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Sample records for parenthood federation ippf

  1. IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights. International Planned Parenthood Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, K; Helzner, J F

    1999-05-01

    For most of human existence and in most societies, women have been considered to be property and subject to men. Throughout history, with such notable exceptions as Queen Boadicea, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Elizabeth I of England, and Catherine the Great of Russia, women had little or no power until early in the 20th century when the women's suffrage movement was successful in the United States and in some European countries. As women have gained political rights, groups of women have sought sexual and reproductive rights, as exemplified by the feminist movement of the past few decades in the United States. Although marked strides toward achievement of reproductive choice have been taken in high-income countries, there remain major strictures to reproductive freedom for women in low-income countries. This area, which is replete with ethical and moral issues, has been addressed by the International Planned Parenthood Foundation (IPPF), which has worked to improve the sexual and reproductive health of women throughout the world. The IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights is a paradigm for both women's rights and human rights. Karen Newman is policy adviser with the IPPF and has codrafted the IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights together with two lawyers. She has held several positions within the IPPF, including medical researcher, press officer, and programme adviser in Europe, where she had responsibility for working with new family planning associations (FPAs) in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. At present, she is working to increase the capacity of IPPF member FPAs to undertake human rights-based advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights. Judith F. Helzner is director of Sexual and Reproductive Health at International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region, Inc., where she has worked since 1987. She holds M.A. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania in International Relations and Demography. Her previous employment

  2. Brave and angry--the creation and development of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Vicky

    2010-12-01

    This paper looks back on the developments in thinking from birth control, through voluntary family planning, to a comprehensive approach to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), and celebrates some of the key players in this evolution. It tells the story of the creation of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in 1952, and scrutinises how important this organisation was then and is now. It gives an idea of the efforts it took to reassemble initiatives around the world into one body, strong enough to foster the cause to the benefit of all. While IPPF was and still is a unique association, it has increased its partnerships and works together with a multitude of organisations active in the field of SRHR. In the current political context joint efforts are still needed to protect the universally recognised human right of people to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children, and their access to adequate education and information.

  3. IPPF's strategic vision 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H

    1994-09-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) supports the objectives of the International Conference on Population and Development. The draft conference document displays the linkages between women's rights, poverty, population, and sustainable development. In the next two to three decades the global population will grow by a staggering 50% and that reality requires sustained socioeconomic growth. The 6 components of IPPF's Strategic Vision 2000 and the action agenda for meeting these challenges are as follows: 1) The small family is rapidly becoming the cultural norm everywhere, as more than 60% of all fertile women and men are using safe and effective contraceptive methods. 2) Sexual and reproductive health is becoming an integral part of the physical, mental, and social health culture and not just the absence of pregnancy, disease or injury. The members of IPPF have been developing programs concentrating on adolescent sexuality. IPPF is also concerned about HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases as they relate to the work undertaken by family planning associations. 3) The quality of care has been heightened by the right of informed choice, service sustainability, and the maintenance of the highest standards. 4) Vigorous programs are in place to eliminate unsafe abortion and to increase access to safe abortion. 5) Young people are systematically supported to give voice to the need for understanding their sexuality and services. There are currently more than 500 million young women and men between the ages of 15 and 19, and their numbers increase for a long time to come. 6) Women are fast moving towards full participation in all aspects of local and global development demanding reproductive rights. IPPF and its associations, through Vision 2000, are committed to the objective of sexual and reproductive health at the national and international levels.

  4. Planned Parenthood works with Korean government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J M

    1968-01-01

    In early 1961 special representatives of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) organized the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK). The leaders, mostly young university professors, physicians, and government officials well recognized in the fields of public health gynecology/obstetrics, pediatrics, nursing, sociology, social work, and economics, shared an interest in improving the national economy, the national welfare, countermeasures against the population crisis, and the urgent need for family planning services in Korea. The leadership of General Park Chung-hee led to adoption of a national policy in support of family planning at an early stage in November 1961. Since 1961, the government budget for family planning has doubled every year. The PPFK was asked to play a major role in planning, administration, training, information, and education of the national program until the government established the new section of Maternal and Child Health in the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs in 1963. The role of the PPFK has never diminished. The training of family planning personnel at various levels is still carried out entirely by the PPFK. The PPFK operates mobile vans to provide educational activities, IUD insertions, and male sterilization services to people in villages without doctors. The PPFK operates pilot projects to test new methods either in clinics or in the field. The PPFK exists to supplement and cooperate with the government in family planning. With its flexibility, the PPFK team of experts stands ready to provide quick and positive services without red tape.

  5. Doing Good Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited collection shows that good parenthood is neither fixed nor stable. The contributors show how parenthood is equally done by men, women and children, in and through practices involving different normative guidelines. The book explores how normative layers of parenthood are constituted...... by notions such as good childhood, family ideals, national public health and educational strategies. The authors illustrate how different versions of parenthood coexist and how complex sets of actions are demanded to fulfil today’s expectations of parenthood in Western societies. This interdisciplinary book...

  6. Parenthood and Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to

  7. Parenthood by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, J

    1986-02-01

    Parenthood by design involves realistic preparation for practical aspects of parenting as well as the romantic illusions fostered by relatives, social pressure, and the media. The ideals do not mention the physical discomfort, exhaustion, jealousy, anger and frustration encountered in a normal puerperium. Many women have not returned to normal sexual activity, work and sports even by 6 weeks after delivery. Perineal discomfort is still experienced by 70% after 10 days, especially in cases of assisted vaginal delivery. Urinary incontinence is present in 20% up to 3 months after normal vaginal delivery. Many women report fatigue as the reason for not resuming sexual intercourse. Family interactions are stressed by the newcomer: rivalry on the part of the husband or siblings is common. Modern education in the attempt to train people for vocational competence has left out parenting. In England, midwives teach classes of 20 women for 5 contact hours in late pregnancy, and are expected to cover all aspects of pregnancy, labor, delivery, baby care, postnatal adjustment and support services. The schools have sex education, fostering freedom in life styles for young people, but little emphasis on responsibility. There are some community organizations such as the La Leche League, the National Childbirth Trust and the Meet-A-Mum Association that offer support during and after pregnancy. Accidental pregnancy with education as crisis intervention is inadequate for the future; parenthood by design would permit couples to experience parenthood as a period of growth based on a fuller understanding of practical reality.

  8. IPPF re-affirms its policy on sterilization: a free, informed and unpressured choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The IPPF has re-affirmed its policy on sterilization that individuals have the right to voluntarily choose a contraceptive method. A sterilization acceptor should understand all the implications and that the procedure should be considered irreversible, although medical techniques should be used to give the greatest chance of reversibility. An individual should know of alternative contraceptive methods and the risks and benefits involved with each. Incentives for family planning programs should ensure that benefits be in addition to the benefits and services which are entitled to everyone; likewise, any disincentives should not conflict with basic human rights. Family planning education should promote informed decisions on contraceptive use including sterilization procedures.

  9. Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts v. Bellotti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-07

    The Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts instituted a class action suit challenging the constitutionality of a statute requiring minors seeking an abortion to obtain parental consent or to persuade a judge of their maturity to give informed consent or that abortion would be in their best interest. In order to invoke judicial review, the plaintiffs moved their suit to federal court. The District Court dismissed the case on grounds that federal review power would interfere with state administration. On appeal, the First Circuit Court of Appeals decided that the plaintiffs could proceed with their action. The Circuit Court found that federal adjudication would not unduly interfere with state administration and remanded the case for further proceedings. Although it affirmed the statute's validity, the circuit court ruled that the plaintiffs must be allowed the opportunity to demonstrate the statute's unconstitutionality.

  10. Quantitative analysis of lung elastic fibers in idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE): comparison of clinical, radiological, and pathological findings with those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Noriyuki; Kusagaya, Hideki; Oyama, Yoshiyuki; Kono, Masato; Kaida, Yusuke; Kuroishi, Shigeki; Hashimoto, Dai; Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Yokomura, Koshi; Inui, Naoki; Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi

    2014-05-28

    The pathological appearance of idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) with hematoxylin-eosin staining is similar to that of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The amount of elastic fibers (EF) and detailed differences between IPPFE and IPF have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to quantify the EF and identify the differences between IPPFE and IPF. We evaluated six patients with IPPFE and 28 patients with IPF who underwent surgical lung biopsy or autopsy. The patients' clinical history, physical findings, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, and pathological features of lung specimens were retrospectively evaluated. The amounts of EF in lung specimens were quantified with Weigert's staining using a camera with a charge-coupled device and analytic software in both groups. Fewer patients with IPPFE than IPF had fine crackles (50.0% vs. 96.4%, p = 0.012). Patients with IPPFE had a lower forced vital capacity (62.7 ± 10.9% vs. 88.6 ± 21.9% predicted, p = 0.009), higher consolidation scores on HRCT (1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5, p < 0.0001), lower body mass indices (17.9 ± 0.9 vs. 24.3 ± 2.8, p < 0.0001), and more pneumothoraces than did patients with IPF (66.7 vs. 3.6%, p = 0.002). Lung specimens from patients with IPPFE had more than twice the amount of EF than did those from patients with IPF (28.5 ± 3.3% vs. 12.1 ± 4.4%, p < 0.0001). The amount of EF in the lower lobes was significantly lower than that in the upper lobes, even in the same patient with IPPFE (23.6 ± 2.4% vs. 32.4 ± 5.5%, p = 0.048). However, the amount of EF in the lower lobes of patients with IPPFE was still higher than that of patients with IPF (23.6 ± 2.4% vs. 12.2 ± 4.4%, p < 0.0001). More than twice the amount of EF was found in patients with IPPFE than in those with IPF. Even in the lower lobes, the amount of EF was higher in patients with IPPFE than in those with IPF, although the

  11. Intellectual Disability and Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood in persons with intellectual disability (ID is an issue of concern for the family, guardians, and professionals as there are many sentiments and problems involved: financial, technical, medical, legal, and above all moral. People with intellectual, developmental, or other disabilities have feelings, want relationships, and are able to have children also. The attitude of society has changed through time from the early eugenic concern with heredity and fertility, to a focus on the risk to the children due to parental neglect or abuse, to acceptance and a search for solutions to parental training and support. This change can be seen as a result of a shift from institutional care to community care and normalization. This paper reviews available research, prevalence, service issues, experience from around the world, and relates to the situation in Israel. Jewish Law has been very progressive regarding the possibility of marriage between persons with ID (in contrast to American Law where historically this right has been denied, until recently. Recent research has shown that, in the case of such a union resulting in children, although they require some supervision, family, friends, and social welfare agencies have scrutinized these families so much they are in constant fear of their child being taken away. There is little information on the number of such cases and an overall dearth of information on the effects on the children, although one recent study from the U.K. has shown a varied picture of resilience and a close, warm relationship later on with the family and especially the mother.

  12. Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-24

    Pennsylvania amended its abortion statute to include a mandatory 24-hour waiting period, parental consent, spousal notification, physician-only disclosure requirements, and various other reporting provisions. Planned Parenthood filed suit, alleging infringement of a woman's right to choose an abortion. The federal district court held the amendments to be unconstitutional. First, the 24-hour waiting period arbitrarily increased cost and risk of delay by requiring two trips to the abortion clinic, without furthering the state's interest in maternal health. Secondly, the amendment's requirement that only the physician, and not an agent, may disclose information relevant to informed consent unreasonably insisted that only a physician is competent to provide the information. The parental consent and spousal notification requirements imposed unconstitutional burdens on the woman's decision.

  13. Doing good parenthood as we-ness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan; Sparrman, Anna

    This paper reflects on how good parenthood is done through ‘we-ness’. We draw on empirical work published by Danish and Swedish researchers to argue that we-ness constitutes an ideal in contemporary family life. In our recent edited volume Doing good parenthood, we argue that the term parenthood...... and family life. With this paper, we explore and discuss the concepts of we-ness, childhood and parenthood further, foremost by analyzing how ideals of equality are translated into the everyday practices of doing we-ness and family life. How and by whom is we-ness established and are there intensive...... and light versions of we-ness? How can we understand the relation between we-ness and goodness in parenthood?...

  14. Parenthood motives in IVF-mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpin, H; De Munter, A; Vandemeulebroecke, L

    1998-03-01

    This is an exploratory study to answer two questions: (1) does in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-mothers' motivation for parenthood differ from the naturally conceiving mothers' motivation for parenthood? and (2) are IVF-mothers' parenthood motives correlated with their adjustment to parenthood (in the same way as they are for naturally conceiving mothers)? The study sample consisted of 31 mothers with a 24-30 month old, single-born child conceived by homologous IVF and a comparison group of 31 mothers with a naturally conceived child. Self-rating questionnaires were used. Overall, the parenthood motivation pattern was quite similar for IVF-mothers and mothers by natural conception. However, 'identity', 'motherhood' and 'social control' were significantly more important motives for IVF-mothers than for the naturally conceiving mothers. The two former motives remained more important for IVF-mothers when findings were adjusted for the influence of the mothers' age and educational level. Possible explanations for these findings refer to the infertility history. Overall, few correlations between parenthood motives and the adjustment to parenthood were significant, both for the IVF-mothers and for the mothers by natural conception. Further (hypothesis-testing) research is needed to support these findings.

  15. Long-term Consequences of Early Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Eva Rye; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Verner, Mette

    (and to lesser extent employment), as fathers appear to support the family, especially when early parenthood is combined with cohabitation with the mother and the child. Heterogeneous effects reveal that individuals with a more favorable socioeconomic background are affected more severely than......Having children at an early age is known to be associated with unfavorable economic outcomes, such as lower education, employment and earnings. In this paper, we study the long-term consequences of early parenthood for mothers and fathers. Our study is based on rich register-based data that......, importantly, merges all childbirths to the children’s mothers and fathers, allowing us to study the consequences of early parenthood for both parents. We perform a sibling fixed effects analysis in order to account for unobserved family attributes that are possibly correlated with early parenthood...

  16. Lesbian Couples' Relationship Quality across the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Sayer, Aline

    2006-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is a time of stress for many couples. Most research on the transition to parenthood has been conducted with middle-class, heterosexual couples. The current study uses multilevel modeling to examine predictors of change in relationship quality (love and conflict) during the transition to parenthood in 29 lesbian…

  17. Parenting and Parenthood as Research Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polivanova K.N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of a number of publications which concern the modern socio-cultural situation and its consequences on contemporary parenthood. The constructs "parenthood" and "parenting" are presented:. the first one refers to a social role of an adult with a child in relation to other social roles and the latter with the process of child rearing. The major social trends are presented: Contemporary parenthood is analyzed and problematized due to the nature of modern challenges faced by educated parents. The following trends are discussed: erosion of understandable, clearly presented stereotypes and patterns of child rearing in the family, increase of variability of practices of child-parent interaction, growth of supply on the market of goods and services. All these major social trends bring to the sunset of "natural" parenthood and the decision to have a child turns to be a consciously planned strategy. The article shows that the appeal to expert knowledge in child rearing which is characteristic of postmodern era leads to new uncertainties due to the variety of inconsistent advice and expertise. Discussion of the transformations experienced by the family shows the transition from child-centered to adult-centered pattern. Thus, the conclusion is that contemporary parenting takes place against many (conscious and unconscious contradictions, particularly between the growing importance of the values of self-realization and commitment and the value of parenthood. This contradiction brings to stress and anxiety which in turn damages the perception of oneself as a parent. The growth of interest in the study of parental identity and self-efficacy is considered to be a promising direction of research

  18. Social influence and the timing of parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disa Bergnéhr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a general trend of postponing entry into parenthood in Europe, Scandinavia being no exception. Previous research has suggested a range of reasons for this pattern to emerge, but comparatively little attention has been given the possible impact of the social network on the decision to try for a child. This paper explicates ways in which young Swedish adults in focus group discussions reason about the impact of friends and family in their reproductive decision-making. The analysis is based on a discourse analytical approach and inspired by social influence theory. The result of the focus group data indicates that the desire to maintain belonging and rootedness to friends as well as to kin is influential in procreative decision-making. Friends and family are recurrently referred to in the participants’ reasoning about when parenthood is preferably entered.

  19. Pregnancy and Parenthood During Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Emma M; Brisk, Brody W; Reuter, Suzanne D; Hansen, Keith A; Nettleman, Mary D

    2017-12-01

    The stress of pregnancy and parenthood during the intense educational experience of medical school could increase the risk of student burnout. Because 9.2 percent of U.S. medical students are parents by graduation, it would seem prudent to include this topic in wellness programs and policies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of pregnancy and parenthood on medical students. This was a cross-sectional, internet survey distributed to all four classes of medical students at the University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine during the 2016-2017 academic year. The survey determined self-reported pregnancy and parenthood information, knowledge of a medical school pregnancy policy, and policy recommendations. More than 85 percent of the 194 respondents recommended that the following elements be included in an institutional policy: process for arranging parental leave, how leave time might affect graduation, how missed requirements could be made up, and how to request special accommodation or leave. Twenty-nine of the respondents (15 percent) were parents or currently pregnant. Eight pregnancies during medical school were associated with complications, including three miscarriages. Of the 18 students who reported maternity or paternity leave, 13 (72 percent) and 10 (56 percent) would have extended their leave time if it did not delay graduation or only reduced their number of elective rotations, respectively. No student would choose to extend leave if it would delay graduation. This survey is the first of its kind investigating pregnancy and parenthood in medical students attending a U.S. medical school. Students want schools to provide clear, well-defined guidelines, scheduling flexibility and administrators who are approachable and understanding of their individual circumstances.

  20. Parenthood and life satisfaction in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Pollmann-Schult, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    "This article examines the association between parenthood and life satisfaction. It focuses on the question to which extent parental life satisfaction is influenced by individual and familial context. The empirical study is based on the data from the first wave of the German Family Panel (pairfam). All in all, the analyses show that although parents are less satisfied with their leisure time, their social contacts and their relationship, they are nonetheless more satisfied with their life in ...

  1. Parenthood and life satisfaction. Russia in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mikucka, Malgorzata; The 4th LCSR International Annual Research Conference: 'Cultural and Economic changes under cross-national perspective'

    2014-01-01

    The literature on life satisfaction trajectories during parenthood rests so far mainly on data from Western countries. This paper fills this gap by estimating the dynamics of life satisfaction associated with parenthood in Russia, a country which is different not only in terms of economic and historical factors, but also has a peculiar pattern of fertility and parenthood. We use the data of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE and fixed effects regression for panel data to estimat...

  2. Understanding Parents, Understanding Parenthood: An Education for Parenthood Course Piloted at Monifeith High School, Angus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Elizabeth; Tammi, Lynne

    This report is the result of an evaluation of the delivery of a pilot parenthood education program at Monifeith High School in Angus, Scotland. The program was developed as part of Save the Children, Scotland's 3-year Positive Parenting Project. The report is targeted at those responsible for the delivery of personal and social education to…

  3. Why Parenthood, and Why Now? Gay Men's Motivations for Pursuing Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.

    2012-01-01

    The current qualitative study of 35 preadoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to…

  4. Single Parenthood Impact on Street Children in Ibadan Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal , Ethiopia. Vol. 4 (2) April ... free and compulsory education to children without family support and help the less ... Key words: Single Parenthood, Street Children, Anti-Social Behaviour,. Aggression ... foregoing, this study therefore sought to look at the impact of single parenthood on ...

  5. Equal Opportunity for Children (A Proposal for Licensed Parenthood).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Hicks, Mary W.

    A theoretical proposal for a government-sponsored system of licensed parenthood is suggested, based on the premise that overpopulation, child abuse, and emotional, intellectual, and physical handicaps in children could be controlled through legislation. The three-part legislative proposal for licensed parenthood outlined would include: (1)…

  6. [Haikou issues circular on planned parenthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-03

    The Organization Department of the Haikou Municipal CCP Committee, the municipal grain, finance, commerce, education bureau, personnel, public security, labor, civil affairs, public health, and housing bureaus, supply and marketing cooperative, and planned parenthood office recently issued a joint circular on implementing the provincial planned parenthood regulations. The circular demanded that the marriage registration and census system be seriously implemented. When people are registering for marriage, we must teach them to have only 1 child. We must give priority in housing and employment to an only child and his parents. When commercial, supply, and marketing departments are distributing coupons for fuel, and nonstaple food, they should supply a double amount to the only child. We must carry out serious health care for an only child and give them regular physical check-ups. When they are ill, hospitals should give them priority in registration, treatment, reservation of beds and medicines. The circular reiterated: We must seriously implement the stipulations on rewards and punishments contained in the provincial planned parenthood regulations. Cadres, staff, or workers who apply to have only 1 child must be given lump sums in addition to enjoying the relevant rewards stipulated by the regulations. Cadres, staff, workers, inhabitants, and commune workers who depend on state grain who violate the regulations must be punished according to the regulation. As for those who have 3 or more than 3 children, a 2nd child without planning, or an illegitimate child, the child's grain ration will be sold at negotiated price up to the age of 14. The grain department will distribute to them a supply ticket for negotiated price grain to buy grain in assigned grain shops. full text

  7. Parenthood and Life Satisfaction in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Pollmann-Schult

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the association between parenthood and life satisfaction. It focuses on the question to which extent parental life satisfaction is influenced by individual and familial context. The empirical study is based on the data from the first wave of the German Family Panel (pairfam. All in all, the analyses show that although parents are less satisfied with their leisure time, their social contacts and their relationship, they are nonetheless more satisfied with their life in general than their childless peers. Increased life satisfaction is observed in particular in the first years following the birth of a child. The satisfaction of parents is, however, dependent upon different contextual factors. Parents in the medium and higher income ranges report a comparatively high degree of life satisfaction, whereas only a weak association is observed between parenthood and life satisfaction among low-income persons. Moreover, the life satisfaction of mothers, but not of fathers, varies with their employment status. For instance, only non-employed and part-time employed mothers report a greater life satisfaction than childless women. Finally, fathers whose family formation was presumably unplanned record no higher level of satisfaction than men without children.

  8. Why Parenthood, and Why Now?: Gay Men's Motivations for Pursuing Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Downing, Jordan B; Moyer, April M

    2012-02-01

    The current qualitative study of 35 pre-adoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically-oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to teach a child tolerance) may have been uniquely shaped by their sexual minority status, and others (e.g., desire to give a child a good home) in part reflect their adoptive status. Men named age, finances, and relationship factors, as well as unique contextual factors such as the need to find and move to gay-friendly neighborhoods, as influencing their readiness to pursue parenthood at the current time. Gay men's motivations to parent echo normative life course decision-making processes, but also reflect concerns that are uniquely informed by their sexual minority status.

  9. Results of the 2005 Pregnancy and Parenthood Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uriell, Zannette A; Burress, Landrus

    2007-01-01

    Navy leadership has maintained an interest in factors that may impact readiness. Family-related issues such as parenthood and pregnancy may impact Navy readiness, so data about these issues are important...

  10. A comparative study of child marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A comparative study of child marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Zambia ... By taking an approach that emphasizes life course poverty and gender ... Goal #5, Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.

  11. Act relating to surrogate parenthood contracts, 10 February 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Nebraska Act provides that surrogate parenthood contracts are void and unenforceable and that the "biological father of a child born pursuant to such a contract shall have all the rights and obligations imposed by law with respect to the child." A surrogate parenthood contract is defined as "a contract by which a woman is to be compensated for bearing a child of a man who is not her husband." full text

  12. Why Parenthood, and Why Now?: Gay Men’s Motivations for Pursuing Parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.

    2012-01-01

    The current qualitative study of 35 pre-adoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men’s motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically-oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to teach a child tolerance) may have been uniquely shaped by their sexual minority status, and others (e.g., desire to give a child a good home) in pa...

  13. Gay men seeking surrogacy to achieve parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. No Fun Anymore: Leisure and Marital Quality across the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Amy; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    This study examines changes in leisure patterns across the transition to parenthood for dual-earner, working-class couples, as well as the relationship between leisure and marital quality. To this end, 147 heterosexual couples were interviewed across the transition to parenthood. Findings indicate that during the transition to parenthood, husbands…

  15. Parenthood and Well-Being : The Moderating Role of Leisure and Paid Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to adapt

  16. Accounting for the money-made parenthood of transnational surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuvøy, Ingvill

    2018-06-21

    In the last decade, transnational surrogacy has attracted world-wide attention for making babies and pregnancies exchangeable with money. Involuntarily childless couples and individuals travel abroad and pay to have the desired child and to become parents. Acknowledging the importance of asking into the consequences of this monetization of reproduction, the author takes issue with universalistic assumptions about money and markets, and their presumed universal effects on social relations. Instead, it is argued that we need to explore how money works, and, by extension, how transnational surrogacy works out and becomes viable to people as a way to become parents. Putting together insights from economic sociology, and the assisted reproductive technology and parenting culture literature, the author employs the notion of accounting to grasp how people make sense of the money involved in making them parents. Based on a study involving 21 interviews with Norwegian gay and straight couples and single men and women seeking surrogacy abroad, the author explores how money is accounted for in three cases, set in three different countries; India, the United States and Canada. The analysis shows how money is accounted for in particular ways to confirm parenthood. These ways differ depending on the local context and transnational relations; ultimately making differentiated monetized parenthood. This is of significance when we try to conceptualize contemporary parenthood and how money seemingly sustains parenthood in ever more radical ways.

  17. Divorce, Single Parenthood and Stepfamilies: Structural Implications of These Transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Gerda L.

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on change in the family structure during divorce as well as stages of single parenthood and the reconstituted family. Special characteristics of these families and tasks to be undertaken to enable the new unit to function are discussed. Suggests family therapy is helpful during the crisis stage. (Author)

  18. Risk and Teenage Parenthood: An Early Sexual Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Robinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of a resource designed to support practitioners, who are not sexual health specialists, but who work with young people who may be at risk of teenage pregnancy or parenthood. Its aim was to enable practitioners to carry out an assessment using a screening tool, and to use educational…

  19. Parents' experiences of their teenage children's parenthood: An interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyasak, Atcharawadee; Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we described and analyzed parents' experiences of teenage parenthood and the provision of support to their teenage children who had recently have become parents. A qualitative method was used. In-depth interviews with 24 participants were conducted, all parents of teenage parents. Data were analyzed using content analysis; four themes and 11 subthemes were identified. The results show that parents' norms and values were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. The participants had mixed emotions and reactions to their teenage children's parenthood. Also participants were sources of support to the teenage parents and assisted them in their transition to parenthood. However, the participants also expressed the importance that their teenage children continue their education and avoid repeated pregnancies. This study highlights how emotional, instrumental, and informational support provided by parents to their teenagers can assist the latter in their transition to parenthood. In their work with teenage parents, healthcare providers can benefit from teenage parent's own parents involvement and experiences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Television for Effective Parenthood; Literature Search and Existing Materials Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

    Materials concerning parenthood education were assessed and classified as published research, audiovisual materials, and pamphlets and booklets. Eighty-nine items of related research were reviewed and listed in a bibliography. Content and technical quality of audiovisual materials from a national search were reviewed and evaluated based on…

  1. New Parents' Facebook Use at the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Mitchell K.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Glassman, Michael; Dush, Claire M. Kamp; Sullivan, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    New parents' Facebook use was examined from a social capital perspective. Surveys regarding Facebook use and parenting satisfaction, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting stress were completed by 154 mothers and 150 fathers as part of a larger study of dual-earner, Midwestern U.S. couples making the transition to parenthood. Results indicated…

  2. Conflict Frequency and Relationship Quality across the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwer, Esther S.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 293 Dutch couples were used to examine the association between conflict frequency and relationship quality across the transition to parenthood, which is known as one of the most challenging events in the early stages of marriage. More frequent conflict during pregnancy was related to lower levels of relationship quality…

  3. The Relationship between Early Maltreatment and Teenage Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Ellen C.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Egolf, Brenda P.; Russo, M. Jean

    1998-01-01

    In a longitudinal study of the effects of early childhood maltreatment, 92 adolescent parents were studied. Variables of preschool and school-age physical abuse, neglect, low self-esteem, sexual abuse, high school dropout, assaultive behavior, and drug use were examined in relationship to teenage parenthood. Implications of findings are discussed.…

  4. Shift Work, Role Overload, and the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Pierce, Courtney P.; Sayer, Aline G.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how the work hours, work schedules, and role overload of working-class couples are related to depressive symptoms and relationship conflict across the transition to parenthood. Data are from 132 dual-earner couples interviewed 5 times across the transition. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that working evening or night…

  5. [Homosexual parenthood and child development: present data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, G; Franc, N; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of existing studies on gay and lesbian parenthood and child development. Although 200,000 to 300,000 children could be concerned in 2010 in France, there is a lack of research on this issue in our country. Research among children raised by homosexual parents involves methodological issues, such as defining homosexual families, sampling cases and controls, and choosing structured or semi-structured evaluations. The fact that homosexual marriage, adoption and insemination are not presently legal in France could explain that only one study has been conducted in France in 2000 among 58 children raided by homosexual parents. This study concluded that these children did not show an increased rate of behavior or anxiety disorders. Concerns about lesbian parenting have focused on the absence of a father, the homosexual orientation of the mother, and their negative consequences on the development of the children. Research on parenting and child rearing has repeatedly compared lesbian and heterosexual families, and in the last 30 years a growing body of studies on lesbian parents and the development of their children has been published. Studies about child development, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender role behavior, emotional/behavioral development, social relationships and cognitive functioning showed no difference between children of lesbian mothers and those of heterosexual parents. Likewise, parental functioning, the mothers' psychological health and maternal skills were not significantly different among lesbian mothers than among heterosexual mothers. In studies concerning gay fathers, findings generally indicate no differences in sexual orientation, socialization, or psychological outcomes in children of gay fathers compared to children of heterosexual fathers. However, the first study on the adult attachment style dimensions of adult women who had gay or bisexual fathers suggested that they were

  6. Migration and first-time parenthood: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the reproductive behavior of young women and men in the post-Soviet Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the link between migration and fertility. We employ event-history techniques to retrospective data from the 'Marriage, Fertility, and Migration' survey conducted in Northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to study patterns in first-time parenthood. We demonstrate the extent to which internal migration is related to family formation and to the patterns of becoming a parent after resettlement. We gain deeper insights into demographic behavior by considering information on factors such as the geographical destination of migration and retrospectively stated motives for reported moves. In addition, our study reveals clear ethno-cultural differences in the timing of entry into parenthood in Kyrgyzstan.

  7. Demographic and medical consequences of the postponement of parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Sobotka, Tomas; Bentzen, Janne Gasseholm

    2012-01-01

    pronounced effects >35 years, whereas the increasing risk of preterm births and stillbirths starts at around 35 years with a more pronounced effect >40 years. Advanced male age has an important but less pronounced effect on infertility and adverse outcomes. MAR treatment cannot overcome the age...... databases were searched for publications on relevant subjects such as delayed parenthood, female and male age, fertility, infertility, time to pregnancy (TTP), fetal death, outcome of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) and mental well-being. RESULTS Postponement of parenthood is linked to a higher rate...... of involuntary childlessness and smaller families than desired due to increased infertility and fetal death with higher female and male age. For women, the increased risk of prolonged TTP, infertility, spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies and trisomy 21 starts at around 30 years of age with a more...

  8. Parenthood decisions and the transformation of the family structure

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbi, Paula Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    The study of demographic subjects among economists has flourished after the work of the Nobel Prize winner Gary Becker. This thesis contributes to this literature by looking at aspects of parenthood decisions that have already been studied by demographers and sociologists but much less by economists. The first two chapters study childlessness and its determinants. The last chapter studies how childcare is related to the education of parents. The first chapter is the first study in the ec...

  9. MARITAL RELATIONSHIP AND EXPECTATIONS ABOUT PARENTHOOD IN GAY COUPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Meletti, Alexandre Trevisani; Scorsolini-Comin, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the processes of construction of the marital relationship and expectations about parenthood in same-sex couples. It has been interviewed four gay couples (four men and four women) who have been living together for four years, on average. Semi-structured interviews have been used and the technique of the life history has been also performed in an individual appliance. They have also been audio taped, fully and literally transcribed. The content analysis ...

  10. Lesbians' experiences and attitudes towards parenthood in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsos, Polychronis; Zymvragou, Christina-Erato; Raikos, Nikolaos; Spiliopoulou, Chaido Chara

    2018-03-28

    Same-sex parenthood is controversial subject. In this paper, we provide insights into the attitudes and experiences of self-reported lesbians regarding parenthood or the prospect of becoming a parent in the current Greek social and cultural context. In Greece, lesbians are not allowed access to in vitro fertilisation (IVF), while a solitary ('single') woman is allowed access for medical reasons. Fifty-nine (59) semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with women. What emerged from our data was a clear trend for participants to wish to have their own biological children based mostly on the belief that pregnancy would lead to a sense of self-completeness and/or fulfilment. Women also reported the negative impact of prejudice and social oppression on their reproductive autonomy. Interviewees reported that their reproductive choices were negatively influenced by their family and the wider socio-cultural environment. Even within a semi-permissive legal framework, impaired social acceptance of lesbian parenthood prohibits lesbians from becoming mothers. A major reason responsible for the positive attitude of most participants to shared biological motherhood was an altruistic attitude towards their partners.

  11. The Influence of Parenthood on the Work Effort of Married Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Gayle; Uhlenberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Data from the 1992-93 National Survey of Families and Households were used to examine the effect of parenthood on married men's and women's employment and work hours. Parenthood decreased women's work effort as expected. Findings for men support two competing models--"good provider" and "involved father"--reflecting traditional…

  12. Parenthood in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: An EORTC-GELA general population case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.E. van der Kaaij (Marleen A.); N. Heutte (Natacha); P. Meijnders (Paul); E. Abeilard-Lemoisson (Edwige); M. Spina (Michele); L.C. Moser (Lotte); A. Allgeier (Anouk); B. Meulemans (Bart); B. Dubois (Brice); A.H.M. Simons; P.J. Lugtenburg (Pieternella); B.M.P. Aleman (Berthe); E.M. Noordijk (Evert); C. Fermé (Christophe); J. Thomas (Jose); A. Stamatoullas (Aspasia); C. Fruchart (Christophe); P. Brice (Pauline); I. Gaillard (Isabelle); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); C. Sebban (Catherine); W.G. Smit (Wilma); S. Bologna (Serge); J.M. Roesink (Judith); F. Ong (Francisca); J.-L. André (Jean-Luc); J. Raemaekers (John); M. Henry-Amar (Michel); J.C. Kluin-Nelemans (Hanneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We investigated the impact of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) on parenthood, including factors influencing parenthood probability, by comparing long-term HL survivors with matched general population controls. Patients and Methods: A Life Situation Questionnaire was sent to 3,604 survivors

  13. Parenthood in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: an EORTC-GELA general population case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, M.A. van der; Heutte, N.; Meijnders, P.; Abeilard-Lemoisson, E.; Spina, M.; Moser, L.C.; Allgeier, A.; Meulemans, B.; Dubois, B.; Simons, A.H.; Lugtenburg, P.J.; Aleman, B.M.; Noordijk, E.M.; Ferme, C.; Thomas, J.; Stamatoullas, A.; Fruchart, C.; Brice, P.; Gaillard, I.; Doorduijn, J.K.; Sebban, C.; Smit, W.G.; Bologna, S.; Roesink, J.M.; Ong, F.; Andre, M.P.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Henry-Amar, M.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the impact of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) on parenthood, including factors influencing parenthood probability, by comparing long-term HL survivors with matched general population controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Life Situation Questionnaire was sent to 3,604 survivors treated

  14. Does Parenthood Strengthen a Traditional Household Division of Labor? Evidence from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribe, Martin; Stanfors, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Parenthood is often considered a major factor behind gender differences in time allocation, especially between paid work and housework. This article investigates the impact of parenthood on men's and women's daily time use in Sweden and how it changed over the 1990s. The analysis is made using time diary data from the Multinational Time Use Survey…

  15. Parenthood and Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Leisure and Paid Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt J; Voorpostel, Marieke

    This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to adapt to the demands of parenthood. Using eleven waves of the Swiss Household Panel ( N  = 1332 men and 1272 women; 1999-2008, 2010), fixed effects models are estimated for men and women separately. Results show that-on average-parenthood was not associated with well-being for men, whereas it increased well-being for women. As expected, the well-being premium/cost to parenthood was contingent upon individuals' lifestyle before the transition to parenthood. For men, parenthood reduced well-being, but only if they frequently participated in leisure before the birth of the child. For women, motherhood had a beneficial effect on well-being but this effect was weaker for women who combined leisure with working long hours before motherhood.

  16. "Unthinkable" parenthoods: homosexual, transvestite, and transsexual mothers and fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zambrano

    Full Text Available The growing number of families formed by homosexual, transvestite, and transsexual fathers/mothers has not only become a social, but also socio-anthropological fact, requiring traditional convictions to be rethought. This paper aims at demonstrating how a traditional model of family - that is, a "normal" family - has been able to influence the construction of parenthoods considered, until recently, unthinkable, whether social or legally. I therefore believe that it is time to face new demands and deconstruct former certainties of Anthropology, Psychology and Psychoanalysis, and Law, so that these new families may find their place in society.

  17. New Parents' Facebook Use at the Transition to Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Mitchell K; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Glassman, Michael; Kamp Dush, Claire M; Sullivan, Jason M

    2012-07-01

    New parents' Facebook use was examined from a social capital perspective. Surveys regarding Facebook use and parenting satisfaction, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting stress were completed by 154 mothers and 150 fathers as part of a larger study of dual-earner, Mid-western U.S. couples making the transition to parenthood. Results indicated that mothers used Facebook more than fathers, and that mothers perceived an increase in use over the transition. When more of mothers' Facebook friends were family members or relatives, and when fathers reported connecting with more of their Facebook friends outside of Facebook, they reported better parental adjustment. For mothers, however, more frequent visits to Facebook accounts and more frequent content management were each associated with higher levels of parenting stress.

  18. New Parents’ Facebook Use at the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Glassman, Michael; Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Sullivan, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    New parents’ Facebook use was examined from a social capital perspective. Surveys regarding Facebook use and parenting satisfaction, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting stress were completed by 154 mothers and 150 fathers as part of a larger study of dual-earner, Mid-western U.S. couples making the transition to parenthood. Results indicated that mothers used Facebook more than fathers, and that mothers perceived an increase in use over the transition. When more of mothers’ Facebook friends were family members or relatives, and when fathers reported connecting with more of their Facebook friends outside of Facebook, they reported better parental adjustment. For mothers, however, more frequent visits to Facebook accounts and more frequent content management were each associated with higher levels of parenting stress. PMID:23671354

  19. Social policies related to parenthood and capabilities of Slovenian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrčela, Aleksandra Kanjuo; Sadar, Nevenka Černigoj

    2011-01-01

    We apply Sen's capability approach to evaluate the capabilities of Slovenian parents to reconcile paid work and family in the context of the transition to a market economy. We examine how different levels of capabilities together affect the work–life balance (WLB) of employed parents. We combine both quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches. The results of our quantitative and qualitative research show that increased precariousness of employment and intensification of work create gaps between the legal and normative possibilities for successful reconciliation strategies and actual use of such arrangements in Slovenia. The existing social policies and the acceptance of gender equality in the sphere of paid work enhance capabilities for reconciliation of paid work and parenthood, whereas the intensification of working lives, the dominance of paid work over other parts of life, and the acceptance of gender inequalities in parental and household responsibilities limit parents’ capabilities to achieve WLB.

  20. Predicting adaptation to parenthood: The role of responsiveness, gratitude, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuile, H. ter; Kluwer, E.S.; Finkenauer, C.; Lippe, A.G. van der

    2017-01-01

    The influence of positive relationship processes, specifically perceived responsiveness, felt gratitude, and felt trust, on perceived adaptation to parenthood was investigated. It was hypothesized that both higher initial levels prior to pregnancy as well as increases over time in perceived

  1. Stigma, Social Context, and Mental Health: Lesbian and Gay Couples Across the Transition to Adoptive Parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplac...

  2. Redefining parenthood: surviving the death of a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    Although dying children are often aware of their impending death, parents are reluctant to communicate with their dying child about death. The objective of this study was to examine how parents of children in the advanced stage of a life-threatening disease trajectory communicated about death. Using grounded theory methods, data were collected via interviews with 18 parents of children who had died of an advanced life-threatening disease. Ways in which parents communicated with their dying child were impacted by the degree of threat to the parental role. From the onset of their child's life-threatening illness, the sense of parental self was threatened, resulting in "Parental Vulnerability." To endure parental vulnerability, parents confronted a process of "Redefining Parenthood." Before the child's death, parents experienced (1) Protecting From Fears, (2) Protecting Normalcy, (3) Protecting Faith, (4) Experiencing Protection From Their Child, and (5) Bookmarking Memories. After the child's death, parents experienced (1) Telling the Story, (2) Making Meaning, (3) Protecting the Child's Memory, (4) Defining a New Normal, and (5) Learning to Live With Regret. Results provide new information about the experiences of parents of dying children as they communicated with their child during the dying process and as they found ways to go on with life after their child's death. Findings can be used by healthcare professionals to help support families of dying children. The field of pediatric oncology nursing would benefit from exploration of the dying child's perspective.

  3. Adolescents' sensitivity to children's supernatural thinking: A preparation for parenthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Bjorklund, David F

    2018-05-01

    Young children often use magical explanations to account for ordinary phenomena (e.g., "The sun's not out today because it is mad"). We labeled these explanations supernatural thinking. Previous research reports that supernatural thinking attributed to preschool-age children evokes both positive affect and perceptions of helplessness from both adults and older (14-17 years old) but not younger (10-13 years old) adolescents. In this study, we asked if cues of cognitive immaturity are more influential in affecting adolescents' judgments of children than physical cues (faces). 245 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 rated pairs of children who physically and/or cognitively resembled either a 4- to 7-year-old or an 8- to 10-year-old child in three between-subject conditions (Consistent, Inconsistent, Faces-Only) for 14 traits classified into four trait dimensions (Positive Affect, Negative Affect, Intelligence, Helplessness). For both younger and older adolescents, cognitive cues had a greater influence on judgments than facial cues. However, only the older adolescents demonstrated a positive bias for children expressing immature supernatural thinking. Adopting an evolutionary developmental perspective, we interpreted this outcome in late (but not early) adolescence as preparation for potential parenthood.

  4. Original article The other side of the mirror – the role of partner’s empathy in transition to parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kaźmierczak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The general objective of the project was to verify the role the partner’s empathy plays in the perceived adjustment to parenthood. Couple empathy and especially partner’s perspective-taking have been linked to better adaptation to parenthood, through increasing the quality of communication between parents or through reducing problems experienced during transition to parenthood. Empathy has been promoted among couples preparing for parenthood, for example during antenatal classes. Participants and procedure Two studies were conducted. The first study included 121 young mothers of children in their first year of life. They completed measures of adjustment to parenthood, postpartum depression, satisfaction with romantic relationship, and partner’s perceived empathy. In addition, women assessed factors associated with labour and midwife care. The second study involved 112 couples during transition to parenthood. Those couples were randomly assigned to experimental conditions using instructions in which they were asked to imagine a one’s own or b the partner’s situation after the child’s birth, and completed the questionnaire measuring expected adjustment to parenthood. Results Male perceived empathy, relational satisfaction and postpartum depression were predictors of adjustment to motherhood in Study 1. In addition, the more empathy females perceived in their partners, the lower was the level of postpartum depression they declared. Couples empathizing with the partner in Study 2 perceived the challenges of parenthood in a similar way. Future mothers perceived more parenthood problems only when assuming their own perspective. Conclusions The results of the studies indicate that empathy plays an important role in shaping adjustment to parenthood, especially motherhood. Low-dosage interventions might help couples to become aware of their mutual problems concerning transition to parenthood, when conducting longer programmes is

  5. Parenthood characteristics in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, relevant for reproductive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of insufficient childbearing is a demographic and social problem of contemporary society. In order to resolve the determination of low fertility in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, empirical research of the effects of reproductive behavior had been intensified. The purpose of this paper is to point out to the characteristics of parenthood relevant for bringing the decision on giving birth to children on the basis of this empirical material. A comparative approach, based on illuminating the compatibility of practice and models of responsible parenthood, enables the recognition of limiting factors of childbearing not only of those who are already parents but of young people who still do not have this experience. The complexity and responsibility of the parent role are stressed as part of the experience as well as the basic characteristic of the parenthood model. An adequate and efficient rehabilitation of the role of parenthood, as a necessity of the pro-natal policy must take into consideration the gender asymmetry of parenthood into consideration as well.

  6. The Role of Spirituality in Transition to Parenthood: Qualitative Research Using Transformative Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobučar, Nataša Rijavec

    2016-08-01

    This article presents results of a qualitative study of 12 adult couples making transition to parenthood. The aim of the study was to research the meaning of transition to parenthood through the lens of transformative learning theory. Transformative learning theory explains learning through meaning-making of that life experience. In this paper, the spiritual dimension of learning is emphasized. An important part of research methodology included biographical method, using semi-structured interviews before and after the birth of the first child. The research showed that transformative learning occurs in different spheres of life during transition to parenthood. This paper discusses the spiritual dimension of learning, meaning-making and presents results of the research.

  7. Parenthood and Happiness: Effects of Work-Family Reconciliation Policies in 22 OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer; Simon, Robin W; Andersson, Matthew A

    2016-11-01

    The recent proliferation of studies examining cross-national variation in the association between parenthood and happiness reveal accumulating evidence of lower levels of happiness among parents than nonparents in most advanced industrialized societies. Conceptualizing parenting as a stressor buffered by institutional support, we hypothesize that parental status differences in happiness are smaller in countries providing more resources and support to families. Our analyses of the European Social Surveys (ESS) and International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) reveal considerable variation in the parenthood gap in happiness across countries, with the U.S. showing the largest disadvantage of parenthood. We also find that more generous family policies, particularly paid time off and childcare subsidies, are associated with smaller disparities in happiness between parents and non-parents. Moreover, the policies that augment parental happiness do not reduce the happiness of nonparents. Our results shed light on macro-level causes of emotional processes, with important implications for public policy.

  8. The Homosexual Parenthood: An Exposition of the Psychoanalytical Debate in the Contemporary French Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Perelson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available After situating homoparenthood within the context of the new social and medical practices concerning parenthood and reproduction, the article presents a scenario of the contemporary French debate on this issue. The thinking of five psychoanalysts on this matter will be broached : Joël Dor and his theory about the role of the function of the father and about the anatomic difference between sexes in the structure process of the subject; Pierre Legendre and his articulation between the fields of law and the psych in the involvement of the human being in the order of parenthood; Michel Tort and his criticism of the theories of that author; and Genevieve Delaisi de Parseval and her proposal of a broader definition of the family. And, finally, Sabine Prokhoris, and her distinction between “sexuation” and “difference of the sexes”. This presentation intends to dismantle the opposite arguments and demonstrates the legitimacy of the reasoning favorable to homosexual parenthood.

  9. Fathers' Involvement in Child Care and Perceptions of Parenting Skill over the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Amy A.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Deutsch, Francine M.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study explored first-time fathers' perceived child care skill over the transition to parenthood, based on face-to-face interviews of 152 working-class, dual-earner couples. Analyses examined the associations among fathers' perceived skill and prenatal perception of skill, child care involvement, mothers' breastfeeding, maternal gatekeeping,…

  10. "Planned Parenthood v. Clark County School District": First Amendment Rights in Public Schools Continue to Erode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, John C.

    1990-01-01

    The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals decision in "Planned Parenthood" supported school officials who refused to publish certain advertisements in school-sponsored newspapers. Contends that school officials' desire to avoid any possible controversy was the underlying motive for the decision to not publish the advertisement. (MLF)

  11. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy, the Transition to Parenthood and Parental Narcissism: Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espasa, Francisco Palacio

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author discusses some of the indications for short- or long-term parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions in terms of what he defines as "problems of parenthood" and "problems of parental narcissism". Brief parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions are most frequently indicated in the case of the former: more neurotic…

  12. Parental Leave and Work Adaptation at the Transition to Parenthood: Individual, Marital, and Social Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Sussman, Amy L.; Zigler, Edward

    2004-01-01

    This study examined individual, marital, and social--contextual factors associated with the length of maternity and paternity leave and the parents' work adaptation at the transition to parenthood. Ninety-eight dual-earner parents of 3- to 5-month-old infants were surveyed following the mother's return to work. A shorter maternity leave (less than…

  13. Parenthood, Gender and Work-Family Time in the United States, Australia, Italy, France, and Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Lyn; Mullan, Killian

    2010-01-01

    Research has associated parenthood with greater daily time commitments for fathers and mothers than for childless men and women, and with deeper gendered division of labor in households. How do these outcomes vary across countries with different average employment hours, family and social policies, and cultural attitudes to family care provision?…

  14. The division of labor across the transition to parenthood : A justice perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S; Heesink, J.A.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2002-01-01

    In a three-wave longitudinal survey among 293 couples, we studied the determinants of husbands' and wives' fairness judgments regarding the division of labor across the transition to parenthood. We tested predictions derived from the distributive justice framework that perceptions of fairness

  15. Gender-Role Attitudes and Behavior across the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Priess, Heather A.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of social structural theory and identity theory, the current study examined changes in gender-role attitudes and behavior across the first-time transition to parenthood and following the birth of a second child for experienced mothers and fathers. Data were analyzed from the ongoing longitudinal Wisconsin Study of Families and Work.…

  16. Structural and Supportive Changes in Couples' Family and Friendship Networks across the Transition to Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Kelly K.; Cox, Martha J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Payne, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Examines patterns of change in family and friend network with parenthood in 137 couples surveyed before the birth of their first child. Husbands and wives who reported larger network sizes and support prior to their first child's birth were more likely to report larger networks after birth. Changes in parents' social systems were related to…

  17. Stigma, Social Context, and Mental Health: Lesbian and Gay Couples across the Transition to Adoptive Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental…

  18. Transition to Parenthood and Conjugal Life: Comparisons between Planned and Unplanned Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Genevieve; Boudreau, Jolene; Hebert, Renee

    2006-01-01

    One of the variables that could explain the considerable variety of ways that adult couples handle the transition to parenthood is whether the pregnancy was planned or not. However, very little is known about the impact of pregnancy intendedness on the conjugal life of couples during this transition. The aim of this study was to address this gap…

  19. Assessment in Action : Assessing and Displaying Suitability for Adoptive Parenthood through Text and Talk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, M.

    2008-01-01

    'Assessment in action' is an ethnographical conversation analysis of how suitability for adoptive parenthood is assessed in institutional interaction. It is about talking with clients and transforming this talk into documents. Conversations and texts are submitted to a sentence by sentence analysis

  20. Good parenthood and the constitution of we-ness in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the practice and meaning of good parenthood in contemporary family life. It focusing on the so-°©‐called reconstituted families, parenting post divorce. The paper explores practices and narratives of sharing parental responsibility in everyday life among parents who do not live...

  1. Balancing Parenthood and Academia: Work/Family Stress as Influenced by Gender and Tenure Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Laughlin, Elizabeth M.; Bischoff, Lisa G.

    2005-01-01

    The present research investigated the influence of gender and tenure status in academicians' experiences of balancing parenthood and an academic career. Men (n = 85) and women (n = 179) employed full-time in tenure-track academic positions with at least one child younger than the age of 16 responded via the Internet to a 36-item questionnaire…

  2. Parenthood and separation in couples 6 years after their first infertility consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Magali; Sanchez, Emeline Teillet; Gatimel, Nicolas; Fajau, Carole; Lesourd, Florence; Bujan, Louis; Mieusset, Roger; Parinaud, Jean; Leandri, Roger

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the percentage of couples achieving parenthood and the rate of separation 6 years after their first consultation for infertility. Epidemiological study in the reproductive medicine department of a French university hospital. All first consulting couples (FCC) who had their first infertility consultation in the department in 2007 were contacted by phone and asked to respond to a questionnaire concerning their infertility treatments, parenthood and marital status 6 years after their first consultation. Of the 685 FCC, 94 could not be contacted, 34 refused to respond and 557 (86%) answered the questionnaire. Of 557 FCC who have responded, 361 (65%) have achieved parenthood: 166 (46%) after treatment, 98 (27%) after spontaneous conception, 38 (11%) after both spontaneous and treatment-induced conception and 59 (16%) through adoption. Parenthood was not influenced either by the causes or duration of infertility. Separation occurred in 53 (9.5%) of FCC, mainly in those without any children (28% vs 4% in FCC with at least one child; P<.0001). Six years after their primary consultation, 25% of couples remained childless and 28% of them were separated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transition to Parenthood and Susceptibility to Divorce: qualitative research of divorced young parents in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Rijavec Klobučar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transition to parenthood is a vulnerable period for spouses and can consequently lead to the disintegration of their relationship. The purpose of this research was to examine the experience of this transition, circumstances and risk factors for divorce from the perspective of divorcees in Slovenia who divorced in the first year of their child’s life. On the basis of semi -structured interviews with 15 divorcees, the findings of studies examining changes after the birth of a child were confirmed. The results pointed to risk factors for marriage, such as uncertain relationship between spouses prior to the childbirth, permeable boundaries in relations with families of origin, lack of practical and emotional support, and unreal expectations. The child’s arrival accentuates unsolved issues from the past and brings additional vulnerability to the relationship. The findings of this research are a contribution to the development of preventive, educative and therapeutic programmes for couples in transition to parenthood.

  4. The impact of the transition to parenthood in health and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cristina Araújo; Abreu, Wilson Jorge Correia Pinto de; Figueiredo, Maria do Céu Aguiar Barbieri de

    2016-01-01

    Background: Even though it is common, normative, predictable and usually desired, parenthood is one of the most dramatic developmental transitions in the family life cycle, likely to cause imbalance and vulnerability. Objective: This study aimed to explore the influences on the health and well-being of parents during the first 6 months of transition to the exercise of the parental role. Methods: Grounded Theory. Data collection from semi-structured interviews (total of 60 interviews). Use of ...

  5. Stigma, Social Context, and Mental Health: Lesbian and Gay Couples Across the Transition to Adoptive Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplace support, family support, and relationship quality were related to lower depressive and anxious symptoms at the time of the adoption, and higher perceived friend support was related to lower anxiety symptoms. Lower internalized homophobia and higher perceived neighborhood gay-friendliness were related to lower depressive symptoms. Finally, individuals with high internalized homophobia who lived in states with unfavorable legal climates regarding gay adoption experienced the steepest increases in depressive and anxious symptoms. Findings have important implications for counselors working with sexual minorities, especially those experiencing the transition to parenthood. PMID:21171740

  6. Parenthood, child-rearing and fertility in England, 1850-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Siân

    2013-03-01

    Fertility declines across Europe and the Anglo-world have been explained as the result of reversals of intergenerational flows of wealth. According to this theory, the child was transformed from an economically-useful household asset to an emotionally-valued parental burden. This article is based on a comparative study of changing understandings of parenthood in three provincial English localities between 1850 and 1914. It works from the premise that in order to make sense of reproductive behaviour, it is essential to examine the meanings that men and women attached to childlessness, child-rearing and parenthood. It is argued that there was not a universal shift that made children into burdens. New understandings of the duties of parenthood did develop, but these were founded on class-, gender- and place-specific interpretations. These encouraged a minority of fathers and mothers to believe that together they had the capacity to improve the lives of their sons and daughters in pioneering ways. Given that husbands and wives had distinct motives for avoiding rearing many children and that the discussion of reproduction was shrouded in silence, the dissemination and use of new ideals of family was crucial in enabling birth control to be thought about respectably within marriage.

  7. Stigma, social context, and mental health: lesbian and gay couples across the transition to adoptive parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplace support, family support, and relationship quality were related to lower depressive and anxious symptoms at the time of the adoption, and higher perceived friend support was related to lower anxiety symptoms. Lower internalized homophobia and higher perceived neighborhood gay-friendliness were related to lower depressive symptoms. Finally, individuals with high internalized homophobia who lived in states with unfavorable legal climates regarding gay adoption experienced the steepest increases in depressive and anxious symptoms. Findings have important implications for counselors working with sexual minorities, especially those experiencing the transition to parenthood.

  8. The influence of family unions and parenthood transitions on self-development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eva Yi-Ju; Enright, Robert D; Tung, Eli Yi-Liang

    2016-04-01

    The present study discusses the impact of union and parenthood transitions on individuals' self-esteem and sense of mastery development from midadolescence to young adulthood by using multilevel analyses with longitudinal data of 7,339 individuals between ages 15 and 38. The results show that, first, individuals in marital unions show significantly greater rates of growth in self-esteem and sense of mastery, compared with singles. Therefore, entering into marriage provides greater protections to individuals' self-esteem and sense of mastery. Second, the transition to parenthood brings significant decreases in levels and increases in rates of change in self-esteem and sense of mastery among new parents. The degree of the aforementioned changes differs by new parents' gender, union status, and living arrangement with the child at childbirth. Women are influenced more negatively than men. Living with the child at childbirth reduces the degree of decreases in self-esteem and sense of mastery, especially for mothers. In sum, from midadolescence to young adulthood, the development of individuals' self-esteem and sense of mastery is shaped by their union and parenthood transitions. Moreover, the context where these transitions take place, including the type of union and the living arrangement, moderates the degree of the impact. Our findings have important implications for research and practice in promoting the family transition experience. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Fertility awareness and attitudes towards parenthood among Danish university college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Marcussen, Signe; Backhausen, Mette Grønbæk; Juhl, Mette; Schmidt, Lone; Tydén, Tanja; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2016-12-13

    Postponing parenthood has steadily increased during the past decades in Western countries. This trend has affected the size of families in the direction of fewer children born per couple. In addition, higher maternal age is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy-related complications such as prematurity and foetal death, while higher paternal age increases the risk of miscarriage and affects time-to-pregnancy. Hence, understanding the circumstances and reflections that influence the decision is greatly needed and little is known about potential gender difference influencing the choice. The aim was to investigate attitudes towards parenthood, intentions for childbirth and knowledge about fertility issues among men and women. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a validated 49-item questionnaire among students, who attended selected mandatory lectures at a Danish university college in February to April 2016. The participation rate was 99%, and 517 completed the questionnaire. Though the majority of all participants wished to have children in the future (>86%), there was significant difference between the genders (p = 0.002). Women rated having children to be more important than men did (p fertility issues was similar between genders including poor knowledge about the age-related decline in female fertility. While women found it more important to have children before being 'too old' (p = 0.04), still more than 40% of all respondents intended to have their last child after the age of 35 years. For both genders the most important prerequisite for parenthood was having a partner to share responsibility with. Perceived or experienced life changes related to parenthood were generally positive such as personal development. The majority of respondents wished to have children, but many desired to have these after the biological decline in female fertility. The moderate knowledge level among both genders uncovered in this study is of concern. Future

  10. Federal Holidays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Federal law (5 U.S.C. 6103) establishes the following public holidays for Federal employees. Please note that most Federal employees work on a Monday through Friday...

  11. Tethered lives: A couple-based perspective on the consequences of parenthood for time use, occupation, and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killewald, Alexandra; García-Manglano, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Prior research on parenthood effects has typically used single-sex models and estimated average effects. By contrast, we estimate population-level variability in partners' changes in housework hours, paid work hours, occupation traits, and wages after becoming parents, and we explore whether one partner's adjustment offsets or supplements the other's. We find tradeoffs between spouses on paid work adjustments to parenthood, but complementarity in adjustments to housework hours, occupation traits, and wages. The effect of parenthood on wives' behaviors is larger and more variable than on husbands' behaviors in every domain. The modest variation between husbands in work responses to parenthood explains little of the variation in the motherhood penalty, while variation in wives' own behaviors plays a larger role. We refer to this pattern as tethered autonomy: variation across American couples in work responses to parenthood is shaped primarily by variation in wives' adjustments, while husbands' work acts largely as a fixed point. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Die Bedeutung Subjektiver Elternschaftskonzepte fur Erziehungsverhalten und elterliche Partnerschaft. Ein Uberblick uber neuere Forschungsergebnisse (The Significance of Subjective Concepts of Parenthood for Educational Behavior and Parental Partnership).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicki, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the subjective concept of parenthood as the personal interpretation of parental responsibility, distinguishing it from related theoretical concepts. Discusses, against the background of theoretical models and empirical findings, the relationship of the parenthood concept with the parents' actual educational behavior. Suggests ways to…

  13. The transition into adoptive parenthood: Adoption as a process of continued unsafe uncertainty when family scripts collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Fiona; Wood, Sally

    2016-10-01

    Our prospective study investigated couples' expectations of adoptive parenthood and explored how these changed with their actual experience of parenthood. Six heterosexual couples were interviewed just before placement began and 6 months after the children had arrived. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse both sets of interview data. Expectations of adoptive parenthood mostly transformed smoothly into adoption experience for couples, but challenges were experienced when family scripts collided and a continued feeling of unsafe uncertainty then prevailed within these newly formed family systems. Family script collision seemed a particular problem for couples adopting sibling pairs. To further professional practice in working with families over the transition to adoptive parenting, we suggest that professionals keep in mind a framework that includes the following: Internal and external world influences on family members, Intergenerational issues, Family scripts and the Structural challenges of adoption (IIFS). © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Women's experiences after Planned Parenthood's exclusion from a family planning program in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C Junda; Alamgir, Hasanat; Potter, Joseph E

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the impact on depot medroxyprogesterone continuation when a large care provider was banned from a state-funded family planning program. We used three methods to assess the effect of the ban: (a) In a records review, we compared how many state program participants returned to two Planned Parenthood affiliates for a scheduled dose of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) immediately after the ban; (b) We conducted phone interviews with 224 former Planned Parenthood patients about DMPA use and access to contraception immediately after the ban; (c) We compared current contraceptive method of our interviewees to that of comparable DMPA users in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2010 (NSFG). (a) Fewer program clients returned for DMPA at a large urban Planned Parenthood, compared to a remotely located affiliate (14.4%, vs. 64.8%), reflecting different levels of access to alternative providers in the two cities. (b) Among program participants who went elsewhere for the injection, only 56.8% obtained it at no cost and on time. More than one in five women missed a dose because of barriers, most commonly due to difficulty finding a provider. (c) Compared to NSFG participants, our interviewees used less effective methods of contraception, even more than a year after the ban went into effect. Injectable contraception use was disrupted during the rollout of the state-funded family planning program. Women living in a remote area of Texas encountered more barriers. Requiring low-income family planning patients to switch healthcare providers has adverse consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fertility awareness and attitudes towards parenthood among Danish university college students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Marcussen, Signe; Backhausen, Mette Grønbæk

    2016-01-01

    . Perceived or experienced life changes related to parenthood were generally positive such as personal development. CONCLUSION: The majority of respondents wished to have children, but many desired to have these after the biological decline in female fertility. The moderate knowledge level among both genders......-related complications such as prematurity and foetal death, while higher paternal age increases the risk of miscarriage and affects time-to-pregnancy. Hence, understanding the circumstances and reflections that influence the decision is greatly needed and little is known about potential gender difference influencing...

  16. Gay fathers' motivations for and feelings about surrogacy as a path to parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, L; Carone, N; Raffanello, E; Slutsky, Jenna; Ehrhardt, A A; Golombok, S

    2017-04-01

    Why do gay men choose to start their families through surrogacy? Most fathers chose surrogacy because they considered adoption to be a less desirable and/or accessible path to parenthood. Little is known of gay fathers' motivations to use surrogacy as a path to parenthood over and above other forms of family building, such as adoption, and no studies have examined fathers' satisfaction with the surrogacy process. This study used a cross-sectional design as part of a larger investigation of parent-child relationships and child adjustment in 40 gay father surrogacy families. Multiple strategies (e.g. surrogacy agencies, social events and snowballing) were used to recruit as diverse a sample as possible. Data were obtained from 74 fathers (in 6 families only 1 father was available for interview). Semi-structured interviews, lasting ~1 h, were conducted in the family home (65%) or over Skype (35%) with 74 gay fathers (35 genetic fathers, 32 non-genetic fathers and 7 fathers who did not know or did not disclose who the genetic father was), when the children were 3-9 years old. Genetic and non-genetic fathers were just as likely to want to become parents and had similar motivations for choosing surrogacy as a path to parenthood. Most fathers (N = 55, 74%) were satisfied with surrogacy and were satisfied (N = 31. 42%) or had neutral feelings (N = 21, 28%) about their choice of who would be the genetic father. Most fathers received supportive reactions to their decision to use surrogacy from both families of origin (e.g. parents, siblings) (N = 47, 64%) and from friends (N = 63, 85%). Although diverse recruitment strategies were used, data were obtained from a volunteer sample. Therefore, the possibility that fathers who had a positive surrogacy experience may have been more likely to participate in the study, and therefore introduce bias, cannot be ruled out. Due to the high average annual income of the fathers in the study, findings may not generalize to gay fathers with

  17. Surrogate Parenthood Act 1988 (No. 65 of 1988), 6 October 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains provisions of the 1988 Queensland Australia Act prohibiting surrogate parenthood contracts. The Act defines "surrogate parent" and "prescribed contract" and prohibits the publication of any type of document which intends to induce a person to act as a surrogate parent, to seek such a person, or to state willingness to act as a surrogate. Offering to enter into a prescribed contract holds a penalty of 100 penalty units or three years' imprisonment or both. This Act applies if the offense occurs in Queensland or if the offender is normally a resident of Queensland, irrespective of where the offense occurs.

  18. Federalism Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. E. Dick

    1987-01-01

    Examines the concept of federalism in terms of its past history and its encouraging future. Calls for a revival of concern for federalism not simply as a convenient administrative arrangement but as a fundamental constitutional value. (BSR)

  19. Love and Family: Discussions Between Swedish Men and Women Concerning the Transition to Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disa Bergnéhr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an exploration of how young Swedish adults talk about intimate relationships and the transition to parenthood. It is suggested that people carefully reflect over their relationship with their partner before deciding to embark on parenthood, and it is shown that reproductive decision making is imbued with contradictory ideals that may cause stress and anxiety. To have and to raise a child in a nuclear family arrangement is one prominent ideal that is illuminated by this study, but parallel with this is the notion of intimate relationships breaking down, dwindling. These two discourses are contradictory and create dilemmas in the process of family formation. Some individuals find the risk of relationship dissolution especially stressful, drawing on their own childhood experiences of growing up with separated parents. This is a study based on focus group interviews containing men and women, ranging from 24 to 39 years old, with different educational, occupational and geographical backgrounds; some are parents and some are not. The data are analysed using a discourse analytical approach, and much of the discussion is based on Anthony GIDDENS', Zygmunt BAUMAN's and Ulrich BECK and Elisabeth BECK-GERNSHEIM's reasoning about love and intimacy in the contemporary Western world. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701239

  20. Paternal and maternal transition to parenthood: the risk of postpartum depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella Epifanio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development.

  1. Effects of single parenthood on educational aspiration and student disengagement in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoon Park

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent rapid increase in divorce, along with its distinctive cultural and welfare environments for single-parent families, makes Korea an interesting case for examining effects of single parenthood on children's education. Using data from Korean 9th and 12th graders, I compare the levels of educational aspiration and student disengagement between students with two parents and those with a single parent, distinguishing divorced single fathers, widowed single fathers, divorced single mothers, and widowed single mothers. Logistic regression analyses show that students with a divorced single parent, regardless of gender of the parent, are much less likely to aspire to four-year university education and more likely to be disengaged than their counterparts with two parents. The effects of widowhood disappear once control variables are held constant. Lower household income among single-parent families explains in part the poorer educational outcomes of their children. Parent-child interaction is another important mediating factor for the effect of single fatherhood but not for single motherhood. The relevance of the extended family system and distinctive features of post-divorce living arrangements in Korea is discussed to understand the effects of single parenthood.

  2. Gender, Parenthood and Wage Differences: The Importance of Time-Consuming Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Charlotta; Nermo, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (2000, 2010), we investigate how the gender wage gap varies with occupational prestige and family status and also examine the extent to which this gap is explained by time-consuming working conditions. In addition, we investigate whether there is an association between parenthood, job characteristics and wage (as differentiated by gender). The analyses indicate that there are gender differences regarding prestige-based pay-offs among parents that are partly explained by fathers' greater access to employment characterized by time-consuming conditions. Separate analyses for men and women demonstrate the presence of a marriage wage premium for both genders, although only men have a parenthood wage premium. This fatherhood premium is however only present in high-prestigious occupations. Compared with childless men, fathers are also more advantaged in terms of access to jobs with time-consuming working conditions, but the wage gap between fathers and childless men is not explained by differences in access to such working conditions.

  3. Predictors of Parenting Stress in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents During Early Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2014-01-01

    Little work has examined parenting stress in adoptive parents, particularly lesbian and gay adoptive parents. The current longitudinal study examined parent-reported child characteristics (measured post-placement) and parent and family characteristics (measured pre-placement) as predictors of post-placement parenting stress and change in parenting stress across three time points during the first 2 years of adoptive parenthood, among 148 couples (50 lesbian, 40 gay, and 58 heterosexual) who were first-time parents. Children in the sample were, on average, 5.61 months (SD = 10.26) when placed, and 2.49 years (SD = .85) at the 2 year post-placement follow-up. Findings revealed that parents who had been placed with older children, and parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children, reported more post-placement stress. In addition, parents who reported fewer depressive symptoms, more love for their partners, and more family and friend support during the pre-placement period, had less post-placement stress. Parenting stress decreased for parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children, while it increased somewhat for those who reported developmental problems in their children. Findings highlight vulnerabilities and resources that may shape adoptive parents’ experiences of stress in early parenthood, and have implications for both researchers and professionals who wish to support adoptive family adjustment. PMID:24611690

  4. Gender-role attitudes and behavior across the transition to parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Priess, Heather A; Hyde, Janet S

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of social structural theory and identity theory, the current study examined changes in gender-role attitudes and behavior across the first-time transition to parenthood and following the birth of a second child for experienced mothers and fathers. Data were analyzed from the ongoing longitudinal Wisconsin Study of Families and Work. Gender-role attitudes, work and family identity salience, and division of household labor were measured for 205 first-time and 198 experienced mothers and fathers across 4 time points from 5 months pregnant to 12 months postpartum. Multilevel latent growth curve analysis was used to analyze the data. In general, parents became more traditional in their gender-role attitudes and behavior following the birth of a child, women changed more than men, and first-time parents changed more than experienced parents. Findings suggest that changes in gender-role attitudes and behavior following the birth of a child may be attributed to both the process of transitioning to parenthood for the first time and that of negotiating the demands of having a new baby in the family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Understanding Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Eugene W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Urges returning to the original federalist debates to understand contemporary federalism. Reviews "The Federalist Papers," how federalism has evolved, and the centralization of the national government through acts of Congress and Supreme Court decisions. Recommends teaching about federalism as part of teaching about U.S. government…

  6. Beleaguered Egypt project running out of funds and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Started in 1979 as part of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), the Family of the Future (FOF) social marketing project accounts for 35% of all contraceptives used in Egypt. FOF left the IPPF in 1981 to work as a nonprofit, semiprivate organization under the supervision of Egypt's Ministry of Health and has become the third largest social marketing project in the world. FOF has, however, gone through 5 executive directors in the last 6 years, prompting critics to think that the Board of Directors is hand-picked by the Egyptian Ministry of Health. additional allegations of financial mismanagement have caused the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to cancel over $1.5 million in annual funding and product support for the program. Until recently, FOF has benefited from products and operations and technical assistance totalling near $20 million as part of a USAID 10-year, $118-million Egyptian effort. FOF has responded to the funding cut by downsizing its staff and preparing to raise contraceptive prices. Even though USAID has solicited proposals for competitive replacement programs, the new executive director is optimistic that funding cuts leading to organizational change and price increases will ultimately help FOF become self-sufficient. Once USAID-provided supplies have been depleted, FOF will most likely turn to IPPF for assistance.

  7. The Effect of Parenthood Education on Self- Efficacy and Parent Effectiveness in an Alternative High School Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Becky Weller; Jain, Sachin; Canfield-Davis, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents defined as at-risk typically lack healthy models of parenting and receive no parenthood education prior to assuming the parenting role. Unless a proactive approach is implemented, the cyclic pattern of dysfunctional parenting-- including higher rates of teen pregnancy, increased childhood abuse, low educational attainment,…

  8. The transition to parenthood and well-being: The impact of partner status and work hour transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Keizer (Renske); P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); A-R. Poortman (Anne-Rigt)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Using data from the first two waves of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study for 338 women and 262 men, we examine the consequences of making the transition to parenthood for life satisfaction, loneliness, positive affect, negative affect, and partnership satisfaction. We extend

  9. Parental Divorce and Couples' Adjustment during the Transition to Parenthood: The Role of Parent-Adult Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Genevieve; Doucet, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the associations between parental divorce, quality of relationships with parents, and dyadic adjustment during transition of 114 couples to parenthood. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 9 months postpartum. As predicted, the authors found that women from divorced families…

  10. A Narrative Engagement Framework to Understand HPV Vaccination among Latina and Vietnamese Women in a Planned Parenthood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Suellen; Garcia, Samantha; Duong, Huong T.; Russo, Jennefer A.; Tanjasiri, Sora P.

    2017-01-01

    Disparities in cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination persist among Vietnamese and Latina women. Through a partnership with Planned Parenthood of Orange and San Bernardino Counties (PPOSBC) in Southern California, we conducted in-depth interviews with young adult Latina (n = 24) and Vietnamese (n = 24) women, and PPOSBC staff…

  11. Reflections on fertility and postponed parenthood-interviews with highly educated women and men without children in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Carola; Larsson, Margareta; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Tydén, Tanja

    2013-05-01

    Different reasons influence the current low birth-rate and the postponement of the birth of the first child throughout Europe. The aim of this study was to explore how highly educated women and men in Sweden reflect on fertility and postponed parenthood. We interviewed women (n = 22) and men (n = 18) who had started their professional careers and still had no children. Data were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Fertility was perceived as an unconsidered capacity, sometimes unpredictable, and different for women and men, but nevertheless taken for granted. The participants were of the opinion that fertility could be restored by assisted reproductive technologies or replaced by alternatives to a biological child. Postponed parenthood was described as an adaptation to societal changes and current discourses about parenthood as well as a consequence of a contemporary lifestyle with many competing priorities. Highly educated young women and men in contemporary Sweden have competing priorities when planning and setting goals for their lives, and having children is one of them. They describe fertility as an imperceptible and retrievable capacity and postponed parenthood as a rational adaptation to changes in society. These findings suggest that increased information about the limitations of human reproduction is needed, but also that societal support for younger parents is of utmost importance.

  12. Does infertility history affect the emotional adjustment of couples undergoing assisted reproduction? the mediating role of the importance of parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Gameiro, Sofia; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Soares, Isabel; Almeida-Santos, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    The emotional adjustment of couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments has been widely studied; however, it remains unclear whether infertility history contributes to couples' adjustment. This study examined the impact of infertility history (duration of infertility and number of previous ART treatment cycles) on the emotional adjustment of couples undergoing an ART cycle and the mediating effect of importance of parenthood on that association. In this cross-sectional study, 70 infertile couples (70 women and 70 men) completed self-report questionnaires assessing emotional adjustment and infertility stress during the hormonal stimulation phase of an ART cycle. Path models accounting for the dyadic nature of the data examined the direct and indirect effects (by affecting representations about parenthood and childlessness) of infertility history on emotional adjustment. The number of previous cycles affected men's, but not women's, emotional adjustment by affecting the representations on the importance of parenthood and of childlessness. Duration of infertility had the opposite effect, as couples with longer infertility reported heightened importance of parenthood, which negatively affected their emotional adjustment. Infertility history was associated with emotional adjustment in men and women, although these associations were complex. The results suggest that progression through treatment is harder for those men and women who attribute higher importance to being parents, which is aggravated by longer infertility. What is already known about the subject? Infertility is an unexpected and stressful life event Assisted reproductive treatments (ART) are emotionally demanding What does this study add? The influence of infertility history on adjustment is mediated by the importance of parenthood Men and women are affected by their past history of infertility differently. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Health Psychology published by John

  13. Individual or group antenatal education for childbirth or parenthood, or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, A J; Sandall, J

    2007-07-18

    Structured antenatal education programs for childbirth or parenthood, or both, are commonly recommended for pregnant women and their partners by healthcare professionals in many parts of the world. Such programs are usually offered to groups but may be offered to individuals. To assess the effects of this education on knowledge acquisition, anxiety, sense of control, pain, labour and birth support, breastfeeding, infant-care abilities, and psychological and social adjustment. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (April 2006), CINAHL (1982 to April 2006), ERIC (1984 to April 2006), EMBASE (1980 to April 2006) and PsycINFO (1988 to April 2006). We handsearched the Journal of Psychosomatic Research from 1956 to April 2006 and reviewed the reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomized controlled trials of any structured educational program provided during pregnancy by an educator to either parent that included information related to pregnancy, birth or parenthood. The educational interventions could have been provided on an individual or group basis. Educational interventions directed exclusively to either increasing breastfeeding success, knowledge of and coping skills concerning postpartum depression, improving maternal psycho-social health including anxiety, depression and self-esteem or reducing smoking were excluded. Both authors assessed trial quality and extracted data from published reports. Nine trials, involving 2284 women, were included. Thirty-seven studies were excluded. Educational interventions were the focus of eight of the studies (combined n = 1009). Details of the randomization procedure, allocation concealment, and/or participant accrual or loss for these trials were not reported. No consistent results were found. Sample sizes were very small to moderate, ranging from 10 to 318. No data were reported concerning anxiety, breastfeeding success, or general social support. Knowledge acquisition, sense of control

  14. Personality, communication, and depressive symptoms across the transition to parenthood: A dyadic longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Emma M; Simpson, Jeffry A; Rholes, W Steven

    2015-03-01

    This study adopted a person (actor) by partner perspective to examine how actor personality traits, partner personality traits, and specific actor by partner personality trait interactions predict actor's depressive symptoms across the first two years of the transition to parenthood. Data were collected from a large sample of new parents (both partners in each couple) 6 weeks before the birth of their first child, and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. The results revealed that higher actor neuroticism and lower partner agreeableness predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms in actors. Moreover, the specific combination of high actor neuroticism and low partner agreeableness was a particularly problematic combination, which was intensified when prepartum dysfunctional problem-solving communication and aggression existed in the relationship. These results demonstrate the importance of considering certain actor by partner disposition pairings to better understand actors' emotional well-being during major life transitions.

  15. Changes in marital satisfaction across the transition to parenthood: the role of adult attachment orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Jamie L; Rholes, Steven W; Simpson, Jeffry A; Martin, A McLeish; Tran, SiSi; Wilson, Carol L

    2012-11-01

    This longitudinal study investigated marital satisfaction trajectories across the first 2 years of parenthood. Data were collected from new parents (couples) 6 weeks before the birth of their first child, and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. Growth curve models revealed two key findings. First, for highly anxious individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived their partners as less supportive and as behaving more negatively toward them. Second, for highly avoidant individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived more work-family conflict and greater demands from their families. The findings suggest that attachment insecurities predict dissatisfaction in new parents primarily when stressors block the pursuit of important attachment goals.

  16. The Production of Inequality: The Gender Division of Labor Across the Transition to Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorsky, Jill E; Dush, Claire M Kamp; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J

    2015-06-01

    Using longitudinal time diary and survey data from a community sample of dual-earner couples across the transition to parenthood, the authors examined change in divisions of paid and unpaid work and assessed the accuracy of survey data for time use measurement. Mothers, according to the time diaries, shouldered the majority of child care and did not decrease their paid work hours. Furthermore, the gender gap was not present prebirth but emerged postbirth with women doing more than 2 hours of additional work per day compared to an additional 40 minutes for men. Moreover, the birth of a child magnified parents' overestimations of work in the survey data, and had the authors relied only on survey data, gender work inequalities would not have been apparent. The findings have important implications for (a) the state of the gender revolution among couples well positioned to obtained balanced workloads and (b) the utility of survey data to measure parents' division of labor.

  17. Gay fathers’ motivations for and feelings about surrogacy as a path to parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, N.; Raffanello, E.; Slutsky, Jenna; Ehrhardt, A. A.; Golombok, S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract STUDY QUESTION Why do gay men choose to start their families through surrogacy? SUMMARY ANSWER Most fathers chose surrogacy because they considered adoption to be a less desirable and/or accessible path to parenthood. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Little is known of gay fathers’ motivations to use surrogacy as a path to parenthood over and above other forms of family building, such as adoption, and no studies have examined fathers’ satisfaction with the surrogacy process. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This study used a cross-sectional design as part of a larger investigation of parent–child relationships and child adjustment in 40 gay father surrogacy families. Multiple strategies (e.g. surrogacy agencies, social events and snowballing) were used to recruit as diverse a sample as possible. Data were obtained from 74 fathers (in 6 families only 1 father was available for interview). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD Semi-structured interviews, lasting ~1 h, were conducted in the family home (65%) or over Skype (35%) with 74 gay fathers (35 genetic fathers, 32 non-genetic fathers and 7 fathers who did not know or did not disclose who the genetic father was), when the children were 3–9 years old. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Genetic and non-genetic fathers were just as likely to want to become parents and had similar motivations for choosing surrogacy as a path to parenthood. Most fathers (N = 55, 74%) were satisfied with surrogacy and were satisfied (N = 31. 42%) or had neutral feelings (N = 21, 28%) about their choice of who would be the genetic father. Most fathers received supportive reactions to their decision to use surrogacy from both families of origin (e.g. parents, siblings) (N = 47, 64%) and from friends (N = 63, 85%). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Although diverse recruitment strategies were used, data were obtained from a volunteer sample. Therefore, the possibility that fathers who had a positive surrogacy experience may have been

  18. Marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms among Korean mothers transitioning to parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsil

    2016-06-01

    Although many empirical findings support associations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms, gaps remain in our understanding of the magnitude and direction of the associations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms as well as the associations in a collectivistic culture. The present study examined autoregressive cross-lagged associations between marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms across a 3-year investigation in a sample of Korean mothers transitioning to parenthood. The sample consisted of 2,078 mothers in the Panel Study of Korean Children. The mothers reported marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms annually for 3 years. The results of an autoregressive cross-lagged model revealed bidirectional associations between marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms. The findings provide evidence of an interactional model of depression in a sample of Korean mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Duration and Timing of Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty and the Risk of Adolescent Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that the impact of neighborhood poverty depends on both the duration and timing of exposure. Previous research, however, does not properly analyze the sequence of neighborhoods to which children are exposed throughout the early life course. This study investigates the effects of different longitudinal patterns of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods on the risk of adolescent parenthood. It follows a cohort of children in the PSID from age 4 to 19 and uses novel methods for time-varying exposures that overcome critical limitations of conventional regression when selection processes are dynamic. Results indicate that sustained exposure to poor neighborhoods substantially increases the risk of becoming a teen parent and that exposure to neighborhood poverty during adolescence may be more consequential than exposure earlier during childhood. PMID:23720166

  20. Nature, Nurture, and Attachment: Implications in Light of Expanding Definitions of Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junewicz, Alexandra; Billick, Stephen Bates

    2018-01-02

    Recent expansion of the legal definition of parenthood in New York State raises the question of whether the presence of a genetic relationship between a parent and child trumps environmental and interpersonal factors in the formation of a strong, secure attachment bond. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize that attachment between a child and secure attachment figure is inherently biological, and that such biological attachment supersedes the existence of a genetic parent-child relationship. First, the paper provides an overview of attachment and its biological basis. It then discusses the impact on attachment of environmental and interpersonal influences, which current research suggests have the power to alter brain biology. There is no clear evidence that a genetic relationship confers a significant advantage in terms of attachment. This paper proposes that the term "biological parent" be redefined to include anyone with whom a child shares a strong attachment bond.

  1. Predicting Substance Use Patterns Among Rural Adults: The Roles of Mothers, Fathers, and Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Cucciare, Michael A; Booth, Brenda M; Timko, Christine

    2018-04-16

    This study examined the role of parenthood and parental influences on substance use patterns for 710 stimulant users age 18-61 living in the rural Midwest and Mid-south U.S. Longitudinal growth analyses showed that a maternal history of drug use was associated with increased baseline drug use severity, lesser declines in severity, and greater plateau of drug use severity over time. Parental conflict was associated with lesser declines in drug use severity, and drug use severity declined more steeply for participants who were themselves parents. Participants with two parents having a history of alcohol use had a greater baseline severity of alcohol use, with paternal history of drug use associated with lower baseline alcohol use severity. These findings demonstrate the importance of identifying parental influences in evaluating adult substance use, and point to the inclusion of parents in efforts to prevent and treat substance use disorders. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  2. The Production of Inequality: The Gender Division of Labor Across the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorsky, Jill E.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Using longitudinal time diary and survey data from a community sample of dual-earner couples across the transition to parenthood, the authors examined change in divisions of paid and unpaid work and assessed the accuracy of survey data for time use measurement. Mothers, according to the time diaries, shouldered the majority of child care and did not decrease their paid work hours. Furthermore, the gender gap was not present prebirth but emerged postbirth with women doing more than 2 hours of additional work per day compared to an additional 40 minutes for men. Moreover, the birth of a child magnified parents’ overestimations of work in the survey data, and had the authors relied only on survey data, gender work inequalities would not have been apparent. The findings have important implications for (a) the state of the gender revolution among couples well positioned to obtained balanced workloads and (b) the utility of survey data to measure parents’ division of labor. PMID:26430282

  3. Associations of Partner Age Gap at Sexual Debut with Teenage Parenthood and Lifetime Number of Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masho, Saba W; Chambers, Gregory J; Wallenborn, Jordyn T; Ferrance, Jacquelyn L

    2017-06-01

    Age at sexual debut and age gap between partners at debut are modifiable characteristics that may be related to risky sexual behaviors. Understanding any such relationships is a necessary first step toward strengthening risk interventions. Age at sexual debut and partner age gap were examined for 3,154 female and 2,713 male respondents to the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth who first had intercourse before age 18. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between these measures and teenage parenthood and reporting a high lifetime number of partners (i.e., a number above the sample median). Females' odds of teenage parenthood were elevated if sexual debut occurred at ages 15-17 and involved a partner age gap of 3-4 years (odds ratio, 1.8) or more (2.0); they were reduced if debut occurred before age 15 and the gap was 3-4 years (0.8). Females' likelihood of reporting a high lifetime number of partners was negatively associated with age gap (0.4-0.7, depending on age at debut and length of age gap). Males' likelihood of reporting a large number of partners was positively associated with age gap if sexual debut was before age 15 and the gap was five or more years (1.7) or if debut was at ages 15-17 and involved a 3-4-year gap (2.0). Identifying the mechanisms underlying these associations could inform program design and implementation. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  4. Tweeting PP: an analysis of the 2015-2016 Planned Parenthood controversy on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Leo; Han, Lisa; Darney, Blair; Rodriguez, Maria I

    2017-12-01

    We analyzed Twitter tweets and Twitter-provided user data to give geographical, temporal and content insight into the use of social media in the Planned Parenthood video controversy. We randomly sampled the full Twitter repository (also known as the Firehose) (n=30,000) for tweets containing the phrase "planned parenthood" as well as group-defining hashtags "#defundpp" and "#standwithpp." We used demographic content provided by the user and word analysis to generate charts, maps and timeline visualizations. Chi-square and t tests were used to compare differences in content, statistical references and dissemination strategies. From July 14, 2015, to January 30, 2016, 1,364,131 and 795,791 tweets contained "#defundpp" and "#standwithpp," respectively. Geographically, #defundpp and #standwithpp were disproportionally distributed to the US South and West, respectively. Word analysis found that early tweets predominantly used "sensational" words and that the proportion of "political" and "call to action" words increased over time. Scatterplots revealed that #standwithpp tweets were clustered and episodic compared to #defundpp. #standwithpp users were more likely to be female [odds ratio (OR) 2.2, confidence interval (CI) 2.0-2.4] and have fewer followers (median 544 vs. 1578, panalysis can be used to characterize and understand the content, tempo and location of abortion-related messages in today's public spheres. Further research may inform proabortion efforts in terms of how information can be more effectively conveyed to the public. This study has implications for how the medical community interfaces with the public with regards to abortion. It highlights how social media are actively exploited instruments for information and message dissemination. Researchers, providers and advocates should be monitoring social media and addressing the public through these modern channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention of Risky Sexual Behaviour through the Formation of Psychological Readiness to Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysko A.A.,

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the world there are tendencies of early entering into sexual relations and simultaneous withdrawal of the age of marriage, an increase in the number of early pregnancies and abortions among minors. Existing programs for the prevention of risky sexual behavior are ineffective, since they are one-time, narrowly focused. The author presents the results of an experiment on the prevention of risky sexual behavior in adolescents based on the formation of their ideas of parenting and child-parent relations, and through the prism of this topic, allowing to build an image of reproductive behavior in the present and future. The program is designed taking into account the psychology of modern adolescents, in accordance with the principles of awareness and responsibility, is based on a restorative approach and resource approach to the formation of psychological readiness for parenthood M.E. Lantsburg. The program for the development of psychological preparedness for parenting in adolescents has two targets: the nearest: preventing adolescent pregnancy and reducing its negative consequences in the event of an early pregnancy, and strategic - preparing for the planning and birth of the coveted child in the future. The results prove that the adolescents' views about the family depend both on the experiences they experienced in their own childhood and on the trends in the social and political space discussed in this topic. The study showed that adolescents' views on sexual relations, family and parenthood can be purposefully influenced through a program based on the knowledge of age-related psychology, resource and recovery approaches and using interactive methods of teaching relevant to this age group.

  6. Federal Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sheila; Tawil, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The federal government pays for a wide range of goods and services that are expected to be useful some years in the future. Those purchases, called investment, fall into three categories: physical capital, research and development (R&D), and education and training. There are several economic rationales for federal investment. It can provide…

  7. Standpoints of the young people in Serbia on parenthood in the period of social changes - end of eighties till end of nineties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Standpoints on parenthood represent the central subject of sociological approach in analyzing social determination of low reproductive norms. The goal of comparative analysis (first research carried out at the end of the eighties, and the second at the end of the nineties in different political and socio-economic surroundings is to record changed arguments and to point out to possible consequences which could be manifested through changes of the prevailing type of parenthood, namely the future reproductive behavior of subpopulation of the young (secondary-school pupils and students. Argument change of parenthood motivation basis on the general level is manifested by the weakening of its instrumental foundation, due to the prevailing altruistic motive "children - the meaning of life". As regards birth control, the young are more willing to accept contemporary contraceptive methods. A stabilization of the average values of desired and expected number of children is noted, but this discord is still an indicator of the defeat of complete realization of the need for parenthood. The insisting on everyday life quality is still perceived as an inhabitation factor when bringing decision on the number of children. Changes in the standpoints concerning the relation between marriage and parenthood did not seriously shake up the traditional system of values, which points out to their mutual significant influence and connection. Changes in the standpoints resulted in slowing down the individualization of parenthood which is manifested through the decrease of stratum differences (towns and sex.

  8. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  9. Identity Transformation During the Transition to Parenthood Among Same-Sex Couples: An Ecological, Stress-Strategy-Adaptation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested. PMID:27458482

  10. Identity Transformation During the Transition to Parenthood Among Same-Sex Couples: An Ecological, Stress-Strategy-Adaptation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested.

  11. The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers--professional and personal situation seven years after graduation

    OpenAIRE

    Buddeberg-Fischer, B; Stamm, M; Buddeberg, C; Bauer, G; Hämmig, O; Knecht, Michaela; Klaghofer, R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The profile of the medical profession is changing in regard to feminization, attitudes towards the profession, and the lifestyle aspirations of young physicians. The issues addressed in this study are the careers of female and male physicians seven years after graduation and the impact of parenthood on career development. Methods Data reported originates from the fifth assessment (T5) of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1). At T5 in 2009, 579 resid...

  12. Transition to parenthood and quality of parenting among gay, lesbian and heterosexual couples who conceived through assisted reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, B; Vecho, O; Gross, M; Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, H; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Lamb, ME

    2017-01-01

    Little research has focused on the emotions felt during pregnancy and early parenthood as well as the initial quality of parenting displayed by first-time parents who conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (surrogacy, donor insemination, and in vitro fertilization). Research on primary and secondary caregivers in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual families is especially sparse. The current study examined 35 gay-father families, 58 lesbian-mother families and 41 heterosexual-parent fam...

  13. Students' perception of marriage, family and parenthood in the light of religious identity and religious tolerance: A comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Jasmina S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative perspective, the paper shows students' attitudes towards family, marriage and parenthood obtained in an empirical study entitled 'Cultural orientation of actors/students, interethnic relations, national identity and the culture of peace in the Balkans' on the samples from the University of Bitola, Veliko Tarnovo and Niš. It analyzes findings from the three subsamples, and tests the hypothesis that students' religiousness and the firmness of their religious beliefs predicate their attitudes towards fami­ly, marriage and parenthood, irrespective of the country where they study. It is expected that the student youth in all subsamples shows preference for the individualistic model of partnership, symmetrical parenting, egalitarian partner and family relationships, but also that the choice of some attitudes clearly indicates the presence of traditional value patterns. At the same time, it is assumed that respondents who identify themselves as firm believ­ers, and those who express a lower level of religious tolerance towards other religions, largely follow traditional patterns in the notion of marriage, fami­ly and parenthood.

  14. The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers - professional and personal situation seven years after graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knecht Michaela

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The profile of the medical profession is changing in regard to feminization, attitudes towards the profession, and the lifestyle aspirations of young physicians. The issues addressed in this study are the careers of female and male physicians seven years after graduation and the impact of parenthood on career development. Methods Data reported originates from the fifth assessment (T5 of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1. At T5 in 2009, 579 residents (81.4% of the initial sample at T1 participated in the questionnaire survey. They were asked about occupational factors, career-related factors including specialty choice and workplace, work-life balance and life satisfaction. The impact of gender and parenthood on the continuous variables was investigated by means of multivariate and univariate analyses of variance; categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square tests. Results Female physicians, especially those with children, have lower rates of employment and show lower values in terms of career success and career support experiences than male physicians. In addition, parenthood has a negative impact on these career factors. In terms of work-life balance aspired to, female doctors are less career-oriented and are more inclined to consider part-time work or to continue their professional career following a break to bring up a family. Parenthood means less career-orientation and more part-time orientation. As regards life satisfaction, females show higher levels of satisfaction overall, especially where friends, leisure activities, and income are concerned. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians are less advanced in their specialty qualification, are less prone to choosing prestigious surgical fields, have a mentor less often, more often work at small hospitals or in private practice, aspire less often to senior hospital or academic positions and consider part-time work more often

  15. The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers--professional and personal situation seven years after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Bauer, Georg; Häemmig, Oliver; Knecht, Michaela; Klaghofer, Richard

    2010-02-18

    The profile of the medical profession is changing in regard to feminization, attitudes towards the profession, and the lifestyle aspirations of young physicians. The issues addressed in this study are the careers of female and male physicians seven years after graduation and the impact of parenthood on career development. Data reported originates from the fifth assessment (T5) of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1). At T5 in 2009, 579 residents (81.4% of the initial sample at T1) participated in the questionnaire survey. They were asked about occupational factors, career-related factors including specialty choice and workplace, work-life balance and life satisfaction. The impact of gender and parenthood on the continuous variables was investigated by means of multivariate and univariate analyses of variance; categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square tests. Female physicians, especially those with children, have lower rates of employment and show lower values in terms of career success and career support experiences than male physicians. In addition, parenthood has a negative impact on these career factors. In terms of work-life balance aspired to, female doctors are less career-oriented and are more inclined to consider part-time work or to continue their professional career following a break to bring up a family. Parenthood means less career-orientation and more part-time orientation. As regards life satisfaction, females show higher levels of satisfaction overall, especially where friends, leisure activities, and income are concerned. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians are less advanced in their specialty qualification, are less prone to choosing prestigious surgical fields, have a mentor less often, more often work at small hospitals or in private practice, aspire less often to senior hospital or academic positions and consider part-time work more often. Any negative impact on career path and advancement is

  16. The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers - professional and personal situation seven years after graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The profile of the medical profession is changing in regard to feminization, attitudes towards the profession, and the lifestyle aspirations of young physicians. The issues addressed in this study are the careers of female and male physicians seven years after graduation and the impact of parenthood on career development. Methods Data reported originates from the fifth assessment (T5) of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1). At T5 in 2009, 579 residents (81.4% of the initial sample at T1) participated in the questionnaire survey. They were asked about occupational factors, career-related factors including specialty choice and workplace, work-life balance and life satisfaction. The impact of gender and parenthood on the continuous variables was investigated by means of multivariate and univariate analyses of variance; categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square tests. Results Female physicians, especially those with children, have lower rates of employment and show lower values in terms of career success and career support experiences than male physicians. In addition, parenthood has a negative impact on these career factors. In terms of work-life balance aspired to, female doctors are less career-oriented and are more inclined to consider part-time work or to continue their professional career following a break to bring up a family. Parenthood means less career-orientation and more part-time orientation. As regards life satisfaction, females show higher levels of satisfaction overall, especially where friends, leisure activities, and income are concerned. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians are less advanced in their specialty qualification, are less prone to choosing prestigious surgical fields, have a mentor less often, more often work at small hospitals or in private practice, aspire less often to senior hospital or academic positions and consider part-time work more often. Any negative impact on

  17. Oh baby! Motivation for healthy eating during parenthood transitions: a longitudinal examination with a theory of planned behavior perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Transitioning to parenthood is a major life event that may impact parents’ personal lifestyles, yet there is an absence of theory-based research examining the impact of parenthood on motives for dietary behaviour. As a result, we are unaware of the social cognitive variables that predict eating behaviour among those transitioning to parenthood. The purpose of the study was to examine eating behaviour motives across 12 months within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and compare these across groups of new parents, non-parents, and established parents. Methods Non-parents (n = 92), new parents (n = 135), and established parents (n = 71) completed TPB questionnaires assessing attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intentions and three day food records at baseline, and 6- and 12-months post-delivery (for parents) and 6- and 12-months post-baseline (for non-parents). Results Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that among men, new- and established-parents had greater intentions to eat healthy compared to non-parents, F(2) = 3.59, p = .03. Among women, established parents had greater intentions than new- and non-parents, F(2) = 5.33, p = .01. Among both men and women during the first 6-months post-delivery, new-parents experienced decreased PBC, whereas established parents experienced increased PBC. Overall, affective attitudes were the strongest predictor of intentions for men (β = 0.55, p < .001) and women (β = 0.38, p < .01). PBC predicted changes in fruit and vegetable consumption for men (β = 0.45, p = .02), and changes in fat consumption for men (β = −0.25, p = .03) and women (β = −.24, p < .05), regardless of parent status. Conclusion The transition to parenthood for new and established parents may impact motivation for healthy eating, especially PBC within the framework of TPB. However, regardless of parental status, affective

  18. PingFederate

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PingFederate Server provides Identity Federation and Single Sign On Capabilities. Federated identity management (or identity federation) enables enterprises to...

  19. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding.

  20. Science as a production device of parenthood: analysis of Brazilian scientific production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Barra Valente

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding science as a device for producing ways of being and truth regimes, this literature review aimed to develop a critical reading of the Brazilian scientific production about parenthood, inspired by the post-constructionist approach to social psychology. The survey was conducted from the Bank of theses and dissertations for the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES, from parenting descriptor, comprising the period 1987-2009. The analysis reveals that the paternity of this literature appears linked to the sex-gender dichotomy, and its rupture associated with crises and changes which reiterate gender norms and sexuality. The paternity produces scientific knowledge; outlines strategies and hidden knowledge-power that produce the subject man-father-universal ways of being a father and agreementco-penis-rationality- heterosexuality procreation, enables the visualization of the limits of (in effectiveness of such inscriptions, making room for production of cracks and changes.

  1. Parenthood and Domestic Division of Labour in Spain, 2002-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Coller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the division of domestic work has revealed the influence of the life cycle on family organization. Concretely, the arrival of children seems to have a signifi cant impact on the division of domestic tasks. This article looks at the effect of parenthood in the Spanish case, examining whether couples with children have a more traditional division of work than couples without children, and if so, in what way, and whether there have been changes in this trend over time. For this purpose, we follow the the empirical strategy of Dribe and Stanfors (2009 for the Swedish case, analyzing the time devoted to different activities using data from time use surveys from 2002-2003 and 2009-2010. The results show that couples with children have a more traditional division of labor than couples without children, and that it is also affected by the age of the children. In addition, our fi ndings show this trend was less pronounced in 2009-10.

  2. Sexual orientation and future parenthood in a 2011-2013 nationally representative United States sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Rachel G; Tornello, Samantha L

    2017-09-01

    Previous researchers have found evidence for differences in parenting goals between lesbian and gay people and their heterosexual peers. However, no previous research has quantified the parenting goals of bisexual people or evaluated parenting goals as a function of sexual partner gender. In addition, political and social climates for sexual minority people had improved rapidly since the last representative data on lesbian and gay peoples' plans for parenthood were collected. We analyzed data from 3,941 childless lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual participants from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG; United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 2014), a nationally representative sample of United States residents aged 15 to 44 years. We found that statistically significant, within-gender sexual orientation differences in parenting plans persist, despite social and legal changes. Consistent with hypotheses, bisexual men's parenting desires and intentions were similar to those of their heterosexual male peers and different from those of their gay male peers, while bisexual women's reports were more mixed. Also consistent with hypotheses, the gender of the most recent sexual partner was a strong predictor of parenting goals. We discuss implications for mental and reproductive health-care providers, attorneys, social workers, and others who interact with sexual minority adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Mothering Experiences: How Single Parenthood and Employment Structure the Emotional Valence of Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ann; Musick, Kelly; Flood, Sarah; Dunifon, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    Research studies and popular accounts of parenting have documented the joys and strains of raising children. Much of the literature comparing parents with those without children indicates a happiness advantage for those without children, although recent studies have unpacked this general advantage to reveal differences by the dimension of well-being considered and important features in parents' lives and parenting experiences. We use unique data from the 2010, 2012, and 2013 American Time Use Survey to understand emotions in mothering experiences and how these vary by key demographic factors: employment and partnership status. Assessing mothers' emotions in a broad set of parenting activities while controlling for a rich set of person- and activity-level factors, we find that mothering experiences are generally associated with high levels of emotional well-being, although single parenthood is associated with differences in the emotional valence. Single mothers report less happiness and more sadness, stress, and fatigue in parenting than partnered mothers, and these reports are concentrated among those single mothers who are not employed. Employed single mothers are happier and less sad and stressed when parenting than single mothers who are not employed. Contrary to common assumptions about maternal employment, we find overall few negative associations between employment and mothers' feelings regarding time with children, with the exception that employed mothers report more fatigue in parenting than those who are not employed.

  4. The impact of parenthood on environmental attitudes and behaviour: a longitudinal investigation of the legacy hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory O; Fisher, Rose; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Milfont, Taciano L; Poortinga, Wouter

    2018-01-01

    Willingness to engage in sustainable actions may be limited by the psychological distance of climate change. In this study, we test the legacy hypothesis , which holds that having children leads parents to consider the legacy left to offspring in respect of environmental quality. Using the Understanding Society dataset, a longitudinal survey representative of the UK population ( n  = 18,176), we assess how having children may change people's individual environmental attitudes and behaviour. Results indicate that having a new child is associated with a small decrease in the frequency of a few environmental behaviours. Only parents with already high environmental concern show a small increase in the desire to act more sustainably after the birth of their first child. Overall, the results do not provide evidence in support of the legacy hypothesis in terms of individual-level environmental attitudes and behaviours. We argue that the transition to parenthood is a time where concern is prioritised on the immediate wellbeing of the child and not on the future environmental threats.

  5. Mental illness and parenthood: being a parent in secure psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Fiona R; Macinnes, Douglas L; Parrott, Janet

    2015-12-10

    Research into parenting and mental illness seldom includes forensic mental health service users, despite its relevance to therapeutic, family work and risk management. This study aimed to understand the experiences of parents and the variety of parenting roles maintained during admission to a secure forensic hospital. Narrative interviews with 18 parents (eight mothers and 10 fathers) at an English medium security hospital were analysed thematically, using the framework approach. The proportion of patients who are parents and their contact patterns with their children were estimated from records. About a quarter of men and 38% of women were parents. Parenthood was of central importance to their emotional life, spanning experiences of loss, shame and failed expectations, joy, responsibility and hope. Fewer fathers maintained contact with their children than mothers yet fatherhood remained a vital aspect of men's identities, with impact on their self-esteem. Parenting during lengthy admissions--while constrained and dependent on professional support and surveillance--ranged from sending gifts and money to visits and phone calls. Offending was seen as a particularly shameful aspect of admission, contributing to distancing from the children and difficulty explaining detention to them. Such complex experiences call for multidisciplinary knowledge and skills. Provision of focused therapy, as well as appropriate visiting spaces, creative approaches to contact time and support for patients in explaining their mental illness and detention to their children are recommended. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Job Mobility and the Great Recession: Wage Consequences by Gender and Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjoo Cha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how inter-organizational mobility affects earnings inequality based on gender and parenthood under different macroeconomic conditions. Fixed effects regression analysis of Survey of Income and Program Participation data from 2004 to 2012 shows that earnings growth after quitting jobs for work-related reasons (e.g., to improve one’s job situation is greater for women than for men pre-recession, but the trend is driven by childless women, and mothers of children under six benefit the least among all groups of workers. However, this motherhood wage penalty disappears in the 2008 recession, as a result of the decline of wage returns to mobility for childless women. The analysis also shows that across economic conditions, the rate of layoffs or displacement is higher among men than women, but once laid off, women experience greater earnings losses than men. No motherhood penalty is found for this mobility type. These findings help us understand the longitudinal process by which the motherhood wage penalty is generated, and conditions under which a motherhood-based or gender-based wage gap becomes more pronounced.

  7. The impact of marriage and parenthood on male body mass index: Static and dynamic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrda, Joanna

    2017-08-01

    Numerous cross-sectional studies investigated the link between marital status and BMI in the context of competing social science theories (marriage market, marriage selection, marriage protection and social obligation), frequently offering conflicting theoretical predictions and conflicting empirical findings. This study analysed the effects of marriage, divorce, pregnancy, and parenthood on male BMI in a longitudinal setting, avoiding the estimation bias of cross-sectional studies and allowing for an analysis of BMI fluctuation over time and the dynamic effects of these events. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics 1999-2013 dataset (N = 8729), this study was the first to employ a dynamic panel-data estimation to examine the static and dynamic effects of marriage, divorce, and fatherhood on male BMI. The study showed that married men have higher BMI, but marital status changes largely drove this static effect, namely, an increase in BMI in the period following marriage, and a decrease in BMI preceding and following divorce. Thus, this study found marked evidence in support of the marriage market and social obligation theories' predictions about male BMI, and supports neither marriage protection theory nor marriage selection theory. Wives' pregnancies had no significant effect on BMI; instead, men tend to have higher BMI in the periods following childbirth. Finally, analyses showed marked contemporaneous correlations between husband and wife BMI over the course of marriage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Creeping Federalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that make taxharmonization difficult to impose. Other types of harmonization have a less clear-cut costbenefitanalysis. A federal commercial code that is uniform across member states reducestransaction and information costs, compared to leaving important code issues to memberstates; further, many states may...

  9. Long-term health, well-being, life satisfaction, and attitudes toward parenthood in men diagnosed as infertile: challenges to gender stereotypes and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane R W; Baker, Gordon H W; Hammarberg, Karin

    2010-07-01

    To investigate attitudes toward parenthood, long-term life satisfaction, and health and well-being in men diagnosed as infertile. A cross-sectional survey of a cohort of men 5 years after diagnosis of infertility. The andrology clinic at the Royal Women's Hospital Reproductive Services, Melbourne Australia. All men diagnosed at this center as infertile in 2001 and 2002. None. Attitudes to parenthood (Meaning of Parenthood), quality of intimate relationship (Intimate Bonds Measure), personality characteristics (Vulnerable Personality Style Questionnaire), life satisfaction (Satisfaction with Life Scale), and self-rated physical health (Physical Component Summary of SF-12 [PCS-12]) and relationship with mental health (Mental Component Summary of SF12 [MCS-12]). A total of 112 (41%) of 276 men completed the survey. Of these, 96% had pursued infertility treatment and 87% had become fathers. Only 10% thought that fertility confirmed by fatherhood reflected masculinity, and 84% desired parenthood as much as their partners did. When all other factors were controlled for, men who had not become fathers had poorer mental health (MCS-12 score = 43.9 +/- 9.9) than those who were fathers (MCS-12 score = 49.25 +/- 8.7). Clinical practice should not presume that infertile men conflate fertility and masculinity, are less distressed than women about the potential loss of parenthood, or adjust more readily to childlessness, which appear to be inaccurate but widespread stereotypes. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Federal databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.; Welles, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Accident statistics on all modes of transportation are available as risk assessment analytical tools through several federal agencies. This paper reports on the examination of the accident databases by personal contact with the federal staff responsible for administration of the database programs. This activity, sponsored by the Department of Energy through Sandia National Laboratories, is an overview of the national accident data on highway, rail, air, and marine shipping. For each mode, the definition or reporting requirements of an accident are determined and the method of entering the accident data into the database is established. Availability of the database to others, ease of access, costs, and who to contact were prime questions to each of the database program managers. Additionally, how the agency uses the accident data was of major interest

  11. Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In the Russian Federation (RF), management of radioactive wastes will be carried out within the framework of the Federal Target Program for management of radioactive wastes and used nuclear materials for the period 1996-2005. The agency within the RF responsible for this program is the Ministry of Russian Federation on Atomic Energy. Current radioactive waste disposal activities are focused on creating regional repositories for wastes generated by radiochemical production, nuclear reactors, science centers, and from other sources outside of the nuclear-fuel cycle (the latter wastes are managed by Scientific and Industrial Association, 'RADON'). Wastes of these types are in temporary storage, with the exception of non-fuel cycle wastes which are in long term storage managed by SAI 'RADON'. The criteria for segregating between underground or near-surface disposal of radioactive waste are based on the radiation fields and radionuclide composition of the wastes. The most progress in creating regional repositories has been made in the Northwest region of Russia. However, development of a detailed design has begun for a test facility in the Northeast for disposal of radioactive wastes generated in Murmansk and Arkhangelsk provinces. The feasibility study for construction of this facility is being evaluated by state monitoring organizations, the heads of administrations of the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk provinces, and Minatom of Russia

  12. Prevention of postnatal distress or depression: an evaluation of an intervention at preparation for parenthood classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthey, Stephen; Kavanagh, David J; Howie, Pauline; Barnett, Bryanne; Charles, Margaret

    2004-04-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a psychosocial intervention, provided to expectant couples in routine antenatal classes, on the postpartum psychosocial adjustment of women and men. A 3*3 between subjects randomised control design was utilised. The two factors were condition and self-esteem. Preparation for Parenthood programs were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: usual service ('control'), experimental ('empathy'), or non-specific control ('baby-play'). The latter condition controlled for the non-specific effects of the intervention, these being: the provision of an extra class; asking couples to consider the early postpartum weeks; and receiving booster information after the antenatal class, and again shortly after the birth. Women and men were categorised into three levels of self-esteem, as measured antenatally: low, medium and high. 268 participants were recruited antenatally. Interview data and self-report information was collected from 202 of these women at 6 weeks postpartum, and 180 women at 6 months postpartum. The intervention consisted of a session focusing on psychosocial issues related to becoming first-time parents. Participants discussed possible postpartum concerns in separate gender groups for part of the session, and then discussed these issues with their partners. Hypothetical scenarios depicting stressful situations in the early postpartum weeks for women and men were discussed, with solutions that parents have found useful given to the participants. In the non-specific control condition, the session focused on the importance of play with a baby, with videotapes and discussion around how parents can play with infants. At 6 weeks postpartum there was a significant interaction effect between condition and self-esteem on maternal adjustment. Women with low self-esteem, who had received the intervention, were significantly better adjusted on measures of mood and sense of competence than low-self-esteem women in either of the two

  13. The impact of adolescent females' assessments of parenthood and employment on plans for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, L A

    1986-02-01

    This study explores adolescent females' assessments of the rewards and costs of employment and parenthood, and the impact of these assessments on their plans for organizing their adult lives. 549 young women enrolled in the 11th and 12 grades at public schools in New York City completed questionnaires addressing their future work and fertility plans, characteristics of their present family life, and their assessments of how rewarding and costly the roles of employee and parent would be to them. Results suggest that daughters of homemakers and daughters of employed women differ in their assessment of each role, and take different factors into consideration when making these assessments. In evaluating work, daughters whose mothers are employed were likely to depend on their mothers' experiences for guidance. On the other hand, daughters whose mothers are homemakers have to go through a more elaborate process of deduction. They appear to assess whether their mothers are happy where they are now and then project whether another role would be more satisfying. These young women also tend to incorporate the opinion of the father more than do daughters of employed mothers. In evaluating the impact of children, the young woman's relation with her own mother is a critical factor affecting both group' assessments of the costs of children as well as the employed group's assessments of the rewards of children. Finally, the limitations of the sample should be kept in mind when discussing the results. Though the sample was large numerically, the overall response rate was low. In addition, the sample consisted of a large number of Catholic respondents.

  14. Tweeting PP: an analysis of the 2015–2016 Planned Parenthood controversy on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Leo; Han, Lisa; Darney, Blair; Rodriguez, Maria I.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives We analyzed Twitter tweets and Twitter-provided user data to give geographical, temporal and content insight into the use of social media in the Planned Parenthood video controversy. Methodology We randomly sampled the full Twitter repository (also known as the Firehose) (n=30,000) for tweets containing the phrase “planned parenthood” as well as group-defining hashtags “#defundpp” and “#standwithpp.” We used demographic content provided by the user and word analysis to generate charts, maps and timeline visualizations. Chi-square and t tests were used to compare differences in content, statistical references and dissemination strategies. Results From July 14, 2015, to January 30, 2016, 1,364,131 and 795,791 tweets contained “#defundpp” and “#standwithpp,” respectively. Geographically, #defundpp and #standwithpp were disproportionally distributed to the US South and West, respectively. Word analysis found that early tweets predominantly used “sensational” words and that the proportion of “political” and “call to action” words increased over time. Scatterplots revealed that #standwithpp tweets were clustered and episodic compared to #defundpp. #standwithpp users were more likely to be female [odds ratio (OR) 2.2, confidence interval (CI) 2.0–2.4] and have fewer followers (median 544 vs. 1578, pSocial media analysis can be used to characterize and understand the content, tempo and location of abortion-related messages in today’s public spheres. Further research may inform proabortion efforts in terms of how information can be more effectively conveyed to the public. Implications This study has implications for how the medical community interfaces with the public with regards to abortion. It highlights how social media are actively exploited instruments for information and message dissemination. Researchers, providers and advocates should be monitoring social media and addressing the public through these modern channels

  15. Parental stress and dyadic consensus in early parenthood among mothers and fathers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widarsson, Margareta; Engström, Gabriella; Berglund, Anders; Tydén, Tanja; Lundberg, Pranee

    2014-12-01

    Parental stress can negatively affect the parent-child relationship and reduce the well-being of the whole family. Family disagreement is associated with parental divorce and with psychological problems in children. The aim was to examine perceived parental stress and draw comparisons among mothers and among fathers, in relation to educational level, parental experience, existence of a parental role model and sense of coherence. The aim was also to examine perceived dyadic consensus and its association with perceived parental stress within couples. Questionnaires were completed by 320 mothers and 315 fathers at 1 week and 18 months post-partum. The Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence Scale and the Dyadic Consensus Subscale were used. Low education, lack of a role model and poor sense of coherence promoted stress in mothers in the subareas social isolation and spouse relationship problems, while lack of a role model and poor sense of coherence promoted stress in fathers in the subarea social isolation. Furthermore, parental experiences promoted stress among mothers in the subarea incompetence while this was not seen among fathers. Mothers perceived a higher level of dyadic consensus than fathers in the items recreational activities, friends, aims and life goals, time spent together, and decisions regarding career and personal development. Household tasks was the only item where fathers perceived a higher level of dyadic consensus than mothers. Additionally, there were associations between perceived parental stress and dyadic consensus in several items and in the total score. To promote parents' health and family stability, health professionals should consider factors affecting stress and stress reactions, and take gender roles into account. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  16. Mothers’ Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms Across Mexican-Origin Adolescent Daughters’ Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Harvey-Mendoza, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    This study draws from a life-course perspective in examining trajectories of mothers’ depressive symptoms across their adolescent daughters’ adjustment to parenthood in 204 Mexican-origin families using latent class growth analysis. Four distinct trajectories were identified based on mothers’ depressive symptoms prior to the birth and 10 and 24 months postpartum. Two trajectories were characterized by stable levels of depressive symptoms but were differentiated in their levels of symptoms (i.e., High/Stable and Low/Stable). The remaining two trajectories were characterized by changes from pre- to post-birth, with one group exhibiting increases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Increase) and the other group characterized by decreases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Decrease). Consistent with a risk and resilience perspective, mothers with more disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances and fewer intrapersonal resources (i.e., self-esteem, ethnic identity affirmation) were more likely to be members of the High/Stable group. In addition, daughters of mothers in the High/Stable group were more likely to have lower self-esteem as compared to daughters in the other three groups. Collectively, these findings suggested that the High/Stable group was at risk for adjustment difficulties from the third trimester to two years postpartum. In contrast, membership in the Low/Post-Birth Decrease trajectory group was associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem for mothers and daughters. Findings point to the need to identify mothers who are at risk for depressive symptoms during their adolescent daughters’ pregnancy and offer prevention and intervention programs that reduce risks and enhance protective factors. PMID:23750520

  17. What explains violated expectations of parent-child relationship in transition to parenthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flykt, Marjo; Palosaari, Esa; Lindblom, Jallu; Vänskä, Mervi; Poikkeus, Piia; Repokari, Leena; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2014-04-01

    Parent-child relationship is created already in prenatal fantasies and expectations of the child-to-be. Negative violation of these expectations after the child is born is known to be harmful for the parent-child relationship. Yet, research is scarce about the medical and psychological factors contributing to violated expectations (VE). This study models the role of parent-, delivery- and infant-related underlying mechanisms for VE. It further compares parents with assisted reproductive treatment (ART) and spontaneous conception (SC), and primi- and multiparous couples. The couples (n = 743) separately filled in questionnaires concerning their prenatal expectations (T1) and 2 months postnatal representations (T2) of intimacy and autonomy in the relationship with their child, measured with Subjective Family Picture Test. A negative or positive discrepancy indicated violated expectations. The parent-related (mental health and marital quality), delivery-related (maternal and paternal birth experience, unplanned Caesarean, and amount of analgesia) and infant-related (infant health problems, difficult infant characteristics, and parental worry) factors were assessed at T2. Results show that among mothers, the associations were mostly indirect and mediated via mental health problems. Among fathers, the associations were direct, marital problems most crucially predicting VE. ART fathers were less susceptible to VE resulting from infant-related problems than SC fathers, but more susceptible to VE resulting from delivery problems. Delivery- and infant-related factors also predicted VE differently among primi- and multiparous mothers. Considering factors that contribute to VE is important when working with couples in transition to parenthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants and the experience of parenthood: a synthesis of the qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Lisa; Pelaez, Sandra; Edwards, Nancy C

    2017-09-19

    To synthesize the recent qualitative literature and identify the integrative themes describing the parenthood experiences of refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants. We searched seven online databases for the period January 2006 to February 2017. We included English and French published peer-reviewed articles and graduate-level dissertations, which qualitatively examined the parenthood experiences of refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants. We summarized study characteristics and performed a thematic analysis across the studies. One hundred thirty eight studies met inclusion criteria. All but three were conducted in high-income countries, mainly in the US. Migrants studied were mostly undocumented from Latin America and refugees from Sub-Saharan Africa. Almost all studies (93%) included mothers; about half (47%) included fathers; very few (5%) included extended family members. We identified three integrative themes: 1) experiencing hardship and/or loss in the context of precarious migration and past traumas; 2) building resilience and strength by bridging language, norms and expectations; and 3) living transnationally: obligations, challenges and resources. Each theme contributed to shaping the parenthood experience; the transnationalism theme intersected with the themes on hardship and loss and resilience and strength. More research is needed with fathers, extended family members, asylum-seekers and in the LMIC context. A transnational lens needs to be applied to programs, policies and future research for refugee, asylum-seeker and undocumented migrant parents. Addressing transnational concerns (family separation and reunification), acknowledging transnational resources, fostering a transnational family identity and conducting transnational and longitudinal studies are potentially pivotal approaches for this sub-population of parents.

  19. The impact of parenthood on Canadians' objectively measured physical activity: an examination of cross-sectional population-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Anca; Edwards, Sarah A; Doelman, Amy; Tober, Jo Ann

    2014-11-03

    Parenthood has been associated with declines in leisure-time exercise and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), but less is known about its impact on sedentary time and light-intensity activity. Although the health benefits of MVPA are well established, a growing body of research has been showing that even after controlling for MVPA levels, a detrimental dose-response association exists between sedentary time and adverse health outcomes and a beneficial dose-response association exists for light-intensity activity. This study examined the impact of parenthood, the number of children in the home, and the age of the youngest child on objectively measured physical activity (i.e., accelerometer derived daily minutes of sedentary, light, and MVPA) among a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 2234 men and women who participated in the 2009-2011 Canadian Health Measures Survey. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, ANCOVAs indicated that parents engaged in more light activity but less MVPA than non-parents and women whose youngest child was aged 12-15 years were more sedentary than women without children. Among both men and women, having a child activity and lowest MVPA. Modest differences emerged between the physical activity level of parents and non-parents for both genders and across intensity levels. In general, parenthood was associated with less MVPA and more light-intensity activity, and more differences emerged among women compared to men. More research is needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding the health consequences of these differences.

  20. Giving offspring a healthy start: parents' experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvardsson Kristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are good opportunities in Sweden for health promotion targeting expectant parents and parents of young children, as almost all are reached by antenatal and child health care. In 2005, a multisectoral child health promotion programme (the Salut Programme was launched to further strengthen such efforts. Methods Between June and December 2010 twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted separately with first-time mothers and fathers when their child had reached 18 months of age. The aim was to explore their experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. Qualitative manifest and latent content analysis was applied. Results Parents reported undertaking lifestyle changes to secure the health of the fetus during pregnancy, and in early parenthood to create a health-promoting environment for the child. Both women and men portrayed themselves as highly receptive to health messages regarding the effect of their lifestyle on fetal health, and they frequently mentioned risks related to tobacco and alcohol, as well as toxins and infectious agents in specific foods. However, health promotion strategies in pregnancy and early parenthood did not seem to influence parents to make lifestyle change primarily to promote their own health; a healthy lifestyle was simply perceived as 'common knowledge'. Although trust in health care was generally high, both women and men described some resistance to what they saw as preaching, or very directive counselling about healthy living and the lack of a holistic approach from health care providers. They also reported insufficient engagement with fathers in antenatal care and child health care. Conclusion Perceptions about risks to the offspring's health appear to be the primary driving force for lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. However, as parents' motivation to prioritise their own health per se seems to be low during this period

  1. Oh baby! Motivation for healthy eating during parenthood transitions: a longitudinal examination with a theory of planned behavior perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Benoit, Cecilia; Warburton, Darren E R; Blanchard, Chris M; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2013-07-06

    Transitioning to parenthood is a major life event that may impact parents' personal lifestyles, yet there is an absence of theory-based research examining the impact of parenthood on motives for dietary behaviour. As a result, we are unaware of the social cognitive variables that predict eating behaviour among those transitioning to parenthood. The purpose of the study was to examine eating behaviour motives across 12 months within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and compare these across groups of new parents, non-parents, and established parents. Non-parents (n = 92), new parents (n = 135), and established parents (n = 71) completed TPB questionnaires assessing attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intentions and three day food records at baseline, and 6- and 12-months post-delivery (for parents) and 6- and 12-months post-baseline (for non-parents). Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that among men, new- and established-parents had greater intentions to eat healthy compared to non-parents, F(2) = 3.59, p = .03. Among women, established parents had greater intentions than new- and non-parents, F(2) = 5.33, p = .01. Among both men and women during the first 6-months post-delivery, new-parents experienced decreased PBC, whereas established parents experienced increased PBC. Overall, affective attitudes were the strongest predictor of intentions for men (β = 0.55, p changes in fruit and vegetable consumption for men (β = 0.45, p = .02), and changes in fat consumption for men (β = -0.25, p = .03) and women (β = -.24, p motivation for healthy eating, especially PBC within the framework of TPB. However, regardless of parental status, affective attitudes and PBC are critical antecedents of intentions and eating behaviour. Interventions should target affective attitudes and PBC to motivate healthy eating and may need to be intensified during parenthood.

  2. 代孕亲子关系认定规则研究%The Study of Surrogate parenthood rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周青莹

    2016-01-01

    代孕是当今众多国家所面临的一个难题,而与代孕息息相关的代孕亲子关系如何认定是亟待解决的一个问题。在代孕亲子关系认定中主要存在着血统说、子宫分娩说、契约说和子女最佳利益说四种学说。境外对于代孕问题所采取的态度大相径庭,有完全认可代孕、全面禁止代孕和有限认可代孕三种态度。我国目前对于代孕的全面禁止并不完全适应当今社会的发展,代孕在我国有合法化的必要性,但同时也不能完全放开,必须满足有限适用、非商业化和主体资格这几个条件才可适用。代孕亲子关系认定应当坚持血统说优先,兼顾子女最佳利益说这一规则。%Surrogacy has become a problem that many countries have to face. what is closely related to surroga-cy is surrogate parenthood rules that has become a problem have to solve. There are four viewpoints in surrogate parenthood rules, including the blood relationship theory, the uterus childbirth theory, contract doctrine and the theory of best interests for children. The attitudes to the surrogate parenthood rules vary from country to country. There are three kinds of attitudes including fully accredited surrogate attitude, completely prohibit surrogate and limited recognition. At present, the comprehensive prohibition of the surrogacy in our country is not fully adapted to the development of modern society. Surrogacy is necessary for legitimacy in china, but it can’ t be fully liberalized. It is possible to apply if it meets the conditions of finite application, subject qualification and non-commercializa-tion. Surrogate parenthood rules should keep to the blood relationship theory priority, both keep to the theory of best interests for children.

  3. Fiscal Federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian

    2013-01-01

    China's central–local relations have been marked by perpetual changes amidst economic restructuring. Fiscal decentralization on the expenditure side has been paralleled by centralization on the revenue side, accompanied by political centralization. Hence, our understanding of China's fiscal...... relations is not without controversy. This paper aims to make a theoretical contribution to the ongoing debate on ‘fiscal federalism’ by addressing crucial questions regarding China's central–local fiscal relations: first, to what extent do Chinese central–local fiscal relations conform to fiscal federalism...

  4. Parenthood and factors that influence outdoor recreational physical activity from a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Eva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A physically active life promotes both physical and mental health, increasing well-being and quality of life. Physical activity (PA performed outdoors has been found to be particularly good for promoting well-being. However, participation in PA can change during the course of a lifetime. Parenthood has been found to be a life event associated with decreased PA, especially among women, although studies in the field are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate participation in outdoor recreational PA, and factors influencing participation among parents-to-be, with and without previous children, from a gender perspective. Methods This study included baseline data from parents-to-be, 224 women and 208 men, from the municipality of Karlskrona in south-east Sweden. Data collection was carried out during 2008-2009. We measured the self-reported amount of outdoor recreational PA undertaken during the last year and analysed the probability of participating in this PA using 25 variables covering individual and socioeconomic factors. Results Seventy-six per cent of the women and 65% of the men had participated in outdoor recreational PA, varying from several times per month to every day, over a 12-month period prior to one month before pregnancy. Participation in PA indoors and owning a dog or a horse emerged as the most important factors associated with the probability of participation in outdoor recreational PA. Men were affected by a greater number of factors than women, for example men who had a family situation that permitted outdoor recreational PA participated in activities to a greater extent than men without such a family situation. The physical aspect, i.e. improved physical condition, staying power and vigour, also played a significant role with regard to participation among men. Conclusions Becoming a parent is a life-changing event that affects participation in PA. By offering family-oriented PA choices that involve

  5. Improving Outcomes for Teenage Pregnancy and Early Parenthood for Young People in Out-of-Home Care: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Young people leaving out-of-home care are overrepresented among teenage parents. This paper examines the research literature and identifies key factors that contribute to early pregnancy and parenthood for care leavers, the challenges of early parenting and the positive effects of early parenting. The implications for out-of-home care policy and…

  6. Discrimination in relation to parenthood reported by community psychiatric service users in the UK: a framework analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Debra; Clement, Sarah; Corker, Elizabeth; Howard, Louise M; Murray, Joanna; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-04-20

    Experienced discrimination refers to an individual's perception that they have been treated unfairly due to an attribute and is an important recent focus within stigma research. A significant proportion of mental health service users report experiencing mental illness-based discrimination in relation to parenthood. Existing studies in this area have not gone beyond prevalence, therefore little is known about the nature of experienced discrimination in relation to parenthood, and how is it constituted. This study aims to generate a typology of community psychiatric service users' reports of mental illness-based discrimination in relation to becoming or being a parent. A secondary aim is to assess the prevalence of these types of experienced discrimination. In a telephone survey 2026 community psychiatric service users in ten UK Mental Health service provider organisations (Trusts) were asked about discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC). The sample were asked if, due to their mental health problem, they had been treated unfairly in starting a family, or in their role as a parent, and gave examples of this. Prevalence is reported and the examples of experienced discrimination in relation to parenthood were analysed using the framework method of qualitative analysis. Three hundred and four participants (73% female) reported experienced discrimination, with prevalences of 22.5% and 28.3% for starting a family and for the parenting role respectively. Participants gave 89 examples of discrimination about starting a family and 228 about parenting, and these occurred in social and professional contexts. Ten themes were identified. These related to being seen as an unfit parent; people not being understanding; being stopped from having children; not being allowed to see their children; not getting the support needed; children being affected; children avoiding their parents; children's difficulties being blamed

  7. Lone mothers and their network support: Sociodemographic research of nonmarital parenthood in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Biljana

    2014-01-01

    third of the children have no contact with their father, and as many fathers do not make any financial contribution. Actually, insufficient presence and participation of the father, in the lives of children and in daily performing parental responsibilities of their mothers, is one of the most important aspects that deserve the attention of researchers and policy-makers when it comes to lone mothers with unmarital children. The realization of children's rights in relation to financing and visitation the fathers after parental separation, is far more difficult than in divorced or widowed single-parent families. Some considerations about measures of state and local community support can be based on the selected research results presented in this paper. Support measures are possible in multiple domains, social policy (financial support and assistance in employment, institutions of preschool education, as well as in health, education, pre-school and social system counseling services. Greater involvement of men in family life and parenthood stands out as a very important objective, as well as motivation of fathers to involve in raising their nonresident children, including financial support. Three-quarters of the total number of respondents expect the state support to lone unmarried mothers. Three-quarters of lone mothers and one third of cohabited mothers expressed the need for state assistance in solving their own most important existential issues.

  8. ‘Hail, reverend Structure!’ Questioning Patriarchal Parenthood in the Aquatic Imagery of Grottoes in Court Masques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Guardini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jonson’s Neptune’s Triumph for the Return of Albion (1624, Daniel’s Tethy’s Festival (1610, and Jonson’s Love’s Triumph through Callipolis (1631 explore the representation of royal private and political patriarchy within the Stuart courts of James I and Charles I. By questioning the representation of gender and parenthood, this paper aims at conjecturing the conflictual variety of audience-responses to the aquatic imagery of Mannerist garden grottoes at work in these shows in order to investigate whether the motherly agency of Queen Anna is really erased by James I’s imagery of aquatic patriarchy or if it survives in Charles’s mnemonic reception during his later performances on the masquing stage.

  9. Father involvement and marital relationship during transition to parenthood: differences between dual and single-earner families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Susana; Hidalgo, M Victoria; Jiménez, Lucía; Moreno, M Carmen

    2011-11-01

    Research into the process of becoming mother or father shows very conclusively that this important life transition is accompanied by both a decrease in marital quality and a more traditional division of labour. In this paper these changes are analyzed with special emphasis on the relationships between them and exploring the role played in this process by the mother's work status. Results showed a significant link between the development of marital quality and violated expectations regarding father involvement on childrearing. Dual-earner families were characterized by a specific pattern of changes, with greater stability than single-earner families in marital and parental roles during transition to parenthood and a significant role played by spouse support as a partner, but not as a parent.

  10. The Decoupling of Marriage and Parenthood? Trends in the Timing of Marital First Births, 1945–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Smock, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Family formation changed dramatically over the twentieth century in the United States. The impact of these changes on childbearing has primarily been studied in terms of nonmarital fertility. However, changes in family formation behavior also have implications for fertility within marriage. We use data from ten fertility surveys to describe changes in the timing of marital childbearing from the 1940s through the 21st century for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women. Based on harmonized data from the Integrated Fertility Survey Series, our results suggest increasing divergence in fertility timing for white women. A growing proportion of marriages begin with a premarital conception; at the same time, an increasing proportion of white women are postponing fertility within marriage. For black women, marital fertility is increasingly postponed beyond the early years of marriage. Evaluating the sequencing of marriage and parenthood over time is critical to understanding the changing meaning of marriage. PMID:24791019

  11. Pregnancy and Parenthood among Surgery Residents: Results of the First Nationwide Survey of General Surgery Residency Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Britt J; Tackett, John J; Longo, Walter E; Yoo, Peter S

    2016-06-01

    Although family and lifestyle are known to be important factors for medical students choosing a specialty, there is a lack of research about general surgery residency program policies regarding pregnancy and parenthood. Similarly, little is known about program director attitudes about these issues. We performed a cross-sectional survey of United States (US) general surgery residency program directors. Sixty-six respondents completed the survey: 70% male, 59% from university-based programs, and 76% between 40 and 59 years of age. Two-thirds (67%) reported having a maternity leave policy. Less than half (48%) reported having a leave policy for the non-childbearing parent (paternity leave). Leave duration was most frequently reported as 6 weeks for maternity leave (58%) and 1 week for paternity leave (45%). Thirty-eight percent of general surgery residency program directors (PDs) reported availability of on-site childcare, 58% reported availability of lactation facilities. Forty-six percent of university PDs said that the research years are the best time to have a child during residency; 52% of independent PDs said that no particular time during residency is best. Sixty-one percent of PDs reported that becoming a parent negatively affects female trainees' work, including placing an increased burden on fellow residents (33%). Respondents perceived children as decreasing female trainees' well-being more often than male trainees' (32% vs 9%, p leave, length of leave, as well as inconsistency in access to childcare and availability of spaces to express and store breast milk. Program directors perceived parenthood to affect the training and well-being of female residents more adversely than that of male residents. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  12. The transition to parenthood and well-being: the impact of partner status and work hour transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Renske; Dykstra, Pearl A; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2010-08-01

    Using data from the first two waves of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study for 338 women and 262 men, we examine the consequences of making the transition to parenthood for life satisfaction, loneliness, positive affect, negative affect, and partnership satisfaction. We extend previous work by taking transitions in partner status and work hours into account. Results show a moderate impact of becoming a parent on well-being. In so far as effects of making the transition to parenthood emerge, they are attributable to changes in partner status and work hours. First, the decrease in negative affect upon making the transition to motherhood is attributable to the group of women who increase their working hours. Second, the detrimental impact of making the transition to motherhood on partnership satisfaction is attributable to the group of new mothers who quit their job. Third, the detrimental impact of making the transition to fatherhood on loneliness is attributable to the group of new fathers who become married. There is one exception to this pattern of partner status and work hours as mechanisms for changes in well-being. Men who become fathers remain less satisfied with their partnership, even when transitions in partner status and work hours have been taken into account. In the discussion-section, we consider the possible underestimation of negative effects because of the focus on the continuously partnered. We also reflect on our results in the light of the high incidence of part-time work in the Netherlands and Dutch policies aimed at supporting new parents.

  13. Family planning and development helping women world-wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H

    1989-04-01

    This article discusses the need for family planning (FP) as part of the development process, applauds its successes and rallies continued momentum of the FP movement. 500,000 women die each year from pregnancy- or labor-related conditions, and 10s of millions of women suffer pregnancy-related illnesses and impairments that undermine their social and economic productivity. Moreover, the 4 major factors that lead to high-risk pregnancies, namely, becoming pregnant before the age of 20, after the age of 35, after 4 or more pregnancies, and 2 years after an earlier pregnancy, all reveal the need for FP. These tragedies could be avoided by assuring better nutrition, primary health care for all, good antenatal attention and proper facilities and help in childbirth, access to good obstetric care in emergency situations, and universally available FP services. FP organizations must empower women with the knowledge of FP and the means to put it into practice. Developing countries, such as China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Mexico, in addition to affluent industrialized countries have made strides in FP with the help of such organizations as the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). IPPF has helped to motivate large numbers of men and women to determine their ideal family size. It has provided the means for them to reach such goals and has ensured that acceptance of FP has been on a voluntary basis. IPPF has also advised and cajoled governments into becoming involved in FP. In the future, national strategies must produce the building blocks for better policies to help women become more responsible for their lives. The education of women will be vital to achieving this objective as well as other aspects of development.

  14. Ronald Reagan's "New Federalism."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joseph B.

    1982-01-01

    Describes how changes in federal fiscal policies affect the federal government's relationship to state and local government. Franklin D. Roosevelt's and Ronald Reagan's formulas for "New Federalism" are compared. (AM)

  15. Do Employers Prefer Fathers? Evidence from a Field Experiment Testing the Gender by Parenthood Interaction Effect on Callbacks to Job Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bygren, Magnus; Erlandsson, Anni; Gahler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In research on fatherhood premiums and motherhood penalties in career-related outcomes, employers discriminatory behaviours are often argued to constitute a possible explanation for observed gender gaps. However, there is as yet no conclusive evidence of such discrimination. Utilizing a field experiment design, we test (i) whether job applicants are subject to recruitment discrimination on the basis of their gender and parenthood status, and (ii) whether discrimination by gender and parenthoo...

  16. Federated Identity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. This paper addresses the topic of federated identity management. It discusses in detail the following topics: what is digital identity, what is identity management, what is federated identity management, Kim Camerons 7 Laws of Identity, how can we protect the users privacy in a federated environment, levels of assurance, some past and present federated identity management systems, and some current research in FIM.

  17. Federal Student Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For those needing a loan to attend college, think federal aid first. Federal student loans usually offer borrowers lower interest rates and have more flexible repayment terms and options than private student loans. This brief report answers the following questions about federal aid: (1) What is a federal student loan?; (2) What is a private…

  18. Intentions and attitudes towards parenthood and fertility awareness among Chinese university students in Hong Kong: a comparison with Western samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C H Y; Chan, T H Y; Peterson, B D; Lampic, C; Tam, M Y J

    2015-02-01

    What are the levels of awareness regarding female fertility and the intentions and attitudes towards parenthood among Chinese university students in Hong Kong compared with their counterparts in the West? Chinese university students in Hong Kong were similarly over-optimistic about the age-related fertility decline, although they were less inclined to have children and undergo fertility treatment compared with their Western counterparts. Past studies of highly educated young adults in Europe and the USA have found that they are not sufficiently aware of the age-related decline in female fertility, and falsely believe that advanced reproductive treatments such as IVF will overcome fertility problems associated with age. Little is known about the perceptions of Chinese students in Hong Kong, a modernized Chinese city where the fertility rate is among the lowest in the world. An online cross-sectional survey of Chinese university students in Hong Kong was conducted in 2013. Results were compared with two similar studies in Sweden and the USA. A total of 367 university students in Hong Kong (275 female, 92 male; mean age 23) responded to an e-mail invitation to participate in an online survey. Intentions and attitudes towards parenthood and awareness regarding female fertility were assessed using the Swedish Fertility Awareness Questionnaire. Like their Western counterparts, a large proportion of Chinese university students underestimated the age-related fertility decline (92%) and overestimated the fertility treatment success rate (66%). However, they were less inclined to have children, were more aware of and less concerned with infertility and were less motivated to seek solutions in the event of a fertility problem. These comparisons were significant at P International comparisons warrant caution because the Hong Kong sample was older than the US sample (mean age 20), but not older than the Sweden sample (mean age 24). While this study was consistent with past

  19. Mothers' accounts of the impact on emotional wellbeing of organised peer support in pregnancy and early parenthood: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-01-13

    The transition to parenthood is a potentially vulnerable time for mothers' mental health and approximately 9-21% of women experience depression and/or anxiety at this time. Many more experience sub-clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as stress, low self-esteem and a loss of confidence. Women's emotional wellbeing is more at risk if they have little social support, a low income, are single parents or have a poor relationship with their partner. Peer support can comprise emotional, affirmational, informational and practical support; evidence of its impact on emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and afterwards is mixed. This was a descriptive qualitative study, informed by phenomenological social psychology, exploring women's experiences of the impact of organised peer support on their emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and in early parenthood. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were undertaken with women who had received peer support provided by ten projects in different parts of England, including both projects offering 'mental health' peer support and others offering more broadly-based peer support. The majority of participants were disadvantaged Black and ethnic minority women, including recent migrants. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. 47 mothers were interviewed. Two key themes emerged: (1) 'mothers' self-identified emotional needs', containing the subthemes 'emotional distress', 'stressful circumstances', 'lack of social support', and 'unwilling to be open with professionals'; and (2) 'how peer support affects mothers', containing the subthemes 'social connection', 'being heard', 'building confidence', 'empowerment', 'feeling valued', 'reducing stress through practical support' and 'the significance of "mental health" peer experiences'. Women described how peer support contributed to reducing their low mood and anxiety by overcoming feelings of isolation, disempowerment and

  20. Childbearing across borders: Fertility and parenthood attitudes and decisions among breast cancer survivors in USA and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vânia; Hudson, Janella; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Morris, Julie; Lee, M Catherine; Donovan, Kristine A; Sutton, Steven K; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2018-04-16

    To compare fertility and childbearing attitudes and decisions of Portuguese and American female reproductive aged breast cancer survivors. This was a cross-sectional study of 102 young breast cancer survivors (59 from Portugal and 43 from USA). Demographic, clinical and reproductive information were collected. Fertility and parenthood attitudes and decisions were assessed through a self-report questionnaire devised specifically for the study. Fertility issues became very important after the diagnosis for most of the women (51%). Few differences existed between USA and Portuguese participants. USA participants were more likely to undergo FP (23% USA vs Portugal 5%, p = 0.01). Portuguese women were more dissatisfied with their physician's explanations about fertility (Portugal: 23% vs USA: 3%; p = 0.01). Overall, women relied on their oncologist for fertility information (70%); only Portuguese women discussed fertility with their family medicine physician (11%). Overall, women showed positive attitudes towards motherhood. Portuguese women were more likely to report their partners placed more value on the family after their illness (Portuguese agree: 55% vs USA agree: 14%; p USA and Portuguese samples were found on fertility and childbearing attitudes and decisions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fathers’ experiences of being in change during pregnancy and early parenthood in a context of intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Håland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a large public health problem with far-reaching consequences for those involved. The aim of this study was to explore fathers’ experiences of change during pregnancy and early parenthood in the context of IPV. Methods: The methodological approach in this interview study was hermeneutics, based on a lifeworld perspective. Ten men, who had subjected their partners to violence during the childbearing period, and had become fathers within the previous 6 years, participated. Results: The analysis revealed four themes: beginning to acknowledge that you are inflicting violence, receiving confirmation that you are more than just a perpetrator of violence, becoming aware of the child, and the desire to receive support in the process of learning how to become a father. Levinas’ concept “the face of the other” is used to interpret the findings. Conclusion: This study contributes to a more nuanced and expanded picture of IPV. It shows that men who inflict violence want to be and learn how to be fathers. We need more knowledge about how to stop violent acts and support these men in the process of fatherhood.

  2. Costs to implement an effective transition-to-parenthood program for couples: Analysis of the Family Foundations program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Damon E.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Hostetler, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The transition to parenthood involves many stressors that can have implications for the couple relationship as well as the developmental environment of the child. Scholars and policymakers have recognized the potential for interventions that can help couples navigate these stressors to improve parenting and coparenting strategies. Such evidence-based programs are scarcely available, however, and little is known about the resources necessary to carry out these programs. This study examines the costs and resources necessary to implement Family Foundations, a program that addresses the multifaceted issues facing first-time parents through a series of pre- and post-natal classes. Costs were determined using a 6-step analytic process and are based on the first implementation of the program carried out through a five-year demonstration project. This assessment demonstrates how overall costs change across years as new cohorts of families are introduced, and how cost breakdowns differ by category as needs shift from training group leaders to sustaining program services. Information from this cost analysis helps clarify how the program could be made more efficient in subsequent implementations. We also consider how results may be used in future research examining economic benefits of participation in the program. PMID:24603052

  3. Perceptions and experiences of parenthood and maternal health care among Latin American women living in Spain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barona-Vilar, Carmen; Más-Pons, Rosa; Fullana-Montoro, Ana; Giner-Monfort, Jordi; Grau-Muñoz, Arantxa; Bisbal-Sanz, Josep

    2013-04-01

    to explore the experiences and perceptions of parenthood and maternal health care among Latin American women living in Spain. an exploratory qualitative research using focus groups and thematic analysis of the discussion. three focus groups with 26 women from Bolivia and Ecuador and three focus groups with 24 midwives were performed in three towns in the Valencian Community receiving a large influx of immigrants. the women interpreted motherhood as the role through which they achieve fulfilment and assumed that they were the ones who could best take care of their children. They perceived that men usually make decisions about sex and pregnancy and recognised a poor or inadequate use of contraceptive methods in planning their pregnancies. Women reported that it was not necessary to go as soon and as frequently for health examinations during pregnancy as the midwives suggested. The main barriers identified to health-care services were linked to insecure or illegal employment status, inflexible appointment timetables for prenatal checkups and sometimes to ignorance about how public services worked. empowering immigrant women is essential to having a long-term positive effect on their reproductive health. Antenatal care providers should be trained to build maternity care that is culturally sensitive and responds better to the health needs of different pregnant women and their newborns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Costs to implement an effective transition-to-parenthood program for couples: analysis of the Family Foundations program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Damon E; Feinberg, Mark E; Hostetler, Michelle L

    2014-06-01

    The transition to parenthood involves many stressors that can have implications for the couple relationship as well as the developmental environment of the child. Scholars and policymakers have recognized the potential for interventions that can help couples navigate these stressors to improve parenting and coparenting strategies. Such evidence-based programs are scarcely available, however, and little is known about the resources necessary to carry out these programs. This study examines the costs and resources necessary to implement Family Foundations, a program that addresses the multifaceted issues facing first-time parents through a series of pre- and post-natal classes. Costs were determined using a 6-step analytic process and are based on the first implementation of the program carried out through a five-year demonstration project. This assessment demonstrates how overall costs change across years as new cohorts of families are introduced, and how cost breakdowns differ by category as needs shift from training group leaders to sustaining program services. Information from this cost analysis helps clarify how the program could be made more efficient in subsequent implementations. We also consider how results may be used in future research examining economic benefits of participation in the program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Federal Fleet Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Annual report of Federal agencies' motor vehicle fleet data collected in the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by...

  6. Federal Register in XML

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Federal Register is the official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, and notices of Federal agencies and organizations, as well as executive orders and...

  7. ACHP | Unified Federal Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Unified Federal Review Three logos: 1) Executive Office of the Homeland Security. Unified Federal Environmental and Historic Preservation Review Process Please visit the new location for the Unified Federal Review located here: http://www.fema.gov/environmental-historic

  8. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  9. HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Stigma as a Multidimensional Barrier to Uptake Among Women Who Attend Planned Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Dovidio, John F; Tekeste, Mehrit; Taggart, Tamara; Galvao, Rachel W; Safon, Cara B; Willie, Tiara C; Caldwell, Abigail; Kaplan, Clair; Kershaw, Trace S

    2018-05-22

    PrEP uptake has lagged among US women. PrEP stigma is a recognized barrier to uptake among MSM but remains largely unexplored among women. This study examined the pervasiveness of PrEP stigma among US women and its implications for uptake. Setting/Methods: In a 2017 online survey of Planned Parenthood patients drawn from the three cities with the highest numbers of new HIV infections in Connecticut, 597 heterosexually-active, HIV-negative, PrEP-inexperienced women reported background characteristics, two dimensions of anticipated PrEP stigma (PrEP-user stereotypes and PrEP disapproval by others), and three indicators of potential PrEP uptake (interest in learning more about PrEP, intention to use PrEP, and comfort discussing PrEP with a provider). Participants commonly perceived PrEP-user stereotypes, with many believing that others would regard them as promiscuous (37%), HIV-positive (32%), bad (14%), or gay (11%) if they used PrEP. Thirty percent would feel ashamed to disclose PrEP use. Many participants expected disapproval by family (36%), sex partners (34%), and friends (25%). In adjusted analyses, perception of PrEP-user stereotypes was uniquely associated with lower comfort discussing PrEP with a provider. Expected PrEP disapproval by others was uniquely associated with less PrEP interest, less intention to use PrEP, and less comfort discussing PrEP with a provider. Exploratory moderation analyses suggested intention to use PrEP was greatest when participants anticipated low levels of both PrEP-user stereotypes and PrEP disapproval by others. Findings highlight the need for positive messaging targeting potential PrEP users and their social networks to increase PrEP acceptance and uptake.

  10. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: A registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backhans Mona

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. Methods The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120. A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978–1979 and full-time work for mothers (1980. The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981–2001. Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. Results The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. Conclusion A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood.

  11. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: A registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Backhans, Mona; Hallqvist, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Background In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. Methods The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120). A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978–1979) and full-time work for mothers (1980). The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981–2001). Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. Results The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. Conclusion A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood. PMID:18793385

  12. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: a registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Backhans, Mona; Hallqvist, Johan

    2008-09-15

    In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120). A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978-1979) and full-time work for mothers (1980). The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981-2001). Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood.

  13. The First-Time Fathers Study: a prospective study of the mental health and wellbeing of men during the transition to parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, John T; Boyce, Philip; Corkindale, Carolyn J

    2004-01-01

    In comparison to its female counterpart, the transition of men to parenthood has been relatively neglected in previous research. The present paper argues that men may have gender-specific risk factors for perinatal psychological distress and may manifest distress in ways different from women. The prime objective of this research was to document changes in psychological, relationship and lifestyle parameters in a cohort of first time fathers from pregnancy to the end of the first postnatal year. The present paper reports on these changes. Three hundred and twelve men were assessed at 23 weeks of pregnancy and followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months postnatally, using a battery of self-report questionnaires covering psychological symptom levels, lifestyle variables and relationship/sexual functioning. Two hundred and four men completed all four assessments. The men exhibited highest symptom levels in pregnancy with general, through small, improvement at 3 months and little change thereafter. Lifestyle variables showed small changes over the first postnatal year. Sexual functioning appeared to deteriorate markedly from pre-pregnancy levels with only minimal recovery by the end of the first year. The results highlight that the majority of men anticipated return of sexual activity to pre-pregnancy levels; however, this failed to eventuate. Pregnancy, rather than the postnatal period, would appear to be the most stressful period for men undergoing the transition to parenthood. The results suggest that the most important changes occur relatively early in pregnancy. Thereafter, lack of change (rather than change) is the most noteworthy feature. These men appeared to be ill-prepared for the impact of parenthood on their lives, especially in terms of the sexual relationship. Further research to determine the timing and trigger of stress in pregnancy is recommended.

  14. Couple-Focused Prevention at the Transition to Parenthood, a Randomized Trial: Effects on Coparenting, Parenting, Family Violence, and Parent and Child Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Hostetler, Michelle L; Roettger, Michael E; Paul, Ian M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B

    2016-08-01

    The transition to parenthood is a stressful period for most parents as individuals and as couples, with variability in parent mental health and couple relationship functioning linked to children's long-term emotional, mental health, and academic outcomes. Few couple-focused prevention programs targeting this period have been shown to be effective. The purpose of this study was to test the short-term efficacy of a brief, universal, transition-to-parenthood intervention (Family Foundations) and report the results of this randomized trial at 10 months postpartum. This was a randomized controlled trial; 399 couples expecting their first child were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions after pretest. Intervention couples received a manualized nine-session (five prenatal and four postnatal classes) psychoeducational program delivered in small groups. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that intervention couples demonstrated better posttest levels than control couples on more than two thirds of measures of coparenting, parent mental health, parenting, child adjustment, and family violence. Program effects on family violence were particularly large. Of eight outcome variables that did not demonstrate main effects, seven showed moderated intervention impact; such that, intervention couples at higher levels of risk during pregnancy showed better outcomes than control couples at similar levels of risk. These findings replicate a prior smaller study of Family Foundations, indicating that the Family Foundations approach to supporting couples making the transition to parenthood can have broad impact for parents, family relationships, and children's adjustment. Program effects are consistent and benefit all families, with particularly notable effects for families at elevated prenatal risk.

  15. The dual impact of gender and the influence of timing of parenthood on men’s and women’s career development: Longitudinal findings

    OpenAIRE

    Abele, Andrea E.; Spurk, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of gender, the gender-related self-concept (agency and communion), and the timing of parenthood on objective career success of 1,015 highly educated professionals. Hypotheses derived from a dual-impact model of gender and career-related processes were tested in a 5-wave longitudinal study over a time span of 10 years starting with participants’ career entry. In line with our hypotheses we found that the communal component of the gender self-concept had an im...

  16. Federal environmental inspections handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This Federal Environmental Inspection Handbook has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). It is designed to provide DOE personnel with an easily accessible compilation of the environmental inspection requirements under Federal environmental statutes which may impact DOE operations and activities. DOE personnel are reminded that this Handbook is intended to be used in concert with, and not as a substitute for, the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Federal Register (FR), and other applicable regulatory documents

  17. Teaching about American Federal Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Stephen L., Ed.

    Ten essays discuss federal democracy, the form of government of the United States. The first essay discusses the origins of American federalism. The second examines why we have a federal system, the functions federalism serves, and the consequences of federalism for the American political system. Federalism in the Constitution and constitutional…

  18. It 'did what it said on the tin' - participant's views of the content and process of donor conception parenthood preparation workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn; Montuschi, Olivia

    2014-03-01

    Using donor conception treatment for family building brings challenges as well as rewards. As social model approaches to managing genetic difference within families gradually replace earlier medical models, parents are encouraged to be open with their children about their origins amidst greater social acceptance. Little is known about effective interventions to help prospective parents prepare for such family life. A survey was sent to participants in 16 Preparation for Parenthood workshops run in England by Donor Conception Network, a peer support organisation, between 2008 and 2010. The 79 respondents (32.4% response) included heterosexual couples, lesbian couples and single women considering sperm, egg or double donation. In 86% couples, both partners responded. The use of a range of techniques, a family lifespan approach, facilitators with personal as well as professional experience, medical and psychosocial specialists, and access to peer support were well received. Results suggest the value of attending cognitive and affective processes, acknowledging the impact of stigma and discussing how the donor's biography/presence can be conjoined with that of the new family. Findings suggest workshop approaches to donor conception parenthood preparation can be useful for prospective lesbian/single women/heterosexual-headed families considering donor conception. Such interventions have not previously been reported.

  19. Dimensions of Modern Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Encapsulates a series of brief essays exploring different aspects of modern federalism. Issues include further protection of individual rights extended through state constitutions and federalism and the world economy. Authors include Robert F. Williams, Earl H. Fry, and Daniel J. Elazar. (MJP)

  20. Complicating the dominant morality discourse: mothers and fathers' constructions of substance use during pregnancy and early parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Cecilia; Magnus, Samantha; Phillips, Rachel; Marcellus, Lenora; Charbonneau, Sinéad

    2015-08-25

    Consumption of substances is a highly controversial behaviour, with those who do so commonly viewed as deviants, even criminals, or else as out of control addicts. In other work we showed that the use of substances by women who are pregnant or have recently become parents was mainly viewed by health and social care providers as morally wrong. Problematic substance use was framed through the narrow lens of gendered responsibilisation, resulting in women being seen primarily as foetal incubators and primary caregivers of infants. In this follow-up paper we examine descriptive and qualitative data from a convenience sample of biological mothers and fathers (N = 34) recruited as part of a larger mixed methods study of the development and early implementation of an integrated primary maternity care program. We present a description of the participants' backgrounds, family circumstances, health status, and perception of drug-related stigma. This is succeeded by a thematic analysis of their personal views on substance use during both pregnancy and the transition to parenthood. Our results show that while many mothers and fathers hold abstinence as the ideal during pregnancy and early parenting, they simultaneously recognize the autonomy of women to judge substance use risk for themselves. Participants also call attention to social structural factors that increase/decrease harms associated with such substance use, and present an embodied knowledge of substance use based on their tacit knowledge of wellness and what causes harm. While these two main discourses brought forward by parents concerning the ideal of abstinence and the autonomy of women are not always reconcilable and are partially a reflection of the dissonance between dominant moral codes regarding motherhood and the lived experiences of people who use substances, service providers who are attuned to these competing discourses are likely to be more effective in their delivery of health and social services

  1. Federalism, Agenda Setting, and the Dynamics of Federal Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Paul

    This paper is part of a larger project on agenda setting in the U.S. federal system and the development of the federal education agenda since 1965. Two questions motivate the paper, one theoretical and the other empirical: (1) how does federalism affect the federal agenda?; and (2) what explains the development of federal involvement in K-12…

  2. "Our federalism" moves indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Theodore W

    2013-04-01

    A great deal of the US Supreme Court's federalism jurisprudence over the past two decades has focused on the outer limits of federal power, suggesting a mutually exclusive division of jurisdiction between the states and the federal government, where subjects are regulated by one sovereign or the other but not both. This is not an accurate picture of American governance as it has operated over the past half century - most important areas of American life are regulated concurrently by both the federal government and the states. The Supreme Court's June 2012 decision clearing the way for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) to move forward thus should not be regarded as an affront to state sovereignty but as a realistic embrace of state power in its active, modern form. The PPACA is infused with multiple major roles for the states, and as the statute goes into operation over the next few years, states retain, and are already exercising, substantial policy discretion.

  3. Federalism and multilevel governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wusten, H.; Agnew, J.; Mamadouh, V.; Secor, A.J.; Sharp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Federalism and multilevel governance both emphasize polycentricity in governing arrangements. With their different intellectual pedigrees, these concepts are discussed in two separate sections. Fragments are now increasingly mixed up in hybrid forms of governance that also encompass originally

  4. Federal Medication Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Medication (FedMed) collaboration of 8 partner agencies agreed on a set of standard, comprehensive, freely and easily accessible FMT terminologies to improve the exchange and public availability of medication information.

  5. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  6. Federal Ballpark Estimator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Federal Ballpark E$timate(R) was developed by the Employee Benefit Research Institute(R) and its American Savings Education Council(R) (ASEC(R)) program. It is...

  7. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  8. Integrated vs. Federated Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschall, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009.......Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009....

  9. Do Pregnancy and Parenthood Affect the Course of PCO Syndrome? Initial Results from the LIPCOS Study (Lifestyle Intervention for Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [PCOS]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassek, J; Ohnolz, F; Hanusch, Y; Schmidmayr, M; Berg, D; Kiechle, M; Seifert-Klauss, V R

    2015-11-01

    Introduction: The impact of pregnancy and parenthood on the long-term course of PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome is still not known. The LIPCOS study (Lifestyle Intervention for Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [PCOS] - using the example of pregnancy and parenthood) systematically investigates long-term changes in PCOS symptoms. Method and Patients: The LIPCOS pilot study sent out a questionnaire to 403 patients who had presented with oligomenorrhea between 1991 and 2002. The prospective LIPCOS main study systematically investigated 64 women using structured interviews about lifestyle changes in the last 10 years, created a detailed hormone profile of these women and carried out vaginal ultrasound to calculate ovarian score. Results: Ovarian volume and ovarian score were not significantly lower for women with children (n = 25) compared to women with PCOS who had not had children (n = 39; p = 0.226). More women with children than women who did not have children currently reported a regular daily lifestyle, and the difference was statistically significant (92 % [n = 23/25] vs. 61.5 % [n = 24/39]; p = 0.009). Ten years ago or before the birth of their first child, respectively, no such difference was found between both groups (52 vs. 51.3 %). Over the last 10 years, women with children were more likely to have shorter cycles compared to women without children (p = 0.441). 88 % of women with children compared to 69.2 % of women without children reported that currently they had a "healthy diet" (p = 0.130). Serum testosterone levels were slightly lower for women with children (67.6 % of the upper limits of normal ranges) compared to women without children (80 % of the upper limits of normal ranges), but because of the small subgroup sizes the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.106). Conclusion: The LIPCOS study shows for the first time that pregnancy and parenthood may have an impact on the long

  10. Information Asymmetry in Federations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikhailovich Libman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the problems of information transmission between levels of government in a federal state. The central government in a federation typically faces serious difficulties while collecting information on economic and political situation in the regions. There are two types of problems: lack of incentives for the regions to accurately collect information and strategic manipulation of information, which are discussed in the paper along with possible solutions. In particular, overcoming information asymmetry would require the development of national parties or informal coalitions of bureaucrats and politicians of the center and of the regions, creating incentives for regional politicians to back the successful functioning of the federal level. Furthermore, the paper discusses the issue of «informal decentralization», which emerges as a result of information asymmetry, and its consequences for the functioning of a federal state, including both advantages and disadvantages. We conclude that under information asymmetry the organization of the federation will inevitably turn into an issue of permanent negotiations and bargaining between the center and the regions, which functions as the information acquisition tool for optimal allocation of authorities in a federation

  11. Surrogacy: Pathway to Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rachel A; Rafanello, Alexandria M; Morris, Cassidy J; Fleming, Kerry F

    2018-01-01

    Assistive reproductive technology has progressed significantly over the past few decades. In spite of the advances, people may still resort to a surrogate for bearing and birthing a baby. Surrogacy, though an altruistic act, has been commercialized in the past few years, leading to emergence of several ethico-legal concerns. Nurses care for the surrogates, the infants, and the intended parents through their journey with sensitivity, advocacy, compassion, and confidentiality. This article intends to explore the implications of surrogacy to individuals, families, nations, and health care.

  12. Business Planning for Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruell, Geraldine

    1986-01-01

    With more mothers than ever in the labor force, companies are realizing they must help workers deal with multiple roles. Employer-sponsored programs include day care centers, vouchers, and referrals; flextime; job sharing; extended leave, flexible benefits, and work-at-home plans; and support groups. (CH)

  13. Passport to Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    During the past few years, Denmark has become a growing destination for single women, lesbians, and heterosexual couples wanting donated sperm. At the moment women from Sweden, Norway, Germany, Italy and the UK travel to Denmark. Simultaneously, long waiting lists on donated eggs and age...... the following questions: What happens to kinship when not only donated gametes are taken in to use, but the need of sperm and eggs encourage infertile women and men to cross borders and bend legislative restrictions to obtain them? How are nationality, ethnicity, and relatedness narrated in these transnational...... crossings? And how do women and men conceptualize their need to travel in order to buy gametes or the fertility treatment in question? Methodologically, we center interviews with infertile individuals and couples travelling to and from Denmark in combination with ethnographic observations carried out...

  14. Welcome to Parenthood

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-06

    This short video podcast offers a lighter look at the trials of being a new parent.  Created: 8/6/2008 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/2/2008.

  15. Male-Partnered Bisexual Women's Perceptions of Disclosing Sexual Orientation to Family Across the Transition to Parenthood: Intensifying Heteronormativity or Queering Family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R; Ellawala, Themal; Ross, Lori E

    2018-01-01

    Drawing from queer and communication privacy management frameworks, this study examines the narratives of 22 bisexual, male-partnered women who were interviewed during the perinatal period and one year postnatally about their disclosures of sexual identity to family of origin. Most women rarely discussed their sexual identity with family; participants who had disclosed described such disclosures as provoking discomfort. Some women stated that their parental status seemed to invalidate the need to talk about their sexual history or identity with family, due its declining salience and increased concerns about judgment. This study reveals how partnership and parenthood statuses contribute to the intensification of heteronormative pressures in relation to family. Therapists should attend to the role of heteronormative values regarding partnering, family-building, and parenting. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  16. HealthyDads.ca: What Do Men Want in a Website Designed to Promote Emotional Wellness and Healthy Behaviors During the Transition to Parenthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Deborah; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Letourneau, Nicole; Howlett, Andrew; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Russell, Brian; Grover, Steven; Lowensteyn, Ilka; Chan, Peter; Khalifé, Samir

    2017-10-11

    Up to 18% of men experience depression and/or anxiety during the transition to parenthood. Interventions designed specifically to promote the mental health of men during the transition to parenthood are scarce. Internet-delivered interventions may be acceptable and far-reaching in enhancing mental health, parenting knowledge, and healthy behaviors in expectant or new fathers. To guide the development of Healthydads.ca, a website designed to enhance mental health and healthy behaviors in expectant fathers, a needs assessment was conducted to identify fathers' perspectives of barriers to seeking help for emotional wellness, informational needs, and factors affecting the decision to visit such a website. One hundred and seventy-four men whose partners were expecting, or had recently given birth, in 3 Canadian provinces (Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta) completed a Web-based survey inquiring about information needs related to psychosocial aspects of the transition to parenthood, lifestyle behaviors, parenting, and factors associated with the decision to visit a father-focused website. Most men (155/174, 89.1%) reported accessing the Internet to obtain information on pregnancy and spent an average of 6.2 hours online per month. Seeking information about parenting on the Internet was reported by 67.2% (117/174) of men, with a mean of 4.4 hours per month of online searching. Top barriers to seeking help to improve emotional wellness during the perinatal period were: no time to seek help/assistance (130/174, 74.7%), lack of resources available in the health care system (126/174, 72.4%), financial costs associated with services (118/174, 67.8%), and feeling that one should be able to do it alone (113/174, 64.9%). Information needs that were rated highly included: parenting/infant care (52.9-81.6%), supporting (121/174, 69.5%) and improving (124/174, 71.3%) relationship with their partner, work-family balance (120/174, 69.0%), improving sleep (100/174, 57.5%), and managing

  17. HealthyDads.ca: What Do Men Want in a Website Designed to Promote Emotional Wellness and Healthy Behaviors During the Transition to Parenthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Letourneau, Nicole; Howlett, Andrew; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Russell, Brian; Grover, Steven; Lowensteyn, Ilka; Chan, Peter; Khalifé, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Background Up to 18% of men experience depression and/or anxiety during the transition to parenthood. Interventions designed specifically to promote the mental health of men during the transition to parenthood are scarce. Internet-delivered interventions may be acceptable and far-reaching in enhancing mental health, parenting knowledge, and healthy behaviors in expectant or new fathers. Objective To guide the development of Healthydads.ca, a website designed to enhance mental health and healthy behaviors in expectant fathers, a needs assessment was conducted to identify fathers’ perspectives of barriers to seeking help for emotional wellness, informational needs, and factors affecting the decision to visit such a website. Methods One hundred and seventy-four men whose partners were expecting, or had recently given birth, in 3 Canadian provinces (Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta) completed a Web-based survey inquiring about information needs related to psychosocial aspects of the transition to parenthood, lifestyle behaviors, parenting, and factors associated with the decision to visit a father-focused website. Results Most men (155/174, 89.1%) reported accessing the Internet to obtain information on pregnancy and spent an average of 6.2 hours online per month. Seeking information about parenting on the Internet was reported by 67.2% (117/174) of men, with a mean of 4.4 hours per month of online searching. Top barriers to seeking help to improve emotional wellness during the perinatal period were: no time to seek help/assistance (130/174, 74.7%), lack of resources available in the health care system (126/174, 72.4%), financial costs associated with services (118/174, 67.8%), and feeling that one should be able to do it alone (113/174, 64.9%). Information needs that were rated highly included: parenting/infant care (52.9-81.6%), supporting (121/174, 69.5%) and improving (124/174, 71.3%) relationship with their partner, work-family balance (120/174, 69.0%), improving

  18. Intergenerational transmission of family meal patterns from adolescence to parenthood: longitudinal associations with parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Miller, Jonathan; Watts, Allison; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-02-01

    The present study examined longitudinal associations between four family meal patterns (i.e. never had regular family meals, started having regular family meals, stopped having regular family meals, maintained having regular family meals) and young adult parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being. In addition, family meal patterns of parents were compared with those of non-parents. Analysis of data from the longitudinal Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults) study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between family meal patterns and parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being. School and in-home settings. At baseline (1998; EAT-I), adolescents (n 4746) from socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse households completed a survey and anthropometric measurements at school. At follow-up (2015; EAT-IV), participants who were parents (n 726) and who were non-parents with significant others (n 618) completed an online survey. Young adult parents who reported having regular family meals as an adolescent and as a parent ('maintainers'), or who started having regular family meals with their own families ('starters'), reported more healthful dietary, weight-related and psychosocial outcomes compared with young adults who never reported having regular family meals ('nevers'; Pfamily meal starters than non-parents. Results suggest that mental and physical health benefits of having regular family meals may be realized as a parent whether the routine of regular family meals is carried forward from adolescence into parenthood, or if the routine is started in parenthood.

  19. An Exploratory Study of Transgender New Yorkers' Use of Sexual Health Services and Interest in Receiving Services at Planned Parenthood of New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsch, Lauren M; Dayananda, Ila; Dean, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Transgender individuals experience barriers to healthcare, including discrimination in care provision and lack of knowledge about transgender health. We assessed New York City (NYC) transgender and gender nonconforming individuals' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs, access to services, and interest in receiving services from Planned Parenthood of NYC (PPNYC). Methods: We conducted an anonymous Internet-based survey of transgender individuals residing in NYC from September to December 2014 by using snowball sampling. Results: Data were analyzed from 113 surveys. Although 74% (71/96) of respondents avoided or delayed healthcare in the past year, most respondents adhered to medically indicated SRH screenings. In the past year, 64% (45/70) and 67% (46/69) of respondents were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, respectively. In the past 3 years, 80% (39/49) of respondents received clinical breast/chest examinations and 83% (35/42) of eligible individuals received Pap tests. Respondents most often received care at LGBT specialty clinics (35% [37/105]) or at private doctors' offices (31% [32/105]). Eighteen percent (19/107) had ever been to a Planned Parenthood health center. On a four-point scale, respondents rated the following factors as most influential on whether they would seek care at PPNYC: assurance that staff received transsensitivity training (mean 3.8), the existence of gender identity nondiscrimination policies (mean 3.7), and the availability of transgender-specific services, such as hormone therapy (mean 3.7). Conclusions: Although the majority of transgender individuals in our sample received recommended SRH screenings, respondents reported barriers to accessing needed medical care. Healthcare organizations interested in better serving the transgender community should ensure a high level of training around transsensitivity and explore the provision of transgender-specific services.

  20. Federalism and Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alan Tarr

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available President Barack Obama proposed a major overhaul of the American healthsystem, and in 2010 the U.S. Congress enacted his proposal, the PatientProtection and Affordable Care Act. Opponents of the Act challenged itsconstitutionality in federal court, claiming that it exceeds the powers grantedto the federal government under the Commerce Clause and the NecessaryProper Clause of the federal Constitution. Some courts have upheldthe law, but others have agreed with the critics, in particular ruling thatthe provision requiring citizens to buy health insurance is unconstitutional.Eventually the U.S. Supreme Court will rule on the issue. This article tracesthe controversy, surveys the interpretation of pertinent constitutional provisionsin past cases, analyzes the constitutional arguments presented byproponents and opponents of the Act, and concludes that the Act is constitutional.

  1. Empire vs. Federation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravier, Magali

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the concepts of federation and empire in the context of the European Union (EU). Even if these two concepts are not usually contrasted to one another, the article shows that they refer to related type of polities. Furthermore, they can be used at a time because they shed light...... on different and complementary aspects of the European integration process. The article concludes that the EU is at the crossroads between federation and empire and may remain an ‘imperial federation’ for several decades. This could mean that the EU is on the verge of transforming itself to another type...

  2. Federalism and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.

  3. Energy policy and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thur, L M [ed.

    1981-04-01

    Separate abstracts are prepared for six papers presented as the product of an international seminar on Energy Policy and Federalism in North America. Specially commissioned papers for the seminar are presented along with a summary of the discussions. The summary appears in English, French, and Spanish; the other papers are in English. (MCW)

  4. Federal Emergency Management Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): About the Agency Text Messages Federal Interagency Operational Plans Whole Community Technological Hazards Division - Contacts Accessible ASL ... content. Home About Us Download Plug-ins Doing Business with FEMA Privacy ... General Strategic Plan Whitehouse.gov DHS.gov Ready.gov USA.gov ...

  5. Federalism and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Hagel, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    The absence of comprehensive federal oversight of human biotechnologies in the United States continues to stimulate academic discourse on the relative merits of European-style regulatory agencies as compared to the current, decentralized approach. Many American bioethicists support the latter, maintaining that the key features of federalism--policy experimentation and moral pluralism--allows for the efficient regulation of these complex and contentious issues. This paper examines state-level regulation of oocyte donation to assess claims regarding the superiority of this decentralized regulatory approach. Further, this paper introduces an additional element to this examination of state law, which concerns the degree to which the health and safety of key participants is addressed at the state level. This inquiry assesses one facet of fertility medicine and biomedical research law, oocyte donation, an analysis that can be used to inform the broader discourse regarding the regulation of human biotechnologies and bioethical issues by the states.

  6. Federal research policy 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The report covers several separate parts dealing with the following: Orientation and perspectives of the Federal Government's research policy; resources available for science, research and development; fields of main interest in R and D work sponsored by the Government; research and technology policy of the Lands; international and national research and technology policy; organisations promoting and establishment doing research work in the FRG; statistics. The guidelines and principles of research policy are given: freedom of science and research; restraint from governmental influence within the meaning of the subsidiarity principle; positive attitude to scientific and technical progress; investigation of long-term perspectives and options; fostering joint responsibility of the Federal Government and the Lands; development of international cooperation. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Poverty and reproductive health: global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketting, E

    1997-01-01

    This article opens by tabulating selected family planning (FP) indicators from the 24 poorest countries (those with a gross national product (GNP) of up to $300 per capita). Consideration of what is poverty and who are the poor concludes that poverty is hard to define but that is it a combination of low income, low life expectancy, illiteracy, and low educational levels; that is, the result of a denial of choices and opportunities. The poorest countries by this criteria differ somewhat from the poorest chosen according to GNP, but most are located in sub-Saharan Africa. The use of national data is complicated by the fact that huge differences exist between rich and poor within countries. The poorest countries have the lowest use of FP, the most restrictive abortion laws, high incidences of mortality associated with unsafe abortion, and high maternal mortality rates. International population and FP assistance is embarrassingly low and unfairly allocated. International assistance must be increased to break the cycle of poverty and improve reproductive health. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that improvement of reproductive health for the impoverished is a basic condition for human development and reduction of global inequity. In its policy statement on this topic, the IPPF recommends that local FP associations 1) constantly reevaluate how to maximize their impact on the most vulnerable, 2) be pioneers in the field of sexual and reproductive health, 3) reassess priorities in light of diminishing donor funding, 4) become advocates for increased resources and to further the work they are undertaking, and 5) strengthen collaboration with other development agencies working in the field.

  8. Federal Interagency Geothermal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Prencipe, Loretta [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Todaro, Richard M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Cuyler, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eide, Elizabeth [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This collaborative document describes the roles and responsibilities of key Federal agencies in the development of geothermal technologies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), including the U.S. Forest Service; the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI), including the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and the Department of Defense (DOD).

  9. 78 FR 27968 - Federal Management Regulation; Redesignations of Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Management Regulation; Redesignations of Federal Buildings AGENCY: Public Buildings Service (PBS), General... designation and redesignation of six Federal buildings. DATES: Expiration Date: This bulletin announcement expires July 30, 2013. The building designations and redesignations remains in effect until canceled or...

  10. Contemporary Parenthood. The Meaning of Mother and Father in the Child’s Life [Współczesne rodzicielstwo. Znaczenie matki i ojca w życiu dziecka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja PIOTROWSKA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of both parents is essential in the proper development of the child’s personality. Closeness, warmth, directness and the intimacy of parents-children relationship, enable the proper formation of the child’s personality; an individual who is able to love and make warm and permanent contacts with other people. The family is the cradle of personality development of each child born to this world. It is on the basis of family that enables the child to form speech, language, emotions and attitudes towards the people closest to it and to the surrounding world. The family introduces the child to the world of culture and prepares him for participation in social life. Parenthood is of more importance in today's consciousness. Children are perceived not as “a gift from God”, but rather as “planned or expected children”. Responsible parenthood means acquiring the skills for the reorienting of the parents’ life, and the effort of self-control and to be on the alert in accompanying the child in his growing up. Active parental presence at every stage of the child’s development enables it to complete the required tasks and gain the upper level of maturity. Parents are obliged to do a lot more than just to welcome the child to this world. Mature parenthood demands patience, engagement and attention but most importantly immense love and devotion which are missing when it comes to contemporary parents “embedded” in “Fast culture”.

  11. Pregnancy and Parenthood in Radiation Oncology, Views and Experiences Survey (PROVES): Results of a Blinded Prospective Trainee Parenting and Career Development Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Jagsi, Reshma; Stentz, Natalie Clark; Woodward, Wendy A.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Medical training spans nearly a decade, during which many physicians traditionally begin families. Although childrearing responsibilities are shared by men and women in the modern era, differences in time allocated to child care by sex and its potential impact on residency experience merit discussion. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, voluntary, 102-item survey was distributed to 540 current radiation oncology residents and 2014 graduates that asked about marital and parental status, pregnancy during residency, publication productivity, career aspirations, and experiences working with pregnant co-residents. Respondents with children were asked about childcare arrangements, and women who were pregnant during residency were asked about radiation safety, maternity leave, and breastfeeding experiences. Results: A total of 190 respondents completed the survey, 107 men (56.3%) and 84 women (43.7%). Ninety-seven respondents (51.1%) were parents, and 84 (44.2%) reported a pregnancy during residency. Respondents with children more often were male (65% vs 47.3%; P=.014), in a higher level of training (79.3% vs 54.8% were PGY4 or higher; P=.001), were older (median age of 32, interquartile range [IQR]:31-35] vs age 30 [IQR: 29-33]; P<.001), had a PhD (33% vs 19.3%, respectively; P=.033), were married (99% vs 43%, respectively; P<.001), and had a partner who did not work (24.7% vs 1.9%, respectively; <.001). There were no differences in the number of manuscripts published or the number of residents who expressed likelihood of pursing an academic career by parental status. Among parents, men more frequently had partners who did not work (38.1% vs 0%, respectively; P<.001) and reported that their partner performed a greater percentage of childcare duties (70% [IQR: 60%-80%] vs 35% [IQR: 20%-50%], respectively; P<.001). Conclusions: Pregnancy and parenthood are common during residency. Female residents are frequently responsible for more childcare duties than males

  12. Pregnancy and Parenthood in Radiation Oncology, Views and Experiences Survey (PROVES): Results of a Blinded Prospective Trainee Parenting and Career Development Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ahmed, Awad A. [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stentz, Natalie Clark [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Woodward, Wendy A.; Fuller, Clifton D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Charles R., E-mail: thomasch@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Medical training spans nearly a decade, during which many physicians traditionally begin families. Although childrearing responsibilities are shared by men and women in the modern era, differences in time allocated to child care by sex and its potential impact on residency experience merit discussion. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, voluntary, 102-item survey was distributed to 540 current radiation oncology residents and 2014 graduates that asked about marital and parental status, pregnancy during residency, publication productivity, career aspirations, and experiences working with pregnant co-residents. Respondents with children were asked about childcare arrangements, and women who were pregnant during residency were asked about radiation safety, maternity leave, and breastfeeding experiences. Results: A total of 190 respondents completed the survey, 107 men (56.3%) and 84 women (43.7%). Ninety-seven respondents (51.1%) were parents, and 84 (44.2%) reported a pregnancy during residency. Respondents with children more often were male (65% vs 47.3%; P=.014), in a higher level of training (79.3% vs 54.8% were PGY4 or higher; P=.001), were older (median age of 32, interquartile range [IQR]:31-35] vs age 30 [IQR: 29-33]; P<.001), had a PhD (33% vs 19.3%, respectively; P=.033), were married (99% vs 43%, respectively; P<.001), and had a partner who did not work (24.7% vs 1.9%, respectively; <.001). There were no differences in the number of manuscripts published or the number of residents who expressed likelihood of pursing an academic career by parental status. Among parents, men more frequently had partners who did not work (38.1% vs 0%, respectively; P<.001) and reported that their partner performed a greater percentage of childcare duties (70% [IQR: 60%-80%] vs 35% [IQR: 20%-50%], respectively; P<.001). Conclusions: Pregnancy and parenthood are common during residency. Female residents are frequently responsible for more childcare duties than males

  13. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive...

  14. 78 FR 45617 - Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., et al. Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan) Program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL...

  15. An Xrootd Italian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccali, T; Mazzoni, E; Donvito, G; Diacono, D; Marzulli, G; Pompili, A; Ricca, G Della; Argiro, S; Gregori, D; Grandi, C; Bonacorsi, D; Lista, L; Fabozzi, F; Barone, L M; Santocchia, A; Riahi, H; Tricomi, A; Sgaravatto, M; Maron, G

    2014-01-01

    The Italian community in CMS has built a geographically distributed network in which all the data stored in the Italian region are available to all the users for their everyday work. This activity involves at different level all the CMS centers: the Tier1 at CNAF, all the four Tier2s (Bari, Rome, Legnaro and Pisa), and few Tier3s (Trieste, Perugia, Torino, Catania, Napoli, ...). The federation uses the new network connections as provided by GARR, our NREN (National Research and Education Network), which provides a minimum of 10 Gbit/s to all the sites via the GARR-X[2] project. The federation is currently based on Xrootd[1] technology, and on a Redirector aimed to seamlessly connect all the sites, giving the logical view of a single entity. A special configuration has been put in place for the Tier1, CNAF, where ad-hoc Xrootd changes have been implemented in order to protect the tape system from excessive stress, by not allowing WAN connections to access tape only files, on a file-by-file basis. In order to improve the overall performance while reading files, both in terms of bandwidth and latency, a hierarchy of xrootd redirectors has been implemented. The solution implemented provides a dedicated Redirector where all the INFN sites are registered, without considering their status (T1, T2, or T3 sites). An interesting use case were able to cover via the federation are disk-less Tier3s. The caching solution allows to operate a local storage with minimal human intervention: transfers are automatically done on a single file basis, and the cache is maintained operational by automatic removal of old files.

  16. An Xrootd Italian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccali, T.; Donvito, G.; Diacono, D.; Marzulli, G.; Pompili, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Mazzoni, E.; Argiro, S.; Gregori, D.; Grandi, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Lista, L.; Fabozzi, F.; Barone, L. M.; Santocchia, A.; Riahi, H.; Tricomi, A.; Sgaravatto, M.; Maron, G.

    2014-06-01

    The Italian community in CMS has built a geographically distributed network in which all the data stored in the Italian region are available to all the users for their everyday work. This activity involves at different level all the CMS centers: the Tier1 at CNAF, all the four Tier2s (Bari, Rome, Legnaro and Pisa), and few Tier3s (Trieste, Perugia, Torino, Catania, Napoli, ...). The federation uses the new network connections as provided by GARR, our NREN (National Research and Education Network), which provides a minimum of 10 Gbit/s to all the sites via the GARR-X[2] project. The federation is currently based on Xrootd[1] technology, and on a Redirector aimed to seamlessly connect all the sites, giving the logical view of a single entity. A special configuration has been put in place for the Tier1, CNAF, where ad-hoc Xrootd changes have been implemented in order to protect the tape system from excessive stress, by not allowing WAN connections to access tape only files, on a file-by-file basis. In order to improve the overall performance while reading files, both in terms of bandwidth and latency, a hierarchy of xrootd redirectors has been implemented. The solution implemented provides a dedicated Redirector where all the INFN sites are registered, without considering their status (T1, T2, or T3 sites). An interesting use case were able to cover via the federation are disk-less Tier3s. The caching solution allows to operate a local storage with minimal human intervention: transfers are automatically done on a single file basis, and the cache is maintained operational by automatic removal of old files.

  17. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  18. The FY2011 Federal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    long been the largest source of federal revenues, followed by social insurance (payroll) taxes. Federal individual and corporate income tax revenues...915 billion (6.4% of GDP). Corporate income tax revenues fell from $304 billion in FY2008 to $138 billion in FY2009. Federal revenues from other

  19. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing...

  20. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend

  1. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Pregnancy and Parenthood in Radiation Oncology, Views and Experiences Survey (PROVES): Results of a Blinded Prospective Trainee Parenting and Career Development Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Emma B; Ahmed, Awad A; Jagsi, Reshma; Stentz, Natalie Clark; Woodward, Wendy A; Fuller, Clifton D; Thomas, Charles R

    2015-07-01

    Medical training spans nearly a decade, during which many physicians traditionally begin families. Although childrearing responsibilities are shared by men and women in the modern era, differences in time allocated to child care by sex and its potential impact on residency experience merit discussion. An anonymous, voluntary, 102-item survey was distributed to 540 current radiation oncology residents and 2014 graduates that asked about marital and parental status, pregnancy during residency, publication productivity, career aspirations, and experiences working with pregnant co-residents. Respondents with children were asked about childcare arrangements, and women who were pregnant during residency were asked about radiation safety, maternity leave, and breastfeeding experiences. A total of 190 respondents completed the survey, 107 men (56.3%) and 84 women (43.7%). Ninety-seven respondents (51.1%) were parents, and 84 (44.2%) reported a pregnancy during residency. Respondents with children more often were male (65% vs 47.3%; P=.014), in a higher level of training (79.3% vs 54.8% were PGY4 or higher; P=.001), were older (median age of 32, interquartile range [IQR]:31-35] vs age 30 [IQR: 29-33]; Pstatus. Among parents, men more frequently had partners who did not work (38.1% vs 0%, respectively; Pproductivity and career aspirations. Further investigation is critical to elucidate gender disparities in parenthood and career development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Delinquency in incarcerated male adolescents is associated with single parenthood, exposure to more violence at home and in the community, and poorer self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelja, Stanislava; Vokal, Petra; Bolfan, Marija; Erdelja, Sergej Augustin; Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan

    2013-10-28

    To assess the relationships between delinquency and demographic and family variables, academic performance, war stressors, home/community, school, and media violence exposure, self-image, and psychopathology. This cross-sectional study included 100 delinquent, incarcerated male adolescents and 100 matched schoolchildren from Croatia. It lasted from January 2008 to June 2009, and used socio-demographic questionnaire, questionnaire on children's stressful and traumatic war experiences, exposure to violence scale, the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Youth Self-Report Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis showed that delinquency in incarcerated adolescents was more likely related to having parents who did not live together (odds ratio [OR] 2.40; confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.90, P=0.015), being more exposed to violence at home/community (OR 3.84; CI 1.58-9.34, P=0.003), and having poorer self-image (OR 1.09; CI=1.03-1.16, P>0.002). Preventive and therapeutic interventions in incarcerated delinquents should be specifically targeted toward single parenthood, family factors, trauma oriented interventions, and focused on multiple dimensions of self-concept of adolescents.

  4. Parental self-efficacy and stress-related growth in the transition to parenthood: a comparison between parents of pre- and full-term babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Varda; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was to examine how the unique circumstances of the birth of a premature baby affect the perception of parental self-efficacy and stress-related growth--which is the experience of positive change in one's life following stressful circumstances--among first-time parents and to examine the contribution of the parents' personal resources of self-esteem and attachment style, and their infant's temperament and medical condition, to their self-efficacy and stress-related growth. Forty-nine sets of parents of preterm babies and 50 sets of parents of full-term babies completed questionnaires about one month after the birth of their child. Parents of premature infants reported a higher level of stress-related growth than those of full-term infants, but no difference was found between them on parental self-efficacy In addition, gender differences in the dependent variables, as well as significant contributions of attachment style and self-esteem, were found. Professional guidance during pregnancy, aimed at expanding parents' knowledge and understanding of the changes they can expect to undergo, may serve to enhance the positive experience of growth in the transition to parenthood.

  5. Federal Interim Storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; McBride, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The DOE has developed a program for providing Federal Interim Storage servies for spent nuclear fuel which complies with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Although very little constructive activity in providing storage facilities can be undertaken by DOE until fuel has been certified by NRC as eligible for FIS, DOE planning and background information is such as to provide reasonable assurance that its obligations can be fulfilled when the required certifications have been issued. A fee structure providing fuel recovery of all costs associated with the FIS program, as required by the Act, has been developed. It provides for an equitable distribution of costs among users, based on the quantity of fuel requiring storage

  6. 77 FR 66087 - Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ..., and 685 Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D. Ford... 685 RIN 1840-AD05 [Docket ID ED-2012-OPE-0010] Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education... (Perkins Loan) program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) program, and William D. Ford Federal Direct...

  7. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration...., Acting Division Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield...

  8. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  9. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  10. Distrito Federal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alejandro Bravo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen dos discursos contrapuestos al respecto de la cuestión del consumo de drogas: el tradicional, que considera sólo a las drogas ilegales, criminalizando al usuario y uno nuevo, denominado de reducción de daños, que no tiene como objetivo único su eliminación total, sino también la disminución de los efectos perjudiciales del mismo, priorizando así la salud de los sujetos y de la comunidad en general. En el marco particular de las instituciones públicas del Distrito Federal, Brasil, se analizan tanto el tipo de discursos predominantes en cada una de ellas, como las relaciones de poder que permiten y organizan. Se consideran en particular los niveles de gestión responsables por determinar y ejecutar las políticas de prevención y atención a las toxicomanías. El Análisis do Discurso, utilizado en este trabajo permite el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas en las instituciones. La discusión de este tema contribuye para pensar un cambio en las políticas públicas en esta área que permita el aprovechamiento integral de los recursos humanos e institucionales existentes.

  11. Deceptive Business Practices: Federal Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Federal regulations to prevent deceptive advertising seek to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with protection of the consumer. This paper discusses what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has done to regulate advertising and evaluates the adequacy of its controls. The commission uses cease-and-desist orders, affirmative disclosure,…

  12. Russian Federation country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labyntseva, Marina [Non governmental educational institution, ' ATOMPROF' , Aerodromnaya st., 4, 197348 St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear in the Russian Federation: 31 reactors at 10 nuclear power plants, 454 nuclear material storage facilities, 16475 sources of ionizing radiation, 1508 storage facilities for radioactive material and radioactive waste. Nuclear power: 10 nuclear power plants with total installed capacity of 23.242 GWe, Total nuclear electricity generation 160 bln kWh in 2007, Share of nuclear electricity in the overall electricity generation is 16%. Future of nuclear power: Nuclear power development program for the period from 2007 to 2020: Lifetime extension of existing units, Completion of construction of nuclear power units at existing sites (Rostov-2, Kalinin-4, Beloyarsk-4). Construction of new nuclear power plants near existing NPP (Novovoronezh NPP-2, Leningrad NPP-2, Kursk NPP-2,Kola NPP-2) and Construction of new nuclear power plants: (Nizhny Novgorod NPP, Tver NPP, Central NPP, South Urals NPP, Seversk NPP, Primorskaya NPP, 2 floating nuclear power plants at Severodvinsk and Pevek). Radioactive waste management: The Law on radioactive waste management will be introduced to State Duma in June 2008. The radioactive waste management strategy includes construction and reconstruction of: Storage facilities for some 120 thousand cubic meters, RW treatment complexes at nuclear fuel cycle enterprises, Storage facilities and RW treatment complexes at nuclear power plants, Storage facilities for RW coming from non-nuclear facilities for 140 thousand cubic meters, Decommissioning of 140 facilities, Decontamination of territories, buildings and constructions with the total area of 1658 thousand square meters. Development of competences: In 2006 about 313 thousand employees were working at nuclear industry (Top level managers - 0,6%, Intermediate level managers - 6,0%, Specialists - 31,6%, Workers - 62%). The demand of Rosatom State Corporation will be 7000 - 8000 persons annually of more then 140 professions, among them: 2800 persons with higher professional education, 2000

  13. Health care reform and federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Jacobson, Peter D

    2010-04-01

    Health policy debates are replete with discussions of federalism, most often when advocates of reform put their hopes in states. But health policy literature is remarkably silent on the question of allocation of authority, rarely asking which levels of government ought to lead. We draw on the larger literatures about federalism, found mostly in political science and law, to develop a set of criteria for allocating health policy authority between states and the federal government. They are social justice, procedural democracy, compatibility with value pluralism, institutional capability, and economic sustainability. Of them, only procedural democracy and compatibility with value pluralism point to state leadership. In examining these criteria, we conclude that American policy debates often get federalism backward, putting the burden of health care coverage policy on states that cannot enact or sustain it, while increasing the federal role in issues where the arguments for state leadership are compelling. We suggest that the federal government should lead present and future financing of health care coverage, since it would require major changes in American intergovernmental relations to make innovative state health care financing sustainable outside a strong federal framework.

  14. Querying on Federated Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Can

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Federated Sensor Network (FSN is a network of geographically distributed Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs called islands. For querying on an FSN, we introduce the Layered Federated Sensor Network (L-FSN Protocol. For layered management, L-FSN provides communication among islands by its inter-island querying protocol by which a query packet routing path is determined according to some path selection policies. L-FSN allows autonomous management of each island by island-specific intra-island querying protocols that can be selected according to island properties. We evaluate the applicability of L-FSN and compare the L-FSN protocol with various querying protocols running on the flat federation model. Flat federation is a method to federate islands by running a single querying protocol on an entire FSN without distinguishing communication among and within islands. For flat federation, we select a querying protocol from geometrical, hierarchical cluster-based, hash-based, and tree-based WSN querying protocol categories. We found that a layered federation of islands by L-FSN increases the querying performance with respect to energy-efficiency, query resolving distance, and query resolving latency. Moreover, L-FSN’s flexibility of choosing intra-island querying protocols regarding the island size brings advantages on energy-efficiency and query resolving latency.

  15. Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP)/ Federal Processor Permit (FPP) Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP) is required for vessels of the United States which are used to fish for groundfish in the Gulf of Alaska or Bering Sea and...

  16. Federal Personnel: Federal/Private Sector Pay Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Choices of Both Government and Union Status," Journal of Labor Economics , Vol. 6 (1988), pp. 229-53; Alan B. Krueger, "Are Public Sector Workers Paid...Differential in the United States," Journal of Labor Economics , Vol. 38, No. 2 (1990), pp. 270-293. 5A discussion of these explanations can be found in...federal earnings, one can obtain an estimate of the pay gap that is attributable to federal employment In labor economics research, both methods are

  17. Fiscal Federalism in Monetary Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; A. Schmid, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Net fiscal transfers are commonly seen as a possible means to ensure the wellfunctioning of a currency area. We show that U.S. net fiscal transfers, measured as the difference between gross federal revenues and federal expenditures per state, are enormous. Moreover, we run panel regressions...... a system of fiscal federalism which raises the question whether it should be established in the medium- and long-run. If so, which should be the magnitude of net fiscal transfers? We calculate these transfers hypothetically for 1999-2010, using a relative volume comparable to the one in the USA....

  18. New Federalism: Back to Basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durenberger, Dave

    1983-01-01

    The senator explains the basic concepts of New Federalism, including a rethinking of responsibilities and intergovernmental relations and a reconsideration of the role of state and local government. (SK)

  19. Volpentest HAMMER Federal Training Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — HAMMER stands for Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response, and was named for Sam Volpentest, a long-time community leader and advocate of the Hanford...

  20. State/Federal Regulatory Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008, regarding State/Federal Regulatory Considerations.

  1. Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) is a mechanism with which EPA can patent its inventions and license them to companies, through which innovative technologies can enter the marketplace to improve the environment and human health.

  2. Federal Energy Management Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-05

    Brochure offers an overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), which provides agencies and organizations with the information, tools, and assistance they need to achieve their energy-related requirements and goals through specialized initiatives.

  3. BLM Colorado Federal Mineral Estate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This Federal Mineral Estate (Subsurface) dataset is a result of combining data sets that were collected at each BLM Colorado Field Office and using...

  4. 41 CFR 102-79.40 - Can Federal agencies allot space in Federal buildings to Federal credit unions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal credit unions without charge for rent or services if— (a) At least 95 percent of the membership of... presently Federal employees or were Federal employees at the time of admission into the credit union, and...

  5. Monitoring of the xrootd federations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Construction of the data federations and understanding the impact of the new approach to data management on user analysis requires complete and detailed monitoring. Monitoring functionality should cover the status of all components of the federated storage, measuring data traffic and data access performance, as well as being able to detect any kind of inefficiencies and to provide hints for resource optimization and effective data distribution policy. Data mining of the collected monito...

  6. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on...

  7. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft... 9, West Chicago, IL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Surveillance Radar, Model 9, West Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...

  8. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to... address: Lynn D. Martin, Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports...

  9. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Request to Release Airport Property. SUMMARY... Nicely, Manager, Federal Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, Texas Airports...

  10. 75 FR 18014 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability regarding a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI): U.S.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Federal Highway Administration, Kentucky Division: Mr. Greg Rawlings...

  11. Open letter to Pope John Paul II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, F

    1991-01-01

    In an Open Letter to Pope John Paul II, written on World Population Day (July 11) 1991, Dr. Fred Sai, President of International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), called for a dialogue on voluntary family planning as a means of avoiding unwanted pregnancy. A half million women die each year from pregnancy-related causes--a death toll that could be dramatically reduced by universal access to low cost, effective contraception. Family planning further represents the best protection against abortion. The Catholic Church's vehement opposition to abortion and family planning methods other than periodic abstinence is in marked contrast to its support to human rights in other settings. The Church has supported struggles for economic ju stice in and among nations, sided with the poor, and advocated for transitions to democracy. At the same time, the family planning movement--which has as its overall objective the protection of the health and welfare of women, children, and families--is viewed by the Vatican as a vehicle for the enslavement rather than liberation of women. The opening of a sensitive dialogue between the Catholic Church and supporters of voluntary family planning could help couples make sound moral decisions about their families and contribute to saving the lives of millions of women, most of them poor.

  12. Richard Weaver's Untraditional Case for Federalism

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy David Bailey

    2004-01-01

    Although Richard M. Weaver's political writings do not offer a systematic examination of federalism, they include a defense of federalist arrangements. Because Weaver's federalism is central to his conservatism, and because his argument for federalism differs from more common conservative defenses of federalism offered in the twentieth century, his writings allow students of federalism to examine possible connections between federalism and conservative political thought. Copyright 2004, Oxfor...

  13. FEDERAL AND REGIONAL CLUSTER POLICY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the history of cluster policy in Russia at the federal and regional levels. The federal cluster policy is realized in three directions, studying which allowed us to outline the main features of a formalized cluster that claims state support. The trend of reorientation of the cluster policy from supporting clusters and their infrastructure to cluster projects is revealed. Systematization and comparative analysis of the cluster policy in the regions of the country leading in terms of cluster development is carried out. It is established that the regional cluster policy is at a nascent stage and is a projection of the federal programs. At the regional level, there is no institutional basis for the cluster policy in Russia. The regional cluster policy is characterized by homogeneity of organizational structures.

  14. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. A parentalidade homossexual: uma exposição do debate psicanalítico no cenário francês atual The homosexual parenthood: an exposition of the psychoanalytical debate in the contemporary French scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Perelson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Após situar a homoparentalidade no contexto das novas práticas sociais e médicas referentes à filiação e à reprodução, o artigo apresenta um cenário do debate francês atual sobre essa questão. Serão nele confrontados os pensamentos de cinco psicanalistas: Joël Dor, e sua teorização sobre o papel da função paterna e da diferença anatômica entre os sexos na estruturação do sujeito; Pierre Legendre, e sua articulação entre os campos do jurídico e do psíquico na inscrição do ser humano na ordem da filiação; Michel Tort, e sua crítica às teorias de Legendre; Geneviève Delaisi de Parseval, e sua proposta de uma definição mais ampla da família; e, enfim, Sabine Prokhoris, e a sua distinção entre 'sexuação' e 'diferença dos sexos'. Através dessa apresentação, buscar-se-á desmontar os argumentos contrários e indicar a legitimidade da argumentação favorável à filiação homossexual.After situating homoparenthood within the context of the new social and medical practices concerning parenthood and reproduction, the article presents a scenario of the contemporary French debate on this issue. The thinking of five psychoanalysts on this matter will be broached : Joël Dor and his theory about the role of the function of the father and about the anatomic difference between sexes in the structure process of the subject; Pierre Legendre and his articulation between the fields of law and the psych in the involvement of the human being in the order of parenthood; Michel Tort and his criticism of the theories of that author; and Genevieve Delaisi de Parseval and her proposal of a broader definition of the family. And, finally, Sabine Prokhoris, and her distinction between "sexuation" and "difference of the sexes". This presentation intends to dismantle the opposite arguments and demonstrates the legitimacy of the reasoning favorable to homosexual parenthood.

  16. Unwanted parenthood: Romanticism and Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the Romantic reception of Kant, the author attempts to show a relationship between the Romanticism and the Enlightenment. First part of the paper reconstructs the social conditions that created the strange path of transformation of parts of Kant’s teachings in the romantic motifs. The second part follows the theoretical precomposition of Kant’s thought in Fichte and expressly deviation from it in Novalis and Schlegel. Third section presents the key moments of the Romantic critique of the Enlightenment mind, and fourth its ambiguous pracital-political effects. In conclusion, it is suggested that Romanticism tested and testified the transcending of limits of the very freedom for which Kant believed that man becomes worthy of only if it is used in a lawful and purposeful manner.

  17. 49 CFR 1325.3 - Federal office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal office. 1325.3 Section 1325.3... FEDERAL OFFICE OR THEIR REPRESENTATIVES § 1325.3 Federal office. For the purposes of this section, Federal office means the office of President or Vice President of the United States; or of Senator or...

  18. Federal Innovation Program a Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    USA Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Professor Donald C. Orlich of Washington State University charges that, with few exceptions, the hundreds of research and development projects funded by the federal government since 1953 have brought no significant improvement in instruction. He is especially critical of the Experimental Schools Program. (Author/SJL)

  19. Federalization of Education in Chihuahua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, Andrae M.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the politics behind the initial centralization of primary education in Chihuahua, Mexico during the 1920s and 1930s. The article argues that the centralization of primary education was one of many tools used by the federal government to consolidate its power in the wake of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1917) and create a…

  20. Research Scholars and Federal Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNett, Ian

    1980-01-01

    The National Academy of Education is described as a loose federation of prominent educational and social science researchers, which has never pretended to be a think tank or a lobbying organization. Its influence is indirectly felt through the prestige and quality research of its members. (MLW)

  1. Teacher Leadership: Federal Policy Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, Jackie; Young, Margaret; Broin, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief was developed specifically for federal policymakers, and builds upon the policy recommendations included in "Leading from Every Seat: Empowering Principals to Cultivate Teacher Leadership for School Improvement." The recommendations in this report include the following: (1) Uncover New Leadership Ideas and Seed…

  2. New Federal Cost Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, George J.; Handzo, Joseph J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a new set of indirect cost accounting procedures which must be followed by school districts wishing to recover any indirect costs of administering federal grants and contracts. Also discusses the amount of indirect costs that may be recovered, computing indirect costs, classifying project costs, and restricted grants. (Author/DN)

  3. Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

    2004-09-01

    In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

  4. From federated federalism to converging federalism? The case of EU subsidiarity scrutiny in Spain and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandamme, T.

    2012-01-01

    In political science literature, federal systems may be classified as ‘dual’ or ‘co-operative’ polities. This contribution further explores this dichotomy between dual and co-operative systems from the perspective of Spain and Belgium, two EU member states that may be qualified as ‘dual’ systems.

  5. From federated federalism to harmonized federalism: the case of EU subsidiarity scrutiny in Spain and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandamme, T.

    2011-01-01

    In political science literature, federal systems can be classified as ‘dual’ or ‘cooperative’ polities. Also for legal research, this classification has proven to be a good tool for analysis as evidenced by the recent work of Robert Schütze when he described the evolution of the EU from a dual to a

  6. 77 FR 4547 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... defined in section 102(2) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C... CONTACT: Kathleen Wicks, Director of Grants & Campus-Based Division, U.S. Department of Education, Federal...: (202) 377-3110 or via email: kathleen.wicks@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the...

  7. 75 FR 12217 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...-case basis the effect that a major disaster, as defined in section 102(2) of the Robert T. Stafford...: Kathleen Wicks, Director of Grants & Campus-Based Division, U.S. Department of Education, Federal Student...) 377-3110 or via the Internet: kathleen.wicks@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the...

  8. 76 FR 5787 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... effect that a major disaster, as defined in section 102(2) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and... CONTACT: Kathleen Wicks, Director of Grants & Campus-Based Division, U.S. Department of Education, Federal...: (202) 377-3110 or via the Internet: kathleen.wicks@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for...

  9. 77 FR 47374 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ...; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program/ Federal Family Loan (FFEL) Program: Deferment... which borrowers in the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) and Federal Family Education... considered public records. Title of Collection: William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program...

  10. Federal Energy Resources Modernization Coordinating Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G. B.

    1992-07-01

    This report summarizes the broad range of activities supported by Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) and other federal agencies focused on meeting the President's Executive Order on Federal Energy Management promulgated to meet energy savings goals and encourage more efficient management of all federal energy resources. These activities are reported semiannually under the auspices of the FERM Coordinating Committee, and as such include activities undertaken from October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1992. The activities reported are classified into four major categories: (1) technology-base support, which includes development of processes, software, metering and monitoring equipment and strategies, and other tools for the federal energy manager to better understand and characterize their energy resources; (2) federal energy systems testing and monitoring; (3) federal energy systems modernization projects at federal installations in cooperation with the utilities serving the sites; and (4) energy supply, distribution and end-use conservation assessment for federal agencies and/or facilities.

  11. Federal support of radiological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Pervading the plans and objective outlined herein for continued and enhanced federal support of research in radiology is a challenge of unparalleled magnitude, for the economic foundation on which this support is based has rarely been more precarious. The new administration in Washington may well be the most fiscally constrained in half a century, and its stated interest in reducing federal expenditures could have disastrous consequences for the scientific research effort in this country, including that in radiology and the radiological sciences. The circumvention of these consequences may well require the dedicated effort of the entire scientific community over the next few months and years, including that part representing radiology and the radiological sciences

  12. Nigeria: a federation gone wrong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Kirsten

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its size, large population, oil-based economy and geographical location in West Africa. Nigeria is regarded as an important state in Africa. The country is also one of the longest surviving federal states on the continent and therefore represents an ongoing experiment in federalism in the Third World. Since its independence in 1960, however, Nigeria has been devastated by chronic political instability. This article tries to address the issue why this is the case and to identify ethnic-religious diversity and successive military regimes as the most important sources for the mentioned political unrest. The course and nature of political instability in Nigeria is pul in historical context - a context which also include the secession attempt by Riafra as one of the tragic highlights in the past of Nigeria. In conclusion, the author speculates on ways and options as to how secession attempts can be prevented and a larger amount of national political stability be achieved.

  13. Federal interagency radiation policy coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses Federal interagency radiation policy coordination. The Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) is explained as being dedicated to the success and forward motion of enhanced radiation research and policy coordination. Both CIRRPC and the Science Panel are staffed with Federal employees. Their expertise includes many and various radiation disciplines including cytogenetics, dosimetry, epidemiology, genetics, health physics, nuclear medicine, radiology, radiation carcinogenesis, and risk assessment. Ten scientific and technical issues in their preliminary order are presented: radioepidemiological tables; de minimis radiation levels; radon progeny health effects; occupational exposure registry; measurement, recording, and control of radiation; food irradiation; use of radiation in science, industry, and medicine; nonionizing radiation; and remedial actions

  14. Federal Debt and Interests Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    refunding, , state or lo- by clearing easy profits. To bar this abuse-- cal government sells bonds whose proceeds which is known as tax arbitrage --federal...rate. violating the arbitrage ban. SLGs carry a maximum interest rate of one-eighth of a per- Foreign Series. Foreign series securities, is- centage...or costs are unpredictable and vestors devote to nonproductive hedging focus instead on any of several economic bene- and increase the willingness of

  15. Federal health services grants, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, D I

    1986-01-01

    Federal health services grants amounted to about $1.8 billion in fiscal year 1985. The total amount was about $100 million less, about 6 percent, than in 1980. Reductions in the health planning program accounted for most of the decline in absolute dollars. The four formula grants to State agencies amounted to about $1.0 billion in 1985, about 60 percent of the total. The largest formula grants were for maternal and child health services and for alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health services. Project grants to selected State and local agencies amounted to about $.8 billion. There was 12 such grants in 1985 (compared with 34 in 1980). The largest, for community health services, equaled almost half the total. In real, inflation-adjusted dollars, the decline in Federal funds for these programs exceeded a third during the 5-year period. The overall dollar total in real terms in 1985 approximated the 1970 level. The ratio of formula grants to project grants in 1985 was similar to that in 1965. Studies of the impact of changes in Federal grants have found that while the development of health programs has been seriously constrained in most cases, their nature has not been substantially altered. In some cases broader program approaches and allocations have been favored. Established modes of operations and administration have generally been strengthened. Some efficiencies but few savings in administration have been identified. Replacement of reduced Federal funding by the States has been modest but has increased over time, especially for direct service activities. These changes reflect the important influence of professionalism in the health fields and the varying strengths of political interest and influence among program supporters. The long-term impact on program innovation is not yet clear.

  16. Improving Federal Response to Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, Donald A.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Glantz, Michael H.

    1986-03-01

    Severe and widespread drought occurred over a large portion of the United States between 1974 and 1977. Impacts on agriculture and other industries, as well as local water supplies, were substantial. The federal government responded with forty assistance programs administered by sixteen federal agencies. Assistance was provided primarily in the form of loans and grants to people, businesses and governments experiencing hardship caused by drought. The total cost of the program is estimated at $7-8 billion.Federal response to the mid-1970s drought was largely untimely, ineffective and poorly coordinated. Four recommendations are offered that, if implemented, would improve future drought assessment and response efforts: 1) reliable and timely informational products and dissemination plans; 2) improved impact assessment techniques, especially in the agricultural sector, for use by government to identify periods of enhanced risk and to trigger assistance measures; 3) administratively centralized drought declaration procedures that are well publicized and consistently applied; and 4) standby assistance measures that encourage appropriate levels of risk management by producers and that are equitable, consistent and predictable. The development of a national drought plan that incorporates these four items is recommended. Atmospheric scientists have an important role to play in the collection and interpretation of near-real time weather data for use by government decision makers.

  17. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courchene, T.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Policy Studies

    2005-10-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  18. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courchene, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  19. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  20. Federal Procurement Data System - FAADS API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Federal Award Assistance Data System (FAADS) has been re-engineered as a real-time federal enterprise information system. Web services based on SOAP and XML,...

  1. Mandatory Class 1 Federal Areas Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area polygons and Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area labels in the United States. The polygon...

  2. 76 FR 77302 - Federal Transit Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Sustainability... Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA Sustainability Program Funds: Announcement of Project Selections. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the...

  3. 78 FR 25337 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of Information Collection: Operations Specifications AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments...

  4. 76 FR 2745 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is...

  5. FEDERALISM IN ETHIOPIA AND FOREIGN RELATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    milkii

    exclusive power of foreign relations by the federal government in federal polity confronts ..... vi) Participation of regional authorities in the international events ... stipulated that, the tiers of government are independent and one should respect.

  6. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Law 109-282, the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 as amended (FFATA), requires disclosure of all entities and organizations receiving Federal funds through a single publicly accessible website.

  7. Code of Federal Regulations in XML

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and...

  8. Federal Procurement Data System - FPDS API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Federal Procurement Data System (FPDS) Next Generation has been re-engineered as a real-time federal enterprise information system. Web services based on SOAP...

  9. Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality (CIAQ), which meets three times a year, was established by Congress to coordinate the activities of the Federal Government on issues relating to Indoor Air Quality.

  10. Federal Aircraft Cost and Utilization Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Federal aviation data is submitted quarterly to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FARIS) IT application. This is a GSA system which is a secure,...

  11. Developing Federal Clinical Care Recommendations for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Emily M; Tepper, Naomi K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Moskosky, Susan B; Gavin, Loretta E

    2015-08-01

    The provision of family planning services has important health benefits for the U.S. Approximately 25 million women in the U.S. receive contraceptive services annually and 44 million make at least one family planning-related clinical visit each year. These services are provided by private clinicians, as well as publicly funded clinics, including specialty family planning clinics, health departments, Planned Parenthoods, community health centers, and primary care clinics. Recommendations for providing quality family planning services have been published by CDC and the Office of Population Affairs of the DHHS. This paper describes the process used to develop the women's clinical services portion of the new recommendations and the rationale underpinning them. The recommendations define family planning services as contraceptive care, pregnancy testing and counseling, achieving pregnancy, basic infertility care, sexually transmitted disease services, and preconception health. Because many women who seek family planning services have no other source of care, the recommendations also include additional screening services related to women's health, such as cervical cancer screening. These clinical guidelines are aimed at providing the highest-quality care and are designed to establish a national standard for family planning in the U.S. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. FEDERAL BALANCING IN NIGERIA: A PARADIGM FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    between the central government and the regional or state governments and the ... government within a federation has its defined duties and it is confined to ...... Osadolor, O.B., 'The Development of the Federal Idea and the Federal. Framework ...

  13. 40 CFR 58.60 - Federal monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal monitoring. 58.60 Section 58.60... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Federal Monitoring § 58.60 Federal monitoring. The Administrator may locate and operate an ambient air monitoring site if the State or local agency fails to locate, or schedule to be...

  14. 75 FR 61552 - Federal Railroad Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Informational Filing In accordance with Section 236.913 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received an informational filing from the Northeast...

  15. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2012-26034 Filed 10-22-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  16. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-16464 Filed 7-8-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  17. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments... 4. U.S. Mail: Leslie Grey--AAL-614, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, 222 West 7th...

  18. Federal Aid and State Library Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, David

    1985-01-01

    Considers role of states as middlemen between federal government and local public libraries in administration of Library Services and Construction Act funds. An audit of Illinois state library agencies, 1970 federal mandates, state control of federal funds, and state library agencies' use of funds are discussed. Eight references are cited. (EJS)

  19. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas.

  20. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas

  1. Federal report on research 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Current challenges to science and research in the field of scientific-technological innovation are: to safeguard the competitiveness of particularly high-grade and demanding products in those parts of the world market where competition is hard; careful, responsible and at the same time economically reasonable use of nature and the natural resources; scientific and technological efficiency of this country as a partner in the world. The newly oriented research policy approves technical progress and invites top performances. One of the most important immediate problems is the training of qualified young scientists. The federal government views the technological development also in relation to the risks, but is convinced that possible disadvantages can be reduced to become negligible. Information technology, new material, bio and laser technologies, having interindustrial importance, play a part in economy world-wide as key technologies. Besides expenditure for sciences, measures and promotion instruments, the main points of emphasis of promotion as well as the international cooperation are described in detail as to their tasks, structure and volume; furthermore the individual research institutions of the Federal Republic of Germany are pointed out. The statistics appended contain the financial data regarding science expenditure. (HSCH) [de

  2. Study of federal microwave standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L.

    1980-08-01

    Present and future federal regulatory processes which may impact the permissible levels of microwave radiation emitted by the SPS Microwave Power Transmission (MPTS) were studied. An historical development of US occupational and public microwave standards includes an overview of Western and East European philosophies of environmental protection and neurophysiology which have led to the current widely differing maximum permissible exposure limits to microwaves. The possible convergence of microwave standards is characterized by a lowering of Western exposure levels while Eastern countries consider standard relaxation. A trend toward stricter controls on activities perceived as harmful to public health is under way as is interest in improving the federal regulatory process. Particularly relevant to SPS is the initiation of long-term, low-level microwave exposure programs. Coupled with new developments in instrumentation and dosimetry, the results from chronic exposure program and population exposure studies could be expected within the next five to ten years. Also discussed is the increasing public concern that rf energy is yet another hazardous environmental agent.

  3. Representation and redistribution in federations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragu, Tiberiu; Rodden, Jonathan

    2011-05-24

    Many of the world's most populous democracies are political unions composed of states or provinces that are unequally represented in the national legislature. Scattered empirical studies, most of them focusing on the United States, have discovered that overrepresented states appear to receive larger shares of the national budget. Although this relationship is typically attributed to bargaining advantages associated with greater legislative representation, an important threat to empirical identification stems from the fact that the representation scheme was chosen by the provinces. Thus, it is possible that representation and fiscal transfers are both determined by other characteristics of the provinces in a specific country. To obtain an improved estimate of the relationship between representation and redistribution, we collect and analyze provincial-level data from nine federations over several decades, taking advantage of the historical process through which federations formed and expanded. Controlling for a variety of country- and province-level factors and using a variety of estimation techniques, we show that overrepresented provinces in political unions around the world are rather dramatically favored in the distribution of resources.

  4. Accessing data federations with CVMFS

    CERN Document Server

    Weitzel, Derek; Dykstra, Dave; Blomer, Jakob; Meusel, Ren

    2017-01-01

    Data federations have become an increasingly common tool for large collaborations such as CMS and Atlas to efficiently distribute large data files. Unfortunately, these typically are implemented with weak namespace semantics and a non-POSIX API. On the other hand, CVMFS has provided a POSIX-compliant read-only interface for use cases with a small working set size (such as software distribution). The metadata required for the CVMFS POSIX interface is distributed through a caching hierarchy, allowing it to scale to the level of about a hundred thousand hosts. In this paper, we will describe our contributions to CVMFS that merges the data scalability of XRootD-based data federations (such as AAA) with metadata scalability and POSIX interface of CVMFS. We modified CVMFS so it can serve unmodified files without copying them to the repository server. CVMFS 2.2.0 is also able to redirect requests for data files to servers outside of the CVMFS content distribution network. Finally, we added the ability to manage auth...

  5. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  6. 78 FR 65767 - Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and... Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan) Program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, and... Vol. 78 Friday, No. 212 November 1, 2013 Part II Department of Education 34 CFR Parts 668, 674...

  7. Promoting cooperative federalism through state shared savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Alan

    2013-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act is transforming American federalism and creating strain between the states and the federal government. By expanding the scale of intergovernmental health programs, creating new state requirements, and setting the stage for increased federal fiscal oversight, the act has disturbed an uneasy truce in American federalism. This article outlines a policy proposal designed to harness cooperative federalism, based on the shared state and federal desire to control health care cost growth. The proposal, which borrows features of the Medicare Shared Savings Program, would provide states with an incentive in the form of an increased share of the savings they generate in programs that have federal financial participation, as long as they meet defined performance standards.

  8. Nuclear supervision - Administration by the federal states on behalf of the Federal Government or direct federal administration for optimum achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renneberg, W.

    2005-01-01

    One year ago, Federal Minister for the Environment Juergen Trittin expressed doubt about the long-term viability of the federal states' acting on behalf of the federal government in the field of atomic energy law administration. An alternative to this type of administration was mentioned, namely direct execution by the feral government, and a thorough examination was announced. This was to show which type of administration would achieve maximum safety for the residual operating lives of nuclear power plants. Kienbaum Management Consultants were commissioned to evaluate the current status and potential alternative structures. That study was performed within the framework of one of the key projects in reactor safety of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU), namely the reform of nuclear administration. Further steps to be taken by the BMU by the end of this parliamentary term are presented. The federal state are to be approached in an attempt to conduct an unbiased discussion of the pros and cons of the alternatives to administration by the federal states on behalf of the federal government. Questions will be clarified which need to be examined in depth before direct administration by the federal government can be introduced. These include constitutional matters and matters of costing in financing the higher-level federal authority as well as specific questions about the organization of that authority. The purpose is to elaborate, by the end of this parliamentary term, a workable concept of introducing direct federal administration of nuclear safety. (orig.)

  9. WORKER PROTECTION: Federal Contractors and Violations of Labor Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    ... of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP). Federal law and an executive order place greater responsibilities on federal contractors compared with other employers In some areas of workplace activity...

  10. The Domino Effects of Federal Research Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanahan, Lauren; Graddy-Reed, Alexandra; Feldman, Maryann P

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which federal investment in research crowds out or decreases incentives for investment from other funding sources remains an open question. Scholarship on research funding has focused on the relationship between federal and industry or, more comprehensively, non-federal funding without disentangling the other sources of research support that include nonprofit organizations and state and local governments. This paper extends our understanding of academic research support by considering the relationships between federal and non-federal funding sources provided by the National Science Foundation Higher Education Research and Development Survey. We examine whether federal research investment serves as a complement or substitute for state and local government, nonprofit, and industry research investment using the population of research-active academic science fields at U.S. doctoral granting institutions. We use a system of two equations that instruments with prior levels of both federal and non-federal funding sources and accounts for time-invariant academic institution-field effects through first differencing. We estimate that a 1% increase in federal research funding is associated with a 0.411% increase in nonprofit research funding, a 0.217% increase in state and local research funding, and a 0.468% increase in industry research funding, respectively. Results indicate that federal funding plays a fundamental role in inducing complementary investments from other funding sources, with impacts varying across academic division, research capacity, and institutional control.

  11. New directions in federal energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, M.

    1993-01-01

    The fuel embargo of 1973, followed by the oil disruption of 1979 heightened national security concerns over the availability and price of foreign oil to sustain all sectors of the U.S. economy. As a result of our growing dependence on foreign oil and diminishing resources at home, the Federal government has worked since 1974 to identify and implement a variety of measures to reduce energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations. Federal energy expenditures peaked at almost $14 billion in 1982 but has now been reduced to approximately $10 billion a year. However, much more needs to be done. Since the 1973 oil embargo, a series of legislative initiatives and Presidential authorities established the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) and then expanded it to address a broad range of energy-related issues affecting the Federal sector. Administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, FEMP coordinates the design and implementation of energy-saving programs for Federal buildings and operations. This includes working with other Federal agencies through interagency committees to interpret and implement Federal policy, to provide technical assistance to other Federal agencies, and to collect and report Federal energy consumption data to Congress. In addition, with the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, concerns over global climate change and a range of man-made and natural pollutants, environmental issues now play a critical role in our nation's energy policy. As a major consumer of energy, the Federal sector can serve as an important model for other sectors of the economy as a result of some of the innovative and cost-effective measures planned or currently underway. My talk today will focus on the Federal government's plans to ensure the energy efficient design and operation of Federal facilities, with an emphasis on life-cycle cost analyses

  12. Nuclear waste management: a challenge to Federalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, P.

    1979-01-01

    The controversy over state/Federal authority over waste disposal has already had a significant effect regardless of the choice Congress ultimately makes between an informal deference to state will and a statutory authorization of state control over Federal repositories. The highly emotional issue of local disposal of nuclear waste and the assertions of state control over waste disposal have made the nation and the Federal bureaucracy more aware of the status of the waste management program. State resistance to Federal siting efforts and the passage of state waste disposal legislation has compelled the Federal government to provide the states with a larger role in waste management. State power to exclude Federal repositories would give states additional political leverage. Ideally, public attention and effective state veto power will contribute to a more successful program, without impeding progress toward the immediate goal of siting and developing permanent repositories

  13. Rethinking Federalism for More Effective Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Alice M. Rivlin

    2012-01-01

    For common reasons the federal government and most state governments face rising structural deficits even as the economy recovers. An aging population requires retirement income and increasingly expensive health care, while a prosperous economy requires public investment in skills, technology, and infrastructure. However, stressed federal and state tax systems are increasingly inadequate. The author revisits proposals, made twenty years ago, for substantial changes in fiscal federalism design...

  14. Health Care in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    The Russian Federation health system has its roots in the country's complex political history. The Ministry of Health and Social Development and its associated federal services are the principal Russian institutions subserving the Russian Federation. Funding for the health system goes through 2 channels: the general revenue budget managed by federal, regional, and local health authorities, and the Mandatory Health Insurance Fund. Although the Soviet Union was the first country in the world to guarantee free medical care as a constitutional right to all its citizens, quality and accessibility are in question. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exercising the federal radiological emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, K.S.; Adler, M.V.; Wolff, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Multiagency exercises were an important part of the development of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan. This paper concentrates on two of these exercises, the Federal Field Exercise in March 1984 and the Relocation Tabletop Exercise in December 1985. The Federal Field Exercise demonstrated the viability and usefulness of the draft plan; lessons learned from the exercise were incorporated into the published plan. The Relocation Tabletop Exercise examined the federal response in the postemergency phase. This exercise highlighted the change over time in the roles of some agencies and suggested response procedures that should be developed or revised. 8 refs

  16. Federal Technology Transfer Act Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) partnerships demonstrate the many advantages of technology transfer and collaboration. EPA and partner organizations create valuable and applicable technologies for the marketplace.

  17. 2010 Northwest Federal Market Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlon, Tim; Sandusky, William F.

    2011-09-01

    The primary intent of this market assessment is to provide insights on the effectiveness of current energy efficiency and renewable energy program offerings available to Federal sites in the region. The level of detail, quality and currency of the data used in this market assessment varies significantly by Federal agency and energy efficiency service provider. Limited access to some Federal sites, limited availability of key points of contact, time/resource constraints, and other considerations limited the total number of Federal agencies and energy efficiency service providers participating in the survey.

  18. Energy report of the Federal German Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In its governmental declaration of May 4th, 1983, the Federal German Government has pointed out how it will safeguard the continuous, economical, and non-polluting supply of energy to the Federal Republic of Germany. By that report the Federal Government strikes a balance of its policy and defines its position with regard to topical questions, especially the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The report comprises four chapters: 1. peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 2. Summary statement on energy policy, 3. Current situation in the energy market and long-term perspectives, 4. Points of main emphasis of future energy policy. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Regions. FERC is an independent agency that regulates the interstate transmission of electricity, natural gas, and oil....

  20. FEDERAL PENSIONS: Judicial Survivors Annuities System Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) specifying that we review certain aspects of the Judicial Survivors' Annuities System (JSAS), which is one of several survivor benefit plans applicable to particular groups of federal employees...

  1. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  2. 77 FR 40358 - Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2012-03; Redesignations of Federal Buildings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2012-03; Redesignations of Federal Buildings: Correction AGENCY: Public Buildings Service (PBS), General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of a bulletin..., 2012, a bulletin announcing the designation and redesignation of three Federal buildings. Inadvertently...

  3. 76 FR 31393 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-52; Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... 2010-017 Robinson. Ethics Programs. VI Technical Amendments... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Summaries for... interim rule amends the FAR to implement Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, and Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy...

  4. 49 CFR 268.7 - Federal/State share and restrictions on the uses of Federal Maglev Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Federal Maglev Funds. 268.7 Section 268.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Federal Maglev Funds. (a) Federal share. The Federal share of Full Projects Costs shall be not more than 2...) Restrictions on the uses of Federal Maglev Funds. (1) Federal Maglev Funds may be applied only to Eligible...

  5. Federation of Malaysia. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 population of Malaysia has been estimated at 14.7 million and the population growth rate averaged 2.3% in 1970-80. Population growth is officially encouraged to form a substantial home market for economic development. Toward this end, the 1985 budget has increased tax deductions for families with 5 children. The capital city of Kuala Lumpur is the largest metropolitan area (1 million population) and the Federal Territory is the most densely populated region. Immigration is strictly controlled by the government, and the percentage of foreign-born citizens was 5% in 1980. China, India, and Pakistan are decreasing in importance as countries of origin. Internal mobility, however, is increasing. Rural-rural migration accounted for 45% of internal migration in 1970-80 and was largely motivated by family reasons. Only 7% of Malaysians are estimated to move in search of work. Racial tensions led the government to grant special economic privileges to native-born Islamic Malays. The greatest proportion of the population is centered in the lowest age groups. The percentage of females 15-29 years of age rose from 26% in 1970 to 30% in 1980 and is expected to continue to rise. Fertility is on the decline. The majority of households in the country involve nuclear families. There has been an increase in the number of men and women who delay marriage or remain single. Education is widely available for children aged 6-15 years and those who meet certain academic standards receive free education up to age 19 years. The current labor force is estimated at 5.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Malaysia's per capita income (US $1860 in 1982) is among the highest in Southeast Asia and the gross national product increased by an average annual rate of 8% in 1970-81. The government plans to move toward the development of heavier industries and more manufacturing concerns.

  6. Federal coal lease readjustments: will reason prevail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolf, C W

    1988-01-01

    After 1920, when the US Congress passed the Mineral Lands Leasing Act (MLLA), coal owned by the Federal government could only be developed by leasing under the MLLA. Most Federally owned coal is in the west, where the Federal government enjoys a near monopoly in coal ownership and its development. In 1976, congress enacted the Federal Coal Leasing Amendments ACT (FCLAA), over President Ford's veto, in order to: increase rents and royalties on Federal coal leases; force lessees holding Federal coal leases not in production to open mines on the non-producing leases; and end 'speculation' in Federal coal leases. The book maintains that in passing the FCLAA, Congress did not understand the western coal industry, and neither did the Department of the Interior (DOI) in concluding that Congress had mandated that the FCLAA must be applied to pre-FCLAA leases, even those in production, when such leases are readjusted. In the resulting lawsuits, the western coal industry has not been explained to the Federal courts and the decisions regarding the applicability of the FCLAA upon readjustment of pre-FCLAA leases have consequently been wrong. The book examines the record to date and aims to demonstrate the validity of these conclusions. It also describes which actions the DOI should have taken to accomplish the objectives of congress set forth in the FCLAA, to readjust pre-FCLAA leases without litigation.

  7. The Evolution of Federal Educational Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    Characterized by rapid growth and the increasing infusion of federal money into schools, the 1960s and 1970s can be labeled the "Federal Era" in U.S. educational policy making. This period produced three major initiatives to enhance the quality of educational opportunity: the Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Titles I and VII…

  8. Federal Agency for Limnology. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Federal Agency for Limnology (BfG) reports on its research and activities in 1991. Contents: environmental impact statement and environmental impact investigations in the area of the federal waterways, report of activities, research projects, list of scientific staff, publications, committee activities, science lectures, list of abbreviations and organization plan. (BBR) [de

  9. Federalism & bioethics: states and moral pluralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossett, James W; Ouellette, Alicia R; Philpott, Sean; Magnus, David; McGee, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Bioethicists are often interested mostly in national standards and institutions, but state governments have historically overseen a wide range of bioethical issues and share responsibility with the federal government for still others. States ought to have an important role. By allowing for multiple outcomes, the American federal system allows a better fit between public opinion and public policies.

  10. 75 FR 68010 - Federal Salary Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Council AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Federal Salary Council will meet on November 19, 2010, at the... establishment or modification of locality pay areas, the coverage of salary surveys, the process of comparing...

  11. 77 FR 59026 - Federal Salary Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Council AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Federal Salary Council will meet on October 19, 2012, at the time... establishment or modification of locality pay areas, the coverage of salary surveys, the process of comparing...

  12. 78 FR 61404 - Federal Salary Council; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Council; Meeting AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Federal Salary Council will meet on November 5, 2013, at... recommendations cover the establishment or modification of locality pay areas, the coverage of salary surveys, the...

  13. 78 FR 65717 - Federal Salary Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Council AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Federal Salary Council meeting originally scheduled for November... establishment or modification of locality pay areas, the coverage of salary surveys, the process of comparing...

  14. 75 FR 63215 - Federal Salary Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Council Meeting AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Federal Salary Council will meet on October 29, 2010, at... recommendations cover the establishment or modification of locality pay areas, the coverage of salary surveys, the...

  15. 76 FR 59175 - Federal Salary Council; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Council; Meeting AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Federal Salary Council will meet on November 4, 2011, at... recommendations cover the establishment or modification of locality pay areas, the coverage of salary surveys, the...

  16. 23 CFR 772.13 - Federal participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal participation. 772.13 Section 772.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR... noise barriers (including landscaping for aesthetic purposes) whether within or outside the highway...

  17. Federal Information: Foundation for National Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers address issues related to the dissemination of federal information to the private sector. General topics addressed include the impact of federal information policy on the flow of scientific and technical information (STI), business needs for STI, and the role of the National Technical Information Service. (13 references) (MES)

  18. MARIAN: Flexible Interoperability for Federated Digital Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, Marcos A.; France, Robert K.; Fox, Edward A.; Hilf, Eberhard R.; Zimmermann, Kerstin; Severiens, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Federated digital libraries are composed of distributed autonomous (heterogeneous) information services but provide users with a transparent, integrated view of collected information respecting different information sources' autonomy. In this paper we discuss a federated system for the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD), an international consortium of universities, libraries, and other supporting institutions focused on electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs). Th...

  19. The Federal Budget: Current and Upcoming Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-25

    federal revenues, followed by social insurance taxes. Federal individual and corporate income tax revenues typically track broader trends in the...difficult economic conditions led individual income tax revenue to fall to $918 billion (6.5% of GDP ). Corporate income tax revenues fell from $304

  20. Federal Participation in LEED in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher; Dyer, Beverly

    2005-11-01

    The federal government is an active participant in promotingsustainable design, construction and operations and in the use of USGBC'sLeadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green BuildingRating System. This paper presents an overview of sustainableconstruction activities in the federal sector in 2005.

  1. Rethinking Federal Regulation of Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, R. Shep

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, federal regulation of education under Title IX has been sucked into the impetuous vortex of partisan polarization. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits schools that receive federal funding from discriminating on the basis of sex. For decades, intercollegiate athletics was the main source of controversy.…

  2. Federal/State Radiation Control Legislation, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.

    1975-07-01

    A review is presented of Federal and State radiation control legislation for calendar year 1974, in Federal-State, subject, and status order. A brief description of each bill introduced in 1974 is included, plus existing laws or statutes governing radiation control. (auth)

  3. Criteria for Determining an Appropriate Federal Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a framework for determining whether federal, state, or local governments should perform certain functions in education. Applies this framework to two areas--curriculum reform and enhanced educational opportunities for children with special needs--and suggests directions for federal policy in these areas. (GC)

  4. Federal health web sites: current & future roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Carol

    2002-09-01

    An examination of the current and possible future roles of federal health Web sites, this paper provides an overview of site categories, functions, target audiences, marketing approaches, knowledge management, and evaluation strategies. It concludes with a look at future opportunities and challenges for the federal government in providing health information online.

  5. Federal Grants to State and Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congressional Budget Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In fiscal year 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments. Those funds accounted for 17 percent of federal outlays, 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and a quarter of spending by state and local governments that year. Over the past 30 years, those "intergovernmental" grants--financial…

  6. Federal School Law and Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Federal laws address some of the factors that have been associated with school failure, specifically poverty and disability. The primary federally funded legislation that addresses the needs of at-risk youths in public are the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 2004 and No Child Left Behind (2002). This article reviews the intended…

  7. The Political Economy of Federally Sponsored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Ragon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Librarian involvement in the Open Access (OA movement has traditionally focused on access to scholarly publications. Recent actions by the White House have focused attention on access on the data produced from federally sponsored research. Questions have emerged concerning access to the output of federally sponsored research and whether it is a public or private good. Understanding the political battle over access to federally funded research is closely tied to the ownership of the peer review process in higher education and associated revenue streams, and as a result, interest groups seeking to influence government regulation have politicized the issues. As a major funder of research in higher education, policies from the federal government are likely to drive change in research practices at higher education institutions and impact library services. The political economy of federally sponsored research data will shape research enterprises in higher education inspire a number of new services distributed throughout the research life cycle.

  8. CMS Use of a Data Federation

    CERN Document Server

    Bloom, Kenneth Arthur

    2014-01-01

    CMS is in the process of deploying an Xrootd based infrastructure to facilitate a global data federation. The services of the federation are available to export data from half the physical capacity and the majority of sites are configured to read data over the federation as a back-up. CMS began with a relatively modest set of use-cases for recovery of failed local file opens, debugging and visualization. CMS is finding that the data federation can be used to support small scale analysis and load balancing. Looking forward we see potential in using the federation to provide more flexibility in the location workflows are executed as the differenced between local access and wide area access are diminished by optimization and improved networking. In this presentation we will discuss the application development work and the facility deployment work, the use-cases currently in production, and the potential for the technology moving forward.

  9. LA GLOBALITZACIÓ I ELS SISTEMES FEDERALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Arbós Marín

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a revised analysis ofthe work by Lazar, Telford andWatts (2003 The Impact of Globaland Regional Integration on FederalSystems. A ComparativeAnalysis, Harvey Lazar, HamishTelford and Ronald L. Watts (eds.:The Impact of Global and RegionalIntegration on Federal Systems.A Comparative Analysis,Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003.The article’s starting point is thebook’s mainthesis, that is, an analysisof the consequences that suchdifferent integration processescan have both on the institutionalstructures and on the collectiveidentities of federal systems; inthis sense and in the light of thesechanging pressures on the natureof federalism, the article raises aquestion: to what extent federalismand federal arrangementswould remain a reference for carryingout institutional reforms aswell as for a politically and sociallypracticable system.

  10. Report of the Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-31

    The Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (FIRP) was established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to reassess Federal requirements for open systems networks and to recommend policy on the Government`s use of networking standards. The Panel was chartered to recommend actions which the Federal Government can take to address the short and long-term issues of interworking and convergence of networking protocols--particularly the Internet Protocol Suite (IPS) and Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol suite and, when appropriate, proprietary protocols. The Panel was created at the request of the Office of Management and Budget in collaboration with the Federal Networking Council and the Federal Information Resources Management Policy Council. The Panel`s membership and charter are contained in an appendix to this report.

  11. Lighting technology specifications for relighting federal buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, L.; Purcell, C.W.; Gordon, H.; McKay, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Federal Relighting Initiative, under the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), now offers a comprehensive process to assist agencies in meeting the DOE energy mandate that states that Federal facilities shall use 20% less energy by the year 2000, based on 1985 consumption, and shall improve lighting to increase productivity with relighting projects. The process provides a systematic approach in the screening, selection, design, implementation and evaluation of relighting projects. The Master Specifications help assure the acquisition of high-quality, life-cycle cost-effective lighting systems. The process begins with the screening of the agency's building stock to identify the most promising relighting candidates and concludes with implementation support and system performance assessment. The tools developed by FRI are designed to assist agencies during each phase of the relighting process. The tools are based upon the Federal life-cycle cost approach, thereby complying with 10 CFR, part 436, and the Federal life-cycle cost requirement

  12. 77 FR 66482 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  13. 75 FR 68001 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  14. 78 FR 67200 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  15. 76 FR 68790 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  16. 77 FR 43084 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act; Notification of... High- Performance Green Buildings, Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration... download from the Office of Federal High-Performance Green Building Web site Library at-- http://www.gsa...

  17. Guidance for Federal Agencies on Executive Order 13693 - Federal Fleet Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-02

    Document contains guidance on the federal fleet requirements of Executive Order 13693: Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade and helps federal agencies subject to the executive order develop an overall approach for reducing total fleet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fleet-wide per-mile GHG emissions.

  18. 77 FR 42914 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Federal Flexible Benefits Plan: Pre-Tax Payment of Health Benefits Premiums AGENCY: Office of Personnel... this proposed rule; and (4) update the Federal Flexible Benefits Plan: Pre-Tax Payment of Health...--FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENTS OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS PROGRAM 8. The authority...

  19. 75 FR 67433 - Federal Fiscal Year 2011 Annual List of Certifications and Assurances for Federal Transit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... or exceeds $25,000, (b) is for audit services, or (3) requires the consent of a Federal official, as... of Certifications and Assurances for Federal Transit Administration Grants and Cooperative Agreements... is authorized to consolidate the certifications and assurances required by Federal law or regulations...

  20. 77 FR 43276 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ...; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program General Forbearance Request SUMMARY: Borrowers who receive loans through the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program will use this form to request forbearance... considered public records. Title of Collection: William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program General...

  1. Environmental federalism and US climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, L.M. [Bracewell and Patterson, LLP (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Environmental disputes involving states over the proper state and federal roles have grown in number and magnitude over the last several years, with many disputes engaging dozens of states. States with competing views are fully engaged in the ongoing debate over climate change, a textbook case for testing the contours of environmental federalism. The issue has all the necessary components: transboundary environmental impacts; competing state economic and environmental interests; state self-interest; disagreement on first principles including what is the proper role of the states; and a somewhat ill-defined federal role. With those qualities, one would expect the federal government to step in and regulate. Instead, the federal government has declined to regulate, inviting a national discourse on whether and how to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As of Spring 2004, twenty-eight states have launched or are planning initiatives, some of which will directly regulate sources of GHG emissions. As these programs take root, pressure will build for a greater federal role. This paper will advance the position that even with this building momentum, the federal government is not likely to emulate state programs that mandate CO{sub 2} emission reductions. In the face of high national cost, uncertain environmental benefits, and a history of federal non-regulatory action, federal regulation at this time appears to be a remote possibility. State efforts to address global climate change add value to the debate, but they do not create the cocoon of consensus the federal government seeks before launching mandatory programs of this magnitude. The more likely scenario is that the federal government will continue on its present course, funding research and development, investing in energy efficient technologies, and supporting voluntary measures. Under this scenario, states and the private sector would continue to function as the 'laboratories' to develop new ideas to

  2. Environmental federalism and US climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental disputes involving states over the proper state and federal roles have grown in number and magnitude over the last several years, with many disputes engaging dozens of states. States with competing views are fully engaged in the ongoing debate over climate change, a textbook case for testing the contours of environmental federalism. The issue has all the necessary components: transboundary environmental impacts; competing state economic and environmental interests; state self-interest; disagreement on first principles including what is the proper role of the states; and a somewhat ill-defined federal role. With those qualities, one would expect the federal government to step in and regulate. Instead, the federal government has declined to regulate, inviting a national discourse on whether and how to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As of Spring 2004, twenty-eight states have launched or are planning initiatives, some of which will directly regulate sources of GHG emissions. As these programs take root, pressure will build for a greater federal role. This paper will advance the position that even with this building momentum, the federal government is not likely to emulate state programs that mandate CO 2 emission reductions. In the face of high national cost, uncertain environmental benefits, and a history of federal non-regulatory action, federal regulation at this time appears to be a remote possibility. State efforts to address global climate change add value to the debate, but they do not create the cocoon of consensus the federal government seeks before launching mandatory programs of this magnitude. The more likely scenario is that the federal government will continue on its present course, funding research and development, investing in energy efficient technologies, and supporting voluntary measures. Under this scenario, states and the private sector would continue to function as the 'laboratories' to develop new ideas to improve energy

  3. Credibility and trust in federal facility cleanups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynes, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    The most important indicator of a well-managed site cleanup effort may no longer be funding or scientific expertise. While support for federal facility cleanup has included appropriations of more than $10 billion annually, these expenditures alone are unlikely to assure progress toward environmental remediation. open-quotes Trustclose quotes is now overwhelmingly mentioned as a prerequisite for progress with site cleanup in DOE's weapons complex. In part, federal budget deficits are forcing participants to focus on factors that build consensus and lead to cost-effective cleanup actions. In some cases, the stakeholders at cleanup sites are making efforts to work cooperatively with federal agencies. A report by 40 representatives of federal agencies, tribal and state governments, associations, and others developed recommendations to create a open-quotes new era of trust and consensus-building that allows all parties to get on with the job of cleaning up federal facilities in a manner that reflects the priorities and concerns of all stakeholders.close quotes Changes are underway affecting how federal agencies work with federal and state regulators reflecting this concept of shared responsibility for conducting cleanup. This paper addresses these changes and provides examples of the successes and failures underway

  4. Complying with the Federal Facilities Compliance Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavetto, C.S.; Watmore, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), signed into law on October 6, 1992, amended the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to place significant additional environmental compliance responsibilities on federal facilities. The federal government has expressly waived sovereign immunity regarding hazardous waste enforcement action taken against these facilities by the states and the EPA. An exception exists for mixed waste violations. The FFCA defines mixed waste as hazardous waste, as defined by RCRA, combined with source, special nuclear or by-product material that is subject to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. As the majority owner of mixed waste in the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) must satisfy several new requirements under the FFCA for their facilities. This paper reviews the FFCA's requirements and how they apply to and may affect the DOE and other federal facilities. Included in the review are responsibilities of federal agencies involved and the role of the EPA and the states. In addition, this paper discusses the intent of the FFCA to encourage development of federal facility agreements (FFA) between federal agencies, the EPA and state environmental regulatory agencies

  5. Federation in genomics pipelines: techniques and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaterji, Somali; Koo, Jinkyu; Li, Ninghui; Meyer, Folker; Grama, Ananth; Bagchi, Saurabh

    2017-08-29

    Federation is a popular concept in building distributed cyberinfrastructures, whereby computational resources are provided by multiple organizations through a unified portal, decreasing the complexity of moving data back and forth among multiple organizations. Federation has been used in bioinformatics only to a limited extent, namely, federation of datastores, e.g. SBGrid Consortium for structural biology and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) for functional genomics. Here, we posit that it is important to federate both computational resources (CPU, GPU, FPGA, etc.) and datastores to support popular bioinformatics portals, with fast-increasing data volumes and increasing processing requirements. A prime example, and one that we discuss here, is in genomics and metagenomics. It is critical that the processing of the data be done without having to transport the data across large network distances. We exemplify our design and development through our experience with metagenomics-RAST (MG-RAST), the most popular metagenomics analysis pipeline. Currently, it is hosted completely at Argonne National Laboratory. However, through a recently started collaborative National Institutes of Health project, we are taking steps toward federating this infrastructure. Being a widely used resource, we have to move toward federation without disrupting 50 K annual users. In this article, we describe the computational tools that will be useful for federating a bioinformatics infrastructure and the open research challenges that we see in federating such infrastructures. It is hoped that our manuscript can serve to spur greater federation of bioinformatics infrastructures by showing the steps involved, and thus, allow them to scale to support larger user bases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  7. State/federal interaction and multistate issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Section 403(f) of the CAAA leaves federal and state jurisdictions unaffected by Title IV, the emissions trading provisions. The CAAA maintains existing state and federal commission jurisdiction for the oversight of utility compliance with emissions trading provisions. With existing state and federal jurisdictions maintained, the CAAA creates a new opportunity for state commissions to cooperate among themselves and with the FERC. Should this opportunity not be realized, a new area of jurisdictional conflict could result. This section describes options for regional regulation and the tax treatment of allowances. 20 refs

  8. 20 CFR 609.20 - Information to Federal civilian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION FOR FEDERAL CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES Responsibilities of Federal Agencies § 609.20 Information to Federal civilian employees. Each Federal agency shall: (a) Furnish information to its employees... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information to Federal civilian employees...

  9. Teaching about Federalism in the United States. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Frederick D.; Nelson, Lynn R.

    Although it was not directly named in the U.S. Constitution, federalism is a central principle of U.S. government. It is important for students to learn about federalism to comprehend the U.S. federal system and recognize examples of federalism in other countries. Teaching and learning about federalism is essential to education for citizenship in…

  10. 75 FR 60347 - Information Sharing Among Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... business days between the hours of 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. at the Federal Housing Finance Agency, Fourth Floor... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD 12 CFR Part 914 FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1260 RIN 2590-AA35 Information Sharing Among Federal Home Loan Banks AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency...

  11. 48 CFR Appendix - Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT... (IFMS) Contract clause. FAR Index Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Editorial Note: This...

  12. NCDC Southeast Federal Records Center Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — East Point, Georgia is the former location of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) Southeast regional Federal Records Center (FRC). The southeast...

  13. How the New Federalism Strikes Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Orville

    1982-01-01

    The New Federalism will not provide the resources and leadership needed to meet the needs of vocational programs in comprehensive secondary schools in four critical areas: staff, curriculum, equipment, and support services. (SK)

  14. The New Federalism in Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Victor

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that what is needed is a more balanced federalism which will increase local community development under special revenue sharing with a new generation of comprehensive and more responsive categorical programs. (Author/AM)

  15. What Does the Constitution Say about Federalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.; Remy, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    Offers a concept learning lesson in which secondary students explore the subject of federalism. Application exercises are used at the end of each main section in order for students to apply what they have learned. (BSR)

  16. Modernizing the Federal Government: Paying for Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montoya, Silvia; Graham, John D

    2007-01-01

    Enhancing the performance of the civil service has been a central objective of the United States since the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 authorized a performance-based component to federal salary structures...

  17. Homeland Security. Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Our work is based on the review of documents and interviews conducted at more than two dozen federal departments and agencies, including central management agencies such as OMB, the general Services Administration (GSA...

  18. Federal High End Computing (HEC) Information Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This portal provides information about opportunities to engage in U.S. Federal government high performance computing activities, including supercomputer use,...

  19. Trends in federal and state highway investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-18

    In response to Congressional request the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed data from Federal Highway Administration 's Highway Statistics for the period from 1982 through 2001, adjusting expenditures to 2001 dollars to (1) identify overal...

  20. Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains the most recent revision from the Government Printing Office (GPO) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21 - Food and Drugs.

  1. Federal Highway Administration 100-year coating study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Highway Administration 100-Year Coating Study was initiated in August 2009 to search for durable : coating systems at a reasonable cost. The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate coating materials that can : provide 100 year...

  2. 13 CFR 314.5 - Federal Share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing costs. (b) The Federal Share excludes that portion of the current fair market value of the..., which are not included in the total Project costs. For example, if the total Project costs are $100...

  3. 78 FR 54680 - NASA Federal Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Committee Management Division, Office of International and Interagency Relations, NASA Headquarters... AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Annual Invitation for Public Nominations... invitation for public nominations for service on NASA Federal advisory committees. U.S. citizens may nominate...

  4. 2010 Federal STEM Education Inventory Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — This data set provides information for STEM education (pre-kindergarten through graduate) investments funded by Federal agencies at the level of $300,000 or above.

  5. 30 CFR 903.842 - Federal inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... jurisdiction over mining. ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.842 Federal...

  6. U.S. Federal Mapping Coordination

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sandy Emergency Supplemental appropriations contained funds for federal and state agencies that will go to ocean and coastal mapping data acquisition. These data...

  7. Federal Subsidies and the Housing GSEs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Congressman Baker also asked that CBO extend the estimate to include the Federal Home Loan Banks and to update its estimate of the portion of the subsidy that the government-sponsored enterprises (OSEs) retain. Congressman John M...

  8. Guiding Principles for Sustainable Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides and overview of the memorandum of understanding (MOU) which was voluntarily committed the Agency to follow the Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings.

  9. Federal Standard: Beneficial Use of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide national guidance that explains the role of the Federal Standard in implementing beneficial uses of dredged material from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ new and maintenance navigation projects.

  10. U.S. Federal Reserve Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset is comprised of forty-five entities that are part of the United States Federal Reserve System according to the United States Department of Treasury. The...

  11. Parallel Federal/State Antitrust Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Houck

    2012-01-01

    Those matters in which both federal and state antitrust authorities do take an interest usually have significant impacts across state lines and even international borders. Stephen D. Houck (Menaker & Herrmann LLP)

  12. Special issue : new federal airbag rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-17

    time the federal government has issued a regulation to protect people from the safety : systems in their cars. Besides assuring that airbags will continue to prevent deaths and : injuries in serious crashes, the new standard for occupant protection i...

  13. Information support for Slovenian Cycling Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Mahkovec, Tine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Following work presents development of information system that will support Slovenian Cycling Federation. In the first part, work introduces the federation, its key processes, people involved and describes main tools, technologies and approaches used in this work. In the main part, work describes main activities of object oriented development of information system, which includes analysis, requirements definition and architecture planning. Implementation and testing was left ...

  14. Homeland Security. Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Security Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...including attention to management practices and key success factors. HOMELAND SECURITY Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership www.gao.gov/cgi...significant management and coordination challenges if it is to provide this leadership and be successful in preventing and responding to any future

  15. Unity of command for federal consequence management

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie, Harold Quinton

    2013-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States eventually will face an existential catastrophe. An existential catastrophe would result in cascading effects extending well beyond the physical boundaries of the event. When studying the federal response to major disasters, it is apparent higher levels of presidential interest provide a positive impact on results. The lack of coordination of federal response efforts and the inability of the presid...

  16. Federal consumer protection regulation: disclosures and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Furletti

    2005-01-01

    On June 10, 2005, the Payment Cards Center hosted a symposium entitled “Federal Consumer Protection Regulation: Disclosures and Beyond.” The symposium brought together credit card industry leaders, legal scholars, consumer advocates, economists, and federal regulators to discuss standardized credit card disclosures and other means of protecting credit card consumers. This paper summarizes the day’s discussion and details the recommendations of symposium participants. In general, these recomme...

  17. Modernizing the Federal Government: Paying for Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    works (Barr, 2007d). Employees are rated on performance measures such as “fair and equitable treatment of taxpayers” and “customer satisfaction ... Performance Act of 2007, Senate bill 1046, Washington, D.C., 2007b. 38 Modernizing the Federal Government: Paying for Performance Vroom , Victor H...AND SUBTITLE Modernizing the federal government paying for performance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  18. EPA perspective on federal facility agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundler, C.

    1988-01-01

    Although DOE's image with Congress and the media concerning environmental compliance may be poor, EPA sees the Department's recent attitude toward the environment as good. DOE and EPA must continue to move forward. In particular, EPA would like to emphasize less study of a problem and more clean-up. Strong, enforceable agreements will allow this goal to be met by letting EPA take more risks in its decision making. Currently EPA is developing an enforcement strategy for Federal facilities. This strategy will address identifying Federal facilities of concern, increasing enforcement and compliance monitoring activities at those facilities, implementing the model agreements, resource planning, and the establishment of an Agency Management System for Federal facilities. There are over 1000 Federal facilities which are listed on the EPA compliance docket. Over 200 Federal facilities are expected to be included on the NPL. Increased EPA attention may increase the ability of the various Federal agencies to obtain the necessary funding. Another subject being addressed by EPA is the liability of government contractors under the environmental statutes. The Agency is developing a GoCo enforcement strategy. In the hazardous waste enforcement program, three criteria are being considered for determining when to proceed against a contractor: Degree of contractor control over the hazardous waste management activity. Who is actually performing the work, and Degree of Departmental cooperation

  19. 11 CFR 106.7 - Allocation of expenses between Federal and non-Federal accounts by party committees, other than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL ALLOCATIONS OF CANDIDATE AND COMMITTEE ACTIVITIES... Federal election activities. State, district, and local party committees that choose to allocate expenses... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of expenses between Federal and non...

  20. Sonar 3 VMSA Federate: User Guide and Technical Description

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillis, Allan

    2007-01-01

    .... This limits the federate to the Windows operating system, either Windows 2000 or XP. This document describes the federate software, how to use it, and how to integrate the federate into DRDC Atlantic's VMSA execution system...

  1. U.S. EPA Federal Technology Transfer Program Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), enacted by Congress in 1986 and building on previous legislation, improves access to federal laboratories by non-federal organizations for research and development opportunities.

  2. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities-Second Edition; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, Donald L

    2001-01-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided

  3. Putting women's health in the picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    An Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) Workshop for the Production of Video Script on Women's Health was organized by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and JOICFP and held in Japan from November 29, through December 4, 1993. It produced 4 different prototypes for use in Asia that reflected the range of women's health issues and cultural differences involved. Representatives of family planning (FP) associations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), IEC experts, and health officials from both government and NGOs attended. Dr. Shizuko Sasaki spoke about various legal issues of women's health in Japan, while Colleen Cording spoke concerning the impact of social and policy changes on women's lives and health in New Zealand. Participants were then divided into 4 groups for discussion of target populations and their needs. 4 sets of illustrations were designed to stimulate discussion by instructors and were presented with 10-15 min scripts. The 4 videos included Christie and Me, Proud to Be a Girl, One Day at the Beach, and Happy to Be Me. The 1st film features a uterus as narrator who explains menstruation, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and contraception; the 2nd focuses on positive self images for girls; the 3rd, on a range of sexual topics discussed during a couple's seaside stroll; and the 4th, on a woman's love of self and cycle of life from puberty to old age. Participants are expected to produce similar material with adaptations to their specific countries from these prototypes. Participants also discussed their experiences in women's health education and methods of distributing and marketing educational materials.

  4. A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuilova, I A

    1991-09-01

    The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.

  5. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act frequently asked questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    One stop shop for Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) questions. This frequently asked document will assist with Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) related questions.

  6. 41 CFR 105-53.145 - Federal Supply Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... was abolished by the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949. The Federal Supply... procured by civil agencies; and ensuring continuity of supply operations during defense emergency...

  7. Structure and Functions of the Federal Reserve System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smale, Pauline

    2005-01-01

    .... The Federal Reserve formulates the nation's monetary policy, supervises and regulates banks, and provides a variety of financial services to depository financial institutions and the federal government...

  8. State-federal interactions in nuclear regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, A.D.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1987-12-01

    The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 established, and later Congressional amendments have confirmed, that except in areas which have been explicitly granted to the states, the federal government possesses preemptive authority to regulate radiation hazards associated with the development and use of atomic energy. Since the passage of the original Act, numerous decisions by the courts have reaffirmed the legitimacy of federal preemption, and have defined and redefined its scope. In this study, the aim is to explore the underlying issues involved in federal preemption of radiation-hazard regulation, and to recommend actions that the Department of Energy and other agencies and groups should consider undertaking in the near term to protect the preemption principle. Appropriate roles of the states are discussed, as well as recent state-level activities and their rationale, and several current arenas in which state-federal conflicts about regulation of hazards are being played out. The emphasis here is on four particular arenas that are now important arenas of conflict, but the issues discussed are far broader in scope. These four arenas are: state-level moratorium activity; emergency planning for reactors; conflicts arising from state financial regulation; and inroads in federal preemption through litigation under state law.

  9. State-federal interactions in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1987-12-01

    The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 established, and later Congressional amendments have confirmed, that except in areas which have been explicitly granted to the states, the federal government possesses preemptive authority to regulate radiation hazards associated with the development and use of atomic energy. Since the passage of the original Act, numerous decisions by the courts have reaffirmed the legitimacy of federal preemption, and have defined and redefined its scope. In this study, the aim is to explore the underlying issues involved in federal preemption of radiation-hazard regulation, and to recommend actions that the Department of Energy and other agencies and groups should consider undertaking in the near term to protect the preemption principle. Appropriate roles of the states are discussed, as well as recent state-level activities and their rationale, and several current arenas in which state-federal conflicts about regulation of hazards are being played out. The emphasis here is on four particular arenas that are now important arenas of conflict, but the issues discussed are far broader in scope. These four arenas are: state-level moratorium activity; emergency planning for reactors; conflicts arising from state financial regulation; and inroads in federal preemption through litigation under state law

  10. Single-parenthood by choice: Children’s socialization processes into a non-conventional family model Monoparentalidad por elección: procesos de socialización de los hijos/as en un modelo familiar no convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Poveda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present part of our findings from a research project focused on single-parent families by choice. The study collected data in three autonomous communities in Spain and includes interviews with mothers involved in single parent-projects (through adoption, foster parenting, assisted reproductive technologies or sexual fertilization through a known donor and their children about their family experiences, observations in different formative, associative and virtual spaces in which these families participate and a compilation of different documents on parenthood by choice. We focus on the way in which the children we have studied build their own non-conventional family model. We understand the construction of this model as a process of co-construction of the child's subjectivity in which mothers and other socializing agents play an active role.En este artículo presentamos parte de los resultados de un proyecto de investigación centrado en familias monoparentales por elección. El estudio recoge datos en tres comunidades autónomas del Estado Español e incluye entrevistas a madres embarcadas en proyectos familiares en solitario (a través de adopción internacional, acogimiento permanente, técnicas de reproducción asistida y fecundación sexual con donante conocido y a sus hijos/as sobre sus experiencias familiares, observación de diferentes espacios virtuales, formativos y asociativos en los que estas familias participan y recopilación de diferentes documentos en torno a la monoparentalidad por elección. Nos centraremos en examinar el modo en que los niños y las niñas de la muestra estudiada construyen su propio modelo de familia no convencional. Entendemos que la construcción del modelo familiar es, en realidad, un proceso de co-construcción de la subjetividad del hijo/a, en que las madres y otros agentes socializadores juegan un papel activo.

     

  11. Federal Aviation Administration retained savings program proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostick, D.J.; Larson, L.L.; Hostick, C.J.

    1998-03-01

    Federal legislation allows federal agencies to retain up to 50% of the savings associated with implementing energy efficiency and water conservation measures and practices. Given budget pressures to reduce expenditures, the use of retained savings to fund additional projects represents a source of funds outside of the traditional budget cycle. The Southwest Region Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a model retained savings program for Southwest Region FAA use and as a prototype for consideration by the FAA. PNNL recommends the following steps be taken in developing a Southwest Region FAA retained savings program: Establish a retained savings mechanism. Determine the level at which the retained savings should be consolidated into a fund. The preliminary recommendation is to establish a revolving efficiency loan fund at the regional level. Such a mechanism allows some consolidation of savings to fund larger projects, while maintaining a sense of facility ownership in that the funds will remain within the region

  12. 1998 federal technical standards workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The theme for the 1998 workshop was Standards Management -- A World of Change and Opportunities. The workshop`s goal was to further the implementation of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-113) through the sharing of standards management success stories, lessons learned, and emerging initiatives within the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. The target audience for this workshop included agency/department and contractor personnel and representatives of standards developing organizations that either used technical standards in their work for the Federal Government of participated in standards writing/management activities in support of the missions and programs of Federal agencies/departments. As with previous standards workshops sponsored by the DOE, views on the technical subject areas under the workshop theme were solicited from and provided by agency Standards Executives and standards program managers, voluntary standards organizations, and the private sector. This report includes vugraphs of the presentations.

  13. Federating Distributed Storage For Clouds In ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Berghaus, Frank; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Input data for applications that run in cloud computing centres can be stored at distant repositories, often with multiple copies of the popular data stored at many sites. Locating and retrieving the remote data can be challenging, and we believe that federating the storage can address this problem. A federation would locate the closest copy of the data on the basis of GeoIP information. Currently we are using the dynamic data federation Dynafed, a software solution developed by CERN IT. Dynafed supports several industry standards for connection protocols like Amazon’s S3, Microsoft’s Azure, as well as WebDAV and HTTP. Dynafed functions as an abstraction layer under which protocol-dependent authentication details are hidden from the user, requiring the user to only provide an X509 certificate.

  14. Federal Energy Efficiency through Utility Partnerships: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Program Overview Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, D.; Wolfson, M.

    2001-01-01

    This Utility Program Overview describes how the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) utility program assists Federal energy managers. The document identifies both a utility financing mechanism and FEMP technical assistance available to support agencies' implementation of energy and water efficiency methods and renewable energy projects

  15. 24 CFR 58.14 - Interaction with State, Federal and non-Federal entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interaction with State, Federal and non-Federal entities. 58.14 Section 58.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES General Policy: Responsibilities of Responsible Entities § 58.14 Interaction with...

  16. 77 FR 35393 - Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2012-03; Redesignations of Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2012-03; Redesignations of Federal Buildings AGENCY: Public Buildings... bulletin announces the designation and redesignation of three Federal buildings. Expiration Date: This bulletin announcement expires October 31, 2012. The building designation and redesignations remains in...

  17. 76 FR 54772 - Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2011-B2; Redesignations of Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2011-B2; Redesignations of Federal Buildings AGENCY: Public Buildings... announces the designation and redesignation of two Federal buildings. Expiration Date: This bulletin announcement expires January 31, 2012. The building designation and redesignation remains in effect until...

  18. 75 FR 69080 - Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2010-B5; Redesignations of Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2010-B5; Redesignations of Federal Buildings AGENCY: Public Buildings... announces the designation and redesignation of two Federal buildings. DATES: Expiration Date: This bulletin announcement expires April 30, 2011. The building designation and redesignation remains in effect until...

  19. 76 FR 6792 - Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2011-B1; Redesignations of Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2011-B1; Redesignations of Federal Buildings AGENCY: Public Buildings... announces the redesignations of three Federal buildings. DATES: Expiration Date: This bulletin announcement expires June 30, 2011. The building redesignations remain in effect until canceled or superseded by...

  20. 75 FR 44264 - Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2010-B4; Redesignation of Federal Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2010-B4; Redesignation of Federal Building AGENCY: Public Buildings... announces the redesignation of a Federal building. DATES: Expiration Date: This bulletin expires December 31, 2010. However, the building redesignation announced by this bulletin will remain in effect until...

  1. Environmental Enforcement of Federal Agencies: A Struggle for Power under the ’New Federalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Separation of Powers Dillemma ............ . 55 III. Establishment of Goals...federal power. Currently that countervailing federal 54 power does not exist because of the restraints imposed on EPA. 16 d. Separation of Powers Dilemma...structure and implies a necessary separation of powers . In Federalist 48 Madison discussed the connections necessary to maintain a proper separation of powers :

  2. 76 FR 68044 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-54; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Acquisition Circular 2005-54; Small Entity Compliance Guide AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General... Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-54, which amend the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR... (FAR Case 2009-006) This final rule amends the FAR to implement Executive Order (E.O.) 13494, Economy...

  3. 75 FR 19179 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-41; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Acquisition Circular 2005-41; Small Entity Compliance Guide AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General... Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-41 which amends the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR... projects where the total cost to the Government is $25 million or more in order to promote economy and...

  4. Natural gas: federal versus state competence; Competencia federal versus competencia estadual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Garcia da; Correia, Andre de Luizi [Wald Associados Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article highlights the difficulties in regulating the natural gas sector in Brazil, which has hindered the development of the full potential of this industry. It analyzes the partition of competencies between the federative entities according to the Federal Constitution, the 'Law of oil' and the project of the 'Law of gas'.

  5. Comparative federal health care policy: evidence of collaborative federalism in Pakistan and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracskay, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative federalism has provided an effective analytical foundation for understanding how complex public policies are implemented in federal systems through intergovernmental and intersectoral alignments. This has particularly been the case in issue areas like public health policy where diseases are detected and treated at the local level. While past studies on collaborative federalism and health care policy have focused on federal systems that are largely democratic, little research has been conducted to examine the extent of collaboration in authoritarian structures. This article applies the collaborative federalism approach to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Evidence suggests that while both nations have exhibited authoritarian governing structures, there have been discernible policy areas where collaborative federalism is embraced to facilitate the implementation process. Further, while not an innate aspect of their federal structures, Pakistan and Venezuela can potentially expand their use of the collaborative approach to successfully implement health care policy and the epidemiological surveillance and intervention functions. Yet, as argued, this would necessitate further development of their structures on a sustained basis to create an environment conducive for collaborative federalism to flourish, and possibly expand to other policy areas as well.

  6. Europe '92: Consequences of the European Unification for Cultural Federalism in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggreen, Ingeborg

    1990-01-01

    Discusses consequences of European unification in the Federal Republic of Germany. Focuses on the relationships between the European Community, the federal government of Germany, and the German states. Suggests that the German states are aware of their responsibility to give education and culture a European dimension. (NL)

  7. 77 FR 58818 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program Regulations-- Servicemembers Civil Relief Act SUMMARY: Upon a... in response to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: William D. Ford...

  8. 75 FR 38999 - Federal Perkins Loan Program: Federal Family Education Loan Program and William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ..., or Direct Loan Program, excluding PLUS loans made under the FFEL and Direct Loan Programs to parents... that repaid a parent PLUS loan. Employee means an individual who, under Federal tax law, is considered... Internal Revenue Code. Involuntary separation due to misconduct means termination from [[Page 39001...

  9. Indirect estimators in US federal programs

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, a subcommittee of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology met to document the use of indirect estimators - that is, estimators which use data drawn from a domain or time different from the domain or time for which an estimate is required. This volume comprises the eight reports which describe the use of indirect estimators and they are based on case studies from a variety of federal programs. As a result, many researchers will find this book provides a valuable survey of how indirect estimators are used in practice and which addresses some of the pitfalls of these methods.

  10. Energy transition in federalism; Energiewende im Foederalismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten; Kahl, Hartmut (eds.)

    2015-07-01

    The conference transcript assemble the presentations of the 10th Wuerzburg discussions for environmental energy law. The contributions discuss the political development objectives of the Federal Government and Federal States as well as the coordination tasks between the different political levels, inter alia, of constitutional and European law perspective. [German] Der Tagungsband versammelt die Vortraege der 10. Wuerzburger Gespraeche zum Umweltenergierecht. Die Beitraege eroertern die politischen Ausbauziele des Bundes und der Laender sowie die Koordinierungsaufgaben zwischen den verschiedenen Politikebenen u.a. aus verfassungs- und europarechtlicher Perspektive.

  11. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  12. 2016 Earth System Grid Federation Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) experienced a major setback in June 2015, when it experienced a security incident that brought all systems to a halt for more than half a year. However, federation developers and management committee members turned the incident into an opportunity to dramatically upgrade the system security and functionality and to develop planning and policy documents to guide ESGF evolution and success. Moreover, despite the incident, ESGF developer working teams continue to make strong and significant progress on various enhancement projects that will help ensure ESGF can meet the needs of the climate community in the coming years.

  13. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally imp...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed.......The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally...

  14. FOOD SECURITY PROBLEMS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Polyanskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concepts and factors of food security and food sovereignty of the Russian Federation. The composition of the consumer basket, the most significant of its components, and based on threshold values of self-sufficiency is calculated in the dynamics of the prevalence of food independence. The groups of products, which are in the country to be at a level below the thresholds, regulated by the food security doctrine of the Russian Federation. Identified the possible General trend of development of agricultural production in the country.

  15. Survey and analysis of federally developed technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J.E.; Conrad, J.L.

    1983-02-01

    The methodology and results of a test effort to determine whether there exist unexpected opportunities for the direct transfer of technologies from federal laboratories to industry are presented. Specifically, the latest results of six federal laboratories with potential application in the pulp and paper industry, particularly those results applicable to improving energy productivity, were evaluated, cataloged, and distributed to industry representatives to gauge their reaction. The principal methodological steps in this effort were the development of a taxonomy of the pulp and paper industry, identification of industry needs and laboratory capabilities, laboratory visits, review of technology findings with industry, and evaluation and compilation of industry responses.

  16. ANALYSIS OF CHP POTENTIAL AT FEDERAL SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HADLEY, S.W.

    2002-03-11

    This document was prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) under its Technical Guidance and Assistance and Project Financing Programs. The purpose was to provide an estimate of the national potential for combined heat and power (also known as CHP; cogeneration; or cooling, heating, and power) applications at federal facilities and the associated costs and benefits including energy and emission savings. The report provides a broad overview for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies on when and where CHP systems are most likely to serve the government's best interest. FEMP's mission is to reduce the cost to and environmental impact of the federal government by advancing energy efficiency and water conservation, promoting the use of renewable energy, and improving utility management decisions at federal sites. FEMP programs are driven by its customers: federal agency sites. FEMP monitors energy efficiency and renewable energy technology developments and mounts ''technology-specific'' programs to make technologies that are in strong demand by agencies more accessible. FEMP's role is often one of helping the federal government ''lead by example'' through the use of advanced energy efficiency/renewable energy (EERE) technologies in its own buildings and facilities. CHP was highlighted in the Bush Administration's National Energy Policy Report as a commercially available technology offering extraordinary benefits in terms of energy efficiencies and emission reductions. FEMP's criteria for emphasizing a technology are that it must be commercially available; be proven but underutilized; have a strong constituency and momentum; offer large energy savings and other benefits of interest to federal sites and FEMP mission; be in demand; and carry sufficient federal market potential. As discussed in the report, CHP meets all

  17. Violencia doméstica contra la mujer: Una encuesta en consultorios de atención primaria Detection of domestic violence against women: Survey in a primary health care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pontecorvo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo a la Organización de la Salud, en América Latina cerca del 50% de las mujeres sufren violencia doméstica crónica. Se realizó esta investigación con el objetivo de estimar la prevalencia de violencia basada en género (VBG en las mujeres que se atienden en el Programa de Medicina Interna General (PMIG y comparar la frecuencia de detección de VBG bajo diferentes modalidades de encuesta. Se utilizó una muestra consecutiva de mujeres mayores de 18 años de edad que concurren al PMIG y aceptaron participar. Se utilizó la encuesta para detección de VBG desarrollada por la International Planning Parenthood Foundation. La mitad de la población completó la encuesta en forma anónima y a solas, y a la otra mitad el médico tratante le entregó el cuestionario al final de la consulta. Se repartieron 360 encuestas, se recuperaron 270. La edad promedio de la población fue 45.4 años, el 33 % poseía mas de 7 años de educación formal, el 48% no convivía en situación de pareja, el 56% tenía trabajo. Ciento veinte mujeres (44.4% refirieron haber sufrido algún tipo de violencia en su vida. Ciento ocho informaron violencia psicológica, 53 violencia física y 45 violencia sexual. Cuarenta y seis mujeres (17.5% relataron haber sufrido violencia sexual en la niñez. Cuarenta (14.8% refirieron sufrir violencia en la actualidad. Las mujeres que respondieron la encuesta en forma anónima referían haber sufrido VBG con una frecuencia significativamente menor que las otras (P According to Pan American Health Organization nearly 50% of women suffer chronic domestic violence in Latin America. We evaluated the prevalence of gender based violence (GBV in women assisted in a University Outpatient Clinic in Buenos Aires. We used a survey originally developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF in Spanish. The survey was distributed to a consecutive sample of women more than 18 years of age who attended the clinic

  18. 78 FR 63143 - VA Dental Insurance Program-Federalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...--Federalism AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans... that they are submitted in response to ``RIN 2900-AO86-VA Dental Insurance Program-- Federalism... Order 13132, Federalism Section 6(c) of Executive Order 13132 (entitled ``Federalism'') requires an...

  19. 48 CFR 1329.203-70 - DOC Federal tax exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOC Federal tax exemption... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Federal Excise Taxes 1329.203-70 DOC Federal tax exemption. (a) The Office of... enabling DOC and its contractors to purchase spirits (e.g., specially denatured spirits) tax-free for non...

  20. 42 CFR 50.209 - Use of Federal financial assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Federal financial assistance. 50.209 Section... OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.209 Use of Federal financial assistance. (a) Federal financial assistance adminstered by the Public...

  1. 75 FR 68534 - Federal Home Loan Bank Liabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... combine provisions now found in the Finance Board regulations part 965, Sources of Funds, and part 969... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD 12 CFR Parts 965, 966, 969, and 987 FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1270 RIN 2590-AA36 Federal Home Loan Bank Liabilities AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance...

  2. 34 CFR 682.419 - Guaranty agency Federal Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deposit into the Federal Fund— (1) All funds, securities, and other liquid assets of the reserve fund that... assets of the Federal Fund and the earnings on those assets are, at all times, the property of the United... earnings on the Federal Fund; (8) Revenue derived from the Federal portion of a nonliquid asset, in...

  3. 78 FR 28953 - William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    .... Ford Federal Direct Loan Program; Interim Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 95... [Docket ID ED-2013-OPE-0066] RIN 1840-AD13 William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program AGENCY: Office of... Secretary amends the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program (Direct Loan Program) regulations to...

  4. 75 FR 55257 - Definition of Federal Election Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ..., Assistant General Counsel, or Attorney Mr. David C. Adkins or Attorney Mr. Neven F. Stipanovic, 999 E Street... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 100 [Notice 2010-18] Definition of Federal Election Activity AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Final rules. SUMMARY: The Federal Election Commission...

  5. 76 FR 29147 - Federal Home Loan Bank Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...-AA32 Federal Home Loan Bank Investments AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency; Federal Housing Finance...-adopting existing investment regulations that apply to the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) and that were...' investment in mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and certain asset-backed securities (ABS) that were previously...

  6. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Overview of FRMAC Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan. This cooperative effort will ensure that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. the mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas

  7. The Future of Federal Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1983-01-01

    This article explores the evolution of federal government policy on education during the past 20 years, points out trends likely to influence future policy, and projects possible future responses to these trends. The roles of educational interest groups instrumental in passing the legislation are described. (PP)

  8. The Emerging Federal Role in Financing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1972-01-01

    The author predicts that within the next four years we will see another major federal school aid bill which will try to provide for financial equalization both between states and within states, as well as to provide some property-tax relief. (AN)

  9. West Germany: Federal Structure, Political Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, Alex

    1978-01-01

    Describes the organizational structure of the broadcasting industry in West Germany which is unique because of the federal, public, and political elements involved. Special problems that arise from this framework are discussed, including financing, programing, creative vs technical advances, concepts of production values, and political balance.…

  10. Study of a Federal Nuclear Operations Corps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The staffing requirements of the nuclear electric utility industry will create very large demands in the next 3 years for nuclear trained personnel in operation and maintenance. The commercial nuclear industry recognizes these needs, the importance of having qualified trained personnel, and is taking appropriate action to satisfy these requirements. The education and training capabilities both inside and outside of the utility industry have the capacity to meet these demands if they are properly managed. In particular, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations Human Resource Management System provides a framework for an organized industry-wide program. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Inspection and Enforcement is in effect a Federal Corps focused on nuclear operations. Its Reactor Training Center trains the professionals required to inspect nuclear operations and enforce regulations. Therefore, the Department of Energy (DOE) believes that the objectives of a Federal Nuclear Operations Corps can be met by existing private and Federal efforts and that there is no need to establish another corps or training academy. This is consistent with the Administration's policy of minimizing the Federal role in areas where the private sector is capable

  11. Federal Agency for Limnology. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Agency for Limnology (BfG) reports on its research and activities in 1990. Contents: the former institute for water management as new Berlin branch office of BfG, report of activities, research projects, list of scientific staff, publications, committee activities, science lectures, list of abbreviations and organization plan. (BBR) [de

  12. A Generative Approach for Building Database Federations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Hohenstein

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive, specification-based approach for building database federations is introduced that supports an integrated ODMG2.0 conforming access to heterogeneous data sources seamlessly done in C++. The approach is centered around several generators. A first set of generators produce ODMG adapters for local sources in order to homogenize them. Each adapter represents an ODMG view and supports the ODMG manipulation and querying. The adapters can be plugged into a federation framework. Another generator produces an homogeneous and uniform view by putting an ODMG conforming federation layer on top of the adapters. Input to these generators are schema specifications. Schemata are defined in corresponding specification languages. There are languages to homogenize relational and object-oriented databases, as well as ordinary file systems. Any specification defines an ODMG schema and relates it to an existing data source. An integration language is then used to integrate the schemata and to build system-spanning federated views thereupon. The generative nature provides flexibility with respect to schema modification of component databases. Any time a schema changes, only the specification has to be adopted; new adapters are generated automatically

  13. Federated States of Micronesia's forest resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Donnegan; Sarah L. Butler; Olaf Kuegler; Bruce A. Hiserote

    2011-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis program collected, analyzed, and summarized field data on 73 forested field plots on the islands of Kosrae, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Yap in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Estimates of forest area, tree stem volume and biomass, the numbers of trees, tree damages, and the distribution of tree sizes were summarized for this...

  14. Federalism and technological change in blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Zachary

    2009-12-01

    Recent research has shown how federalism affects health care finance, health care reform, and health policy innovation. The purpose of this article is to extend this research program to study the linkages between federalism and technological change. It does so using comparative case studies spanning five countries to examine innovation and diffusion of two blood technologies-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA blood tests) and heat treatment-in response to the threat to the blood supply posed by HIV during the 1980s. Prior research has produced three contradictory models of the federalism-innovation relationship. This article attempts to resolve these contradictions, posits new hypotheses, and highlights sources of omitted variable bias that have important implications for understanding technological change. The case studies show that overall decentralization, rather than federalism alone, aids technological progress by allowing its supporters to "venue shop" around political resistance. Decentralization also makes the state less vulnerable to capture by status-quo interest groups. Moreover, political decentralization may have a positive effect on technological diffusion, but a far weaker effect on innovation. Thus, prior research that conflates these two effects should be revisited.

  15. National Curriculum and Federalism: The Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Hart, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Whilst the past 35 years have seen numerous attempts at national curriculum collaboration in Australia, these have invariably failed largely due to the constitutional reality that the States have responsibility for curriculum. Federal government involvement in curriculum can only be achieved, therefore, with the consent of the States. To achieve…

  16. Brede Tools and Federating Online Neuroinformatics Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2014-01-01

    As open science neuroinformatics databases the Brede Database and Brede Wiki seek to make distribution and federation of their content as easy and transparent as possible. The databases rely on simple formats and allow other online tools to reuse their content. This paper describes the possible i...

  17. Questioning the Federal Role in Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, David H.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the Reagan administration's proposed budget cuts for education, educational research, and social science research. Holds that examples used to bolster the administration's criticisms of social and behavioral research come from the late 1960s/early 1970s, and ignore federally funded work currently focusing on educational practice, policy,…

  18. Cloud Data Storage Federation for Scientific Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulouzis, S.; Vasyunin, D.; Cushing, R.; Belloum, A.; Bubak, M.; an Mey, D.; Alexander, M.; Bientinesi, P.; Cannataro, M.; Clauss, C.; Costan, A.; Kecskemeti, G.; Morin, C.; Ricci, L.; Sahuquillo, J.; Schulz, M.; Scarano, V.; Scott, S.L.; Weidendorfer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, data-intensive scientific research needs storage capabilities that enable efficient data sharing. This is of great importance for many scientific domains such as the Virtual Physiological Human. In this paper, we introduce a solution that federates a variety of systems ranging from file

  19. Spanish Federation of Popular Universities (FEUP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Isabel Garcia-Longoria

    2006-01-01

    This article features the Spanish Popular Universities, which are defined as "a project of cultural development that acts in the municipality, whose objective is to promote social participation, education, training, and culture in order to improve life quality" (Federation of Popular Education Universities, 2000). A century of history of…

  20. The expediting resolutions of the Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Even before the Third Update of their Energy Programme was dismissed the Federal Government had decreed ten measures for expediting the licensing procedures for nuclear power plants in October. The statements of politicians, experts and a journalist are given. (orig./UA) [de

  1. The peculiar economics of federal energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canes, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    US federal agency energy managers face different constraints than do comparable private sector managers. They are faced with energy consumption goals mandated via legislation or directed via Presidential Executive Order that encourage if not compel them to invest more in energy efficiency or renewables than would be cost effective from a private sector perspective. To make such investments, they also are provided access to private capital that is additional to their agency budgets. The encouragement to invest beyond what is cost effective may be a source of waste in some instances, and the financing mechanisms appear more expensive than necessary. A rough estimate of the magnitude of the waste is offered, as well as a mechanism to reduce the costs of agency access to capital. - Highlights: •Legislative and regulatory initiatives that constrain federal agency energy investments. •Economic calculus facing a federal agency energy manager. •Magnitude of federal energy investments and of possible waste. •Financing mechanisms and how their costs might be reduced.

  2. 75 FR 69080 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Administration (GSA) has issued FTR Bulletin 11-02, updating the Fly America Act information on the GSA web site... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) Fly America Act; United States and... Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). [[Page 69081

  3. 30 CFR 903.843 - Federal enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... request, to a designated Arizona State agency with jurisdiction over mining. ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.843 Federal...

  4. Behavioral Insights for Federal Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The federal role in higher education has grown over the past two decades, and now a new administration has the opportunity to strengthen policies that support students and their colleges and universities. To help inform these decisions, the Urban Institute convened a bipartisan group of scholars and policy advisers to write a series of memos…

  5. Higher Education Accreditation and the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelchen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The federal role in higher education has grown over the past two decades, and now a new administration has the opportunity to strengthen policies that support students and their colleges and universities. To help inform these decisions, the Urban Institute convened a bipartisan group of scholars and policy advisers to write a series of memos…

  6. Guide to Federal Career Literature: 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC.

    The publication is designed to serve as a reference guide to Federal recruiting literature. It contains brief descriptions of publications of 43 departments and agencies. The pamphlets and brochures listed represent the principle publications used in nationwide recruiting for college entry-level positions. The bibliography is organized…

  7. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  8. 5th Annual Earth System Grid Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the Fifth Annual Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Face-to-Face (F2F) Conference was to present the most recent information on the state of ESGF’s software stack and to identify and address the data needs and gaps for the climate and weather communities that ESGF supports.

  9. 7 CFR 1260.112 - Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federation. 1260.112 Section 1260.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., which includes as its State affiliates the qualified State beef councils. ...

  10. 77 FR 74543 - Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION National Women's Business Council Federal Advisory Committee Meeting... for the next meeting of the National Women's Business Council (NWBC). The meeting will be open to the... the meeting of the National Women's Business Council. The National Women's Business Council is tasked...

  11. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    A constitution is more likely to be accepted if it federalizes those issues that arewidely seen as needing complete harmonization. A constitution is more likely to endure if thefederal government does not have powers that are not vital to it but which may alienate somemember states to the point t...

  12. Energy conservation. Federal shared energy savings contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Milans, Flora H.; Kirk, Roy J.; Welker, Robert A.; Sparling, William J.; Butler, Sharon E.; Irwin, Susan W.

    1989-04-01

    A number of impediments have discouraged federal agencies from using shared energy savings contracts. As of November 30, 1988, only two federal agencies - the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the Department of the Army -had awarded such contracts even though they can yield significant energy and cost savings. The three major impediments we identified were uncertainty about the applicability of a particular procurement policy and practice, lack of management incentives, and difficulty in measuring energy and cost savings. To address the first impediment, the Department of Energy (DOE) developed a manual on shared energy savings contracting. The second impediment was addressed when the 100th Congress authorized incentives for federal agencies to enter into shared savings contracts. DOE addressed the third impediment by developing a methodology for calculating energy consumption and cost savings. However, because of differing methodological preferences, this issue will need to be addressed on a contract-by-contract basis. Some state governments and private sector firms are using performance contracts to reduce energy costs in their buildings and facilities. We were able to identify six states that were using performance contracts. Five have established programs, and all six states have projects under contract. The seven energy service companies we contacted indicated interest in federal shared energy savings contracting

  13. CAESAREAN SECTION RATE AT FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EagleMarkRes

    Materials and Method: A three year retrospective study from January 2010 to December 2012 involving all women who had caesarean delivery at the Federal Medical ... knowledge of women and increase safety about the procedure; the CS rate .... centres in Nigeria, where resident doctors on training are allowed to perform ...

  14. 78 FR 39613 - Federal Pell Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    .... Individuals with disabilities can obtain this document in an accessible format (e.g., braille, large print... accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553). However, the APA provides that an... APA because the statutory change to prohibit a student from receiving two Federal Pell Grants in a...

  15. Adjusting Futures Forecasts of Federal Reserve Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee; Chun, Olfa Maalaoui

    Our results challenge the traditional way we interpret empirical measures of risk premia, as a signicant part of the predictable component of excess returns is strongly correlated with predictability in survey forecast errors. Using survey forecasts of the federal funds rate to proxy for market e...

  16. 30 CFR 933.842 - Federal inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.842 Federal... coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) OSM will furnish a copy of any inspection report written pursuant to this part to the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development upon...

  17. 30 CFR 933.843 - Federal enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.843 Federal... violations on surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) OSM will furnish a copy of each enforcement action and order to show cause issued pursuant to this part to the North Carolina Department of Natural...

  18. The OLAP-XML Federation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    We present the logical “OLAP-XML Federation System” that enables the external data available in XML format to be used as virtual dimensions. Unlike the complex and time-consuming physical integration of OLAP and external data in current OLAP systems, our system makes OLAP queries referencing fast...

  19. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... financial institutions in cooperation with minority- and women-owned financial institutions and low-income... Financial Assets Transferred by an Insured Depository Institution: The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...: Market Risk: The OCC, Board and the FDIC proposed revisions to the market risk capital rule to enhance...

  20. NASA and the Federal Management Intern Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Jack K.; Slack, Vivian M.

    A review of NASA Federal Management Intern (MI) programs indicates potential for identification, attraction, and early development of successful administrative management employees, but suggests that successful development of managers is a function of the long-term care with which an agency pursues MI programs. A recent study of separations in…