristics and suggest that evocative rGE effects on parenting may be small in magnitude in early childhood. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Frosch, Cynthia A.; Cox, Martha J.; Goldman, Barbara Davis
Examined longitudinal associations between infant-parent attachment and parent/toddler behavior during storybook interaction. Found that infants with insecure-resistant attachment with mothers were less enthusiastic and focused during storybook interaction at 24 months. Mothers of insecure-resistant infants were less warm/supportive, and less…
Zvara, B J; Mills-Koonce, W R; Appleyard Carmody, K; Cox, M
Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the long-term adjustment of women reporting childhood sexual trauma (CST) at or before the age of 14 in terms of parenting efficacy and parenting behavior. Data for these analyses were obtained from mother reports and from observational protocols from a longitudinal study of low-income, rural families. The novel use of propensity-matched controls to create a control group matched on family of origin variables provides evidence that when women with CST are compared with the matched comparison women, females who experienced CST show poorer functioning across multiple domains of parenting (sensitivity, harsh intrusiveness, boundary dissolution), but not in parenting efficacy. Follow-up moderation analyses suggest that the potential effects of trauma on parenting behaviors are not attenuated by protective factors such as higher income, higher education, or stable adult relationships. Implications for interventions with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hartley, Sigan L.; Schaidle, Emily M.; Burnson, Cynthia F.
Objective The authors examined parental attributions for child behavior problems in 63 married couples of children and adolescents (aged 3–20 years) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Both child-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the child or adolescent) and parent-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the parent) were examined along the dimensions of locus, stability, and controllability. Parent and child/adolescent factors related to parental attributions were identified, and the associations between parental attributions and parenting burden were explored. Method Mothers and fathers independently completed self-reported measures of parental attributions, parenting burden, and child behavior problems. Couples jointly reported on their son or daughter’s severity of autism symptoms, intellectual disability status, age, and gender. Results Parents tended to attribute the behavior problems of their child/adolescent with an ASD to characteristics that were not only internal to and stable in the child/adolescent but also controllable by the child/adolescent. Mothers were more likely to attribute their son or daughter’s behavior problems to characteristics that were less internal to and less stable in the child/adolescent with an ASD than were fathers. In addition, parents with a higher level of symptoms of the broader autism phenotype, parents of younger children, and parents of children/adolescents with intellectual disability, a higher severity of autism symptoms, and a higher severity of overall behavior problems were more likely to attribute their son or daughter’s behavior problems to characteristics that were more internal to and stable in the child/adolescent and factors that were less controllable by the child/adolescent. Parental attributions were related to parents’ level of parenting burden. Implications Findings have implications for designing appropriate interventions and services for families
Crossin, Glenn T; Trathan, Phil N; Phillips, Richard A; Gorman, Kristen B; Dawson, Alistair; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Williams, Tony D
Corticosterone has received considerable attention as the principal hormonal mediator of allostasis or physiological stress in wild animals. More recently, it has also been implicated in the regulation of parental care in breeding birds, particularly with respect to individual variation in foraging behavior and provisioning effort. There is also evidence that prolactin can work either inversely or additively with corticosterone to achieve this. Here we test the hypothesis that endogenous corticosterone plays a key physiological role in the control of foraging behavior and parental care, using a combination of exogenous corticosterone treatment, time-depth telemetry, and physiological sampling of female macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) during the brood-guard period of chick rearing, while simultaneously monitoring patterns of prolactin secretion. Plasma corticosterone levels were significantly higher in females given exogenous implants relative to those receiving sham implants. Increased corticosterone levels were associated with significantly higher levels of foraging and diving activity and greater mass gain in implanted females. Elevated plasma corticosterone was also associated with an apparent fitness benefit in the form of increased chick mass. Plasma prolactin levels did not correlate with corticosterone levels at any time, nor was prolactin correlated with any measure of foraging behavior or parental care. Our results provide support for the corticosterone-adaptation hypothesis, which predicts that higher corticosterone levels support increased foraging activity and parental effort.
Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela
Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12-18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
Full Text Available Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007 to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12 to 18 years of age from Asturias (Spain. Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships. Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela
Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12–18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:27679591
Effects of Cognitive Versus Cognitive-Behavioral Divorce-Parenting Programs on Parental Conflict, Intimate Violence, Parental Communication, Divorce-Related Parental Behaviors and Children's Behavioral Problems
This study examines the effects of two State of Florida mandated divorce- parenting classes, one cognitive-based and the other cognitive-behavioral based, on several individual and family variables...
Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A.; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart
This study investigated how parenting accounted for inter-individual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6–18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved) were differentiated on the basis of levels and rates of change in the constituent parenting dimensions. Multi-group analyses demonstrated that these parenting styles were differentially related to changes in parent- and child-reported measures of children’s alcohol and cigarette use, antisocial behavior, and internalizing symptoms, with the authoritative parenting class being related to the most optimal long-term development. Practical implications and future research suggestions are discussed. PMID:21534057
Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.
The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were col...
Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan
This study examined the associations between adolescents' perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People's Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents' age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention.
Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan
This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents’ age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:24098710
Mikami, Amori Yee; Chong, Gua Khee; Saporito, Jena M; Na, Jennifer Jiwon
This study examined parents' perceptions/awareness and internalization of public courtesy stigma (affiliate stigma) about their children's inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, and associations between parental affiliate stigma, parental negativity expressed toward the child, and child social functioning. Participants were families of 63 children (ages 6-10; 42 boys) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, assessed in a cross-sectional design. After statistical control of children's severity of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms (as reported by parents and teachers), parents' self-reports of greater affiliate stigma were associated with more observed negative parenting. The associations between high parental affiliate stigma and children's poorer adult informant-rated social skills and greater observed aggression were partially mediated by increased parental negativity. As well, the positive association between children's adult informant-rated aggressive behavior and parental negativity was partially mediated by parents' increased affiliate stigma. Parental affiliate stigma about their children's inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms may have negative ramifications for parent-child interactions and children's social functioning. Clinical implications for parent training interventions are discussed.
Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Vink, Jacqueline M; Kremers, Stef P J; Ruiter, Emilie L M; Fisher, Jennifer O
Although parents often report positive intentions to promote and create a healthy food environment for their children (e.g., setting limits to snacks offered), they also experience difficulties in translating these intentions into actual behaviors. In this position paper, we argue that automatic processes explain an important part of the gap between parents' intentions and their actual food parenting behaviors. We provide a conceptual framework in which we hypothesize that automatic effects on food parenting occur through two key interrelated constructs: habits (key outcome construct) and volitional regulation behaviors (key mediating construct). Moreover, we discuss potentially important impulse-focused techniques that may directly change habits (e.g., nudging; inhibitory control training) or indirectly through volitional regulation behaviors (e.g., implementation intentions; mental contrasting). We make use of the literature on the role of intention-behavior discordance in general health behaviors and discuss implications for food parenting practices. Our framework provides a dual process view towards food parenting and may help to explain when and why parents are likely to engage in (un)healthy food parenting behaviors. In addition, this framework may hopefully stimulate research on (combinations of old and) new techniques to promote good food parenting behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Escher, Fabian J
What is "normal"? Maternal parenting behavior as risk and protective factor for psychopathology and identity diffusion Objectives: This study analyzes the implications of today's highly altered maternal parenting behaviors on children's development and psychological health. The relationship between maternal parenting behaviors (support, psychological control, and anxious monitoring) and delayed identity development or identity diffusion as well as internalizing or externalizing symptomatology was investigated in a sample of 732 youths (301 adolescents, 351 young adults, and 80 patients). Cluster analysis identified two types of maternal parenting behaviors: authoritative maternal behavior and dysfunctionalmaternal behavior. As expected, patients exhibited a high degree of dysfunctional maternal parenting behavior (low support, high psychological control), delayed identity development as well as elevated identity diffusion and symptomatology.Authoritative maternal parenting emerged as a protective factor in the prediction of identity diffusion and symptomatology.All three groups described a high degree of anxious maternal monitoring. The implications of changed maternal parenting behaviors on identity diffusion and symptomatology are discussed in light of societal changes and changing criteria of personality disorders in the new DSM-5.
Hartley, Sigan L; Schaidle, Emily M; Burnson, Cynthia F
The authors examined parental attributions for child behavior problems in 63 married couples of children and adolescents (aged 3-20 years) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Both child-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the child or adolescent) and parent-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the parent) were examined along the dimensions of locus, stability, and controllability. Parent and child/adolescent factors related to parental attributions were identified, and the associations between parental attributions and parenting burden were explored. Mothers and fathers independently completed self-reported measures of parental attributions, parenting burden, and child behavior problems. Couples jointly reported on their son or daughter's severity of autism symptoms, intellectual disability status, age, and gender. Parents tended to attribute the behavior problems of their child/adolescent with an ASD to characteristics that were not only internal to and stable in the child/adolescent but also controllable by the child/adolescent. Mothers were more likely to attribute their son or daughter's behavior problems to characteristics that were less internal to and less stable in the child/adolescent with an ASD than were fathers. In addition, parents with a higher level of symptoms of the broader autism phenotype, parents of younger children, and parents of children/adolescents with intellectual disability, a higher severity of autism symptoms, and a higher severity of overall behavior problems were more likely to attribute their son or daughter's behavior problems to characteristics that were more internal to and stable in the child/adolescent and factors that were less controllable by the child/adolescent. Parental attributions were related to parents' level of parenting burden. Findings have implications for designing appropriate interventions and services for families of children and adolescents with ASDs.
Petsch, Priscilla; Rochlen, Aaron B.
The recent increase in prison populations has given rise to an unprecedented number of children in the school system with incarcerated parents. To cope with stressors before, during, or after parents' incarceration, children can exhibit a range of problematic and maladaptive behaviors. This article explores the negative behaviors these children…
Nijjar, Rami; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh
We recently reported that adolescent and young adult offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), relative to control offspring, were more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). The present prospective study aimed to determine the contribution of parents' personality and offspring behaviour problems in middle childhood to offspring SRBs 10 years later. We hypothesized that offspring externalizing problems in childhood would mediate the relationship between parents' personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness and adolescent SRBs. Furthermore, we expected these associations to be more robust among the OBD than controls. At baseline, 102 offspring (52 OBD and 50 controls) aged between 4 and 14 years were assessed along with their parents, who completed a self-report personality measure and child behavior rating. Behaviour ratings were also obtained from the children's teachers. Ten years later the offspring completed an interview assessing SRBs. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping revealed that, after controlling for age and presence of an affective disorder, externalizing behaviors served as a pathway through which high parental neuroticism, low parental agreeableness, and low parental extraversion were related to SRBs in offspring. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between parental neuroticism and childhood externalizing problems was stronger for OBD than controls. These findings add to our previous results showing parents' personality contributes to intergenerational risk transfer through behavioral problems in middle childhood. These results carry implications for optimal timing of preventative interventions in the OBD.
The Implications of the Collaboration among Parents, Teachers, and Psychologists, Parenting Education Provided by Schools, and Applied Behavior Analysis in the Lives of Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder
There was a need for an increased and equal partnership between school professionals and parents. Collaboration will help parents and school professionals to understand one another. Natural environment teaching and routine should be incorporated into the intervention strategies that address the needs of the children diagnosed with autism. When…
Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily
Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or
McCarthy, Randy J
Three studies (total N = 1777 parents) examined whether harsh parenting behaviors would increase when parents experienced an instigation and whether this increase would be especially pronounced for parents who were high in trait aggression. These predictions were tested both when parents' experience of an instigation was manipulated (Studies 1 and 2) and when parents' perceptions of their child's instigating behavior was reported (Study 3). Further, these predictions were tested across a variety of measures of parents' harsh behaviors: (1) asking parents to report their likelihood of behaving harshly (Study 1), (2) using proxy tasks for parents' inclinations to behave harshly (Study 2), and (3) having parents report their past child-directed behaviors, some of which were harsh (Study 3). Both child instigations and parents' trait aggression were consistently associated with parents' child-directed harsh behaviors. However, parents' trait aggression only moderated the extent to which the instigation was associated with their harsh parenting for self-reported physical harsh behaviors (Study 1). The results of the current studies demonstrate that both situational factors, such as experiencing an instigation, and individual difference variables, such as trait aggression, affect parents' likelihood to exhibit harsh behaviors, but found little evidence these factors interact.
Elam, Kit K; Chassin, Laurie; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L
Previous research suggests that mothers' and fathers' parenting may be differentially influenced by marital and child factors within the family. Some research indicates that marital stress is more influential in fathers' than mothers' parenting, whereas other research shows that children's difficult behavior preferentially affects mothers' parenting. The present study examined marital stress and children's externalizing behavior in middle childhood as predictors of mothers' versus fathers' consistency, monitoring, and support and care in early adolescence, and the subsequent associations of these parenting behaviors with externalizing behavior 1.5 years later. Pathways were examined within a longitudinal mediation model testing for moderation by parent gender (N = 276 mothers, N = 229 fathers). Children's externalizing behavior in middle childhood was found to more strongly inversely predict mothers' versus fathers' monitoring in early adolescence. In contrast, marital stress more strongly predicted low monitoring for fathers than for mothers. Regardless of parent gender, marital stress predicted lower levels of parental consistency, and children's externalizing behavior predicted lower levels of parental support. Mothers' monitoring and fathers' support in early adolescence predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior 1.5 years later. The results are discussed with respect to family transactions relative to parent gender and implications for intervention.
Helgeson, Vicki S; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda
To examine the relation of parent stress to parent mental health and child mental and physical health. We interviewed children with type 1 diabetes (n = 132; mean age 12 years) annually for 5 years and had one parent complete a questionnaire at each assessment. Parents completed measures of general life stress, stress related to caring for a child with diabetes, benefit finding, and mental health. Child outcomes were depressive symptoms, self-care behavior, and glycemic control. Multilevel modeling was used to examine concurrent and longitudinal relations. Greater parent general stress and greater parent diabetes-specific stress were associated with poorer parent mental health. Overall, greater parent general stress was associated with poorer child outcomes, whereas greater parent diabetes-specific stress was associated with better child outcomes. Families with high levels of general life stress should be identified as they are at risk for both poor parent and child health outcomes.
Crandall, AliceAnn; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Day, Randal D; Riley, Anne W
Prior research links poor maternal emotion regulation to maladaptive parenting and child behaviors, but little research is available on these relationships during the adolescent period. We use structural equation modeling to assess the influence of poor maternal emotion regulation, measured as emotional reactivity and distancing, on adolescent behaviors (measured as aggression and prosocial behaviors) among 478 adolescents (53 % female; baseline age 10-13 years) and their mothers over a 5 year period. We also tested the possible mediating roles of family functioning and parenting behaviors between maternal emotion regulation and adolescent behaviors. Results indicated that higher baseline maternal emotional distancing and reactivity were not directly predictive of adolescents' behaviors, but they were indirectly related through family functioning and parenting. Specifically, indulgent parenting mediated the relationship between maternal emotional reactivity and adolescent aggression. Maternal-reported family functioning significantly mediated the relationship between maternal emotional distancing and adolescent aggression. Family functioning also mediated the relationship between emotional distancing and regulation parenting. The results imply that poor maternal emotion regulation during their child's early adolescence leads to more maladaptive parenting and problematic behaviors during the later adolescent period. However, healthy family processes may ameliorate the negative impact of low maternal emotion regulation on parenting and adolescent behavioral outcomes. The implications for future research and interventions to improve parenting and adolescent outcomes are discussed.
Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S; Rebellon, Cesar J; Van Gundy, Karen
Both law and society scholars and developmental psychologists have focused on the legitimacy of authority figures, although in different domains (police versus parents). The purpose of the current research is to bridge these two fields by examining the relations among parenting style (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive), the perception of parental legitimacy, and changes in delinquency over time. It is hypothesized that parental legitimacy mediates the relation between parenting style and future delinquent behavior. Middle school and high school students completed questionnaires three times over a period of 18 months. Parenting style and delinquent behavior were measured at time 1, parental legitimacy at time 2, and delinquency again at time 3. The results show that authoritative parenting was positively related to parental legitimacy, while authoritarian parenting was negatively associated with parental legitimacy. Furthermore, parental legitimacy was negatively associated with future delinquency. Structural equation modeling indicated that parental legitimacy mediated the relation between parenting styles and changes in delinquency over the 18-month time period. The implications for parenting style and parental legitimacy affecting delinquent behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Langer, Shelby L.; Romano, Joan M.; Mancl, Lloyd; Levy, Rona L.
This study sought to model and test the role of parental catastrophizing in relationship to parent-reported child pain behavior and parental protective (solicitous) responses to child pain in a sample of children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and their parents (n = 184 dyads). Parents completed measures designed to assess cognitions about and responses to their child's abdominal pain. They also rated their child's pain behavior. Mediation analyses were performed using regression-based techn...
Treyvaud, Karli; Anderson, Vicki A; Howard, Kelly; Bear, Merilyn; Hunt, Rod W; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Woodward, Lianne; Anderson, Peter J
There is an increasing focus on social and environmental factors that promote and support the early development of highly vulnerable children such as those born very preterm. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between parenting behavior, parent-child synchrony, and neurobehavioral development in very preterm children at 24 months of age. Participants were 152 very preterm children (Cognitive and motor development was assessed by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, and the Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment was used to assess socioemotional development (social-emotional competence and internalizing and externalizing behavior). fter controlling for social risk, most parenting domains were associated with cognitive development, with parent-child synchrony emerging as the most predictive. Greater parent-child synchrony was also associated with greater social-emotional competence, as was parenting that was positive, warm, and sensitive. Parents who displayed higher levels of negative affect were more likely to rate their children as withdrawn, anxious, and inhibited, but, unexpectedly, higher negative affect was also associated with more optimal psychomotor development. Parenting was not associated with externalizing behaviors at this age. Specific parenting behaviors, particularly parent-child synchrony, were associated with neurobehavioral development. These findings have implications for the development of targeted parent-based interventions to promote positive outcomes across different developmental domains during the first 2 years of life for very preterm children.
Tung, Irene; Noroña, Amanda N; Morgan, Julia E; Caplan, Barbara; Lee, Steve S; Baker, Bruce L
Although parenting behavior and friendship quality predict adolescent externalizing behaviors (EBs), individual differences in temperament may differentially affect susceptibility to these factors over time. In a multi-method and multi-informant study of 141 children followed prospectively from toddlerhood to adolescence, we tested the independent and interactive associations of age 3 reactive temperament (e.g., negative emotionality) and age 13 observed parenting (i.e., positive and negative behavior) and friendship (i.e., conflict and warmth), with multi-informant ratings of age 15 aggression and rule-breaking behavior. Negative parenting predicted growth in parent-rated EB, but only for adolescents with early reactive temperament. Temperament did not affect sensitivity to positive parenting or friendship. Results are discussed in the context of differential susceptibility theory and intervention implications for adolescents. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Lippold, Melissa A; Glatz, Terese; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E
Prior studies have found that parents' perceptions of control over their lives and their social support may both be important for parenting behaviors. Yet, few studies have examined their unique and interacting influence on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. This longitudinal study of rural parents in two-parent families (N = 636) investigated (a) whether perceived control and social support when their youth were in sixth grade were independently or interactively associated with changes in parenting behaviors (discipline, standard setting) and parent-child warmth and hostility 6 months later and (b) if these linkages differed by parent gender. We also investigated the interactive links between perceived control, social support, and parenting. Specifically, we tested if parents' perceived control moderated the linkages between social support and parenting and if these linkages differed by parent gender. Greater perceived control predicted more increases in parents' consistent discipline and standard setting, whereas greater social support predicted increases in parent-child warmth and decreases in parent-child hostility. Parental perceived control moderated the effect of social support on parental warmth: For mothers only, social support was significantly linked to parent-child warmth only when mothers had low (but not high) perceived self-control. The discussion focuses on reasons why perceived control and social support may have associations with different aspects of parenting and why these might differ for mothers and fathers. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Morawska, A; Sanders, M R
The often intense nature of the conflict between parents and their toddlers requires better understanding of what happens during this stage of development and how difficulties can be prevented from escalating in the future. Clarification of the nature of family and parenting factors related to toddler behaviour allows better capacity for intervention development and tailoring to individual families. A total of 126 mothers of toddlers completed a self-report assessment battery, examining child behaviour, parenting style and confidence, as well as broader family adjustment measures. The study found that maternal confidence and dysfunctional parenting were interrelated and were also predicted best by parenting variables, in contrast to socio-demographic and child variables. Maternal confidence also mediated the relationships between family income and toddler behaviour. Parenting style and confidence are important modifiable factors to target in parenting interventions. The implications for the development, implementation and delivery of parenting interventions are discussed.
Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.
Discrepancies between parents and adolescents regarding parenting behaviors have been hypothesized to represent a deficit in the parent-child relationship and may represent unique risk factors for poor developmental outcomes. The current study examined the predictive utility of multiple methods for characterizing discrepancies in parents’ and adolescents’ reports of parental monitoring on youth alcohol use behaviors in order to inform future study design and predictive modeling. Data for the current study came from a prospective investigation of alcohol initiation and progression. The analyzed sample consisted of 606 adolescents (6th – 8th grade; 54% female) and their parents were surveyed at baseline, with youth followed up 12 months later. A series of hierarchical logistic regressions were performed for each monitoring-related construct examined (parental knowledge, parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure). The results showed that adolescents’ reports were more closely related to outcomes than parents’ reports, while greater discrepancies were frequently found to be uniquely associated with greater likelihood of alcohol use behaviors. Implications for future work incorporating parents’ and adolescents’ reports are discussed. PMID:24964878
Curry, Katherine A.; Adams, Curt M.
Family-school partnerships are difficult to initiate and sustain in ways that actually promote student learning, especially in high-poverty communities. This quantitative study was designed to better understand how social forces shape parent responsibility in education. Based on social cognitive theory as the conceptual framework, the…
Peyer, Karissa L; Welk, Gregory; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Yang, Shu; Kim, Jae-Kwang
A parent's perception about their child's overweight status is an important precursor or determinant of preventative actions. Acknowledgment of, and concern for, overweight may be moderated by the parent's own weight status whereas engaging in healthy behaviors at home may promote healthy weight status. It is hypothesized that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and acknowledge overweight in their own children whereas heavier parents may report more concern about child weight. A total of 1745 parents of first- through fifth-grade students completed a questionnaire assessing reactions to a school BMI report and perceptions about BMI issues. Specific items included perceptions of child's weight status, concern for child weight status, and preventive practices. Parents also provided information about their own weight status. Relationships between measured child weight, perceived child weight, parent weight, parent concern, and healthy behaviors were examined. Overweight parents were more likely to identify overweight in their child and report concern about their child's weight. Concern was higher for parents of overweight children than of normal weight children. Normal weight parents and parents of normal weight children reported more healthy behaviors. Results support the hypothesis that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and that overweight parents are more likely to report concern about child weight. However, overweight parents are also more likely to acknowledge overweight status in their own child. Future research should examine links between parent concern and actual pursuit of weight management assistance.
Greblo, Zrinka; Bratko, Denis
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between parents' perfectionism and self-reported parenting behaviors. The study included 786 parents (417 mothers and 369 fathers) of high school students. Results showed that parents' positive and negative perfectionism were differently related to specific forms of child rearing practices. Namely, positive perfectionism was positively, while negative perfectionism was negatively related to parental acceptance for both mothers and fathers. Mothers' and fathers' negative perfectionism was positively related to parental criticism and permissiveness. In addition, fathers' positive perfectionism was negatively associated with permissive child rearing practices. After controlling for background variables, parents' positive and negative perfectionism explained significant amounts of variance in all self-reported parenting dimensions for fathers and significantly accounted for the variance of parental acceptance and criticism for mothers. According to our findings, parents' perfectionism might have an important role in shaping parenting behaviors. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Safford, Scott M.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Pieracci, Antonia
We compared two common measures of parenting behavior, the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), evaluating their psychometric properties and predictive ability. One hundred sixty seven college students completed the CRPBI, PBI, and measures of depression and anxiety with 123…
Van Camp, Carole M.; Montgomery, Jan L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Kosarek, Judith A.; Happe, Shawn; Burgos, Vanessa; Manzolillo, Anthony
Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of a 30-hr behavioral parent training program at increasing skill accuracy. However, it remains unknown whether skills acquisitions are maintained on a long-term basis. Few studies have evaluated the maintenance of skills learned during behavioral parent training for foster parents. The purpose of…
Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.
Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…
Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H
Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children.
Nyhus, Ellen K; Webley, Paul
Little is known about the economic socialization of children and adolescents and the role of parents in this process. The authors' purpose was to explore the role of parenting in the intergenerational transfer of economic orientation and economic behavior. More specifically, they studied the link between four parenting dimensions (parental warmth-responsiveness, behavioral control, psychological control, autonomy granting), three parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and neglectful) and adolescents' conscientiousness, future time perspective, and present hedonistic orientation. The authors also studied the relationships between these dispositions and the adolescents' spending preferences and ability to control spending. They used data collected from 14-16-year-olds (n = 597) and their parents (n = 469) in Norway. Results showed that adolescents who perceived their parents as psychologically controlling were less future oriented and conscientious, and were more present hedonistic oriented than others, while adolescents who perceived their parents as responsive, autonomy granting, and controlling of behavior were more future orientated and conscientious than others. Adolescents' scores for conscientiousness and future orientation were negatively associated with preferences for spending and positively with the ability to control spending, while the opposite relationships were found with respect to a present hedonistic orientation. Parental style was also found to be important for the future educational plans of adolescents, and plans for higher education were more frequent among adolescents who characterized their parents as authoritative than among those who perceived their parents as neglectful. Implications of the findings for economic socialization are discussed.
Wisniewski, Amy B
Historically, studies of caregivers of children with disorders of sex development (DSD) have been limited. Recent data reveal that parents of young children with DSD report increased stress, anxiety, depression, and decreased quality of life in ways that are similar to parents of children with other types of chronic illnesses. Also similar to other chronic illnesses of childhood, parents of children with DSD exhibit overprotective parenting and perceive their child as being vulnerable. These emotions and behaviors exhibited by parents are concerning as they may limit an affected child's emotional and social development over time. Perhaps, more unique to the situation of DSD is the perceived, or real, child-focused stigma experienced by parents of children with DSD. Interventions to improve parents' psychosocial adaptation to their child's medical condition, including coaching in how to discuss their child's condition in a manner that makes them feel safe and supported, are needed to optimize outcomes for families.
Luster, Tom; And Others
Used data on 65 mother-infant dyads to test Kohn's hypothesis concerning the relation between values and parenting behavior. Findings support Kohn's hypothesis that parents who value self-direction would emphasize supportive function of parenting and parents who value conformity would emphasize their obligations to impose restraints. (Author/NB)
Hadzic, Renata; Magee, Christopher A.; Robinson, Laura
This study examined whether hours of parental employment were associated with child behaviors via parenting practices. The sample included 2,271 Australian children aged 4-5 years at baseline. Two-wave panel mediation models tested whether parenting practices that were warm, hostile, or characterized by inductive reasoning linked parent's hours of…
Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo
This study used data collected from a sample of 840 Italian adolescents (418 boys; M age = 12.58) and their parents (657 mothers; M age = 43.78) to explore the relations between parenting, adolescent self-disclosure, and antisocial behavior. In the hypothesized model, parenting practices (e.g., parental monitoring and control) have direct effects on parental knowledge and antisocial behavior. Parenting style (e.g., parent-child closeness), on the other hand, is directly related to adolescent self-disclosure, which in turn is positively related to parental knowledge and negatively related to adolescents' antisocial behavior. A structural equation model, which incorporated data from parents and adolescents, largely supported the hypothesized model. Gender-specific models also found some gender differences among adolescents and parents, as the hypothesized model adequately fit the subsample of mothers but not fathers. Mothers' closeness to girls predicted their knowledge of their daughters' behavior; mothers' control predicted boys' antisocial behavior.
Harrington, John W.; Patrick, Patricia A.; Edwards, Karen S.; Brand, Donald A.
This study investigated parental beliefs about the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders. Sixty-two families of affected children completed a questionnaire asking when the parent first noticed developmental or behavioral problems, when they were told the diagnosis, how confident they were about the ability of their…
Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla
This study examined the relationship of emotional detachment from parents, parental support, and problem behaviors and focused on the unique and common contribution that detachment and parental support made to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. A total of 461 young adolescents, 13 to 14 years old ("M" = 13.4;…
Sleddens, E.F.C.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, N.K. de; Thijs, C.
Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened
Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Lee, Jaerim; August, Gerald J.
This study examined the relationships among financial stress encountered by families, parents' social support, parental depressive symptoms, parenting practices, and children's externalizing problem behaviors to advance our understanding of the processes by which family financial stress is associated with children's problem behaviors. We also…
Hjelle, L A; Busch, E A; Warren, J E
The relationship between two cognitive personality constructs (explanatory style and dispositional optimism) and retrospective self-reports of maternal and paternal behavior were investigated. College students (62 men and 145 women) completed the Life Orientation Test, Attributional Style Questionnaire, and Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire in a single session. As predicted, dispositional optimism was positively correlated with reported maternal and paternal warmth/acceptance and negatively correlated with aggression/hostility, neglect/indifference, and undifferentiated rejection during middle childhood. Unexpectedly, explanatory style was found to be more strongly associated with retrospective reports of paternal as opposed to maternal behavior. The implications of these results for future research concerning the developmental antecedents of differences in explanatory style and dispositional optimism are discussed.
Pincus, A L; Ruiz, M A
Research on the relations between parental representations, personality traits, and psychopathology was discussed with reference to their integration for clinical personality assessment. Empirical results linking parental representations assessed by the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior and the Five-Factor Model of personality traits in a young adult population supported the position that parental representations significantly relate to adult personality. Individuals whose parental representations were generally affiliative described themselves as less prone to emotional distress (lower neuroticism); more interpersonally oriented and experiencing of positive emotions (higher extraversion); more peaceable and trustworthy (higher agreeableness); and more dutiful, resourceful, and dependable (higher conscientiousness). Parental representations colored by autonomy granting and autonomy taking were related to higher levels of openness to experience but lower levels of conscientiousness and extraversion in self-descriptions. Assessment implications and an integrative assessment strategy were presented along with a clinical case example.
Eiduson, Bernice T.; And Others
This study, part of a naturalistic longitudinal study of infants being reared in a variety of family life styles, attempted to establish the extent to which differing parenting patterns affected early developmental outcomes. Subjects were 200 infants: 50 of single mothers who headed their family units, 50 of mothers in communal living groups, and…
Gersh, Elon; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Arghira, Adriana Cristina; Zhou, Chuan; McCarty, Carolyn A
We investigated which adolescent health risk behaviors are of concern to parents generally, according to adolescent age, gender, and in the context of perceived risk. We compared adolescent and parent reports of the presence of health-risk behaviors and factors predicting agreement. Three hundred adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (mean, 14.5 years; 52% female) who presenting for well care completed an electronic screening tool used to assess health-risk behaviors. Parents completed parallel measures of their child's behavior and parental concern. Adolescent and parent reports were compared using McNemar test. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine predictors of agreement. High parental concern was most commonly reported for screen time and diet. When parents identified their adolescent as at-risk, high parental concern was near universal for mental health but less commonly reported for substance use. There were no differences in parental concern according to adolescent gender. Parents of older adolescents expressed more concern regarding physical activity and alcohol. Compared with adolescents, parents were more likely to report risk regarding anxiety, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity, and less likely to report risk regarding screen time, sleep, and marijuana use. Younger adolescent age and higher family relationship quality were predictive of stronger parent-adolescent agreement. Parents in well-care visits commonly have concerns about adolescent lifestyle behaviors. Although parents are more likely to report concern when they know about a behavior, parental concern is not always aligned with parental awareness of risk, particularly for substance use. Parent report of higher prevalence of some risk behaviors suggests their input might assist in risk identification. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A.; Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.
Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, posi...
Poutanen, Raija; Lahti, Satu; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Hausen, Hannu
The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences between oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of children and their parents, and to identify the family-related factors associated with children's poor or good oral health-related behavior. The data were gathered by means of questionnaires from 11-12-year-old schoolchildren and their parents who replied without having knowledge of the answers of the others. Differences between subgroups of children were analyzed by cross-tabulation, and the factors related to children's good or poor oral health-related behavior by logistic regression analyses. Parents of children who reported good oral health-related behavior had better knowledge and more favorable behaviors than those of other parents. Predictors for a child's poor oral health-related behavior were the child's poor knowledge, male gender, the parent's frequent consumption of sweets, and the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. When a less strict threshold for the child's poor oral health-related behavior was used, more predictors entered the model: the parent's unfavorable use of fluoride toothpaste; among girls, the parent's lack of knowledge; and among children whose mother's occupation level was high, the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. The parents of children whose oral health behavior was favorable were more likely to have a high level occupation and favorable oral health-related behaviors. Oral health-related knowledge of children and their parents seems to be associated with children's oral health-related behavior. Parents' behaviors, but not attitudes, were associated with children's oral health behavior.
Nelson, Benjamin W; Byrne, Michelle L; Simmons, Julian G; Whittle, Sarah; Schwartz, Orli S; Reynolds, Eric C; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B
This study utilized a novel multisystem approach to investigate the effect of observed parental behavior on the relationship between biological mechanisms associated with disease processes (i.e., autonomic physiology and immune response) among their adolescent children. Thirty-three adolescents (23 males), aged 11-13, and their parents participated in a laboratory session in which adolescents provided baseline measures of autonomic (sympathetic) activity, and adolescents and 1 parent participated in a laboratory based dyadic conflict resolution interaction task. This included 3 male parent/male adolescent dyads, 20 female parent/male adolescent dyads, 3 male parent/female adolescent dyads, and 7 female parent/female adolescent dyads. Approximately 3 years later, adolescents provided a salivary measure of C-Reactive Protein (sCRP) to index inflammation. Analyses revealed a positive association between sympathetic activity and sCRP, as well as a moderating role of positive parental behavior in this relationship, such that the association between sympathetic activity and sCRP was greater among adolescents whose parents displayed shorter duration of positive affect. Overall findings indicate parental behavior may influence the association between adolescent sympathetic activity and inflammatory processes. These findings have important implications for understanding the impact of psychosocial factors on biological mechanisms of disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi L.
The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual two-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children’s gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at three time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents’ gender and sexual orientation; children’s gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys’ behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by two mothers or two fathers. PMID:27416364
Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie
The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…
Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel
Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lunkenheimer, Erika; Ram, Nilam; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Yin, Peifeng
We examined self-reported maternal and paternal harsh parenting (HP) and its effect on the moment-to-moment dynamic coupling of maternal autonomy support and children's positive, autonomous behavior. This positive behavior coupling was measured via hidden Markov models as the likelihood of transitions into specific positive dyadic states in real time. We also examined whether positive behavior coupling, in turn, predicted later HP and child behavior problems. Children (N = 96; age = 3.5 years at Time 1) and mothers completed structured clean-up and puzzle tasks in the laboratory. Mothers' and fathers' HP was associated with children's being less likely to respond positively to maternal autonomy support; mothers' HP was also associated with mothers' being less likely to respond positively to children's autonomous behavior. When mothers responded to children's autonomous behavior with greater autonomy support, children showed fewer externalizing and internalizing problems over time and mothers showed less HP over time. These results were unique to the dynamic coupling of maternal autonomy support and children's autonomous behavior: The overall amount of these positive behaviors did not similarly predict reduced problems. Findings suggest that HP in the family system compromises the coregulation of positive behavior between mother and child and that improving mothers' and children's abilities to respond optimally to one another's autonomy-supportive behaviors may reduce HP and child behavior problems over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.
Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB. Methods:…
Azak, Schale; Raeder, Sabine
This study investigated trajectories of maternal parenting behavior across the infants' first 18 months of life in relation to maternal depression. Furthermore, predictors of the quality of the mother-infant relationship at 18 months were examined. Participants consisted of three types of mother-infant dyads: mothers with comorbid depression and anxiety (n=19), mothers with depression (n=7) and nondepressed mothers (n=24). Maternal behaviors and the quality of relationship were rated on a global scale (NICHD) from video-taped mother-infant interactions. Maternal behaviors rated at six, 12 and 18 months were collapsed into a composite variable maternal style. The quality of the relationship captured as dyadic mutuality was rated at 18 months. Comorbid and depressed mothers showed lower quality in maternal style compared with the nondepressed mothers at six months. Over the follow-up the comorbid mothers were lower in maternal style compared to the nondepressed mothers, but the comorbid mothers increased significantly in maternal style despite elevated depression symptoms. Mean maternal style and infant cognitive skills predicted the quality in relationship at 18 months suggesting that the mother-toddler relationship depends on contributions from the mother and the child. Higher growth in maternal style despite of depression symptoms among comorbid mothers was interpreted against the background that the majority of the comorbid mother-infant dyads received several treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kavan, Michael G; Saxena, Shailendra K; Rafiq, Naureen
Parents often seek guidance from physicians on child behavior problems. Questions may range from general parenting strategies to managing specific child behaviors. Physicians and their staff can identify problematic parent-child interactions or behaviors within the office setting and assist parents by providing effective monitoring tools for behavior problems. Effective strategies for influencing a child's behavior include positive reinforcement to increase appropriate behavior, extinction (planned ignoring) for most low-level problematic behaviors, and time-out from reinforcement for more problematic behaviors. Written contracting provides parents the opportunity to communicate with their children about important behaviors and strengthens the commitment of each party to improve behavior. Parents should be cautioned about the use of punishment (e.g., scolding, taking away privileges or possessions) because it suppresses behavior only temporarily. Physicians should discourage physical or corporal punishment because it is related to negative parent-child relationships, increased aggressiveness, antisocial behavior, lower cognitive ability, lower self-esteem, mental health problems, and increased risk of physical abuse.
Boeldt, Debra L.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Schulz-Heik, R. Jay; Corley, Robin P.; Young, Susan E.; Hewitt, John. K.
The present study examined the role of positive parenting on externalizing behaviors in a longitudinal, genetically informative sample. It often is assumed that positive parenting prevents behavior problems in children via an environmentally mediated process. Alternatively, the association may be due to either an evocative gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children’s genetically-influenced behavior in a positive way, or a passive gene-environment correlation, where parents passively transmit a risk environment and the genetic risk factor for the behavioral outcome to their children. The present study estimated the contribution of these processes in the association between positive parenting and children’s externalizing behavior. Positive parenting was assessed via observations at ages 7, 9, 14, 24, and 36 months and externalizing behaviors were assessed through parent report at ages 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12 years. The significant association between positive parenting and externalizing behavior was negative, with children of mothers who showed significantly more positive parenting during toddlerhood having lower levels of externalizing behavior in childhood; however, there was not adequate power to distinguish whether this covariation was due to genetic, shared environmental, or nonshared environmental influences. PMID:22577341
Boeldt, Debra L; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Dilalla, Lisabeth F; Mullineaux, Paula Y; Schulz-Heik, R Jay; Corley, Robin P; Young, Susan E; Hewitt, John K
The present study examined the role of positive parenting on externalizing behaviors in a longitudinal, genetically informative sample. It often is assumed that positive parenting prevents behavior problems in children via an environmentally mediated process. Alternatively, the association may be due to either an evocative gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children's genetically-influenced behavior in a positive way, or a passive gene-environment correlation, where parents passively transmit a risk environment and the genetic risk factor for the behavioral outcome to their children. The present study estimated the contribution of these processes in the association between positive parenting and children's externalizing behavior. Positive parenting was assessed via observations at ages 7, 9, 14, 24, and 36 months and externalizing behaviors were assessed through parent report at ages 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12 years. The significant association between positive parenting and externalizing behavior was negative, with children of mothers who showed significantly more positive parenting during toddlerhood having lower levels of externalizing behavior in childhood; however, there was not adequate power to distinguish whether this covariation was due to genetic, shared environmental, or nonshared environmental influences.
Liu, Hong-Hua; Chen, Jin-Jin
To investigate the relationship between the eating behavior of children aged 1-3 years and parental feeding behavior and the effect of family status on feeding behavior. With stratified random sampling, 2 324 children aged 1-3 years were selected from Shanghai. Questionnaires were filled out by their parents or feeders to investigate the basic family information, parental feeding behavior, the eating behavior of children, and the basic information on children. The eating behavior of children was positively correlated with eating environment (r=0.223) and parental monitoring behavior (r=0.245) but negatively correlated with parental compulsive behavior (r=-0.264) (Pparental compulsive behavior (r=-0.569) but positively correlated with parental monitoring behavior (r=0.615) and eating environment (r=0.621). The emotional undereating of children was positively correlated with parental emotional feeding (r=0.259) and parental compulsive behavior (r=0.279). Parental monitoring behavior showed significant differences between different families (PParental feeding behavior is closely related to the eating behavior of children. Parental feeding behavior may vary across different family status.
Kratz, Lyn; Uding, Nancy; Trahms, Cristine M; Villareale, Nanci; Kieckhefer, Gail M
When children have special health care needs, parents assume the roles of care coordinator, medical expert, and systems advocate as well as their typical parenting roles. They face many challenges in managing their child's chronic condition in the context of everyday life. Health care providers are uniquely positioned to assist parents in meeting those challenges and to promote parent competency and confidence in their child's care. The data for this analysis were collected during classes for parents of children with chronic conditions who took part in a randomized controlled study of a curriculum's effectiveness. During facilitated discussions, parents discussed challenges they faced and generated strategies they found helpful. Qualitative data analysis revealed dominant themes across subject areas. Challenges included social isolation, strained relationships and ongoing frustrations with health care and educational systems. Helpful strategies focused on being prepared, connecting with peers, becoming an advocate, developing partnerships and caring for one's self. Implications for health care providers include: understanding common challenges parents face; promoting parent-to-parent connections; and building partnerships with parents and their children with special needs.
Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A. G.
This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parenting and boys' externalizing behaviors in a four-wave longitudinal study of toddlers. Participants were 104 intact two-parent families with toddler sons. When their sons were 17, 23, 29, and 35 months of age, mothers and fathers reported on a broad range of parenting dimensions…
Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Cheong, JeeWon
This study examined an ecological perspective on the development of antisocial behavior during adolescence, examining direct, additive, and interactive effects of child and both parenting and community factors in relation to youth problem behavior. To address this goal, the authors examined early adolescent dispositional qualities as predictors of boys' antisocial behavior within the context of parents' knowledge of adolescent activities and neighborhood dangerousness. Antisocial behavior was examined using a multimethod latent construct that included self-reported delinquency, symptoms of conduct disorder, and court petitions in a sample of 289 boys from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds who were followed longitudinally from early childhood through adolescence. Results demonstrated direct and additive findings for child prosociality, daring, and negative emotionality, which were qualified by interactions between daring and neighborhood dangerousness, and between prosociality and parental knowledge. The findings have implications for preventive intervention approaches that address the interplay of dispositional and contextual factors to prevent delinquent behavior in adolescence.
Fortier, Michelle A; Tan, Edwin T; Mayes, Linda C; Wahi, Aditi; Rosenbaum, Abraham; Strom, Suzanne; Santistevan, Ricci; Kain, Zeev N
To examine the role of ethnicity and language in parent report of children's postoperative behavioral recovery. To compare incidence of new onset negative behavior change in English- and Spanish-speaking White and Hispanic children following outpatient surgery. Postoperative behavioral change in children is common; however, it is unknown whether cultural variables including ethnicity and language may influence parent report of children's behavioral recovery. Participants included 288 parents (English-speaking White, English-speaking Hispanic, Spanish-speaking Hispanic parents) of children undergoing outpatient elective surgery. Parents completed the post-hospitalization behavior questionnaire (PHBQ) and parents' postoperative pain measure (PPPM) on postoperative days one, three, and seven at home. Most parents (83%) reported onset of new negative behavioral change in children postoperatively. Generalized estimating equations revealed significant group differences in overall behavior change [Wald χ(2)(12) = 375.69, P children compared to English-speaking White (ESW) parents (day 1: P children's postoperative behavioral recovery may be influenced by cultural variables, such as ethnicity and language. The present results contribute to a growing body of evidence that highlights the need for culturally sensitive assessment and care of families in the medical setting. The findings may reflect differences in cultural values such as stoicism; however, future studies would benefit from examination of the factors that may account for the differences in reported behavior change after surgery (i.e., report bias, cultural values). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo
This study used data collected from a sample of 840 Italian adolescents (418 boys; M age = 12.58) and their parents (657 mothers; M age = 43.78) to explore the relations between parenting, adolescent self-disclosure, and antisocial behavior. In the hypothesized model, parenting practices (e.g., parental monitoring and control) have direct effects…
Harman, Jennifer J; Biringen, Zeynep; Ratajack, Ellen M; Outland, Pearl L; Kraus, Allyson
According to gender role theory, individuals who confirm expectations associated with their gender roles are rewarded and judged against these expectations when they deviate. Parental roles are strongly tied to gender, and there are very different expectations for behaviors of mothers and fathers. This study examined how mothers' and fathers' behaviors that support or discourage a positive relationship with the other parent are perceived in terms of their acceptability. Two-hundred twenty-eight parents completed an online survey assessing perceptions of acceptability of negative (parental alienating) and positive coparenting behaviors. Results provided support for our hypothesis: Although parental alienating behaviors were rated unacceptable, they were more acceptable for mothers than fathers. Expectancy violation theory can explain why parental alienating behaviors are not viewed as negatively when mothers exhibit them than fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Parenting problems and child behavior problems are being viewed as putative precursors of adult criminal and violent behavior. Moreover, aggressive behavior in early childhood affects daily life of both children and their surroundings, resulting in serious economic implications to society. In many
Gerdes, Alyson C; Hoza, Betsy; Arnold, L Eugene; Pelham, William E; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Timothy; Jensen, Peter S
Possible mediators of the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and parenting behavior were examined for 96 children with ADHD and their mothers drawn from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) as part of an add-on investigation conducted by two of the six MTA sites. General cognitions (i.e., maternal locus of control and self-esteem) and parenting-specific factors (i.e., maternal parenting efficacy and parenting stress) were examined as possible mediators. Findings provide initial support that maternal parenting stress, as well as maternal locus of control and self-esteem mediate the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and parenting behavior. This provides support for the argument that some families of children with ADHD may benefit from an expanded version of parent management training that includes sessions directly targeting affective and cognitive factors in parents, similar to treatment programs used to treat childhood conduct problems.
Ahern, Nancy R; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Thacker, Paige
Adolescence is a developmental stage marked by risk-taking and limited comprehension of dangers of risky behaviors. Previous research has focused on adolescents' perspective of risk with little evidence on parents' knowledge regarding risk. This qualitative study examined parental knowledge and perspectives of child/teen risk behaviors associated with salvia, sexting, inhalant use/abuse, and self/participant-assisted choking. A sample of 30 parents of children/teens aged 10-17 completed a self-administered survey based on Flanagan's critical incident technique. Data were analyzed according to Flanagan's guidelines. Two advanced practice nurses determined category reliability with 95% agreement. The survey yielded five categories of parental responses to potential risky behaviors in their child/teen including the following: talking to my children, setting up consequences, confronting the child, seeking help, and talking to others. Although the majority of the parents were aware of newer behaviors, less than one half of the participants reported discussing risks with their child/teen. One third reported that their child knew a friend who was thinking about/tried sexting. One quarter of parents reported that they were not monitoring their child/teen's media use. Study findings provide important implications for developing an evidence-based education intervention to improve parents' awareness, knowledge, and identification of risk behaviors in their children/teens. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wiese, Bettina S.; Freund, Alexandra M.
This study (N = 520 high-school students) investigates the influence of parental work involvement on adolescents' own plans regarding their future work involvement. As expected, adolescents' perceptions of parental work behavior affected their plans for own work involvement. Same-sex parents served as main role models for the adolescents' own…
Möller, E.L.; Majdandžić, M.; Bögels, S.M.
Most studies investigating the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of anxiety from parents to children have focused on mothers. However, recent research suggests that mothers and fathers may parent differently and may differentially affect the development of child
Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Neal, Rachel A.; Huey, Erron L.
We used a systems perspective to examine relationships between adolescents' perceptions of overall family system functioning and selected parental behaviors. Self-report questionnaire data from 160 ninth and tenth grade students were analyzed using MANCOVA and discriminant analysis. The results showed two parental behaviors, support and monitoring…
Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.
Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…
Gu, Cihang; Warkentin, Sarah; Mais, Laís Amaral; Carnell, Susan
Childhood obesity is prevalent among ethnic minorities in the UK but little is known about parent feeding practices in these populations. We administered questionnaires assessing parental feeding behaviors and perceptions and concerns relating to child weight to White British (n = 271), South Asian (n = 59), and Black Afro-Caribbean (n = 42) parents of UK 3-5 year-olds. Child BMI z-scores were determined from measured heights and weights. South Asian and Black Afro-Caribbean parents exhibited greater pressure to eat than White British parents. Black Afro-Caribbean parents additionally scored higher on instrumental feeding and lower on monitoring, while South Asian parents scored higher on emotional feeding. Black Afro-Caribbean parents reported the greatest concern about both child overweight and underweight. Ethnic differences were unchanged by controlling for perceptions and concerns relating to child weight, or for actual BMI z, parent education, or household income. Exploratory analyses suggested some evidence for sex differences within ethnic groups. For example, South Asian parents of daughters scored higher than White British parents of daughters on emotional feeding, with no ethnic differences apparent for parents of sons. Our findings support considering variation in parent feeding behaviors and weight-related attitudes by parental ethnicity and child sex when developing obesity interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaiser, Till; Li, Jianghong; Pollmann-Schult, Matthias; Song, Anne Y
The detrimental impact of poverty on child behavioral problems is well-established, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are less well-known. Using data from the Families in Germany Study on parents and their children at ages 9-10 (middle childhood), this study extends previous research by examining whether or not and to what extent different parenting styles and parents' subjective well-being explain the relationship between poverty and child behavior problems. The results show that certain parenting styles, such as psychological control, as well as mothers' life satisfaction partially mediate the correlation between poverty and child behavioral problems.
Since future space missions are likely to be beyond Earth's protective atmosphere, a potentially significant hazard is radiation. The following behavioural situations are addressed in this paper: (1) space radiations are more effective at disrupting behaviour; (2) task demands can aggravate the radiation-disruption; (3) efforts to mitigate disruption with drugs or shielding are not satisfactory and the drugs can be behaviourally toxic; and (4) space- and radiation-induced emesis combined may be synergistic. Thus future space travel will be a demanding, exciting time for behavioral toxicologists, and while the circumstances may seem insurmountable at first, creative application of scientific expertise should illicit solutions, similar to demanding situations confronted before. (author)
Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.
Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…
Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.
Background: The relationship between parenting and the development of antisocial behavior in children is well established. However, evidence for associations between dimensions of parenting and callous-unemotional (CU) traits is mixed. As CU traits appear critical to understanding a subgroup of youth with antisocial behavior, more research…
Strauss, Kristin; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Fava, Leonardo
Although early intensive behavior interventions have been efficient in producing positive behavior outcome in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, there is a considerable variety in the children's progress. Research has suggested that parental and treatment factors are likely to affect children's response to treatment. The purpose of the…
Chiu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Chu-Sui; Mahoney, Gerald; Cheng, Shu-Fen; Chang, Shu-Hui
Previous research with parents and children with developmental disabilities indicated that the relationship between mothers' responsive style of interaction and children's rate of development was mediated by the simultaneous relationship between mothers' responsiveness and children's social engagement, or pivotal behavior. In this study, we attempted to determine whether children's pivotal behavior might also mediate the relationship between responsiveness and child development in a sample of 165 typically developing toddlers and their Taiwanese parents. Child development was assessed with a parent report measure of children's symbolic behavior. Parental responsiveness and children's pivotal behavior were assessed from observations of parent-child play. Results indicated that parental responsiveness was correlated with children's pivotal behavior, and that both of these variables were correlated with children's symbolic behavior. Structural equation models indicated that the relationship between responsiveness and children's symbolic behavior was fully mediated by children's pivotal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Treyvaud, Karli; Rogers, Susan; Matthews, Jan; Allen, Beverley
Parents experiencing early parenting difficulties often seek support through parenting programs. Characteristics of mothers seeking parenting support and information at an early parenting center in Victoria, Australia and the relationships between these factors and parenting behavior were explored using an observational measure of parent-child interaction. Participants were 43 mothers and children attending a 5-day residential parenting program at the Queen Elizabeth Centre. Maternal and sociodemographic data as well as an observational mother-child interaction task from the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Parent Child Interaction Teaching scale were completed and scored on the first day of the program. Certain maternal factors and experiences were associated with observed parenting behavior. Poorer maternal sleeping quality, unplanned pregnancy and preterm birth were all associated with less optimal parenting behavior in certain domains. Findings are discussed with reference to the impact of past experiences around pregnancy and birth as well as the current context and well-being of mothers attending early parenting centers. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Meunier, Jean Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle; Browne, Dillon T.
The present study explores the bidirectional associations between parental behavior and child externalizing behavior in the context of two intervening variables: child's personality as a moderator of the effect of parental behavior on later child behavior; and parental self-efficacy as a mediator of the effect of child behavior on later parental…
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the results of research concerning empirical description of the parenting and its influences on religious behavior and students’ study results in the subject of PAI (Pendidikan Agama Islam/Islamic Education. The research method used is qualitative and quantitative methods. The population of the research is all students and their parents in the fifth grade of elementary school in one group of Pulau Kijang, in Reteh Subdistrict, Indragiri Hilir, Riau. The sampling used the technique of cluster sampling for 80 students and 80 parents. The results of the research show that the parenting determines the height and low of students’ religious behavior and PAI study results. Students who have high and average religious behavior are educated by the parents having the authoritative parenting, while the students having low religious behavior are those who are educated by authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, authoritarian-authoritative combination, and authoritative-permissive combination parentings. Meanwhile, students who have the high study results are educated by the parents having the authoritative parenting, while the students whose study results are average are educated by the authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, authoritarian-authoritative combination, and authoritative-permissive combination parentings.
The findings of behaviorally oriented research regarding the importance of cognitive-motivational variables in hypnosis are examined and some clinical and theoretical implications are explored. Hypnosis seems usefully conceptualized as a complex configuration or gestalt of interacting variables on several different levels, for example, cognitive, motivational, social, physiologic.
Brown, Ana C.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Liu, Xianchen; Haine, Rachel A.
This article considers the implications of suicide and violent deaths (including suicide, homicide, and accidents) for the development of interventions for parentally bereaved children. Analyses of data from the Family Bereavement Program find minimal differences in children's mental health problems, grief or risk and protective factors based on…
Ryan, Sarah M; Ollendick, Thomas H
Both child temperament and parenting have been extensively researched as predictors of child outcomes. However, theoretical models suggest that specific combinations of temperament styles and parenting behaviors are better predictors of certain child outcomes such as internalizing and externalizing symptoms than either temperament or parenting alone. The current qualitative review examines the interaction between one childhood temperamental characteristic (child behavioral inhibition) and parenting behaviors, and their subsequent impact on child psychopathology. Specifically, the moderating role of parenting on the relationship between child behavioral inhibition and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology is examined, and the methodological variations which may contribute to inconsistent findings are explored. Additionally, support for the bidirectional relations between behavioral inhibition and parenting behaviors, as well as for the moderating role of temperament on the relationships between parenting and child outcomes, is briefly discussed. Finally, the clinical applicability of this overall conceptual model, specifically in regard to future research directions and potential clinical interventions, is considered.
Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Musicant, Oren; Lotan, Tsippy; Farah, Haneen
One of the prominent issues in contemporary research on young drivers deals with the mechanisms underlying parents' influences on their offspring's driving behavior. The present study combines two sets of data: the first gathered from in-vehicle data recorders tracking the driving of parents and their teenage sons, and the second derived from self-report questionnaires completed by the young drivers. The aim was to evaluate the contribution of parents' driving behavior, participation in a parent-targeted intervention, and the teen drivers' perception of the family climate for road safety, to the driving behavior of young drivers during solo driving. The data was collected over the course of 12 months, beginning with the licensure of the teen driver, and examined a sample of 166 families who were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups (receiving different forms of feedback) or a control group (with no feedback). Findings indicate that young male drivers' risky driving events rate was positively associated with that of their parents. In addition, any type of intervention led to a lower rate of risky driving events among young drivers compared to the control group. Finally, a higher perception of parents as not committed to safety and lower perceived parental monitoring were related to a higher risky driving events rate among young drivers. The results highlight the need to consider a complex set of antecedents in parents' attitudes and behavior, as well as the family's safety atmosphere, in order to better understand young drivers' risky driving. The practical implications refer to the effective use of the family as a lever in the attempt to promote safety awareness among young drivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.
Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…
Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang
This study examined the mediating effect of parents' psychological aggression in the relationship between parenting stress and children's internalizing (anxiety/depression, withdrawal) and externalizing (aggression, delinquency) problem behaviors 1 year later. Using a sample of 311 intact 2-parent Chinese families with preschoolers, findings revealed that maternal parenting stress had direct effects on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and indirect effects through maternal psychological aggression. However, neither direct nor indirect effects of fathers' parenting stress on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior were found. The findings highlight the importance of simultaneously studying the effects of both mothers' and fathers' parenting on their children within a family systems framework. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Jensen, Alexander C; McHale, Susan M; Pond, Amanda M
Parents compare their children to one another; those comparisons may have implications for the way mothers and fathers treat their children, as well as their children's behavior. Data were collected annually for three years with parents, firstborns, and secondborns from 385 families (Time 1 age: firstborns, 15.71, SD = 1.07, 52% female; secondborns, 13.18, SD = 1.29, 50% female). Parents' beliefs that one child was better behaved predicted differences in siblings' reports of parent-child conflict. Additionally, for siblings close in age, mothers' comparisons at Time 1 predicted youth's problem behavior at Time 3 through siblings' differential conflict with mothers. The results support and extend tenets from Social Comparison and Expectancy Value theories in regards to social comparison within families.
Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah K
Multiple features of parenting have been associated with development of suicide-related behaviors in adolescents. However, findings are inconsistent on which aspects of parenting are protective or harmful and why. This investigation sought to reconcile these discrepancies through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), which argues that suicide ideation and the capability to attempt suicide are etiologically distinct. Responses of 200 Midwestern public school students to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey were analyzed using mediated moderation analysis. Participant sex significantly moderated the relationships between parenting variables and suicide attempts and these relationships were accounted for by IPTS variables. Specifically, the effect of parental support on suicide attempts was twice as strong for girls. Self-esteem mediated this interaction (b=-.011, SE(boot)=.008, p<.05, κ(2)=.07). Conversely, the effect of parental boundaries on suicide attempts was significant for boys, but not for girls, and was mediated by exposure to violence (b=.029, SE(boot)=.021, p<.05, κ(2)=.07). This study involved retrospective report with proxy-measures of IPTS constructs. Future research should consider multiple informants and additional measures. Findings highlight potential mechanisms by which parenting behaviors could influence sex differences in adolescent suicide-relate behaviors, and that some parenting behavior is associated with reduced adolescent suicide attempts. Findings also suggest the IPTS is able to account for previously identified inconsistencies in the effects of parenting behaviors on adolescent suicide-related behaviors. Implications for theory and intervention are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Duran, Richard; Myint-U, Athi; Agronick, Gail; San Doval, Alexi; Wilson-Simmons, Renée
In urban economically distressed communities, high rates of early sexual initiation combined with alcohol use place adolescent girls at risk for myriad negative health consequences. This article reports on the extent to which parents of young teens underestimate both the risks their daughters are exposed to and the considerable influence that they have over their children's decisions and behaviors. Surveys were conducted with more than 700 sixth-grade girls and their parents, recruited from seven New York City schools serving low-income families. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined relationships among parents' practices and perceptions of daughters' risks, girls' reports of parenting, and outcomes of girls' alcohol use, media and peer conduct, and heterosexual romantic and social behaviors that typically precede sexual intercourse. Although only four parents thought that their daughters had used alcohol, 22% of the daughters reported drinking in the past year. Approximately 5% of parents thought that daughters had hugged and kissed a boy for a long time or had "hung out" with older boys, whereas 38% of girls reported these behaviors. Parents' underestimation of risk was correlated with lower reports of positive parenting practices by daughters. In multivariate analyses, girls' reports of parental oversight, rules, and disapproval of risk are associated with all three behavioral outcomes. Adult reports of parenting practices are associated with girls' conduct and heterosexual behaviors, but not with their alcohol use. Creating greater awareness of the early onset of risk behaviors among urban adolescent girls is important for fostering positive parenting practices, which in turn may help parents to support their daughters' healthier choices.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the social context of girls with conduct disorder (CD, a question of increasing importance to clinicians and researchers. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between three social context domains (neighborhood, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors and CD in adolescent girls, additionally testing for race moderation effects. We predicted that disadvantaged neighborhoods, family characteristics such as parental marital status, and parenting behaviors such as negative discipline would characterize girls with CD. We also hypothesized that parenting behaviors would mediate the associations between neighborhood and family characteristics and CD. Methods We recruited 93 15–17 year-old girls from the community and used a structured psychiatric interview to assign participants to a CD group (n = 52 or a demographically matched group with no psychiatric disorder (n = 41. Each girl and parent also filled out questionnaires about neighborhood, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors. Results Neighborhood quality was not associated with CD in girls. Some family characteristics (parental antisociality and parenting behaviors (levels of family activities and negative discipline were characteristic of girls with CD, but notll. There was no moderation by race. Our hypothesis that the association between family characteristics and CD would be mediated by parenting behaviors was not supported. Conclusion This study expanded upon previous research by investigating multiple social context domains in girls with CD and by selecting a comparison group who were not different in age, social class, or race. When these factors are thus controlled, CD in adolescent girls is not significantly associated with neighborhood, but is associated with some family characteristics and some types of parental behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships need to be further
Rominov, Holly; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A
Fathers' postnatal distress has been associated with subsequent emotional and behavioral problems for children; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs have received less attention. One potential pathway could be via the negative effects that father mental health problems and parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in the postnatal period have on later parenting behaviors. Using a nationally representative cohort of Australian father-child dyads (N = 3,741), the long-term relationships between fathers' psychological distress and PSE in the postnatal period, parenting behavior when children were aged 4-5 years, and emotional-behavioral outcomes for children aged 8-9 years were explored. Path analysis indicated that high distress and low PSE in the postnatal period was associated with higher levels of hostile parenting and lower parenting consistency when children were aged 4-5 years; in turn, these were associated with poorer child outcomes at 8-9 years. These results remained significant after controlling for socioeconomic position, couple relationship quality, mothers' and fathers' mental health, and fathers' concurrent parenting behavior. The pathways among PSE, parenting hostility, parenting consistency, and children's outcomes at age 8-9 years differed for fathers of boys compared with fathers of girls. Results highlight the importance of father-inclusive assessments of postnatal mental health. Support programs targeting new fathers' perceptions of parenting competence may be particularly important for fathers experiencing postnatal distress. For fathers, building a stronger sense of parenting competence in the postnatal period is important for later parenting behavior, which relates to children's emotional and behavioral outcomes during middle childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Zubatsky, Max; Berge, Jerica; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
The main purpose of this study was to identify the longitudinal association between specific parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful) and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. The current study uses longitudinal data from a 5-year study to examine the associations between parenting style and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. Data from adolescents (n = 2516) participating in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study from 31 Minnesota schools, were used in the analysis. Time 1 data were collected using in-class assessments of adolescents from Minneapolis/St. Paul schools, and Time 2 data were collected using mailed surveys 5 years later. General Linear Models were used to predict adolescent-reported disordered eating behaviors at Time 2 from adolescent-reported parenting style at Time 1. Adolescent boys and girls who had authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of extreme weight control behaviors 5 years later compared to adolescents with authoritative, permissive, or neglectful mothers. Adolescent girls with authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of engaging in binge-eating behaviors at Time 2 compared to adolescent girls with authoritative or permissive mothers. There were no significant associations between paternal parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Although authoritarian parenting style served as a possible risk factor for disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, the findings were not conclusive. Future studies should investigate further the association between parenting style and weight control behaviors in adolescents.
Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena
Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Howenstein, Jeff; Kumar, Ashok; Casamassimo, Paul S; McTigue, Dennis; Coury, Daniel; Yin, Han
This study evaluated the relationship between parenting style, sociodemographic data, caries status, and child's behavior during the first dental visit. Parents/legal guardians of new patients aged three to six years presenting to Nationwide Children's Hospital dental clinic for an initial examination/hygiene appointment completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) to assess parenting style and a 15-question demographic survey. Blinded and calibrated expanded function dental auxiliaries or dental hygienists (EFDA/DH) performed a prophylaxis and assessed child behavior using the Frankl scale (inter-rater reliability was 92 percent). A blinded and calibrated dentist performed an oral examination. 132 parent/child dyads participated. Children with authoritative parents exhibited more positive behavior (Pcaries (Pparents. Children attending daycare exhibited more positive behavior compared to children who did not (Pbehavior (P>.04) and less caries (P>.024) compared to children with Medicaid or no dental insurance. Authoritative parenting and having private dental insurance were associated with less caries and better behavior during the first dental visit. Attending daycare was associated with better behavior during the first dental visit.
Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi L
The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual 2-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children's gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at 3 time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents' gender and sexual orientation; children's gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys' behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by 2 mothers or 2 fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Elam, Kit K.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D.
Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children’s social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children’s socially disruptive behavior using genetically-sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-birth design, the present study controlled for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examined evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE) while examining the associations between family processes and children’s peer behavior. Specifically, the present study examined the evocative effect of genetic influences underlying toddler low social motivation on mother-child and father-child hostility, and the subsequent influence of parent hostility on disruptive peer behavior during the preschool period. Participants were 316 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Path analysis showed that birth mother low behavioral motivation predicted toddler low social motivation, which predicted both adoptive mother-child and father-child hostility, suggesting the presence of an evocative genotype-environment association. In addition, both mother-child and father-child hostility predicted children’s later disruptive peer behavior. Results highlight the importance of considering genetically-influenced child attributes on parental hostility that in turn link to later child social behavior. Implications for intervention programs focusing on early family processes and the precursors of disrupted child social development are discussed. PMID:24364829
The purpose of this study was to assess the association of positive and negative parenting with child externalizing problems. Quantitative data were collected during face-to-face interviews with 320 parents of children 9?16 years of age (50% males) in 11 communities in Eastern, Southern and Central Ukraine. The study estimated the relationship between parenting practices and child externalizing behaviors, such as aggression, delinquency and attention problems. Results revealed that positive p...
Kim, Sangwon; Lee, Yanghee
Many things can harm children's well-being. Among them, exposure to parental violence makes children vulnerable and often leads to aggression and/or depression. However, not all children who have suffered parental violence show aggressive behavior or depressive mood. Social capital, defined as resources accruing from interpersonal relationships, was proposed to significantly mediate the relationships among adverse experiences and their negative impacts. In previous studies, social capital accrued from parents played a positive role for children in violent situations, but children exposed to parental violence need alternative sources of social capital. This study targeted fourth-grade Korean children and aimed to identify and test the role of various forms of social capital to help children overcome negative consequences from parental violence. Siblings, friends, teachers, neighbors, and online acquaintances were sources of social capital, and the results showed that social capital from siblings, teachers, neighbors, or online acquaintances mediated in the relationships between parental violence and aggressive behavior. In addition, social capital from siblings and online acquaintances mediated in the relationships between parental violence and depressive mood. The findings have implications in terms of intervention. It is suggested that multiple forms of social capital from children's immediate environments are helpful in their adaptation from exposure to parental violence, and thus, relationship-based interventions are recommended.
Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Radanielina-Hita, Marie Louise; Ran, Weina
A convenience survey completed online by 137 4-H parents in Washington state explored their orientation toward critical thinking regarding media sources and content and its implications for family dietary behaviors. Parents' critical thinking toward media sources predicted their information efficacy about content. Critical thinking toward media content predicted information efficacy about sources, expectancies for parental mediation, and expectancies for family receptiveness to lower-fat dietary changes. Expectancies for receptiveness to dietary changes and expectancies for parental mediation predicted efficacy for implementing healthy dietary practices; this strongly predicted healthy dietary practices. Media-related critical thinking, therefore, indirectly but consistently affected self-reported family dietary behaviors through its effects on efficacy for managing media and expectancies for the family's receptiveness to healthy dietary changes. The results suggest parents' media literacy skills affect their family's dietary behavior. Health campaigns that help parents interpret and manage the media environment may benefit all family members.
Besemer, Sytske; Loeber, Rolf; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Pardini, Dustin A
Coercive parent-child interaction models posit that an escalating cycle of negative, bidirectional interchanges influences the development of boys' externalizing problems and caregivers' maladaptive parenting over time. However, longitudinal studies examining this hypothesis have been unable to rule out the possibility that between-individual factors account for bidirectional associations between child externalizing problems and maladaptive parenting. Using a longitudinal sample of boys (N = 503) repeatedly assessed eight times across 6-month intervals in childhood (in a range between 6 and 13 years), the current study is the first to use novel within-individual change (fixed effects) models to examine whether parents tend to increase their use of maladaptive parenting strategies following an increase in their son's externalizing problems, or vice versa. These bidirectional associations were examined using multiple facets of externalizing problems (i.e., interpersonal callousness, conduct and oppositional defiant problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity) and parenting behaviors (i.e., physical punishment, involvement, parent-child communication). Analyses failed to support the notion that when boys increase their typical level of problem behaviors, their parents show an increase in their typical level of maladaptive parenting across the subsequent 6 month period, and vice versa. Instead, across 6-month intervals, within parent-son dyads, changes in maladaptive parenting and child externalizing problems waxed and waned in concert. Fixed effects models to address the topic of bidirectional relations between parent and child behavior are severely underrepresented. We recommend that other researchers who have found significant bidirectional parent-child associations using rank-order change models reexamine their data to determine whether these findings hold when examining changes within parent-child dyads.
Kaiser, Till; Li, Jianghong; Pollmann-Schult, Matthias; Song, Anne Y.
The detrimental impact of poverty on child behavioral problems is well-established, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are less well-known. Using data from the Families in Germany Study on parents and their children at ages 9–10 (middle childhood), this study extends previous research by examining whether or not and to what extent different parenting styles and parents’ subjective well-being explain the relationship between poverty and child behavior problems. The results show that certain parenting styles, such as psychological control, as well as mothers’ life satisfaction partially mediate the correlation between poverty and child behavioral problems. PMID:28867777
Brown, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P
The present study extended the findings of Muris et al. [Muris, P., Meesters, C., Merckelbach, H., & Hulsenbeck, P. (2000). Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 487-497] regarding the relations between perceived parental rearing behaviors, self-reported attachment style, and worry in a community sample to a clinical sample of anxious children. Sixty-four children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years, with a primary anxiety disorder completed (a) the EMBU-C, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, (b) a single-item measure of attachment style, and (c) an index of worry severity. Findings revealed that child rated parental rearing behaviors, particularly parental rejection, were positively related to child worry. Self-reported attachment style was also related to worry, such that children who classified themselves as ambivalently attached reported higher levels of worry than did children who classified themselves as securely attached. Parenting style and attachment were found to make independent contributions to worry. The results are compared to those from Muris et al.'s community study, and implications for future research are discussed.
Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison
The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Henson, Robert
Growth curve analyses were used to investigate parents' and peers' influence on adolescents' choice to abstain from antisocial behavior in a community-based sample of 416 early adolescents living in the Southeastern United States. Participants were primarily European American (91%) and 51% were girls. Both parents and peers were important…
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Carlo, Gustavo; Christensen, Katherine J.; Yorgason, Jeremy B.
This study examined the bidirectional relations between authoritative parenting and adolescents' prosocial behavior over a 1-year time period. Data were taken from Time 2 and 3 of the Flourishing Families Project, and included reports from 319 two-parent families with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 2 = 12.34, SD = 1.06, 52% girls).…
Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A.G.
This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parenting and boys' externalizing behaviors in a four-wave longitudinal study of toddlers. Participants were 104 intact two-parent families with toddler sons. When their sons were 17, 23, 29, and 35 months of age, mothers and fathers
Bracke, Deborah; Corts, Daniel
The "Theory of Planned Behavior" provided a specific theoretical framework to evaluate the impact of attitudes, norms, and controls on parental involvement in a local school district. The "new knowledge" that resulted from the measurement of these constructs affirmed that regardless of the perceived level of parental involvement, virtually all…
Hines, Denise A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman; Holt, Melissa K.
Objective: Researchers and policymakers typically assume that within families, individual children are at an equivalent risk of neglectful behaviors. There is evidence that siblings experience differential parental treatment, and some research suggests that parents may maltreat their children to differing degrees. However, because neglect is…
Lang, A R; Pelham, W E; Atkeson, B M; Murphy, D A
Experimental analogue methods were used to study how acute alcohol intoxication in parents influences their perceptions of and reactions to child behaviors, as well as their strategies for management of those behaviors. All participating parents had a grade school-aged son, but in half the cases this target child had a diagnosed externalizing disorder, whereas for the remaining half neither the target son nor any other offspring of the parents evidenced any psychopathology. Equal numbers of married fathers, married mothers, and single mothers from each of these groups received either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages prior to videotaped interactions with male child confederates who, depending on condition, enacted behaviors characteristic of either normal boys or boys with attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct/oppositional defiant disorders (ADHD/CD/ODD). Results indicated that intoxicated parents rated their ADHD/CD/ODD child partners as less deviant than did sober parents. Alcohol intoxication caused all participant groups to exhibit less attention and productive work and more commands, indulgences, and off-task talk in the interactions. Implications for better understanding of the role of psychosocial factors in the correlation between adult drinking problems and childhood behavior disorders are discussed.
Ban, Jiyoon; Oh, Insoo
The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lau Schumann, Lynette
Given that parenting behavior is central to children's physical, academic, and socio-emotional outcomes, improved understanding about the correlates of human parenting behavior will benefit children's development. This dissertation utilized two separate ethnically and socio-economically diverse community-based samples (177 parents of 6-9 year-old children with and without ADHD; and a subset of 56 mothers and 57 fathers selected from a larger study of newlywed marriage and family development) ...
BeLue, Rhonda; Halgunseth, Linda C.; Abiero, Beatrice; Bediako, Phylicia
Objectives Minimal attention has been given to understanding parenting stress among low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with conduct problems. Maternal health and parenting hassles may serve as important risk factors for parenting stress. This study examined whether parenting hassles moderated the relations between maternal physical and mental health and parenting stress in a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with behavioral problems. Methods The sample included 177 low-income Black, Latina, and White mothers of kindergartners with behavior problems. PATH analysis was employed to assess the associations between maternal mental and physical health and parenting stress, as well as the moderating role of parenting hassles in this cross-sectional study. Results After adjusting for covariates, we found that parenting hassles mediates the relationship between social support and parenting stress as well as maternal health and parenting stress. Conclusion Findings suggest that promoting coping resources for daily parenting hassles and supporting the physical and mental health of minority mothers may have important implications for parenting children with high behavior problems. PMID:26863556
Tsoi, Amanda K; Wilson, Stephen; Thikkurissy, S
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of the child's temperament, parenting styles, and parents' prediction of their child's behavior in the dental setting. Subjects were healthy children 4-12 years of age attending a dental clinic. A Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) was given to parents to determine their parenting style. Parents completed the Emotionality, Activity, Sociability Temperament (EAS) survey to measure their child's temperament. Parents were asked to predict their child's behavior using the Frankl Scale. Data analysis included 113 parent/child dyads. Parents accurately predicted their child's behavior 58% of the time. Significant correlations were noted between parent's predictions of behavior and emotionality (r = -.497, p behavior and emotionality (r = -.586, p Parenting style scores did not correlate to predicted or actual behavior; however, categories of PSDQ were related to parental predictions of behavior. Relationships between temperament and parenting may aid in predicting children's behavior in the operatory.
Background Research supports the beneficial role of prosocial behaviors on children’s adjustment and successful youth development. Empirical studies point to reciprocal relations between negative parenting and children’s maladjustment, but reciprocal relations between positive parenting and children’s prosocial behavior are understudied. In the present study reciprocal relations between two different dimensions of positive parenting (quality of the mother-child relationship and the use of balanced positive discipline) and children’s prosocial behavior were examined in Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Method Mother-child dyads (N = 1105) provided data over 2 years in 2 waves (Mage of child in wave 1 = 9.31 years, SD = .73; 50% female). Results A model of reciprocal relations between parenting dimensions, but not among parenting and children’s prosocial behavior, emerged. In particular, children with higher levels of prosocial behavior at age 9 elicited higher levels of mother-child relationship quality in the following year. Conclusions Findings yielded similar relations across countries, evidencing that being prosocial in late childhood contributes to some degree to the enhancement of a nurturing and involved mother-child relationship in countries that vary widely on sociodemographic profiles and psychological characteristics. Policy and intervention implications of this study are discussed. PMID:26511201
Herrera, Andrea C; Repetto, Paula B
Traffic accidents are the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults in Chile. However, few studies have examined this behavior among this age group. Parental practices have a great influence on risk behaviors in adolescents, such as substance use, sexuality and violence, among others. Specifically, we propose that these practices will influence pedestrian risk behaviors among adolescents. To study the role of parental practices such as mother and father support, and behavioral control (monitoring and presence of rules) in pedestrian risk behaviors of teenagers. A sample of 470 adolescents attending schools in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile were studied. They answered a self-administered questionnaire in which they were asked about parental practices and pedestrian risk behaviors. Analyses were performed using descriptive and inferential statistics, using multiple regression. Paternal support and the presence of rules were protective factors for pedestrian risky behaviors. However, maternal support or monitoring did not influence these behaviors. Parental practices influence pedestrian behaviors of teenagers. The study provides further evidence for the importance of these practices in the development of behavioral self-regulation.
Carlo, Gustavo; McGinley, Meredith; Hayes, Rachel; Batenhorst, Candice; Wilkinson, Jamie
In the present study, the authors examined the relations among parenting styles, parental practices, sympathy, and prosocial behaviors in adolescents. The participants were 233 adolescents (M age = 16.7 years; 69% girls; mostly White) from public high schools in the Midwestern region of the United States who completed measures of prosocial…
Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert
This study used data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to examine relations between parenting, self-control and externalizing behavior from early childhood to mid-adolescence (N = 956; 49.9 % male). Results indicated that maternal sensitivity, parental harshness and productive activity are related to externalizing…
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Bouris, Alida, M.
A communication framework of persuasion and attitude change was utilized to analyze parent-adolescent communication about adolescent risk behavior. Three parent dimensions were deemed important: (a) perceived expertise, (b) perceived trustworthiness, and (c) perceived accessibility. Data were collected in surveys from 668 mother-adolescent dyads…
Kwon, Jeong Yoon
The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…
Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc
Parental monitoring, assessed as (perceived) parental knowledge of the child's behavior, has been established as a consistent predictor of problem behavior. However, recent research indicates that parental knowledge has more to do with adolescents' self-disclosure than with parents' active monitoring. Although these findings may suggest that…
Kaiser, Till; Li, Jianghong; Pollmann-Schult, Matthias; Song, Anne Y.
The detrimental impact of poverty on child behavioral problems is well-established, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are less well-known. Using data from the Families in Germany Study on parents and their children at ages 9–10 (middle childhood), this study extends previous research by examining whether or not and to what extent different parenting styles and parents’ subjective well-being explain the relationship between poverty and child behavior problems. The results show ...
Scheinfeld, Emily; Shim, Minsun
Emerging adulthood (EA) is an important yet overlooked period for developing long-term health behaviors. During these years, emerging adults adopt health behaviors that persist throughout life. This study applies the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to examine the role of childhood parental communication in predicting engagement in healthful eating during EA. Participants included 239 college students, ages 18 to 25, from a large university in the southern United States. Participants were recruited and data collection occurred spring 2012. Participants responded to measures to assess perceived parental communication, eating behaviors, attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control over healthful eating. SEM and mediation analyses were used to address the hypotheses posited. Data demonstrated that perceived parent-child communication - specifically, its quality and target-specific content - significantly predicted emerging adults' eating behaviors, mediated through subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. This study sets the stage for further exploration and understanding of different ways parental communication influences emerging adults' healthy behavior enactment.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this survey is to compare the emotional and behavioral problems of children with only one parent versus those from two-parent families. We analyzed behavioral problems such as aggression, delinquency and socialization issues, as well as emotional problems such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.Methods: Using a multi-stage cluster sampling, 10 of the 20 geographic regions covered by Imam Khomeini Charity were selected. Using systematic random sampling, 460 families with children aged 4-18 years were selected. All children were evaluated using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL to determine behavioral and emotional problems. Logistic regression tests were conducted to measure the effects variables, including age, gender, number of parents in the family, psychiatric history of each child and history of parental psychiatric treatment, on the internalizing, externalizing and total CBCL scores. A cut-off score of 64 was used to convert raw scores.Results: No differences were observed in CBCL subscales between single-parent children vs. children of two-parent families.Conclusion: Regarding the two-parent families among the study population, the results could not be generalized. As these families have qualified for assistance, the father cannot manage the family because of his disability, such as physical or mental problems. This minimizes the effect of having a father in a two-parent family, rendering them similar to single-parent families. Thus, differences were not observed between the two types of families. Further studies are necessary to compare single-parent families with two-parent families among the community.
Feinberg, Mark E; Button, Tanya M M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Hetherington, E Mavis
Little is known about the interplay of genotypes and malleable risk factors in influencing adolescent psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Information on these processes is crucial in designing programs for the prevention of psychiatric disorders. To assess whether latent genetic factors and measured parent-child relationships interact (G x E) in predicting adolescent antisocial behavior and depression. We characterized risk of antisocial behavior and depression in adolescents by means of a genetically informed design. We used in-home questionnaire and observational measures of adolescent outcomes and environmental moderators (parenting), and a latent variable behavior genetic analytic model. A nationally distributed sample recruited from random-digit dialing and national market panels. A total of 720 families with at least 2 children, 9 through 18 years old, stratified by genetic relatedness (monozygotic and dizygotic twins, full biological siblings in nondivorced and stepfamilies, and half-siblings and biologically unrelated siblings in stepfamilies). Antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. There was an interaction of genotype and both parental negativity and low warmth predicting overall antisocial behavior, as well as aggressive and nonaggressive forms of antisocial behavior, but not depression. Genetic influence was greater for adolescent antisocial behavior when parenting was more negative or less warm. Genotype-environment correlation was partialled out in the analysis and thus did not account for the results. This study demonstrates, on the basis of careful measurement and appropriate analytic methods, that a continuous measure of parenting in the normative range moderates the influence of genotype on antisocial behavior.
Green, Beth L; Furrer, Carrie; McAllister, Carol
The importance of supportive relationships for new parents has been the focus of both research and parenting interventions. Attachment style, typically viewed as a relatively stable trait reflecting one's comfort in social relationships, as well as social support, or one's perception of the social context, have both been found to be important for fostering engaged, involved parenting. Less is known, however, about how these variables work together to influence parenting behavior, especially in families at higher risk for negative child outcomes. Data were collected from 152 urban, predominantly African American, low-income parents when their children were 14 and 36 months of age. Results suggest that parents with more social support show greater increases in the frequency of positive parent-child activities over time, but that this effect is mediated by mothers' attachment style, specifically, their level of anxious/ambivalent attachment. Mothers with more social support tended to be less anxious/ambivalent about close relationships, and this in turn led to increases over time in the frequency of parent-child interactions. Mothers' tendency to avoid close relationships, however, while correlated with social support, was unrelated to changes in parenting behavior. Implications of these findings for program development, parenting, and the malleability of attachment style based on social context are discussed.
José C. Núñez
Full Text Available This study investigated how students’ prior achievement is related to their homework behaviors (i.e., time spent on homework, homework time management, and amount of homework, and to their perceptions of parental involvement in homework (i.e., parental control and parental support. A total of 1250 secondary students from 7 to 10th grade participated in the study. Structural equation models were fitted to the data, compared, and a partial mediation model was chosen. The results indicated that students’ prior academic performance was significantly associated with both of the students’ homework variables, with direct and indirect results linking achievement and homework behaviors with perceived parental control and support behaviors about homework. Low-achieving students, in particular, perceived more parental control of homework in the secondary grades. These results, together with those of previous research, suggest a recursive relationship between secondary school students’ achievement and their perceptions of parental involvement in homework, which represents the process of student learning and family engagement over time. Study limitations and educational implications are discussed.
Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Burrell, T. Lindsey
This article describes the application of a behavioral parent training program, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), in the treatment of behavior disorders in young children. PCIT is unique in that it works with both the child and parent in treatment and it focuses on improving the parent-child relationship as a means to improving parent and…
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Moscatelli, Silvia; Keijsers, Loes; Koot, Hans M.; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan
In adolescence, youth antisocial behaviors reach a peak. Parents can use different strategies, such as parental solicitation and control, to monitor their children’s activities and try to prevent or reduce their antisocial behaviors. However, it is still unclear if, and for which adolescents, these parental monitoring behaviors are effective. The aim of this study was to examine if the impact of parental solicitation and control on adolescent antisocial behaviors depends on adolescent empathy. In order to comprehensively address this aim, we tested the moderating effects of multiple dimensions (affective and cognitive) of both trait and state empathy. Participants were 379 Dutch adolescents (55.9% males) involved in a longitudinal study with their fathers and mothers. At T1 (conducted when adolescents were 17-year-old) adolescents filled self-report measures of antisocial behaviors and trait empathy during one home visit, while their state empathy was rated during a laboratory session. Furthermore, parents reported their own monitoring behaviors. At T2 (conducted 1 year later, when adolescents were 18-year-old), adolescents reported again on their antisocial behaviors. Moderation analyses indicated that both affective and cognitive state empathy moderated the effects of parental solicitation on adolescent antisocial behaviors. Results highlighted that solicitation had unfavorable effects on antisocial behaviors in adolescents with high empathy whereas the opposite effect was found for adolescents with low empathy. In contrast, neither state nor trait empathy moderated the effects of control on adolescent antisocial behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27857703
Shaffer, Anne; Whitehead, Monica; Davis, Molly; Morelen, Diana; Suveg, Cynthia
In a diverse community sample of mothers (N = 108) and their preschool-aged children (M age = 3.50 years), this study conducted person-oriented analyses of maternal emotion regulation (ER) based on a multimethod assessment incorporating physiological, observational, and self-report indicators. A model-based cluster analysis was applied to five indicators of maternal ER: maternal self-report, observed negative affect in a parent-child interaction, baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and RSA suppression across two laboratory tasks. Model-based cluster analyses revealed four maternal ER profiles, including a group of mothers with average ER functioning, characterized by socioeconomic advantage and more positive parenting behavior. A dysregulated cluster demonstrated the greatest challenges with parenting and dyadic interactions. Two clusters of intermediate dysregulation were also identified. Implications for assessment and applications to parenting interventions are discussed. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Deisy Ribas Emerich
Full Text Available Abstract: Parental report is essential to understand adaptive difficulties in childhood. The aim of the study was to identify concerns of parents and qualities of children reported by parents, as well as the association of these variables with sociodemographic factors and child behavior problems. Parents of 353 schoolchildren from three public schools and one private school took part in the study. Assessment of behavior problems and parental reports about concerns and children’s strengths were obtained from the Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. We submitted parents’ answers to the open-ended questions in the CBCL to a lexical analysis with the IRAMUTEQ software. Results concerning ‘strengths’ were related to affective and social interaction, while ‘concerns’ were related to academic performance and prevention of behavior problems. We concluded that parent concerns are targets of preventive interventions in childhood, while child strengths reported by parents are skills that need to be developed, as they help in adaptive functioning.
Augenstein, Tara M.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Daruwala, Samantha; Reyes, Shelby M.; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S.; De Los Reyes, Andres
SYNOPSIS Objective Parents’ poor monitoring of adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is commonly linked to adolescents’ increased engagement in delinquent behaviors. Yet, different domains of parental monitoring (parental monitoring behaviors vs. parental knowledge) and reports from multiple informants (parent vs. adolescent) may vary in their links to delinquent behavior. Design Seventy-four parental caregivers and 74 adolescents completed survey measures of parental monitoring and knowledge, and adolescents completed self-report surveys of delinquent behavior. Results We observed low-to-moderate magnitudes of correspondence between parent- and adolescent-reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge. Adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior related to parent and adolescent reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge, with adolescents who self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidencing lower levels of parental knowledge and higher levels of poor monitoring compared to adolescents who did not self-report engagement in delinquent behaviors. Adolescent self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidenced stronger links to parental monitoring when based on adolescent reports of monitoring (relative to parent reports), whereas stronger links held between adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior and parental knowledge when based on parent reports of knowledge (relative to adolescent reports). Conclusions Links between monitoring and adolescents’ delinquent behavior vary by the kind of monitoring measure completed as well as the informant completing the measure. These findings inform measurement selection in research and clinical assessments of parental monitoring and adolescent delinquent behavior. PMID:27482171
Holtrop, Kendal; McNeil Smith, Sharde'; Scott, Jenna C
This study examined whether five specific parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, problem solving, and positive involvement) were associated with reduced child externalizing behaviors among a sample of Latino immigrant families. It utilized baseline data from 83 Latino couples with children participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of a culturally adapted parenting intervention. Results reveal that monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, and problem solving each made independent contributions to the prediction of child externalizing behavior, although not all in the expected direction. Further analyses examining mothers and fathers separately suggest that mother-reported monitoring and father-reported discipline practices uniquely contributed to these findings. These results may have important implications for prevention and clinical intervention efforts with Latino immigrant families, including the cultural adaptation and implementation of parenting interventions with this underserved population. © 2014 Family Process Institute.
Omli, Jens; Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M.
News reports (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and scholarly research (e.g., Wiersma & Fifer, 2005) have indicated increasing concern that parent-spectator behavior at youth sport events may be problematic. Multiple strategies have been used to influence spectator behavior in youth sport contexts (e.g., "Silent Sundays"). However, it is unlikely that…
Chung, Kyong-Mee; Ebesutani, Chad; Bang, Hye Min; Kim, Joohee; Chorpita, Bruce F; Weisz, John R; Suh, Dongsoo; Byun, Heejung
Due to increased multiculturalism in the US and abroad, there is a need for increased understanding of the different ways in which parenting stress is related to child problems across cultures. In the present study, we investigated (a) differences in reported parenting stress and childhood problem behaviors across a Korean (n = 71) and US (n = 71) sample, as well as (b) differences in the ways in which parenting stress and childhood problems were related across Korean and US children based on mothers' reports. Results revealed that Korean mothers reported significantly higher parenting stress yet significantly lower childhood problem behaviors compared to US mothers. In addition, mother-based reports of child problems were significantly associated with parenting stress in the US sample, but not in the Korean sample. Clinical implications and culturally-relevant issues relevant to these findings are addressed, including a potential under-reporting bias of child problems among Asian parents.
Nurhaeni, Heni; Dinarti; Priharti, Dwi
There are four types of parenting: democratic, authoritarian, permissive, and ignored, which would affect the character of the child. However family upbringing itself influenced education, norms/cultural, environmental, social, economic and belongs to the family members. Quasi-experimental study through questionnaires, observation, deep interview,…
Li, James J; Lansford, Jennifer E
Inconsistent parental discipline is a robust correlate of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, but few studies have considered the role of inconsistent positive parenting on ADHD, as well as the effects of stress on negative and positive parental consistency. This study advanced a novel ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using participant smartphones to measure parental consistency, and examined its associations with family, social, and parenting-related dimensions of stress and child ADHD symptoms. Participants were 184 kindergartners with and without ADHD and their parents. Harsh and warm dimensions of parental behavior were assessed using questionnaires, observations, and an EMA administered through parents' smartphones, which measured parent-child behaviors every day for a period of 1 week. Family, social, and parenting-related stress were assessed from questionnaires, and child ADHD symptoms were assessed from a fully structured diagnostic interview with the parent. Child ADHD symptoms were associated with variability in warm parenting behaviors, and higher levels of parenting-related stress were related to greater variability in harsh parenting behaviors. No significant interactions were detected between parental stress and child ADHD on parental variability. These findings suggest that different factors influence the consistency in parenting behavior, depending on whether positive parenting or negative parenting is assessed. Parent-based treatment programs for children with ADHD should include a stronger focus on reducing stress from parenting (e.g., teaching coping skills for parents), as this may lead to greater consistency in parental behavior more generally, and presumably better child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Feil, Edward G; Sprengelmeyer, Peter G; Leve, Craig
Background/Introduction: Never before have parents had such immediate access to parenting support. The extension of the Internet to smartphones, offers the opportunity to provide families with the highest-quality information at the time and place that it can be the most useful. However, there remain considerable barriers to getting the right information to the right people at the right time. This study includes the initial feasibility testing of a smartphone application "ParentNet" that attempts to deliver on the potential of empirically supported therapy by connecting family members with specific behavioral goals and outcomes in real time. Participation was solicited from community parenting support groups and through online social media. Data were collected from 73 parents and 88 children on child behavior (adult only) and satisfaction. Data analyses showed positive satisfaction and utilization results: (1) users rated the ParentNet app very positively (i.e., 85% of caregivers and 88% of youth would recommend the app to others), and (2) parenting behavior was improved with a small/moderate effect-size. Findings from this initial testing are reviewed along with future development possibilities to be considered. Limitations of small pilot sample and brief administration period could have reduced effects. Further study would include a more robust sample.
Rasmussen, Eric C.; White, Shawna R.; King, Andy J.; Holiday, Steven; Densley, Rebecca L.
Many parents fail to interact with their children regularly about media content and past research has identified few predictors of parents' engagement in parental mediation behaviors. This correlational study explored the relationship between parents' critical thinking about media and parents' provision of both active and restrictive mediation of…
Schuiringa, Hilde; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter
This cross-sectional study examined the association between parenting behavior, the parent-child relationship, and externalizing child behavior in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). The families of a child with MBID and accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=113) reported more positive discipline and physical punishment but less involvement, less positive parenting, less monitoring, a lower sense of parenting competence, less acceptance of the child, and less closeness to the child than the families of a child with MBID and no accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=71). The parent-child relationship was most strongly associated with externalizing child behavior, over and above parenting behaviors. In addition, the parent-child relationship was found to be associated with parenting behavior, over and above the child's externalizing behavior. Our results highlight the importance of both the parent-child relationship and parenting behavior in connection with the occurrence of externalizing behavior problems on the part of children with MBID. Parenting behavior and the parent-child relationship may thus be promising targets for interventions with this group of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Shulman, Cory; Cohen, Esther
This study examined the array of associations among the emotional valence and the coherence of mothers' representations of their relationship with their toddlers, mothers' reported parenting stress, and toddlers' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. To evaluate maternal representations, 55 mothers were interviewed using the Five Minute Speech Sample procedure (FMSS; Magaña et al., 1986), which was coded for criticism and positive comments (Magaňa-Amato, 1993), as well as coherence (Sher-Censor & Yates, 2015). Mothers also completed the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form (PSI; Abidin, 1997) to evaluate their parenting stress and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) to assess their toddlers' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results indicated that parenting stress was associated with maternal criticism and fewer positive comments in the FMSS, but not with the coherence of mothers' FMSS. Parenting stress, criticism, and lower coherence in the FMSS were associated with maternal reports of externalizing behaviors. Only parenting stress and lower coherence in the FMSS were related to mothers' reports of internalizing behaviors of the child. Thus, the emotional valence and the coherence of mothers' representations of their relationship with their child and parenting stress may each constitute a distinct aspect of parenting and contribute to the understanding of individual differences in toddlers' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Implications for research and practice with families of toddlers are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cai, Mengfei; Hardy, Sam A; Olsen, Joseph A; Nelson, David A; Yamawaki, Niwako
The purpose of this study was to examine links between parenting dimensions (authoritative parenting, psychological control, and parental authority) and adolescent wellbeing (self-esteem, autonomy, and peer attachments) as mediated by parent-teen attachment, among Chinese families. The sample included 298 Chinese adolescents, ages 15-18 years (M(age) = 16.36, SD = .68; 60% female). The mediation model was examined using path analyses (one model with parental authority as overprotection, and one with it as perceived behavioral control). To improve model fit a direct path was added from authoritative parenting to autonomy. Authoritative parenting was positively predictive of attachment, while psychological control and overprotection (but not behavioral control) were negative predictors. In turn, adolescent-parent attachment was positively related to the three outcomes. Lastly, the model paths did not differ by adolescent gender. These findings suggest that parenting behaviors may play a crucial role in adolescent social behaviors and wellbeing via adolescent-parent attachment.
Justice, Elaine M.; Coley, Denise D.
The behavior of mothers interacting with their preschoolers in a memory-relevant situation was examined. Ten 3-year-olds and their mothers were videotaped playing a game requiring memory for the location of hidden pictures. Frequency of nine categories of parental behavior was scored: naming, verbal orienting, physical orienting, physical…
Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer
This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…
Glatz, Terese; Buchanan, Christy M
Parental self-efficacy (PSE) is defined as parents' beliefs about their abilities to influence their children in a way that fosters their children's positive development. Research has shown links among PSE, parenting, and children's behavior (Jones & Prinz, 2005), but there are still questions concerning the associations over time. Theory predicts 3 types of processes relevant to these associations: a PSE-driven process, a parent-behavior-driven process, and a child-driven process. In this study, we tested these processes during early to middle adolescence using reports from 401 parents (286 mothers, 115 fathers) from 305 families, and their adolescents (Mage = 11.5 years), at 3 time points. Cross-lagged panel models were used to examine the associations among PSE, promotive parenting practices, and adolescents' externalizing. Results supported a PSE-driven process for mothers within early adolescence. In addition, evidence for parent-behavior-driven and child-driven processes emerged at different times within this developmental period. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Forehand, Rex; Lafko, Nicole; Parent, Justin; Burt, Keith B
Change in parenting behavior is theorized to be the mediator accounting for change in child and adolescent externalizing problems in behavioral parent training (BPT). The purpose of this review is to examine this assumption in BPT prevention and intervention programs. Eight intervention and 17 prevention studies were identified as meeting all criteria or all but one criterion for testing mediation. Parenting behaviors were classified as positive, negative, discipline, monitoring/supervision, or a composite measure. Forty-five percent of the tests performed across studies to test mediation supported parenting as a mediator. A composite measure of parenting and discipline received the most support, whereas monitoring/supervision was rarely examined. More support for the mediating role of parenting emerged for prevention than intervention studies and when meeting all criteria for testing mediation was not required. Although the findings do not call BPT into question as an efficacious treatment, they do suggest more attention should be focused on examining parenting as a putative mediator in BPT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; Vermulst, Ad A; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E
The aim of the present study is to investigate whether general parenting factors (i.e., quality parent-child relationship, psychological control, strict control, parental knowledge) and parental smoking add to The theory of planned behaviour [Organ Behav. Hum. Dec. 50 (1991) 179] in predicting the onset of smoking. A mediation model is applied in which parental factors affect smoking behavior indirectly by affecting smoking cognitions (i.e., attitude, self-efficacy, and social norm). The model was tested in a longitudinal study on 1,070 adolescents, aged 10-14 years old. Structural equation models (SEM) on current and on future smoking behavior were tested. The findings showed that the quality of the parent-child relationship and parental knowledge affected adolescents' smoking behavior indirectly, while parental smoking behavior had a direct effect. Strict control and psychological control were found to be unrelated to adolescents' smoking onset. In prevention campaigns, parents should be informed of the extent to which they exert influence on their child's smoking behavior and should be given advice and information on how they can prevent their children from starting to smoke.
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J
The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interaction predicted increases in problem behavior. Having high-achieving friends predicted less problem behavior. Parental monitoring predicted less problem behavior in general, but also acted as a buffer for students who were most vulnerable to developing problem behavior on the basis of being well liked by some peers, and also disliked by several others. These findings highlight the importance of studying the family-peer mesosystem when considering risk and resilience in early adolescence, and when considering implications for intervention.
David Álvarez-García; Trinidad García; Alejandra Barreiro-Collazo; Alejandra Dobarro; Ángela Antúnez
Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescen...
Zvara, B.J.; Mills-Koonce, R.; Appleyard Carmody, K.; Cox, M
Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the long-term adjustment of women reporting Childhood Sexual Trauma (CST) at or before the age of 14 in terms of parenting efficacy and parenting behavior. Data for these analyses were obtained from mother reports and from observational protocols from a longitudinal study of low-income, rural families. The novel use of propensity-matched controls to create a control group matched on family of origin variables provides evidence that...
Yulisna Yulisna; Hadi Arbiyanto; Munawar Rahmat
The aim of this article is to present the results of research concerning empirical description of the parenting and its influences on religious behavior and students’ study results in the subject of PAI (Pendidikan Agama Islam/Islamic Education). The research method used is qualitative and quantitative methods. The population of the research is all students and their parents in the fifth grade of elementary school in one group of Pulau Kijang, in Reteh Subdistrict, Indragiri Hilir, Riau. The ...
Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.
The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural equation models that controlled for toddler difficu...
Lippold, Melissa A; Fosco, Gregory M; Ram, Nilam; Feinberg, Mark E
Higher levels of parental knowledge about youth activities have been associated with lower levels of youth risky behavior. Yet little is known about how parental knowledge fluctuates during early adolescence and how those fluctuations are associated with the development of problem behavior. We use the term lability to describe within-person fluctuations in knowledge over time with higher lability indicating greater fluctuations in knowledge from year-to-year. This longitudinal study of rural adolescents (N = 840) investigated if change in parental knowledge across four waves of data from grades 6 to 8 is characterized by lability, and if greater lability is associated with higher youth substance use, delinquency, and internalizing problems in grade 9. Our models indicated that only some of the variance in parental knowledge was accounted for by developmental trends. The remaining residual variance reflects within-person fluctuations around these trends, lability, and measurement and occasion-specific error. Even controlling for level and developmental trends in knowledge, higher knowledge lability (i.e., more fluctuation) was associated with increased risk for later alcohol and tobacco use, and for girls, higher delinquency and internalizing problems. Our findings suggest that lability in parental knowledge has unique implications for adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on mechanisms that may link knowledge lability to substance use. Interventions may be most effective if they teach parents to consistently and predictably decrease knowledge across early adolescence.
DiSanti, Michael A.
Current cometary orbits provide information on their recent dynamical history. However, determining a given comet's formation region from its current dynamical state alone is complicated by radial migration in the proto-planetary disk and by dynamical interactions with the growing giant planets. Because comets reside for long periods of time in the outer Solar System, the ices contained in their nuclei (native ices) retain a relatively well-preserved footprint of when and where they formed, and this in turn can provide clues to conditions in the formation epoch. As a comet approaches the Sun, sublimation of its native ices releases parent volatiles into the coma where they can be measured spectroscopically. The past to - 15 years have seen the advent of infrared spectrometers with high sensitivity between about 2.8 and 5.0 micron, enabling a taxonomy among comets based on abundances of parent volatiles (e.g., H2O, CO, CH4, C2H6, HCN, CH30H, H2CO, NH3). Such molecules are of keen interest to Astrobiology, as they include important pre-biotic species that likely were required for the emergence of life on Earth and perhaps elsewhere. Approximately 20 comets have thus far been characterized, beginning with C/1996 82 (Hyakutake) in 1996. Molecular production rates are established through comparison of observed emission line intensities with those predicted by quantum mechanical fluorescence models. Abundances of parent volatiles (relative to H2O) vary among even the relatively small number of comets sampled, with the most volatile species (CO and CH4) displaying the largest variations. Techniques developed for measuring parent volatile abundances in comets will be discussed, as will possible implications for their formation.
Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.
Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…
Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Oh, April Y; Hennessy, Erin; Dwyer, Laura A
Emotion suppression may lead to ironic increases in emotional experience. More important, suppression is a transactional process, creating stress and disrupting interactions for the suppressor and those in social interactions with individuals who are suppressing emotion. However, no research has examined the behavioral consequences of emotion suppression in close relationships. We examine the possibility that emotion suppression will predict eating behaviors as a secondary emotion regulatory strategy among 1,556 parent-adolescent dyads (N = 3,112), consistent with evidence suggesting that suppression influences eating at the individual-level. Actor-partner interdependence models and structural equation modeling demonstrate that one's own emotion suppression was associated with emotional eating; greater consumption of hedonic-low nutrient, high energy dense-foods; and lower consumption of fruits and vegetables (actor effects). One's partner's emotion suppression was also independently associated with one's own emotional eating; lower consumption of fruits and vegetables; and greater consumption of hedonic foods (partner effects), although this association was most consistent for adolescents' suppression and parents' eating (compared with the converse). These analyses suggest that dyadic emotion regulatory processes have implications on eating behavior. Moreover, analyses suggest that emotion suppression has potential implications on eating behaviors of others within close relationships with a suppressor, consistent with the notion that emotion regulation is a transactional process. These findings suggest that interventions to improve eating habits of parents and their adolescent children should consider dyadic emotion regulatory processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Zvara, B.J.; Mills-Koonce, R.; Cox, M.
Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the associations between maternal report of child-directed aggression and observed parenting behavior across early childhood for women with and without childhood sexual trauma histories. The moderating role of child sex was also examined. The sample (n=204) is from a longitudinal study of rural poverty exploring the ways in which child, family, and contextual factors shape development over time. After controlling for numerous factors including child and primary caregiver covariates, findings reveal that childhood sexual trauma is related to sensitive parenting behavior and child-directed aggression. Findings further revealed that child sex moderates the relation between sexual trauma history and maternal behavior towards children. Implications for interventions for mothers with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed. PMID:28450762
Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn
Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.
Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others
This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…
Salloum, Alison; Dorsey, Crystal S; Swaidan, Victoria R; Storch, Eric A
This study explored parent and child experiences of a parent-led, therapist-assisted treatment during Step One of Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT). Seventeen parents/guardians and 16 children who were between the ages of 8 and 12 years were interviewed after Step One and six weeks after the completion of a maintenance phase about their perceptions of the parent-led, therapist-assisted treatment. Participants were asked what they liked and disliked about the treatment as well as what they found to be most and least helpful. Generally, parents and children liked the treatment and found it helpful. In terms of treatment components, children indicated that the relaxation exercises were the most liked/helpful component (62.5%) followed by trauma narrative activities (56.3%). A few children (18.8%) did not like or found least helpful the trauma narrative component as they wanted to avoid talking or thinking about the trauma. Parents indicated that the parent-child meetings were the most liked/helpful (82.4%) followed by the Stepping Together workbook (58.8%) and relaxation exercises (52.9%). Some parents (23.5%) noted that the workbook seemed too repetitive and some parents (17.6%) at times were uncertain if they were leading the parent-child meetings the best way. Parent-led, therapist-assisted TF-CBT may be an acceptable type of service delivery for both parents and children, although more research is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K
The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and
Wen, Xu; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen
Based on the contextual model of parenting style, this study aimed to examine whether the associations between parenting behaviors and adolescents' dietary habits, physical activity, and weight status is moderated by parenting style. A total of 1,869 parent-adolescent dyads were recruited in southern China. The adolescents' body mass index,…
Thomas, Sharon R.; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Liu, Yihao; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
Maternal depression and parenting are robust predictors of developmental outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, methods commonly used to examine parent-child interactions in these families do not account for temporal associations between child and parent behavior that have been theorized to maintain negative child behavior. Moreover, studies examining associations between maternal depression and parenting in families of children with ADHD have not compared mothers who were currently depressed, remitted, and never clinically depressed. This study utilized sequential analysis to examine how maternal reinforcement of compliant and noncompliant child behavior differs as a function of maternal depression history. Within the 82 participating mother-child dyads, 21 mothers were currently depressed, 29 mothers had a lifetime history of depression but were in remission for at least 1 month, and 32 mothers had never been clinically depressed. 24 girls (29.6%) and 57 boys (70.4%) between the ages of 6–12 year old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.0) and were diagnosed with ADHD. Results indicated that all mothers were less likely to respond optimally than non-optimally to child compliant and noncompliant behaviors during observed parent-child interactions; however, currently depressed mothers were least likely to reinforce child compliance and responded most coercively to child noncompliance relative to the other groups. Remitted mothers in this sample were more coercive than never clinically depressed mothers, but were more likely to follow through with commands than never clinically depressed mothers. Implications for behavioral parent training programs aimed at skill development for depressed mothers of children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:25413021
Thomas, Sharon R; O'Brien, Kelly A; Clarke, Tana L; Liu, Yihao; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
Maternal depression and parenting are robust predictors of developmental outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, methods commonly used to examine parent-child interactions in these families do not account for temporal associations between child and parent behavior that have been theorized to maintain negative child behavior. Moreover, studies examining associations between maternal depression and parenting in families of children with ADHD have not compared mothers who were currently depressed, remitted, and never clinically depressed. This study utilized sequential analysis to examine how maternal reinforcement of compliant and noncompliant child behavior differs as a function of maternal depression history. Within the 82 participating mother-child dyads, 21 mothers were currently depressed, 29 mothers had a lifetime history of depression but were in remission for at least 1 month, and 32 mothers had never been clinically depressed. 24 girls (29.6 %) and 57 boys (70.4 %) between the ages of 6-12 years old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.0) and were diagnosed with ADHD. Results indicated that all mothers were less likely to respond optimally than non-optimally to child compliant and noncompliant behaviors during observed parent-child interactions; however, currently depressed mothers were least likely to reinforce child compliance and responded most coercively to child noncompliance relative to the other groups. Remitted mothers in this sample were more coercive than never clinically depressed mothers, but were more likely to follow through with commands than never clinically depressed mothers. Implications for behavioral parent training programs aimed at skill development for depressed mothers of children with ADHD are discussed.
Reljić, Vesna; Gazibara, Tatjana; Nikolić, Miloš; Zarić, Milica; Maksimović, Nataša
Successful control of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children depends on parents' knowledge on the disease and attitude toward ill child, but there is a lack studies exploring parental knowledge, attitude, and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate parents' knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward AD. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Clinic of Dermatovenereology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, between February 2015 and March 2016. Parents of children with AD were invited to complete the questionnaire, which was comprised of five parts: parental sociodemographic characteristics, demographic and clinical characteristics of children, knowledge, attitude, and behavior. To assess factors associated with a higher knowledge level on AD, stronger positive attitude, and more supportive behavior, we performed two multiple linear regression models. The average parental knowledge score was 9.5 ± 1.9 out of 12. The level of knowledge did not correlate with parental conviction that they were well-informed on AD (ρ = -0.121; P = 0.319). Older (β = 0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.16, P = 0.040), married/partnered parents (β = -2.14, 95% CI -3.55 to 0.72, P = 0.004), and those who have had AD themselves were more likely to be more knowledgeable on AD. Older (β = 0.18, 95% CI 0.01-0.34, P = 0.036) and employed (β = 3.99, 95% CI 1.59-6.38, P = 0.002) parents had stronger positive attitudes toward their children with AD. More supportive behavior of parents of children with AD was associated with being older (β = 0.24, 95% CI 0.04-0.45, P = 0.020) and less educated (β = -0.76, 95% CI -1.24 to 0.28, P = 0.003). The importance of understanding AD and accounting for attitudes by family members is obvious for successful control of the disease. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.
Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.
This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…
Atrash, Hani K
Reduction of child mortality is a global public health priority. Parents can play an important role in reducing child mortality. The inability of one or both parents to care for their children due to death, illness, divorce or separation increases the risk of death of their children. There is increasing evidence that the health, education, and socioeconomic status of mothers and fathers have significant impact on the health and survival of their children. We conducted a literature review to explore the impact of the death of parents on the survival and wellbeing of their children and the mechanisms through which this impact is mediated. Studies have generally concluded that the death of a mother significantly increased the risk of death of her children, especially during the early years; the effect continues but is significantly reduced with increasing age through the age of 15 years. The effect of the loss of a father had less impact than the effect of losing a mother although it too had negative consequences for the survival prospect of the child. A mother's health, education, socioeconomic status, fertility behavior, environmental health conditions, nutritional status and infant feeding, and the use of health services all play an important role in the level of risk of death of her children. Efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goal No. 4 of reducing children's under-5 mortality in developing countries by two thirds by 2015 should include promoting the health and education of women.
Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse
Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined…
Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Noar, Seth M.; Nesi, Jacqueline; Garrett, Kyla
parent-adolescent communication with robust, multi-item measures, clearly specifying the target parent, and applying multi-method longitudinal designs. Conclusions and Relevance Sexual communication with parents, particularly mothers, plays a small protective role in adolescent safer sex behavior, and this protective effect is more pronounced for girls than boys. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research on parent-adolescent communication are discussed. PMID:26524189
Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.
Aims: To examine the association of current smoking behavior of adolescents and young adults with the smoking behavior of their parents, siblings, friends and spouses. Design: Using survey data from a large twin-family sample, the association between the smoking behavior of participants and that of
Justicia Galiano, M José; Cantón Duarte, José
The exposure of children to their parents' conflicts are a factor of substantial risk for the development of behavior problems in children. This study examines the relationship between marital conflicts and children's aggressive and delinquent behavior. The sample consisted of a total of 332 children, aged 7 to 17 years, and their mothers. The children completed the Children's Perceptions of Interparental Conflict Scale, providing information on the dimensions of the marital conflicts: frequency, intensity, no resolution, and content. The mothers completed the O'Leary Porter Scale, providing information about the frequency of conflicts, and the Child Behavior Checklist, about the aggressive and delinquent behavior problems in their children. The results indicate that parental conflicts affect sons and daughters equally, and they affect adolescents more than younger children when they are perceived by the children. However, conflicts affect all groups when the mothers perceive them.
Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Noar, Seth M; Nesi, Jacqueline; Garrett, Kyla
identified in the literature; future studies can improve on these issues by measuring parent-adolescent communication with robust, multi-item measures, clearly specifying the target parent, and applying multimethod longitudinal designs. Sexual communication with parents, particularly mothers, plays a small protective role in safer sex behavior among adolescents; this protective effect is more pronounced for girls than boys. We discuss the implications for practice and make suggestions for future research on parent-adolescent sexual communication.
Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc
Parental monitoring, assessed as (perceived) parental knowledge of the child's behavior, has been established as a consistent predictor of problem behavior. However, recent research indicates that parental knowledge has more to do with adolescents' self-disclosure than with parents' active monitoring. Although these findings may suggest that parents exert little influence on adolescents' problem behavior, the authors argue that this conclusion is premature, because self-disclosure may in itself be influenced by parents' rearing style. This study (a) examined relations between parenting dimensions and self-disclosure and (b) compared 3 models describing the relations among parenting, self-disclosure, perceived parental knowledge, and problem behavior. Results in a sample of 10th- to 12th-grade students, their parents, and their peers demonstrated that high responsiveness, high behavioral control, and low psychological control are independent predictors of self-disclosure. In addition, structural equation modeling analyses demonstrated that parenting is both indirectly (through self-disclosure) and directly associated with perceived parental knowledge but is not directly related to problem behavior or affiliation with peers engaging in problem behavior. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Nielsen, Ulrik Haagen
Does socioeconomic background when measured by parental educational attainment explain the heterogeneity in adults' other-regarding preferences? I test this by using data from two online experiments -- a Dictator Game and a Trust Game that were conducted with a broad sample of the Danish adult...... population. I match the experimental data with high-quality data from the Danish population registers about my subjects and their parents. Whereas previous studies have found socioeconomic status, including parental educational attainment, to be predictive for children's generosity, I find no such evidence...... among adults. This result is robust across age groups and genders. I provide two explanations for this. First, sociodemographic characteristics in general appear to be poor predictors of adults' other-regarding behavior. Second, by using Danish survey data, I find that Danish parents' educational...
Hieneman, Meme; Childs, Karen; Sergay, Jane
Now the theory and research behind the positive behavior support (PBS) process--an approach already proven effective in schools and community programs--has been transformed into a practical, easy-to-use guide that's perfect for sharing with parents. Developed by educators and families, this user-friendly handbook offers parents easy-to-follow…
The aim of the current research was to disentangle four theoretically sound models of externalizing behavior etiology (i.e., attachment, language, inhibition, and parenting) by testing their relation with behavioral trajectories from early childhood to adolescence. The aim was achieved through a 10-year prospective longitudinal study conducted over five waves with 111 referred children aged 3 to 5 years at the onset of the study. Clinical referral was primarily based on externalizing behavior. A multimethod (questionnaires, testing, and observations) approach was used to estimate the four predictors in early childhood. In line with previous studies, the results show a significant decrease of externalizing behavior from early childhood to adolescence. The decline was negatively related to mothers' coercive parenting and positively related to attachment security in early childhood, but not related to inhibition and language. The study has implications for research into externalizing behavior etiology recommending to gather hypotheses from various theoretically sound models to put them into competition with one another. The study also has implications for clinical practice by providing clear indications for prevention and early intervention.
Colletti, Christina J M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Page, Melanie C; McNall-Knapp, René Y; Meyer, William H; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L
To examine the relationship of self-reported parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress to parent-reported behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment of children currently on treatment for cancer. Parents of 62 children (34 boys, 28 girls) currently on treatment for cancer were recruited from an outpatient pediatric cancer clinic. Children ranged in age from 2 to 12 years; age at diagnosis ranged from 1.33 to 11.83 years. Higher levels of parenting stress, but not parental overprotection or perceived child vulnerability, were associated with poorer behavioral and social adjustment. Higher levels of perceived child vulnerability and parenting stress, but not parental overprotection, were independently associated with poorer emotional adjustment. Specific parenting variables appear to be related to specific adjustment outcomes in children with cancer. Longitudinal follow-up of these children is necessary to determine the developmental trajectory of parent variables and long-term child outcomes.
Henry, Carolyn S.; And Others
Several authorities have observed that a moderate degree of conformity by the young may be necessary for a society to function effectively. In order to examine the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of parental power and behavior and adolescent conformity, adolescents (N=368) in 184 families completed questionnaires concerning aspects…
Keywords: Risky sexual behavior, living with parents, family environment. African Halth ... increases the probability of negative consequences ... greater the gender imbalance in rates of HIV infection, with ... communication and family support) (22 Items with. 5-point ... students relationship and school-students relationship).
Morcillo, Carmen; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Blanco, Carlos; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.
Objective: To examine the relation between parental familism (strong values of attachment to nuclear and extended family members) and youth antisocial behaviors over time. Method: Puerto Rican children 5 to 13 years of age at baseline residing in the South Bronx in New York (n = 1,138) and in the Standard Metropolitan Area in San Juan and Caguas,…
Salihovic, Selma; Kerr, Margaret; Ozdemir, Metin; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante
The present study examined the directions of effects between adolescent psychopathic traits and parental behaviors. The data are from a community-based cohort-sequential study. Data were collected annually over 4 years. Participants were 875 adolescents, aged 13-15 at Time 1, and we analyzed their reports of negative and positive parental…
Haney, Jolynn L.; Houser, Linda; Cullen, Jennifer A.
Emotional and behavioral difficulties in children with autism often present problems for families seeking appropriate treatment interventions. Using data from the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services, ordinal logistic regression models were used to examine the association between parental perceptions about autism and their reports of…
Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.
The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy.…
Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hoza, Betsy; Arnold, L. Eugene; Pelham, William E.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Jensen, Peter S.
Possible mediators of the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and parenting behavior were examined for 96 children with ADHD and their mothers drawn from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) as part of an add-on investigation conducted by two of the six MTA sites. General cognitions (i.e., maternal locus of…
Lukes, Sherri M
The purpose of the study was to establish baseline data about oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of migrant and seasonal farm workers (MSFW). The study focused on MSFWs that are parents of preschool-aged children, and who utilized services at 3 migrant dental clinics. An oral health knowledge attitudes and behaviors survey was developed and pilot tested in 2006. The resulting 34 item survey was administered by trained promotores de salud (community health workers) to 45 parents of preschoolers (15 at each clinic site) served by 3 migrant dental clinics. Parents answered questions as they pertained to their oldest preschooler (up to age 5). Dental visits in the last 12 months were reported for 26 (58%) of the children. Fifteen parents (33%) had a dental visit in the last year. Thirty-five parents (77/8%) reported their child's oral health to be good, and 21 (46.7%) reported their own to be good. Half of the children were enrolled in Head Start (HS). Of those, 18 (79%) had a dental visit in the last year, whereas 8 (36%) of those not enrolled in HS had a visit. Discrepancies existed for the age parents believed children should stop using a bottle and the age they actually did stop using a bottle. There were discrepancies in knowledge about decay causing drinks and consumption of drinks by preschool-aged children. MSFWs remain an underserved population with poor access to oral health care and multiple factors affecting oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. A better understanding of influences on oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors within the population can assist in implementing appropriate interventions for the maintenance of good oral health in MSFW families. HS can have a positive impact on oral health for MSFW children.
Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.
We examined familial and cultural factors predicting parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems. Immigrant Chinese parents (89.7% mothers; M age = 44.24 years) and their children (62 boys; 57.9%) between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9) completed measures of parent punitive behavior and child…
Tung, Irene; Lee, Steve S
Although negative parenting behavior and peer status are independently associated with childhood conduct problems (e.g., oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)), relatively little is known about their interplay, particularly in relation to differentiated measures of positive and negative peer regard. To improve the specificity of the association of negative parenting behavior and peer factors with ODD, we explored the potential interaction of parenting and peer status in a sample of 169 five-to ten-year-old ethnically diverse children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed using multiple measures (i.e., rating scales, interview) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, sex, number of ADHD symptoms, and parents' race-ethnicity, peer acceptance inversely predicted and inconsistent discipline, harsh punishment, and peer rejection were each positively associated with ODD symptom severity. Interactive influences were also evident such that inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment each predicted elevated ODD but only among children experiencing low peer acceptance or high peer rejection. These findings suggest that supportive environments, including peer acceptance, may protect children from negative outcomes associated with inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment. Findings are integrated with theories of social support, and we additionally consider implications for intervention and prevention. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abstract The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10?12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting s...
Full Text Available We sought to explore parental attitudes, behaviors, and barriers regarding school readiness in a county clinic serving low income, Latino children. Between December 2013–September 2014, we conducted a cross sectional survey of parents during 3–6 years well-child appointments about school readiness (SR across: (1 attitudes/behaviors; (2 barriers; and (3 awareness; and (4 use of local resources. Most parents (n = 210, response rate 95.6% find it very important/important for their child to know specific skills prior to school: take turns and share (98.5%, use a pencil and count (97.6%, know letters (99.1%, colors (97.1%, and shapes (96.1%. Over 80% of parents find education important and engage in positive SR behaviors: singing, practicing letters, or reading. Major barriers to SR were lack of knowledge for kindergarten readiness, language barriers, access to books at home, constraints on nightly reading, difficulty completing school forms, and limited free time with child. Awareness of local resources such as preschool programs was higher than actual utilization. These low-income, Latino parents value SR but lack knowledge to prepare their child for school and underutilize community resources such as free preschool programs. Pediatricians are uniquely positioned to address these needs, but more evidence-based interventions are needed.
Schuiringa, Hilde; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter
This cross-sectional study examined the association between parenting behavior, the parent-child relationship, and externalizing child behavior in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). The families of a child with MBID and accompanying externalizing behavior
Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M
Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.
Taylor, Charles T; Alden, Lynn E
Forty-one people with generalized social phobia (GSP) and 42 community controls completed a measure of social developmental experiences and then participated in a social interaction with an experimental assistant whose behavior was either friendly or ambiguous. Following the interaction, confederates rated participants' behavior and their desire to interact with their partner again. In people with social phobia, but not controls, perceptions of parental overprotection were associated with less responsiveness to partner behavior. Moreover, failure to reciprocate the friendly partner's behavior led to social rejection. The results support the value of incorporating social developmental concepts into cognitive-behavioral models of social phobia and highlight the contribution of social learning experiences to the development of maladaptive interpersonal behavior in these individuals.
The purpose of this study was to assess the association of positive and negative parenting with child externalizing problems. Quantitative data were collected during face-to-face interviews with 320 parents of children 9-16 years of age (50% males) in 11 communities in Eastern, Southern, and Central Ukraine. The study estimated the relationship between parenting practices and child externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency, and attention problems. Results revealed that positive parenting, child monitoring, and avoidance of corporal punishment were associated with fewer child externalizing symptoms. Results also indicated that child male gender and single parenting had significant and positive association with child externalizing behaviors. This study extends international psychosocial knowledge on children and families. These findings can be used to design programs and foster dialogs about the role of family and social environments in the development of externalizing disorder among researchers, representatives of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and mass media that work with child abuse prevention in Ukraine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The paper presents two standardized measurements of attachment. The Strange Situation Procedure is an observational measure of the reaction of 12-18-month-old infants to their parent after being exposed to brief separations from him/her. Four main types of responses are noted, and have been noted in a range of cultures. The second measure is the Adult Attachment Interview which is a semi-structured interview of 18 questions that discusses childhood memories and assesses the current state of mind with regard to attachment issues. Four types of characteristic response styles have been noted in a range of cultures, and this measure seems to be related to certain types of parenting. Studies of the link between the two measures have been complicated, as the adult measure does not include the capacity to be available for the child. A further instrument, the Maternal Empathic Understanding Procedure, designed to assess parent's ability to see things from the child's point of view, is suggested as a possible mediator between parental attachment style and parenting behavior. These studies permit standardized evaluation of parenting skills, facilitate the study of intergenerational transmission of these skills, and suggest the possibility of psychotherapeutic interventions that focus on these areas.
Koehn, Amanda J; Kerns, Kathryn A
Maternal sensitivity predicts mother-child attachment in young children, but no meta-analysis has investigated the link between parenting and parent-child attachment in older children. This study examined the relationship between parent-child attachment and multiple components of parenting in children 5-18 years of age. A series of meta-analyses showed that parents of children with more secure attachment are more responsive, more supportive of the child's autonomy, use more behavioral control strategies, and use less harsh control strategies. Parents of children with more avoidant attachment were less responsive and used less behavioral control strategies. Ambivalent attachment was not significantly related to any of the parenting behaviors, and there were not enough studies to reliably test the relationship between disorganized attachment and parenting. There were few significant moderators. The findings inform new areas for future research, as well as family interventions for at-risk youth.
Young, Margaret H.
Data from the National Survey of Children were used to study the relationships between children's perceptions of parental support and control and measures of self-esteem and behavior problems over time. Data were collected in 1976 , when the children were aged 7-11; 1981, when the children were in their early to mid teens (age 12 to 16); and 1987, when the children were in their late teens and early 20s (age 17 to 22). Parenting measures , based on children's reports, were developed for each ...
Parents influence adolescent drinking behavior, but to what extent does this association diminish with age, however? The cross-sectional data was drawn from the Scania drug use survey 2007, consisting of 4,828 secondary education students in the 9th and 11th grade. The age- and gender-adjusted findings indicate that having parents who are consenting to alcohol use (OR 1.4), having been provided with alcohol by one's parents (OR 1.8), having parents with an authoritarian (OR 1.5) or neglectful (OR 2.1) parenting style, and having parents who both have a university degree (OR 1.3) were factors significantly associated with monthly heavy episodic drinking. These findings lead to the conclusion that parenting styles as well as parental attitudes and behaviors are important throughout the high school years. Thus, prevention targeting parents should emphasize both these domains. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Rezendes, Debra L.; Scarpa, Angela
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been shown to experience increases in stress, depression, and anxiety, which are also associated with child behavior problems related to ASDs. Literature-examining potential mechanisms that underlie the relationship of child behavior problems and parental anxiety/depression in this population are scarce. The current study sought to examine the roles of parenting stress and parenting self-efficacy as mediators between child behavio...
Meunier, Jean Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle; Stievenart, Marie; van de Moortele, Gaelle; Browne, Dillon T.; Kumar, Aarti
Based on longitudinal multilevel modeling and using a multi-informant strategy, this study examines trajectories of externalizing problem behavior (EPB) in childhood as predicted by parental behavior (absolute level of parenting [ALP] and parental differential treatment [PDT]), parental self-efficacy (PSE), child personality and sibling…
Iadarola, Suzannah; Levato, Lynne; Harrison, Bryan; Smith, Tristram; Lecavalier, Luc; Johnson, Cynthia; Swiezy, Naomi; Bearss, Karen; Scahill, Lawrence
We report on parent outcomes from a randomized clinical trial of parent training (PT) versus psychoeducation (PEP) in 180 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disruptive behavior. We compare the impact of PT and PEP on parent outcomes: Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Parent Sense of Competence (PSOC), and Caregiver Strain Questionnaire…
Dufur, Mikaela J.; Howell, Nyssa C.; Downey, Douglas B.; Ainsworth, James W.; Lapray, Alice J.
Research on family structure has led some to claim that sex-based parenting differences exist. But if such differences exist in single-parent families, the absence of a second parent rather than specific sex-typed parenting might explain them. We examine differences in mothering and fathering behavior in single-parent households, where number of…
Parenting interventions are a promising strategy to prevent antisocial behavior in society. Evidence accumulates that parenting interventions can reduce disruptive child behavior, and insight rapidly increases into which families they benefit most. At the same time, however, several high risk
van der Geest, Ivana M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Passchier, Jan; van den Hoed-Heerschop, Corry; Pieters, Rob; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E
The aim was to investigate the influence of parents' negative mood state and parenting stress on behavior in children with newly diagnosed cancer. A total of 123 parents (n=58 fathers, n=65 mothers) of 67 children with newly diagnosed cancer completed three questionnaires separately at the same time measuring parents' negative mood state, parenting stress, and child behavior problems. Parents' negative mood state was weakly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.31, pparenting stress were strongly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.61, pparents' negative mood state and child behavior problems (c=0.29, p=0.02 (fathers); c=0.25, p=0.04 (mothers)) became non-significant after mediating for parenting stress (c'=0.003, p=0.98 (fathers); c'=0.10, p=0.42 (mothers)). The indirect effect of parents' negative mood state and child behavior problems was only significant for fathers (95% CI [0.12; 0.51]), indicating that parenting stress mediates the effect between fathers' negative mood state and child behavior problems. This is the first study to demonstrate the mediational role of parenting stress in fathers of a child with newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Larson, Justine Julia; Lynch, Sean; Tarver, Leslie Bishop; Mitchell, Laura; Frosch, Emily; Solomon, Barry
This study is a qualitative analysis examining caregivers' expectations for pediatricians with regard to behavioral health care. Fifty-five parents/caregivers of children seen in an urban primary care clinic participated in semistructured interviews. Participants were parents or guardians of children between the ages of 2 and 17 years, referred from the pediatric clinic to the mental health center. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Pertinent themes were the following: expected range of care, components of an effective primary care provider (PCP) relationship, action of the PCP, and parent reaction to PCP intervention. Forty-seven percent of caregivers saw the PCP role as strictly for physical health care; 53% expected the PCP to have a role in both physical and behavioral health. Responses were overwhelmingly positive from caregivers when the PCP asked about or conducted a behavioral health intervention. Caregivers did not consistently expect but responded positively to PCPs engaging around behavioral health concerns. © The Author(s) 2015.
Zilkha, Noga; Scott, Niv; Kimchi, Tali
Parental care is found in species across the animal kingdom, from small insects to large mammals, with a conserved purpose of increasing offspring survival. Yet enormous variability exists between different species and between the sexes in the pattern and level of parental investment. Here, we review the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maternal and paternal care, especially in rodents, and discuss the relationship between sex differences in behavior and sexual dimorphism in the brain. We argue that although several brain regions and circuits regulating parental care are shared by both sexes, some of the fundamental components comprising the maternal brain are innate and sex specific. Moreover, we suggest that a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms can be achieved by expanding the methodological toolbox, applying ethologically relevant approaches such as nontraditional wild-derived animal models and complex seminatural experimental set-ups.
Simonds, M P; Simonds, J F
Mothers of 182 preschool nursery school children rated their own parenting responses on a "Parent's Report" questionnaire. At the same time the mothers responded to the "Behavior Style Questionnaire" (BSQ) from which scores were determined for nine categories of temperament. On the basis of category scores the children were grouped into one of five temperament clusters i.e. easy, difficult, slow to warm up, high intermediate, low intermediate. The children's membership in BSQ clusters was independent of sex, age, birth order, and mothers employment status but there was a significantly higher ratio of "easy" children from higher socioeconomic classes I and II. Mothers of children grouped in either the "difficult" or "slow to warmup"clusters were more likely to use "guilt inducing" and "temper-detachment" parenting styles than mothers of children grouped in the "easy" cluster.
Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.
The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large
Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A.G. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large
Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large
C.J.M. Buschgens (Cathelijne); M.A.G. van Aken (Marcel); S.H.N. Swinkels (Sophie); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan)
textabstractThe aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in
Loop, Laurie; Mouton, Bénédicte; Stievenart, Marie; Roskam, Isabelle
This research compared the efficacy of two parenting interventions that vary according to the number and the nature of variables in reducing preschoolers' externalizing behavior (EB). The goal was to identify which parenting intervention format (one-variable versus two-variable) caused higher behavioral adjustment in children. The first was a one-variable intervention manipulating parental self-efficacy beliefs. The second was a two-variable intervention manipulating both parents' self-efficacy beliefs and emotion coaching practices. The two interventions shared exactly the same design, consisting of eight parent group sessions. Effect on children's EB and observed behaviors were evaluated through a multi-method assessment at three points (pre-test, post-test and follow-up). The results highlighted that compared to the waitlist condition, the two intervention formats tended to cause a significant reduction in children's EB reported by their parent. However, the one-variable intervention was found to lead to a greater decrease in children's EB at follow-up. The opposite was reported for children's observed behavior, which was improved to a greater extent in the two-variable intervention at post-test and follow-up. The results illustrated that interventions' format cannot be considered as purely interchangeable since their impact on children's behavior modification is different. The results are discussed for their research and clinical implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morawska, Alina; Mitchell, Amy; Burgess, Scott; Fraser, Jennifer
Parents play an important role in children's illness management, in promoting child adjustment and reducing behavior problems. Little research has focused on the evaluation of parenting interventions in the context of childhood chronic illness. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a brief, group parenting intervention (Healthy Living Triple P) in improving parenting skills and parent adjustment, and reducing child behavioral and emotional difficulties in the context of childhood asthma and eczema. One hundred seven parents of children with a diagnosis of asthma and/or eczema were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 52) or care as usual (CAU; n = 55). Parents completed self-report measures of their child's behavioral and emotional adjustment, their own parenting, and their own level of adjustment at pre- and postintervention and at 6-month follow-up. Parent-child interactions were observed and coded at each time point. The intervention consisted of 2 group sessions of 2 hr each delivered by trained, accredited practitioners. Attrition was low, with T2 and T3 assessment completed by 84.6% and 80.8% of intervention families and 92.7% and 81.8% of CAU families, respectively. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated that overall parent-reported ineffective parenting as well as parental overreactivity reduced as a result of intervention. Parent report of child behavior problems also decreased, but there were no changes in children's emotional adjustment. No changes in observed parent or child behavior were found. Stress reduced for parents in the intervention group compared to the CAU group, but there were no changes in parental anxiety or depression. Effects showed evidence of reliable and clinical change and were maintained at 6-month follow-up. The intervention shows promise as an addition to clinical services for children with asthma and eczema and may have broader application to other chronic health conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.
This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…
Stewart, Latoya S.; Carlson, John S.
This study takes an in-depth look at parental acceptability (i.e., the ability to meet parent needs) of an intervention that has shown strong empirical support for treating and preventing childhood conduct disorder. The authors obtained acceptability data from 30 parents of children ages 5 to 12 years presenting externalizing behavior problems…
Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Ozdemir, Sevgi Bayram; Leung, Christy Y. Y.
The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants…
Jabagchourian, John J.; Sorkhabi, Nadia; Quach, Wendy; Strage, Amy
A vast literature documents a host of advantages conferred upon middle class European American children whose parents employ an authoritative style of parenting, including enhanced academic achievement and positive behavioral outcomes. The literature is much less clear about the relationship between parental authority style and child outcomes in…
Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.
Background: The present study is the first to examine predictors and consequences of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescence using parent-reported data in a longitudinal design. Across three time points, we examined the reciprocal effects of parent-reported parenting behaviors as they are
Purwati; Japar, Muhammad
The objective of this present is to test the effects of the parents' parenting patterns, education, jobs, and assistance to children in watching television on the children's aggressive behavior. This present research employed a quantitative approach with an ex-post factor design. The data were collected from 175 parents of which the children…
Approximately 6% of births worldwide, 7.9 million children, are born with a serious genetic congenital abnormality each year. A factor thought to increase the prevalence of birth defects is parental consanguinity, which is a social custom practiced in at least 20% of the world's population. The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between consanguinity and congenital defects. This article also aims to enhance neonatal healthcare practitioners' comprehension of its implications for practice and research. A review of literature was compiled from a search of the online databases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), PubMed, EBSCO MegaFILE, and Google Scholar. Literature pertinent to this topic primarily consists of research studies that examine the inbreeding depression phenomenon through comparison of the prevalence of birth defects among the offspring of consanguineous and nonconsanguineous couples. Current studies indicate that the progeny of consanguineous couples are at an increased risk of congenital defects compared with those of nonconsanguineous couples. Consanguinity is one risk factor among many that can lead to a major birth defect. Relationships between consanguineous populations and neonatal healthcare practitioners such as registered nurses, advanced practice nurses, and physicians could significantly alter neonatal health outcomes. Specific recommendations such as genetic counseling and therapeutic communication are discussed. Further studies need to investigate the connection between consanguinity and birth defects while controlling for nongenetic variables. Moreover, a focus on consanguineous communities in the United States would prove beneficial.
Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.
Neighborhood characteristics have been linked to healthy behavior, including effective parenting behaviors. This may be partially explained through the neighborhood's relation to parents' access to social support from friends and family. The current study examined associations of neighborhood characteristics with parenting behaviors indirectly…
Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.
This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…
Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee
This paper reports the scale development and psychometric characteristics of the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R). To develop this measure, 502 subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated 91 parenting behaviors in terms of parenting behavior specificity (e.g., bonding, discipline), importance level, and appropriateness for…
Situ, Mingjing; Hu, Xiao; Cai, Jia; Guo, Kuifang; Huang, Yi
To explore the relationship between the behavior phenotypes of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents through family study. Forty-five core families with ASD and 30 control families from Chengdu area were examined using Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis, and Logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the effect of various factors, especially genetic factors that may affect the pathogenesis of ASD. The social skills factor and communication factor of the father's AQ scale, as well as the mother's age of childbearing and AQ social skills factor are related to whether children with ASD (R were 0.46, 0.39, 0.39 and 0.36, Pautism. ASD may be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The autistic behavior phenotype of parents is a risk factor for ASD and is associated with developmental anomalies of early childhood.
Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Maack, Danielle J.
Although sensitivity to the Behavioral Inhibition System within Gray’s (1970) reinforcement sensitivity theory relates to individuals’ own depressive and anxious symptomatology, less is known about how parental BIS sensitivity relates to early indicators of internalizing problems in young children. Moreover, the extent to which this parental characteristic relates to parenting behavior, and children’s internalizing problems above and beyond parenting, remains unknown. The current study assessed maternal BIS sensitivity, overprotective parenting, and toddlers’ internalizing behaviors in a sample of 91 mothers while controlling for mothers’ own internalizing symptomatology. Heightened BIS sensitivity related to both overprotective parenting and internalizing behaviors. Overprotective parenting partially mediated the relation between BIS sensitivity and children’s internalizing behaviors, although BIS sensitivity maintained a marginal relation to internalizing behaviors. Maternal BIS sensitivity and toddler internalizing behaviors may represent a shared disposition towards inhibition that is somewhat accounted for by overprotective parenting. PMID:22904590
Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine
OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD: Chi......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system.......OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD......: Children (N=54, 7-12 years) and parents were randomly allocated to different treatment groups (involved, not involved). Observed behavior, self-reported behavior and cognitions were assessed separately for mothers and fathers at pre-, posttreatment and follow-up. RESULTS: There were no differences over...
Pokhrel, Pallav; Unger, Jennifer B; Wagner, Karla D; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Sussman, Steve
This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,936 Hispanic adolescents of mean age 14.0 years (standard deviation= 0.4) from seven Los Angeles area schools. The effects of perceived parental monitoring and parent-child communication on the adolescents' self-reported past thirty day cigarette smoking and alcohol and marijuana use behaviors were analyzed. In addition, the relationships between parents' expectations of the child's acculturation and adolescents' drug use behaviors were examined. Parental monitoring and parent-child communication were found to have statistically significant inverse associations with all three drug types when controlling for one another and the demographic variables assessed in the study. Parents' expectation of the child's acculturation to the U.S. was found to be inversely related with alcohol use. Parental monitoring and parent-child communication were not found to mediate the relationship between parents' expectation of the child's acculturation and alcohol use.
Sterrett, Emma M; Williams, Joel; Thompson, Kirsten; Johnson, Knowlton; Bright, Mikia; Karam, Eli; Jones, V Faye
To examine the relationships between 2 parenting styles and family nutrition and physical activity. Parents of elementary/primary school children in the southeastern United States (N = 145) completed surveys regarding family relationships and health behaviors. Parents exhibiting a laissez-faire parenting style reported lower levels of family nutrition and physical activity. In addition, parent BMI moderated the relationship between laissez-faire parenting and these health behaviors. This study indicates that family-oriented nutrition and physical activity programs may benefit from including a focus on decreasing laissez-faire parenting, as well as helping overweight parents reduce their BMIs.
Alyanak, Behiye; Kılınçaslan, Ayşe; Harmancı, Halime Sözen; Demirkaya, Sevcan Karakoç; Yurtbay, Tülin; Vehid, Hayriye Ertem
The present study investigated emotional and behavioral problems in children with selective mutism (SM) along with the psychological adjustment and parenting attitudes of their mothers and fathers. Participants included 26 children with SM (mean age = 8.11 ± 2.11 years), 32 healthy controls (mean age = 8.18 ± 2.55 years) and the parents of all children. Children with SM displayed higher problem scores than controls in a variety of emotional and behavioral parameters. They predominantly displayed internalizing problems, whereas aggressive and delinquent behavior was described among a subsample of the children. Significant differences existed between the SM and control groups only in paternal psychopathology, which included anxiety and depression. They did not differ with respect to maternal psychological distress or mother or father reported parental attitudes. Another important result of the present study was that the severity of emotional and behavioral problems of children with SM was correlated with maternal psychopathology but not paternal psychopathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Top, Namik; Liew, Jeffrey; Luo, Wen
The authors examined the joint (interactive) roles of the Second Step curriculum (a validated social-emotional learning and bullying prevention program; Committee for Children, Seattle, WA) and parenting practices on students' behavioral and academic outcomes in Grades 5-8. Participants were 763 parents and their children from 22 schools (8 control and 14 treatment). A 2-level random coefficient model was conducted to assess the effect of parental monitoring on school outcomes, as well as the interaction between character development curriculum and parental monitoring. Results indicated that parental monitoring was a significant predictor of school behaviors and school grades. Furthermore, the Second Step curriculum moderated the relationship between parental monitoring and problem behaviors, prosocial behaviors, and grades at school. Specifically, in schools without the Second Step curriculum parental monitoring predicted higher school grades but had no impact on students' school behaviors. By contrast, in schools with the Second Step curriculum, parental monitoring predicted fewer problem behaviors as well as more prosocial behaviors. The study results highlight the joint influences of the family and the school in children's behavioral and academic trajectories. Results have implications for education and intervention, including improving the school climate, student behaviors, and learning or achievement.
Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Sütterlin, Stefan; Caes, Line; Moors, Agnes
We investigated the function of parental attention to child pain in regulating parental distress and pain control behaviour when observing their child performing a painful (cold pressor) task (CPT); we also studied the moderating role of parental state anxiety. Participants were 62 schoolchildren and one of their parents. Parental attention towards or away from child pain (ie, attend to pain vs avoid pain) was experimentally manipulated during a viewing task pairing unfamiliar children's neutral and pain faces. Before and after the viewing task, parental distress regulation was assessed by heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). In a subsequent phase, parents observed their own child perform a CPT task, allowing assessment of parental pain control behaviour (indexed by latency to stop their child's CPT performance) and parental distress, which was assessed via self-report before and after observation of child CPT performance. Eye tracking during the viewing task and self-reported attention to own child's pain confirmed successful attention manipulation. Further, findings indicated that the effect of attentional strategy on parental emotion regulation (indexed by HR, self-report) and pain control behaviour depended on parents' state anxiety. Specifically, whereas low anxious parents reported more distress and demonstrated more pain control behaviour in the Attend to Pain condition, high anxious parents reported more distress and showed more pain control behaviour in the Avoid Pain condition. This inverse pattern was likewise apparent in physiological distress indices (HR) in response to the initial viewing task. Theoretical/clinical implications and further research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Springer, Andrew E; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H
Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys) between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514) years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial beha...
Hou, Jinqin; Chen, Zhiyan; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Li, Xinying; Yang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jianxin
Non-shared parenting and deviant peer affiliation are linked to differences in externalizing behaviors between twins. However, few studies have examined these two non-shared environments simultaneously. The present study examined the transactional roles of differential parenting (i.e., warmth and hostility) and deviant peer affiliation on monozygotic (MZ) twin differences in externalizing behaviors using a two-wave longitudinal study of twins and their parents. The sample consisted of 520 pairs of MZ twins (46.5% males, 53.5% females), with a mean age of 13.86 years (SD = 2.10) at the T1 assessment, residing in Beijing, China. The association between non-shared hostility in parenting and adolescent externalizing behaviors was mainly explained by a child-driven effect whereby the twin with a higher level of externalizing behaviors than his or her co-twin was more likely to receive more hostility from the parents. Similarly, the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent externalizing behaviors supported the selection effect whereby the twin with a higher level of externalizing behaviors than his or her co-twin was more likely to affiliate with deviant peers. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Morrissey, Taryn W
This study examined associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and parenting behaviors related to children's nutrition and physical activity. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children from infancy through kindergarten entry. Contemporaneous and lagged associations between maternal depressive symptoms and mothers' parenting behaviors were tested, controlling for background characteristics. The mediating effect of use of a physician's office or clinic as a source for routine care was tested. At each wave, between 18 and 20 % of mothers were considered as having moderate or severe depressive symptoms. These mothers were 1.3 percentage points more likely to put their infants to bed with a bottle, 2.6 percentage points less likely to have rules about the foods their children eat, and their children were 3.0 percentage points less likely to be in bed by 9:00 p.m. than mothers lacking depressive symptoms. These mothers also reported that their families ate dinner together fewer nights per week, and their children watched more television per day, than non-depressed mothers. The use of a physician's office or clinic partially mediated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and whether infants went to bed with a bottle. Interventions that identify maternal depression early may be useful in promoting healthy parenting behaviors and weight outcomes among young children.
VanVoorhis, Richard W.; Miller, Kenneth L.; Miller, Susan M.; Stull, Judith C.
The Stepping Stones Positive Parenting Program (Stepping Stones Triple P; SSTP) was designed for caregivers of children with disabilities to improve select parental variables such as parenting styles, parental satisfaction, and parental competency, and to reduce parental stress and child problem behaviors. This study focused on SSTP training for…
Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David
The goal of this brief report is to demonstrate the utility of quantifying parental discipline practices as relative frequencies in measuring changes in parenting behavior and relations to child behavior following intervention. We explored comparisons across methodological approaches of assessing parenting behavior via absolute and relative frequencies in measuring improvements in parent-reported disciplinary practices (increases in positive parenting practices in response to child behavior; decreases in inconsistent discipline and use of corporal punishment) and child behavior problems. The current study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a collaborative care intervention for behavior problems, ADHD, and anxiety in pediatric primary care practices (Doctor Office Collaborative Care; DOCC). Participants were 321 parent-child dyads (M child age = 8.00, 65 % male children) from eight pediatric practices that were cluster randomized to DOCC or enhanced usual care (EUC). Parents reported on their own discipline behaviors and child behavior problems. While treatment-related decreases in negative parenting were found using both the absolute and relative frequencies of parenting behaviors, results were different for positive parenting behaviors, which showed decreases when measured as absolute frequencies but increases when measured as relative frequencies. In addition, positive parenting was negatively correlated with child behavior problems when using relative frequencies, but not absolute frequencies, and relative frequencies of positive parenting mediated relations between treatment condition and outcomes. Our findings indicate that the methods used to measure treatment-related change warrant careful consideration.
Duncombe, Melissa E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Holland, Kerry A.; Frankling, Emma J.
The goal of this study was to examine the impact of different parenting characteristics on child disruptive behavior and emotional regulation among a sample of at-risk children. The sample consisted of 373 Australian 5- to 9-year-old children who were screened for serious behavior problems. Seven parenting variables based on self-report were…
Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Ma, Julie; Castillo, Marcela; Delva, Jorge
This study investigated the role of discrepancies between parent and youth reports of perceived parental monitoring in adolescent problem behaviors with a Chilean sample (N= 850). Higher levels of discordance concerning parental monitoring predicted greater levels of maladaptive youth behaviors. A positive association between parent-youth discordance and externalizing problems indicated that large adult-youth disagreement in parental monitoring may impose a great risk, despite protective efforts of parental monitoring. Although the direct relationship between parental monitoring and youth internalizing behaviors was not significant, parent-youth incongruence in monitoring was associated with greater levels of internalizing behaviors. Therefore, differing assessments of parental behaviors, as an indicator of less optimal family functioning, may provide important information about youth maladjustment and may potentially provide a beginning point for family-focused intervention. PMID:23097593
Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M
A limited literature suggests an association between parental eating disorders and child eating-disorder behaviors although this research has focused primarily on restrictive-type eating disorders and very little is known about families with binge-eating disorder (BED). The current study focused on parents (N = 331; 103 fathers and 226 mothers), comparing parents with core features of BED (n = 63) to parents with obesity and no eating disorder (OB; n = 85) and parents with healthy-weight and no eating disorder (HW; n = 183). Parents with BED were significantly more likely than OB and HW parents to report child binge eating, and more likely than HW parents to report child overeating. Parents with BED felt greater responsibility for child feeding than OB parents, and felt more concern about their child's weight than OB and HW parents. Dietary restriction of the child by the parents was related to child binge eating, overeating, and child overweight, and parental group was related to child binge eating (parental BED), overeating (parental BED), and child weight (parental OB). Parents with BED report greater disturbance in their children's eating than OB and HW parents, and OB parents report higher child weight than HW parents. This suggests that it is important to consider both eating-disorder psychopathology and obesity in clinical interventions and research. Our cross-sectional findings, which require experimental and prospective confirmations, provide preliminary evidence suggesting potential factors in families with parental BED and obesity to address in treatment and prevention efforts for pediatric eating disorders and obesity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:648-656). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gach, Emily J; Ip, Ka I; Sameroff, Arnold J; Olson, Sheryl L
Multiple environmental risk factors in early childhood predict a broad range of adverse developmental outcomes. However, most prior longitudinal research has not illuminated explanatory mechanisms. Our main goals were to examine predictive associations between cumulative ecological risk factors in early childhood and children's later externalizing problems and to determine whether these associations were explained by variations in parenting quality. Participants were 241 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems and their parents and teachers. Children were approximately 3 years old at Time 1 (T1) and 10 years old at Time 2 (T2). Reports of contextual risk at T1 were used to develop a cumulative risk index consisting of 6 singular risk variables from 3 ecological levels: social resources (low income; social isolation), family resources (marital aggression; poor total family functioning), and maternal resources (single parent status; poor maternal mental health). At T1, parenting variables were measured (corporal punishment, warm responsiveness, maternal efficacy, and negative perceptions of child behavior). At T2, mothers, fathers, and teachers reported child externalizing problems. Johnson's relative weight analysis revealed that the cumulative risk index was a more powerful predictor of age 10 years externalizing behavior than any of the singular contextual risk variables. Adverse parenting mediated the effects of cumulative risk on later child externalizing problems. Our findings have significant implications for understanding long-term effects of multiple contextual risk factors present in early childhood and for the implementation of positive parenting interventions early on. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Muris, Peter; Loxton, Helene; Neumann, Anna; du Plessis, Michelle; King, Neville; Ollendick, Thomas
This study investigated DSM-defined anxiety symptoms in South African youths. Children and adolescents (N = 701) from various cultural groups completed the SCARED and a questionnaire measuring perceived parental rearing behaviors. Results indicated that the psychometric properties of the SCARED were satisfactory in the total sample of South African youths, and acceptable in colored and black children and adolescents. Further, colored and black youths displayed higher SCARED scores than white youths, and there were also differences in the perceived parental rearing behaviors of the cultural groups. White youths generally rated their parents' rearing behaviors as less anxious, overprotective, and rejective, but more emotionally warm than colored and black youths. Finally, positive correlations were found between anxious rearing, overprotection, and rejection and anxiety symptoms. The clinical and research implications of these findings are briefly discussed.
McPherson, Mary Elizabeth
This study examines the relationship of role parenting behaviors and adolescent depression in adolescent outcomes. Parenting behaviors considered were authoritative parenting, parental monitoring, and parental care. Adolescent outcomes considered were depression, alcohol use, tobacco use, and grades. A path model was employed to examine these variables together. A sample of (n=3,174) of 9th -12th grade high school students from seven contiguous counties in rural Virginia were examined on ...
Hare, Amanda L.; Szwedo, David E.; Schad, Megan M.; Allen, Joseph P.
This study used a longitudinal, multi-method design to examine whether teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control predicted lower levels of adolescent autonomy displayed with their mothers and peers over time. Significant predictions from teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control to teens’ displays of autonomy in maternal and peer relationships were found at age 16 after accounting for adolescent displays of autonomy with mothers and peers at age 13, indicating relative changes in teens’ autonomy displayed with their mother and a close peer over time. Results suggest that the ability to assert one’s autonomy in mid-adolescence may be influenced by maternal behavior early in adolescence, highlighting the importance of parents minimizing psychological control to facilitate autonomy development for teens. PMID:26788023
Hare, Amanda L; Szwedo, David E; Schad, Megan M; Allen, Joseph P
This study used a longitudinal, multi-method design to examine whether teens' perceptions of maternal psychological control predicted lower levels of adolescent autonomy displayed with their mothers and peers over time. Significant predictions from teens' perceptions of maternal psychological control to teens' displays of autonomy in maternal and peer relationships were found at age 16 after accounting for adolescent displays of autonomy with mothers and peers at age 13, indicating relative changes in teens' autonomy displayed with their mother and a close peer over time. Results suggest that the ability to assert one's autonomy in mid-adolescence may be influenced by maternal behavior early in adolescence, highlighting the importance of parents minimizing psychological control to facilitate autonomy development for teens.
Ho, Grace W K
To systematically review and synthesize existing findings on acculturation and its implications on parenting for Chinese immigrants. Three electronic databases were searched for original research articles that examined acculturation and its influence on parenting in Chinese immigrants. Twenty-two studies were included. Findings suggest that acculturation influences parenting beliefs, attitudes, and practices, as well as parent-child relationships among Chinese immigrants. Acculturation discrepancies between parents and children are associated with negative child outcomes. Further research is needed to better understand the relationships among acculturation and parenting perceptions, parent-child relationships, and parent-child acculturation discrepancies and associated child outcomes. In particular, longitudinal studies with larger samples and multiple methods are needed to suggest causal inferences and validate these relationships. Nurses are at the unique junction to identify these problems through interacting with individuals and families at the clinical and mental/community health levels.
Li, Xian; Li, Dongping; Newman, Joan
Previous research has reported contradictory effects of parental control on adolescents' problematic Internet use (PIU). To reconcile the discrepant findings, the current study examined the differential effects of parental behavioral control (solicitation and restriction) and psychological control (guilt induction, love withdrawal, and authority assertion) on adolescents' PIU. The mediating effect of self-control on the relationships between parental control and PIU was also examined. A total of 694 Chinese adolescents (M=13.67 years) completed questionnaire measures of parental behavioral control, psychological control, self-control, and PIU. After adjusting for age, gender, and family financial status, it was found that parental restriction (a form of behavioral control) was negatively associated with PIU, whereas love withdrawal (a form of psychological control) was positively associated with PIU. Increased self-control was associated with decreased PIU, and changes in self-control at least partially mediated the differential effects of parental behavioral and psychological control on PIU. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Teetsel, Rebekah N; Ginsburg, Golda S; Drake, Kelly L
The majority of research identifying anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors has been conducted with mothers, leaving a gap in current knowledge about the role of fathers' parenting behaviors. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study compared anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and fathers. Parents completed self-report measures of parenting behavior and independent coders rated parenting behaviors (i.e., overcontrol, granting of autonomy, warmth, hostility, anxious behavior) of mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 21) during a challenging parent-child interaction task (children were ages 6-12). Results indicated that anxious fathers were observed to be more controlling than anxious mothers; while anxious mothers reported using more punishment and reinforcement of children's dependence in anxiety provoking situations compared to fathers. Findings extend our knowledge about anxious fathers, and highlight the need for additional research on the impact of fathers' parenting with respect to the development of child anxiety.
Teetsel, Rebekah N.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Drake, Kelly L.
The majority of research identifying anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors has been conducted with mothers, leaving a gap in current knowledge about the role of fathers’ parenting behaviors. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study compared anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and fathers. Parents completed self-report measures of parenting behavior and independent coders rated parenting behaviors (i.e., overcontrol, granting of autonomy, warmth, hostility, anxious behavior) of mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 21) during a challenging parent-child interaction task (children were ages 6–12). Results indicated that anxious fathers were observed to be more controlling than anxious mothers; while anxious mothers reported using more punishment and reinforcement of children’s dependence in anxiety provoking situations compared to fathers. Findings extend our knowledge about anxious fathers, and highlight the need for additional research on the impact of fathers’ parenting with respect to the development of child anxiety. PMID:23677528
Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…
Niemeier, B S; Duan, Y P; Shang, B R; Yang, J
Excessive bodyweight contributes to a myriad of risk factors for chronic diseases, and multiple reports have demonstrated that parents influence the development of their children's behaviors that contribute to bodyweight. However, studies that include considerations for cultural influences are limited, and methodology that considers direct reports from young adults and their parents across cultures does not exist. A sample of young adults (N = 327) and their parents in the U.S. and in China were recruited and completed a series of questionnaires in two cycles (2010 and 2014). With correlation and multiple regression analyses, parents' characteristics, behaviors, and parental authority styles were examined and compared to weight-related health behaviors and bodyweight of their young-adult children. Additionally, similarities and differences of parental influences between the two cultures were explored. Parents' body mass indexes (BMIs) and dietary behaviors were positively associated with those of their young adult children in the mixed-culture sample (P permissive parental authority, the relationships between young adults' and their parents' BMIs were negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P parenting, the relationship between young adults' and their parents' dietary consumption behaviors was negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P development of life-long health behaviors that contribute to BMI are significantly influenced by parents' behaviors and parenting styles. Moreover, an interaction of parental characteristics and cultural norms is indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mash, Eric J.; Johnston, Charlotte
Examined parental perceptions of child behavior, parenting self-esteem, and mothers' reported stress for younger and older hyperactive and normal children. Parenting self-esteem was lower in parents of hyperactives than in parents of normal children. Self-esteem related to skill/knowledge as a parent was age related. (Author/RC)
Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh
Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted ques...
Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat
Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…
Davis, Kelly D.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.
This investigation examined the implications of shift work for parent-adolescent relationship quality--intimacy, conflict, parental knowledge, and involvement--in a sample of 376 dual-earner families. The findings suggested that mothers' relationships with their adolescents were not negatively impacted by their working nonstandard schedules but…
Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J
Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raymond Bingham, C; Zakrajsek, Jennifer S; Almani, Farideh; Shope, Jean T; Sayer, Tina B
Driver distraction is an important contributor to crash risk. Teenage driver distraction can be influenced by the attitudes and behaviors of parents. This study examined teens' and their parents' engagement in distracting behavior while driving. Survey data were collected from a national sample of 403 parent-teen dyads using random-digit dialing telephone interviews. Results demonstrated few parent or teen sex differences in distracting behavior engagement while driving, or in their perceptions of each others' behavior. Parents and teens' frequencies of distracting behavior engagement were positively correlated. Parents' and teens' perceptions of each others' distracting behavior engagement while driving exceeded their own selfreports. Finally, the likelihood that teens reported engaging in distracting behavior while driving was more strongly associated with their perceptions of their parents' distracting behavior than by parents' self reports of their own behavior. These results suggest that parents' examples of driving behavior are an important influence on teen driving behavior, but potentially more important are teens' perceptions of their parents' behaviors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Siersma, Volkert; Reventlow, Susanne
Abstract Objectives. Some parents with a sick infant contact a doctor, while others do not. The reasons underlying such parental decisions have not been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to explore how the actual symptoms in the infant were associated with parent-rated illness......, illness severity, and the probability of the parents contacting a doctor. Design. A retrospective questionnaire and a prospective diary study covering 14 months of the participating infants' lives. Setting and subjects. The 194 participating infants were followed for three months prospectively from...... with at least one symptom; 38% of the infants were reported to have had five or more symptoms for more than five days. Fever, earache, and vomiting were the symptoms most likely to cause parents to rate their infant as ill. Earache was the symptom that triggered doctor contact most immediately. The parent...
Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.
Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…
Birditt, Kira S; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L; McIlvane, Jessica M
This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives ( N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g., withdrawal-constructive) in Year 1 predicted higher divorce rates. Wives' destructive and withdrawal behaviors decreased over time, whereas husbands' conflict behaviors remained stable. Husbands reported more constructive and less destructive behaviors than wives and Black American couples reported more withdrawal than White American couples. Findings support behavioral theories of marriage demonstrating that conflict behaviors predict divorce and accommodation theories indicating that conflict behaviors become less negative over time.
Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari L.
Parent behaviors moderate the adverse consequences of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, it is unknown how these moderating effects change over time. This study examined the moderating effect of observed parent behaviors over time since injury on the relation between TBI and behavioral outcomes. Participants included children, ages…
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Szapocznik, José; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J
U.S. Latino parents can face cultural stressors in the form of acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and a negative context of reception. It stands to reason that these cultural stressors may negatively impact Latino youth's emotional well-being and health risk behaviors by increasing parents' depressive symptoms and compromising the overall functioning of the family. To test this possibility, we analyzed data from a six-wave longitudinal study with 302 recently immigrated (stress predicted greater parent depressive symptoms (and not vice versa). Both parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms, in turn, predicted lower parent-reported family functioning, which mediated the links from parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms to youth alcohol and cigarette use. Parent cultural stress also predicted lower youth-reported family functioning, which mediated the link from parent cultural stress to youth self-esteem. Finally, mediation analyses indicated that parent cultural stress predicted youth alcohol use by a way of parent depressive symptoms and parent-reported family functioning. Our findings point to parent depressive symptoms and family functioning as key mediators in the links from parent cultural stress to youth emotional well-being and health risk behaviors. We discuss implications for research and preventive interventions. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Patrick, Kristina E; Millet, Genevieve; Mindell, Jodi A
This study aimed to examine whether socioeconomic variables (SES) and parenting behaviors mediate differences in sleep problems between Black and White preschool-aged children. Parents of 191 preschool-aged children (53% male; 77% White) completed questionnaires regarding SES and sleep behaviors. Parenting behaviors and SES were analyzed as mediators of differences in sleep problems between Black and White children. Parent behaviors related to bedtime routine and independence mediated the relationship between race and parent-reported bedtime difficulty, parent confidence managing sleep, and sleep onset latency. SES mediated the relationship between race and sleep onset latency. Sleep differences between Black and White preschool children were primarily mediated by parent behaviors rather than socioeconomic variables. Results may reflect differences in cultural practices and provide important information for treatment and parent-directed intervention regarding improving sleep in young children.
Xu, Yangmu; Neece, Cameron L.; Parker, Kathleen H.
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have higher rates of depressive symptoms than parents of typically developing children and parents of children with other developmental disorders. Parental depressive symptoms are strongly associated with problem behaviors in children; however, the mechanisms through which parental…
Schwehr, Ethan; Bocanegra, Joel O.; Kwon, Kyongboon; Sheridan, Susan M.
This study was an examination of the possible influence of a child's pre-identified disability on parent and teacher behavior ratings and whether a child's disability status affected parent ratings, when controlling for parenting stress. The sample included 206 kindergarten through third grade students and their teachers and parents from a…
Angel Alberto Valdés Cuervo
Full Text Available The effects of the presence of challenging behavior problems, parental conflict and violence in the community were determined by the probability of occurrence of bullying behaviors in elementary students. 664 students participated in the study, of whom 80 (12.04% were identified as aggressors. 80 students with no reports of attacks were later selected randomly for comparison. Using logistic regression, it was found that the variables studied manifest significant differences between the student groups with and without aggressive behavior toward peers (R2 = .39. Challenging behavior (OR = 7.83, parental conflict (OR = 3.77 and Community Violence (OR = 5.36 increase the probability of belonging to the group of aggressors. We conclude that it is necessary to analyze the bullying from an ecological framework that considers variables located in the contexts in which individuals interact.
The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the association between three parenting behaviors (parenting style, feeding style, and feeding practices); to evaluate whether these behaviors were associated with child weight; and to determine whether style (parenting and feeding) moderated t...
Baker, Sharon A.; And Others
Used clustered sample household survey of 329 males and females aged 14 to 17, and 470 of their parents to examine influence of parental factors on adolescent sexual behavior and contraceptive use. Found parents' reported behavioral norms accounted for 5% of variance in whether adolescents had had intercourse, and for 33% of variance in…
Sharma, Vandana; Sandhu, Gurpreet K.
Background: Association between parenting dimensions and externalizing behaviors in children was examined. Method: Data on children from the middle class families of Patiala (N = 240) were collected from schools and families. Parents completed questionnaires on parenting dimensions and externalizing behaviors of children. Results: Analysis of…
Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung
This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…
Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark
Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior. Participants were 251 boys and girls (8-9 years). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting.…
Peter, Nancy E
To explore parents' emotional investment in and behaviors in response to youth sports, the author conducted a mixed-methods investigation to answer four research questions: (1)How do parents feel about their children's participation in organized youth team sports? (2) Which situations trigger which feelings? (3) How do parents' feelings influence their behaviors? (4) What parental characteristics (such as personal histories or demographics) are linked to different feelings and behaviors? The research indicated that many parents' feelings are triggered by their children's sports experiences and that adults must learn how to translate these feelings into productive behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Harralson, T L; Lawler, K A
This study examined parenting styles, Type A behavior in parents and children, and social competence in children. Fifty 1st-6th grade children, parents, and their teachers participated. Type A behavior in parents was associated with a controlling style of parenting, but not with pressuring the child to achieve. Parenting styles of achievement pressure and high control were related to impatient and aggressive behaviors in children, as measured by the MYTH, a teacher-scored Type A behavior instrument. In addition, impatience and aggressiveness in the children were negatively correlated with the child's social competency and ability to function in school. Parenting practices, Type A behavior, and social competency in children may play important roles in the origins of detrimental components of Type A behavior, such as impatience and aggression.
Surjadi, Florensia F; Lorenz, Frederick O; Conger, Rand D; Wickrama, K A S
According to the Development of Early Adult Romantic Relationships (DEARR) model (Bryant, C. M., & Conger, R. D. . Conger, R. D., Cui, M., Bryant, C. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr.  interactional characteristics in the family of origin influence early adult romantic relationships by promoting or inhibiting the development of interpersonal competencies that contribute to relationship success in young adulthood. The present study uses the DEARR model as a general framework to help examine the long-term link between parental discipline practices in adolescence and young adult's interactions in the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Using prospective data from 288 target participants, their families, and their romantic partner, beginning when the targets were adolescents and continuing up to the fifth year of their marital or cohabiting relationships, we found empirical support for the DEARR model. Parental discipline practices in adolescence were associated with romantic relationship quality during the early years of marriage or cohabitation through processes in late adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, harsh and inconsistent discipline practices were associated with greater attitudinal ambivalence toward parents in adolescence. Inconsistent discipline was also associated with higher risks of externalizing problems during late adolescence years. Externalizing problems and ambivalence toward parents predicted poorer relationship quality through aggressive behaviors and ambivalence toward a romantic partner during the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Implications for practitioners working with couples and families are discussed.
Lalić Maja; Aleksić Ema; Gajić Mihajlo; Malešević Đoka
Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and ...
This article draws on systems theory, complexity theory, and the organizational sciences to engage boundary dynamics in the creation of parent-school partnerships. These partnerships help children succeed through an emergent process of dialogue and relationship building in the peripheral spaces where parents and schools interact on behalf of…
McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly
Although the relationship between parenting and outcomes for children and adolescents has been examined, differences between maternal and paternal parenting styles have received less attention, particularly in the case of late adolescents. As a result, this article examines the relationship between late adolescents' perceptions of their mothers'…
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A; Clarke, Tana L; Raggi, Veronica L; Rooney, Mary E; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E
This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy mothers of 6-10 year old children with ADHD underwent a comprehensive assessment of adult ADHD prior to participating in an abbreviated parent training program. Before and after treatment, parenting was assessed via maternal reports and observations and child disruptive behavior was measured via maternal report. Controlling for pre-treatment levels, maternal ADHD symptomatology predicted post-treatment child disruptive behavior problems. The relation between maternal ADHD symptomatology and improvement in child behavior was mediated by change in observed maternal negative parenting. This study replicated findings linking maternal ADHD symptoms with attenuated child improvement following parent training, and is the first to demonstrate that negative parenting at least partially explains this relationship. Innovative approaches combining evidence-based treatment for adult ADHD with parent training may therefore be necessary for families in which both the mother and child have ADHD. Larger-scale studies using a full evidence-based parent training program are needed to replicate these findings.
Espasa, Francisco Palacio
In this article the author discusses some of the indications for short- or long-term parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions in terms of what he defines as "problems of parenthood" and "problems of parental narcissism". Brief parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions are most frequently indicated in the case of the former: more neurotic…
Cripps, Kayla; Zyromski, Brett
Adolescence is a critical period of development. Previous research suggests parent involvement in school directly impacts student success. However, different types of parental involvement and the efforts of middle school personnel to educate parents about these effective practices have received scant attention in the literature. The level and type…
Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael
This study examined the extent to which antisocial behavior, parenting, and school connectedness moderated the association between peer deviancy in preadolescence and externalizing problems in early adolescence. The participants included 500 boys and girls, most of them African Americans. Peer deviancy was measured with teacher reports of…
Glascoe, Frances Page; Leew, Shirley
The goal of this study was to assess which parenting behaviors, perceptions, and risk factors were associated with optimal versus delayed development. A total of 382 families from the national Brigance Infant and Toddler Screens standardization and validation study participated. Data sources included parent questionnaires, child testing, and examiner observations of parent-child interactions. Parenting styles research was operationalized with the Brigance Parent-Child Interactions Scale, a brief measure of parenting behaviors and perceptions. Six positive parenting behaviors and perceptions predicted average to above-average development on the Brigance screens. Conversely, parenting behaviors and negative perceptions of children indicated child performance nearly 2 SDs below the mean on Brigance screens. Psychosocial risk factors associated with fewer positive parenting behaviors and with negative perceptions included >3 children in the home, multiple moves, limited English, and parental depression. A dearth of positive parenting behaviors plus negative perceptions of children, with or without psychosocial risk factors, negatively affect child development, which is apparent as early as 6 months of age. The older the child is, the greater the performance gaps are. Language development is particularly at risk when parenting is problematic. Findings underscore the importance of early development promotion with parents, focusing on their talking, playing, and reading with children, and the need for interventions regarding psychosocial risk factors.
Background Frequent family meals are associated with healthy dietary behaviors and other desirable outcomes in children and adolescents. Therefore, increased knowledge about factors that may increase the occurrence of family meals is warranted. The present study has its focus on the home food environment, and aims to explore potential associations between parent-reported feeding behaviors and child-reported family meal frequencies. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were performed among 10-12-year-olds and their parents recruited from eighteen schools in southwest Norway. The child questionnaire included measures of family meal frequencies (breakfast, dinner and supper). The parent questionnaire included measures of parental feeding behaviors adapted from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. A series of multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between parental feeding behaviors and the frequency of family meals. Results The frequency of family breakfasts was associated with three parental feeding variables; home environment (β=.11, peat (β=.11, pdinners and suppers was associated with one parental feeding variable; home environment (β=.11, pdinners and suppers respectively). Conclusions The home environment variable was the most important correlate of child-reported family meal frequencies in this study. Although further research is needed, our findings support the evident influence of parents and the home food environment on child and adolescent eating behavior, which in the present study was measured as the frequency of shared family meals. PMID:24015833
Cox, Ronald B; Criss, Michael M; Harrist, Amanda W; Zapata-Roblyer, Martha
Most studies tend to characterize peer influences as either positive or negative. In a sample of 1815 youth from 14 different schools in Caracas, Venezuela, we explored how two types of peer affiliations (i.e., deviant and drug-using peers) differentially mediated the paths from positive parenting to youth's externalizing behavior and licit and illicit drug use. We used Zero Inflated Poisson models to test the probability of use and the extent of use during the past 12 months. Results suggested that peer influences are domain specific among Venezuelan youth. That is, deviant peer affiliations mediated the path from positive parenting to youth externalizing behaviors, and peer drug-using affiliations mediated the paths to the drug use outcomes. Mediation effects were partial, suggesting that parenting explained unique variance in the outcomes after accounting for both peer variables, gender, and age. We discuss implications for the development of screening tools and for prevention interventions targeting adolescents from different cultures.
Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R. H.
This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers’ adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism - the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator - children’s baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator - mothers’ reports of children’s negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage = 30.68 years, SDage = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers’ (Mage = 3.50 years, SDage = .51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. PMID:28295263
Koblinsky, Sally A; Kuvalanka, Katherine A; Randolph, Suzanne M
This study examined the role of parenting, family routines, family conflict, and maternal depression in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. A sample of 184 African American mothers of Head Start children completed participant and child measures in a structured interview. Results of regression analyses revealed that mothers who utilized more positive parenting practices and engaged in more family routines had children who displayed higher levels of total prosocial skills. Positive parenting and lower levels of maternal depressive symptoms were predictive of fewer externalizing and internalizing child behavior problems. Lower family conflict was linked with fewer externalizing problems. Implications of the study for future research and intervention are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved
Giovagnoli, Giulia; Postorino, Valentina; Fatta, Laura M; Sanges, Veronica; De Peppo, Lavinia; Vassena, Lia; Rose, Paola De; Vicari, Stefano; Mazzone, Luigi
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were shown to experience more stress than parents of typically developing peers, although little is known about risk factors predicting stress in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental stress levels and behavioral and emotional problems in a sample of preschool children with ASD as compared to typically developing (TD) peers and to investigate the role of several factors, including the severity of autistic symptoms, adaptive skills, cognitive abilities and behavioral and emotional problems, on parental stress. Results confirmed that parents of children with ASD experience higher stress levels than parents of TD and that children with ASD show more behavioral and emotional problems than controls. Moreover, our results showed that behavioral and emotional problems are strong predictors of parental stress, while stress related to a parent-child dysfunctional relationship was associated with daily living and communication skills as well as cognitive abilities. Findings revealed different behavioral and emotional problems affecting parental stress in ASD and TD samples. No association between the severity of autism symptoms and parental stress was detected. These results suggest that dysfunctional behaviors in preschool children with ASD have a strong impact on parental stress, profoundly affecting the well-being of the entire family. Therefore, strategies aimed at the early detection and management of these behavioral and emotional problems are crucial in order to prevent parental stress and to develop the most appropriate treatment interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, Lauren K; Lamb, Karen E; McCarthy, Maria C
Behavioral and emotional difficulties are a recognised side effect of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. Modifiable factors, such as parenting strategies, may be an appropriate target for interventions to assist families with managing their child's behavior, potentially leading to improved psychosocial and clinical outcomes. This study examined whether parenting strategies are associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in a pediatric oncology context, with the aim of establishing whether parenting is a potential modifiable target for psychosocial intervention. Participants included 73 parents of children aged 2-6 years who were either (i) in the maintenance phase of treatment for ALL at the Royal Children's Hospital Children's Cancer Centre, Melbourne (N = 43), or (ii) had no major medical history (healthy control group) (N = 30). Participants completed psychometrically validated questionnaires that assessed parenting strategies and child emotional and behavioral problems. Results revealed that the ALL group parents reported higher lax parenting and more spoiling and bribing of their child than the healthy control group. Results from regression models indicated that, after controlling for the significant contribution of illness status and child age on child emotional and behavioral difficulties, parental laxness and parental overprotection were significantly associated with child emotional and behavioral difficulties. Supporting parents to minimise sub-optimal parenting strategies, particularly lax parenting, may offer a fruitful avenue for future research directed toward modifiable factors associated with managing child emotional and behavioral problems in a pediatric oncology context. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh
Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors of children and their parents. Oral health status of children was examined. The parent and their children oral health relationship were tested using regression and correlation analysis. Results. About 222 parents and children participated in the study. There was a significant relationship between history of having dental problems in parents and dmft index in their children (P = 0.01). There was a significant relationship between parental frequency of tooth brushing and child frequency of tooth brushing (P = 0.05); however, there was no significant relationship between parental frequency of dental visits and those of their children (P = 0.1). Conclusion. The study concluded that some important health behaviors in parents, such as tooth brushing habits are important determinants of these behaviors in their young children. So promoting parent knowledge and attitude could affect their children oral health behavior and status.
Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.
Objective Youth with callous unemotional (CU) behavior are at risk of developing more severe forms of aggressive and antisocial behavior. Previous cross-sectional studies suggest that associations between parenting and conduct problems are less strong when children or adolescents have high levels of CU behavior, implying lower malleability of behavior compared to low-CU children. The current study extends previous findings by examining the moderating role of CU behavior on associations between parenting and behavior problems in a very young sample, both concurrently and longitudinally, and using a variety of measurement methods. Methods Data were collected from a multi-ethnic, high-risk sample at ages 2–4 (N = 364; 49% female). Parent-reported CU behavior was assessed at age 3 using a previously validated measure (Hyde et al., 2013). Parental harshness was coded from observations of parent-child interactions and parental warmth was coded from five-minute speech samples. Results In this large and young sample, CU behavior moderated cross-sectional correlations between parent-reported and observed warmth and child behavior problems. However, in cross-sectional and longitudinal models testing parental harshness, and longitudinal models testing warmth, there was no moderation by CU behavior. Conclusions The findings are in line with recent literature suggesting parental warmth may be important to child behavior problems at high levels of CU behavior. In general, however, the results of this study contrast with much of the extant literature and suggest that in young children, affective aspects of parenting appear to be related to emerging behavior problems, regardless of the presence of early CU behavior. PMID:24661288
Dempster, Robert; Wildman, Beth; Keating, Adam
The present study examined the relationship between stigma and parental help-seeking after controlling for demographics, child behavior, and barriers to treatment. One hundred fifteen parents of children ages 4 to 8 years were surveyed during well-child visits in a rural pediatric primary care practice. Parental perceptions of stigma toward parents and children were both assessed. Parents believe that children are more likely to be stigmatized by the public and personally impacted by stigma. In linear regression analyses, parents rated themselves as more likely to attend parenting classes with lower levels of self-stigma and greater levels of personal impact of stigma. Stigma toward the child was not associated with help-seeking. Child behavior moderated the relationship between stigma and parental help-seeking. When referring parents to treatment, providers should address potential stigma concerns. Future research should assess both the impact of the stigma of attending treatment and the stigma of having a child with behavior problems.
Prinzie, P.; van der Sluis, Cathy .M.; de Haan, Amaranta D.; Dekovic, Maja
ABSTRACT Building on prior cross-sectional work, this longitudinal study evaluated the proposition that maternal and paternal overreactive and authoritative parenting mediates the effect of child personality characteristics on externalizing behavior. Data from the Flemish Study on Parenting,
Conclusions: Any effort to promote children’s dietary intake needs considering the role of parents in the development of feeding patterns, and interest in children to consume healthy foods. Keywords: Children, Dietary intake, Parental behavior patterns, Kindergarten
To ascertain parents' preferences in sources of health information concerning their children's general health care needs, and caring for their children when they are sick. Exploratory/descriptive design. A telephone survey secured data for the study and qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Part 2 of a larger study in which Part I evaluated parents' satisfaction with a paediatric telephone triage service. One hundred of the 101 parents who were recruited for Part 1 of the study participated in Part 2, an examination of parents' preferences in information sources relating to their child's health. Parents' preferences in child health information sources varied according to the perceived severity of their child's illness. Parents frequently selected more than one item on a list of health information sources provided. In a non-urgent situation when children were sick a total of 170 selections were made by parents, with 'telephone advice line' the source most frequently selected (58, 34%), followed by general practitioner (27, 15.8%). In an emergency situation the most frequently selected information source was again 'telephone advice line' (74, n=129, 57.4%), followed by 'other' (31, n=129, 24.3%) often identified as relating to dialing '000' (Australia's emergency services number). Finally, when parents required information about the general health care needs of their child, 'other' (most frequently identified as books) was selected on 40 (n=185, 21.6%) occasions, followed by child health clinic (35, n= 185, 18.9%). Parents prefer to receive information about the health care needs of their child from another person rather than a printed or audio-visual source.
Burke, Jeffrey D; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf
Theoretical models suggest that child behaviors influence parenting behaviors, and specifically that unpleasant child behaviors coerce parents to discontinue engaging in appropriate discipline. This study examined reciprocal relationships between parenting behaviors (supervision, communication, involvement, timid discipline and harsh punishment) and child disruptive disorder symptoms (ADHD, ODD and CD) in a clinic-referred sample of 177 boys. Annual measures, including structured clinical interviews, were obtained from the beginning of the study (when boys were between the ages of 7 to 12) to age 17. Specific reciprocal influence was observed; only timid discipline predicted worsening behavior, namely ODD symptoms, and ODD symptoms predicted increases in timid discipline. Greater influence from child behaviors to parenting practices was found: ODD also predicted poorer communication and decreased involvement, and CD predicted poorer supervision. ADHD was neither predictive of, nor predicted by, parenting behaviors. The results are specifically supportive of a coercive process between child behaviors and parenting behaviors, and generally suggestive of greater influence of child behaviors on parenting behaviors than of parenting behaviors on child behaviors.
Cheah, Charissa S L; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Leung, Christy Y Y
The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants included 122 Chinese adolescents (M = 13.14 years; SD = 2.22) in Malaysia. Adolescents' perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and warmth and support from each parent were positively, and age was negatively associated with their filial behaviors. No gender differences were found. Perceived maternal warmth and support significantly mediated the effect of age, perceived investments from, and filial emotions toward mothers on adolescents' filial behaviors, but perceived paternal warmth and support did not have a mediating role. The present study sheds light on the unique maternal versus paternal filial role, and important familial processes in Chinese-Malaysian children and adolescents from a cultural perspective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD encounter many daily challenges and often experience much stress. However, little research exists about parenting behavior among these parents. With this study, we aim to address this gap. We examined the structure and internal consistency of a questionnaire intended to measure parenting behavior among mothers of young children with ASD. Furthermore, we compared parenting behavior among mothers of young children with and without ASD between two and six years old. Factor analyses resulted in a factor solution with seven subscales of parenting behavior. Two additional subscales especially relevant for parenting preschoolers with ASD were also considered. Analyses of covariance, controlling for gender and age, showed significantly higher scores for Discipline and Stimulating the Development in the control group in comparison with the ASD group. These findings suggest that mothers of preschoolers with ASD are still trying to find strategies to guide and stimulate their child’s behavior and development effectively.
Hill, Nancy E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Nowlin, Patrick; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.
A longitudinal model of parent academic involvement, behavioral problems, achievement, and aspirations was examined for 463 adolescents, followed from 7th (approximately 12 years old) through 11th (approximately 16 years old) grades. Parent academic involvement in 7th grade was negatively related to 8th-grade behavioral problems and positively related to 11th-grade aspirations. There were variations across parental education levels and ethnicity: Among the higher parental education group, par...
Dong, Beidi; Krohn, Marvin D.
Using data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a series of regression models are estimated on offspring problem behavior with a focus on the interaction between parental history of delinquency and the parent-child relationship. Good parenting practices significantly interact with the particular shape of parental propensity of offending over time, functioning as protective factors to protect against problematic behaviors among those who are most at risk. The moderation effects vary sli...
Olino, Thomas M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Klein, Daniel N; Allen, Nicholas B; Seeley, John R; Lewinsohn, Peter M
This aim of this study was to examine the influence of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) and other forms of psychopathology on behavior problems in very young offspring (G3). Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) participants who had children over a 3-year period were invited to participate in a study of infant and child development. We attempted to collect diagnostic history from the original OADP (G2) participants, their coparents, the parents of the original OADP participants (G1), and the parents of the coparents. Child (G3) outcomes at 24 months of age were based on parent reports of behavior problems. Univariate correlations indicated that G1 and G2 familial loadings for MDD were associated with higher levels of G3 internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Multiple regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between G1 and G2 MDD on G3 internalizing (but not externalizing) behavior problems. A higher familial loading for MDD in either the parental or grandparental generation was associated with elevated grandchild internalizing problems, but higher loadings for MDD in both generations did not convey additional risk. Parental MDD and grandparental MDD are both associated with elevated levels of internalizing problems in young grandchildren, but MDD in both the G1 and G2 generations does not confer additional risk. One important implication is that MDD in the grandparental generation is associated with increased risk to grandchildren even in the absence of parental MDD. Future studies should examine the mechanisms through which grandparental psychopathology influences behavior problems in grandchildren.
Atrash, Hani K.
Reduction of child mortality is a global public health priority. Parents can play an important role in reducing child mortality. The inability of one or both parents to care for their children due to death, illness, divorce or separation increases the risk of death of their children. There is increasing evidence that the health, education, and socioeconomic status of mothers and fathers have significant impact on the health and survival of their children. We conducted a literature review to e...
Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David P.; Sekol, Ivana
Unprecedented numbers of children experience parental incarceration worldwide. Families and children of prisoners can experience multiple difficulties after parental incarceration, including traumatic separation, loneliness, stigma, confused explanations to children, unstable childcare arrangements, strained parenting, reduced income, and home, school, and neighborhood moves. Children of incarcerated parents often have multiple, stressful life events before parental incarceration. Theoretically, children with incarcerated parents may be at risk for a range of adverse behavioral outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on associations between parental incarceration and children's later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and educational performance. Results from 40 studies (including 7,374 children with incarcerated parents and 37,325 comparison children in 50 samples) were pooled in a meta-analysis. The most rigorous studies showed that parental incarceration is associated with higher risk for children's antisocial behavior, but not for mental health problems, drug use, or poor educational performance. Studies that controlled for parental criminality or children's antisocial behavior before parental incarceration had a pooled effect size of OR = 1.4 (p children with incarcerated parents, compared with peers. Effect sizes did not decrease with number of covariates controlled. However, the methodological quality of many studies was poor. More rigorous tests of the causal effects of parental incarceration are needed, using randomized designs and prospective longitudinal studies. Criminal justice reforms and national support systems might be needed to prevent harmful consequences of parental incarceration for children. PMID:22229730
Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.
Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents' appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were…
Janssens, Jan M. A. M.
Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…
Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.; Lira, Ernesto N.; Li-Barber, Kirsten T.; Gallo, Frank J.; Brei, Natalie G.
Problem behavior of 52 children with Williams syndrome ages 6 to 17 years old was examined based on both parent and teacher report. Generally good inter-rater agreement was found. Common areas of problem behavior based both on parent and teacher report included attention problems, anxiety difficulties, repetitive behaviors (e.g., obsessions,…
Maguire, Heather M.
Parents often respond to challenging behavior exhibited by their children in such a way that unintentionally strengthens it. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a research-based science that has been proven effective in remediating challenging behavior in children. Although many parents could benefit from using strategies from the field of ABA with…
Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Shin, Nana; Alfaro, Edna C.
We examined the relations among parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-esteem, and neighborhood risk with a Midwestern sample of 324 Latino adolescents. The findings suggest that boys' self-esteem is influenced by both mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors, whereas girls' self-esteem is influenced by mothers' behaviors only. In addition, the…
Carlo, Gustavo; White, Rebecca M B; Streit, Cara; Knight, George P; Zeiders, Katharine H
This article examined parenting styles and prosocial behaviors as longitudinal predictors of academic outcomes in U.S. Mexican youth. Adolescents (N = 462; Wave 1 M age = 10.4 years; 48.1% girls), parents, and teachers completed parenting, prosocial behavior, and academic outcome measures at 5th, 10th, and 12th grades. Authoritative parents were more likely to have youth who exhibited high levels of prosocial behaviors than those who were moderately demanding and less involved. Fathers and mothers who were less involved and mothers who were moderately demanding were less likely than authoritative parents to have youth who exhibited high levels of prosocial behaviors. Prosocial behaviors were positively associated with academic outcomes. Discussion focuses on parenting, prosocial behaviors, and academic attitudes in understanding youth academic performance. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to elucidate the association between children’s behavior (i.e., prosocial and problematic behavior and the parenting style (i.e., laxness and overreactivity of their caregivers by using longitudinal data in the Japanese population. This data was collected when the children were 7.5 and 9 years. We proposed three hypotheses: children’s behavior at 7.5 years will predict their behavior at 9 years; children’s behavior at 7.5 years will predict the parenting of their caregivers; and the parenting style of caregivers will affect their children’s behavior at 9 years. We evaluated children’s behavior and parenting behavior using a strength and difficulties questionnaire and a parenting scale. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM. The results of the SEM showed that children’s behavior at 7.5 years predicted their behavior at 9 years. Children’s problematic behavior at 7.5 years triggered overreactive parenting in their caregivers at 9 years, which increased problematic behavior and decreased prosocial behavior in the children at 9 years. These findings indicate the association between children’s behavior and the parenting style of caregivers in Japan.
Suzuki, Kota; Kita, Yosuke; Kaga, Makiko; Takehara, Kenji; Misago, Chizuru; Inagaki, Masumi
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the association between children's behavior (i.e., prosocial and problematic behavior) and the parenting style (i.e., laxness and overreactivity) of their caregivers by using longitudinal data in the Japanese population. These data were collected when the children were 7.5 and 9 years. We proposed three hypotheses: children's behavior at 7.5 years will predict their behavior at 9 years; children's behavior at 7.5 years will predict the parenting of their caregivers; and the parenting style of caregivers will affect their children's behavior at 9 years. We evaluated children's behavior and parenting behavior using a strength and difficulties questionnaire and a parenting scale. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results of the SEM showed that children's behavior at 7.5 years predicted their behavior at 9 years. Children's problematic behavior at 7.5 years triggered overreactive parenting in their caregivers at 9 years, which increased problematic behavior and decreased prosocial behavior in the children at 9 years. These findings indicate the association between children's behavior and the parenting style of caregivers in Japan.
Dieleman, L.M. (Lisa M.); S.S.W. de Pauw (Sarah); Soenens, B. (Bart); Mabbe, E. (Elien); Campbell, R. (Rachel); P.J. Prinzie (Peter)
textabstractResearch in parents of youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increasingly documents associations between children's problem behaviors and symptom severity and more dysfunctional and less adaptive parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations have not
Formats of communication within families are believed to be relevant contexts for children's development. Cultural values, norms, and interpretation patterns are transferred from parents to children within the family's specific communication framework. By the same token, skills to maintain the balance of living together or to realize one's own wishes are acquired within the scope of extant formats of exchange among family members. Puberty is a period, where a child strives for more autonomy and tends to dispute present parent-child relationships. The focus of the study is on links between formats of communication within the family and adolescents' estimations of the relationships with their parents and also adolescents' judgments about their self-esteem. 67 families with an adolescent child (between 11 and 12 years old at the beginning of data collection) participated in a longitudinal study, in which adolescents judged the quality of their relationship with parents as well as their self-esteem every six months over a period of three and a half years (8 waves). In addition, concrete communication behavior between parents and adolescents was observed and recorded during the first, fourth, sixth, and eight wave of data collection. Results point to considerable differences among adolescents' judgments concerning their quality of relationship with the parents and their self-esteem. Groups could be formed according to these differences. Data also show that adolescents show a high degree of constancy in their estimations over time. However, communication behaviors in parent-adolescent dyads showed divergent patterns of communication across the different groups on the one hand, and different degrees of variation of communication formats within groups over time on the other, dependent on whether adolescents belonged to the group of high quality relationship and self-esteem (considerable variation over time) or to the group of low quality relationship and self-esteem (less
Terjesen,Mark D.; Kurasaki,Robyn
Given the high rates of reported emotional stress among parents and teachers, the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy approach appears to be a useful strategy to promote more effective parent and teacher emotional functioning and increase child positive behaviors and learning. The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy model may be helpful for clinicians who work with the parents and the family by identifying and subsequently changing their unhealthy ideas, enhancing emotional functioning, and incre...
Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Smyth, Mary; Himes, John H; Hannan, Peter J; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Story, Mary
American Indian children have high rates of overweight and obesity, which may be partially attributable to screen-time behavior. Young children's screen-time behavior is strongly influenced by their environment and their parents' behavior. We explored whether parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and media-related resources in the home are related to screen time (ie, television, DVD/video, video game, and computer use) among Oglala Lakota youth residing on or near the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. We collected baseline data from 431 child and parent/caregiver pairs who participated in Bright Start, a group-randomized, controlled, school-based obesity prevention trial to reduce excess weight gain. Controlling for demographic characteristics, we used linear regression analysis to assess associations between children's screen time and parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and availability of media-related household resources. The most parsimonious model for explaining child screen time included the children's sex, parental body mass index, parental television watching time, how often the child watched television after school or in the evening, parental perception that the child spent too much time playing video games, how often the parent limited the child's television time, and the presence of a VCR/DVD player or video game player in the home (F(7,367) = 14.67; P strategy for reducing overweight and obesity in American Indian children.
Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin
This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed…
Marchand, Jennifer F.; Schedler, Steven; Wagstaff, David A.
The present study examined links among parents' attachment orientations, depressive symptoms, and conflict behaviors (attacking and compromising) and children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in a sample of 64 nonclinical, Caucasian families. Correlational analyses showed that all three parent attributes were significantly…
Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B
Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health.
Boonen, Hannah; van Esch, Lotte; Lambrechts, Greet; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse
Although parents of children with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, only a few studies have empirically investigated parenting behaviors among these parents. The current study examined differences in parenting behaviors between mothers of school-aged children with ASD (n = 30) and mothers of typically developing children (n = 39), using…
Runyon, Melissa K.; Deblinger, Esther; Steer, Robert A.
To compare the relative efficacy of two types of group cognitive-behavioral therapy for treating the traumatized child and at-risk or offending parent in cases of child physical abuse (CPA), 24 parents and their children were treated with Combined Parent-Child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT) and 20 parents were treated with Parent-Only CBT.…
Reed, Andrea; Snyder, James; Staats, Sarah; Forgatch, Marion S; Degarmo, David S; Patterson, Gerald R; Low, Sabina; Sinclair, Ryan; Schmidt, Nicole
Parent management training (PMT) has beneficial effects on child and parent adjustment that last for 5 to 10 years. Short-term changes in parenting practices have been shown to mediate these effects, but the manner in which changes in specific components of parenting are sequenced and become reciprocally reinforcing (or mutually entrained) to engender and sustain the cascade of long-term beneficial effects resulting from PMT has received modest empirical attention. Long-term changes in parenting resulting from the Oregon model of PMT (PMTO) over a 2-year period were examined using data from the Oregon Divorce Study-II in which 238 recently separated mothers and their 6- to 10-year-old sons were randomly assigned to PMTO or a no treatment control (NTC) group. Multiple indicators of observed parenting practices were used to define constructs for positive parenting, monitoring and discipline at baseline, and at 6-, 12-, 18- and 30-months postbaseline. PMTO relative to NTC resulted in increased positive parenting and prevented deterioration in discipline and monitoring over the 30-month period. There were reliable sequential, transactional relationships among parenting practices; positive parenting supported better subsequent monitoring, and positive parenting and better monitoring supported subsequent effective discipline. Small improvements in parenting resulting from PMTO and small deteriorations in parenting in the NTC group may be sustained and amplified by mutually entrained relationships among parenting practices. These data about the change processes engendered by PMTO may provide information needed to enhance the power, effectiveness, and efficiency of behavioral parent training interventions.
Riesch, Susan K; Anderson, Lori S; Krueger, Heather A
Review individual, family, and environmental factors that predict health-risk behavior among children and to propose parent-child communication processes as a mechanism to mediate them. Improving parent-child communication processes may: reduce individual risk factors, such as poor academic achievement or self-esteem; modify parenting practices such as providing regulation and structure and acting as models of health behavior; and facilitate discussion about factors that lead to involvement in health-risk behaviors. Assessment strategies to identify youth at risk for health-risk behavior are recommended and community-based strategies to improve communication among parents and children need development.
Sleddens, Ester F C; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J
Despite emerging efforts to investigate the influence parents have on their children's weight status and related dietary and activity behaviors, reviews regarding the role of general parenting are lacking. We performed a systematic review regarding the relationship between general parenting and these weight-related outcomes to guide observational research. In total, 36 studies were included. Discrepancies across studies were found, which may be explained by differences in conceptualization of parenting constructs. Overall, however, results suggest that children raised in authoritative homes ate more healthy, were more physically active and had lower BMI levels, compared to children who were raised with other styles (authoritarian, permissive/indulgent, uninvolved/neglectful). Findings of some moderation studies indicate that general parenting has a differential impact on children's weight-related outcomes, depending on child and parental characteristics. These findings underline the importance of acknowledging interactions between general parenting and both child and parent characteristics, as well as behavior-specific parenting practices.
Otterbach, Laura; Mena, Noereem Z; Greene, Geoffrey; Redding, Colleen A; De Groot, Annie; Tovar, Alison
Given the current prevalence of childhood obesity among Hispanic populations, and the importance of parental feeding behaviors, we aimed to assess the impact of the evidence-based Healthy Children, Healthy Families (HCHF) intervention on responsive food parenting practices (FPPs) in a low-income Hispanic population. This community-based pilot study used a non-experimental pre/post within-subjects design. Parents ( n = 94) of children aged 3-11 years old were recruited to participate in an 8-week, weekly group-based intervention. The intervention was delivered to nine groups of parents by trained paraprofessional educators over a two-year period. Children participated in a separate curriculum that covered topics similar to those covered in the parent intervention. Parents completed self-administered pre/post surveys, which included demographic questions, seven subscales from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire, and the 16-item HCHF Behavior Checklist. Descriptive statistics and paired samples t-tests were used to analyze data from parents that completed the intervention. Fifty-two, primarily Hispanic (93%) parents completed the intervention (39% attrition rate). For parents who completed the intervention, there was a significant increase in one of the feeding practice subscales: encouragement of balance and variety ( p = 0.01). There were significant improvements in several parent and child diet and activity outcomes ( p ≤ 0.01). Although attrition rates were high, parents completing the study reported enjoying and being satisfied with the intervention. For parents who completed the intervention, reported 'encouragement of balance and variety', in addition to several health behaviors significantly improved. Larger studies utilizing an experimental design, should further explore the impact of the HCHF curriculum on improving certain FPPs and health behaviors that contribute to obesity.
Arsenault, Lisa N; Xu, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M; Hacker, Karen A
Successful childhood obesity interventions frequently focus on behavioral modification and involve parents or family members. Parental confidence in supporting behavior change may be an element of successful family-based prevention efforts. We aimed to determine whether parents' own obesity-related behaviors were related to their confidence in supporting their child's achievement of obesity-related behavioral goals. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected at baseline of a randomized control trial testing a treatment intervention for obese children (n = 787) in primary care settings (n = 14). Five obesity-related behaviors (physical activity, screen time, sugar-sweetened beverage, sleep duration, fast food) were self-reported by parents for themselves and their child. Behaviors were dichotomized on the basis of achievement of behavioral goals. Five confidence questions asked how confident the parent was in helping their child achieve each goal. Logistic regression modeling high confidence was conducted with goal achievement and demographics as independent variables. Parents achieving physical activity or sleep duration goals were significantly more likely to be highly confident in supporting their child's achievement of those goals (physical activity, odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.60; sleep, odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.79) independent of sociodemographic variables and child's current behavior. Parental achievements of TV watching and fast food goals were also associated with confidence, but significance was attenuated after child's behavior was included in models. Parents' own obesity-related behaviors are factors that may affect their confidence to support their child's behavior change. Providers seeking to prevent childhood obesity should address parent/family behaviors as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C
While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care.
Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes
Full Text Available This study’s objective was to investigate how two parental systems (attachment and parental practices interact to predict internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems in girls and boys. The Security Scale was administered to 289 children (mean age = 10.5 years, and 205 parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and an instrument addressing parental practices. The results indicate that poor maternal attachment predicts aggression and delinquency in boys, while problems of this nature among girls are predicted by parental rejection and low behavioral control. Poor paternal attachment was the only predictor for social withdrawal and anxiety/depression in boys. A tendency of association between poor maternal attachment and social withdrawal was observed among girls, while low behavioral control and high psychological control predicted anxiety/depression. The results are discussed in terms of their contribution to understanding the complex relationship among gender, parental systems, and behavioral disorders.
Murdock, Kyle W; Lovejoy, M Christine; Oddi, Kate B
Prior studies evaluating associations between parental affect and parenting behavior have typically focused on either mothers or fathers despite evidence suggesting that affect and parenting behavior may be interdependent among couples. This study addressed this gap in the literature by evaluating associations between self-reported affect and parenting behavior using an actor-partner interdependence analysis among a sample of 53 mother-father dyads of 3- to 5-year-old children. Results suggested that mothers' and fathers' negative affect, as well as mothers' and fathers' positive affect, were positively associated. Both mothers' and fathers' negative affect were negatively associated with fathers' positive affect. Mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior, and supportive/engaged parenting behavior, were positively associated. Furthermore, mothers' negative affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior while mothers' positive affect was negatively associated with mothers' harsh/negative behavior and positively associated with mothers' supportive/engaged behavior. Fathers' negative affect was positively associated with fathers' supportive/engaged parenting behavior, while fathers' positive affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' supportive/engaged behavior. Results highlight the importance of conceptualizing and measuring characteristics of both mothers and fathers, if applicable, when researching the dynamics of interpersonal relationships within families. © 2014 FPI, Inc.
A growing body of literature suggests that parents play a critical role in the development and/or maintenance of child anxiety. One of the main purposes of this article is to identify common parental involvement techniques and most common obstacles derived from parents in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with anxious children. Another purpose of the present study is to revise empirical studies comparing child-focused CBT with and without parental involvement. The PsycARTICLES, MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched to identify articles in English that were published between the years of 1990 and 2012 (October) using the following keywords; (1) anxiety, (2) cognitive behavioral therapy, (3) parental involvement. Studies were only included in this review if they were comparing the treatment effect of child-only CBT and CBT with additional parental components. Thirteen studies were introduced in the context of method (diagnosis of children, age range of children, follow-up, results, etc.) and therapy characteristics (number of sessions, frequency of sessions, treatment components both child focused CBT and CBT with parental involvement, etc.). The common techniques of therapy with parental involvement are psychoeducation, contingency management, cognitive restructuring, reducing parental anxiety, improving parent-child relationship, and relapse prevention. Parental psychopathology, parental inappropriate expectations and family dysfunctions are important difficulties derived from parents in CBT with anxious children. The results of the studies suggested that parental involvement have increased the efficacy of the treatment in CBT especially working with young children and having at least one anxious parent.
Sanders, M R; Woolley, M L
The present study examined the relationship between maternal self-efficacy, dysfunctional discipline practices and child conduct problems. Specifically, three levels of self-efficacy, global, domain and task-specific self-efficacy, were assessed in mothers of 2- to 8-year-old children with conduct problems (clinic group, n=45) and non-clinic mothers from the community (non-clinic group, n=79). Measures of global, domain and task-specific self-efficacy were completed by mothers. Clinic mothers reported significantly lower self-efficacy than non-clinic mothers for all but one of the parenting tasks assessed. Both groups of mothers reported lowest self-efficacy for similar parenting tasks. In the sample as a whole self-efficacy measures were significant predictors of maternal discipline style after controlling for other parent, child and risk factors. Of the self-efficacy variables behavioural self-efficacy was the best predictor of mothers discipline style. The findings support the importance of developing parenting strategies that enable parents to generalize their parenting skills to a diverse range of diverse parenting contexts both in the home and in the community.
Full Text Available In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents′ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.
Wertz, Jasmin; Nottingham, Kate; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Matthews, Timothy; Pariante, Carmine M; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise
In the present study, we used separate measures of parental monitoring and parental knowledge and compared their associations with youths' antisocial behavior during preadolescence, between the ages of 10 and 12. Parental monitoring and knowledge were reported by mothers, fathers, and youths taking part in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study that follows 1,116 families with twins. Information on youths' antisocial behavior was obtained from mothers as well as teachers. We report two main findings. First, longitudinal cross-lagged models revealed that greater parental monitoring did not predict less antisocial behavior later, once family characteristics were taken into account. Second, greater youth antisocial behavior predicted less parental knowledge later. This effect of youths' behavior on parents' knowledge was consistent across mothers', fathers', youths', and teachers' reports, and robust to controls for family confounders. The association was partially genetically mediated according to a Cholesky decomposition twin model; youths' genetically influenced antisocial behavior led to a decrease in parents' knowledge of youths' activities. These two findings question the assumption that greater parental monitoring can reduce preadolescents' antisocial behavior. They also indicate that parents' knowledge of their children's activities is influenced by youths' behavior.
Newton, Emily K; Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Steele, Joel S; McGinley, Meredith
Bidirectional theories of social development have been around for over 40 years (Bell, 1968), yet they have been applied primarily to the study of antisocial development. In the present study, the reciprocal relationship between parenting behavior and children's socially competent behaviors were examined. Using the National Institute of Child Health and Development Study of Early Child Care data set (NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2005), bidirectional relationships between parental sensitivity and children's prosocial behavior were modeled using latent variables in structural equation modeling for mothers and fathers, separately. Children and their parents engaged in structured interactions when children were 54-month-olds, 3rd graders, and 5th graders, and these interactions were coded for parental sensitivity. At 3rd, 5th, and 6th grades, teachers and parents reported on children's prosocial behavior. Parental education and child gender were entered as covariates in the models. The results provide support for a bidirectional relationship between children's prosocial behavior and maternal sensitivity (but not paternal sensitivity) in middle childhood. The importance of using a bidirectional approach to examine the development of social competence is emphasized. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Melbye, Elisabeth L; Øgaard, Torvald; Øverby, Nina C; Hansen, Håvard
Frequent family meals are associated with healthy dietary behaviors and other desirable outcomes in children and adolescents. Therefore, increased knowledge about factors that may increase the occurrence of family meals is warranted. The present study has its focus on the home food environment, and aims to explore potential associations between parent-reported feeding behaviors and child-reported family meal frequencies. Cross-sectional surveys were performed among 10-12-year-olds and their parents recruited from eighteen schools in southwest Norway. The child questionnaire included measures of family meal frequencies (breakfast, dinner and supper). The parent questionnaire included measures of parental feeding behaviors adapted from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. A series of multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between parental feeding behaviors and the frequency of family meals. The frequency of family breakfasts was associated with three parental feeding variables; home environment (β=.11, pfood environment on child and adolescent eating behavior, which in the present study was measured as the frequency of shared family meals.
In the US, the design of Class 1 elevated-temperature components of reactor systems is governed by the rules of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Cases N47 (design) and N48 (construction). The rules of Case N47, in particular, are sophisticated and complex, and a substantial quantity of materials behavior data is needed to design to these rules. Requirements include a detailed knowledge of creep, rupture, creep-fatigue, etc. In addition, many other factors, including such aspects as the influence on service performance of environment, welds, and fabrication-induced cold work, must be considered in the design. This paper reviews the impact of some recent HTGR materials data on design rules and approaches. In the construction area, for example, recent data regarding the elevated-temperature properties and behavior of cold-formed austenitic materials such as Alloy 800H have resulted in rule changes. Observed creep-fatigue behavior of Alloy 800H and 2-1/4Cr to 1Mo steel is causing active review of the pertinence of linear damage summation approaches
The study addresses parental coping patterns of children with congenital heart disease in the state of Hawaii. Attention was given to geography and ethnicity as well as parental and child characteristics as factors impacting on the coping pattern. Telephone interviews with parents (N=32) obtained data concerning parent characteristics, their…
Caes, Line; Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Goubert, Liesbet
Limited research has addressed processes underlying parents' empathic responses to their child's pain. The present study investigated the effects of parental catastrophizing, threatening information about the child's pain, and child pain expression upon parental emotional and behavioral responses to their child's pain. A total of 56 school children participated in a heat pain task consisting of 48 trials while being observed by 1 of their parents. Trials were preceded by a blue or yellow circle, signaling possible pain stimulation (i.e., pain signal) or no pain stimulation (i.e., safety signal). Parents received either neutral or threatening information regarding the heat stimulus. Parents' negative emotional responses when anticipating their child's pain were assessed using psychophysiological measures- i.e., fear-potentiated startle and corrugator EMG activity. Parental behavioral response to their child's pain (i.e., pain attending talk) was assessed during a 3-minute parent-child interaction that followed the pain task. The Child Facial Coding System (CFCS) was used to assess children's facial pain expression during the pain task. Results indicated that receiving threatening information was associated with a stronger parental corrugator EMG activity during pain signals in comparison with safety signals. The same pattern was found for parental fear-potentiated startle reflex, particularly when the child's facial pain expression was high. In addition, parents who reported high levels of catastrophizing thought about their child's pain engaged, in comparison with low-catastrophizing parents, in more pain-attending talk when they received threatening information. The findings are discussed in the context of affective-motivational theories of pain. Copyright Â© 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lee, Ming-Been
The literature has documented maternal distress and behavioral problems among children with Down syndrome (DS), however, little is known about paternal adjustment and behavioural problems among the siblings of children with DS. Here, we examined parental psychopathology, parenting style and emotional/behavioral problems among children with DS, their siblings, and controls in Taiwan. We recruited 45 families of children with DS (age, 2-4 years) and 50 families of normally developing children (age, 3-5 years). If there were more than two children in the case family, the sibling whose age was closest to the child with DS was recruited (age, 3-8 years). Both parents completed self-administered measures of their personality characteristics, psychopathology, family functioning, parenting styles, and child behavioral problems, using the Chinese versions of the Maudsley Personality Inventory, Brief Symptom Rating Scale, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Child Behavioral Checklist, respectively. Children with DS demonstrated significantly more severe symptoms than normal children of a wide range of behavioral problems such as attention problems, delinquency, social problems, somatic complaints, thought problems, and withdrawal compared with the other two groups, and obtained similar parental treatment, except for paternal overprotection. Their parents suffered from more psychopathology and their mothers were less often employed than their counterparts. The siblings of children with DS obtained less overprotection from their mothers than children with DS and less maternal care and control than normal children. There was no difference in emotional/behavioral problems between the siblings and normal controls. Our findings suggest that in addition to the physical, educational and psychological needs of children with DS, the psychological care of their mothers, fathers and siblings also needs to be evaluated. Moreover, parenting
Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A.; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart
This study investigated how parenting accounted for interindividual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting,…
This report describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a class on effective parenting skills that combined behavioral and communication based (client-centered and Adlerian) approaches to child rearing. Seventeen parents of elementary school age children attended the class; twelve parents attended five or more sessions. The class…
Walczak, Monika; Esbjørn, Barbara H; Breinholst, Sonja
Parental factors have been linked to childhood anxiety, hence, parental involvement in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxious children has been examined. However, findings do not consistently show added effects of parent-enhanced CBT, longitudinal investigations are scarce and long...
MacGregor, Erica K; Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John
To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992-2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Parental avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (P = .083). Parental anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (P = .961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .034) and, in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (P = .045) and lethality of attempts (P = .003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .025) and major depressive disorder (P = .012). Parental avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (P = .048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (P = .003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parental attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Nugent, J. Kevin
The period covering the first 3 months of life consists of a series of pivotal, life-changing transitions for the infant, for the parents, and for the emerging parent-child relationship. The Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) system is a relationship-based tool that offers individualized information to parents about their baby's communication…
Johnson, Michelle; Stone, Susan; Lou, Christine; Ling, Jennifer; Claassen, Jennette; Austin, Michael J
Parent education programs may be offered or mandated at various stages of the child welfare services continuum. However, little is known regarding their efficacy in addressing the parenting problems that bring families to the attention of child welfare services. This article synthesizes outcome data generated from 58 parenting programs with families determined to be at-risk of child maltreatment and/or abusive or neglectful. It places parent education programs within the broader context of research on effective parenting as well as the leading etiological models of child maltreatment to assess the evaluations of these programs with regard to methodological rigor as well as theoretical salience. Practical and theoretical implications are presented along with recommendations for future research.
Farr, Rachel H; Tasker, Fiona; Goldberg, Abbie E
This article includes a systematic review and citation analysis of the literature regarding sexual minority parent families, particularly attending to what theories have been used, and how. We consider the importance of theoretical frameworks for future research and implications for policy, practice, and law related to sexual minority parent families. Our review targets 30 highly cited studies located through Google Scholar (as an interdisciplinary search engine) and published within a specific timeframe (2005-2010). We highlight the dominant theoretical models employed across disciplines studying sexual minority parent families. Although the majority of studies reviewed referred to theoretical models or perspectives, explicit theoretical grounding was frequently lacking. Instead, the empirical work reviewed appeared to have a predominantly applied focus in addressing public debates on sexual minority parent families. We provide recommendations for how theory might be more fully integrated into the social science literature on sexual minority parents and their children.
Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E
Despite the well-established association between problem gambling and ADHD core categories of impulsivity-hyperactivity and inattention, the link between parents' problem gambling and impulsivity-hyperactivity/inattention (IH/I) behaviors in children has not been investigated. This study investigated the association between parents' problem gambling and children's IH/I behaviors while controlling for potential confounding variables. A population-based prospective cohort followed-up from kindergarten to age 30, the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC), provided data over three generations. Among 1358 participants at age 30, parents with a child aged 1 year or older (N = 468; Mean age = 4.65 years; SD = 2.70) were selected. Generalized Linear Models included measures of grandparents' and parents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood, and a host of risk factors and comorbidities to predict IH/I in children. Intergenerational bivariate associations were observed between grandparents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I in childhood and problem gambling at age 30, and between parents' IH/I, problem gambling, and children's IH/I behaviors. Parents' problem gambling predicted children's IH/I behaviors above and beyond the effects of covariates such as family and socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol and drug use, depression symptoms and parents' gambling involvement. Parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood also predicted children's IH/I and had a moderating, enhancing effect on parents' problem gambling association with their offspring's IH/I behaviors. Problem gambling is a characteristic of parents' mental health that is distinctively associated with children's IH/I behaviors, above and beyond parents' own history of IH/I and of typically related addictive, psychopathological or socioeconomic risk factors and comorbidities.
Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chou, Miao-Churn; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Ming-Fang; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Wu, Yu-Yu
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the behavioral problems and parenting style among children with autism and their siblings in an ethnic Chinese population. A total of 151 children with DSM-IV autistic disorder, aged 3-12, 134 siblings without autism, and 113 normally developing controls were recruited. Both parents reported their parenting styles and psychological status and mothers also reported children's behavioral problems. Children with autism had significantly more severe behavioral problems and obtained less affection and more overprotection and authoritarian controlling from their parents than the other two groups. Compared to the controls, unaffected siblings showed some behavioral problems, and obtained less maternal care. Withdrawal and attention, social, and thought problems were the most associated behavioral syndromes to distinguish children with autism from those without. In addition to children with autism, who have a wide range of behavioral problems and impaired parent-child interactions, their siblings may be at risk for such problems.
de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J
The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior.
Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin
This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed that caregivers of children with mild/moderate autistic behavior problems perceived lower parenting stress than did those of children with no or severe problems. In addition, prosocial behaviors and conduct problems respectively predicted stress in the parent-child relationship and child-related stress. The findings can provide guidance in evaluations and interventions with a focus on mitigating parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism.
Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A; Hampson, Sarah E; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart
This study investigated how parenting accounted for interindividual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6-18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved) were differentiated on the basis of levels and rates of change in the constituent parenting dimensions. Multigroup analyses demonstrated that these parenting styles were differentially related to changes in parent- and child-reported measures of children's alcohol and cigarette use, antisocial behavior, and internalizing symptoms, with the authoritative parenting class being related to the most optimal long-term development.
Cabeza de Baca, Tomás; Ellis, Bruce J
This review focuses on the impact of parental behavior on child development, as interpreted from an evolutionary-developmental perspective. We employ psychosocial acceleration theory to reinterpret the effects of variation in parental investment and involvement on child development, arguing that these effects have been structured by natural selection to match the developing child to current and expected future environments. Over time, an individual's development, physiology, and behavior are organized in a coordinated manner (as instantiated in 'life history strategies') that facilitates survival and reproductive success under different conditions. We review evidence to suggest that parental behavior (1) is strategic and contingent on environmental opportunities and constraints and (2) influences child life history strategies across behavioral, cognitive, and physiological domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andrew E. Springer
Full Text Available Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.
سید عباس ساطوریان
Full Text Available This research was aimed to predict and investigate the relationship between parenting dimensions and child-parent relationship with internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems; and designed with descriptive-correlative method. The sample group included 413 single-child and multi-childe elementary school students in Yazd (141 single-child, 121 two-child, 101 three-child, 50 four-child and more with their parents, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Alabama Parenting Dimensions Questionnaire (APQ, Parent ـChild Relationship Scale (PCRS and also a researcher-made form for demography information, were used for data collecting. Results of a stepwise linear regression showed that among parenting skills, dimensions of “poor control”, and “physical punishment” were better predictors for internalized behavioral problems, and dimensions of “participation” and “physical punishment” were better predictors for externalized behavioral problems in children. Among subscales of PCRS, the “dependence” in boys and the “conflict” in girls were better predictors for internalizing problems, and the subscale of “conflict” in both boys and girls was a better predictor for externalizing problems.
In the U.S., the design of Class 1 elevated-temperature components of reactor systems is governed by the rules of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Cases N47 (design) and N48 (construction). The rules of Case N47, in particular, are sophisticated and complex, and a substantial quantity of materials behavior data is needed to design to these rules. Requirements include a detailed knowledge of creep, rupture, creep-fatigue, etc. In addition, many other factors, including such aspects as the influence on service performance of environment, welds, and fabrication-induced cold work, must be considered in the design. This paper reviews the impact of some recent HTGR materials data on design rules and approaches. (Auth.)
Rhee, KE; McEachern, R; Jelalian, E
Parent involvement is important to help overweight children lose weight. However, parent readiness to make changes around child eating and physical activity (PA) behaviors can differ across domains. Using a cross-sectional design, our aim was to examine which factors were associated with parents being in the action/maintenance stage of change (SOC) in each domain. From November 2008 – August 2009, parents of overweight/obese children (n=202) attending a tertiary care obesity clinic in Provide...
Huang, Jin; Oshima, Karen M. Matta; Kim, Youngmi
Using two waves of data from the Child Development Supplement in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study investigates whether parental characteristics (parenting stress, parental warmth, psychological distress, and parent’s self-esteem) mediate household food insecurity’s relations with child behavior problems. Fixed-effects analyses examine data from a low-income sample of 416 children from 249 households. This study finds that parenting stress mediates the effects of food insecurity ...
Siddaway, Andy P; Wood, Alex M; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam
This case study examines how parents can be incorporated into all aspects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for child anxiety problems. This is an important issue, because although there are strong theoretical and empirical reasons for incorporating parents into treatment, evidence from randomized controlled trials has so far been inconclusive about whether outcomes are improved by involving parents. This case study describes the clinical benefits of a balanced focus on parent and child f...
Schwartz, C E; Kunwar, P S; Hirshfeld-Becker, D R; Henin, A; Vangel, M G; Rauch, S L; Biederman, J; Rosenbaum, J F
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a genetically influenced behavioral profile seen in 15–20% of 2-year-old children. Children with BI are timid with people, objects and situations that are novel or unfamiliar, and are more reactive physiologically to these challenges as evidenced by higher heart rate, pupillary dilation, vocal cord tension and higher levels of cortisol. BI predisposes to the later development of anxiety, depression and substance abuse. Reduced hippocampal volumes have been observed in anxiety disorders, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Animal models have demonstrated that chronic stress can damage the hippocampal formation and implicated cortisol in these effects. We, therefore, hypothesized that the hippocampi of late adolescents who had been behaviorally inhibited as children would be smaller compared with those who had not been inhibited. Hippocampal volume was measured with high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging in 43 females and 40 males at 17 years of age who were determined to be BI+ or BI− based on behaviors observed in the laboratory as young children. BI in childhood predicted reduced hippocampal volumes in the adolescents who were offspring of parents with panic disorder, or panic disorder with comorbid major depression. We discuss genetic and environmental factors emanating from both child and parent that may explain these findings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a relationship between the most extensively studied form of temperamentally based human trait anxiety, BI, and hippocampal structure. The reduction in hippocampal volume, as reported by us, suggests a role for the hippocampus in human trait anxiety and anxiety disorder that warrants further investigation. PMID:26196438
Featherstone, Darin R.; And Others
Analyzed differences in school behavior and achievement among students (n=530) in grades six through nine from intact, reconstituted, and single-parent families. Students from intact, two-parent families had fewer absences and tardies, higher grade point averages, and fewer negative and more positive teacher behavioral ratings than did those from…
Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie
This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…
Hastings, Paul D.; McShane, Kelly E.; Parker, Richard; Ladha, Farriola
In this study, the authors examined the extent to which maternal and paternal parenting styles, cognitions, and behaviors were associated with young girls' and boys' more compassionate (prototypically feminine) and more agentic (prototypically masculine) prosocial behaviors with peers. Parents of 133 preschool-aged children reported on their…
Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.
Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were…
DaLomba, Elaina; Baxter, Mary Frances; Fingerhut, Patricia; O'Donnell, Anne
Occupational therapists treat children with sensory processing and behavioral concerns, however, little information exists on how these issues affect parent participation. This pilot study examined the sensory processing and behaviors of toddlers with developmental delays and correlated these with parents' perceived ability to participate in…
Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff
Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers'…
Orkin, Melissa; May, Sidney; Wolf, Maryanne
This research investigated the influence of parental practices on helpless behaviors of struggling readers during homework tasks. Parents (N = 36) of elementary students reported on their children's helpless behaviors, such as task avoidance and negative affect, during homework assignments, and on the nature and frequency of their support.…
Edens, John F.; Skopp, Nancy A.; Cahill, Melissa A.
Although the quality of parenting predicts externalizing behavior problems generally, ineffective parenting may be less relevant to explaining the behavior problems of children high in callous-unemotional traits. This study tested the potential moderating role of psychopathic features among juvenile offenders (n = 76). Youths were administered the…
Huh, David; Tristan, Jennifer; Wade, Emily; Stice, Eric
This study tested the hypothesis that perceived parenting would show reciprocal relations with adolescents' problem behavior using longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results provided support for the assertion that female problem behavior has an adverse effect on parenting; elevated externalizing symptoms and substance abuse symptoms…
Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Cummings, E. Mark
Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh…
Rousseau, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Wiersema, Jan R.; Baetens, Imke; Vos, Pieter; Van Leeuwen, Karla
Introduction: This study adds to the knowledge on somatization in adolescents by exploring its relation with parenting behavior and the mediating/moderating role of physiological responses in adolescents to parenting behavior. Method: Eighteen adolescents with high and 18 adolescents with low
Schaffer, Megan; Clark, Stephanie; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.
This study examined the relationship among parenting, empathy, and antisocial behavior. Two hundred forty-four undergraduate students attending an urban university completed self-report questionnaires assessing their antisocial behavior, empathy, and mothers' and fathers' parenting styles. Support was found for a model in which maternal permissive…
Loprinzi, Paul D.; Schary, David P.; Beets, Michael W.; Leary, Janie; Cardinal, Bradley J.
Background: To date, most research investigating the influence of parents on children"s physical activity behavior has been conducted among school-aged children. As a result, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms through which parents can influence their young children's physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to…
Averdijk, Margit; Malti, Tina; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis
This study investigated the relationship between parental separation and aggressive and internalizing behavior in a large sample of Swiss children drawn from the ongoing Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Parents retrospectively reported life events and problem behavior for the first 7 years of the child's life on a…
Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron
Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of…
Dallaire, Danielle H; Ciccone, Anne; Wilson, Laura C
The current study examined children's attachment representations as assessed with their family drawings in relation to contact with an incarcerated or estranged parent, caregiver behavior, and family stress in a high-risk sample of children (N = 44, M (age) = 8.14), 55% of whom had incarcerated parents. Greater phone, mail, and physical contact with an incarcerated parent was associated with more role reversal in children's family drawings. Additional results show that child-reports of more hostile caregiver behavior were associated with greater overall insecurity in their family drawings; child and caregiver reports of stress were associated with increased global pathology and bizarreness/dissociation in children's family drawings. Given the lack of research on concurrent familial-based correlates of ratings made of children's family drawings, these results provide additional insights into children's representations of attachment relationships in early middle childhood. Further, the results regarding contact with incarcerated parents have implications for researchers and clinicians working with families impacted by parental incarceration.
Prinzie, P.; van der Sluis, Cathy .M.; de Haan, Amaranta D.; Dekovic, Maja
ABSTRACT Building on prior cross-sectional work, this longitudinal study evaluated the proposition that maternal and paternal overreactive and authoritative parenting mediates the effect of child personality characteristics on externalizing behavior. Data from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality, and Problem Behavior were used in a moderated mediation analysis (N=434). Teachers rated children's Big Five characteristics, fathers and mothers rated their parenting, and 3 years later, chi...
Carlo, Gustavo; White, Rebecca M. B.; Streit, Cara; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.
This article examined parenting styles and prosocial behaviors as longitudinal predictors of academic outcomes in U.S. Mexican youth. Adolescents (N = 462; Wave 1 M[subscript age] = 10.4 years; 48.1% girls), parents, and teachers completed parenting, prosocial behavior, and academic outcome measures at 5th, 10th, and 12th grades.…
Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Cummings, E. Mark
Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children’s externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting. SCLR was assessed in response to a socioemotional stress task and a problem-solving challenge task. Latent growth modeling revealed that boys w...
Springer, Andrew E.; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H.
Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, mul...
Maryam Pazuki; Majid Hajifaraji; Morvarid Nikoosokhan; Anahita Houshyarrad; Taghi Pourebrahim; Bahram Rashidkhani
Background and Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the association between parental behavior and the dietary intake of Tehranian preschool children aged 2-6 years. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted on 310 children aged 2-6 years from the kindergartens of 22 districts of Tehran, a qualitative validated 85-item food frequency questionnaire was completed by interviewing with their parents. Also the effect of parental behavior on the children’s dietary ...
Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark
Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior. Participants were 251 boys and girls (8–9 years). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children’s externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting. SCLR was assessed in response to a socioemotional stress task and a problem-solving challenge task. Regression analyses revealed that the association...
Seiverling, Laura; Williams, Keith; Sturmey, Peter; Hart, Sadie
We used behavioral skills training to teach parents of 3 children with autism spectrum disorder and food selectivity to conduct a home-based treatment package that consisted of taste exposure, escape extinction, and fading. Parent performance following training improved during both taste sessions and probe meals and was reflected in increases in children's acceptance of bites and decreases in their disruptive behavior. Parents also reported that increases in diet variety were maintained at fo...
Van Strien, Tatjana; van Niekerk, Rianne; Ouwens, Machteld A
To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or leptogenic. Are these foods controlling practices more indicative of obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors? In a sample of 7-12-year-old boys and girls (n = 943) the perceived parental food controlling practices were related to various measures for unhealthy life style. Using factor analysis we assessed whether there is a constellation of lifestyle behaviors that is potentially obesogenic or leptogenic. Remarkably, perceived parental restriction and pressure loaded on two different factors. Perceived parental restriction to eat had a negative loading on a factor that further comprised potential obesogenic child life style behaviors, such as snacking (positive loading), time spend with screen media (television or computer) (positive loadings) and frequency of fruit consumption (negative loading). Perceived parental pressure to eat had a positive loading on a factor that further comprised potential leptogenic life style behaviors such as frequency of eating a breakfast meal and sporting (positive loadings). It is concluded that low perceived parental restriction in regard to food may perhaps be a sign of more uninvolved 'neglecting' or indulgent parenting/obesogenic home environment, whereas high perceived parental pressure to eat may be sign of a more 'concerned' leptogenic parenting/home environment, though more research into style of parenting is needed.
Nelson, Catherine S; Higman, Susan M; Sia, Calvin; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Duggan, Anne K
Family-centeredness, compassion, and trust are 3 attributes of the clinician-parent relationship in the medical home. Among adults, these attributes are associated with patients' adherence to clinicians' advice. The objectives were (1) to measure medical home attributes related to the clinician-parent relationship, (2) to measure provision of anticipatory guidance regarding injury and illness prevention, (3) to relate anticipatory guidance to parental behavior changes, and (4) to relate medical home attributes to anticipatory guidance and parental behavior changes. A cross-sectional study of data collected among at-risk families when children were 1 year of age, in a randomized, controlled trial of a home-visiting program to prevent child abuse and neglect, was performed. Modified subscales of the Primary Care Assessment Survey were used to measure parental ratings of clinicians' family-centeredness, compassion, and trust. Parental reports of provision of anticipatory guidance regarding injury and illness prevention topics (smoke alarms, infant walkers, car seats, hot water temperature, stair guards, sunscreen, firearm safety, and bottle propping) and behavior changes were recorded. Of the 564 mothers interviewed when their children were 1 year of age, 402 (71%) had a primary care provider and had complete data for anticipatory guidance items. By definition, poverty, partner violence, poor maternal mental health, and maternal substance abuse were common in the study sample. Maternal ratings of clinicians' family-centeredness, compassion, and trust were fairly high but ranged widely and varied among population subgroups. Families reported anticipatory guidance for a mean of 4.6 +/- 2.2 topics relevant for discussion. Each medical home attribute was positively associated with parental reports of completeness of anticipatory guidance, ie, family-centeredness (beta = .026, SE = .004), compassion (beta = .019, SE = .005), and trust (beta = .016, SE = .005). Parents
Lavail, Katherine Hart; Kennedy, Allison Michelle
To explain vaccine confidence as it related to parents' decisions to vaccinate their children with recommended vaccines, and to develop a confidence measure to efficiently and effectively predict parents' self-reported vaccine behaviors. A sample of parents with at least one child younger than 6 years (n = 376) was analyzed using data from the HealthStyles 2010 survey. Questions were grouped into block variables to create three confidence constructs: value, safety, and efficacy. Regression equations controlling for demographic characteristics were used to identify the confidence construct(s) that best predicted parents' self-reported vaccination decisions (accept all, some, or none of the recommended childhood vaccines). Among the three constructs evaluated, confidence in the value of vaccines, that is the belief that vaccines are important and vaccinating one's children is the right thing to do, was the best predictor of parents' vaccine decisions, F(2, 351) = 119.199, p parents' self-reported vaccine decisions. Confidence in the safety or efficacy of vaccines failed to account for additional significant variance in parent-reported vaccination behavior. Confidence in the value of vaccines is a helpful predictor of parent-reported vaccination behavior. Attitudinal constructs of confidence in the safety and efficacy of vaccines failed to account for additional significant variance in parents' vaccination behaviors. Future research should assess the role of vaccine knowledge and tangible barriers, such as access and cost, to further explain parents' vaccination behaviors.
Lalić, Maja; Aleksić, Ema; Gajić, Mihajlo; Malesević, Doka
The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children's oral health. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent--child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and nutrition of parents and their children were collected by questionnaires. The parental dental health was assessed according to self-reported data on tooth loss and prosthodontic rehabilitation, while the dental status of children was determined by clinical examination. The parents reported the use of dental floss (p knowledge on fluorides. Approximately one third of parents thought they should not control sugar consumption of their child. There was a statistically significant correlation between parental oral hygiene and their habit to control the child in brushing with the child's oral health status. Oral health education activities directed towards the prevention of risk factors for developing caries should involve both parents and their children, because parental behavior is a significant predictor of children's oral health.
Discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation is prohibited in South Africa. Against legal gains, however, are marked increases in homophobic violence. Schools are deeply implicated in the development of a moral education premised on democracy and sexual equality. This paper sought to examine the ways in which parents situated within diverse…
Liu, Mowei; Guo, Feng
Recent studies have revealed that parents in different cultures endorse different child-rearing practices. Studies in the West suggest that there is a cluster of behavioral characteristics in children that are linked with each type of parenting styles. Mixed results, however, were found in non-Western countries. This study examined (1) parenting practices in Canadian and Chinese mothers, and (2) the relevance between parenting practices and child behaviors in Canada and China. Forty Canadian children (average age = 5.40) and 39 Chinese children (average age = 4.84) and their mothers participated in the study. Information on maternal authoritative and authoritarian behaviors and children's behaviors, including coercive request, polite request, and assertiveness, was obtained from observations of mother-child interactions in a laboratory situation. The results indicated that Chinese mothers were less authoritative and more authoritarian than Canadian mothers. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were found on the associations between maternal parenting practices and child behaviors.
Lipscomb, Shannon T; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D
The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children's early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental regulation. Early environments included both family (overreactive parenting) and out-of-home factors (center-based Early Care and Education; ECE). Overreactive parenting predicted more child externalizing behaviors. Attending center-based ECE was associated with increasing externalizing behaviors only for children with genetic liability for dysregulation. Additionally, children who were at risk for externalizing behaviors due to both genetic variability and exposure to center-based ECE were more sensitive to the effects of overreactive parenting on externalizing behavior than other children.
Eni, Rachel; Rowe, Gladys
This qualitative study introduced the "Manitoba First Nation Strengthening Families Maternal Child Health Pilot Project" program and evaluation methodologies. The study provided a knowledge base for programmers, evaluators, and communities to develop relevant health promotion, prevention, and intervention programming to assist in meeting health needs of pregnant women and young families. Sixty-five open-ended, semistructured interviews were completed in 13 communities. Data analysis was through grounded theory. Three major themes emerged from the data: interpersonal support and relationships; socioeconomic factors; and community initiatives. Complex structural, historical events compromise parenting; capacity and resilience are supported through informal and formal health and social supports.
van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Deković, Maja
The present study examined indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescent sexuality through global self-esteem. Three waves of online questionnaire data were collected among a community sample of 1,116 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.9 years at baseline). Participants rated the quality of their relationship with parents, their global self-esteem, and their experience with various sexual behaviors. Sexually experienced adolescents (n = 168) evaluated their sexual experiences using six emotions. Path model results showed that a higher-quality relationship with parents at T1 predicted higher levels of self-esteem at T2, which in turn predicted less experience with sexual behaviors and more positive sexual emotions at T3. The indirect over-time path from relationship quality through self-esteem to adolescents' sexual emotions was significant; the indirect path to adolescents' experience with sexual behaviors was not significant at the .05 level. No significant age or gender differences were found in the path models. The findings indicate that self-esteem plays an important role in adolescent sexuality and that parents can contribute to positive sexual experiences of adolescents indirectly--through the enhancement of self-esteem--by fostering a high-quality relationship with their children. Implications for theory, future research, and strategies to promote healthy and positive youth sexuality are discussed.
Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J; Bentley, Georgina F; Turner, Katrina M; Goodred, Joanna K; Fox, Kenneth R; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Lucas, Patricia J
Parenting programs could provide effective routes to increasing children's physical activity and reducing screen-viewing. Many studies have reported difficulties in recruiting and retaining families in group parenting interventions. This paper uses qualitative data from the Teamplay feasibility trial to examine parents' views on recruitment, attendance and course refinement. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 intervention and 10 control group parents of 6-8 year old children. Topics discussed with the intervention group included parents' views on the recruitment, structure, content and delivery of the course. Topics discussed with the control group included recruitment and randomization. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and thematically analyzed. Many parents in both the intervention and control group reported that they joined the study because they had been thinking about ways to improve their parenting skills, getting ideas on how to change behavior, or had been actively looking for a parenting course but with little success in enrolling on one. Both intervention and control group parents reported that the initial promotional materials and indicative course topics resonated with their experiences and represented a possible solution to parenting challenges. Participants reported that the course leaders played an important role in helping them to feel comfortable during the first session, engaging anxious parents and putting parents at ease. The most commonly reported reason for parents returning to the course after an absence was because they wanted to learn new information. The majority of parents reported that they formed good relationships with the other parents in the group. An empathetic interaction style in which leaders accommodated parent's busy lives appeared to impact positively on course attendance. The data presented indicate that a face-to-face recruitment campaign which built trust and emphasized how the program was
Wiertz, C; Goossens, M; Spek, E M; Verbunt, J A
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of a newly developed parent program for parents of children with non-specific chronic musculoskeletal pain. This program is part of the child's interdisciplinary outpatient pain rehabilitation treatment. The goal of the parent program is to change parent's thoughts/behaviour regarding pain with the ultimate intention to further improve their child's functioning. There were two main objectives in the study: First, to evaluate the feasibility of the parent program. Second, to evaluate changing in parental behavioral factors pre- and posttreatment. Participants were parents of adolescents, who underwent a interdisciplinary outpatient pain program for non-specific chronic musculoskeletal pain. Parents participated in a parent program as part of their child's treatment. Adolescents reported their level of disability, pain intensity, fear of pain and pain catastrophizing by filling out questionnaires. Parents reported catastrophic thinking about their child's pain, fear of pain and disabilities of their child. In addition, they evaluated the parent program. Sixty five parents (36 mothers and 29 fathers) of 44 adolescents filled in the baseline questionnaires. Result showed significant and clinically relevant improvements for both parents as well for adolescents. Parents were positive about the content of the parent program, they evaluated the program as supportive and informative. Adding a parent program to a interdisciplinary outpatient pain program for adolescent with chronic musculoskeletal pain, seems to be feasible in daily life of the parents and results in positive behavioural changes for both parents and adolescents. A parent program, designed to change cognition and behaviour of parents of children with chronic musculoskeletal pain is feasible. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.
Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David
Using data from grandparents (G1), parents (G2), and children (G3), this study examined continuity in parental monitoring, harsh discipline, and child externalizing behavior across generations, and the contribution of parenting practices and parental drug use to intergenerational continuity in child externalizing behavior. Structural equation and…
Moules, Nancy J; Estefan, Andrew; McCaffrey, Graham; Tapp, Dianne M; Strother, Douglas
This article is the third part of a hermeneutic research study examining the impact of childhood cancer experiences on the parental relationship. In Part 1, we offered an exploration of the phenomenon with background literature; a description of the research question, method, and design; and finally a discussion of relationships that survived, thrived, or demised, with an emphasis on the notions of difference and trading. In Part 2, we furthered the interpretations to look at the complexities of issues such as teams, roles, focus, protection, intimacy, grieving, putting relationships on hold, and reclaiming them. In this article, we discuss the advice that the participants offered us and how that advice might have implications for other parents in similar situations and health care professionals working with families experiencing childhood cancer. © The Author(s) 2016.
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel
Child-to-parent violence (CPV) includes acts committed by a child to intentionally cause physical, psychological, or financial pain to a parent. Available data indicate increasing rates of CPV in Spain, which have been attributed to a tendency toward more permissive parenting styles and changes in the power cycles within the families. The primary…
... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...
Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Kohyama, Jun; How, Ti Hwei
To assess the prevalence of parental behaviors and other factors of sleep ecology and to analyze their relationships with sleep outcomes in a large sample of children ages birth to 36months in multiple countries/regions. Parents of 29,287 infants and toddlers (48% boys; Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Vietnam) completed an internet-based expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Overall, there is a high level of parental involvement in sleep onset and sleep maintenance for young children, with significant differences in parenting behaviors across cultural groups. For predominantly-Caucasian, the most common behavior occurring at bedtime is falling asleep independently in own crib/bed (57%), compared to just 4% of those children living in predominantly-Asian regions. Parental behaviors and sleep ecology, including parental presence at sleep onset, bedtime, and bedtime routine, significantly explain a portion of the variance in sleep patterns. Overall, parental behaviors are more highly predictive of nighttime sleep outcomes in predominantly-Caucasian regions. Finally, parental involvement in sleep onset mediates the relationship between cosleeping and sleep outcomes. Overall, the best predictors of nighttime sleep are related to parental behaviors at bedtime and during the night. Furthermore, sleep disruption and decreased total sleep associated with bed sharing and room sharing are mediated by parental presence at bedtime. These findings provide additional support for addressing parental behaviors in behavioral interventions for infant and toddler sleep problems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Appropriate parental care by fathers can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. However, much less is known about paternal behavior in animals compared to those regarding maternal behavior. Previously, we reported that male ICR strain laboratory mice, although not spontaneously parental, can be induced to display maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval when separated from their pups by signals from the pairmate dam (Liu et al., Nat. Commun, 4:1346, 2013. This parental behavior by the ICR sires, which are not genetically biparental, is novel and has been designated as pairmate-dependent paternal behavior. However, the factors critical for this paternal behavior are unclear. Here, we report that the pairmate-dependent paternal retrieval behavior is observed especially in the ICR strain and not in C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice. An ICR sire displays retrieval behavior only toward his biological pups. A sire co-housed with an unrelated non-pairing dam in a new environment, under which 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are not detected, does not show parenting behavior. It is important for sires to establish their own home territory (cage by continuous housing and testing to display retrieval behavior. These results indicated that the ICR sires display distinct paternity, including father-child social interaction, and shed light on parental behavior, although further analyses of paternal care at the neuroendocrinological and neurocircuitry levels are required.
Zhu, Xuemei; Lee, Chanam
Walking can be a healthy, sustainable, and equitable mode of transportation, but is not widely used for children's school travel. This study identifies multi-level correlates of walking to/from school and relevant policy implications. We surveyed parents/guardians of 2,695 students from 19 elementary schools in Austin, Texas, which featured diverse sociodemographic and environmental characteristics. Among the personal and social factors, negative correlates were parents' education, car ownership, personal barriers, and school bus availability; positive correlates were parents' and children's positive attitude and regular walking behavior, and supportive peer influences. Of physical environmental factors, the strongest negative correlates were distance and safety concerns, followed by the presence of highways/freeways, convenience stores, office buildings, and bus stops en route. Our findings suggest that society should give high priority to lower socioeconomic status populations and to multi-agency policy interventions that facilitate environmental changes, safety improvements, and educational programs targeting both parents and children.
Full Text Available Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life.
Polenick, Courtney A.; Zarit, Steven H.; Birditt, Kira S.; Bangerter, Lauren R.; Seidel, Amber J.; Fingerman, Karen L.
Everyday support given to aging parents is a salient aspect of married life that may have implications for marital quality. Among 132 middle-aged couples drawn from Wave 1 of the Family Exchanges Study, we examined the moderating effects of each spouse’s normative and motivational beliefs about helping parents on associations between the frequency of everyday support that wives and husbands gave to their own parents and marital satisfaction. Husbands' more frequent provision of support was linked to wives' greater marital satisfaction when reports of personal rewards linked to helping parents were high for wives or low for husbands. Conversely, wives’ more frequent provision of support was linked to husbands’ lower marital satisfaction when reports of filial obligation were low for husbands or high for wives. Findings highlight the interdependence within couples, and indicate that both spouses' perceptions are important in understanding linkages between intergenerational support and marital satisfaction. PMID:28154427
Prinzie, Peter; van der Sluis, Cathy M; de Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja
Building on prior cross-sectional work, this longitudinal study evaluated the proposition that maternal and paternal overreactive and authoritative parenting mediates the effect of child personality characteristics on externalizing behavior. Data from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality, and Problem Behavior were used in a moderated mediation analysis (N=434). Teachers rated children's Big Five characteristics, fathers and mothers rated their parenting, and 3 years later, children rated their externalizing behavior. Mediational analysis revealed both direct and indirect effects. Higher levels of Extraversion and lower levels of Benevolence were related directly to higher levels of child externalizing behavior. Higher levels of paternal authoritative parenting and lower levels of maternal overreactivity were related to lower scores on externalizing behavior. In addition, the relation between Benevolence, Emotional Stability, and externalizing behavior was partially mediated by parental overreactivity. Conscientiousness had an indirect effect on externalizing behavior through paternal authoritative parenting. Relations were not moderated by child gender. This study is of theoretical interest because the results demonstrate that parenting is a mediating mechanism that accounts for associations between personality and externalizing behavior.
Cohen, Liza; Brown, Judith; Haukness, Heather; Walsh, Lori; Robinson, June K
To compare counseling concerning sun protection and outdoor exercise with the parent's report of the behavior of a child aged 9-16 years old. Structured interviews of medical personnel in 3 Chicago area practices elicited information about counseling methods and recommendations. In each practice, a convenience sample of parents completed a self-reported survey of their and their child's behavior. Sun protection counseling occurred more frequently than exercise counseling in all practices (P = .014). Sun protection counseling was associated with parental prompting (P = .004), performing a summer camp physical (P = .002), and the child having a sunburn (P = .003). After controlling for the child's age, sex, and skin tone, sun protection counseling was not associated with the child's use of sun protection. In multivariate analysis of the child's sun protection behavior, parental sunburns, indoor tanning in the last 12 months, perception of skin cancer risk, and sun protection self-efficacy were significant (P = .02). Children who pursued outdoor sports were twice as likely to use inadequate sun protection and sustain sunburns (CI 1.3-1.7). The child's sun protection behavior was influenced by parental sun protection, parental perception of skin cancer risk, and parental sun protection self-efficacy; therefore, sun protection for children needs to be aimed at parents as well as children. Communication with parents in a way that incorporates the principles of motivational interviewing may be more effective in promoting behavioral change than admonitions to use sunscreen. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, Uyen N; Rowe, Dorothy J; Barker, Judith C
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the oral health knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors of migrant Vietnamese parents of 1-5 year-olds in San Jose, California. Method: A verbally-administered survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 45 Vietnamese parents recruited at San Jose public libraries. Following preliminary screening, written informed consent was obtained from eligible individuals. A pre-tested, structured 94-item questionnaire was used to collect information regarding parent demographics, and the parent's knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors about children's oral health. Simple descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Vietnamese parents acknowledged a number of basic concepts regarding early childhood caries (ECC), such as influences of sugar consumption, oral hygiene, and bottle use. Unlike other groups, they reported some familiarity with the role of bacteria in caries etiology. Oral health knowledge and beliefs, however, were not reflected in parental oral health behaviors such as supervision of children's brushing. Knowledge about the preventive role of fluoride was limited and varied among the population. Parental knowledge and behaviors did not vary by education level or length of residence in US. Conclusion: Vietnamese parents demonstrated reasonably good oral health knowledge, but poor behavioral guidance of their children's oral health, indicating the need for continued parental education emphasizing age-appropriate oral care and the preventative role of fluoride. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Rousseau, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Wiersema, Jan Roelf; Van Leeuwen, Karla
Objective: This study explored direct and indirect associations between adolescents' somatization, parenting stress, and three parenting dimensions (warmth, psychological control, and harsh punishment). First, the associations were explored cross-sectionally. Second, significant cross-sectional
Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J; Trentacosta, Christopher J
In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or CD. Parenting practices and child behavior problems were assessed at six time-points using multiple measures and multiple reporters. The data were analyzed using cross-lagged panel analyses. Results indicated robust temporal stabilities of parenting practices and child behavior problems, in the context of treatment-related improvements, but bidirectional effects between parenting practices and child behavior were less frequently detected. Our findings suggest that bidirectional effects are relatively smaller than the temporal stability of each construct for school-age children with ODD/CD and their parents, following a multi-modal clinical intervention that is directed at both parents and children. Implications for treatment and intervention are discussed.
Shawler, Paul M.; Sullivan, Maureen A.
The current study investigated the parent-child relationship by examining associations between parent stress, parental discipline strategies, child disruptive behavior problems, and level of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms. A sample of 130 parents of children with ASD ages 3 to 11 years participated. Parents reported high levels of parent…
Möller, E.L.; Nikolić, M.; Majdandžić, M.; Bögels, S.M.
In this meta-analysis we investigated differential associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors (overcontrol, overprotection, overinvolvement, autonomy granting, challenging parenting) and anxiety and its precursors (fearful temperament, behavioral inhibition, shyness) in children
Mano, Shoko; Uno, Hiroyuki
Previous studies have revealed that mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) have an authoritarian parenting style. However, the psychological process of developing an authoritarian parenting style has yet to be clearly defined. To clarify this psychological process, the present study examined the hypothesis that the characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD initially increase the mothers' parenting stress, which influences their parenting style. Thirty-six mothers of children with AD/HD (children's mean age: 8.1 years) and the same number of controls (children's mean age: 8.4 years) participated in the present study. The mothers' parenting stress was assessed using the Japanese Parenting Stress Index. Parenting styles were assessed using the TK-style scale for evaluating the relationships between parents and children. The results indicated that the mothers of children with AD/HD had significantly higher scores than controls for all parenting stress items and negative parenting style variables (dissatisfaction, reproach, strictness, interference, inconsistency and disagreement of 10 attitudes). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD were associated with the degree of attachment in mothers, which was related to the strict and reproachful parenting style in the AD/HD group. These results suggest that mothers of children with AD/HD are likely to have a strict and reproachful parenting style as a result of a lack of attachment with the child.
Linville, Deanna; Chronister, Krista; Dishion, Tom; Todahl, Jeff; Miller, John; Shaw, Daniel; Gardner, Francis; Wilson, Melvin
This longitudinal study examined the relationship between couple relationship satisfaction, parenting practices, parent depression, and child problem behaviors. The study participants (n = 148) were part of a larger experimental study that examined the effectiveness of a brief family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up model. Regression analysis results indicated that our proposed model accounted for 38% of the variance in child problem behavior at Time 2, with child problem behavior a...
Gere, Martina K; Villabø, Marianne A; Torgersen, Svenn; Kendall, Philip C
The relationship between overprotective parenting and child anxiety has been examined repeatedly because theories emphasize its role in the maintenance of child anxiety. No study has yet tested whether this relationship is unique to child anxiety, by controlling for commonly co-occurring behavior problems within the same children. The current study examined 190 children (age 7-13, 118 [corrected] boys) referred to mental health clinics and their parents. Results revealed that significant correlations between overprotective parenting and child anxiety symptoms disappear after controlling for co-occurring child behavior symptoms. It appears that overprotection is not uniquely related to child anxiety. Furthermore, overprotective parenting was significantly and uniquely related to child behavior symptoms. Researchers and practitioners need to consider co-occurring child behavior problems when working with the parents of anxious children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan
Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.
Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Watkins, Katara; Johnson, Elizabeth; Ialongo, Nicholas
This study investigates the role of socioeconomic status, parental mental health, and knowledge of child development on parenting styles and perceived parenting stress in caregivers of children, ages 3 months to 3 years, enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS). Caregivers of EHS students were interviewed using the Knowledge of Infant Development…
Lim, Vivien K. G.; Loo, Geok Leng
Structural equation modeling results from data on 178 undergraduates and their parents in Singapore indicated that paternal job insecurity was associated positively and maternal job insecurity negatively with authoritarian parenting. Mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to young adults' self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was positively…
Fingerman, Karen L
Abstract The period of young adulthood has transformed dramatically over the past few decades. Today, scholars refer to “emerging adulthood” and “transitions to adulthood” to describe adults in their 20s. Prolonged youth has brought concomitant prolonged parenthood. This article addresses 3 areas of change in parent/child ties, increased (a) contact between generations, (b) support from parents to grown children as well as coresidence and (c) affection between the generations. We apply the Multidimensional Intergenerational Support Model (MISM) to explain these changes, considering societal (e.g., economic, technological), cultural, family demographic (e.g., fertility, stepparenting), relationship, and psychological (normative beliefs, affection) factors. Several theoretical perspectives (e.g., life course theory, family systems theory) suggest that these changes may have implications for the midlife parents’ well-being. For example, parents may incur deleterious effects from (a) grown children’s problems or (b) their own normative beliefs that offspring should be independent. Parents may benefit via opportunities for generativity with young adult offspring. Furthermore, current patterns may affect future parental aging. As parents incur declines of late life, they may be able to turn to caregivers with whom they have intimate bonds. Alternately, parents may be less able to obtain such care due to demographic changes involving grown children raising their own children later or who have never fully launched. It is important to consider shifts in the nature of young adulthood to prepare for midlife parents’ future aging.
Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes
The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys). Parenting style had a mediating effect on the studied relationships. Maternal psychopathology was positively associated with antisocial behavior in children, either directly or partially by parenting style, while paternal psychopathology was positively associated with offspring antisocial behavior only through the mediator role of parenting style. Child's sex did not moderate these relationships. Parenting style could be a target for prevention and intervention of antisocial behavior in the offspring of parents with mental health problems.
Rosenthal, D; Hansen, J
This study investigated the self-concepts, school achievement, occupational aspirations, vocational maturity, and perceptions of parents of children from two-parent and single-parent homes. The sample contained 559 children, 19% from single-parent homes. A multivariateF indicated children from two-parent homes had significantly higher school grades and occupational aspirations. There were also significant differences in children's perceptions of relationships with fathers, but not with mothers. It was argued that family structure has an impact on adolescents' perceptions and behaviors.
Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A
Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental bond (positive, negative), depression, alcohol use and abuse were tested. A 2-group, multiple-indicator, multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, a poor parental bond with one's father was highly predictive of depression, a well-known predictor of alcohol abuse and related problems for both genders. In contrast, a positive parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the positive effects of authoritative fathering on depression, which then decreased alcohol use problems for both genders. For women, a negative parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the effect of having an authoritarian father on depression, which increased alcohol use problems. These findings suggest that parental influences on pathways to alcohol abuse through depression (primarily through fathers for both genders) are distinct from pathways stemming from poor impulse control (with influences primarily from the same-sex parents for both genders).
Cromley, Taya R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri
Purpose To examine parent and family variables in relation to adolescent weight control and eating behaviors, body satisfaction, and importance of thinness among overweight adolescents. Methods This study examined parent-reported use of weight control behaviors (i.e., healthy and unhealthy behaviors, behavioral changes, other diet strategies), parent psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, body satisfaction, importance of thinness), and family functioning (i.e., cohesion and adaptability) in relation to adolescent weight control and eating behaviors, body satisfaction, and importance of thinness. Surveys were completed by 103 overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) adolescents, ages 12 to 20, and their parents. Height and weight were also measured. Linear regression equations were used for continuous outcomes and logistic regression equations for dichotomous outcomes. Results Adolescent report of lower body satisfaction and engagement in more “severe” or less healthy forms of weight control behavior were associated with parent weight control behaviors. Adolescent report of overeating was associated with lower scores of family cohesion and adaptability. Adolescent report of lower body satisfaction was positively associated with parent report of body satisfaction and self-esteem. Adolescent report of greater importance placed on thinness was associated with parent report of lower self-esteem. Conclusions Findings indicate that several parent and family variables are associated with weight control behaviors, episodes of overeating, and body satisfaction and importance of thinness among overweight adolescents. Parent weight control behaviors and adolescent cognitions about body image may be important variables to target within intervention research and treatment programs for overweight youth. PMID:20708565
Vanschoonlandt, Femke; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Van Holen, Frank; De Maeyer, Skrallan
Foster parents are often faced with serious externalizing behaviors of their foster child. These behavioral problems may induce family stress and are related to less effective parenting and often increase. Foster children with behavioral problems are also more at risk of placement breakdown. An intervention to support foster parents of young…
Keyes, Margaret; Legrand, Lisa N; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
It is essential to understand the effect of parental smoking on offspring tobacco use. In biologically related families, parents who smoke may transmit a nonspecific genetic risk for offspring disinhibited behavior, including tobacco use. Studying adoptive families allows one to control for genetic confounding when examining the environmental effect of exposure to parental smoking. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic and environmental contributions to the risk represented by exposure to parental smoking and to assess the specificity of that risk. Adolescents adopted in infancy were systematically ascertained from records of three private Minnesota adoption agencies; nonadopted adolescents were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Adolescents and their rearing parents participated in all assessments in person. The main outcome measures were self-reports of behavioral deviance, substance use, and personality, as well as DSM-IV clinical assessments of childhood disruptive disorders. The data from adoptive families suggest that exposure to parental smoking represents an environmental risk for substance use in adolescent offspring. In biologically related families, the effect of exposure to parental smoking is larger and more diverse, including substance use, disruptive behavior disorders, delinquency, deviant peer affiliations, aggressive attitudes, and preference for risk taking. This study provides evidence for an environmentally mediated pathway by which parental smoking increases risk specifically for substance use in adolescent offspring. The data are also consistent with a genetically mediated pathway by which nonadoptive parents who smoke may also transmit a nonspecific genetic risk to their offspring for disinhibited behavior.
Xie, Haibin; Wang, Shouyang; Lu, Zudi
Bilateral gamma process is widely used in risk management and asset pricing. However the behavioral implications of this process remain unknown. This paper investigates this problem for the first time within the framework of Tauchen and Pitts (1983). With the assumption that there are two types of traders in the market, the optimistic and the pessimistic, we find the bilateral gamma process can be derived from Walrasian equilibrium. This finding establishes the microstructure foundations for the bilateral gamma process.
Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Driggin, Elissa; Kolbe, Laura
Eating behavior traits measured in early life predict eating behavior and weight trajectories later in development, and may be associated with certain parental feeding behaviors. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between a range of feeding behaviors, and preschoolers' appetitive traits. Four hundred thirty-nine parents of UK 3-5 year olds completed scales measuring authoritarian vs. authoritative forms of limiting (Restriction vs. Monitoring) and promoting (Pressuring vs. Prompting) intake, as well as Emotional and Instrumental Feeding. Parents also completed scales measuring child Food responsiveness and Satiety responsiveness. Child BMI z-scores were calculated based on measured heights and weights. Parental Restriction was significantly associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p authoritarian vs. authoritative), as well as the type of feeding behavior measured. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert
This study used data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to examine relations between parenting, self-control and externalizing behavior from early childhood to mid-adolescence (N=956; 49.9% male). Results indicated that maternal sensitivity, parental harshness and productive activity are related to externalizing problems but that patterns of relations change from early childhood to middle childhood to adolescence, with evidence suggesting that externalizing behavior influences parenting more than the reverse from middle childhood onward. Self-control measured during early adolescence partially mediated relations between maternal sensitivity and adolescent-reported externalizing behavior. Parental monitoring during adolescence was also related to externalizing behavior at age 15. Monitoring partially mediated the relation between externalizing behavior in early adolescence and externalizing at age 15. PMID:23135289
Neppl, Tricia K; Dhalewadikar, Jui; Lohman, Brenda J
Although research supports the influence of parents and peers on adolescent risky behavior, less is known about mechanisms proposed to explain this relation. This study examined the influence of adolescent attitudes and intentions about such behaviors. Prospective, longitudinal data came from rural youth who participated throughout adolescence (n= 451). Observed harsh parenting and relationship with deviant peers was assessed in early adolescence, attitudes and intentions were measured during middle adolescence, and risky behavior was assessed in late adolescence. Results indicated that parenting and deviant peers was related to engagement in tobacco use, alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Moreover, attitudes and intentions mediated this relationship even after parent use and adolescent early involvement in these behaviors were taken into account.
Verkleij, Marieke; van de Griendt, Erik-Jonas; Colland, Vivian; van Loey, Nancy; Beelen, Anita; Geenen, Rinie
Our study examined parenting stress and its association with behavioral problems and disease severity in children with problematic severe asthma. Research participants were 93 children (mean age 13.4 ± 2.7 years) and their parents (86 mothers, 59 fathers). As compared to reference groups analyzed in previous research, scores on the Parenting Stress Index in mothers and fathers of the children with problematic severe asthma were low. Higher parenting stress was associated with higher levels of internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems in children (Child Behavior Checklist). Higher parenting stress in mothers was also associated with higher airway inflammation (FeNO). Thus, although parenting stress was suggested to be low in this group, higher parenting stress, especially in the mother, is associated with more airway inflammation and greater child behavioral problems. This indicates the importance of focusing care in this group on all possible sources of problems, i.e., disease exacerbations and behavioral problems in the child as well as parenting stress.
Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of parenting style on the choice of proper behavior guidance strategies in pedodontics. Seventy-two children aged between 4 and 6 years (mean 5.12 years) with carious primary mandibular molars were selected. The Primary Caregivers' Practices Report (PCPR) was used to quantify authoritarian, permissive and authoritative aspects of the caregivers' parenting style. After inferior alveolar nerve block, carious lesions were removed and the teeth were restored using amalgam. The children's behavior during operation was assessed according to the sound, eye, and motor (SEM) scale. Communicative guidance, advance behavior guidance, parental separation, and deferred treatment were used for behavior management. The dominant authoritative score was observed in 50% of parents, permissive in 37.5%, and authoritarian in 12.5%. The mean SEM score in children belonging to authoritative parents was significantly lower than in children of permissive and of authoritarian parents (pparenting style. Advanced behavior guidance (protective stabilization) was applied in 16.7% of cases in the authoritative category and in 100% in the permissive and authoritarian categories. The use of restrictive devices (7.4%) and sedation (3.7%) was limited to the permissive category. Parental separation (40.7%) and deferred treatment (3.7%) were performed only in the permissive category. This study provides preliminary evidence that a child's reaction to restorative dental procedures is influenced by the nature of the caregiver's parenting style.
Wertz, Jasmin; Nottingham, Kate; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Matthews, Timothy; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise
In the present study, we used separate measures of parental monitoring and parental knowledge and compared their associations with youths’ antisocial behavior during preadolescence, between the ages of 10 and 12. Parental monitoring and knowledge were reported by mothers, fathers and youths taking part in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study which follows 1,116 families with twins. Information on youths’ antisocial behavior was obtained from mothers, as well as teachers. We report two main findings: First, longitudinal cross-lagged models revealed that greater parental monitoring did not predict less antisocial behavior later, once family characteristics were taken into account. Second, greater youth antisocial behavior predicted less parental knowledge later. This effect of youths’ behavior on parents’ knowledge was consistent across mothers’, fathers’, youths’, and teachers’ reports, and robust to controls for family confounders. The association was partially genetically-mediated according to a Cholesky decomposition twin model; youths’ genetically-influenced antisocial behavior led to a decrease in parents’ knowledge of youths’ activities. These two findings question the assumption that greater parental monitoring can reduce preadolescents’ antisocial behavior. They also indicate that parents’ knowledge of their children’s activities is influenced by youths’ behavior. PMID:27427796
Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A.
The study assessed whether teacher and parent ratings of child behavior problems were similar for children with autism spectrum disorders. Two informants rated child behaviors in the same home environment, and the degree to which parenting stress impacted the similarity of the ratings was assessed. Overall behavior problem ratings did not differ…
Baggett, Kathleen; Davis, Betsy; Feil, Edward; Sheeber, Lisa; Landry, Susan; Leve, Craig; Johnson, Ursula
Technology advances increasingly allow for access to remotely delivered interventions designed to promote early parenting practices that protect against child maltreatment. Among low-income families, at somewhat elevated risk for child maltreatment, there is some evidence that parents do engage in and benefit from remote-coaching interventions. However, little is known about the effectiveness of such programs to engage and benefit families at high risk for child maltreatment due to multiple stressors associated with poverty. To address this limitation, we examined engagement and outcomes among mothers at heightened risk for child abuse, who were enrolled in a randomized controlled, intent-to-treat trial of an Internet adaptation of an evidence-based infant parenting intervention. We found that engagement patterns were similar between higher and lower risk groups. Moreover, an intervention dose by condition effect was found for increased positive parent behavior and reduced child abuse potential.
Kota eSuzuki; Yosuke eKita; Makiko eKaga; Kenji eTakehara; Chizuru eMisago; Masumi eInagaki
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the association between children’s behavior (i.e., prosocial and problematic behavior) and the parenting style (i.e., laxness and overreactivity) of their caregivers by using longitudinal data in the Japanese population. These data were collected when the children were 7.5 and 9 years. We proposed three hypotheses: children’s behavior at 7.5 years will predict their behavior at 9 years; children’s behavior at 7.5 years will predict the parenting of t...
Susan K. Walker
Full Text Available To inform parenting research and aid educators seeking to deliver programs that support effective parenting, this study explored types of information and communications technology (ICT used to fulfill childrearing goals. Mothers’ (N = 1,804 reports of ICT activity frequency were examined from data collected from an online survey. Results suggest that mothers’ ICT use for parenting is less frequent than general use in adulthood. Mothers employ ICT to fulfill parenting goals within and across five domains of the parenting social ecology: (a parent development, (b parent-child relationships, (c child development, (d, family development, and (e culture and community. Several types of ICT activities may strengthen parenting in a single domain, and a single ICT activity may help fulfill multiple domains. Implications for research and for promoting and selecting ICT for effective parent learning and education design are discussed.
Fleming, Charles B; Mason, W Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P; Thompson, Ronald W; Fernandez, Kate; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Oats, Robert G
Engaging and retaining participants are crucial to achieving adequate implementation of parenting interventions designed to prevent problem behaviors among children and adolescents. This study examined predictors of engagement and retention in a group-based family intervention across two versions of the program: a standard version requiring only parent attendance for six sessions and an adapted version with two additional sessions that required attendance by the son or daughter. Families included a parent and an eighth grader who attended one of five high-poverty schools in an urban Pacific Northwest school district. The adapted version of the intervention had a higher rate of engagement than the standard version, a difference that was statistically significant after adjusting for other variables assessed at enrollment in the study. Higher household income and parent education, younger student age, and poorer affective quality in the parent-child relationship predicted greater likelihood of initial attendance. In the adapted version of the intervention, parents of boys were more likely to engage with the program than those of girls. The variables considered did not strongly predict retention, although retention was higher among parents of boys. Retention did not significantly differ between conditions. Asking for child attendance at workshops may have increased engagement in the intervention, while findings for other predictors of attendance point to the need for added efforts to recruit families who have less socioeconomic resources, as well as families who perceive they have less need for services.
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride
Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.
Glascoe, Frances Page
This study was undertaken to determine which parental concerns are most associated with significant behavioral/emotional problems and the extent to which parents' concerns can be depended on in the detection of mental health problems. An additional goal is to view how well a recently published screening test relying on parents' concerns, Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS), detects behavioral and emotional problems. Subjects were a national sample of 472 parents and their children (21 months to 8 years old) who were participants in 1 of 2 test standardization and validation studies. Sites included various pediatric settings, public schools, and Head Start programs in 5 diverse geographic locations. Subjects were representative of U.S. demographics in terms of ethnicity, parental level of education, gender, and socioeconomic status. At each site, psychological examiners, educational diagnosticians, or school psychologists recruited families, and obtained informed consent. Examiners disseminated a demographics questionnaire (in English or Spanish) and a developmental screening test that relies on parents' concerns (PEDS). Examiners were blinded to PEDS' scoring and interpretation administered either by interview or in writing, the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) or the Possible Problems Checklist (PPC), a subtest of the Child Development Inventory that includes items measuring emotional well-being and behavioral self-control. PEDS was used to sort children into risk for developmental disabilities according to various types of parental concern. Those identified as having high or moderate risk were nominated for diagnostic testing or screening followed by developmental and mental health services when indicated. Because their emotional and behavioral needs would have been identified and addressed, these groups were removed from the analysis (N = 177). Of the 295 children who would not have been nominated for further scrutiny on PEDS due to their
Gottfredson, Nisha C; Hussong, Andrea M; Ennett, Susan T; Rothenberg, W Andrew
Prior research has found that the protective effect of parental engagement on adolescent smoking behaviors may be weaker if parents smoke. We examine parental influence on adolescent smoking using a social learning theory framework. We hypothesize that adolescents are more likely to mimic parental smoking behavior if they perceive parents as being more engaged and if the parent is the same gender of the adolescent. Hypotheses were tested using a diverse sample of 6,998 adolescents who were followed for seven waves (grades 6-12). Adolescent gender, time-stable and time-varying effects of parental engagement, adolescent perceptions of parental smoking, and interactions among the effects of these variables are tested using multilevel mediation models. We use a traditional measure of past 3-month adolescent smoking and a novel measure of smoking identity. Parental smoking was associated with a developmental increase in adolescent smoking and time-stable and time-varying parental engagement protected against adolescent smoking, whereas maternal engagement and smoking exerted independent and opposite effects with no moderation and time-stable paternal engagement moderated the effects of perceived paternal smoking on adolescent smoking outcomes. Parental smoking was more strongly associated with adolescent smoking outcomes when adolescent gender was congruent with parent gender. Even when parents smoke, parental engagement confers protection. Protective effects of engagement may be enhanced among parents who smoke through increased antismoking communication, particularly as adolescents reach the legal smoking age. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David
Using data from grandparents (G1), parents (G2), and children (G3), this study examined continuity in parental monitoring, harsh discipline, and child externalizing behavior across generations, and the contribution of parenting practices and parental drug use to intergenerational continuity in child externalizing behavior. Structural equation and path modeling of prospective, longitudinal data from 808 G2 participants, their G1 parents, and their school-aged G3 children (n = 136) showed that ...
Parks, Elizabeth P; Kazak, Anne; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Lewis, Lisa; Barg, Frances K
Objective In an effort to develop targets for childhood obesity interventions in non-Hispanic-Black (Black) families, this study examined parental perceptions of stress and identified potential links among parental stress and children's eating patterns, physical activity, and screen-time. Method Thirty-three self-identified Black parents or grandparents of a child aged 3 to 7 years were recruited from a large, urban Black church to participate in semistructured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Parents/grandparents described a pathway between how stress affected them personally and their child's eating, structured (sports/dance) and unstructured (free-play) physical activity, and screen-time usage, as well as strategies to prevent this association. Five themes emerged: stress affects parent behaviors related to food and physical activity variably; try to be healthy even with stress; parent/grandparent stress eating and parenting; stress influences family cooking, food choices, and child free-play; and screen-time use to decrease parent stress. Negative parent/grandparent response to their personal stress adversely influenced food purchases and parenting related to child eating, free-play, and screen-time. Children of parents/grandparents who ate high-fat/high-sugar foods when stressed requested these foods. In addition to structured physical activity, cooking ahead and keeping food in the house were perceived to guard against the effects of stress except during parent cravings. Parent/child screen-time helped decrease parent stress. Conclusion Parents/grandparents responded variably to stress which affected the child eating environment, free-play, and screen-time. Family-based interventions to decrease obesity in Black children should consider how stress influences parents. Targeting parent cravings and coping strategies that utilize structure in eating and physical activity may be useful