Coopmans, M.; Lippe, A.G. van der; Lubbers, M.
Given the abundance of literature on collective memory practices, there is relatively little empirical research on the socialization processes explaining the transmission of such practices. This article examines to what extent war-specific communication and parental exemplar behaviour function as a
Gay, Victor; Boehnke, Jörn
We explore the effect of military fatalities from World War I on female labor participation in post-war France. We build a unique dataset containing individual level information for all 1.3 million fallen soldiers, and find that the tightness of the marriage market along with negative income shocks generated by the scarcity of men induced many young single women and older widows to enter the labor force permanently after the war, especially in the industrial sector. These findings are robust ...
.... By exploring the impact of the Vietnam Conflict and the Gulf War on political participation in the United States, this research provides evidence that American citizens participate at higher rates...
Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Brazil in War World II): In order to have personnel to perform the jobs of company commanders, it was necessary to...Branco, 136. 18Octavio Costa, Trinta Anos Depois da Volta. O Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Rio de Janeiro: Bibliex, 1976), 30. 46 19McCann...na Segunda Guerra Mundial . Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército Editora, 1976. Dulles, John W. F. Vargas of Brazil: A Political Biography. Austin
O'Malley, Colleen J.; Blankemeyer, Maureen; Walker, Kathleen K.; Dellmann-Jenkins, Mary
There is increased interest by parents in communicating with their children about political violence. However, limited attention in the scholarly literature has focused on parent-child communication about war and terrorism. In response, the purpose of this study is to assess, within their respective ecological contexts, American and Northern Irish…
Full Text Available Thousands of soldiers coming from different parts of Europe have participated in the American War of Independence. While the British crown received support from the German mercenaries, the secessionists Americans were helped by a special unit of the French army and by other volunteers from the territory of the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Sweden, and Poland. Less known are the issues of participation of troops from the Kingdom of Hungary who fought for American freedom. The following article brings information on the four foreigner fighters who arrived on the American battlefield: Maurice August Benyovszky, Baron Francisc Seraph Benyovszky, Mihály Kováts of Fabricy and Jean Ladislau Poleretzy. Having the spirit of adventure as a main characteristic, the four characters are the protagonists of some exciting stories, with ups and downs, with twists and unexpected denouement.
Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir R.; Peltonen, Kirsi
ABSTRACT Background: Trauma affects the family unit as a whole; however, most existing research uses individual or, at most, dyadic approaches to analyse families with histories of trauma. Objective: This study aims to identify potentially distinct family types according to attachment, parenting, and sibling relations, to analyse how these family types differ with respect to war trauma, and to explore how children’s mental health and cognitive processing differ across these family types. Method: Participants included Palestinian mothers and fathers (N = 325) and their children (one per family; 49.4% girls; 10–13 years old; mean ± SD age = 11.35 ± 0.57 years) after the Gaza War of 2008–2009. Both parents reported their exposure to war trauma, secure attachment availability, and parenting practices, as well as the target child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Children reported their symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (on the Children’s Revised Impact Event Scale), depression (Birleson), and SDQ, as well as their post-traumatic cognitions (Children’s Post Traumatic Cognitions Inventory). Results: A cluster analysis identified four family types. The largest type reflected secure attachment and optimal relationships (security and positive family relationships, 36.2%, n = 102), and the smallest exhibited insecurity and problematic relationships (insecurity and negative family relationships, 15.6%; n = 44). Further, families with discrepant experiences (23.0%; n = 65) and moderate security and neutral relationships (25.2%; n = 71) emerged. The insecurity and negative relationships family type showed higher levels of war trauma; internalizing, externalizing, and depressive symptoms among children; and dysfunctional post-traumatic cognitions than other family types. Conclusion: The family systems approach to mental health is warranted in war conditions, and therapeutic
Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir R; Peltonen, Kirsi
Background : Trauma affects the family unit as a whole; however, most existing research uses individual or, at most, dyadic approaches to analyse families with histories of trauma. Objective : This study aims to identify potentially distinct family types according to attachment, parenting, and sibling relations, to analyse how these family types differ with respect to war trauma, and to explore how children's mental health and cognitive processing differ across these family types. Method: Participants included Palestinian mothers and fathers ( N = 325) and their children (one per family; 49.4% girls; 10-13 years old; mean ± SD age = 11.35 ± 0.57 years) after the Gaza War of 2008-2009. Both parents reported their exposure to war trauma, secure attachment availability, and parenting practices, as well as the target child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Children reported their symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (on the Children's Revised Impact Event Scale), depression (Birleson), and SDQ, as well as their post-traumatic cognitions (Children's Post Traumatic Cognitions Inventory). Results: A cluster analysis identified four family types. The largest type reflected secure attachment and optimal relationships (security and positive family relationships, 36.2%, n = 102), and the smallest exhibited insecurity and problematic relationships (insecurity and negative family relationships, 15.6%; n = 44). Further, families with discrepant experiences (23.0%; n = 65) and moderate security and neutral relationships (25.2%; n = 71) emerged. The insecurity and negative relationships family type showed higher levels of war trauma; internalizing, externalizing, and depressive symptoms among children; and dysfunctional post-traumatic cognitions than other family types. Conclusion: The family systems approach to mental health is warranted in war conditions, and therapeutic interventions for
National Defense University Press, 2015), 132. 14 Cohn, 3. 15 Linda Grant De Pauw, Battle Cries and Lullabies: Women in War from Prehistory to the...Battle Cries and Lullabies: Women in War from Prehistory to the Present. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. Epstein, David. The Sports Gene
Heinze, Justin E.; Heinze, Kathryn L.; Davis, Matthew M.; Butchart, Amy T.; Singer, Dianne C.; Clark, Sarah J.
Pay-to-play fees in public schools place more support for sport participation in the hands of parents; this may disproportionately affect the ability of girls to garner the benefits of sports. Using an online survey of a national sample of parents (N = 814), we examined the relationship between parents' gender role beliefs, parents' beliefs about…
Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat
This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the ...
Foot, Hugh; Howe, Christine; Cheyne, Bill; Terras, Melody; Rattray, Catherine
Investigated parents' and staff opinions about parental participation in their child's preschool, including perceived available options for partnership. Found that parental needs for participation were largely satisfied by the opportunities offered in the play group sector but not in local authority and private nurseries. Found three areas in…
The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements. These movements will continue to be pivotal in the gradual strengthening of democratic governance structures. Irrespective of the immense barriers that they face, women of all ages have ...
Moses, Lisa F.; Aldridge, Jerry; Cellitti, Anarella; McCorquodale, Gwenyth
Noting that children in every corner of the planet are affected by war or the threat of war, this booklet for parents and early childhood educators provides an introduction to children's fears concerning armed conflict and terrorist attacks and offers strategies for helping children work through their fears. The chapters are as follows: (1)…
Wanat, Carolyn L.
This case study examined parent groups' involvement in school activities and their participation in decision making. Research questions included the following: (1) What is the nature of parent groups in schools? (2) What activities and issues gain parent groups' attention and participation? (3) How do parent groups communicate concerns about…
Iltis, Ana S
Decisions concerning children in the health care setting have engendered significant controversy and sparked ethics policies and statements, legal action, and guidelines regarding who ought to make decisions involving children and how such decisions ought to be made. Traditionally, parents have been the default decision-makers for children not only with regard to health care but with regard to other matters, such as religious practice and education. In recent decades, there has been a steady trend away from the view that parents are in authority over their children and toward the view that children are rights-bearers who should be granted greater authority over themselves. The mature minor doctrine refers to the decision to grant mature minors the authority to make decisions traditionally reserved for their parents. This essay (1) documents the trend towards expanding the understanding of some minors as "mature" and hence as having the right and authority to give informed consent, (2) examines the reasons for which some commentators have a special interest in expanding the mature minor doctrine to the research setting and allowing minors to enroll in research without parental permission, and (3) defends the view that the mature minor doctrine, regardless of its application to clinical health care decisions, ought to be set aside in the research setting in favor of greater parental involvement.
Harding, Jessica F.; Morris, Pamela A.
This research explores whether low-income mothers' participation in education influences a constellation of different parenting practices that are related to young children's academic outcomes. Importantly, understanding whether maternal participation in education influences mothers' parenting practices can illuminate a pathway by which increases…
Catallozzi, Marina; de Roche, Ariel M; Hu, Mei-Chen; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Chang, Jane; Ipp, Lisa S; Francis, Jenny K R; Rosenthal, Susan L
To understand adolescents' and parents' willingness to participate (WTP) in a hypothetical phase I prevention study of sexually transmitted infections, discordance within adolescent-parent dyads, and expectations of each other during decision-making. Adolescent-parent dyads were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study about research participation attitudes. Adolescents (14-17 years old) and their parents (n = 301 dyads) participated. None. Individual interviews at baseline assessed WTP on a 6-level Likert scale. WTP was dichotomized (willing/unwilling) to assess discordance. WTP was reported by 60% (182 of 301) of adolescents and 52% (156 of 300) of parents. In bivariate analyses, older adolescent age, sexual experience, and less involvement of parents in research processes were associated with higher level of WTP for adolescents; only sexual experience remained in the multivariable analysis. For parents, older adolescent age, perceived adolescent sexual experience, and conversations about sexual health were significant; only conversations remained. Dyadic discordance (44%, 132 of 300) was more likely in dyads in which the parent reported previous research experience, and less likely when parents reported higher family expressiveness. Adolescents (83%, 248 of 299) and parents (88%, 263 of 300) thought that the other would have similar views, influence their decision (adolescents 66%, 199 of 300; parents 75%, 224 of 300), and listen (adolescents 90%, 270 of 300; parents 96%, 287 of 300). There were no relationships between these perceptions and discordance. Inclusion of adolescents in phase I clinical trials is necessary to ensure that new methods are safe, effective, and acceptable for them. Because these trials currently require parental consent, strategies that manage adolescent-parent discordance and support adolescent independence and parental guidance are critically needed. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent
Rostad, Whitney L; Moreland, Angela D; Valle, Linda Anne; Chaffin, Mark J
Families experiencing child maltreatment or risk factors for child maltreatment often receive referrals to interventions focused on changing parenting practices. Compliance with specific parenting programs can be challenging as many of the stressors that place families at-risk may also interfere with program participation. Because families may receive limited benefit from programs they do not fully receive, it is critical to understand the relationship between parenting stress and barriers to program completion. We used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among parenting stress, perceived barriers to program participation, and program completion in two datasets involving low-income parents. Data were collected at two time points from a sample of parents involved with child welfare services and a sample of parents considered at-risk of future involvement (total study n = 803). Direct paths from parenting stress at time 1 to barriers to participation and parenting stress at time 2, and from parenting stress at time 2 to program completion were significant. Interestingly, increased barriers to participation were related to increased parenting stress at time 2, and greater parenting stress was related to increased program completion. Results suggest that with increasing levels of parenting stress, parents have an increased likelihood of completing the program. Assessing and addressing the influence of perceived barriers and parenting stress on program participation may decrease the likelihood of treatment attrition.
To investigate parent participation in the hospitalized child's care from the perspectives of children, parents and nurses. Parent participation in the hospitalized child's care has been increasingly promoted in paediatric nursing for many years because it ameliorates the adverse aspects of hospitalization, avoids parental separation and contributes to quality care for sick children. Parent participation is assumed to be unproblematic but evidence exists that nurses often have difficulty caring for parents. Using grounded method, data were collected through in-depth interviews, questionnaires and observation with 12 nurses from four paediatric wards in two hospitals in England. The dominant process appeared to be the socialization of parents to their role on the ward through inclusionary and exclusionary tactics. Nurses controlled the nature of parents' participation and parents had to 'toe the line'. Although participation was presented as optional, parents were presented with no course other than acceptance. Parents were expected to stay with their child, behave properly and be involved in care. When parents did not adhere to these norms, they caused disruption to the order and routine of the ward. Compliance or non-compliance to the set of norms and rules was followed by reward or punishment. The nurses' dependence on parents' active participation in the organization and delivery of the work suggests that parent participation as it is practised is clearly about administrative efficiency, not consumer empowerment. Organizational and managerial issues must be examined to ensure that nurses are adequately prepared and resourced to support parents on the ward. Continuing assessment of parents' expectations though a structured assessment tool would help reduce misunderstandings and conflict. Nurses should assess the situational context before relying on subjective impressions and assumptions about parents' participation in care.
Although parent school councils are the archetypal arrangement for engaging parents in school improvement planning, their effectiveness is negligible when it comes to building parents' capacity for and confidence in educational decision-making. Using Arnstein's ladder of citizen participation, this qualitative case study investigated the nature…
... disability are present at each IEP Team meeting or are afforded the opportunity to participate, including— (1....321(a)(6) and (c) (relating to the participation of other individuals on the IEP Team who have... C service coordinator or other representatives of the Part C system at the initial IEP Team meeting...
Literature on the national poverty war is examined, focusing on concepts of community action and resident participation as contributors to adult education of the poor for improved social and civic competence. The literature is found to demonstrate positive, though limited, aspects of participation as civic education. (AG)
Niia, Anna; Almqvist, Lena; Brunnberg, Elinor; Granlund, Mats
This study shows that students, teachers, and parents in Swedish schools ascribe differing meanings and significance to students' participation in school in relation to academic achievement. Students see participation as mainly related to social interaction and not academic achievement, whilst teachers view students' participation as more closely…
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the earthquake education program which was prepared for 5 to 6 year old children and to draw attention to the importance of parent participation. The earthquake education program was applied to 93 children and 31 parents in the province of Denizli situated in the first degree seismic zone…
Sjöberg, Carina; Svedberg, Petra; Nygren, Jens M; Carlsson, Ing-Marie
To explore what it means for parents to participate in their children's paediatric perioperative care. Allowing parents to participate in paediatric perioperative care can make a major difference for children in terms of their well-being, a decreased need for painkillers, fewer sleeping disorders and a more positive experience for both parties. The nurse anaesthetist should have a holistic view and develop a shared vision for the child, the parents and for themselves to perform successful paediatric perioperative care. Descriptive qualitative study. The study was conducted in 2014. Data were collected in 20 narrative interviews with 15 mothers and five fathers who had experience of participating in their child's paediatric perioperative day surgery. The analysis was carried out with qualitative content analysis to describe the variations, differences and similarities in the experiences. The analysis revealed a main category that describes that parental participation in the context of paediatric perioperative care in day surgery meant 'having strength to participate despite an increased vulnerability'. Three generic categories with additional subcategories explained what was essential for the parents to be able to preserve this strength and participate in their child's care despite their increased vulnerability. The generic categories were named, 'gaining information about what will happen', 'being seen as a resource' and 'gaining access to the environment'. Efforts should be made to improve parents' roles and opportunities to participate in paediatric perioperative care. Nurse anaesthetists have a crucial role in enabling parents' participation and need knowledge to develop strategies and nursing interventions that meet parents' needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Parents of pupils participate in the supervision and management of Spanish schools through the School Council ["Consejo Escolar"], which is the principal body through which such participation and oversight is channeled. Through it families, pupils, teachers and non-teaching staff contribute collectively to making the important decisions…
Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat
This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12-14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children's externalizing symptoms. Fathers' parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children's mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.
Full Text Available This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children’s externalizing symptoms. Fathers’ parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children’s mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.
Njeru, Margaret; Mora, Raúl Alberto
Research has repeatedly proven that parental participation in the education of their children plays a major role in their academic performance and general development. Children whose parents and families in general stay engaged in their education have been shown to perform better than those who do not receive such family support. In Kenya, the…
Milena da Rosa Silva
Full Text Available Given the specificities of postpartum maternal depression, the literature recommends that fathers become involved in psychological interventions within this context. This study presents an investigation of the participation of fathers in parent-infant psychotherapy in the context of maternal postpartum depression. Two families participated in this study, both with a child aged between 7 and 8 months old, whose mothers showed depressive symptoms. These families participated in parent-infant psychotherapy lasting approximately 12 sessions. Analysis of the fathers’ participation in psychotherapy showed that their presence during sessions enables the therapy to address aspects of parenthood, and also reduce the feeling of mothers as being the only ones responsible for the family’s process of change. In regard to the technique, the presence of fathers during sessions allows the therapist to see and address the issues concerning mother-father-infant during sessions.
Full Text Available Although physical activity (PA is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.
Sim, Amanda; Fazel, Mina; Bowes, Lucy; Gardner, Frances
Forcibly displaced children are at risk of a range of negative outcomes, yet little is known about how to support war-affected caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial resilience. The current study uses qualitative methods to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of war and displacement on parenting and child adjustment in order to inform intervention development. In April and November 2016, group and individual interviews were conducted with 39 Syrian parents and 15 children in partnership with a humanitarian organization in Lebanon. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results show three interrelated pathways linking daily displacement stressors to various dimensions of parenting: (1) economic hardship prevents parents from meeting their children's basic needs and forces adaptation strategies that impair positive parent-child interactions; (2) parental psychological distress contributes to harsh parenting; and (3) perceptions and experiences of insecurity in the community results in increased parental control. Greater economic resources and social support emerged as potential protective factors for maintaining positive parenting despite exposure to war and displacement-related adversity. Our findings suggest that implementation of policies and programs to remove structural barriers to refugees' physical and economic security can have tangible impacts on parental mental health, parenting quality, and child psychosocial outcomes. Future research priorities include a stronger focus on the effects of war and displacement on family processes, taking into account interactions with the broader social, economic and political context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
丸山, 富雄; Tomio, MARUYAMA; 仙台大学; SENDAI COLLEGE
The purpose of this study was to clarify a mechanism of sport participation of preschool children. Three items composed of parents' social achieved status, parents' interest in sport and parents' educational eagerness were investigated. Data were collected from 271 parents whose children attended kindergarten at Tokyo (sport-school participants 129, non-participants 142). As the results, participants' group was higher than non-participants' at all three items. Thus, it seems that sport partic...
Steele, B J; Collins, C D
This paper assesses whether a nation-state's participation in conflict influences its ability to confront global pandemic or disease. Two alternative hypotheses are proposed. First, increased levels of conflict participation lead to increased abilities of states to confront pandemics. A second and alternative hypothesis is that increased conflict participation decreases the ability of states to confront pandemics. The hypotheses are tested through the ultimate case of war and pandemic: the 1918 Influenza pandemic (Spanish Flu or 'La Grippe') that killed 20-100 million people worldwide. Using simple correlation and case illustrations, we test these hypotheses with special focus upon the ability of the participant countries to confront the pandemic. The findings suggest, in a limited and varied fashion, that while neutral countries enjoyed the lowest levels of pandemic deaths, of the participant countries greater levels of conflict participation correlate with lower levels of pandemic deaths. The paper concludes with some propositions regarding the relationship between the current 'war on terror' and prospective pandemics such as avian flu.
Bonfiglioli Stagni, S; Tomba, P; Viganò, A; Zati, A; Benedetti, M G
The First World War produced a huge number of disabled soldiers. During the war, surgeons realized that it was not enough to merely treat the limbs of the wounded soldiers; it was also necessary to train them to use their remaining abilities to their greatest capacity. Governments at the same time realized that such a high number of veterans created a financial burden, by entitling disabled veterans to full healthcare, raising the issues of social welfare. Both in the US and Europe, programs of rehabilitation were instituted, providing injured soldiers with long-term medical care and vocational training aimed at restituting soldier's independence for a speedy return to work. In Italy at the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, one of the most renowned Hospitals for the treatment of orthopedic deformities, Putti set up a technologically advanced Orthopedic Workshop, and a Rehabilitation House. The so called "reconstruction programs" addressed all aspects of rehabilitation (including physiotherapy, curative workshops and vocational therapy), seeing disability in terms of function. The experience gained in the treatment of war victims markedly enriched rehabilitation techniques, but overall the First World War helped engender the concept of rehabilitative programs to assist disabled veterans reintegrate in the workplace, thus laying the foundations of the modern concept of participation at a social level. In the centenary of Italy's entry into the First World War, it is worth underlining just how much hindsight affords us a new perspective on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. It reminds us that rehabilitation is not merely the role of medicine, but forms part of a multifaceted approach involving societal roles and expectations, regardless of the psychological and physical impairments suffered by the individuals concerned.
Smith, Tyler C; Jimenez, Dinice L; Smith, Besa; Gray, Gregory C; Hooper, Tomoko I
Although the US military experienced relatively low combat casualty rates during the Gulf War there has been concern that exposures occurring during the war may have resulted in postwar morbidity among Gulf War veterans...
Full Text Available In the educational process it is necessary to use management paradigms and active participation of parents. The objective was to determine the use of management strategies by the director of basic education and participation of parents in the educational process. It is a descriptive, transversal and field study, whose instrument was a questionnaire of 26 closed-questions. The sample comprised 16 directors, 52 teachers and 62 parents. For most managers and faculty the technique of brainstorming, involvement in decision-making, continues knowledge management and radical change are crucial in the educational process of children. But mothers and fathers believe that managerial groups do not use strategies properly except for reengineering. The mother and fathers are mainly involved in education management but not in the learning process. It is recommended the deepening of policy management training teaching force, through continuous training provided by the government and the promotion of family participation in the teaching-learning process of children.
Gewirtz, Abigail H; Zamirt, Osnat
It is estimated that approximately 2 million children have been affected by military deployment, yet much of what is known about the adjustment of children experiencing a parent's combat deployment has emerged only within the past 5-10 years. The extant literature on associations of parental deployment and children's adjustment is briefly reviewed by child's developmental stage. Applying a family stress model to the literature, we propose that the impact of parental deployment and reintegration on children's adjustment is largely mediated by parenting practices. Extensive developmental literature has demonstrated the importance of parenting for children's resilience in adverse contexts more generally, but not specifically in deployment contexts. We review the sparse literature on parenting in deployed families as well as emerging data on empirically supported parenting interventions for military families. An agenda for future research in this area is proffered.
Background An increasing proportion of immigrants to Western countries in the past decade are from war affected countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of war experience among adolescents and their parents and to investigate possible differences in internalizing and externalizing mental health problems between adolescents exposed and unexposed to own and parental war experience. Method The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 1,758 aadolescents were included, all with both parents born outside of Norway. Internalizing and externalizing mental health problems were measured by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 and subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. Own and parental war experience is based on adolescent self-report. Results The proportion of adolescents with own war experience was 14% with the highest prevalence in immigrants from Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. The proportion of parental war experience was 33% with Sub-Saharan Africa being highest. Adolescents reporting own war experience had higher scores for both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems compared to immigrants without war experience, but only externalizing problems reached statistically significant differences. For parental war experience there was a statistically significant relationship between parental war experience and internalizing mental health problems. The association remained significant after adjustment for parental educational level and adolescents' own war experience. Conclusion War exposure is highly prevalent among immigrants living in Oslo, Norway, both among adolescents themselves and their parents. Among immigrants to Norway, parental war experience appears to be stronger associated with mental health problems than adolescents own exposure to war experience. PMID:17081315
Kiros, G E; Hogan, D P
Civilian-targeted warfare and famine constitute two of the greatest public health challenges of our time. Both have devastated many countries in Africa. Social services, and in particular, health services, have been destroyed. Dictatorial and military governments have used the withholding of food as a political weapon to exacerbate human suffering. Under such circumstances, war and famine are expected to have catastrophic impacts on child survival. This study examines the role of parental education in reducing excess child mortality in Africa by considering Tigrai-Ethiopia, which was severely affected by famine and civil war during 1973--1991. This study uses data from the 1994 Housing and Population Census of Ethiopia and on communities' vulnerability to food crises. Child mortality levels and trends by various subgroups are estimated using indirect methods of mortality estimation techniques. A Poisson regression model is used to examine the relationship between number of children dead and parental education. Although child mortality is excessively high (about 200 deaths per 1000 births), our results show enormous variations in child mortality by parental education. Child mortality is highest among children born to illiterate mothers and illiterate fathers. Our results also show that the role of parental education in reducing child mortality is great during famine periods. In the communities devastated by war, however, its impact was significant only when the father has above primary education. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that both mother's and father's education are significantly and negatively associated with child mortality, although this effect diminishes over time if the crisis is severe and prolonged. The policy implications of our study include, obviously, reducing armed conflict, addressing food security in a timely manner, and expansion of educational opportunities.
This article discusses how the relationship between parents and their children were affected by the second world war in Germany. With fathers away from home for often as long as a decade, many children grew up without a father being physically present. The current historiography suggests that wartime separation caused a crisis in the family. But did the prolonged periods of time apart and the separate experiences of husbands at the Front and wives and children at home really destabilize family relationships? This article questions such a picture of families in ruin. It argues that family relationships were far more resilient in the face of wartime separation than has previously been credited. Indeed, it reveals the importance of children in keeping mothers and fathers focused on getting through the war. It further contends that, even from afar, fathers continued to play an important role in their children’s lives. And this in turn revises our understanding of the situation facing reuniting families.
Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus
We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....
Maughan, Andrea L; Weiss, Jonathan A
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) benefit from parent involvement in their therapy, and there is evidence that this involvement may improve parent functioning as well. We examined changes in parent mental health, parenting, and expressed emotion, following participation in a randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavior therapy for 57 children with ASD. Post-intervention, improvements occurred in the treatment group in parent depression and emotion regulation, compared to waitlisted parents. Treatment effects also occurred across all parents in depression, emotion regulation, perceptions of their children and mindful parenting. Though preliminary, these results have implications for intervention development and evaluation by focusing on parent outcomes in child treatment.
Quiocho, Alice M. L.; Daoud, Annette M.
This qualitative study was conducted to discuss and dispel commonly held myths about Latino parents' involvement in their children's education. Differences between teacher perceptions of Latino parent involvement and parents' understanding of their roles in supporting their children's education--including the learning and use of the English…
Lachance, Marie J.; Legault, Frederic; Bujold, Neree
A study of adolescents from single-mother (n=171) and two-parent (n=1,029) families showed that the former were more involved in family consumer tasks and decisions. The conceptual parenting style was associated with higher adolescent participation. The social style had greater impact on participation in single-parent families. (Contains 88…
Full Text Available In the article, the author in his memoirs ponders the military-political aspects of the presence of toxic substances in the Gulf War in 1990-1991, measured by chemists from the 1st Czechoslovak independent chemical protection battalion. The thesis provides a comprehensive look at the history of its origin, its own deployment of in the war, and access to public administrations to its members after returning from the war.
Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Hamby, Sherry; Henly, Megan
This study compares children and youth who have experienced lifetime war-related parental absence or deployment with those having no such history on a variety of victimization types, non-victimization adversity, trauma symptoms, and delinquency; and assesses whether cumulative adversity and victimization help to explain elevated emotional and behavioral problems among children of parents who have experienced war-related absence or deployment. The National Surveys of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV) are comprised of three cross-sectional telephone surveys conducted in 2008, 2011, and 2014. Data were collected on the experiences of children aged one month to seventeen years. In each survey, interviews were conducted with youth 10-17 years old and with caregivers of children 0-9 years old. The analyses use pooled data from all three U.S. nationally-representative samples (total sample size of 13,052). Lifetime parental war-related absence or deployment was a marker for elevated childhood exposure to a wide array of victimization and adversity types. Cumulative past year exposure to multiple forms of victimization and adversity fully explained elevated trauma symptoms and delinquency in this population of children. Given the breadth of victimization and adversity risk, children with histories of parental war-related absence or deployment, as well as their families, represent important target groups for broad-based prevention and interventions to reduce exposure and ameliorate consequences when it does occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hjelte, Jan; Sjöberg, Magdalena; Westerberg, Kristina; Hyvönen, Ulf
In this article the focus is on young parents' engagement process in relation to participation in parenting support groups carried out at child welfare centers. This qualitative study focuses not only on young parents' reasons for participating or not participating in parenting support groups during different phases in their engagement process, but also on examining the circumstances that may contribute to such changes. The results show that these reasons can be divided into four categories: the staff, other participants, the social network, and practical circumstances. It also appears that these reasons change between different phases of their engagement process. Primarily three different circumstances contributed to variation in parents' reasons: difficulty in predicting the value of participation, increased closeness in relationships with staff and other parents, and the specific life phase in which young parents find themselves. The results have important implications for policy makers and practitioners in their work in formulating and updating parenting support; they also indicate what may be important to focus on in the recruitment of young parents, and also what may be crucial in regard to them completing their engagement in parent support groups.
discipline starts at home”,1 our article focuses on what South African law has contributed during the past 20 years to prompt parents participate accountably with partners in public school education, and how case law has defined parent ...
Acar, Serra; Akamoğlu, Yusuf
The authors examined the extent to which practices for parent participation in early intervention/ early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) programs. The role of parents in the EI/ECSE is important and supported through the literature. The changing traditional family picture in the classrooms, the importance of evolving laws and regulations and recommended practices regarding parent participation are highlighted. The conceptual framework is based on the children, parents, and practitioners...
Dec 17, 2012 ... Key Words: Early childhood education; school-parents relations; parent ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2012 .... employed in positions with higher pay and power than those who do not ..... on Cognitive Development among East-African Pre-School Children A Flexibly.
Dotti Sani, Giulia M; Quaranta, Mario
This article studies the relationship between the political participation of parents and children in Italy, a country for which no empirical evidence on the topic is available and that has particular characteristics in terms of household dynamics and patterns of political participation. The analyses are based on a sample of 12,802 children from 14 to 19 years old and their parents, drawn from the "Multipurpose survey - Aspects of daily life", collected by the Italian National Institute of Statistics. The results show that the political participation of children is strongly associated with that of their parents; that maternal participation is of somewhat greater relevance to the participation of both sons and daughters compared to that of fathers; and that the parents' level of education is not associated with the likelihood of the child participating, net of parental participation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunity to examine records; parent participation in... discussed at a later meeting. (c) Parent involvement in placement decisions. (1) Each public agency must... placement decision may be made by a group without the involvement of a parent, if the public agency is...
Fitriah, Amaliah; Sumintono, Bambang; Subekti, Nanang Bagus; Hassan, Zainudin
Parental participation in school management is regarded as a good thing according to the rationale that local people know better and are able to be more responsive to their own needs. However, little is understood about the implications of the School Operational Support policy for community participation in education. This study investigated…
Lam, Lai Wah; Chang, Anne M; Morrissey, Jean
The introduction of unrestricted visiting hours has led to the encouragement of parents to stay with and participate in the care of their hospitalised child. In order to stay with the hospitalised child, parents have to be away from home or work, which in turn impacts on their personal and family life. However, no published study on parents' experiences of childcare participation during paediatric hospitalisation has been found for a Chinese population. This study explored Chinese parents' experiences of their participation in taking care of their hospitalised child. A qualitative exploratory design was adopted to capture parents' experiences of participation. The study was conducted in four paediatric wards of a regional acute general hospital in the New Territories, a major geographical region of Hong Kong. Nineteen parents (16 mothers and three fathers) who had a child hospitalised for more than 48 h and identified themselves as staying comparatively longer with the child than their counterpart were recruited. Data were collection by tape-recorded semi-structured interview. Four major categories that illustrated parents' experiences of participation in childcare were identified: reasons for staying with the child, rescheduling of family's routine, expectations of nurses, and comments on facility provisions. The findings highlight parents' desire for participation in caring for their hospitalised child, their unexpressed needs for communication and concern about the non-monetary costs of participation. Most parents viewed accompanying their hospitalised child as an unconditional aspect of being a parent and had a strong desire for participation. Parents' need for communication and emotional support during their participation of childcare in paediatric unit are universal. As Chinese parents are passive in seeking help, nurses should take the initiative in assessing their needs and offering them support accordingly.
Manhas, Kiran Pohar; Page, Stacey; Dodd, Shawn X; Letourneau, Nicole; Ambrose, Aleta; Cui, Xinjie; Tough, Suzanne C
Data sharing presents several challenges to the informed consent process. Unique challenges emerge when sharing pediatric or pregnancy-related data. Here, parent preferences for sharing non-biological data are examined. Groups (n = 4 groups, 18 participants) and individual interviews (n = 19 participants) were conducted with participants from two provincial, longitudinal pregnancy cohorts (AOB and APrON). Qualitative content analysis was applied to transcripts of semi-structured interviews. Participants were supportive of a broad, one-time consent model or a tiered consent model. These preferences were grounded in the perceived obligations for reciprocity and accuracy. Parents want reciprocity among participants, repositories and researchers regarding respect and trust. Furthermore, parents' worry about the interrelationships between the validity of the consent processes and secondary data use. Though parent participants agree that their research data should be made available for secondary use, they believe their consent is still required. Given their understanding that obtaining and informed consent can be challenging in the case of secondary use, parents agreed that a broad, one-time consent model was acceptable, reducing the logistical burden while maintaining respect for their contribution. This broad model also maintained participant trust in the research and secondary use of their data. The broad, one-time model also reflected parents' perspectives surrounding child involvement in the consent process. The majority of parents felt decision made during childhood were the parents responsibility and should remain in parental purview until the child reaches the age of majority.
Full Text Available Drawing on expectancy-value theory, this study examines children’s motivational attributes and parental influences on how children spend their leisure time in middle childhood and adolescence. Specifically, the study examined if parent encouragement and beliefs (i.e., perceived importance of sports and perceived child ability and child motivation (expectancy and value for sports are predictive of sports participation over the course of middle childhood and adolescence. Parent and child reports are compared using data from the Childhood and Beyond (CAB longitudinal study. Findings reveal that parent beliefs and encouragement and child motivation were positively associated with sports participation in middle childhood. Both parental influences and children’s motivation measured in middle childhood were predictive of time spent participating in adolescence. However, only parent influences were predictive of whether the child continued to participate in sports in adolescence.
Feldman, Ruth; Vengrober, Adva; Eidelman-Rothman, Moranne; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna
The current study examined biomarkers of stress in war-exposed young children and addressed maternal and child factors that may correlate with children's stress response. Participants were 232 Israeli children aged 1.5-5 years, including 148 children exposed to continuous war. Similarly, 56 were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 92 were defined as exposed-no-PTSD. Child cortisol (CT) and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), biomarkers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary arms of the stress response, were measured at baseline, following challenge, and at recovery. Maternal CT and sAA, PTSD symptoms, and reciprocal parenting, and child negative emotionality and regulatory strategies were assessed. Differences between war-exposed children and controls emerged, but these were related to child PTSD status. Children with PTSD exhibited consistently low CT and sAA, exposed-no-PTSD displayed consistently high CT and sAA, and controls showed increase in CT following challenge and decrease at recovery and low sAA. Exposed children showed higher negative emotionality; however, whereas exposed-no-PTSD children employed comfort-seeking strategies, children with PTSD used withdrawal. Predictors of child CT included maternal CT, PTSD symptoms, low reciprocity, and negative emotionality. Findings suggest that high physiological arousal combined with approach strategies may be associated with greater resilience in the context of early trauma.
DaLomba, Elaina; Baxter, Mary Frances; Fingerhut, Patricia; O'Donnell, Anne
Occupational therapists treat children with sensory processing and behavioral concerns, however, little information exists on how these issues affect parent participation. This pilot study examined the sensory processing and behaviors of toddlers with developmental delays and correlated these with parents' perceived ability to participate in…
Boomsma, D.I.; van den Bree, M.B.; Orlebeke, J.F.; Molenaar, P.C.M.
A model to analyze resemblances of twins and parents using LISREL is outlined and applied to sports participation and heart-rate data. Sports participation and heart rate were measured in 44 monozygotic and 46 dizygotic adolescent twin pairs and in their parents. Genetic factors influence variation
Wieling, Elizabeth; Mehus, Christopher; Yumbul, Cigdem; Möllerherm, Julia; Ertl, Verena; Laura, Achan; Forgatch, Marion; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia
In this article, we discuss the successful implementation of an adapted evidence-based parenting intervention for families affected by two decades of war in Northern Uganda. The adaptation and adoption of such interventions to support mental health and family functioning is widely endorsed by prevention scientists and considered a priority in global mental health. The preparation and early adoption phases of engaging with a highly vulnerable community affected by war trauma are documented in this paper along with a discussion of the steps taken to adapt a parenting intervention for cultural and contextual fit. This study is a component of an overall program of research aimed at reducing the long-term negative effects of war on parenting practices and childhood outcomes, which have considerable implications for preventing mental, neurological, and substance-use disorders. The processes described here cover a 4-year period culminating in the implementation of the nine-session Enhancing Family Connection intervention piloted with a group of 14 mothers. The lessons in cultural adaptation have been valuable and the feasibility results promising for further testing the intervention. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Despite the ongoing controversy regarding which types of stressors or resources contribute to psychological distress, there has been little research examining the relationship between war trauma, normative stressors, family resources for management and psychopathology. This study investigated the differences between mothers and fathers in psychological distress, normative stressors and war atrocities experienced, and family's resources for management. It was hypothesized that a combination of risk variables and protective variables would be predictive of psychological distress in parents. Questionnaires were used with 205 Palestinian parents from Gaza Strip. Mothers had more psychiatric disorders than did fathers. Although, mothers and fathers were exposed to comparable levels of normative stressors, mothers concerns about intrafamily strains, and family legal violations were greater than they were for fathers. Results revealed that fathers possess a larger repertoire of resources for management when compared to mothers reflected in esteem and communication, mastery and health, extended family social support and financial well-being. However, mastery and health seem to buffer the effect of war traumas and normative stressors on neuroticism in both parents. The different patterns of predictor-outcome relations have practical as well as theoretical implications.
Greenberg, Rachel G; Gamel, Breck; Bloom, Diane; Bradley, John; Jafri, Hasan S; Hinton, Denise; Nambiar, Sumathi; Wheeler, Chris; Tiernan, Rosemary; Smith, P Brian; Roberts, Jamie; Benjamin, Daniel K
Enrollment of children into pediatric clinical trials remains challenging. More effective strategies to improve recruitment of children into trials are needed. This study used in-depth qualitative interviews with parents who were approached to enroll their children in a clinical trial in order to gain an understanding of the barriers to pediatric clinical trial participation. Twenty-four parents whose children had been offered the opportunity to participate in a clinical trial were interviewed: 19 whose children had participated in at least 1 clinical trial and 5 who had declined participation in any trial. Each study aspect, from the initial explanation of the study to the end of the study, can affect the willingness of parents to consent to the proposed study and future studies. Establishing trust, appropriate timing, a transparent discussion of risks and benefits oriented to the layperson, and providing motivation for children to participate were key factors that impacted parents' decisions. In order for clinical trial accrual to be successful, parents' priorities and considerations must be a central focus, beginning with initial trial design. The recommendations from the parents who participated in this study can be used to support budget allocations that ensure adequate training of study staff and improved staffing on nights and weekends. Studies of parent responses in outpatient settings and additional inpatient settings will provide valuable information on the consent process from the child's and parent's perspectives. Further studies are needed to explore whether implementation of such strategies will result in improved recruitment for pediatric clinical trials.
Full Text Available In this article we discuss cross-cultural similarities and variations in parents' engagement in the everyday activities in which their preschool-age children engage, focusing on mothers' and fathers' presence in the same setting as their children, the impact of their presence on the types of activities in which the children engaged, and the extent of mothers' and fathers' involvement with their children in those activities. The data were gathered from different societies - the United States, Korea, Russia, Estonia, and Kenya. They reveal that the children were involved primarily in play (more than in lessons, work, or conversation, and this was unaffected by the presence of either parent. However, parents were relatively less likely to be involved in their children's play than in the other activities. Mothers, not surprisingly, were more likely to be found in the same setting as their children and, even when taking account of their greater presence, were more likely to be involved with their children than were fathers.
Full Text Available In this article we discuss cross-cultural similarities and variations in parents' engagement in the everyday activities in which their preschool-age children engage, focusing on mothers' and fathers' presence in the same setting as their children, the impact of their presence on the types of activities in which the children engaged, and the extent of mothers' and fathers' involvement with their children in those activities. The data were gathered from different societies - the United States, Korea, Russia, Estonia, and Kenya. They reveal that the children were involved primarily in play (more than in lessons, work, or conversation, and this was unaffected by the presence of either parent. However, parents were relatively less likely to be involved in their children's play than in the other activities. Mothers, not surprisingly, were more likely to be found in the same setting as their children and, even when taking account of their greater presence, were more likely to be involved with their children than were fathers.
Toftegaard-Støckel, J; Nielsen, G A; Ibsen, B; Andersen, L B
Despite the well-documented health effects of physical activity, few studies focus on the correlates of leisure-time sports and exercise participation. The present study examined correlations between adolescent sports participation and demographic factors, socioeconomic status (SES) and sociocultural factors. A school-based cross-sectional cluster sample including 6356 Danish fifth- and ninth-grade adolescents from four municipalities were included. Age (younger) and gender (boy) were associated with adolescents' sports participation. Girls were half as likely [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.55] to participate in sports than boys. Adolescents were more likely to participate in sports if they perceived their parents as active in exercise or sports. Adolescents with one or two unemployed parents were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.62-0.89) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.56-1.00), respectively, less likely to participate in sports than adolescents with two employed parents. In a gender-stratified analysis, parents' occupational status was only a predictor of sports participation in girls. Differences between municipalities in adolescents' sports participation remained significant when controlled for individual factors such as gender, age, parents' background or parents' physical activity. The association between sociocultural and SES was stronger for girls than boys. In conclusion, demographics, SES and sociocultural factors were the best determinants of adolescent sport participation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available Aim: To determine views of nurses, who worked at pediatric clinics, about parent participation in the care of hospitalized children. Methods: This descriptive research was performed with 155 nurses who worked at pediatric clinics of four hospitals located in the city center of Konya, in March-May, 2014. Data were collected using a questionaire which was developed according to literature. Data were evaluated in terms of number, percentage, mean, standard deviation via SPSS 20 programme. Results: In study, 81.9% of nurses agreed to views about parent participation can result reduce fear and anxiety of child" and "facilitation child's coping with painful practices". It was found that most of nurses agreed it provides that parents know everything about child's care and treatment (74.8% and professional communication between nurses and families can return social communication style" (81.3. Gender of parents, comunication style, education levels, knowing caring process of children, children's disease process, age and doctor's order about parent participation were determined effective factors in parent participation. Conclusion: It was found that nurses views about effect of parent participation on children were mostly positive but they also had negative views about its effects on parents and nursing. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(4.000: 355-364
Toftegaard-Støckel, J; Nielsen, G A; Ibsen, B
.56-1.00), respectively, less likely to participate in sports than adolescents with two employed parents. In a gender-stratified analysis, parents' occupational status was only a predictor of sports participation in girls. Differences between municipalities in adolescents' sports participation remained significant when......) and sociocultural factors. A school-based cross-sectional cluster sample including 6356 Danish fifth- and ninth-grade adolescents from four municipalities were included. Age (younger) and gender (boy) were associated with adolescents' sports participation. Girls were half as likely [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 95...... controlled for individual factors such as gender, age, parents' background or parents' physical activity. The association between sociocultural and SES was stronger for girls than boys. In conclusion, demographics, SES and sociocultural factors were the best determinants of adolescent sport participation....
Pinkham, J R
The role of the parent during their child's dental experience, in contemporary society, has changed during the past decade and should be addressed by pediatric dentists. Included in this matter are issues regarding risk management and practice management. Behavioral pediatric dentistry is in flux, much like the world that it serves; there appear to be schisms within the profession regarding one aspect of this: the presence of parents in the dental operatory. Presented here is an analysis of the paradigm-shifts in society since World War II, when a postfigurative parenting strategy was in vogue. An explication of noted anthropologist Margaret Mead's descriptions of this and two subsequent parenting styles, including configurative (or transitional) and prefigurative (contemporary) are presented. They are analyzed in terms of parental attitudes concerning trusting their child to authority figures, including the dental clinician. This emerging protective instinct is termed "social hypertrophy", based on social biologist Edward O. Wilson's work. Dentists are encouraged to understand parental attitudes and avoid unnecessary conflict.
Full Text Available The article provides evidence on participation of assistants who worked at the Department of Human Anatomy of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky and took part in the Great Patriotic War.
Yager, Phoebe H; Clark, Maureen; Cummings, Brian M; Noviski, Natan
To evaluate feasibility and impact of telemedicine for remote parent participation in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) rounds when parents are unable to be present at their child's bedside. Parents of patients admitted to a 14-bed PICU were approached, and those unable to attend rounds were eligible subjects. Nurse and physician caregivers were also surveyed. Parents received an iPad (Apple Inc, Cupertino, California) with an application enabling audio-video connectivity with the care team. At a predetermined time for bedside rounds with the PICU team, parents entered a virtual meeting room to participate. Following each telemedicine encounter, participants (parent, physician, nurse) completed a brief survey rating satisfaction (0?=?not satisfied, 10?=?completely satisfied) and disruption (0?=?no disruption at all, 10?=?very disruptive). A total of 153 surveys were completed following 51 telemedicine encounters involving 13 patients. Parents of enrolled patients cited work demands (62%), care for other dependents (46%), and transportation difficulties (31%) as reasons for study participation. The median levels of satisfaction and disruption were 10 (range 5-10) and 0 (range 0-5), respectively. All parents reported that telemedicine encounters had a positive effect on their level of reassurance regarding their child's care and improved communication with the care team. This proof-of-concept study indicates that remote parent participation in PICU rounds is feasible, enhances parent-provider communication, and offers parents reassurance. Providers reported a high level of satisfaction with minimal disruption. Technological advancements to streamline teleconferencing workflow are needed to ensure program sustainability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Siebes, R. C.; Wijnroks, L.; Ketelaar, M.; van Schie, P. E. M.; Gorter, J. W.; Vermeer, A.
Aim The importance of family-centred care and services has been increasingly emphasized in paediatric rehabilitation. One aspect of family-centred care is parent involvement in their child's treatment. The aims of this study were (1) to describe how, and to what extent parents are involved in the
Santvoort, F. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.
In the Netherlands, preventive support groups are offered to children of mentally ill parents. Given the variety of parental diagnoses it might be questionable if offering a standardized program for all these children is the most effective response. While no overall knowledge exists about the type
Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Losinski, Mickey
Parental participation is a crucial component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. When developing students' Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), school-based teams must place a high priority on involving students' parents in a collaborative effort to develop their children's educational programs and determine their placements.…
Tamzarian, Arpi; Menzies, Holly M.; Ricci, Leila
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004) mandates that schools facilitate parent participation in planning the Individual Education Program (IEP). However, culturally and linguistically diverse parents are less likely to feel fully included in the IEP process. In this article we examine three sources of cross-cultural…
Dumas, Jean E.; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Moreland, Angela D.
Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to the process of engagement in preventive parenting groups, we tested the ability of family and child measures to predict intent to enroll, enrollment, attendance, and quality of participation in PACE (Parenting Our Children to Excellence). PACE is a prevention trial testing the efficacy of a…
Objectives: Using baseline and second wave data, the study evaluated the impact of child savings accounts participation on parenting stress, personal mastery, and economic strain with N = 381 lower income parents who decided to join and those who did not join in a child development savings account program. Methods: Structural equation modeling for…
Ryles, Ruby; Bell, Edward
Seventy-three children with visual impairments aged 2-10 and their parents participated in a project that examined the children's interest in and exploration of tactile graphics. The parents reported that the children's interest in and conceptual understanding of the project's tactile workbook were high and that the children explored the…
Divorce is one of the most stressful events a child or adult might ever experience. Enhancing family functioning is a key intended outcome in designing family leisure programmes aimed at developing life-enhancing attitudes and relationships. Nonetheless, the actual effects on families participating in such programmes, ...
Hornby, Jenny; Bobick, Bryna
In this article, we discuss a museum program for teens located in an urban environment. The participants were high school students from public, private, religious and home schools. The program allowed learning to occur in an informal setting and united teens from one city through a common interest in visual art. Also, it was an opportunity for the…
Read, Kate; Fernandez, Conrad Vincent; Gao, Jun; Strahlendorf, Caron; Moghrabi, Albert; Pentz, Rebecca Davis; Barfield, Raymond Carlton; Baker, Justin Nathaniel; Santor, Darcy; Weijer, Charles; Kodish, Eric
Low rates of participation of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) in clinical oncology trials may contribute to poorer outcomes. Factors that influence the decision of AYAs to participate in health research and whether these factors are different from those that affect the participation of parents of children with cancer. This is a secondary analysis of data from validated questionnaires provided to adolescents (>12 years old) diagnosed with cancer and parents of children with cancer at 3 sites in Canada (Halifax, Vancouver, and Montreal) and 2 in the United States (Atlanta, GA, and Memphis, TN). Respondents reported their own research participation and cited factors that would influence their own decision to participate in, or to provide parental authorization for their child to participate in health research. Completed questionnaire rates for AYAs and parents were 86 (46.5%) of 185 and 409 (65.2%) of 627, respectively. AYAs (n = 86 [67%]) and parents (n = 409 [85%]) cited that they would participate in research because it would help others. AYAs perceived pressure by their family and friends (16%) and their physician (19%). Having too much to think about at the time of accrual was an impediment to both groups (36% AYAs and 47% parents). The main deterrent for AYAs was that research would take up too much time (45%). Nonwhite parents (7 of 56 [12.5%]) were more apt to decline than white parents (12 of 32 [3.7%]; P < .01). AYAs identified time commitment and having too much to think about as significant impediments to research participation. Addressing these barriers by minimizing time requirements and further supporting decision-making may improve informed consent and impact on enrollment in trials.
Rachel G. Greenberg
In order for clinical trial accrual to be successful, parents' priorities and considerations must be a central focus, beginning with initial trial design. The recommendations from the parents who participated in this study can be used to support budget allocations that ensure adequate training of study staff and improved staffing on nights and weekends. Studies of parent responses in outpatient settings and additional inpatient settings will provide valuable information on the consent process from the child's and parent's perspectives. Further studies are needed to explore whether implementation of such strategies will result in improved recruitment for pediatric clinical trials.
Fleming, Charles B; Mason, W Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P; Thompson, Ronald W; Fernandez, Kate; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Oats, Robert G
Engaging and retaining participants are crucial to achieving adequate implementation of parenting interventions designed to prevent problem behaviors among children and adolescents. This study examined predictors of engagement and retention in a group-based family intervention across two versions of the program: a standard version requiring only parent attendance for six sessions and an adapted version with two additional sessions that required attendance by the son or daughter. Families included a parent and an eighth grader who attended one of five high-poverty schools in an urban Pacific Northwest school district. The adapted version of the intervention had a higher rate of engagement than the standard version, a difference that was statistically significant after adjusting for other variables assessed at enrollment in the study. Higher household income and parent education, younger student age, and poorer affective quality in the parent-child relationship predicted greater likelihood of initial attendance. In the adapted version of the intervention, parents of boys were more likely to engage with the program than those of girls. The variables considered did not strongly predict retention, although retention was higher among parents of boys. Retention did not significantly differ between conditions. Asking for child attendance at workshops may have increased engagement in the intervention, while findings for other predictors of attendance point to the need for added efforts to recruit families who have less socioeconomic resources, as well as families who perceive they have less need for services.
McNeilly, P; Macdonald, G; Kelly, B
There is widespread acceptance that parents should be fully involved in decisions about their son or daughter's health and social care. This is reflected in partnership models of practice as well as local and national policy across the United Kingdom. Previous research indicates that parents' experiences of decision making with professionals are mixed. The research reported here aimed to explore parents' experiences of participating in decisions made with professionals about their disabled son or daughter's care. This research used mixed methods including survey methodology and qualitative in depth interviews. The research was conducted in one Trust in Northern Ireland. Participants were 77 parents of children and young people with a range of impairments aged between 3 and 28 years. Three themes emerged from the data: taking the lead, not knowing, and getting the balance right. Parents wanted to be involved in all aspects of decision making. Although parents reported many examples of good practice, there were also times when they did not feel listened to or did not have enough information to inform decisions. Parents in this research recounted positive as well as negative experiences. Parents took on a protective role when decisions were made about their son or daughter and at times, reported the need to "fight" for their child. The provision of information remains problematic for these families, and at times, this created a barrier to parents' participation in decision making. Partnership approaches to care that recognize parents' expertise are particularly important to parents when decisions are made with professionals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Diemer, Matthew A
This study examines the roles of parental political socialization and the moral commitment to change social inequalities in predicting marginalized youths' (defined here as lower-SES youth of color) political participation. These issues are examined by applying structural equation modeling to a longitudinal panel of youth. Because tests of measurement invariance suggested racial/ethnic heterogeneity, the structural model was fit separately for three racial/ethnic groups. For each group, parental political socialization: discussion predicted youths' commitment to produce social change and for two groups, longitudinally predicted political participation. This study contributes to the literature by examining civic/political participation among disparate racial/ethnic groups, addresses an open scholarly question (whether youths' commitment to create social change predicts their "traditional" participation), and emphasizes parents' role in fostering marginalized youths' civic and political participation.
Baruch, G K; Barnett, R C
The relation of fathers' participation in family work (child care and home chores) to parents' role strain and well-being was examined in an interview study of 160 Caucasian middle-class fathers and mothers of kindergarten and fourth-grade children. In half of the families, mothers were employed. Four forms of paternal participation were examined. Role-strain items referred to immediate and specific problems such as time and energy constraints and role conflicts. Well-being measures assessed self-esteem, life satisfaction, and quality of experience in the parental and marital roles. Regression analyses, carried out separately for fathers and for mothers, indicated that, contrary to expectation, when the level of fathers' participation was controlled maternal employment did not condition the relation between participation and the outcome variables. Findings varied for the different forms of participation. For fathers, higher levels of participation were associated with feeling more involved and competent as a parent and with being more critical of wives' patterns and parenting. For mothers, those whose husbands were more participant praised their husbands' parenting, but they were lower in life satisfaction and were more self-critical about their balance of work and family responsibilities.
Ott, Mary A; Crawley, Francis P; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Neubauer, David; Dubin, Gary; Poplazarova, Tatjana; Begg, Norman; Rosenthal, Susan L
Children of minor parents are under-represented in clinical trials. This is largely because of the ethical, legal, and regulatory complexities in the enrolment, consent, and appropriate access of children of minor parents to clinical research. Using a case-based approach, we examine appropriate access of children of minor parents in an international vaccine trial. We first consider the scientific justification for inclusion of children of minor parents in a vaccine trial. Laws and regulations governing consent generally do not address the issue of minor parents. In their absence, local community and cultural contexts may influence consent processes. Rights of the minor parent include dignity in their role as a parent and respect for their decision-making capacity in that role. Rights of the child include the right to have decisions made in their best interest and the right to the highest attainable standard of health. Children of minor parents may have vulnerabilities related to the age of their parent, such as increased rates of poverty, that have implications for consent. Neuroscience research suggests that, by age 12-14 years, minors have adult-level capacity to make research decisions in situations with low emotion and low distraction. We conclude with a set of recommendations based on these findings to facilitate appropriate access and equity related to the participation of children of minor parents in clinical research.
Stoltz, Sabine; Van Londen, Monique; Dekovic, Maja
In this study, we examined whether a booster parent training, offered after a cognitive behavioural child intervention, is effective in reduction of aggressive behaviour and changes in parenting. A second aim was to identify parent and child characteristics that influence parental participation.
Deković, M.; Asscher, J.J.; Hermanns, J.; Reitz, E.; Prinzie, P.; van den Akker, A.L.
The present study aimed to (1) determine the long-term effectiveness of Home-Start, a preventive parenting program, and (2) test the hypothesis that changes in maternal sense of competence mediate the program's effects. Participants were 124 mothers (n = 66 intervention, n = 58 comparison). Four
Aarthun, Antje; Akerjordet, Kristin
To describe and synthesize previous research on parents' perceptions of their participation in decision making in child health-care services. Health policy in the area of user involvement emphasizes parent participation in decision-making (DM), thus ensuring that services are provided in accordance with their child's needs and enhancing parents' control over their child's health-care services. A systematic literature search, covering the period January 2000 to February 2011, found 18 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The analysis process involved data extraction, reduction, comparison and synthesizing. Three themes emerged: (1) relational factors and interdependence, (2) personal factors and attitudes and (3) organisational factors. Parents highlighted the importance of the parent-health professional relationship, professionals' competence and the possibility of varying the degree of participation in decision making. Challenges involved asymmetry in authority and power, professionals' attitudes and competence and organisational shortcomings in health-care services. Health professionals need to become more aware of their critical role and responsibility in involving parents in DM. Health professionals' attitudes and competence can be improved by knowledge of user involvement and research and facilitating the inclusion of parents in decision making by influencing the culture, routines and resources in the health service. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tully, Lucy A; Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Collins, Daniel A J; Mairet, Kathleen S; Black, Nicola; Kimonis, Eva R; Hawes, David J; Moul, Caroline; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Frick, Paul J; Anderson, Vicki; Dadds, Mark R
Early childhood interventions can have both immediate and long-term positive effects on cognitive, behavioural, health and education outcomes. Fathers are underrepresented in interventions focusing on the well-being of children. However, father participation may be critical for intervention effectiveness, especially for parenting interventions for child externalising problems. To date, there has been very little research conducted to understand the low rates of father participation and to facilitate the development of interventions to meet the needs of fathers. This study examined fathers' experiences of, and preferences for, parenting interventions as well as perceptions of barriers to participation. It also examined how these factors were associated with child externalising behaviour problems, and explored the predictors of participation in parenting interventions. A community sample of 1001 fathers of children aged 2-16 years completed an online survey about experiences with parenting interventions, perceived barriers to participation, the importance of different factors in their decision to attend, and preferred content and delivery methods. They also completed ratings of their child's behaviour using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Overall, 15% of fathers had participated in a parenting intervention or treatment for child behaviour, with significantly higher rates of participation for fathers of children with high versus low levels of externalising problems. Fathers rated understanding what is involved in the program and knowing that the facilitator is trained as the two most important factors in their decision to participate. There were several barriers to participation that fathers of children with high-level externalising problems were more likely to endorse, across practical barriers and help-seeking attitudes, compared to fathers of children with low-level externalising problems. Almost two-thirds of fathers of children with high
Lucy A. Tully
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood interventions can have both immediate and long-term positive effects on cognitive, behavioural, health and education outcomes. Fathers are underrepresented in interventions focusing on the well-being of children. However, father participation may be critical for intervention effectiveness, especially for parenting interventions for child externalising problems. To date, there has been very little research conducted to understand the low rates of father participation and to facilitate the development of interventions to meet the needs of fathers. This study examined fathers’ experiences of, and preferences for, parenting interventions as well as perceptions of barriers to participation. It also examined how these factors were associated with child externalising behaviour problems, and explored the predictors of participation in parenting interventions. Methods A community sample of 1001 fathers of children aged 2–16 years completed an online survey about experiences with parenting interventions, perceived barriers to participation, the importance of different factors in their decision to attend, and preferred content and delivery methods. They also completed ratings of their child’s behaviour using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Overall, 15% of fathers had participated in a parenting intervention or treatment for child behaviour, with significantly higher rates of participation for fathers of children with high versus low levels of externalising problems. Fathers rated understanding what is involved in the program and knowing that the facilitator is trained as the two most important factors in their decision to participate. There were several barriers to participation that fathers of children with high-level externalising problems were more likely to endorse, across practical barriers and help-seeking attitudes, compared to fathers of children with low-level externalising problems
Oesterle, Sabrina; Epstein, Marina; Haggerty, Kevin P; Moreno, Megan A
Despite strong evidence that family programs are effective in preventing adolescent substance use, recruiting parents to participate in such programs remains a persistent challenge. This study explored the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit parents of middle school students to a self-directed family program to prevent adolescent drug use. The study used paid Facebook ads aiming to recruit 100 parents in Washington and Colorado using marijuana- or parenting-focused messages. All ad-recruited parents were also invited to refer others in order to compare Facebook recruitment to web-based respondent-driven sampling. Despite offering a $15 incentive for each successfully referred participant, the majority of the screened (70.4%) and eligible (65.1%) parents were recruited through Facebook ads. Yet, eligibility and consent rates were significantly higher among referred (76.6 and 57.3%, respectively) than Facebook-recruited parents (60.0 and 36.6%, respectively). Click-through rates on Facebook were higher for marijuana-focused than parenting-focused ads (0.72 and 0.65%, respectively). The final sample (54% Facebook-recruited) consisted of 103 demographically homogeneous parents (female, educated, non-Hispanic White, and mostly from Washington). Although Facebook was an effective and efficient method to recruit parents to a study with equal to better cost-effectiveness than traditional recruitment strategies, the promise of social media to reach a diverse population was not realized. Additional approaches to Facebook recruitment are needed to reach diverse samples in real-world settings and increase public health impact of family programs.
Fabiane de Amorim Almeida
Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the limitations faced by the hemophiliac child, according to his/her parents, and how they deal with these limitations, and to verify how parents approach the problem of hemophilia with the child as well as their strategies for disciplining that child and their nonhemophiliac children. Methods: An exploratory descriptive research study with a quantitative approach carried out with 20 parents of hemophiliac children seen at the ambulatory of a medium size public hospital in the city of São Paulo. The data were collected by means of a structured interview, using a form with open-ended and closed questions. Rresults: All the parents (20; 100% reported talking to their children about hemophilia, especially as to the definition of the disease (19; 46,35% and the activities that should be avoided (eight; 19.50%. Most of them (17; 85% also reported talking about hemophilia with their other children. Eighteen parents (90% restricted participation in sports and physical activities for their hemophiliac child, including at school: 11 (55% prohibit participation in physical activities, and 12 (60% ban extracurricular activities. All the parents also reported raising the subject of their child’s hemophilia with the educational professionals at their child’s school. As to discipline, half of them (ten; 50% use different strategies for disciplining their hemophiliac and non-hemophiliac children. Cconclusions: All the parents are concerned with discussing the subject of hemophilia with the child, his/her siblings, and teachers at school, imposing limitations especially as to participation in sports and/or physical activities. Differences were noted as to the strategies used by the parents for the discipline of their hemophiliac and non-hemophiliac children.
Lester, Patricia; Peterson, Kris; Reeves, James; Knauss, Larry; Glover, Dorie; Mogil, Catherine; Duan, Naihua; Saltzman, William; Pynoos, Robert; Wilt, Katherine; Beardslee, William
Objective: Given the growing number of military service members with families and the multiple combat deployments characterizing current war time duties, the impact of deployments on military children requires clarification. Behavioral and emotional adjustment problems were examined in children (aged 6 through 12) of an active duty Army or Marine…
Hoberman, Alejandro; Shaikh, Nader; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Haralam, Mary Ann; Kearney, Diana H; Colborn, D Kathleen; Kienholz, Michelle L; Wang, Li; Bunker, Clareann H; Keren, Ron; Carpenter, Myra A; Greenfield, Saul P; Pohl, Hans G; Mathews, Ranjiv; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Chesney, Russell W
A child's health, positive perceptions of the research team and consent process, and altruistic motives play significant roles in the decision-making process for parents who consent for their child to enroll in clinical research. This study identified that nonconsenting parents were better educated, had private insurance, showed lower levels of altruism, and less understanding of study design. To determine the factors associated with parental consent for their child's participation in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Cross-sectional survey conducted from July 2008 to May 2011. The survey was an ancillary study to the Randomized Intervention for Children with VesicoUreteral Reflux Study. Seven children's hospitals participating in a randomized trial evaluating management of children with vesicoureteral reflux. Parents asked to provide consent for their child's participation in the randomized trial were invited to complete an anonymous online survey about factors influencing their decision. A total of 120 of the 271 (44%) invited completed the survey; 58 of 125 (46%) who had provided consent and 62 of 144 (43%) who had declined consent completed the survey. A 60-question survey examining child, parent, and study characteristics; parental perception of the study; understanding of the design; external influences; and decision-making process. RESULTS Having graduated from college and private health insurance were associated with a lower likelihood of providing consent. Parents who perceived the trial as having a low degree of risk, resulting in greater benefit to their child and other children, causing little interference with standard care, or exhibiting potential for enhanced care, or who perceived the researcher as professional were significantly more likely to consent to participate. Higher levels of understanding of the randomization process, blinding, and right to withdraw were significantly positively associated with consent to participate. CONCLUSIONS AND
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are the ones who decide whether or not to participate in parent focused prevention trials. Their decisions may be affected by internal factors (e.g., personality, attitudes, sociodemographic characteristics or external barriers. Some of these barriers are study-related and others are intervention-related. Internal as well as external barriers are especially important at the screening stage, which aims to identify children and families at risk and for whom the indicated prevention programs are designed. Few studies have reported their screening procedure in detail or analyzed differences between participants and dropouts or predictors of dropout. Rates of participation in prevention programs are also of interest and are an important contributor to the efficacy of a prevention procedure. Methods In this study, we analyzed the process of parent recruitment within an efficacy study of the indicated Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP. We determined the retention rate at each step of the study, and examined differences between participants and dropouts/decliners. Predictors of dropout at each step were identified using logistic regression. Results Retention rates at the different steps during the course of the trial from screening to participation in the training ranged from 63.8% (pre-test to 81.1% (participation in more than 50% of the training sessions. Parents who dropped out of the study were characterized by having a child with lower symptom intensity by parent rating but higher ratings by teachers in most cases. Low socioeconomic status and related variables were also identified as predictors of dropout in the screening (first step and for training intensity (last step. Conclusions Special attention should be paid to families at increased risk for non-participation when implementing the prevention program in routine care settings. Trial Registration ISRCTN12686222
Swartling, U; Helgesson, G; Hansson, M G; Ludvigsson, J
Based on extensive questionnaire data, this paper focuses on parents' views about children's right to decide about participation in research. The data originates from 4000 families participating in a longitudinal prospective screening as 1997. Although current regulations and recommendations underline that children should have influence over their participation, many parents in this study disagree. Most (66%) were positive providing information to the child about relevant aspects of the study. However, responding parents were split about whether or not children should at some point be allowed decisional authority when participating in research: 41.6% of the parents reported being against or unsure. Those who responded positively believed that children should be allowed to decide about blood-sampling procedures (70%), but to a less extent about participation (48.5%), analyses of samples (19.7%) and biological bank storage (15.4%). That as many as possible should remain in the study, and that children do not have the competence to understand the consequences for research was strongly stressed by respondents who do not think children should have a right to decide. When asked what interests they consider most important in paediatric research, child autonomy and decision-making was ranked lowest. We discuss the implications of these findings.
Salari, Raziye; Filus, Ania
Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, we studied factors related to parental intention to participate in parenting programs and examined the moderating effects of parent gender on these factors. Participants were a community sample of 290 mothers and 290 fathers of 5- to 10-year-old children. Parents completed a set of questionnaires assessing child emotional and behavioral difficulties and the HBM constructs concerning perceived program benefits and barriers, percei...
Elda De Waal
Full Text Available Bearing in mind the previous Gauteng Education MEC’s recent indication that “discipline starts at home”, our article focuses on what South African law has contributed during the past 20 years to prompt parents participate accountably with partners in public school education, and how case law has defined parent accountability in this regard. Examples of relevant legislation would be those which assign the ultimate responsibility for learner conduct to parents, and call for a harmonious relationship between parents and educators. In line with the South African Schools Act’s requiring that parents partner with the State, educators and learners in accepting responsibility for their children’s schooling, this article highlights the need for a shared vision of the way forward. The importance of having such a shared vision to bring these disparate stakeholders’ aspirations together around the common goal, namely to develop all learners’ talents and capabilities, is underscored. The authors argue that factors such as reciprocal blame and a lack of cooperation are among the problems that hamper the full realisation in practice of the legislative provisions pertaining to parental accountability. Our article identifies solutions to this challenge, such as parents’ setting upright examples by behaving in an accountable manner, and recommendations, such as empowering parents for their roles as partners in education
Gammelgaard, A; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Bisgaard, H
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the motivations and perceptions of parents on the participation of their infants and young children in a comprehensive and invasive clinical research study. METHODS: Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 mothers with asthma whose infants and young...... children were participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using the template analysis method. RESULTS: Parents were motivated by altruism and by the opportunity to get their child checked regularly by medical experts...... to prevent the possible development of asthma. Parents found it very important that their children enjoyed their visits to the research clinic, and that they could withdraw from the study if their child started responding negatively to those visits. No apparent difference was seen in the attitude between...
Lee, Sook-Jung; Chae, Young-Gil
This study analyzed the survey data from 566 Korean children between the ages of 10 and 15 to examine the role of Internet literacy and parental mediation in solving the dilemma of children's Internet use. According to the findings, children's online participation was associated with increased exposure to online risks. The association was moderated by Internet skills and parental restrictive mediation; that is, for children with a high level of Internet skills and for children who received more restrictive mediation, the positive association between online participation and online risks weakened, but was still significant. The limited roles of Internet skills and parental restrictive mediation in children's Internet use were discussed in the context of media education.
Pagano-Therrien, Jesica; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan
The aims of this qualitative descriptive study were to describe how past experiences with research (including communication, information, values, and support) may contribute to research fatigue among youth and parents of youth with HIV, cystic fibrosis, and Type 1 diabetes. Eighteen parents and youth were purposively recruited from outpatient subspecialty clinics at a major academic medical center. They took part in qualitative interviews and completed a demographics form and the Decisional Conflict Scale. Youth participants also completed the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory. Two major themes emerged: Blurred Lines and Hope for the Future. Research fatigue was not found in this sample. Results point to challenges with informed consent in settings where research and clinical care are integrated and suggest that protective factors allow for continued participation without excess burden on youth and parents. Strategies to minimize research fatigue and support engagement in research are offered. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cloud, Kate; And Others
The Nuclear Education Project (NEP), a group of five women concerned about parenting in a nuclear age, developed this guide to help parents and others develop a sense of hope and promote a greater involvement in the democratic political process. Chapter I, "The Heart of the Matter," presents sections on answering possible questions children might…
Parental involvement is a crucial force in children’s development, learning and success at school and in life . Participation, defined by the World Health Organization as ‘a person’s involvement in life situations’  for children means involvement in everyday activities, such as recreational,
Witting, M.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Sakkers, R.J.B.; Fleuren, M.A.H.; IJzerman, M.J.
Ultrasound screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is an innovation in preventive child health care in the Netherlands. Parental participation in the screening will be essential for the success of implementation of the screening. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether
Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Sluijs, E.M.F. van
RATIONALE: Few studies have examined determinants of physical activity in patients with chronic illnesses, like asthma. The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting were associated with changes in sport participation of adolescents with
.... From the constitutional viewpoint, this lack of friendly environment arises from the fact that the Constitution shares war powers between the presidency and the Congress, producing the conflict...
Dippel, Elizabeth A; Mechels, Keegan B; Griese, Emily R; Laufmann, Rachel N; Weimer, Jill M
Compared to national numbers, South Dakota has a higher proportion of students interested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Interest in science can be influenced by exposure to science through formal and informal learning. Informal science activities (including exposures and participation) have been found to elicit higher levels of interest in science, likely impacting one's attitude towards science overall. The current study goal is to better understand the levels and relationships of attitude, exposure, and participation in science that were present among students and parents attending a free science festival. The project collected survey data from 65 students and 79 parents attending a science festival ranging from age 6 to 65. Informal science participation is significantly related to science attitudes in students and informal science exposure is not. No relationship was found for parents between science attitudes and participation. Students who indicated high levels of informal science participation (i.e., reading science-themed books) were positively related to their attitudes regarding science. However, informal science exposures, such as attending the zoo or independently visiting a science lab, was not significantly associated with positive attitudes towards science.
Pineda, Roberta; Bender, Joy; Hall, Bailey; Shabosky, Lisa; Annecca, Anna; Smith, Joan
To 1) define predictors of parent presence, any holding, holding in arms, and skin-to-skin care in the NICU and 2) investigate the relationships between parent participation and a) early neurobehavior and b) developmental outcomes at age 4 to 5years among preterm infants. Eighty-one preterm infants born ≤32weeks estimated gestational age were prospectively enrolled within one week of life in a level III-IV NICU. Parent (maternal and paternal) presence and holding (including holding in arms and skin-to-skin care) were tracked throughout NICU hospitalization. Neurobehavior at term equivalent age and development at 4 to 5years were determined using standardized assessments. The median number of days per week parents were documented to be present over NICU hospitalization was 4.0 (IQR=2.4-5.8) days; days held per week 2.8 (IQR=1.4-4.3) days [holding in arms days per week was 2.2 (IQR=1.2-3.2) days and parent skin-to-skin care days per week was 0.2 (IQR=0.0-0.7) days]. More parent presence was observed among mothers who were Caucasian, married, older, or employed and among those who had fewer children, familial support and provided breast milk (pskin-to-skin care was related to better infant reflexes (p=0.03) and less asymmetry (p=0.04) at term and better gross motor development (p=0.02) at 4-5years. Social and medical factors appear to impact parent presence, holding, and skin-to-skin care in the NICU. Parent holding is related to better developmental outcomes, which highlights the importance of engaging families in the NICU. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shiffman, Catherine Dunn
This article explores the connections between adult education participation and parent involvement in children's education--connections identified during an exploratory case study of parents transitioning into the workforce in compliance with welfare requirements. Data sources included interviews with parents, adult educators, and elementary…
Reiber, Gayle E; McFarland, Lynne V; Hubbard, Sharon; Maynard, Charles; Blough, David K; Gambel, Jeffrey M; Smith, Douglas G
Care of veterans and servicemembers with major traumatic limb loss from combat theaters is one of the highest priorities of the Department of Veteran Affairs. We achieved a 62% response rate in our Survey for Prosthetic Use from 298 Vietnam war veterans and 283 servicemembers/veterans from Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) who sustained major traumatic limb loss. Participants reported their combat injuries; health status; quality of life; and prosthetic device use, function, rejection, and satisfaction. Despite the serious injuries experienced, health status was rated excellent, very good, or good by 70.7% of Vietnam war and 85.5% of OIF/OEF survey participants. However, many health issues persist for Vietnam war and OIF/OEF survey participants (respectively): phantom limb pain (72.2%/76.0%), chronic back pain (36.2%/42.1%), residual-limb pain (48.3%/62.9%), prosthesis-related skin problems (51.0%/58.0%), hearing loss (47.0%/47.0%), traumatic brain injury (3.4%/33.9%), depression (24.5%/24.0%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (37.6%/58.7%). Prosthetic devices are currently used by 78.2% of Vietnam war and 90.5% of OIF/OEF survey participants to improve function and mobility. On average, the annual rate for prosthetic device receipt is 10.7-fold higher for OIF/OEF than for Vietnam war survey participants. Findings from this cross-conflict survey identify many strengths in prosthetic rehabilitation for those with limb loss and several areas for future attention.
Full Text Available Chien-Lin Lin1,2 Chin-Kai Lin,3 Jia-Jhen Yu4 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, 2School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 3Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, 4Occupation Therapy Unit of Rehabilitation Techniques Section, Lin Shin Medical Corporation Wuri Lin Shin Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan Introduction: This study aims to explore the impact of Parent Participation Program on the development of developmental delay children. Methods: Pretest-posttest equivalent-group experimental design study was used in this paper. A total of 30 pairs of developmental delay children aged 0–72 months and their parents participated into this study. They were divided into two groups, namely control group and experimental group, according to parents’ wishes. The objects of study in control group received 16 courses of direct rehabilitation therapy; those in experimental group received 8 courses of direct rehabilitation therapy and 8 courses of instruction and tracking of Parent Participation Program. The duration of the intervention was 8 weeks. All cases should be evaluated before and after the intervention, to analyze the difference before and after intervention and among groups. The statistical methods in this paper included descriptive analysis, Chi-square test, independent sample t-test, pair-sample t-test. Results and conclusion: The intervention of Parent Participation Occupational Program has positive impact on the development of developmental delay children in various fields. Among all the intervention results, the progress of the experimental group is 1.895 times more than that of the control group. With parent involvement, Parent Participation Occupational Therapy can promote the cognitive ability, language ability, action ability (gross and fine movement, social competence and
How accurate are parental responses concerning their fourth-grade children's school-meal participation, and what is the relationship between children's body mass index and school-meal participation based on parental responses?
Paxton-Aiken Amy E
Full Text Available Abstract Background This article investigated (1 parental response accuracy of fourth-grade children's school-meal participation and whether accuracy differed by children's body mass index (BMI, sex, and race, and (2 the relationship between BMI and school-meal participation (based on parental responses. Methods Data were from four cross-sectional studies conducted from fall 1999 to spring 2003 with fourth-grade children from 13 schools total. Consent forms asked parents to report children's usual school-meal participation. As two studies' consent forms did not ask about lunch participation, complete data were available for breakfast on 1,496 children (51% Black; 49% boys and for lunch on 785 children (46% Black; 48% boys. Researchers compiled nametag records (during meal observations of meal participation on randomly selected days during children's fourth-grade school year for breakfast (average nametag days across studies: 7-35 and for lunch (average nametag days across studies: 4-10 and categorized participation as "usually" (≥ 50% of days or "not usually" ( Results Concerning breakfast participation and lunch participation, 74% and 92% of parents provided accurate responses, respectively. Parental response accuracy was better for older children for breakfast and lunch participation, and for Black than White children for lunch participation. Usual school-meal participation was significantly related to children's BMI but in opposite directions -- positively for breakfast and inversely for lunch. Conclusions Parental response accuracy of children's school-meal participation was moderately high; however, disparate effects for children's age and race warrant caution when relying on parental responses. The BMI results, which showed a relationship between school-meal participation (based on parental responses and childhood obesity, conflict with results from a recent article that used data from the same four studies and found no significant
Olsen, Darren L.
Social participation is an important resource for parents in old age, and may be particularly important for parents living with adult offspring with intellectual and developmental disabilities. To evaluate whether socializing with friends and family and participating in social organizations protects against depression in old age, this study…
Susan Sonnenschein; Claudia Galindo; Shari R. Metzger; Joy A. Thompson; Hui Chih Huang; Heather Lewis
This study explored associations between parents’ beliefs about children’s development and children’s reported math activities at home. Seventy-three parents were interviewed about the frequency of their children’s participation in a broad array of math activities, the importance of children doing math activities at home, how children learn math, parents’ role in their children’s math learning, and parents’ own math skills. Although the sample consisted of African Americans, Chinese, Latino, ...
Nghipondoka-Lukolo, Linda Ndeshipandula; Charles, Kimera Lukanga
The purpose of the study was to empower rural parents to participate in the sexuality education of their children. The study was designed to be qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature. It was performed in three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a situational analysis to explore and describe how parents provide sexuality education. Phase 2 consisted of the development of a conceptual framework that facilitated the development of an educational programme. In phase 3 the programme was implemented and evaluated, recommendations were made and conclusions drawn. The main findings revealed two themes: factors influencing parental participation in their children's sexuality education, and the need for parental participation in their children's sexuality education. This article is part of series of three article stems from a study on the topic of sexuality education empowerment programme of rural parents in Namibia. The three articles have the following titles: one: parent's participation in sexuality education of their children: a situational analysis; two: parent's participation in sexuality education of their children: a conceptual framework and an educational programme to enhance action, and three: parent's participation in sexuality education of their children: programme implementation and evaluation. The previous paper dealt with parent's participation in sexuality education of their children: a situational analysis: the results from the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions on sexuality education with children and parents were presented. This paper focuses on describing Phase 2 and 3, namely the process of devising a conceptual framework for the development of an educational programme to empower parents to participate in the sexuality education of their children. Discussions included a description of the conceptual framework, based on the researcher's paradigmatic assumptions, and the focus group and individual in-depth interviews results
Nakkash, Rima T; Al Mulla, Ahmad; Torossian, Lena; Karhily, Roubina; Shuayb, Lama; Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Janahi, Ibrahim; Al Ansari, Al Anoud; Afifi, Rema A
Involving children in research studies requires obtaining parental permission. A school-based intervention to delay/prevent waterpipe use for 7th and 8th graders in Qatar was developed, and parental permission requested. Fifty three percent (2308/4314) of the parents returned permission forms; of those 19.5% of the total (840/4314) granted permission. This paper describes the challenges to obtaining parental permission. No research to date has described such challenges in the Arab world. A random sample of 40 schools in Doha, Qatar was selected for inclusion in the original intervention. Permission forms were distributed to parents for approval of their child's participation. The permission forms requested that parents indicate their reasons for non-permission if they declined. These were categorized into themes. In order to understand reasons for non-permission, interviews with parents were conducted. Phone numbers of parents were requested from the school administration; 12 of the 40 schools (30%) agreed to provide the contact information. A random sample of 28 parents from 12 schools was interviewed to reach data saturation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze their responses. Reasons for non-permission documented in both the forms and interviews included: poor timing; lack of interest; the child not wanting to participate; and the child living in a smoke-free environment. Interviews provided information on important topics to include in the consent forms, parents' decision-making processes regarding their child's participation, and considerations for communicating with parents. Many parents also indicated that this was the first time they had been asked to give an informed consent for their child's participation in a study. Results indicate that more attention needs to be given to the informed parental consent process. Researchers should consider enhancing both the methods of communicating information as well the specific information provided. Before
Salari, Raziye; Filus, Ania
Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, we studied factors related to parental intention to participate in parenting programs and examined the moderating effects of parent gender on these factors. Participants were a community sample of 290 mothers and 290 fathers of 5- to 10-year-old children. Parents completed a set of questionnaires assessing child emotional and behavioral difficulties and the HBM constructs concerning perceived program benefits and barriers, perceived child problem susceptibility and severity, and perceived self-efficacy. The hypothesized model was evaluated using structural equation modeling. The results showed that, for both mothers and fathers, perceived program benefits were associated with higher intention to participate in parenting programs. In addition, higher intention to participate was associated with lower perceived barriers only in the sample of mothers and with higher perceived self-efficacy only in the sample of fathers. No significant relations were found between intention to participate and perceived child problem susceptibility and severity. Mediation analyses indicated that, for both mothers and fathers, child emotional and behavioral problems had an indirect effect on parents' intention to participate by increasing the level of perceived benefits of the program. As a whole, the proposed model explained about 45 % of the variance in parental intention to participate. The current study suggests that mothers and fathers may be motivated by different factors when making their decision to participate in a parenting program. This finding can inform future parent engagement strategies intended to increase both mothers' and fathers' participation rates in parenting programs.
Van Lippevelde Wendy
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity in youth has increased dramatically. Therefore, overweight prevention initiatives should start early in life and target modifiable energy balance-related behaviours. Parental participation is often advocated as important for school-based interventions, however, getting parents involved in school-based interventions appears to be challenging based on earlier intervention experiences. The purpose of this study was to get insight into the determinants of and perspectives on parental participation in school-interventions on energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, healthy eating, sedentary behaviours in parents of ten- to twelve-year olds in order to develop an effective parental module for school-based interventions concerning energy balance-related behaviours. Methods Four countries (Belgium, Hungary, Norway and Spain conducted the focus group research based on a standardised protocol and a semi-structured questioning route. A variation in parental socio-economic status (SES and parental school involvement was taken into account when recruiting the parents. The audio taped interviews were transcribed, and a qualitative content analysis of the transcripts was conducted in each country. Results Seventeen focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 92 parents (12 men, 80 women. Physical activity was considered to be a joint responsibility of school and parents, nutrition as parent's responsibility but supported by the school, and prevention of sedentary behaviours as parent's sole responsibility. Parents proposed interactive and practical activities together with their child as the best way to involve them such as cooking, food tasting, nutrition workshops, walking or cycling tours, sport initiations together with their child. Activities should be cheap, on a convenient moment, focused on their children and not on themselves, not tutoring, not theoretical, and school-or home
Background Overweight and obesity in youth has increased dramatically. Therefore, overweight prevention initiatives should start early in life and target modifiable energy balance-related behaviours. Parental participation is often advocated as important for school-based interventions, however, getting parents involved in school-based interventions appears to be challenging based on earlier intervention experiences. The purpose of this study was to get insight into the determinants of and perspectives on parental participation in school-interventions on energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, healthy eating, sedentary behaviours) in parents of ten- to twelve-year olds in order to develop an effective parental module for school-based interventions concerning energy balance-related behaviours. Methods Four countries (Belgium, Hungary, Norway and Spain) conducted the focus group research based on a standardised protocol and a semi-structured questioning route. A variation in parental socio-economic status (SES) and parental school involvement was taken into account when recruiting the parents. The audio taped interviews were transcribed, and a qualitative content analysis of the transcripts was conducted in each country. Results Seventeen focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 92 parents (12 men, 80 women). Physical activity was considered to be a joint responsibility of school and parents, nutrition as parent's responsibility but supported by the school, and prevention of sedentary behaviours as parent's sole responsibility. Parents proposed interactive and practical activities together with their child as the best way to involve them such as cooking, food tasting, nutrition workshops, walking or cycling tours, sport initiations together with their child. Activities should be cheap, on a convenient moment, focused on their children and not on themselves, not tutoring, not theoretical, and school-or home-based. Conclusions Parents want to
Ángel Alberto Valdés Cuervo
Full Text Available This article describes the degree of parental involvement in the educational activities of elementary school children in the State of Yucatán. Based on the opinion of experts and references in the relevant literature, a Likert-type scale with 36 items was designed and applied to 106 parents of students at a public elementary school in the city of Mérida, capital of the state of Yucatan, in order to evaluate their involvement. The results show that the scale has an acceptable reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha = .92 and its underlying structure, after a factor analysis with varimax rotation, consists of three unit factors: 1 Communication with the school; 2 Communication with the child, and 3 Knowledge of the school. Generally, the results show that parent involvement in children’s educational activities is low or precarious, especially in regard to the factors of Communication and Knowledge of the school, although mothers have a considerably higher level of involvement than fathers in these factors. The implications of these findings for the school as well as for research on parental participation in the educational process are discussed in light of the results.
Diallo, Fatoumata B; Potvin, Louise; Bédard, Johanne; Larose, François
To describe the various dimensions of parental involvement in the interventions initiated in schools and to identify the relationship between each of these dimensions and the development of children's food choices following their exposure to a nutrition-education project implemented in eight primary schools in underprivileged neighbourhoods in Montréal - the Junior Cooks - Parents Network project (Petits cuistots - Parents en réseaux (PC-PR)). This descriptive research was conducted thanks to a secondary analysis of data from a sample of 502 parents of children attending schools that participated in the PC-PR project. Parental participation is described in four aspects, making reference to the idea of a mesosystem, suggested by Bronfenbrenner (1979). Children's eating-related behaviour, as reported by the parents, included: talking about workshops, asking to buy certain foods, reading labels on product wrapping and helping to prepare the meal. Bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses were performed. The data gathered from the parents show a positive association between in-home parental involvement and overall food behaviour in the students. However, there is no association between parental involvement at school and any of the behaviours. This research suggests the importance of parental participation in nutrition education interventions in schools. The results contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field and serve as impetus for reflection on how to better direct health promotion interventions.
Deković, Maja; Asscher, Jessica J; Hermanns, Jo; Reitz, Ellen; Prinzie, Peter; van den Akker, Alithe L
The present study aimed to (1) determine the long-term effectiveness of Home-Start, a preventive parenting program, and (2) test the hypothesis that changes in maternal sense of competence mediate the program's effects. Participants were 124 mothers (n = 66 intervention, n = 58 comparison). Four assessments took place during a 1-year period. Latent growth modeling showed that Home-Start enhanced growth in maternal sense of competence and supportive parenting, and led to a decrease in the use of inept discipline. Results of mediational and cross-lagged analyses were consistent with the hypothesized model: Participation in Home-Start was related to the changes in maternal sense of competence, which in turn predicted changes in parenting. The results affirm the importance of directly targeting parental sense of competence in the context of prevention work with parents.
Coyne, Imelda; Amory, Aislinn; Kiernan, Gemma; Gibson, Faith
Despite decision-making featuring throughout the trajectory of cancer care, children's participation in decision-making remains an area much under-researched and complicated by conflicting opinions. This study explored children's participation in shared decision-making (SDM) from multiple perspectives from one haematology/oncology unit in Ireland. Qualitative research design was used to explore participants' experiences of children's decision-making. Interviews were conducted with children(1) aged 7-16 years (n = 20), their parents (n = 22) and healthcare professionals (n = 40). Data were managed with the aid of NVivo (version 8). Parents and children's roles in decision-making were significantly influenced by the seriousness of the illness. Cancer is a life-threatening illness and so the treatment 'had to be done'. Children were not involved in major decisions (treatment decisions) as refusal was not an option. They were generally involved in minor decisions (choices about care delivery) with the purpose of gaining their cooperation, making treatment more palatable, giving back a sense of control and building trusting relationships. These choices were termed 'small' decisions that would not compromise the child's welfare. Some adolescents were aware that choices were not 'real' decisions since they were not allowed to refuse and expressed feelings of frustration. Healthcare professionals and parents controlled the process of SDM and the children's accounts revealed that they held a minimal role. Children appeared content that adults held responsibility for the major treatment decisions. However, they desired and valued receiving information, voicing their preferences and choosing how treatments were administered to them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between parental physical activity and children's physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness has not been well studied in the Australian context. Given the increasing focus on physical activity and childhood obesity, it is important to understand correlates of children's physical activity. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exercise was associated with children's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods The data were drawn from a nationally representative sample (n = 8,484 of 7–15 year old Australian schoolchildren, surveyed as part of the Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey in 1985. A subset of 5,929 children aged 9–15 years reported their participation in extracurricular sports and their parents' exercise. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the 1.6 km (1-mile run/walk and in addition for children aged 9, 12 or 15 years, using a physical work capacity test (PWC170. Results While the magnitude of the differences were small, parental exercise was positively associated with children's extracurricular sports participation (p p 170 (p = 0.013. In most instances, when only one parent was active, the sex of that parent was not an independent predictor of the child's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion Parental exercise may influence their children's participation in extracurricular sports and their cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Understanding the correlates of children's extracurricular sport participation is important for the targeting of health promotion and public health interventions, and may influence children's future health status.
Reinhardt Pedersen, C; Madsen, Mette
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between parents' labour market participation and children's health and wellbeing. DESIGN: Parent reported data on health and wellbeing among their children from the survey Health and welfare among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, 1996. A cross...... significant. Health outcomes and parents' labour market participation were associated in all five countries. CONCLUSIONS: Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of ill health and low wellbeing in the five Nordic countries despite differences in employment...... sectional study of random samples of children and their families in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 317 children aged 2-17 years. RESULTS: Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol consumption among adolescents is a serious public health concern. Research has shown that prevention programs targeting parents can help prevent underage drinking. The problem is that parental participation in these kinds of interventions is generally low. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine non-participation in a parental support program aiming to prevent underage alcohol drinking. The Health Belief Model has been used as a tool for the analysis. Methods To understand non-participation in a parental program a quasi-experimental mixed-method design was used. The participants in the study were invited to participate in a parental program targeting parents with children in school years 7-9. A questionnaire was sent home to the parents before the program started. Two follow-up surveys were also carried out. The inclusion criteria for the study were that the parents had answered the questionnaire in school year 7 and either of the questionnaires in the two subsequent school years (n = 455. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine reasons for non-participation. The final follow-up questionnaire included an opened-ended question about reasons for non-participation. A qualitative content analysis was carried out and the two largest categories were included in the third model of the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results Educational level was the most important socio-demographic factor for predicting non-participation. Parents with a lower level of education were less likely to participate than those who were more educated. Factors associated with adolescents and alcohol did not seem to be of significant importance. Instead, program-related factors predicted non-participation, e.g. parents who did not perceive any need for the intervention and who did not attend the information meeting were more likely to be non-participants. Practical issues, like time demands, also seemed to
Kemps, R. J. J. K.; Siebes, R. C.; Gorter, J. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Jongmans, M. J.
Purpose. This study provides information on the psychometric properties of a newly developed Dutch-language instrument for measuring parental perceptions of participation of preschool children (aged 2+ to 5+ years): the PART. Method. The PART was administered to parents of preschool children with (n
Wong, Jessie J; Roubinov, Danielle S; Gonzales, Nancy A; Dumka, Larry E; Millsap, Roger E
Fathers are an important, though often underrepresented, population in family interventions. Notably, the inclusion of ethnic minority fathers is particularly scarce. An understanding of factors that promote and hinder father participation may suggest strategies by which to increase fathers' presence in studies designed to engage the family unit. The current research examined Mexican origin (MO) fathers' involvement in a family-focused intervention study. Participants included 495 fathers from eligible two-parent MO families with an adolescent child. Individual, familial, and culturally relevant predictors based on father, mother, and/or child report data were collected through pretest interviews and included in two separate logistic regression analyses that predicted the following: (1) father enrollment in the study and (2) father participation in the intervention. Results indicated that higher levels of maternal education and lower levels of economic stress and interparental conflict were associated with increased father enrollment in the study. Rates of father participation in the intervention were higher among families characterized by lower levels of interparental conflict, economic stress, and Spanish language use. Results highlight the relevancy of the familial and environmental context to MO fathers' research participation decisions. These findings as well as their implications for future research and practice are discussed. © FPI, Inc.
Mustanski, Brian; Coventry, Ryan; Macapagal, Kathryn; Arbeit, Miriam R; Fisher, Celia B
Sexual and gender minority adolescents are underrepresented in HIV research, partly because institutional review boards (IRBs) are reluctant to waive parental permission requirements for these studies. Understanding teenagers' perspectives on parental permission and the risks and benefits of participating in HIV research is critical to informing evidence-based IRB decisions. Data from 74 sexual and gender minority adolescents aged 14-17 who participated in an online focus group in 2015 were used to examine perspectives on the risks and benefits of participation in a hypothetical HIV surveillance study and the need for parental permission and adequate protections. Data were analyzed thematically; mixed methods analyses examined whether concerns about parental permission differed by whether teenagers were out to their parents. Most adolescents, especially those who were not out to their parents, would be unwilling to participate in an HIV study if parental permission were required. Perceived benefits of participation included overcoming barriers to HIV testing and contributing to the health of sexual and gender minority youth. Few risks of participation were identified. Adolescents suggested steps that researchers could take to facilitate informed decision making about research participation and ensure minors' safety in the absence of parental permission; these included incorporating multimedia presentations into the consent process and explaining researchers' motivations for conducting the study. Respondents believed that the benefits of HIV surveillance research outweighed the risks. Requiring parental permission may exclude many sexual and gender minority teenagers from taking part in HIV research, especially if they are not out. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Errington, Julie; Malik, Ghada; Evans, Julie; Baston, Jenny; Parry, Annie; Price, Lisa; Johnstone, Hina; Peters, Selena; Oram, Victoria; Howe, Karen; Whiteley, Emma; Tunnacliffe, Jane; Veal, Gareth J
While the majority of childhood cancer clinical trials are treatment related, additional optional research investigations may be carried out that do not directly impact on treatment. It is essential that these studies are conducted ethically and that the experiences of families participating in these studies are as positive as possible. A questionnaire study was carried out to investigate the key factors that influence why families choose to participate in optional nontherapeutic research studies, the level of understanding of the trials involved, and the experiences of participation. A total of 100 participants from six UK centers were studied; 77 parents, 10 patients >16 years, and 13 patients aged 8-15 years. Ninety-seven percent of parents and 90% of patients felt that information provided prior to study consent was of the right length, with 52% of parents and 65% of patients fully understanding the information provided. Seventy-four percent of parents participated in research studies in order to "do something important", while 74% of patients participated "to help medical staff". Encouragingly, <5% of participants felt that their clinical care would be negatively affected if they did not participate. Positive aspects of participation included a perception of increased attention from medical staff. Negative aspects included spending longer periods in hospital and the requirement for additional blood samples. Ninety-six percent of parents and 87% of patients would participate in future studies. The study provides an insight into the views of childhood cancer patients and their parents participating in nontherapeutic clinical research studies. Overwhelmingly, the findings suggest that participation is seen as a positive experience. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research (1 condition of students’ participation in the business center, parental role, self-efficacy, and student entrepreneur willingness, (2 influence of student participation in the business center, parental role, and self-efficacy partially to student entrepreneur willingness, (3 the influence of participation in the business center, parental role, and self-efficacy on student entrepreneurship willingness, and (4 difference entrepreneur willingness for the first year and second-year students. This study is a comparative causal and technique of collecting data using questionnaire. The result of this research (1 students’ participation in Business Center have high categorized and positively and significantly influence to willingness, (2 parental role is a very high categorical student and have the positive and significant influence to student entrepreneurship willingness, (3 self-efficacy of the high categorized student, but not positively and significantly influence to intent entrepreneurship, (4 willingness of entrepreneurship is very high categorize, (5 students’ participation in Business Center and parental role simultaneously has positively and significantly influence on willingness, (6 there is a difference of willingness of student entrepreneur for the first year students with second year students, (7 there is no difference in student participation in Business Center for the first year and second year students, (8 there is a difference of parental role of first year and second year students, and (9 there no difference of self-efficacy for the first year with second year students.
Mejia, Anilena; Ulph, Fiona; Calam, Rachel
Parenting interventions are effective for preventing psychological difficulties in children. However, their active ingredients have not been comprehensively explored. How do they work? What are the mechanisms operating behind changes? In 2012, a randomized controlled trial of a parenting intervention was conducted in low-resource communities of Panama. Effects on child behavioral difficulties, parental stress, and parenting practices were large in the short and long term. This was an ideal opportunity to explore potential mechanisms operating behind effects found in this low-resource setting. Twenty-five parents were interviewed. Data were analyzed through an inductive semantic thematic analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) psychological mechanisms behind changes, (b) behavioral changes in parent, and (c) changes in the children. Parents described that the intervention triggered changes in emotion regulation, self-efficacy, and problem solving. Parents also reported behavioral changes such as praising their children more often, who in turn seemed more responsible and better at following instructions. The study offers participant-driven insight into potential pathways of change after participation in this parenting intervention, pathways that are often overlooked in quantitative studies. Future studies should further explore these pathways, through mediator and moderator analyses, and determine how much is shared across interventions and across different cultural settings. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Chávez, Noé Rubén; Williams, Camille Y; Ipp, Lisa S; Catallozzi, Marina; Rosenthal, Susan L; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki
Altruism is a well-established reason underlying research participation. Less is known about altruism in adolescent-parent decision-making about clinical trials enrolling healthy adolescents. This qualitative investigation focused on identifying spontaneous statements of altruism within adolescent-parent (dyadic) discussions of participation in a hypothetical phase I clinical trial related to adolescent sexual health. Content analysis revealed several response patterns to each other's altruistic reasoning. Across 70 adolescent-parent dyads in which adolescents were 14-17 years of age and 91% of their parents were mothers, a majority (61%) of dyadic discussions included a statement reflecting altruism. Parents responded to adolescents' statements of altruism more frequently than adolescents responded to parents' statements. Responses included: expresses concern, reiterates altruistic reasoning, agrees with altruistic reasoning, and adds to/expands altruistic reasoning. Since an altruistic perspective was often balanced with concerns about risk or study procedures, researchers cannot assume that altruism will directly lead to study participation. Optimizing the informed consent process for early phase clinical trials involving healthy adolescents may include supporting parents to have conversations with their adolescents which will enhance their capacity to consider all aspects of trial participation.
Full Text Available Background: Recent findings from our research indicate that children participating in a creative afterschool program exhibit overall healthier lifestyle practices compared to the average US pediatric population. This observation led us to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity and lifestyle practices of their parents. Objective: To determine the strongest predictors of weight status for female parents whose children were participating in such creative afterschool program. Design: Surveyed subjects were parents of children who competed in the 2008 and 2009 Destination ImagiNation® Global Finals in Knoxville, Tennessee. A total of 4,608 children participated in data collection, with parental consent. For the combined 2 years, 1,118 parents, 87% of whom were females (n=1,032 completed online questionnaires, which were based on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and included self-reported height, weight, dietary intake, physical activity, and socioeconomic status. The majority of this population was white, and less than 5% were African American or Hispanic. Results: We report here results obtained for the female parents. Only 45.2% of these female parents were overweight/obese, compared to a national average of 64.1% reported by the National Health Nutrition Examination Surveys for 2007—2008. Furthermore, this population was significantly more physically active compared to national average. Most parents (76% had completed a college degree and reported high incomes. Parents with the lowest income were the most obese in this population. Finally, we found a significant association between parent and child weight status. Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that female parents of children who have healthy lifestyles were physically active, which likely accounts for the parents’ lower overweight/obesity rates. In addition to physical activity, income and percentage of calories from fat were all predictors of weight status.
Willis, Claire E; Reid, Siobhan; Elliott, Catherine; Nyquist, Astrid; Jahnsen, Reidun; Rosenberg, Michael; Girdler, Sonya
The actions and behaviors of parents have been identified as key factors that influence a child's participation in physical activity. However, there is limited knowledge of how parents can be supported to embody facilitative roles. This study aimed to explore how an ecological intervention encourages parents of children with disabilities to develop as facilitators, to enable ongoing physical activity participation in a child's local environment. A qualitative design using grounded theory was employed. Forty four parents (26 mothers, 18 fathers) of 31 children with a range of disabilities (mean age 12y 6m (SD 2y 2m); 18 males) partaking in the Local Environment Model intervention at Beitostolen Healthsports Centre in Norway participated in the study. Data were derived from the triangulation of semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Data analysis was an iterative approach of constant comparison, where data collection, memo writing, open, axial and selective coding analysis, were undertaken simultaneously. Findings were consolidated into a model describing the central phenomenon and its relationship to other categories. Thematic concepts uncovered in this study describe a social process of parent learning and empowerment, comprising three primary components; (i) active ingredients of the intervention that enabled learning and empowerment to transpire, (ii) parent learning and empowerment as a process, and (iii) related outcomes. A family-centered approach, encompassing family-to-family support, may enhance physical activity participation outcomes for children and youth with disabilities.
Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard; Heilmann, Carsten; Johansen, Christoffer; Adamsen, Lis
The aim of this study was to investigate the parents' experiences and reflections on their parental role while taking care of their child. Parents of children undergoing treatment with allogeneic haematopoetic stem cell transplantation for life threatening diseases in protective isolation, experience distress related to the child's care. Parents struggle to cope with the stress related to the child's disease, treatment and survival possibilities. During the period 2007-2009, eight participant studies and 16 in-depth interviews were performed and analysed using a theoretical ideal type construction and an interactionistic approach. Three ideal types of approaches were identified (1) expertise-mindedness, (2) dialogue-mindedness and (3) the approach of the socially challenged parents. Expertise-minded parents base their rationality for care and interactions on medical knowledge. It is important for dialogue-minded parents that emotions are included in the rationality for care. Being able to manage these two approaches requires emotional work in the form of both surface- and deep acting from the parents. Socially challenged parents fail to adapt to either of the two approaches since they often fail to manage the required emotional work. The three described ideal types give a new perspective on the complex interactions that occur between parents, child and staff during treatment with haematopoetic stem cell transplantation. Understanding the rationality behind the different approaches adopted by parents may assist medical staff to understand the parents' rationality for care of their child and to identify socially challenged parents who need help in managing the care of their child. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Axelin, Anna; Outinen, Jyri; Lainema, Kirsi; Lehtonen, Liisa; Franck, Linda S
We explored the dynamics of neonatologist-parent communication and decision-making during medical rounds in a level three neonatal intensive care unit. This was a qualitative study, with an ethnographic approach, that was conducted at Turku University Hospital, Finland, from 2013-2014. We recruited eight mothers and seven couples, their 11 singletons and four sets of twins and two neonatologists and observed and video recorded 15 medical rounds. The infants were born at 23+5 to 40+1 weeks and the parents were aged 24-47. The neonatologists and parents were interviewed separately after the rounds. Four patterns of interaction emerged. The collaborative pattern was most consistent, with the ideal of shared decision-making, as the parents' preferences were genuinely and visibly integrated into the treatment decisions. In the neonatologist-led interactional pattern, the decision-making process was only somewhat inclusive of the parents' observations and preferences. The remaining two patterns, emergency and disconnected, were characterised by a paternalistic decision-making model where the parents' observations and preferences had minimal to no influence on the communication or decision-making. The neonatologists played a central role in facilitating parental participation and their interaction during medical rounds were characterised by the level of parent participation in decision-making. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Halevi, Galit; Djalovski, Amir; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Yirmiya, Karen; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Koren, Lee; Feldman, Ruth
While chronic early stress increases child susceptibility to psychopathology, risk and resilience trajectories are shaped by maternal social influences whose role requires much further research in longitudinal studies. We examined the social transmission of risk by assessing paths leading from war-exposure to child symptoms as mediated by 3 sources of maternal social influence; stress physiology, synchronous parenting, and psychiatric disorder. Mothers and children living in a zone of continuous war were assessed in early childhood (1.5-5 years) and the current study revisited families in late (9-11years) childhood (N = 177; N = 101 war-exposed; N = 76 controls). At both time-points, maternal and child's salivary cortisol (SC), social behavior, and externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed. In late childhood, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were also measured and mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis. The social transmission model was tested against 2 alternative models; 1 proposing direct impact of war on children without maternal mediation, the other predicting late-childhood symptoms from early childhood variables, not change trajectories. Path analysis controlling for early childhood variables supported our conceptual model. Whereas maternal psychopathology was directly linked with child symptoms, defining direct mediation, the impact of maternal stress hormones was indirect and passed through stress contagion mechanisms involving coupling between maternal and child's HCC and SC. Similarly, maternal synchrony linked with child social engagement as the pathway to reduced symptomatology. Findings underscore the critical role of maternal stress physiology, attuned behavior, and well-being in shaping child psychopathology amid adversity and specify direct and indirect paths by which mothers stand between war and the child. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Piskur, B.; Beurskens, A.J.; Jongmans, M.J.; Ketelaar, M; Norton, M.; Frings, C.A.; Hemmingsson, H.; Smeets, R.J.P.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pediatric rehabilitation considers Family-centered service (FCS) as a way to increase participation of children with a physical disability in daily life. An important principal is that parents greatly contribute to their child's participation at school, at home, and in the
This paper discusses the results of an action-research project developed in a federation of Parents Associations (PAs) in Catalonia, aimed at helping PAs involve immigrant families. First, I nuance the idea of participation in schools to highlight some of the problems associated with participative initiatives targeting"'hard to reach"…
Palomo Velez, G.F.P.V.
The article analyzes differences regarding work-family balance, participation in family work, and parental self-efficacy in workers (N=300) in Chile according to their sex and their status as income providers. Three instruments (Survey Work-Home Interaction-Nijmegen, Questionnaire of Participation
Chung Gun Lee
Conclusion: The results of this study contributed to the literature by providing important information on the longitudinal effect of parental support during adolescence on the trajectory of sport participation from adolescence through young adulthood using a nationally representative sample of participants transitioning from adolescence to young adulthood.
Downing, Katherine L; Campbell, Karen J; van der Pligt, Paige; Hesketh, Kylie D
Social networking sites such as Facebook afford new opportunities for behavior-change interventions. Although often used as a recruitment tool, few studies have reported the use of Facebook as an intervention component to facilitate communication between researchers and participants. The aim of this study was to examine facilitator and participant use of a Facebook component of a community-based intervention for parents. First-time parent groups participating in the intervention arm of the extended Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend) Program were invited to join their own private Facebook group. Facilitators mediated the Facebook groups, using them to share resources with parents, arrange group sessions, and respond to parent queries. Parents completed process evaluation questionnaires reporting on the usefulness of the Facebook groups. A total of 150 parents (from 27 first-time parent groups) joined their private Facebook group. There were a mean of 36.9 (standard deviation 11.1) posts/group, with the majority being facilitator posts. Facilitator administration posts (e.g., arranging upcoming group sessions) had the highest average comments (4.0), followed by participant health/behavior questions (3.5). The majority of participants reported that they enjoyed being a part of their Facebook group; however, the frequency of logging on to their groups' page declined over the 36 months of the trial, as did their perceived usefulness of the group. Facebook appears to be a useful administrative tool in this context. Parents enjoyed being part of their Facebook group, but their reported use of and engagement with Facebook declined over time.
... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...
Pedersen, Charlotte R; Holstein, Bjørn E; Köhler, Lennart
BACKGROUND: This study analysed the influence of parents' labour market participation on their children's well-being in the five Nordic countries, and the changes from 1984 to 1996, during which unemployment rates generally rose in the Nordic countries. METHODS: Parent-reported questionnaire data...... from two cross-sectional studies, 12 years apart, with 15,354 (in 1984) and 15,255 (in 1996) randomly selected children aged 2-17 years. The response rates were 67.0% (n=10290) and 67.6% (n=10317), respectively. The parents' assessment of their children's well-being was measured by six items......, with three items focusing on psychological functioning and three items on social functioning. RESULTS: The association between parents' labour market participation and children's well-being changed from 1984 to 1996. In 1984, more children in families with paid work had low well-being than did children...
Lauruschkus, Katarina; Nordmark, Eva; Hallström, Inger
To explore how parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP) experience their child's participation in physical activities and to identify facilitators and barriers for being physically active and reducing sedentary behaviour. Twenty-five parents of sixteen children, aged 8-11 years old with CP, with varying gross motor, cognitive and communicative functions and with different cultural backgrounds, participated in focus group or individual interviews. Content analysis was used for analysis. Five subcategories addressing children's participation in physical activity were found: "Belonging and taking space in the family", "Important persons facilitating and hindering", "Friends important but hard to get", "Good for the body but challenging" and "Availability and opting out possibilities". The subcategories built the main category "Protecting and pushing towards independence", expressing the challenges parents experienced when their child wanted to be physically active. Parents desire competent persons to be available for support in participation in physical activities. They want support in finding friends for their child to be physically active with. Family culture and attitudes affect their child's motivation for being physically active and should be taken into account when designing interventions for increased participation in physical activities and for reduced sedentary behaviour in children with disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Friends and competent adults facilitate participation in physical activities and reduce sedentary behaviour. Information on accessible and tailored physical activities is an important facilitator for participation in physical activities. Service planning and design of interventions may be facilitated by taking the individual family culture into account.
Reinhardt Pedersen, C; Madsen, M
To study the association between parents' labour market participation and children's health and wellbeing. Parent reported data on health and wellbeing among their children from the survey Health and welfare among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, 1996. A cross sectional study of random samples of children and their families in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). A total of 10 317 children aged 2-17 years. Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of recurrent psychosomatic symptoms (odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence intervals 1.16 to 2.40), chronic illness (odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence intervals 1.00 to 1.84), and low wellbeing (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence intervals 1.12 to 1.94). Social class, family type, parents' immigrant status, gender and age of the child, respondent, and country were included as confounders. When social class, family type and the parents' immigrant status (one or more born in the Nordic country versus both born elsewhere) were introduced into the model, the odds ratios were reduced but were still statistically significant. Health outcomes and parents' labour market participation were associated in all five countries. Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of ill health and low wellbeing in the five Nordic countries despite differences in employment rates and social benefits.
Smith, Joanna; Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Kuzin, Chuan Ally; De Pedro, Kris
Decades of research point to the benefits of parent involvement in education. However, research has also shown that White, middle-class parents are disproportionately involved. Charter schools, as schools of choice, have been assumed to have fewer involvement barriers for minority and low-income parents, but a 2007 survey of charter leaders found…
Stickney, Carolyn A; Ziniel, Sonja I; Brett, Molly S; Truog, Robert D
To compare perceptions, goals, and expectations of health care providers and parents regarding parental participation in morning rounds and target specific areas of opportunity for educational interventions. Semistructured interviews of parents and focus groups of health care providers to learn about their experiences in, goals for, and perceived barriers to successful parental participation in morning rounds. Qualitative methods were used to analyze interview and focus group transcripts. Parents (n = 21) and health care providers (n = 24) participated in interviews and focus groups, respectively. Analyses revealed key areas of agreement between providers and parents regarding goals for rounds when parents are present, including helping parents achieve an understanding of the child's current status and plan of care. Providers and parents disagreed, however, about the nature of opportunities to ask questions. Parents additionally reported a strong desire to provide expert advice about their children and expected transparency from their care team, while providers stated that parental presence sometimes hindered frank discussions and education. Some agreement in goals for parent participation in morning rounds exists, although there are opportunities to calibrate expectations for both parents and health care providers. Solutions may involve a protocol for orienting parents to morning rounds, focusing on improving communication with parents outside of morning rounds, and the preservation of a forum for providers to have private discussions as a team. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rost, Michael; Wangmo, Tenzin; Niggli, Felix; Hartmann, Karin; Hengartner, Heinz; Ansari, Marc; Brazzola, Pierluigi; Rischewski, Johannes; Beck-Popovic, Maja; Kühne, Thomas; Elger, Bernice S
The goal is to present how shared decision-making in paediatric oncology occurs from the viewpoints of parents and physicians. Eight Swiss Pediatric Oncology Group centres participated in this prospective study. The sample comprised a parent and physician of the minor patient (decision-making on the part of the children. A patient's age and gender predicted involvement. Older children and girls were more likely to be involved. In the decision-making process, parents held a less active role than they actually wanted. Physicians should take measures to ensure that provided information is understood correctly. Furthermore, they should work towards creating awareness for systematic differences between parents and physicians with respect to the perception of the child, the disease, and shared decision-making.
Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Galano, Maria M; Howell, Kathryn H; Miller-Graff, Laura; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A
Corporal punishment is a widely used and widely endorsed form of parental discipline. Inter-partner violence places enormous stress upon women. The rate of corporal punishment is higher in homes where other types of domestic violence are also occurring. This study compares two groups: those who participated in an intervention for women exposed to intimate partner violence (The Moms' Empowerment Program [MEP]) and those in a comparison group. Using standardized measures, women in both groups were assessed at baseline and at the end of the program, 5 weeks later. The 113 mothers who participated in the MEP program had significantly improved their parenting, such that they had less use of physical punishment post-intervention. Findings suggest that a relatively brief community-based intervention program can reduce the use of parental physical punishment even in disadvantaged populations coping with stressful circumstances. © The Author(s) 2016.
... into Head Start and from Head Start to public school. 1308.21 Section 1308.21 Public Welfare... AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START... Standards § 1308.21 Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to...
Sumarsono, Raden Bambang; Imron, Ali; Wiyono, Bambang Budi; Arifin, Imron
This research aims at describing parents participation in improving the quality of education of elementary schools viewed from the school substance and management. This is a qualitative research using phenomenology approach. The research design employed is comparative multicase involving four elementary schools in Malang city, East java,…
Inglis, Gillian H.
As curricular development in Scotland espoused the importance of pupil participation, the extent to which this has been embedded across teachers' pedagogy into assessment and reporting practices warranted investigation. This article reports a mixed-methods study with parents, pupils and teachers from three Scottish primary schools that examined…
Stickney, Carolyn A; Ziniel, Sonja I; Brett, Molly S; Truog, Robert D
To compare the experiences and attitudes of healthcare providers and parents regarding parental participation in morning rounds, in particular to evaluate for differences in perception of parental comprehension of rounds content and parental comfort with attendance, and to identify subgroups of parents who are more likely to report comfort with attending rounds. Cross-sectional survey of 100 parents and 131 healthcare providers in a tertiary care pediatric medical/surgical intensive care unit. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey responses; univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare parent and healthcare provider responses. Of parents, 92% reported a desire to attend rounds, and 54% of healthcare providers reported a preference for parental presence. There were significant discrepancies in perception of understanding between the 2 groups, with healthcare providers much less likely to perceive that parents understood both the format (30% vs 73%, P parents. Analysis of parent surveys did not reveal characteristics correlated with increased comfort or desire to attend rounds. A majority of parents wish to participate in morning rounds, whereas healthcare provider opinions are mixed. Important discrepancies exist between parent and healthcare provider perceptions of parental comfort and comprehension on rounds, which may be important in facilitating parental presence. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Greenfeld, Dorothy A
The present review examines recent publications that provide insight into how the trend toward nonanonymity and disclosure in gamete donation impacts donors, intended parents, and their donor-conceived children. Recent findings show an increase in donor programs that offer open-identity between donors and offspring. The psychological needs of gamete donors and their attitudes toward disclosure are increasingly given consideration. Qualitative research on how parents of donor gamete offspring make decisions about disclosure reveals that even when couples initially disagree about disclosing to offspring, most ultimately come to a united disclosure decision. The literature on the impact of disclosure on donor gamete offspring has extended to include children conceived through embryo donation and children born as a result of surrogacy. The absence of genetic or gestational link between parents and their child does not have a negative impact on parent-child relationships. Parents through surrogacy tend to disclose the method of family creation to their child, whereas parents through embryo donation tend to be secretive about their child's origins. The trend toward greater openness in gamete donation has been accompanied by an increase in programs offering open-identity donation. In addition, the psychological needs of gamete donors and their attitudes toward disclosure are increasingly being given consideration. Parents of donor gamete offspring give careful thought to their disclosure decisions, and the psychological well being of donor-conceived children does not seem to be impacted by those decisions.
Neri, Luca; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Catastini, Paola; Colombo, Carla
Cystic fibrosis (CF) require parents to make significant lifestyle changes to accommodate their children's treatments. We examined the impact of CF-related caregiving on parents' occupational adjustment and labor supply in terms of organizational changes, presenteeism, and absenteeism. Nineteen Italian CF referral centers joined the LINFA group. We enrolled 168 adolescents with the disease and their parents (n = 225) in a cross-sectional survey research. Patients and their parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (child: SF-12, satisfaction with life, MRC Dyspnea scale; parent: caregiver burden scale, short depression-happiness scale, self-rated health, socio-demographic factors). A pediatrician recorded clinical information (pulmonary exacerbations, CF-related complications, treatment, BMI percentile, Fev1 %). Patients mean age was 16 ± 2.6 and mean BMI percentile was 42.1 ± 29.1; 92 patients (55%) had FEV1 % > 80. Mean parents' age was 45.9 ± 5.9 years, and 59% were women; 75% of women and 24% of men reported to be the primary caregiver. Only 12% had a graduate or post-graduate degree and 56.4% were employed. Approximately 34% of parents reported short depression-happiness scale scores suggestive of clinical depression. Higher caregiving strain was associated with increased likelihood of changing job, work shift schedule, or giving up career opportunities in order to fulfill their caregiving role and increased productivity losses due to family leaves and presenteeism. Caregiving burden is a relevant and frequent issue among parents of adolescent patients with cystic fibrosis. We showed that the humanistic and vocational impact of caring for young patients with the disease is striking and demands health-care and welfare supportive actions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Paxton-Aiken, Amy E; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B; Guinn, Caroline H; Finney, Christopher J
Although many studies have relied on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation, few studies have evaluated parental response accuracy. We investigated misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-meal programs based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records using cross-sectional study data collected for 3 school years (2004-05, 2005-06, and 2006-07) for 1,100 fourth-grade children (87% black; 52% girls) from 18 schools total in one district. Parents reported children's usual school-meal participation on paper consent forms. The district provided administrative daily records of individual children's school-meal participation. Researchers measured children's weight and height. "Usual participation" in breakfast/lunch was defined as ≥50% of days. Parental responses misclassified 16.3%, 12.8%, 19.8%, and 4.7% of children for participation in breakfast, classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch, respectively. Parental responses misclassified more children for participation in cafeteria than classroom breakfast (P=0.0008); usual-participant misclassification probabilities were less than nonusual-participant misclassification probabilities for classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch (Pschool year, breakfast location, and school). Relying on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation may hamper researchers' abilities to detect relationships that have policy implications for the child nutrition community. The use of administrative daily records of children's school-meal participation is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang
Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.
Los padres como consejeros o coparticipes en la toma de decisiones. Serie E: [E1] logro de la participacion de los padres. cuaderno 3. Edicion para el maestro. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as Advisors or Participants in Decision Making. Series E: Parent Participation, Book 3. Teacher Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packet).
Rodriguez, Rodolfo, Comp.
This guide on training bilingual education teachers focuses on parents as advisors in the decision making process at bilingual schools. The two units, "An Introduction to Parent Participation" and "Parent Participation in Educational Decision Making," include objectives, definitions of terms, lists of materials and equipment, and learning…
Gifford, Elizabeth J; Sloan, Frank A; Eldred, Lindsey M; Evans, Kelly E
This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children's academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005-2012. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics; for example, mother's educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much--but not all--of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W
... and Prevention, the International Rescue Committee, and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, can reduce the impact of war and contribute to its prevention. The participation of respected and trustworthy intermediaries and the willingness of parties to communicate with each other are two key elements in preventing...
Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele
A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular activities. The parents of fourth-grade pupils (10-11 years at baseline) completed questionnaires before intervention in spring 2008 (N = 348) and after intervention in spring 2010 (N = 358). A two-way analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether time (2008/2010) and group (intervention/control) influenced parents' perceptions and experiences of parental involvement, health education and health support received from the school. Compared with controls, the intervention schools' parents experienced greater involvement ethos (Cohen's d = 0.57, P education (Cohen's d = 0.60, P = 0.02) and health support (Cohen's d = 0.35, P = 0.02). Health education participation among parents increased only partially during the intervention (Cohen's d = -0.12, P = 0.193). School health interventions based on schools' needs may have the potential to influence positively the relationship between home and school and increase the visibility of health education. The study was undertaken within the Schools for Health in Europe program.
This study addressed the problem of underachieving female English as second language students in the Persian Gulf Region. The purpose of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between parental participation, as measured by a middle school parent-participation survey, and students' academic achievement, as measured by parent…
Svob, Connie; Brown, Norman R; Takšić, Vladimir; Katulić, Katarina; Žauhar, Valnea
Intergenerational transmission of memory is a process by which biographical knowledge contributes to the construction of collective memory (representation of a shared past). We investigated the intergenerational transmission of war-related memories and social-distance attitudes in second-generation post-war Croatians. We compared 2 groups of young adults from (1) Eastern Croatia (extensively affected by the war) and (2) Western Croatia (affected relatively less by the war). Participants were asked to (a) recall the 10 most important events that occurred in one of their parents' lives, (b) estimate the calendar years of each, and (c) provide scale ratings on them. Additionally, (d) all participants completed a modified Bogardus Social Distance scale, as well as an (e) War Events Checklist for their parents' lives. There were several findings. First, approximately two-thirds of Eastern Croatians and one-half of Western Croatians reported war-related events from their parents' lives. Second, war-related memories impacted the second-generation's identity to a greater extent than did non-war-related memories; this effect was significantly greater in Eastern Croatians than in Western Croatians. Third, war-related events displayed markedly different mnemonic characteristics than non-war-related events. Fourth, the temporal distribution of events surrounding the war produced an upheaval bump, suggesting major transitions (e.g., war) contribute to the way collective memory is formed. And, finally, outright social ostracism and aggression toward out-groups were rarely expressed, independent of region. Nonetheless, social-distance scores were notably higher in Eastern Croatia than in Western Croatia.
Nichols, Michelle; Newman, Susan; Nemeth, Lynne S; Magwood, Gayenell
African American adolescent females have the highest prevalence rates of obesity among those age 18 and under. The long-term health effects and associated comorbidities of obesity within this cohort threaten the health and well-being of a major section of the U.S. population. There is a need to understand the influence of parental support in reducing obesity related health disparities. Using a social ecological framework to explore parental influence on adolescent obesity interventions allows for greater insight into the complex and dynamic influences affecting the lives of African American adolescent females who are obese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.
This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…
Elbers, Egmond; de Haan, Mariette
In The Netherlands, the transition from primary to secondary education is prepared by formal talks between teachers and parents. The purpose of these conferences is to discuss the child's score on the national CITO test and the teacher's recommendation for the child's track in secondary school. We
Santvoort, F. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.
The large number of children with mentally ill or addicted parents calls for efficient provision of preventive support: interventions should be offered to children most at risk and attune to their risk levels and needs. This study provided insight in the (heterogeneous) needs of children
Mikelić, Valentina Matijević; Kosicek, Tena; Crnković, Maja; Radanović, Branko
Many factors that have an adverse effect on fetal growth and development can manifest later in the child's development. Because of the biological basis, children born under the influence of these factors belong to the group of neurorisk children. They need special attention and prompt participation in the early rehabilitation program to encourage the use of brain plasticity. In addition to the biological influences, socioeconomic status affects a wide array of medical, cognitive and socio-emotional consequences in children, which begin before birth and continue into adulthood. This retrospective study included 50 children aged one to three years, hospitalized at Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation, University Department of Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center in Zagreb. The aim was to determine the frequency of inclusion of children with neurodevelopmental risks in the early rehabilitation program according to the level of parental education. The results showed the highest percentage of parents of neurorisk children to have high school education, while the smallest number of parents had elementary school education. These data pointed to the lack of public awareness of the importance of the early period of life. However, they also indicated the lack of parental knowledge of their rights and opportunities for involvement of their neurorisk children in the early rehabilitation programs.
Full Text Available The aims of present study was to (A compare and prioritizing the main six motivations of sport participation of youth athletes, (B compare and prioritize task and ego-orientation of youth athletes, and (C the role of parents' education level and its impact on the motivation of sport participation and goal-orientation youth athletes. In the study, descriptive-analytic design was applied. For the study 376 Iranian youth athletes were singled out by cluster-random sampling. They answered to participation motivation questionnaire (PMQ and task & ego-orientation in sport questionnaire (T.E.O.S.Q. Also data about parents' education level (PEL was obtained using questions about demographic features. The findings showed that those who participated in individual sports had more motivation for status than team sports athletes and they were more ego-orientation. Also it was found that more highly educated mothers came to induce internal motivation in youth athletes using Kruskal-Wallis test, whereas more highly educated fathers came to induce both internal and external motivation to them. It seems that those athletes who participated in individual and open-skilled sports are more ego-oriented than those who participated in team and open-skilled sports. The feedbacks which are based on task orientation are probably provided, along with promotion of mothers' education level; however with promotion of fathers' education level, both of these feedbacks and those based on ego-orientation will be provided, probably for their children to participation in sport activities.
Llabre, Maria M; Hadi, Fawzyiah; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S
We tested a conceptual model of the effect of war-trauma exposure in childhood on psychological distress in young adulthood. Participants included 151 urban Kuwaiti children (51% female; M age = 10.62 years) exposed to the 1990-1991 Gulf crisis (assessed in 1993); participants also included 140 parents (81% female; M age mothers = 36.50 years; M age fathers = 41 years). In 2003, 120 participants were reassessed as young adults (50% female; M age = 21.19 years). The conceptual model was evaluated with structural equations. War-trauma exposure was associated with psychological distress in children and parents, but parents reported larger effects than children. Parents' psychological distress did not contribute to children's psychological distress. Children's psychological distress did not dissipate over time. Social support may function as a potential mediator of the effect of war-trauma exposure on psychological distress. Findings support the importance of early detection and treatment of children exposed to war trauma. Findings also implicate social support as a factor to consider in clinical interventions for children exposed to war trauma.
Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in "Incredible Years," an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012.
Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M; Javier, Joyce R
Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos' barriers and facilitators to participating in "Incredible Years" (IY), a parenting program. We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Parents' perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents' most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians' offices, and churches. Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population.
Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)
Simon , Jonathan
Abstract 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which...
Full Text Available Parental co-participation in physical activity (PA may be a beneficial parenting practice for diminishing children’s sedentary time (ST. Less information is available, however, on the explanatory role of co-participation in PA regarding parental educational differences in children's ST. Preschool-aged children (N = 864, mean age 4.8, 52% boys with their parents participated in a cross-sectional DAGIS (Increased Health and Wellbeing in Pre-schools study between years 2015 and 2016. Children (N = 821 wore an accelerometer for one week. Parents were informed of their educational background, and the frequency of visits with their child in nature, to parks or playgrounds, their own yard, and indoor sport facilities (N = 808. Testing the associations required multiple regression analyses. Parents with a low educational background reported more frequent visits with their child to their own yard, and these visits were associated with children’s lower ST. More highly educated parents co-visited indoor sport facilities more frequently, although this did not have a significant association with children’s ST. More frequent visits in nature were associated with a lower ST at weekdays, regardless of educational background. Future health promotion strategies should inform parents that frequent co-participation in PA, for example, in one’s own yard, is beneficial for lowering children’s ST.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In late 2007, Canada's ParticipACTION national physical activity mass media campaign was re-launched, with an initial campaign targeting parents of elementary school-aged children. The campaign informed them about the risks of physical inactivity for children and youth. The purpose of this study was to assess campaign awareness and understanding following the campaign, and to identify whether exposure to this campaign was likely associated with behaviour change. Methods A convenience sample of 1,500 adults was recruited though an existing panel (n = 60,000 of Canadian adults to participate in online surveys. Initial campaign exposure included "prompted" and "unprompted" recall of specific physical activity messages from the 2007 ParticipACTION campaign, knowledge of the benefits of PA, saliency, and initial trial behaviours to help their children become more active. Results One quarter of respondents showed unprompted recall of specific message content from the ParticipACTION campaign, and prompted recall was 57%. Message recall and understanding was associated with knowledge about physical activity, and that in turn was related to high saliency. Saliency was associated with each of the physical activity-related trial behaviours asked. Conclusion Campaign awareness and understanding was high following this ParticipACTION campaign, and was associated with intermediate campaign outcomes, including saliency and trial behaviours. This is relevant to campaign evaluations, as it suggests that an initial focus on influencing awareness and understanding is likely to lead to more substantial change in campaign endpoints.
Kudomi, Yoshiyuki; Hosogane, Tsuneo; Inui, Akio
Identifies three directions in the field of education reform in Japan that are in mutual opposition: (1) State Bureaucratic Control, (2) De-regulation and Marketization, and (3) Participation and (Local or School) Autonomy. Analyzes the process and mechanism of the opposition and compromise among these directions through three case studies. (CMK)
Los padres como consejeros o coparticipes en la toma de decisiones. Serie E: El logro de la participacion de los padres, cuaderno III. Edicion para el estudiante. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as Advisors or Participants in Decision Making. Series E: Success with Parent Participation, Book III. Student Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packet).
Rodriguez, Rodolfo, Comp.
The student version of a learning module for teacher training in bilingual education is one of three focusing on promoting parent participation in the school system, and concentrates specifically on the role of parents as counselors and co-participants in decisionmaking. An introductory section discussing the overall objectives of the materials is…
Leijten, Patty; Gardner, Frances; Landau, Sabine; Harris, Victoria; Mann, Joanna; Hutchings, Judy; Beecham, Jennifer; Bonin, Eva-Maria; Scott, Stephen
Parenting programs aim to reduce children's conduct problems through improvement of family dynamics. To date, research on the precise benefits and possible harms of parenting programs on family well-being has been unsystematic and likely to be subject to selective outcome reporting and publication bias. Better understanding of program benefits and harms requires full disclosure by researchers of all included measures, and large enough numbers of participants to be able to detect small effects and estimate them precisely. We obtained individual participant data for 14 of 15 randomized controlled trials on the Incredible Years parenting program in Europe (total N = 1,799). We used multilevel modeling to estimate program effects on 13 parent-reported outcomes, including parenting practices, children's mental health, and parental mental health. Parental use of praise, corporal punishment, threats, and shouting improved, while parental use of tangible rewards, monitoring, or laxness did not. Children's conduct problems and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms improved, while emotional problems did not. Parental mental health (depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and stress) did not improve. There was no evidence of harmful effects. The Incredible Years parenting program improves the aspects of family well-being that it is primarily designed to improve: parenting and children's conduct problems. It also improves parent-reported ADHD symptoms in children. Wider benefits are limited: the program does not improve children's emotional problems or parental mental health. There are no signs of harm on any of the target outcomes. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others
This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…
Stene, Lise Eilin; Dyb, Grete
Reliable estimates of treatment needs after terrorism are essential to develop an effective public health response. More knowledge is required on research participation among survivors of terrorism to interpret the results properly and advance disaster research methodology. This article reports factors associated with participation in an open cohort study of survivors of the Utøya youth camp attack and their parents. Overall, 490 survivors were invited to two semi-structured interviews that were performed 4-5 and 14-15 months after the attack. The parents of 482 survivors aged 13-32 years were eligible for a complementary study. The study had an open cohort design in which all of the eligible survivors were invited to both waves. Pearson's Chi squared tests (categorical variables) and independent t tests (continuous variables) were used to compare survivors by participation. Altogether, 355 (72.4 %) survivors participated: 255 in both waves, 70 in wave 1 only, and 30 in wave 2 only. Compared with the two-wave participants, wave-1-only participants were more often non-Norwegian and reported higher exposure, whereas wave-2-only participants reported more posttraumatic stress, anxiety/depression, and somatic symptoms. In total, 331 (68.7 %) survivors had ≥1 participating parents, including 311 (64.5 %) with maternal and 243 (50.4 %) with paternal participation. Parental non-participation was associated with non-Norwegian origin, somatic symptoms and less social support. Additionally, paternal non-participation was associated with having divorced parents, and maternal non-participation was associated with higher age, not living with parents, posttraumatic stress and anxiety/depression symptoms. Survivors with initial non-participation had more symptoms than did the other participants. Thus, an open cohort design in post-terrorism studies might improve the participation among survivors with higher morbidity. Because the factors associated with maternal and
Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard; Heilmann, Carsten; Johansen, Christoffer
The aim of this study was to investigate the parents' experiences and reflections on their parental role while taking care of their child.......The aim of this study was to investigate the parents' experiences and reflections on their parental role while taking care of their child....
Saletsky, Ronald D; Trief, Paula M; Anderson, Barbara J; Rosenbaum, Paula; Weinstock, Ruth S
Parenting behaviors and family conflict relate to type 1 diabetes outcomes in youth. Our purpose was to understand these relationships in parents and youth with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The TODAY (Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth) trial enrolled youth (10-17 years) with T2DM and parent/guardian. For this ancillary study, we enrolled a sample of youth-parent pairs (N = 137) in 1 study arm (metformin plus lifestyle intervention). They completed questionnaires measuring parenting style related to normative (e.g., completing homework) and diabetes self-care (e.g., testing blood glucose) tasks, and parent-youth verbal conflict (baseline, 6, and 12 months). Parenting style was consistent across normative and diabetes tasks, with gradual increases in autonomy perceived by youth. Conversations were generally calm, with greater conflict regarding normative than diabetes tasks at baseline (youth: p parent: p = .01), 6 months (youth: p = .02, parent: p > .05), and 12 months (youth: p > .05., parent: p = .05). A permissive parenting style toward normative tasks and a less authoritarian style toward diabetes tasks, at baseline, predicted better medication adherence (8-12 months) (normative: adjusted R2 = 0.48, p Parent-youth conflict did not predict medication adherence. Youth with T2DM who perceive more autonomy (less parental control) in day-to-day and diabetes tasks are more likely to adhere to medication regimens. It may be valuable to assess youth perceptions of parenting style and help parents understand youths' needs for autonomy.
Tuma, al A.
The presence of tens of thousands of Moroccan soldiers in Spain during its Civil War was an encounter between two culturally different people. This thesis researches the impact of the racial stereotypes the Spaniards had about the Moroccans on how the Moroccans were treated in the Spanish Army, how
Kirschenbaum, D S; Pecora, K; Raphaeli, T; Germann, J N
This study compared successful with unsuccessful participants and their mothers 1.5 years following completion of an immersion programme for the treatment of adolescent obesity. Teenagers (M age = 14.5; 69.5% female) participated in a 4- to 8-week therapeutic camp; those who continued losing weight 1.5 years post-camp were identified as 'Losers'; those who regained weight were considered 'Gainers'. Twenty-six Loser campers, 23 Gainer campers and all mothers were interviewed about their current weights and lifestyle habits. Losers' and Gainers' mothers both reported losing weight significantly. Relative to Gainer mothers, however, Loser mothers reported 26% fewer high-fat foods in the house and greater likelihood of self-monitoring. Loser campers, relative to Gainer campers, reported self-monitoring more consistently; using trainers more frequently; and consuming fewer calories and less fat. Gainer campers also reported a tendency to use family therapy more than Loser families. The Loser campers reported following the dictates of the programme more than the Gainer campers, as expected. One striking and unique finding, however, was that Gainer mothers seemed to follow the programme for themselves as much as Loser mothers. Apparently for some participants in immersion treatment (like the Loser campers in this study), parents who participate fully may promote sustained success; for other adolescent weight controllers (like the present Gainer campers), having 'Do as I do' mothers clearly does not guarantee sustained changes in lifestyle for the teenagers. A hypothesis based on these results is that additional cognitive-behaviour therapy subsequent to immersion may be useful for this latter group. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Bennett, Pamela R.; Lutz, Amy; Jayaram, Lakshmi
We investigate cultural and structural sources of class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data. We find working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect: middle-class parents are concerned with customizing children’s involvement in activities, while working-class parents are concerned with achieving safety and social mobility for children through participation. Second, because of financial constraints, working-class families rely on social institutions for participation opportunities, but few are available. Schools act as an equalizing institution by offering low-cost activities, allowing working-class children to resemble middle-class youth in school activities, but they remain disadvantaged in out-of-school activities. School influences are complex, however, as they also contribute to class differences by offering different activities to working- and middle-class youth. Findings raise questions about the extent to which differences in participation reflect class culture rather than the objective realities parents face. PMID:25328250
Bennett, Pamela R; Lutz, Amy; Jayaram, Lakshmi
We investigate cultural and structural sources of class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data. We find working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect: middle-class parents are concerned with customizing children's involvement in activities, while working-class parents are concerned with achieving safety and social mobility for children through participation. Second, because of financial constraints, working-class families rely on social institutions for participation opportunities, but few are available. Schools act as an equalizing institution by offering low-cost activities, allowing working-class children to resemble middle-class youth in school activities, but they remain disadvantaged in out-of-school activities. School influences are complex, however, as they also contribute to class differences by offering different activities to working- and middle-class youth. Findings raise questions about the extent to which differences in participation reflect class culture rather than the objective realities parents face.
Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel
Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term impact of the killing of a parent in childhood or adolescence during war on distress and disability in young adulthood. This study assessed current prevalence rates of mental disorders and levels of dysfunction among young adults who had lost their father due to war-related violence in childhood or adolescence. METHODS: 179 bereaved young adults and 175 non-bereaved young adults were interviewed a decade after experiencing the war in Kosovo. Prevalence rates of Major Depressive Episode (MDE, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and current suicide risk were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The syndrome of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD was assessed with the Prolonged Grief Disorder Interview (PG-13. Somatic symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire. General health distress was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire. FINDINGS: Bereaved participants were significantly more likely to suffer from either MDE or any anxiety disorder than non-bereaved participants (58.7% vs. 40%. Among bereaved participants, 39.7% met criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 34.6% for PGD, and 22.3% for MDE. Bereaved participants with PGD were more likely to suffer from MDE, any anxiety disorder, or current suicide risk than bereaved participants without PGD. Furthermore, these participants reported significantly greater physical distress than bereaved participants without PGD. CONCLUSION: War-related loss during middle childhood and adolescence presents significant risk for adverse mental health and dysfunction in young adulthood in addition to exposure to other war-related traumatic events. Furthermore, the syndrome of PGD can help to identify those with the greatest degree of distress and dysfunction.
War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...
Nieto, Ana Maria
As Western schooling continues to expand and reach remote communities, it is imperative to understand rural parents' beliefs about formal education and the ways in which they can support their children's schooling. Sociodemographic changes in rural communities have been connected to shifts in parents' cultural values and practices (Greenfield,…
Khowaja, Asif Raza; Khan, Sher Ali; Nizam, Naveeda; Omer, Saad Bin; Zaidi, Anita
To assess parent's knowledge and perceptions surrounding polio and polio vaccination, self-reported participation in polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) targeting children aged questionnaire was administered to assess parental knowledge of polio and participation in polio SIAs conducted in September and October 2011. Additionally, 30 parents of Pashtun ethnicity (a high-risk group) who refused to vaccinate their children were interviewed in depth to determine why. Descriptive and bivariate analyses by ethnic and socioeconomic group were performed for quantitative data; thematic analysis was conducted for qualitative interviews with Pashtun parents. Of 1017 parents surveyed, 412 (41%) had never heard of polio; 132 (13%) did not participate in one SIA and 157 (15.4%) did not participate in either SIA. Among non-participants, 34 (21.6%) reported not having been contacted by a vaccinator; 116 (73.9%) reported having refused to participate, and 7 (4.5%) reported that the child was absent from home when the vaccinator visited. Refusals clustered in low-income Pashtun (43/441; 9.8%) and high-income families of any ethnic background (71/153; 46.4%). Low-income Pashtuns were more likely to not have participated in polio SIAs than low-income non-Pashtuns (odds ratio, OR: 7.1; 95% confidence interval, CI: 3.47-14.5). Reasons commonly cited among Pashtuns for refusing vaccination included fear of sterility; lack of faith in the polio vaccine; scepticism about the vaccination programme, and fear that the vaccine might contain religiously forbidden ingredients. In Karachi, interruption of polio transmission requires integrated and participatory community interventions targeting high-risk populations.
When in 1914 the European nations mobilised for war, the churches followed suit. Notwithstanding pre-war church peace conferences and close international cooperation, most churches and churchmen immediately and whole-heartedly supported their nation’s participation in war and provided the religious
Shaw, Jon A
This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.
Morrongiello, Barbara A; Sandomierski, Megan; Schwebel, David C; Hagel, Brent
Drowning is a leading cause of child mortality globally. Strategies that have been suggested to reduce pediatric drowning risk include increased parental awareness of children's swimming ability and drowning risk, improved adult supervision of child swimmers, and providing swim lessons to children. This study explored how parents' beliefs relevant to children's drowning risk, perception of children's swimming ability, and judgments of supervision needs changed as children aged two through 5 years accumulated experience in swim lessons, and compared a parent group who received regular, detailed feedback about their child's swim skills with one that did not. Parents completed questionnaire measures near the beginning and end of a series of 10 weekly swim lessons. Results revealed that parental accuracy in judging children's swimming abilities remained relatively poor even though it improved from the beginning to the end of the swim lessons. Supervision needs were underestimated and did not vary with program or change over the course of swim lessons. Children's ability to keep themselves from drowning was overestimated and did not change over lessons or vary with program; parents believed that children could save themselves from drowning by the age of 6.21 years. Parents who had experienced a close call for drowning showed greater awareness of children's drowning risk and endorsed more watchful and proximal supervision. Results suggest that expanding learn-to-swim programs to include a parent-focused component that provides detailed tracking of swim skills and delivers messaging targeting perceptions of children's drowning risk and supervision needs may serve to maximize the drowning protection afforded by these programs. Delivering messaging in the form of 'close-call' drowning stories may prove especially effective to impact parents' supervision practices in drowning risk situations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pourquoi les Parents Ne Veulent-Ils Pas Participer? Voici Quelques Recommandations pour Ameliorer les Relations Ecole-Foyer (Why Don't Parents Want to Participate? There Are Some Recommendations for Improving Home-School Relations).
The article describes a Quebec study to identify the causes of parental nonparticipation in the schools and includes six recommendations with specific examples for remedying the situation. It stresses the importance of home-school communication, information dissemination, and parental school committees. (SB)
Munns, Ailsa; Watts, Robin; Hegney, Desley; Walker, Roz
Designing child and family health services to meet the diverse needs of contemporary families is intended to minimize impacts of early disadvantage and subsequent lifelong health and social issues. Innovative programs to engage families with child and family support services have led to interest in the potential value of peer-led home visiting from parents in local communities. There is a range of benefits and challenges identified in a limited number of studies associated with home visiting peer support. The objective of the review is to identify: INCLUSION CRITERIA PARTICIPANTS: Families/parents with one or more children aged zero to four years, peer support workers and their supervisors. Peer-led home visiting parenting support programs that use volunteer or paraprofessional home visitors from the local community compared to standard community maternal-child care. The phenomenon of interest will be the relationships between participants in the program. Quantitative studies: randomized control trials (RCTs). Qualitative studies: grounded theory and qualitative descriptive studies. Parental attitudes and beliefs, coping skills and confidence in parenting, parental stress, compliance with child health checks/links with primary healthcare services, satisfaction with peer support and services and the nature of the relationship between parents and home visitors. The search strategy will include both published and unpublished studies. Seven journal databases and five other sources will be searched. Only studies published in the English language from 2000 to 2015 will be considered. Studies were assessed by two independent reviewers using standardized critical appraisal tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) and the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI) as appropriate. Both quantitative and qualitative data were independently extracted by two reviewers
Full Text Available The reason for the opening of the Dardanel Front was to establish a link between allies and Russia and to push The Ottoman Empire out of the war. In order to reach this cause, upon Churchill’s suggestion, the English War Commitee met on 28 January 1915 and decided to attack the Dardanels on February 19. The allies fleet tried to pass the Dardanels several times but they failed. Their biggest attack for the Straits took place on 18 March, which was failed and the fleet lost one third of its power. After the failure on the sea to pass the Straits the allies landed on Gallipoli to invade İstanbul. Landing took place from April 1 to December 22 the wars on lands lasted more than 8 months, during which Turkish army fought heroic battles. Fierce battles took place on Kabatepe, Seddülbahir, Alçıtepe, Kilitbahir, Anafartalar, Arıburnu. Upon failure on the land the allies started to withdraw from this front on 8 January 1915. The Dardanels wars which was lost by the allies caused the First World War to continue two more years. Tsarist regime was collapsed in Russia and its place Bolshevik regime came. The Turks put aside bad results of the Balkan Wars and became again a heroic nation. Because of his successes Mustafa Kemal became a genious commander. Most importantly Dardanels wars gave its honours to the Turkish army
Shirazipour, Celina H.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.
Children with physical impairments have low rates of physical activity when compared to children without impairments. Given the benefits that result from sport, improving participation rates among children with physical impairments is essential. Parents have a critical role in supporting their child's involvement in sport. The purpose of this…
Kaiser, Marie-Laure; Albaret, JM; Cantell, MH
Objective: Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) struggle with the activities of daily living which require motor coordination. In order to appreciate the impact of the DCD on the participation, several questionnaires for teachers and/or parents have been developed. The
Piškur, B; Beurskens, A J H M; Jongmans, M J; Ketelaar, M; Smeets, R J E M
BACKGROUND: The aim was to provide an overview of the number, domains and priority of needs as expressed by parents in supporting participation of their school-aged child with a physical disability. Additionally, this study investigated whether the number of needs within each domain is related to
Korenjev, M.M.; Kostenko, T.O.; Borisko, G.O.; Kalmikova, N.V.; Cherevatova, S. Kh.; Bondarenko, V.L.
The state of the cardiovascular system of the adolescents aged 16-18 born from the parents who participated in Chornobyl accident clean-up was characterized by a high incidence of myocardium bioelectric activity disorders, presence of congenital small heart defects, widening of the left ventricle cavity, reduction of contractile function and myocardium tolerance to physical load.
Piskur, B; Beurskens, AJHM; Jongmans, MJ; Ketelaar, M; Smeets, RJEM
Background The aim was to provide an overview of the number, domains and priority of needs as expressed by parents in supporting participation of their school-aged child with a physical disability. Additionally, this study investigated whether the number of needs within each domain is related to the
As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...
Mboizi, Robert B; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okoye, Michael; Kampmann, Beate; Roca, Anna; Idoko, Olubukola T
Communicating essential research information to low literacy research participants in Africa is highly challenging, since this population is vulnerable to poor comprehension of consent information. Several supportive materials have been developed to aid participant comprehension in these settings. Within the framework of a pneumococcal vaccine trial in The Gambia, we evaluated the recall and decay of consent information during the trial which used an audio-visual tool called 'Speaking Book', to foster comprehension among parents of participating infants. The Speaking Book was developed in the 2 most widely spoken local languages. Four-hundred and 9 parents of trial infants gave consent to participate in this nested study and were included in the baseline assessment of their knowledge about trial participation. An additional assessment was conducted approximately 90 d later, following completion of the clinical trial protocol. All parents received a Speaking Book at the start of the trial. Trial knowledge was already high at the baseline assessment with no differences related to socio-economic status or education. Knowledge of key trial information was retained at the completion of the study follow-up. The Speaking Book (SB) was well received by the study participants. We hypothesize that the SB may have contributed to the retention of information over the trial follow-up. Further studies evaluating the impact of this innovative tool are thus warranted.
Svendsen, Edel Jannecke; Moen, Anne; Pedersen, Reidar; Bjørk, Ida Torunn
The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of how parents experience the use of restraint during the performance of peripheral vein cannulation (PVC) on their child. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were performed with seven parents and one close relative who had accompanied their 3-5-year-old child while the child resisted the medical procedure of PVC. The analysis was guided by symbolic interactionism and resulted in two themes. The first theme that emerged, "Negotiating What Quality of Performance Should be Expected", was based on 1) Parents expected child-friendly encounters, 2) Performance of PVC caused unexpected and unnecessary suffering for the child, and 3) Parents explained and excused the performance of PVC. The second theme: "Negotiating One's Own Role and Participation in a Child's Suffering During the Procedure", was based on 1) Parents desired to be acknowledged and approached for suggestions regarding ways to ease the trauma surrounding the procedure, 2) Parents expressed uncertainty regarding the consequences that the procedure would have for the children, and 3) Parents desired to play a protective role, and they tended to engage in self-criticism. When the PVC was less child-friendly, poorly planned and chaotic or performed with lacking skills, the parents became unwilling partners in the unnecessary suffering of the child. A practical implication is that if pediatric health care providers are aiming for the reduction of restraint, they must better understand parents' expectations and experiences and ensure that the use of restraint is used as the last resort. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate
Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.
In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…
Hoeft, Kristin S; Rios, Sarah M; Pantoja Guzman, Estela; Barker, Judith C
Latino children experience more prevalent and severe tooth decay than non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black children. Few theory-based, evaluated and culturally appropriate interventions target parents of this vulnerable population. To fill this gap, the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program, a theory-based, promotora-led education program for low-income, Spanish-speaking parents of children aged 1-5 years, was developed. This article describes qualitative findings of the acceptability of curriculum content and activities, presents the process of refinement of the curriculum through engaging the target population and promotoras, and presents results from the evaluation assessing the acceptability of the curriculum once implemented. Focus groups were conducted with low-income Spanish-speaking parents of children 1-5 years living in a city in an agricultural area of California. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated and transcribed, checked for accuracy and the resulting data was thematically coded and analyzed using a social constructionist approach. The Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program was then implemented with a separate but similar sample, and after completing the program, participants were administered surveys asking about acceptability and favorite activities of the education program. Data were entered into a database, checked for accuracy, open-ended questions were categorized, and responses to close-ended questions counted. Twelve focus groups were conducted (N = 51), 105 parents attended the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program, and 83 parents filled out surveys. Complete attendance and retention was high (89% and 90%, respectively). This study found that their children's oral health is a high priority. Parents were not only interested in, but actually attended classes focused on increasing their knowledge and skills with respect to early childhood oral health. The Contra Caries content and format was perceived as
Danhauer, Jeffrey L; Johnson, Carole E; Baker, Jason A; Ryu, Jung A; Smith, Rachel A; Umeda, Claire J
Antiadhesive properties in xylitol, a natural sugar alcohol, can help prevent acute otitis media (AOM) in children by inhibiting harmful bacteria from colonizing and adhering to oral and nasopharyngeal areas and traveling to the Eustachian tube and middle ear. This study investigated parents' willingness to use and comply with a regimen of xylitol for preventing AOM in their preschool- and kindergarten-aged children. An Internet questionnaire was designed and administered to parents of young children in preschool and kindergarten settings. Most parents were unaware of xylitol's use for AOM and would not likely comply with regimens for preventing AOM in their children; however, parents having previous knowledge of xylitol and whose children had a history of AOM would be more likely to do so. Generally, most of these parents did not know about xylitol and probably would not use it to prevent ear infections. Unfortunately, these results parallel earlier findings for teachers and schools, which present obstacles for establishing ear infection prevention programs using similar protocols for young children. The results showed that considerable education and age-appropriate vehicles for administering xylitol are needed before establishing AOM prevention programs in schools and/or at home.
This study explores the association between parental perception of the nutritional quality of school meals and whether students eat lunch served at school. We use data from five low-income cities in New Jersey that have high minority populations. Students whose parents perceive the quality of school meals to be healthy have greater odds of eating meals served at school. Recent changes in guidelines for the United States Department of Agriculture's National School Lunch Program met with resistance from several fronts. Advocates for and implementers of improved school meals may benefit from partnering with parents to increase the acceptance and utilization of improved school offerings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare as a profou......This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare...
in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...
Vries, Martine Charlotte de
Few medical specialties encounter so many ethical challenges as pediatrics does. It is a specialty that inherently has features that are morally charged. Pediatric ethics examines the broad issues of (1) the concept of the child’s best interest; (2) parental responsibility and authority in
Danhauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carole E.; Baker, Jason A.; Ryu, Jung A.; Smith, Rachel A.; Umeda, Claire J.
Purpose: Antiadhesive properties in xylitol, a natural sugar alcohol, can help prevent acute otitis media (AOM) in children by inhibiting harmful bacteria from colonizing and adhering to oral and nasopharyngeal areas and traveling to the Eustachian tube and middle ear. This study investigated parents' willingness to use and comply with a regimen…
Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...
During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...
Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.
Hills seemed especially urgent. An economic depression hit the country in 1873 followed by the discovery of gold in the Black Hills the next year...University of Oklahoma Press, 1994). 84 Endnotes 1. John S. Gray, “ Centennial Campaign: The Sioux War of 1876,” (n.p.: The Old Army Press, 1976) p. 211
Axelsson, Anna Karin; Imms, Christine; Wilder, Jenny
Participation throughout one's life plays a significant role for development and emotional well-being. For this reason, there is a need to identify ways to facilitate participation in family activities for children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The study design was qualitative and explorative, based on semi structured interviews with 11 parents and 9 personal assistants of children with PIMD. The interviews revealed participation-facilitating strategies relating to the children's/adolescent's proximal environment, such as "Availability and acceptability of the activity", "Good knowledge about the child" and a "A positive attitude of people close to the child", as well as strategies related to the children/adolescents themselves: "Sense of belonging", "Possible for the child/adolescent to understand", "Opportunities to influence" and "Feeling of being needed". Children and adolescents with PIMD are dependent on support obtained through their environment. The identified strategies, individually adapted through awareness and knowledge by the parents and the personal assistants, provide important evidence to assist our understanding in gaining understanding about how to improve participation in family activities of children and adolescents with PIMD. Participation-facilitating strategies related to the child/adolescent and his or her proximal environments are identified to improve participation in children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Examples of strategies for the child's/adolescents' proximal environment include "good knowledge about the child/adolescent", and, for the child/adolescent, include creating "sense of belonging" and "opportunities to influence". Identifying and making these strategies explicit may assist in enhancing the participation of children and adolescents with PIMD in family activities. People in the child's/adolescent's proximal environment need to set
Woolderink, Marla; Bindels, Jill A P M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Paulus, Aggie T G; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Schayck, Onno C P
Mental illnesses affect many people around the world, either directly or indirectly. Families of persons suffering from mental illness or addiction suffer too, especially their children. In the Netherlands, 864,000 parents meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness or addiction. Evidence shows that offspring of mentally ill or addicted parents are at risk for developing mental disorders or illnesses themselves. The Kopstoring course is an online 8-week group course with supervision by 2 trained psychologists or social workers, aimed to prevent behavioral and psychological problems for children (aged 16 to 25 years) of parents with mental health problems or addictions. The course addresses themes such as roles in the family and mastery skills. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Kopstoring course. The aim was to gain knowledge about expectations, experiences, and perspectives of participants and providers of the online Kopstoring course. A process evaluation was performed to evaluate the online delivery of Kopstoring and the experiences and perspectives of participants and providers of Kopstoring. Interviews were performed with members from both groups. Participants were drawn from a sample from the Kopstoring RCT. Thirteen participants and 4 providers were interviewed. Five main themes emerged from these interviews: background, the requirements for the intervention, experience with the intervention, technical aspects, and research aspects. Overall, participants and providers found the intervention to be valuable because it was online; therefore, protecting their anonymity was considered a key component. Most barriers existed in the technical sphere. Additional barriers existed with conducting the RCT, namely gathering informed consent and gathering parental consent in the case of minors. This study provides valuable insight into participants' and providers' experiences and expectations with the online
Full Text Available This article addresses one of the great issues about which global media remains silent: the rape of Muslim women by U.S. soldiers in Iraq. Contemporary mediascape is prolix. But some silences remain, such as the issue of rape during war. With an anthropological approach to the meaning of war and through the analysis of images, the article focuses on the participation of women in this male space.
Bastawrous, Marina; Gignac, Monique A; Kapral, Moira K; Cameron, Jill I
To qualitatively explore daughters' experiences with and response to holding multiple roles while providing post-stroke care to a parent. Qualitative study using a descriptive approach. Semi-structured interviewing was used. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed to develop themes. General community of a metropolitan city. Twenty-three adult daughters caring for a community-dwelling parent who had suffered a stroke. Not applicable. Not applicable. Role overload is a salient issue for daughter caregivers. This overload is best captured by the analogy of "juggling" multiple role demands and responsibilities. Two key themes suggest that role overload resulting from parent care affects daughters': 1) valued relationships (e.g. challenges develop in their relationship with children and partner); and 2) ability to participate in valued activities (e.g. reduced involvement in leisure activities and restricted employment). Future support efforts should help daughters manage the caregiving role in light of other responsibilities. This can mitigate overload-related strain in valued relationships and decreased participation in valued activities, thereby contributing to better health and well-being for daughter caregivers. © The Author(s) 2014.
Clark, General Wesley; Mann, Michael
Michael Mann documents the increasing substitution of war for diplomacy by US policy elites. In part, the substitution has come about because of ideological change but also because the "Military-Industrial-Congressional Complex" maintains a high level of military spending due to the fact that most congressional districts receive some form of military expenditure from bases to munitions production. General Wesley Clark considers foreign policy under the Bush administration. He argues ...
Treball final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs academic 2015-2016 A currency war (also known as the competitive depreciation or a policy of impoverish the neighbor) occurs when a country wants to obtain a competitive advantage which improve its trade balancethrough a series of changes in its currency. With these currency movements exports become cheaper for foreigners while imports become more expensive for residents in the own nation. These advantages produce strong...
Vries, Martine Charlotte de
Few medical specialties encounter so many ethical challenges as pediatrics does. It is a specialty that inherently has features that are morally charged. Pediatric ethics examines the broad issues of (1) the concept of the child’s best interest; (2) parental responsibility and authority in decision-making about the life and health of a child; (3) the emerging desire and capacity for self-determination of an older child, and (4) the professional obligation of a pediatrician to act in the best ...
There are a plethora of social problems present throughout theworld in which America has deemed a type of ‘war.’ Some of theseunconventional wars include: The War on Poverty presented in 1964; The War on Drugs announced in 1971; The War on Cancer commencing in1971; The War Against Illiteracy beginning in the 1970s; and afterSeptember 11, 2001 The War on Terror was announced (Raz, 2008).These contemporary ‘wars’ have transformed the meaning of the word‘war.’ Labeling these missions ‘wars,’ pre...
Purtell, Kelly M; McLoyd, Vonnie C
Planning and preparing for life after high school is a central developmental task of American adolescents, and may be even more critical for low-income youth who are less likely to attend a four year college. This study investigates factors that led to the effects of the New Hope Project, a work-based, anti-poverty program directed at parents on youths' career-related thoughts and planning. The New Hope project was implemented in Milwaukee, WI, during the mid-1990s. 745 families participated (52% male children; 56% African American; 30% Latino, and 15% White non-Hispanic) and half were randomly selected to receive New Hope benefits, which included earnings supplements, job search assistance, and child and health care subsidies for 3 years. Importantly, effects on youths' future orientation were found 8 years after the program began (5 years after benefits ended). The present study investigates what factors sustained these positive impacts over time. Results indicate that parental perceptions of reading performance mediate the effects of New Hope on youths' cynicism about work. Additionally, parental perceptions of reading performance and youths' educational expectations mediate the effects of New Hope on boys' pessimism about future employment. These findings highlight the importance of youths' educational development to their career-related thoughts and planning.
Daily actions, challenges, and needs among Dutch parents while supporting the participation of their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community : a qualitative diary study
Piškur, Barbara; Beurskens, Anna J H M; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Jongmans, Marian; Casparie, Barbara M; Smeets, Rob J E M
BACKGROUND: Parents have a vital influence on the participation of their child with a physical disability. The aim of this study is to gain insight into parents' own daily actions, challenges, and needs while supporting their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community.
Daily actions, challenges, and needs among Dutch parents while supporting the participation of their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community : A qualitative diary study
Piškur, Barbara; Beurskens, Anna J H M; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Jongmans, Marian J.; Casparie, Barbara M.; Smeets, Rob J E M
Background: Parents have a vital influence on the participation of their child with a physical disability. The aim of this study is to gain insight into parents' own daily actions, challenges, and needs while supporting their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community.
Foster, Stuart J.; Rosch, Richard
Outlines a multicultural approach to World War I that emphasizes the truly international character of the war, in which many soldiers and support workers from European colonies were compelled to participate. Discusses the fighting in East Africa and Asia, as well as, the contributions of the Indian Expeditionary Forces. (MJP)
International discussions of transboundary pollution, which have not been able to find a way to effect the agreed-upon principle that no nation should have to suffer another nation's pollution, parallel the smog wars across state boundaries. The states, however, can blame the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as each other because of relaxed and unevenly applied standards. Several EPA decisions are cited to illustrate tensions between states and the alienation of the environmental lobby. Of particular concern are the application of smog and ozone standards in rural areas and the effect of offset policy on industrial development.
... and children who may be at risk of domestic violence, the operating entity must consult with domestic violence prevention and intervention organizations in the development of its WtW project serving... school, (B) Earning a general equivalency degree, or (C) Participating in other education directly...
Aviad-Wilchek, Yael; Cohenca-Shiby, Diana; Sasson, Yehuda
This paper examines symptoms of anxiety and depression of Holocaust survivors' (HS) offspring as a function of their parents' age, gender, and survival situation (whether the survivor parent was alone or with a relative during the war). The 180 adults (142 with two parent survivors; 38 with a single parent survivor) who participated in this study completed (a) a measure of state-trait anxiety, (b) a measure of depression symptoms, (c) a sociodemographic questionnaire was divided into three sections: information about the participant, about his mother and about his father. Participants whose mothers were aged 18 or younger during the war and survived alone report more symptoms of anxiety and depression than participants whose mothers were the same age yet survived in the company of relatives. Participants whose mothers were aged 19 or older and survived either alone or in the company of relatives, exhibited fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. The survival situation was the only predictor related to the fathers. There were no significant differences between participants with one or two HS parents. Although this study is based on a relatively small sample, it highlights the relationship between the parents' survival situation and symptoms of anxiety and depression among their offspring.
Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in “Incredible Years,” an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012
Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B.; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M.
Introduction Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos’ barriers and facilitators to participating in “Incredible Years” (IY), a parenting program. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Results Parents’ perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents’ most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians’ offices, and churches. Conclusion Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population. PMID:26491813
Emilia Bea Pérez
Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo analiza la participación de Simone Weil en la Guerra Civil española (en la columna Durruti durante el mes de agosto de 1936 como un momento crucial de su evolución personal e intelectual. Esta experiencia repercutirá en su reflexión sobre la barbarie, en la elaboración de la noción de fuerza y en la búsqueda de una resistencia activa frente a la dinámica de la lucha por el poder y de la violencia. ABSTRACT: This essay analyses Simone Weil’s participation in the Spanish Civil War (in the Durruti column, August 1936 and interprets it as a crucial moment in her personal and intellectual evolution. This experience will have an impact on Weil’s reflection on barbarism, her elaboration of the notion of force and her searching for an active resistance to the dynamics of the struggle for power and violence.
MA. Eglantina Kraja
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescent children of veterans of the war in Kosovo (1998-1999. The results of this study are quite interesting from the perspective of the dilemma for the state of the children of veterans even 15 years after the war ended. Parents’ emotional problems affect the functioning of the family in general and children in particular. Children can react to symptoms of parents by developing different symptoms as trouble sleeping, appetite loss, emotional instability or even problems in development, according to research done on children's reactions to the problems of parents explained by interactions between environment, brain and behaviour driven by trauma. The results of this study have shown that the internalizing problems have not shown gender differences, meantime externalizing problems were found higher in male participants. An interesting finding of this study was the highest scores of emotional problems in children born before and during the war, compare to those born after the war ended. We also found that anxiety problems in children [R2= .83, p < .001] were a significant predictor of internalizing problems. The assessment of the scale of positive qualities [R2= .19, p < .001] was also found to be a significant predictor for externalizing problems.Only 0.8% of the variance of internalizing problems was explained by the income. Considering that the subject of this study were adolescent children of war veterans of the 1999 conflict in Kosovo, we must take into account that the post-traumatic stress disorder is a very frequent problem among war veterans and that its impact on their personal and family life cannot be overlooked.
Gore, Deborah, Ed.
This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…
by McCarty Little in 1912 continues today. Others have also contributed to war gaming scholarship. McHugh (1966), a NWC war gamer from the mid-1930s...select areas of particular interest to the sponsor ( McHugh , 1966). The game-specific purposes, more recently referred to as objectives, are discrete...no intent to try to win. Such a design is used mainly to promote participant learning ( McHugh , 1966). Scenario A game scenario is the scenic
Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…
The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...
Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; colonial wars in V.; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various...... culture wars – hippies against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland and Inherent Vice; and the war on terror in Bleeding Edge. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only political or military but also social...... and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order; from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic missiles of the cold war, the irregular engagements of terrorism and counter-terrorism, and the digitalized fall-out of cyber-warfare....
Full Text Available Early intervention and early support are actions aimed at a child with disturbed development and their families. The emergence of any developmental disorders in a child is always a stressful situation and demanding changes and taking action to support parents. The resource enabling one to get additional help is the social network of the family. The quality of services depends on the size and category of persons that compose it. It should be borne in mind that focusing solely on the rehabilitation of the child – taking for granted the needs of the remaining family members – may lead over time to the dysfunction of the whole family. Restrictions that appear and result from the child’s disability, create a real threat of marginalising or even exclusion of the family from social life. It is unable to overcome the crisis without any help, therefore the actions of family support networks also play an important role. The main objective of this article centred around the information on the relationship between the size of a support network, the kind of the disorder in children and strategies for coping with stress in parents of children participating in the process of early support or early intervention. The study covered 93 parents. The Map and Questionnaire of Social Support of Zdzisław Bizoń and Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress – Brief COPE were applied. Analysis of the results showed no significant correlation between the two variables. The applied statistical analysis allowed us to identify the most commonly used strategies to cope with stress by parents and enabled us to characterise the size of the network and the categories of people who create it. The article ends with conclusions concerning the areas of practical actions under early intervention.
van Bergen, L
Georg Friedrich Nicolai was a German professor and heart specialist who was one of the few who protested against the war at the beginning of World War I. As a result, he lost his job and was convicted. After the war, right-wing nationalist students and lack of support from his university superiors made it impossible for him to teach. He left Germany in 1922, never to return. In his book, Die Biologie des Krieges (The Biology of War), which was published in neutral Switzerland in 1917, he contradicted the social Darwinist idea - supported by many physicians as well - that war strengthened humanity, people and races, physically and mentally. On the contrary, he argued, war is biologically counterproductive.
Arguments in favor of increased parental involvement, particularly in nursery education, are presented. Opposition to participation from parents and teachers is discussed and specific areas in which cooperation might be possible are suggested along with different levels of participation. (JMF)
Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.
This book addresses the ecological, agricultural, and human effects of nuclear war. The topics covered include: Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war; Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects on nuclear war; Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems; Potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity; Food availability after nuclear war; and Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Enrique Plasencia de la Parra
Full Text Available This paper analyses the participation of Mexican and Mexican- American troops in the United States army during World War II. Recruiting, discrimination, their role in the armed forces and their reinsertion into society once the war ended, are examined. Special emphasis is placed on the Hispanics fight for their civil and political rights that was carried on very actively by many War veterans.
Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava
There is an ongoing debate regarding the intergenerational transmission of Holocaust trauma to the third generation (TGH). However, due to the rareness of this population, there are no studies that have examined TGH individuals whose fathers were also victims of war-related trauma and captivity. This prospective study aimed to assess the role of parents' Holocaust background, fathers' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and adult offspring's anxiety sensitivity (AS) in adult offspring's PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology. A sample of 123 Israeli father-child dyads (42 TGH and 71 non-TGH), that included 80 former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) dyads and a comparison group of 44 veteran dyads, completed AS, PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology self-report measures. Fathers were assessed 17 years following the Yom Kippur War (T1: 2008) while offspring took part in T2 (2013-2014). Surprisingly, results show that TGH participants reported lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology than non-TGH participants, regardless of their fathers' captivity status. Interestingly, a moderated mediation analysis indicated that offspring's AS mediated the association between Holocaust background and participants' PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology, only among ex-POWs' offspring. This study provides evidence for relatively lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology among TGH individuals whose fathers were war veterans. Ex-POWs' adult offspring who are grandchildren of Holocaust survivors reported lower levels of AS that was related to lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war
Chalder, T; Hotopf, M; Unwin, C; Hull, L; Ismail, K; David, A; Wessely, S
Objectives To determine how many veterans in a random sample of British veterans who served in the Gulf war believe they have “Gulf war syndrome,” to examine factors associated with the presence of this belief, and to compare the health status of those who believe they have Gulf war syndrome with those who do not. Design Questionnaire study asking British Gulf war veterans whether they believe they have Gulf war syndrome and about symptoms, fatigue, psychological distress, post-traumatic stress, physical functioning, and their perception of health. Participants 2961 respondents to questionnaires sent out to a random sample of 4250 Gulf war veterans (69.7%). Main outcome measure The proportion of veterans who believe they have Gulf war syndrome. Results Overall, 17.3% (95% confidence interval 15.9 to 18.7) of the respondents believed they had Gulf war syndrome. The belief was associated with the veteran having poor health, not serving in the army when responding to the questionnaire, and having received a high number of vaccinations before deployment to the Gulf. The strongest association was knowing another person who also thought they had Gulf war syndrome. Conclusions Substantial numbers of British Gulf war veterans believe they have Gulf war syndrome, which is associated with psychological distress, a high number of symptoms, and some reduction in activity levels. A combination of biological, psychological, and sociological factors are associated with the belief, and these factors should be addressed in clinical practice. What is already known on this topicThe term Gulf war syndrome has been used to describe illnesses and symptoms experienced by veterans of the 1991 Gulf warConcerns exist over the validity of Gulf war syndrome as a unique entityWhat this study adds17% of Gulf war veterans believe they have Gulf war syndromeHolding the belief is associated with worse health outcomesKnowing someone else who believes they have Gulf war syndrome and receiving
Gewirtz, Abigail H; Pinna, Keri L M; Hanson, Sheila K; Brockberg, Dustin
The high operational tempo of the current conflicts and the unprecedented reliance on National Guard and Reserve forces highlights the need for services to promote reintegration efforts for those transitioning back to civilian family life. Despite evidence that parenting has significant influence on children's functioning, and that parenting may be impaired during stressful family transitions, there is a dearth of empirically supported psychological interventions tailored for military families reintegrating after deployment. This article reports on the modification of an empirically supported parenting intervention for families in which a parent has deployed to war. A theoretical rationale for addressing parenting during reintegration after deployment is discussed. We describe the intervention, After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT), and report early feasibility and acceptability data from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of ADAPT, a 14-week group-based, Web-enhanced parenting training program. Among the first 42 families assigned to the intervention group, participation rates were high, and equal among mothers and fathers. Satisfaction was high across all 14 sessions. Implications for psychological services to military families dealing with the deployment process are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.
Muck, Andrew E; Givens, Melissa; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Mason, Phillip E; Goolsby, Craig
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs) fully participated as an integrated part of the military's health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM) training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.
Full Text Available Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs fully participated as an integrated part of the military’s health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.
Werner, Emmy E
This article reviews and reflects on studies that have explored the effects of war on children around the world. Most are cross-sectional and based on self-reports. They describe a range of mental health problems, related to dose effects and to the negative impact of being a victim or witness of violent acts, threats to and loss of loved ones, prolonged parental absence, and forced displacement. The more recent the exposure to war, and the older the child, the higher was the likelihood of reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Especially vulnerable to long-term emotional distress were child soldiers, children who were raped, and children who had been forcibly displaced. In adulthood, war-traumatized children displayed significantly increased risks for a wide range of medical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases. Among protective factors that moderated the impact of war-related adversities in children were a strong bond between the primary caregiver and the child, the social support of teachers and peers, and a shared sense of values. Among the few documented intervention studies for children of war, school-based interventions, implemented by teachers or locally trained paraprofessionals, proved to be a feasible and low-cost alternative to individual or group therapy. More longitudinal research with multiple informants is needed to document the trajectories of risk and resilience in war-affected children, to assess their long-term development and mental health, and to identify effective treatment approaches.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parent or parents. 1651.7 Section 1651.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.7 Parent or parents. If the account is to be paid to the participant's parent or parents under § 1651.2(a)(4), the following...
War history as a modern historic discipline is by far no longer a mere history of arms technique or a chronicle of battles. It deals with the change of warfare, shows how the wars of the various ages had determined society, and vice versay investigates the influence of social, economic, and -concerning mentality-historical changes on war. With this survey, which covers the period between the Middle Ages and the recent past, the author has presented a small masterpiece of the history of war. A book like this is particularly important and instructive in a time when all depends on the preventing of wars. (orig.) [de
Daily actions, challenges, and needs among Dutch parents while supporting the participation of their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community: a qualitative diary study.
Piškur, Barbara; Beurskens, Anna J H M; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Jongmans, Marian J; Casparie, Barbara M; Smeets, Rob J E M
Parents have a vital influence on the participation of their child with a physical disability. The aim of this study is to gain insight into parents' own daily actions, challenges, and needs while supporting their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community. An additional objective of this study is to refine the preliminary thematic framework previously identified in a scoping review. A qualitative research inquiry was performed based on using a diary over a 7-day period to gather data. To systematically organise data into a structured format, content analysis has been applied using both inductive and deductive reasoning guided by the existing preliminary thematic framework. Analysis of the eligible diaries shows that the actions mentioned by the 47 parents describe several efforts to enhance participation of their children with a physical disability by using, enabling, or changing the social and physical environment, or by supporting their child to perform or engage in meaningful activities. Those parents' actions are primarily a result of challenges caused by restrictions in social and physical environments. Parental responses highlighted, above all, the need for environments designed for all people. Based on the findings a redefined thematic framework is presented. Parents' actions, challenges, and needs are mainly directed towards the social or/and physical environment. The presented thematic framework can offer practitioners knowledge to support parents. More work is necessary to provide tailored approaches. Paediatric rehabilitation may need to address the importance of the environment on the participation of a child with a physical disability.
Magdalena El Ghamari
Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".
This study set out to explore the contribution of parents' own school memories to the way they remembered their child's school years and took part in his/her schooling. The respondents were a group of academically and vocationally educated fathers and mothers (N = 326), who participated in a full 9-year follow-up study of their child's schooling.…
Tucker, Vanessa E.
Parents and school administrators are both stakeholders in the IEP (Individualized Education Plan) process. While the inclusion of parents in the process as full members is mandated by IDEA 2004 there remains a growing problem of conflict within this process. Research has reviewed the process of conflict during the IEP meeting and other…
Full Text Available Aside from documentary films of the First World War, fiction films may be categorized as period films, cinematic aptations of classic war novels, and, much the greatest in number, fiction films made after the war. The period films are useful for their clues to public attitudes during or in the decades immediately after the conflict. For example, silent films made during the war, like D.W. Griffith’s Hearts of the World (1918, which used actual footage, were propaganda evidently intended to induce the United States to progress from economic assistance to active military participation on the side of the Allies. The story of the young man, Ben Herron, going off to war would become typical in fiction films made thereafter, since such stories have elements that a mass audience, many of whom had fathers, sons, husbands, brothers, etc. in the military, can actually identify with. As propaganda, such movies—and this would be the case with the Second World War even more—may serve an important political end, by arguably having a much greater influence on public consciousness than official government propaganda, which usually arouses more suspicion. In fact, the US government during both world wars would make a direct appeal to Hollywood producers.
This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....
Full Text Available Aside from documentary films of the First World War, fiction films may be categorized as period films, cinematic aptations of classic war novels, and, much the greatest in number, fiction films made after the war. The period films are useful for their clues to public attitudes during or in the decades immediately after the conflict. For example, silent films made during the war, like D.W. Griffith’s Hearts of the World (1918, which used actual footage, were propaganda evidently intended to induce the United States to progress from economic assistance to active military participation on the side of the Allies. The story of the young man, Ben Herron, going off to war would become typical in fiction films made thereafter, since such stories have elements that a mass audience, many of whom had fathers, sons, husbands, brothers, etc. in the military, can actually identify with. As propaganda, such movies—and this would be the case with the Second World War even more—may serve an important political end, by arguably having a much greater influence on public consciousness than official government propaganda, which usually arouses more suspicion. In fact, the US government during both world wars would make a direct appeal to Hollywood producers. Aside from documentary films of the First World War, fiction films may be categorized as period films, cinematic aptations of classic war novels, and, much the greatest in number, fiction films made after the war. The period films are useful for their clues to public attitudes during or in the decades immediately after the conflict. For example, silent films made during the war, like D.W. Griffith’s Hearts of the World (1918, which used actual footage, were propaganda evidently intended to induce the United States to progress from economic assistance to active military participation on the side of the Allies. The story of the young man, Ben Herron, going off to war would become typical in fiction films
Full Text Available Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conﬂicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion scales in the Russian army explained as objective factors - diﬃ cult ﬁghts, shortage of supply, defeat at the front, and subjective - unwillingness to participate in war, melancholy for the house, desire to help a family the work. Desertion in diﬀerent years of war had various forms. If at the beginning of war there were mainly «self-arrows», in 1915, during defeats at the front - evasion from entrenchments. By the end of 1916, because of the general fatigue from war, desertion takes the real form - ﬂight from the front to the back. After February revolution desertion becomes mass in which hundreds thousands military personnel take part already. Disorder of army and development of revolutionary process extremely strengthen desertion scales that is explained by the actual lack of punishment for this crime. Destruction of the Russian state during revolution became the main reason of coming to power of Bolsheviks, an exit of Russia from war and the army demobilization which essential part in 1917 already deserted from the front.
Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger
This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....
Bas, Muhammet Ali; Coe, A. J.
The authors present a model of the relationship between the spread of new military technologies and the occurrence of war. A new technology could shift the balance of power, causing anticipatory war as one side tries to prevent the other from obtaining it. When one side already has it, war is more likely when the shift in power is large, likely, and durable. When neither side has it, war is more likely when the expected shift is asymmetric (e.g., one side is more likely to get it) and when th...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental palliative disease is a family affair, however adolescent's well-being and coping are still rarely considered. The objectives of this paper were a to identify differences in psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL among adolescents and young adults with parents suffering from palliative cancer or cancers in other disease stages, b to relate psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life to adolescent coping, and c to explore significant mediator and predictor variables. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from a multi-site research study of families before child-centered counselling. N=86 adolescents and young adults were included, their mean age 13.78 years (sd 2.45, 56% being female. Performed analyses included ANCOVA, multiple linear regression, and mediation analysis. Results Adolescents with parents suffering from palliative cancers reported significantly less total psychosocial problems, and better overall HRQoL. There were no significant group differences regarding coping frequency and efficacy. Our set of coping items significantly mediated the effect of parental disease stage on psychosocial problems and HRQoL. Further, parental disease status and general family functioning predicted psychosocial problems (R2adj =.390 and HRQoL (R2adj =.239 best. Conclusion The study indicates distress among adolescents throughout the entire parental disease process. Our analysis suggests that counselling services could offer supportive interventions which focus particularly on adolescent coping as well as family functioning.
Musser, William G.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis asks two questions: 1) What factors have contributed to the termination of recent United States wars? and 2) How can elements of national power be applied successfully to terminate the future wars of the United States? To answer these questions, this thesis offers a model of war termination and applies it to cases of war termination, in the Gulf War and in Kosovo. These case studies indicate that termination of future wars ...
Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Peltonen, Kirsi; Diab, Marwan; Qouta, Samir R
Post traumatic cognitions (PTCs) are important determinants of post traumatic stress symptoms (PTS symptoms). We tested whether risk factors of PTS symptoms (trauma, demographics, social and family-related factors) predict PTCs and whether PTCs mediate the association between risk factors and PTS symptoms among war-affected children. The participants were 240 Palestinian children 10-12 years old, half boys and half girls, and their parents. Children reported about psychological maltreatment, sibling and peer relations, war trauma, PTCs, PTS symptoms, and depression. Parents reported about their socioeconomic status and their own PTS symptoms. The associations between the variables were estimated in structural equation models. In models which included all the variables, PTCs were predicted by and mediated the effects of psychological maltreatment, war trauma, sibling conflict, and peer unpopularity on PTS symptoms. Other predictors had statistically non-significant effects. Psychological maltreatment had the largest indirect effect (b* = 0.29, p = 0.002) and the indirect effects of war trauma (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), sibling conflict (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), and peer unpopularity (b* = 0.10, p = 0.094) were lower and about the same size. Age-salient social relationships are potentially important in the development of both PTCs and PTS symptoms among preadolescents. Furthermore, PTCs mediate the effects of the risk factors of PTS symptoms. The causality of the associations among the variables is not established but it could be studied in the future with interventions which improve the negative aspects of traumatized children's important social relationships.
In this essay Emily Hager presents an example of conflict education through student journalism. War News Radio is a student-organized and student-produced program developed at Swarthmore College in which participants produce for a global audience nonpartisan weekly radio shows and podcasts focused on the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Hager shares…
Apr 4, 2013 ... and the parents and healthcare providers' views on hospitalised children being visited ... because it promotes healing, gives the sick child psychological satisfaction and ..... Mental Health in Early Post-Second World War.
Full Text Available The so called ′non-culpable ignorance′ is an instrument to justify participating in a war on a defeated side, on condition that fighters sincerely believe that they are defending a just cause and had some valid reasons to believe in having a chance to win. Within the just war theory this instrument is needed to make both sides prima facie right, otherwise the theory would imply that those who lose are guilty in advance, especially if they are the weaker side. However, in contemporary context of criminalizing war the very concept of war is changing and becoming extremely vague. As wars are more and more ′asymmetric′, just war theory might face serious challenges regarding incorporation of ′non-culpable ignorance′ within its scope, as well as difficulties in showing that justice goes with the victory, opening thus the issues of articulation of a just peace.
Karl Marx trumpeted in the nineteenth century and that contributed to the ruthless and mur- derous civil wars characterizing so much of the blood...occurs, in 431 bC, greece is teetering on the brink of a long-awaited war between athens and sparta. the thebans decide to capitalize on that fact to
Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...
.... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...
Becker, Patti Clayton
Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)
Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)
This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...
Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.
Gurdogan-Bayir, Omur; Bozkurt, Mahmut
The purpose of this study was to reveal the perceptions of preservice teachers with war experience regarding war, peace and peace education. In the study, the phenomenological design was applied. The participants of the study were individuals who experienced wars or conflicts for several reasons in their countries and who received teacher training…
Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E.
The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9% female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4% female...
Dillard, Denise; Jacobsen, Clemma; Ramsey, Scott; Manson, Spero
This study examined whether conduct disorder (CD) was associated with war zone stress and war-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in American Indian (AI) Vietnam veterans. Cross-sectional lay-interview data was analyzed for 591 male participants from the American Indian Vietnam Veterans Project. Logistic regression evaluated the association of CD with odds of high war zone stress and linear regression evaluated the association of CD and PTSD symptom severity. Childhood CD was not associated with increased odds of high war zone stress. Conduct disorder was associated with elevated war-related PTSD symptoms among male AI Vietnam Veterans independent of war zone stress level and other mediators. Future efforts should examine reasons for this association and if the association exists in other AI populations.
Goodwin, Sarah Christine
This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…
Purtell, Kelly M.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
Planning and preparing for life after high school is a central developmental task of American adolescents, and may be even more critical for low-income youth who are less likely to attend a four year college. This study investigates factors that led to the effects of the New Hope Project, a work-based, anti-poverty program directed at parents on…
Hemrica, J.C.; Heyting, G.F.
This article reports on a reconstruction of some major pragmatic presuppositions in recent Dutch and English discussions in scientific media about the say children should have in devising settlements after parental divorce. Pragmatic presuppositions - such views as discussants implicitly assume to
Hemrica, Jantine; Heyting, Frieda
This article reports on a reconstruction of some major pragmatic presuppositions in recent Dutch and English discussions in scientific media about the say children should have in devising settlements after parental divorce. Pragmatic presuppositions - such views as discussants implicitly assume to be taken for granted by their audience - were…
Woolderink, Marla; Bindels, Jill A. P. M.; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.; Paulus, Aggie T. G.; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.
Background: Mental illnesses affect many people around the world, either directly or indirectly. Families of persons suffering from mental illness or addiction suffer too, especially their children. In the Netherlands, 864,000 parents meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness or addiction.
Badri, Alia; Van den Borne, H W; Crutzen, Rik
This paper presents the personal accounts of Darfuri students studying at Ahfad University for Women in Omdurman, Sudan. Their war-related exposure, current ongoing life challenges, emotional distress, and coping strategies were explored using a semistructured interview protocol with a sample of 20 students. Through interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), the Darfuri students' stories illustrated that they were exposed to an array of traumatic war events, including personal experiences of parental separation, injury and death of family members, and shortages of essential life-sustaining supplies in internally displaced camps. Also, they were confronted with myriad current life hassles and urban-cultural challenges, including being physically distant from their families, and losing the shelter of parents, the encouragement of extended family members, and their rich and familiar social support networks. Urban-cultural challenges and lack of environmental mastery applied to most Darfuri participants as they relocated to Omdurman city, which included negotiating an unfamiliar transport system, learning the routes and directions to important city landmarks, and insufficient funds for basic hygienic essentials. Emotional distress reactions were coded by forming two distinct lists: directly mentioned by the participant; and observations of emotional manifestation during the interview. Patterns emerged that may be similar to symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders; for example, the DSM-IV criteria for symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and major depression. Strong religious practices and beliefs (such as praying and reading the Quran), ability to form interpersonal relationships, availability of social support networks, and a positive future outlook seemed to augment their ability to cope with their subsequent emotional distress owing to war-related exposures, current ongoing life hassles and urban-cultural challenges.
..., The squadron's participation in the famous Doolittle raid on Tokyo is examined along with a brief description of the planes they flew during the war, the B-25 and the B-26, The bulk of the report covers...
This volume brings together a group of interdisciplinary experts who demonstrate that Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes is a text of continuing relevance and value for exploring ancient, contemporary and comparative issues of war and its attendant trauma. The volume features contributions from...... an international cast of experts, as well as a conversation with a retired U.S. Army Lt. Col., giving her perspectives on the blending of reality and fiction in Aeschylus’ war tragedies and on the potential of Greek tragedy to speak to contemporary veterans. This book is a fascinating resource for anyone...... interested in Aeschylus, Greek tragedy and its reception, and war literature....
Brennan, Matthew Philip
The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...
Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...... included within humanity. Conversely, focusing on how these techniques are being questioned within the work, I will discuss the resistance potential of what I will refer to as practices of subjectivization. Eventually, I will seek to position the “war-critical” strategy of the work within a broader context...... of the late modern war paradigm....
Johannessen, Larry R.
The nonfiction literature of the Vietnam War is accessible and engaging to students, and it deals with issues that speaks to students in powerful ways. In addition, the literature can help students better understand their parents and grandparents and the effect on them of the Vietnam War. A number of teachers who have taught the nonfiction…
Duray, Jr, Paul H
Prior to the current Global War on Terror (GWOT), the United States military had not participated in occupation and military governance mission on as a massive a scale as that experienced in World War II...
De Nutte, Leen; Okello, James; Derluyn, Ilse
Although social relationships and social support are salient factors for post-war adolescents' psychosocial coping and adjustment, there is only limited information regarding war-affected adolescents' views on social support and the relationships within which social support is provided. This study therefore explored both elements among a clinical sample of 20 adolescents living in post-war Northern Uganda. Following Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis, we found a prominent role of the biological mother and other primary biological family members in the upbringing of our participants. Spiritual and material support were perceived to be the most important type of support, respectively, while the adolescents were growing up and in their current lives. These findings provide support for the perception that caregiving systems are adaptable to particular sociocultural contexts. Further, the importance of particular functions of social support could signify a potentially selective buffering effect of these functions in adverse contexts. Because of the importance of the primary biological family and the salient role of parent-child relationships in the face of adversity, future research needs to focus on this particular kind of social relationship in contexts of prolonged collective violence. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Elbogen, Eric B; Johnson, Sally C; Newton, Virginia M; Fuller, Sara; Wagner, H Ryan; Beckham, Jean C
This study, using a longitudinal design, attempted to identify whether self-reported problems with violence were empirically associated with future violent behavior among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans and whether and how collateral informant interviews enhanced the risk assessment process. Data were gathered from N = 300 participants (n = 150 dyads of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans and family/friends). The veterans completed baseline and follow-up interviews 3 years later on average, and family/friends provided collateral data on dependent measures at follow-up. Analyses showed that aggression toward others at follow-up was associated with younger age, posttraumatic stress disorder, combat exposure, and a history of having witnessed parental violence growing up. Self-reported problems controlling violence at baseline had robust statistical power in predicting aggression toward others at follow-up. Collateral report enhanced detection of dependent variables: 20% of cases positive for violence toward others would have been missed relying only on self-report. The results identify a subset of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans at higher risk for problematic postdeployment adjustment and indicate that the veterans' self-report of violence was useful in predicting future aggression. Underreporting of violence was not evidenced by most veterans but could be improved upon by obtaining collateral information.
Full Text Available The current field study uses data collected after the 2009 war between Israel and the Hamas militias in the Gaza Strip ended. The study compares recalled emotions and perceived risks among two groups of students, all of whom were exposed to rocket attacks. Individuals in the ``left the war zone'' group left the region under attack as a precautionary action, while the ``stayed in the war zone'' group remained in the region during war. The results indicate no significant differences in the levels of recalled fear and anger between the two groups, while the perceived self-risk from terror was higher among the ``stayed in the war zone'' group. Yet, a higher level of recalled fear was found among those who left the war zone and whose parents resided in the war zone, compared to those who left the war zone and whose parents resided outside the war zone. In addition, fearful people became more pessimistic about their level of personal risk from terror, but not about the routine risks. We conclude that civilians need attention even if they leave the war zone since leaving the attacked region as a precautionary action may mitigate perceived self-risk from terror but does not seem to eliminate the high level of negative emotions evoked by the terror attacks.
Matanov, Aleksandra; Giacco, Domenico; Bogic, Marija; Ajdukovic, Dean; Franciskovic, Tanja; Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Morina, Nexhmedin; Popovski, Mihajlo; Schützwohl, Matthias; Priebe, Stefan
Exposure to traumatic war events may lead to a reduction in quality of life for many years. Research suggests that these impairments may be associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, wars also have a profound impact on social conditions. Systematic studies utilising subjective quality of life (SQOL) measures are particularly rare and research in post-conflict settings is scarce. Whether social factors independently affect SQOL after war in addition to symptoms has not been explored in large scale studies. War-affected community samples were recruited through a random-walk technique in five Balkan countries and through registers and networking in three Western European countries. The interviews were carried out on average 8 years after the war in the Balkans. SQOL was assessed on Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life--MANSA. We explored the impact of war events, posttraumatic stress symptoms and post-war environment on SQOL. We interviewed 3313 Balkan residents and 854 refugees in Western Europe. The MANSA mean score was 4.8 (SD = 0.9) for the Balkan sample and 4.7 (SD = 0.9) for refugees. In both samples participants were explicitly dissatisfied with their employment and financial situation. Posttraumatic stress symptoms had a strong negative impact on SQOL. Traumatic war events were directly linked with lower SQOL in Balkan residents. The post-war environment influenced SQOL in both groups: unemployment was associated with lower SQOL and recent contacts with friends with higher SQOL. Experiencing more migration-related stressors was linked to poorer SQOL in refugees. Both posttraumatic stress symptoms and aspects of the post-war environment independently influence SQOL in war-affected populations. Aid programmes to improve wellbeing following the traumatic war events should include both treatment of posttraumatic symptoms and social interventions.
Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein
This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....
countries, African decision makers nonetheless began to reconsider the role and place of military ..... challenged the war—ﬁghting paradigm for armed forces or the 2003 Gulf ..... Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. Evans ...
Reflects upon two attributes common to children from many countries who have known nothing but war--the absence of revenge and the belief in God. Considers how they differ from the older generation in these respects. (CMG)
Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.
Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...
Ballard, Jaime; Wieling, Elizabeth; Forgatch, Marion
Parents and children exposed to war and relocation have high rates of negative relational and mental health outcomes. This study tested the feasibility of implementing an adapted evidence-based parenting intervention for contexts of trauma and relocation stress. Eleven Karen refugee caregivers from Burma participated in the intervention. Participants and a focal child completed ethnographic interviews as well as structured assessments at baseline and follow-up. Caregivers reported changes in their teaching, directions, emotional regulation, discipline, and child compliance. Children reported changes in these areas and in positive parent involvement. Caregivers reported higher mental health distress immediately after the intervention, potentially due to increased awareness. Researchers made personalized referrals for counseling services as needed. Children reported a decrease in mental health symptoms. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional
for individual‟s remains equally true for groups and nations.ŗ Abraham H. Maslow did groundbreaking work on a hierarchy of needs; he identified five...Penguin Press, 1991), 48. 3 Ibid, 49. 4 Abraham H. Maslow , Motivation and Personality, Second Edition. (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 35-58. 5... Maslow , Needs, and War by Lieutenant Colonel John P. Baker United States Air Force United States Army War College
Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær
The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....
Union officer become Supreme Court Justice, spoke of the Civil War’s psychic effect on those who had fought. Determined to act greatly, Holmes and his...than psychic and hardiy limited to those who, like himself, had served in the Union armies. Institutions as well as individuals had emerged from the war...to match unemployed workers with vacant jobs. 39 If by the close of 1918, the government reacted to possible strikes with threatened removal of a
: Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary......In this article I primarily analyse observational war documentaries in order to deal with how this particular form of documentary contribute to our understanding of how it is to be at war as a soldier or as a civilian in a war zone. I analyse two very different observational war documentaries...... biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...
Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.
目的：研究分析健康教育对婴儿家长参与儿童保健的效果。方法随机选取儿童保健门诊婴儿180例，将其平均分为观察组与对照组，对观察组婴儿家长实施健康教育，对照组不实施健康教育，一段时间后比较两组婴儿家长参加儿童保健的情况。结果观察组家长参与儿童保健情况优于对照组，差异具有统计学意义（P＜0.05）。结论对婴儿家长实施健康教育可有效提高儿童的保健质量。%ObjectiveTo study the effect of health education on infant's parents' participation in child health care.Methods Randomly selected child health clinic infants 180 cases. They were divided into observation group and control group. The parents of the observation group were carried out health education,and the control group did not carry out health education. After a period of time were compared between the two groups of the parents of the baby in child care.Results The parents of the observation group were significantly better than the control group in child care,and the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05).Conclusion Health education can effectively improve the quality of health care for infants and their parents.
Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The
Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.firstname.lastname@example.org; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)
Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.
Vogel, H.; Bartelt, D.
Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate
Pérez-Olmos, Isabel; Fernández-Piñeres, Patricia E; Rodado-Fuentes, Sonia
Determining the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to the type of war exposure and associated factors in school-aged children from three Colombian towns. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Representative randomised sample of 493 children aged 5-14. The children were evaluated during 2002 using semi-structured psychiatric interviews and the clinician administered PTSD scale. 167 children were evaluated in La Palma who had been chronically exposed to war, 164 in Arbeláez who had had recent war-exposure and 162 in Sopó who had not been exposed to war. War-related PTSD prevalence was calculated in each municipality. Odds ratio (OR) and chi-square were used for evaluating the association between exposure to war and PTSD and the related risk. Multivariate analysis used the logistic regression model. The affected children required specialised mental health counselling. The prevalence of PTSD resulting from war was 16,8 % in La Palma, 23,2 % in Arbeláez and 1.2% in Sopó. A 19.9 OR (CI 4.7, 119.2), 30,5 Chi-square and p = 0.000 revealed war-related PTSD association and risk for children when comparing the exposed towns to Sopó. The logistic regression showed that geographical closeness to war zone and intense emotional reaction to war increased the probability of war-related PTSD. Vulnerability factors were predominant in war-exposed towns. Poverty, parents' low educational level and child abuse predominated in La Palma. Attention-deficit and psychosomatic disorders were more prevalent in Arbeláez. War affects children's mental health; the children from the exposed towns had 19 times greater probability of war-related PTSD than those from a non-exposed town. Early therapeutic intervention is a public health priority. The results are useful for countries suffering from war, internal conflict and/or terrorism.
Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development
Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.
We know that henceforth there will be a 'before' and an 'after' Fukushima, just as there is a before and an after Hiroshima-Nagasaki. However, these two nuclear-related events are quite different in nature, and the characteristics they do share are not those we might expect. Although atomic fission is the common denominator, the consequences of their respective origins diverge - an industrial accident for Fukushima, military attacks for Hiroshima-Nagasaki - even (paradoxically, as we shall see) with respect to radioactivity. Yet their catastrophic proportions and geopolitical implications draw them together. Represented in Japan by well-known numbers that refer to the dates on which they occurred - 3.11 for March 11, 2011; 8.6 and 8.9 for August 6 and 9, 1945 - Fukushima and Hiroshima-Nagasaki are geopolitical markers, each having both a temporal and a spatial dimension. In other words, to quote the late Pierre Gentelle, these are major spatial events generating widespread repercussions, both locally and globally, and affecting political action and ideological discourse in a number of countries. Their geography is fully fledged in that it comprises a physical and geophysical dimension, thus reflecting natural phenomena, nature itself, and the individualized perception that everyone has of it - scientists, individuals, and populations alike. This is also about war. An actual war that ended with Hiroshima and Nagasaki. And a war now being fought against the invisible enemy of radiation at Fukushima and in other areas of Japan, with the country's 'hot spots' (hotto supoto), 'evacuation zones' (hinan kuiki), and other such 'exclusion zones' (haijo kuiki). A war with devastated landscape, theoretically unaffected hinterland, and a division of the land dictated by emerging battlefields; and with its front lines and a population caught in the crossfire or forced to leave. In this war against radiation, the 2011 US military (Japan's occupiers in 1945) limited Operation
While recent years have seen a rapid growth of research exploring the usefulness of parenting support programmes, no empirical research to date has specifically explored experiences of compulsory parenting support. The present study examines the narrative accounts of 17 parents who, through a Parenting Order, were made to participate in such…
Karam, Elie G; Fayyad, John; Nasser Karam, Aimee; Cordahi Tabet, Caroline; Melhem, Nadine; Mneimneh, Zeina; Dimassi, Hani
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and specificity of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention after war. All students (n=2500) of six villages in Southern Lebanon designated as most heavily exposed to war received a classroom-based intervention delivered by teachers, consisting of cognitive-behavioural and stress inoculation training strategies. A random sample of treated students (n=101) and a matched control group (n=93) were assessed one month post-war and one year later. Mental disorders and psychosocial stressors were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents - Revised with children and parents. War exposure was measured using the War Events Questionnaire. The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined pre-war, one month post-war (pre-intervention), and one year post-war. Specificity of treatment was determined by rating teachers' therapy diaries. The rates of disorders peaked one month post-war and decreased over one year. There was no significant effect of the intervention on the rates of MDD, SAD or PTSD. Post-war MDD, SAD and PTSD were associated with pre-war SAD and PTSD, family violence parameters, financial problems and witnessing war events. These findings have significant policy and public health implications, given current practices of delivering universal interventions immediately post-war.
Ruth A. H. Lahti
Full Text Available The convergent boundary between the fields of trauma theory and US war fiction has resulted in a narrow focus on the subjectivity of the American soldier in war fiction, which partly conditions American war fiction's privileging of the soldier-author. However, this focus on American soldiers does not adequately account for the essentially interactive nature of war trauma, and it elides the experiences of nurses and noncombatants on all sides of the battle while also obscuring women's distinctive war experiences, even when the fiction itself sometimes includes these dimensions. In this essay, Lahti argues that a transnational method can counter these imbalances in trauma theory and in studies of US war fiction. She engages Tim O'Brien's highly influential The Things They Carried from a transnational perspective by interrogating the text's figuring of the survivor author and focusing on critically neglected scenes of interaction between the American soldiers and Vietnamese civilians. In order to discern the way these scenes reveal the text's own struggle with its national US frame, she elaborates a methodology of close reading characters' bodily gestures to foreground the way that fiction offers a glimpse into war as a relational event, always involving two or more participants. In the case of The Things They Carried, this approach brings into view a heretofore unnoticed pattern of mimicry between the American characters and Vietnamese characters that reshapes our scholarly understanding of the text's representation of war trauma.
Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin
We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.
MacMillan, Freya; Kirk, Alison; Mutrie, Nanette; Moola, Fiona; Robertson, Kenneth
It is not clear how best to support youth with type 1 diabetes to participate in physical education (PE) at school. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of facilitators and barriers to PE in youth with type 1 diabetes and to determine how schools can help these individuals to be physically active. Interviews and focus groups were…
Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…
A. V. Bagaeva
Full Text Available The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.
A. V. Bagaeva
The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.
biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...... the different genres address different parts of our cognition and emotion....
Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983
Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…
Improved parent-reported mobility and achievement of individual goals on activity and participation level after functional power-training in young children with cerebral palsy: a double-baseline controlled trial.
van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene A; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J
In children with cerebral palsy (CP), strength training programs to improve walking capacity and participation in activities of daily living are commonly used in clinical practice, despite lacking evidence of its effectiveness. It has been suggested that strength training with high movement velocity could be more effective than traditional resistance training to improve functional abilities such as walking. In a recently published study, we have demonstrated the positive effects of functional high-velocity resistance (power) training on muscle strength and walking capacity in young children with CP. Whether this type of training is also effective in achieving individual predefined goals in daily activities and self-reported mobility limitations, has not yet been described however. To evaluate the effect of functional power-training on parent-reported mobility and achievement of individual goals on activity and participation level in young children with CP. A double-baseline design was used to compare a 14-week period usual care with a 14-week period of functional power-training (3 times a week) and a follow-up period of 14-weeks. Twenty-two children with spastic CP (13 bilateral, GMFCS level I (N=10) and level II (N=12), mean age 7.5 years (SD 1.8, range 4-10 y)) and their parents participated. Outcome measures were goal attainment scaling (GAS) of individual daily activity related treatment goals, mobility performance as measured using the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS-5m, 50m and 500m), and the parent-reported Mobility Questionnaire (MobQues). After power-training, 86% of children achieved or exceeded their goal, compared with 14% in the usual care period (pfunctional power-training was 10 times higher, compared with the usual care period (Relative Risk=10.0 with 95%CI 1.4 - 71.3). No changes were found in the FMS-5m and FMS-50m categories. Improvement on the MobQues was significantly greater after power-training compared with usual care (7.9% (95% CI 2.7 - 13
Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....
Objective To explore the effect of health education on the role of community infant parents in child health care. Methods 140 infants parents were selected during the period July 2014 to 2015 September a community service station un-der the jurisdiction as the research object, randomly divided for the study group and the control group, each 70 cases in each, control group received routine community publicity, research group on the basis of the control group also be issue of free manuals, lectures on health and telephone consultation etc. methods of publicity, compared two groups of infants and parents on children's health knowledge understanding. Results Degree of 88.6%in the control group infants parents of child care knowledge, parents of infants in the study group child care knowledge of 97.1%, degree (χ2=3.877,P< 0.05) of under-standing children's health knowledge of parents of infants in the two groups, control group of the parents of the baby in the infant nutrition guidance and disease prevention, growth and development index, immunity index score were lower than those of the study group and between groups (P< 0.05). Conclusion The application of health education to children's par-ents to participate in child health care can improve the knowledge of infant parents to children's health knowledge, to en-sure the healthy growth of infants has important significance.%目的：探究应用健康教育对社区婴儿家长参与儿童保健的作用效果。方法选取2014年7月—2015年9月期间某社区服务站管辖的140例婴儿家长作为研究对象,将其随机分为对照组和研究组,每组70例,对照组行常规的社区工作方法宣传,研究组在对照组的基础上同时予以发放免费的手册、健康讲座以及电话咨询等方法进行宣传,对比两组婴儿家长对儿童保健知识的了解情况。结果对照组婴儿家长的儿童保健知识了解度为88.6%,研究组婴儿家长的儿童保健知识了解度为97
Full Text Available This article considers the term "currency war", its meaning and the present situation in the world economy. It also contains research and analysis of HSBC's operations in different countries in the devaluation race grouping them according to the participation in currency wars. Along with the benefits of the devaluation of its own currency the actual disadvantages that may reveal afterwards have been identified. This article highlights the different versions of events put forward by the experts in the global economy and analysts. The authors mention the possible problems of ordinary citizens in case of their country's aggressive policy to reduce their national currency. The behavior of the Russian ruble was also discussed in detail according to which the recommendations were given to depositors of banks about their future action in the circumstances. Devaluation race in any case cannot be completed safely but it is possible to avoid excessive losses if the countries achieve international agreement by establishing a new currency regime.
Warland, Jane; O'Leary, Joann; McCutcheon, Helen; Williamson, Victoria
to gain an in-depth understanding of the parenting experiences of bereaved parents in the years following an infant death. an exploratory qualitative study. semi-structured interview in the participants' homes. Data were collected over a five-month period in 2008 and analysed using thematic analysis. a purposive sample of 13 bereaved parents (10 mothers and three fathers) was used. Parents who had accessed the support services offered by two bereavement support agencies were recruited. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of raising their subsequent child. Interviews were conducted when the next born child was at least three years of age. the parents described a 'paradoxical' parenting style where they were trying to parent using two diametrically opposed unsustainable options. For example, they described trying to hold their subsequent child emotionally close but aloof at the same time. the results from this study indicate that the impact of a loss of an infant has far-reaching consequences on subsequent parenting. Support and early intervention at the time of the stillbirth and subsequent pregnancy are likely to be useful. However, further research is required to determine the extent to which early intervention can alter the tendency towards bereaved parents adopting a paradoxical parenting style. The impact of this style on mental health and the emotional health and well-being of the next born child/ren after perinatal loss should also be further examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...
Widespread starvation resulting from changes in climate in the aftermath of a large-scale nuclear war could kill far more people than would the bombs themselves. That prediction was made in a recent study by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), an a rm of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). “Noncombatant and combatant countries alike” would risk mass starvation; SCOPE predicted that all told, 2.5 billion people could die as a result of crop failures and breakdowns in food distribution after a nuclear war.
Kunovich, R M; Hodson, R
Research has shown that social relationships are generally beneficial for mental health (Thoits 1995). However, few scholars have examined this association after the occurrence of a significant shock to the social system as a whole. The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between social integration and war-related distress in Croatia immediately following the recent civil war. Does social integration decrease war-related distress? Does social integration buffer the effect of traumatic events on war-related distress? We analyze these questions using nationally representative survey data collected in Croatia in 1996. Results suggest that social integration has both positive and negative direct effects on distress. Being a member of informal organizations, such as sports clubs, and participating in social activities are beneficial for mental health. On the other hand, being a member of some formal organizations, such as church organizations and unions, is detrimental to mental health. There is little support for the idea that social integration buffers the effect of traumatic events on distress. Only one of thirty-six possible interactions is significant and supports the buffer hypothesis. Frequent participation in social activities buffers the effect of experiencing violence on war-related distress. Also, some forms of social integration appear to aggravate the effect of traumatic events on war-related distress. In sum, social integration does affect war-related distress after a system shock, but in complex and sometimes unexpected ways.
Okello, James; De Schryver, Maarten; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse
Previous studies have shown a relationship between stressful war experiences and mental health symptoms in children and adolescents. To date, no comprehensive studies on the role of childhood adversities have been conducted with war-exposed adolescents living in post-war, low-resource settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study of 551 school-going adolescents aged 13-21 years old was undertaken four years post-war in northern Uganda. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing demographics, stressful war experiences, childhood adversities, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms. Our analyses revealed a main effect of gender on all mental health outcomes except avoidance symptoms, with girls reporting higher scores than boys. Stressful war experiences were associated with all mental health symptoms, after adjusting for potential confounders. Childhood adversity was independently associated with depression symptoms but not PTSD, anxiety, and PTSD cluster symptoms. However, in situations of high childhood adversity, our analyses showed that stressful war experiences were less associated with vulnerability to avoidance symptoms than in situations of low childhood adversity. Both stressful war experiences and childhood adversities are risk factors for mental health symptoms among war-affected adolescents. Adolescents with histories of high childhood adversities may be less likely to develop avoidance symptoms in situations of high stressful war experiences. Further exploration of the differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences is needed.
The works expose the tribulations that women underwent in the civil war, their active participation and contribution for the sustenance of a troubled society. The exposure not only contradicts the men's stories that portray women as passive participants in Nigeria-Biafra war, they complement and validate the men's stories.
Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Liu, Hung-Tzu; Guo, Yuan-Chang; Tseng, Kuo-Hung
This study aims to explore the sixth grade students' parents' Internet literacy and parenting style on Internet parenting in Kaohsiung County in Taiwan. Upon stratified cluster sampling, a total of 822 parents from 34 classes in 28 schools participated in this study. The descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used to analyze the responses…
... Previously Approved Information Collection(s): War Risk Insurance, Applications and Related Information... determine the eligibility of the applicant and the vessel(s) for participation in the war risk insurance... Control Number: 2133-0011. Title: War Risk Insurance, Applications and Related Information. Form Numbers...
The Cold War era has generally been represented as a moment of conservatism when it comes to women’s activism. While women’s political participation in the Second World War had been studied in detail, women’s political and social activism in Cold War Europe has remained under-researched. In my
Doumit, Myrna A A; Farhood, Laila F; Hamady, Carmen
The wars that Lebanon had endured led to a devastating number of deaths, injuries, and displacements. Such tragedies have detrimentally affected its civilians psychologically. To identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices of teachers and parents concerning child/adolescent mental health. Using purposeful sampling, five focus groups were conducted with teachers and parents of students from elementary, middle, and secondary levels in two private hub schools in South Lebanon. A total of 27 teachers and 18 parents participated separately in focus groups. Three themes emerged: (a) Mental health care is a priority for overall health, (b) Mental illness is a cultural taboo, and (c) There is a need for better education and cultural understanding about mental health. This is the first study in Lebanon directly targeted at parents' and teachers' mental health concerns. Such findings will add to transcultural nursing knowledge about the importance of mental health care.
This 11th edition of Why nations go to war analyses ten case studies covering major ... of the time (Germany, Russia, Serbia and Austria in particular), Stoessinger depicts ... The section on the war in Vietnam depicts how five consecutive American ... to war. The nuclear option is available to both countries and the strategic.
Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)
Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 2. Commentary: Warring ants: Lessons from Lanchester's laws of combat? Renee M Borges. Volume 27 Issue 2 March 2002 pp 75-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/027/02/0075-0078 ...
April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre...
Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier....... Many of the German advisors to the Chinese Army had been through the war in the trenches and took the tactics they had honed there with them to Shanghai. This resulted in near-impregnable Chinese defenses in and around the city, and it also manifested itself in the introduction of shock tactics...
Brigitte M Holzner
Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.
Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…
Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.
This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people…
, both political and military, war between the two forms, the post-napoleonic, Fichtean notion of nationality (1807-8) and the historical notion of imperium. “Nationality” entered the political semantics witch such a force and shook the existing political order of empires to the ground because of its...
Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.
Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016
Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel
The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…
La participación indígena en las guerras insurgentes de la nueva España: Guerra y política en el caso de las huastecas Indigenous participation in new Sspains wars of independence: War and politics in the huastecas
Antonio Escobar Ohmstede
Full Text Available El análisis de la segunda década del siglo XIX, momento en que se dan las guerras insurgentes en la Nueva España y comienza la proliferación de ayuntamientos en las zonas rurales debido a la expedición de la Constitución gaditana, ha sido marcado por la historiografía mexicanista a partir de un análisis separado de ambos procesos, sin embargo, ambos influenciaron a las sociedades del México republicano. De esta manera el objetivo de este artículo es observar la manera en que la creación de ayuntamientos en algunos pueblos de las Huastecas, no respondió forzosamente a un hecho político o social sino a una geografía militar por parte de los comandantes realistas, con el fin de acceder a hombres, bastimentos y control de territorios. Aspecto que no descarta las implicaciones del surgimiento del ayuntamiento en los pueblos de indios, donde se readecuaron las jurisdicciones territoriales y políticas-administrativas, además que planteó la reducción de los gobiernos indios.The analysis of the second decade of the Nineteenth Century, the time when there were wars of independence in New Spain and the beginning of the proliferation of ayuntamientos in rural areas because of the Gaditan Constitution, marked the Mexican historical narratives as if they were different processes. Nevertheless, both influenced republican Mexico. The purpose of this article is to observe how the creation of ayuntamientos in some town in the Huastecas didn't respond to a political or social fact but to a military geography well known by the royal commanders so they could men, food, and territorial control. All those aspects also helped to the creation of the indigenous ayuntamientos where the territorial jurisdictions and local administrative policies were reshaped and the indigenous governments reduced.
Full Text Available Beef, sheep and swine 4-H youth livestock projects have a great deal of hands-on learning opportunities for members. However, what are parents’ perceptions about livestock projects and the development of life skills? The purpose of this research effort was to determine the life skill development gained by 4-H members participating in 4-H beef, sheep or swine projects in West Virginia. A total of 207 caregivers offered insight into the study and answered life skill development questions. These questions were related to decision making, relating to others, developing and maintaining records, accepting responsibility, building positive self esteem, self motivation, knowledge of the livestock industry, developing organizational skills, problem solving, developing oral communication skills, setting goals, developing self-discipline, and working in teams. The findings of this study provide positive insights into the relationship between the development of valuable life skills and 4-H beef, sheep and swine projects.
Foster, D; Davies, S; Steele, H
The authors used attachment theory to hypothesize about the possible long-term psychological effects of evacuation during World War II, focusing on children who were evacuated unaccompanied by their parents. The study aimed to establish whether this experience had long-term effects on psychological well-being, and to investigate mediating and moderating factors. The study utilized a retrospective non-randomized design, comparing 169 former evacuees with 43 people who were children during the war but not evacuated. No differences between the groups were found in terms of demographic variables or exposure to war-related events. All participants completed a range of standardized self-report questionnaires. Findings indicated that former evacuees were more likely to have insecure attachment styles and lower levels of present psychological well-being. Satisfaction with, but not quantity of, current social support was found to mediate the relationship between attachment style and present psychological well-being. Conclusions are limited due to the method of measurement of attachment style, non-randomized design and method of recruitment. Nevertheless, findings offer an indication that the experience of evacuation is associated with long-term psychological vulnerability through its relationship with insecure attachment.
Describes government efforts to mobilize U.S. women during World War II. Discusses the need for women's participation and the problems confronted by women who joined the wartime labor force. Describes efforts to increase participation by women in the armed forces. (CFR)
Bregenholt, S; Ishøy, T; Skovgaard, L T
Veterans who have participated in the Gulf War suffer from a number of symptoms, collectively referred to as the Gulf War Syndrome. It has been hypothesized that a change in the systemic cytokine balance or other changes in immunological parameters could be responsible for some of the symptoms. We...... analyzed the peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cell activity of 686 Gulf War personnel who had been present in the Persian Gulf area during and immediately after the Gulf War as well as 231 gender and age-matched controls. The test material included individual samples of frozen peripheral blood...
Baraković, Devla; Avdibegović, Esmina; Sinanović, Osman
Research in crisis areas indicate that survivors' responses to the forced disappearance of family members are similar to reactions to other traumatic events. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women with war missing family members in Bosnia and Herzegovina 18 years after the war in this region (1992-1995). The study included 160 women aged 47.1±14.0 from three regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was carried out in the period from April 2010 to May 2011. Of the 160 participants, 120 women had a war missing family member and 40 women had no war missing family members. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) were used for data collection. Basic socio-demographic data and data concerning the missing family members were also collected. Women with war missing family members experienced significantly more traumatic war experiences (18.43±5.27 vs 6.57±4.34, pfamily members. Women with war missing family members showed significantly more severe PTSD symptoms. Based on the results of this study, it was determined that the forced disappearance of a family member is an ambiguous situation that can be characterized as a traumatic experience.
In 1917, the Göttingen gynaecologist Dietrich published a short article about a phenomenon which he called "war amenorrhea" ("Kriegsamenorrhoe"). The article attracted the attention of his colleagues. While the affected women did not pay much attention to their amenorrhea, the physicians considered the phenomenon a new disease which was mainly caused by the war. This new disease gave the gynaecologists the opportunity to present their specialty as a discipline with high relevance for medicine in times of war. Nevertheless, there was no consensus about the importance, the incidence, the diagnostic criteria, the causes and the appropriate therapy of"war amenorrhea". Although the gynaecologists failed to define a uniform clinical syndrome, they maintained the construction of "war amenorrhea" after the war and subsumed it under well known types of amenorrhea. We can conclude that under the conditions of war a new disease emerged which was not sharply defined.
Dennis, Bruce L.
Since Spring 1995, a Bedford, New York superintendent and her district have been virulently attacked by two parents who initially accused them of promoting Satanism, exemplified in an after-school game called Magic: The Gathering. These parents are now attacking drug prevention programs, various homework assignments, and literature selections. The…
Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)
of war. I then show how this framework helps us understand some key problems in the political science literature on war and conflict. I attempt to show two main things: (1) that there are different types of wars (and that these differences are not necessarily related to the standing of the actors, i......This article presents a new theory of war that is grounded in the insights of Clausewitz on the social nature of conflict. Clausewitz had argued that war is a political process; he therefore distinguished between ‘war’—understood in political terms—and warfare—understood as fighting. He...... then created a typology covering a spectrum of war ranging from total to limited, the political stakes of a conflict determining where it would fall on the spectrum. I develop and modify this basic framework by arguing that the social organization of the actors has a determining role in predicting the stakes...
Kesselring, Marije; de Winter, Micha; Horjus, Bob; van de Schoot, Rens; van Yperen, Tom
The current study explored parents attitudes towards nonparental adults involvement in childrearing practices. Parents attitudes were operationalized in their willingness to share parenting responsibility and interest to participate in parenting activities. Data were collected through a quantitative
Kesselring, Marije; de Winter, Micha; Horjus, Bob; van de Schoot, Rens; van Yperen, Tom
The current study explored parents attitudes towards nonparental adults involvement in childrearing practices. Parents attitudes were operationalized in their willingness to share parenting responsibility and interest to participate in parenting activities. Data were collected through a quantitative
In the fifties and sixties, Albert Schweitzer fought for a policy of peace and warned of the dangers of nuclear war in speeches and publications. Reading his appeals again today, we find that they have lost nothing of their uncanny up-to-dateness. Just the opposite: The disaster predicted by Albert Schweitzer is a stronger threat now than it was at his time. (orig./HP) [de
This Article is the Note of a lecture, which was hold by Engelbert Borda at the Catholic-Theological Faculty of the University of Vienna in 27. 03. 1973. The author describes the development of modern nuclear weapon systems and the resulting war strategies. He is concerned about a possible end of the ‚balance of terror’ and the development in automation of nuclear strike back strategies. (rössner) [de
This volume compiles the papers presented in the conference held in May 1983 under the auspices of the Center for Continuing Education at the Australian National University. It also includes some previously unpublished scientific research. The papers range from analyses of the atmospheric and medical consequences of nuclear war to summaries of the efforts of people in all walks of life to prevent a global catastrophe
war, there was little role for air defense. In a 1924 memorandum, the air staff explicitly stated “as a principle that the bombing squa- drons ...pulling his squa- drons back from southeastern England, if the pressure on them became too great and then redeploying them forward again, if the...minute as more and more British air- craft arrived in the area. Before reality set in, the controllers had scrambled three squa- drons of Hurricanes and
Rak, Davor; Matić, Aldenita; Rak, Benedict
The aim of this paper is to show the psychological consequences of participation in the Homeland War and experienced trauma which can indirectly be seen through drawing even after more than 15 years after the war had ended. The research was conducted on a sample of 125 patients of both genders treated in the Daily Hospital program of University Hospital Dubrava, Psychiatry Clinics. All the tested had trauma in their medical history and all of them met the PTSD diagnostic criteria, 75 examinees participated in the Homeland War and they represent the veteran group, and 50 examinees went through a stressful situation during peacetime and they represent the civilian group. All the examinees had to make two individual drawings, and the task was to portray feelings of term "love" (first drawing) and term "hate" (second drawing). They could choose motifs and colors freely. When portraying the term love, choice of motifs between the civilian and the veteran group wasn't considerably different, and only a small number of male veteran population (6.6%) drawings hinted at the connection with the Homeland War. The results between two groups are completely different in portraying the term hate. As much as 76% examinees from the veteran group have unequivocally and directly decided to portray wartime motifs, unlike the civilian group whose use of wartime motifs was just 10%. When choosing color, nearly 90% of the veteran group used neutral and cool colors to portray the term hate.
Nikita A. Smirnov
Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the
Chen, Siyan; Loayza, Norman V.; Reynal-Querol, Marta
Using an event-study methodology, the article analyzes the aftermath of civil war in a cross-section of countries. It focuses on cases where the end of conflict marks the beginning of relatively lasting peace. The analysis considers 41 countries involved in internal wars over the period 1960--2003. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the aftermath of war, a range of social areas is considered: basic indicators of economic performance, health and education, political development, demograp...
Vindevogel, Sofie; Schryver, Maarten de; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse
Armed conflict imposes huge hardship on young people living in war zones. This study assessed former child soldiers' experience and perception of stress in common war events during the armed conflict in northern Uganda and compares it with their non-recruited counterparts. To investigate whether child soldiers experienced more severe exposure to war events, and explore how war might affect youths differently, depending on the co-occurrence of these events. The study was undertaken in four northern Ugandan districts in 22 secondary schools with a sample size of 981 youths, about half of whom had been child soldiers. The participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and stressful war events which was analyzed using descriptive statistics, a probabilistic index and correlation network analysis. Former child soldiers had significantly greater experience of war events than their non-recruited counterparts. The violence of war is more central in their experience and perception of stress, whereas the scarcity of resources and poor living conditions are most central for non-recruited participants. The extent to which a war event, such as separation from the family, is perceived as stressful depends on the experience and perception of other stressful war events, such as confrontation with war violence for former child soldiers and life in an Internally Displaced Persons' camp for non-recruited participants. The network approach permitted demonstration of the many ways in which war-affected youths encounter and appraise stressful war events. War events might function as moderators or mediators of the effect that other war events exert on the lives and well-being of young people living in war zones. This demands comprehensive and individualized assessment.
Ohanian, Lee E
During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...
Fernández Alvira, J.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Singh, A.S.; Jimenez-Pavon, D.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Bere, E.; Manios, Y.; Kovacs, E.; Jan, N.; Moreno, L.A.; Brug, J.
Objective: We assessed whether differences in children's sports participation and television time according to parental education were mediated by parental modeling. Moreover, we explored the differences between parental and child reports on parental sports participation and television time as
Ballard, Sharon M.; Gross, Kevin H.
We examined parental perspectives about parent-child sexual communication through four focus groups conducted with 25 parents of young children. Participant comments fell into six areas: 1) personal experience with sexuality education, 2) current sexuality education efforts, 3) comfort and confidence, 4) content and timing, 5) importance of a…
Wong, Y. Joel; Tran, Kimberly K.; Schwing, Alison E.; Cao, Lien H.; Ho, Phoenix Phung-Hoang; Nguyen, Quynh-Tram
The main goal of this mixed-methods study was to examine the perceived effectiveness of a brief, community-based parenting intervention for Vietnamese American immigrant parents. A key component of the intervention involved participants listening to Vietnamese American adolescents' discussions about their relationships with their parents utilizing…
Sellers, Robin B
Perhaps no aspect of Carl von Clausewitz's classic "On War" has more continuing relevance for strategists than his assertion that war "is an act of policy" and further that "war is not merely an act...
... (Operation Allied Force), and the war in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom). It is not my intent to analyze air operations in these wars but to see if there are trends that might be appropriate for another war...
Charter of the League of Nations and the subsequent Kellogg -Briand Pact “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy.” To demonstrate...twenty-years after the Kellogg -Briand Pact. Although the 1945-1991 period did see a decline in major interstate war relative to the immediately
Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War). 21.5053 Section 21.5053 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War...
economic and political cost to South Africa was greater than the statistics immediately indicate: at least ... battles and foreign wars, the British casualties of the Anglo-Boer War became ... American universities, produced similar works; while S.l. Maphalala and Bill Nasson, ... relations and their participation was not rewarded.
Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong
This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic......,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent-child...... parent-child relationship....
Full Text Available Spending almost US$700 billion to combat insurgents in Afghanistan, the U.S. population should be hopeful that they “bought” something of value as the Afghan War concludes. This exploratory study focuses on evaluating operations within Afghanistan by accounting for enemy and civilian losses. Integration of civilian losses offers an opportunity to evaluate operations that represent societal losses to the Afghan people. Regression estimates using zero-inflated negative-binomial models indicate that military operations resulted in more civilian casualties than enemy losses.
Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I
Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds are very common among war casualties. Those injuries require prompt and specific treatment in an aim to decrease mortality and late morbidity. There are a few controversies about the best modality of treatment for such injuries, and there are not many large series of such patients in recent literature. We analysed a group of 259 patients with penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds admitted to our institutions between May 1991 and October 1992. There were 235 (90.7%) patients with thoracic wounds, 14 (5.4%) patients with cardiac, wounds and in 10 (3.7%) patients both heart and lungs were injured. The cause of injury was shrapnel in 174 patients (67%), bullets in 25 patients (9.7%), cluster bomb particles in 45 patients (17.3%) and other (blast etc.) in 15 patients (6%). Patients, 69, had concomitant injuries of various organs. The initial treatment in 164 operated patients was chest drainage in 76 (46.3%) patients, thoracotomy and suture of the lung in 71 (43.2%) patients, lobectomy in 12 (7.3%) patients and pneumonectomy in 5 (3%) patients. Complications include pleural empyema and/or lung abscess in 20 patients (8.4%), incomplete reexpansion of the lung in 10 patients (4.2%), osteomyelitis of the rib in 5 patients (2.1%) and bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient (0.4%). Secondary procedures were decortication in 12 patients, rib resection in 5 patients, lobectomy in 2 patients, pneumonectomy in 4 patients, reconstruction of the chest wall in 2 patients and closure of the bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient. The cardiac chamber involved was right ventricle in 12 patients, left ventricular in 6 patients, right atrium in 7 patients, left atrium in 3 patients, ascending aorta in 2 patients and 1 patient which involved descending aorta, right ventricle and coronary artery (left anterior descending) and inferior vena cava, respectively. The primary procedure was suture in 17 patients (in 10 patients with the additional suture of the
Problem of psychological consequences of nuclear war threat is considered. Two categories of persons are distinguished: persons who are not decision-making but whose life is threatened, and persons who make decisions but are not responsible for them. An active approach to problems, related to a possible nuclear disaster, appears to be a powerfull socio-political means against nuclear danger and also has both psychotherapeutic and preventive meaning from the viewpoint of at least a partial liberation and protecion of people against the fear of nuclear death. By their effective activity among people, physicians and psychologists can effectively struggle against the fear of nuclear death
In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....
Fayyad, John; Cordahi-Tabet, C; Yeretzian, J; Salamoun, M; Najm, C; Karam, E G
Studies of war-exposed children have not investigated a comprehensive array of resilience-promoting factors, nor representative samples of children and adolescents. A representative sample of N = 710 adolescents was randomly selected from communities recently exposed to war. All those who had experienced war trauma were administered questionnaires measuring war exposure, family violence, availability of leisure activities, school-related problems, interpersonal and peer problems, socialization, daily routine problems, displacement, availability of parental supervision and contact and medical needs as well as coping skills related to religious coping, denial, self-control, avoidance and problem solving. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Child-Revised Impact of Events Scale (CRIES). Resilient adolescents were defined as those who experienced war trauma, but did not manifest any symptoms on the SDQ or CRIES. Resilience was related to being male, using problem-solving techniques, having leisure activities, and having parents who spent time with their adolescents and who supported them with school work. Interventions designed for war-traumatized youth must build individual coping skills of children and adolescents, yet at the same time target parents and teachers in an integrated manner.
Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom......' continued participation. I show how negotiating the risks of participation may simultaneously satisfy the desire for knowledge and curb erotic desires....
Kruger, Lois; And Others
Social work students conclude from an experience that parents can consider alternative means of disciplining children when they participate in a parent group that is comfortable and when attendance is promoted by provision of tangible services. Parents achieved increased sense of self-worth and learned appropriate ways of expressing anger. (Author)
Etwel, Fatma; Russell, Evan; Rieder, Michael J; Van Uum, Stan H; Koren, Gideon
There is a substantial body of research that utilizes saliva cortisol levels to examine wartime stress; however, there is a paucity of literature that utilizes hair cortisol levels, which allows for long-term assessment of chronic stress, to investigate the stress of war. The present study aimed to evaluate changes in hair cortisol concentrations before, during, and after the 2011 Libyan war. This study examined hair cortisol concentrations of young adult women who were living in Tripoli, Libya during the 2011 war. The participants were recruited at the campus of Tripoli University. Participants needed to have at least 24 cm of hair and to have resided in Tripoli before, during and after the 2011 Libyan war. Hair was sectioned to reflect 3 month windows of cortisol exposure corresponding to periods before, during and after the war. Hair cortisol concentrations were quantified using a modified salivary ELISA test. The women were also asked to complete the Perceived Stress Scale pertaining to the post-war period. Median hair cortisol concentrations in the post-war period (226.11 ng/g; range 122.95-519.85 ng/g) were significantly higher than both the pre-war (180.07 ng/g; 47.13-937.85 ng/g) and wartime (186.65 ng/g; 62.97-771.79 ng/g) periods (Pwar period appears to have been more stressful than the war itself. This is consistent with the fact that during the war the civilian participants were not directly involved with warfare, nor were they targeted by the international coalition fighting Gaddafi. In contrast, the post-war period was characterized by chaos and total lack of authority, with the participants exposed to injury, lack of food and destruction. This study documents the utility of hair cortisol levels to retrospectively assess stress before, during, and after an armed conflict.
Full Text Available The author examines selected examples of post-1945 Austrian literature, asking what pictures of the Second World War they imparted and what role they played when, certainly from 1948 on, a certain image of history began to take shape in Austria against the background of the Cold War. This image involved a fade-out in particular of the racist nature of the war, and it had a collectively exonerating and distorting impact. Attention is paid to the stories and novels of former participants in the war and National Socialists, such as, for example, Erich Landgrebe, Erich Kern, Hans Gustl Kernmayr, Kurt Ziesel. A contrast is seen in the anti-war novel, Letzte Ausfahrt (Last Exit (1952 by the former soldier Herbert Zand, who turns against the dominant image of history, as well as in Ingeborg Bachmann's use of war memories as a topic. The texts are read as a reservoir of selective memory: on the one hand they are critical, individual counter-memories and on the other hand, they make a positive contribution to the formation of the aforesaid collective image. One may say that a war of perception was fought around the Second World War; it was undoubtedly won in the immediate post-war years by those literary works that legitimized or at least trivialized the war. The critical voices of Herbert Zand, Gerhard Fritsch, and Ingeborg Bachmann were unfortunately the quieter ones and were not particularly successful in their time.
Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.
The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...
Full Text Available Background: Consequences of war-related traumatisation have mostly been investigated in military and predominant male populations, while research on female civilian victims of war has been neglected. Furthermore, research of post-war posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women has rarely included early-life trauma in their prediction models, so the contribution of trauma in childhood and early youth is still unexplored. Objective: To examine the relationship of early-life trauma, war-related trauma, personality traits, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress among female civilian victims of the recent war in Croatia. Method: The cross-sectional study included 394 participants, 293 war-traumatised adult women civilians, and 101 women without war-related trauma. Participants were recruited using the snowball sampling method. The applied instruments included the Clinician-Administrated PTSD Scale (CAPS, the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R, the War Stressors Assessment Questionnaire (WSAQ, and the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the prediction model of PTSD symptom severity measured by CAPS score for current PTSD. Results: The prevalence of current PTSD (CAPS cut-off score=65 in this cohort was 20.7%. The regression model that included age, early-life trauma, war-related trauma, neuroticism, and extraversion as statistically significant predictors explained 45.8% of variance in PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: Older age, exposure to early-life trauma, exposure to war-related traumatic events, high neuroticism, and low extraversion are independent factors associated with higher level of PTSD symptoms among women civilian victims of war.
Lončar, Mladen; Plašć, Ivana Dijanić; Bunjevac, Tomislav; Hrabač, Pero; Jakšić, Nenad; Kozina, Slavica; Henigsberg, Neven; Sagud, Marina; Marčinko, Darko
Previous research has documented multiple chains of risk in the development of PTSD among war veterans. However, existing studies were mostly carried out in the West, while they also did not analyze specific symptom clusters of PTSD. The aim of this study was to examine the role of socio-demographic characteristics, war experiences and subjective quality of life in the prediction of three clusters of PTSD symptoms (i.e., avoidance, intrusion, hyperarousal). This study comprised 184 male participants who have survived war imprisonment during the Croatian Homeland War in the period from 1991 to 1995. The data was collected through several self-report measuring instruments: questionnaire on socio-demographic data, war experiences (Questionnaire on Traumatic Combat and War Experiences), subjective quality of life (WHO-Five Well-being Index), and PTSD symptoms (Impact of Events Scale - Revised). The level of three symptom clusters of PTSD was found to be moderate to high, as indicated by the scores on the IES-R. Results of the three hierarchical regression analyses showed the following: traumatic war experiences were significant predictors of avoidance symptoms; traumatic war experiences and subjective quality of life were significant predictors of hyperarousal symptoms; and traumatic war experiences, material status and subjective quality of life were significant predictors of intrusion symptoms. These findings support the widespread belief that the development of war-related PTSD is accounted for by multiple chains of risk, while traumatic war experiences seem to be the only predictor of all three symptom clusters. Future research should put more emphasis on specific PTSD symptom clusters when investigating the etiopathogenesis of this disorder among war-affected populations.
Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E
The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9 % female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4 % female). Parents and adolescents reported on parenting skills and depressive symptoms, and parenting was independently observed subsequently in the same session. Findings indicated adolescent report of positive, but not negative, parenting was more congruent with observations than parent report. For negative parenting, depressive symptoms qualified the relation between the parent or adolescent report and independent observations. For parents, higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with more congruence with observed parenting (supporting a depressive realism hypothesis) whereas an opposite trend emerged for adolescents (providing some supporting evidence for a depression-distortion hypothesis).
Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E.
The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9% female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4% female). Parents and adolescents reported on parenting skills and depressive symptoms, and parenting was independently observed subsequently in the same session. Findings indicated adolescent report of positive, but not negative, parenting was more congruent with observations than parent report. For negative parenting, depressive symptoms qualified the relation between the parent or adolescent report and independent observations. For parents, higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with more congruence with observed parenting (supporting a depressive realism hypothesis) whereas an opposite trend emerged for adolescents (providing some supporting evidence for a depression-distortion hypothesis). PMID:23851629
De Jong, E.; Kramer, I.
Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs
Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.
This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…
Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)
was soldier and prisoner of war from age 15-17, would not write a “Der Krieg der Gesellschaft”. Yet the attempt to narrow this lacuna is indeed a heavy burden and a difficult task, in which, firstly, it is methodologically decisive to get the basic distinctions right about a second order observation of war......, and in social theory and sociology as well, there is a missing link in the lack of a sociology of war. A number of German systems theoreticians use Luhmann’s theory to fulfil that gap (Gertrud Brücher; Krysztof Matuszek; Rasmus Beckmann; Barbara Kuchler; Tobias Kohl; Klaus Dammann) Luhmann (born 1927), who...... as a conflict system – to be distinct from a military organisational system. This, I do initially with a reconceptualization of Carl von Clausewitz’ form analysis and self-description of war from Vom Kriege (1832). The central point, then, is to observe the self-reference of war, or how war became war about war...
From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon endured one of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the twentieth century. Sune Haugbolle's timely and poignant book chronicles the battle over ideas that emerged from the wreckage of that war. While the Lebanese state encouraged forgetfulness and political part...
Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.
This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations
van Dijk, R.
Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the
Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war.Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war.Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients.Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impregnated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.
Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war. Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war. Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients. Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impregnated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.
Abu-Musa, Antoine A; Kobeissi, Loulou; Hannoun, Antoine B; Inhorn, Marcia C
The aim of this study was to review the existing literature on the effect of war on female and male fertility. A MEDLINE search for studies that included participants defined as infertile because they were unsuccessful in achieving a pregnancy after a year and studies that assessed the effect of war on semen parameters and menstrual dysfunction were performed. Twenty articles were included in this review. For female fertility, studies showed that women who were prisoners of war or who were living in areas exposed to bombardment had increased risk of menstrual abnormalities. For male fertility, the results were conflicting. The Vietnam War was not associated with difficulty in conception although one study revealed a decrease in sperm characteristics. Studies of male US and Danish 1990/91 Gulf war veterans showed no evidence of reduced fertility; however, studies of UK and Australian veterans reported increased risk of infertility. The Lebanese and Slovenian civil wars were associated with a decrease in sperm parameters. Exposure to mustard gas was also associated with abnormal semen parameters; however, exposure to depleted uranium had no effect on semen characteristics. Most of the studies examined had major limitations including recall bias and small number of cases included.
Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.
Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir
Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its' frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.
Full Text Available Romania's participation in the Second World War was caused by loss of an area ofapproximately 1/3 of the national territory and has 6 million inhabitants, for the three neighbors of theRomanian state, that the Soviet Union, Hungary and Bulgaria will bethe reason fundamental ofRomania's participation in military operations on both fronts, east and west of the Second World War.Although Romania's war economic effort, amounted to the enormous amount of 1,200,000,000dollars in 1938 currency, a situationan honorable fourth place in the hierarchy of the United Nationsthat led the fight against Germany, co-belligerent status, the country justly deserved our will berefused for political reasons known only to the Great Powers. Of all the states, are in a situationsomewhat similar to that of Romania, no one made an effort not so much military or economic indefeating Germany.
The environmental and biological consequences of nuclear war were discussed by more than 100 eminent biologists, physicists and atmospheric scientists at the recent World after Nuclear War conference. The long-term effects were determined to be worse than the well-known immediate effects. They predicted that 225 million tons of smoke would be generated within a few days in their baseline scenario. As a result, the amount of sunlight reaching the earth would be reduced to a few percent of normal and temperatures would fall to -23 0 C. About 30% of the northern middle latitudes would receive more than 250 rads radiation dose for several months and about 50% of the land area would receive more than 100 rads. Dangerous levels of solar ultraviolet light would burn through the atmosphere. It was also determined that these effects would be felt in the southern hemisphere. Those who survived the blast, fire and prompt radiation would face starvation from shutdown of plant photosynthesis and inhibition of phytoplankton photosynthesis. Huge wildfires and acid rains would stress any surviving plants and animals. Conference participants agreed that scientists had taken a new and significant step toward understanding the full consequences of nuclear war
The study is dedicated to the American elite of nuclear physicists, which explained after the second world war the possibilities of their science for war and peace. What induced their thinking and handling? The focus lies on the scientific shapings and war experiences of the first really international generation of physicists, which began in the 1920th years their career before many of their representatives had to fly from the NS regime from Europe and cooperated in the Manhattan project in the construction of the atomic bomb. These experiences the author refers to in order to get on the track of the explanations of the exper elite in the immediate afterwar time and in the cold war. How far their internationally and by actual war experiences shaped thinking about their own contribution as scientist to the national security - in the sense of discouragement or the cooperative conflict regulation - found its expression in the cold war, is drawn on different action levels of the participants from the Geneve conference ''Atoms for Peace'' of 1955 until the signing of the so-called Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.
and activated in the representations stem from cultural memories of the Second World War. In the proccesses of establishing this Cold War cultural memory as a war memory, it has become part of a transcultural passion for memories of traumatic pasts, but the Cold War as cultural memory is a counter-factual war......The Cold War never became the global World War III. It was a war that never broke out. Nevertheless, in some countries like for instance Denmark it is commemorated as exactly that: a war. This is particularly apparent at museums and heritage sites, where the narrative and mnemonic frame works used...... memory. Because the war never broke out, it is a malleable and usable past with a great potential for contestation – and counter-factuality. In Denmark, the Cold War has, moreover, become part of a fierce competition between rivaling memory communities, preventing a common commemoration culture...
Santavirta, Torsten; Santavirta, Nina; Gilman, Stephen E
Although there is evidence that adverse childhood experiences are associated with worse mental health in adulthood, scarce evidence is available regarding an emerging concern that the next generation might also be affected. To compare the risk of psychiatric hospitalization in cousins whose parents were vs were not exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy that involved a mean 2-year stay with a Swedish foster family. This multigenerational, population-based cohort study of Finnish individuals and their siblings born between January 1, 1933, and December 31, 1944, analyzed the association of evacuee status as a child during World War II in the first generation with the risk of psychiatric hospitalization among offspring in the second generation. Evacuee status during World War II was determined using the Finnish National Archive's registry of participants in the Finnish evacuation. Data on evacuee status were linked to the psychiatric diagnoses in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012, for offspring (n = 93 391) born between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 2010. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for risk of psychiatric hospitalization during the follow-up period. Because offspring of evacuees and their nonevacuated siblings are cousins, the Cox proportional hazards regression models included fixed effects to adjust for confounding factors in families. Data analysis was performed from June 15, 2016, to August 26, 2017. Parental participation in the evacuation during World War II (coded 1 for parents who were evacuated and placed in foster care and 0 for those not evacuated). Offspring's initial admission to the hospital for a psychiatric disorder, obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012. Of the 93 391 study persons, 45 955 (49.2%) were women and 47 436 (50.8) were men; mean (SD) age in
The author examines the extent to which the recent events in Rwanda, including the civil war and the attempts at genocide, are related to overpopulation. In particular, three questions are considered: under what circumstances can reasonable people arrive at a situation in which they can participate in collective suicidal behavior? Do such crises arise from lack of resources, or failure to make the best use of the resources that do exist? Are such events part of a global conflict between liberal societies and societies governed by extremist idealists?
Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva
The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....
Schott, James C.
According to Robert L. Simonds, president and founder of the National Association of Christian Educators, public education is a stronghold of the devil that promulgates atheism and immorality. The key to controlling education is to establish Christian Parents' Committees in all 15,700 school districts across the U.S. and elect members to local…
Progressive atomic weapons, results of a perfect and perfidious technology face each other in the centre of a possible crisis - in Europe. The strategists of the Warszhaw Pact and of Nato seem very optimistic, which they owe to their professions, the population's increasing fear of a war, however, can no longer be denied. Nervous military personnel, political and religions fanatics and perplexed politicians sit at the switches of fear - without a concept and without alternatives. Despite this alarming conditions, Nigel Calder who has investigated in the USA and in the USSR, and in Europe, managed to remain a calm spectator of the imminent apocalypse. Without compromises and clearly he analyses the nearly hopeless consequences resulting from the changed world-political situation, the tremendously fast development of the arms technology, and the crazy strategical doctrines in East and West and in the Third World. (orig./UA) [de
Gleick, Peter H.
In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”
Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.
The historical sources detailing South Africa's participation in the First World War are vast, and range from official publications to regimental histories, private diaries and first-hand accounts. The Department of Defence (DOD) Documentation Centre is the custodian of all military archival material generated since the ...
Kipper, David A.
Desensitization therapy was offered to Israeli soldiers suffering from fears developed as a result of their participation in the Yom Kippur War. Two kinds of in vivo desensitization procedures used were: (a) an individual self-administered in vivo desensitization and (b) in vivo desensitization in dyads. Advantages of these procedures discussed.…
Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E
Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
V. V. Kochetkov
Full Text Available Present article introduces the concept of the culture wars. Reviewed the features and characteristics of the culture wars. Described the basic methods of the culture wars. Сoncluded that the theoretical design concept of the culture wars can be a uniting point for a number of important areas of the science of international relations.
Starr, Jerold M., Ed.
This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…
The American Civil War was a cornerstone event for the Irish in America. Their participation proved their duty to Union and Confederate causes, increased their acceptance in American society, and hastened assimilation...
Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)
.... By any reckoning, it was a war that should never have been fought. It was a war unlike any other war in the twentieth century, and since 1945 it was the first war to erupt outside the construct of the Cold War paradigm...
... of the Communist Party. This article however contends that it needs to be understood in its own terms, as a pacifist movement, reflecting a political moment of resistance to the plunge into global war. Keywords: War on War League, South Africa, Pacifism, Anti-War Movement, First World War, Syndicalism, Internationalism, ...
... the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will... National Park Service (NPS) concerning the Cold War Theme Study. DATES: The teleconference meeting will be...
Echevarria, II, Antulio J
... as such. With that in mind, this monograph offers a brief examination of four common types of wars of ideas, and uses that as a basis for analyzing how the United States and its allies and strategic partners...
Irradiation probability due to radionuclide fallout is shown to exceed 1 Gy even for the territories which have not been affected by nuclear weapons direct explosions. If some people survive in the nuclear war, their heredity would be affected. Genetic consequences of nuclear war complete the process of Homo sapiens disappearance from the Earth. Space weapons development will deteriorate the prospects of civilization ruin as a result of biological aftereffects of nuclear war and possible application of new arms, as well as chemical and biologic weapons
The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...
West, Philip; Philip, West
The two keywords in this essay, mapping and sorrows, are used as heuristic devices to explore the sticky problems of reconciliation among former enemies from the Asia Pacific War, 1931-1945, primarily Japan and China, but also Korea and the United States. Sorrows, as a word and concept, offers an innovative approach to healing the wounds of war by countering the powerful influence of war memories in the familiar narratives of self-pity and self-glorification. In the language of politics and d...
Barton, Angela Calabrese; Drake, Corey; Perez, Jose Gustavo; St. Louis, Kathleen; George, Magnia
What we know about parental involvement in schools cuts across two areas: how and why parental involvement is important and the structural barriers that impede parental participation. However, it has been difficult to construct an account of parental involvement, grounded in everyday practice that goes beyond a laundry list of things that good…
Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…
Center for Law and Education, Washington, DC.
Based on the view that parents should participate in key decisions about their children's schooling, this booklet, in English and Spanish versions, provides advice and suggestions for parents on ways to be involved in their children's education. The booklet begins with a letter addressed to parents, outlining possible parental roles in their…
Husain, Fatima; Jabin, Nico; Haywood, Sarah; Kasim, Adetayo; Paylor, Jonathan
The Parent Academy was a series of classes for pupils' parents, designed to improve the English and mathematics attainment of pupils in Years 3 to 6 in English primary schools. Parents were offered the opportunity to participate in 12 Parent Academy classes, 6 on English and 6 on mathematics, delivered fortnightly by tutors with teaching…
Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien
During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.
Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav
Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.
Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Barchas, Jack D; Slone, Michelle; Laor, Nathaniel
The 2006 Lebanon War exposed children in the north of Israel to daily rocket attacks. To cope with the massive psychological needs, a teacher-delivered protocol focusing on enhancing personal resilience was implemented. Children were assessed for risk factors, symptoms, and adaptation before the 16-week program (Time 1; n = 983) and after its completion (Time 2; n = 563). At a 3-month follow-up (Time 3; n = 754) children were assessed together with a waiting-list comparison group (n = 1,152). Participating children showed a significant symptom decrease at Time 2 and significantly fewer symptoms than the control group at Time 3. Six or more risk factors were associated with greater symptoms and parental concern about the child's adaptive functioning. Teachers are valuable cost-effective providers for clinically informed interventions after mass trauma and disaster. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Full Text Available This paper describes cultural policy in Greece from the end of World War II up to the fall of the junta of colonels in 1974. The writer's object is to show how the Cold War favoured defeated Western countries, which participated effectively in the globalisation of American culture, as in the Western world de-nazification was transformed into a purge of communism. Using the careers of three composers active in communist resistance organizations as examples (Iannis Xenakis, Mikis Theodorakis and Alecos Xenos, the writer describes the repercussions of this phenomenon in Greek musical life and creativity.
This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).
The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugos...
John Scales Avery
Full Text Available The history of World War I is reviewed, starting with a discussion of the development of nationalist movements in Europe. It is pointed out that the global disaster started with a seemingly small operation by Austria, which escalated uncontrollably into an all-destroying conflagration. A striking feature of the war was that none of the people who started it had any idea of what it would be like. Technology had changed the character of war, but old patterns of thought remained in place. We also examine the roots of the war in industrial and colonial competition, and in an arms race. Finally, parallels with current events, and the important lessons for today’s world are discussed.
Toon, Owen B. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Turco, Richard P. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)
A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.
Full Text Available This article discusses elements within Christian ethics and anthropology that have ramifications for the ethics and laws of war. The author argues that several distinctively Christian conceptions of morality and of human beings contribute importantly to the idea of just war, namely the Christian (and more specifically Augustinian view of history, the Christian view of killing, and the Christian view of sin and grace. While other religious and philosophical traditions also offer significant contributions to a normative discussion about armed force, it remains a fact that Christian thought, historically speaking, has furnished much of the groundwork of what we today know as the ethics and laws of war, and that the experience of being a Christian in the world has important ramifications for thinking about war and the use of armed force.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i1.1708
Barr, Alan W
.... The advent of nuclear weapons and their role in the evolving east-west struggle following the second world war created a situation, however, unforeseen by Clausewitz, where the most basic political...
In response to the 9/11 attacks and continuing threats of mass-casualty terrorism, the United States has adopted a new security strategy that emphasizes anticipatory actions, including preventive war...
.... Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the military-backed regime canceled elections that Islamic fundamentalists were certain to win in 1992...
Kleinpeter, Christine B
This qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 parents who were involved in surrogate parenting arrangements in a California-based surrogacy program. Participants were mostly white (n = 23). married (n = 25), females (n = 24), with high levels of education and income. The mean age at the time of the first child's birth was 39 yr. (SD = 5.06). The majority of parents reported having one (n = 10) or two (n = 8) children. All subjects reported infertility as their reason to explore surrogacy as a method of building a family. 18 participants chose in vitro fertilization as heir method of conception. Telephone interviews explored their decision-making, ethod of fertilization, their relationship with their surrogate, and the support that they received during the surrogacy process. Results indicate that parents were able to nticipate some potential pitfalls prior to their experience but did not realize the imortance of other potential difficulties. A conceptual model is presented with implications for helping professionals.
This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)
Colbert, E. J. M.; Sullivan, D. T.; Kott, A
This paper presents general strategies for cyber war gaming of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) that are used for cyber security research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL). Since Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and other CPSs are operational systems, it is difficult or impossible to perform security experiments on actual systems. The authors describe how table-top strategy sessions and realistic, live CPS war games are conducted at ARL. They also discuss how the recorde...
participation so central to the Renewable Energy Island project can be better understood as instances of material participation motivated first and foremost by a concern for the future of the island as a 'liveable' community; a community in which jobs and institutions are not constantly threatening to disappear...
R Muralidharan, Gayathri Devi
The involvement of parents at home and in school is a crucial factor in the development of child with autism. This qualitative study explored the similarities and difference between the perceptions of Malaysian parents on parental involvement. The selected participants are parents of children with autism, and are currently enrolled either in a primary government or private school. The present study used semi-structured interviews to examine the participants' views on parental involvement. A t...
Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R
To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA) and to investigate whether adolescents' emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1-3 on four types of parents' PPA (mother to adolescent, father to adolescent, mother to father, and father to mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents' emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression and on parents' CPA. Parents' PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.6, p controlling for adolescents' sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents' CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82-17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents' parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated the effects. Adolescents' parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents' physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Society for
.... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...
Hwahng, Sel J
During the Pacific War (World War II), Japan maintained an elaborate system of sexual slavery by implementing certain practices based on institutionalized policies of hygiene, efficiency, and the use of mostly Korean girls and women. Two hygienic techniques were established--vaccination and quarantine. No. 606 injections were given at mandatory regularly scheduled medical examinations to prevent and treat venereal disease, and to also deter pregnancy, induce abortions, and ultimately sterilize sex slaves. Secondary textual analysis of data collected from 1995-2000, N = 67 interview transcripts, and participant observation in 2003 and 2006. Geographic area: East Asia and the Pacific Islands.
Russell, W M S
This article discusses three serious wars that were averted and the three men who averted them. In 1478-79, Pope Sixtus IV's hatred of the Medici culminated in aggressive war against Florence, supported by his powerful ally King Ferrante of Naples. The initial stags of this war were indecisive, but it was about to become much more serious, probably involving all the Italian states and possibly meaning the total destruction of Florence. Lorenzo il Magnifico sailed to Naples, convinced Ferrante this more serious war was against his interests and obtained a generous peace. In 1861, the British Government responded to the boarding of a British ship by a vessel of the American North with a peremptory letter. Albert, Prince Consort, though dying of typhoid fever amended the letter to save Lincoln's face and thus averted war with the North. From 1871 to 1890, Otto von Bismarck worked for a stable peace between the European powers to be attained by arranging meetings of most or all of them to accustom them to solving disputes by negotiation. Two such meetings in Berlin secured 36 years of peace between the powers, despite many disputes, and in particular averted war for possessions in Africa, which could have involved them all.
Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne
This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....
Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela
We jointly analyze the genesis of terrorism and civil war, providing a simple conceptual framework to explain why violent opposition groups choose distinct forms of violence (i.e., terrorism and open rebellion). We argue that the distinct modes of violent opposition are chosen by opposition groups...... in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 104 countries for 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-economic strength of a system positively correlates with the likelihood of terrorism, but negatively with the incidence of civil war....... Institutional quality and political participation of opponents reduce the risk of civil war, but do not affect the likelihood of terrorism. We also show that system stability reduces the likelihood of all forms of violent opposition....
Leskinen, R. (Riitta)
Abstract Becoming involved in war is an experience that has the potential to shape later-life health. The aim of the present study was to explore Finnish Second World War veterans’ health status and the determinants of self-rated health (SRH) and functional capacity, especially the ability to walk, and to identify risk factors and their combinations that predict late-life mortality among veterans. The study population comprised Finnish Second World War veterans who participated in the ...
Carranza, Laura V; Kilmann, Peter R; Vendemia, Jennifer M C
This study investigated links between offsprings' attachment patterns and parent characteristics in 157 females and 62 males of parental divorce. Secure females and males reported affection, respect, and closeness toward both biological parents. Offsprings' insecure attachment pattern was associated with negative parent characteristics. Participants who perceived their same-sex parent negatively were more likely to report an insecure attachment. Our findings suggest delayed negative consequences of parental divorce for college women and men.
Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0382 TITLE: Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0382 5b. GRANT...of the 1990-1991 Gulf War are affected by Gulf War illness (GWI), the chronic condition currently defined only by veterans’ self-reported symptoms
Schultz, Sarah J
.... It is the foundation of joint professional military education and training, forming the basis for how the warfighter will prosecute a war, and is a reflection of the judgments of senior military leadership...
Day, B.; Waitzkin, H.
Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the US have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues
Full Text Available Aim. A case is reported of successfully surgically treated explosive war injury to the innominate artery. Case report. A 26 - year-old soldier was injured in combat by a fragment of mortar shell. In the field hospital, the wound gauze packing was applied, followed by orotracheal intubation and thoracic drainage. The soldier was admitted to MMA six hours later. Physical examination, on admission, revealed huge swelling of the neck, the absence of pulse in the right arm and the right common carotid artery. Chest x-ray revealed hemopneumothorax of the right side and the foreign metal body in the projection of the right sternoclavicular joint. Due to the suspicion of large vessel injury, a median sternotomy was immediately performed. Surgery revealed disrupted bifurcation of the right innominate artery, so the ligation was performed. Aortography was performed postoperatively, followed by the reconstruction of innominate bifurcation with synthetic grafts. Control aortography showed good graft patency, and the patient was discharged from the hospital in good general condition with palpable pulses and mild anisocoria as a sole neurological sequela. Conclusion. A rare and life-threatening injury was successfully managed, mainly due to the rational treatment carried out in the field hospital that helped the injured to survive and arrive to the institution capable of performing the most sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.
Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)
Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death
Morina, Nexhmedin; van Emmerik, Arnold A P; Andrews, Bernice; Brewin, Chris R
The World Health Organization recently proposed a reformulation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for the 11(th) edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), employing only 6 symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of this reformulation of PTSD as compared to criteria according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) on the prevalence of current PTSD as well as comorbid major depressive episode and anxiety disorders other than PTSD. Study 1 involved previously collected interviews with 560 Kosovar civilian war survivors; Study 2 employed a previously collected sample of 142 British war veterans. Results revealed no change in the diagnostic status under the criteria proposed for ICD-11 in 87.5% of civilian war survivors and 91.5% of war veterans. Participants who only met the newly proposed criteria showed lower rates of comorbid major depressive episode than participants who only met DSM-IV criteria (13.6% vs. 43.8% respectively). Rates of comorbid anxiety disorders did not significantly differ between participants who lost or gained a PTSD diagnosis under the proposed criteria. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Klahr, Ashlea M; Burt, S Alexandra; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M
Negative parenting is shaped by the genetically influenced characteristics of children (via evocative rGE) and by parental antisocial behavior; however, it is unclear how these factors jointly impact parenting. This study examined the effects of birth parent and adoptive parent antisocial behavior on negative parenting. Participants included 546 families within a prospective adoption study. Adoptive parent antisocial behavior emerged as a small but significant predictor of negative parenting at 18 months and of change in parenting from 18 to 27 months. Birth parent antisocial behavior predicted change in adoptive father's (but not mother's) parenting over time. These findings highlight the role of parent characteristics and suggest that evocative rGE effects on parenting may be small in magnitude in early childhood. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Dekel, Rachel; Solomon, Dan
This study examined the contribution of maternal bonding to the adjustment of Israeli adolescents following the 2006 Lebanon War. In all, 2,858 seventh and eighth graders who lived in areas that were exposed to missile attacks completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (assessing maternal care and control) and questionnaires evaluating…
Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Crawford, Patricia A.
This article presents picture books that are considered as a sample of children's literature selections on war, terrorism, and natural disasters for pre-K to 3rd-grade children which were chosen with both young children and their teachers and parents in mind. The authors recommend these books to be used as read-alouds, so that caring adults who…
Feudtner, Chris; Walter, Jennifer K; Faerber, Jennifer A; Hill, Douglas L; Carroll, Karen W; Mollen, Cynthia J; Miller, Victoria A; Morrison, Wynne E; Munson, David; Kang, Tammy I; Hinds, Pamela S
Parents' beliefs about what they need to do to be a good parent when their children are seriously ill influence their medical decisions, and better understanding of these beliefs may improve decision support. To assess parents' perceptions regarding the relative importance of 12 good-parent attributes. A cross-sectional, discrete-choice experiment was conducted at a children's hospital. Participants included 200 parents of children with serious illness. Ratings of 12 good-parent attributes, with subsequent use of latent class analysis to identify groups of parents with similar ratings of attributes, and ascertainment of whether membership in a particular group was associated with demographic or clinical characteristics. The highest-ranked good-parent attribute was making sure that my child feels loved, followed by focusing on my child's health, making informed medical care decisions, and advocating for my child with medical staff. We identified 4 groups of parents with similar patterns of good-parent-attribute ratings, which we labeled as: child feels loved (n=68), child's health (n=56), advocacy and informed (n=55), and spiritual well-being (n=21). Compared with the other groups, the child's health group reported more financial difficulties, was less educated, and had a higher proportion of children with new complex, chronic conditions. Parents endorse a broad range of beliefs that represent what they perceive they should do to be a good parent for their seriously ill child. Common patterns of how parents prioritize these attributes exist, suggesting future research to better understand the origins and development of good-parent beliefs among these parents. More important, engaging parents individually regarding what they perceive to be the core duties they must fulfill to be a good parent may enable more customized and effective decision support.
A qualitative, exploratory study of predominantly female parental perceptions of consumer health technology use by their overweight and/or obese female adolescent participating in a fee-based 4-week weight-management intervention.
Knoblock-Hahn, Amy L; LeRouge, Cynthia M
Consumer health technologies (CHTs) are a growing part of the continuum of care for self-management of overweight and obesity. Parents positively or negatively influence adolescent weight-management efforts and are especially important throughout continuum of care settings. User-centered design (UCD) applications have been developed to assist primary users, such as adolescents, with their weight management, but less is known about the influence of parents as secondary users across many socio-ecological environments. The purpose of this study was to use the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to inform the design of a UCD application in a qualitative study that sought to determine parental views on how technology can support previously learned behaviors that require ongoing management and support beyond formal lifestyle interventions. Parents of overweight and obese adolescents (n=14) were interviewed about perceived usefulness and planned user-intent of CHT that was designed for adolescents. UTAUT provided theoretical parental constructs (intention, performance and effort expectancy, and social influence) interactions within several socio-ecological contexts, including the home food environment and restaurant dining experiences. Although generalizations of this qualitative study are limited by a small sample size with predominantly mothers (n=13) of overweight and obese daughters (n=12), the exploratory inquiry using a parent as a secondary consumer user can complement the adoption of applications designed by adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Despite several policies aimed at increasing fathers' participation in the caring of children, Swedish mothers still use the bulk of the paid parental leave which may have several negative consequences for the family e.g. in terms of weaker labor market attachment for the mother. Division of parental leave is likely affected by how parents value the costs associated with parental leave. I investigate whether a reduction in the care burden, or a decreased non-monetary cost, of parental leave t...
Irma J. Kroeze
Full Text Available Public trust in science is eroding because of a number of conflicts. In the sphere of climate science and of nutrition science, a basic methodological difference between scientists has escalated into what can be called wars. These wars are the result of influences such as personalities of leading scientists and powerful commercial and political interests. The wars have escalated to such an extent that leading scientists are being threatened with legal action and disciplinary procedures for advocating divergent views. These legal processes are not primarily about the procedural aspects of their actions, but are couched as being ‘about the science’. This means that legal processes are being used to ‘settle’ the science – something that the law has never been required to do. This new role for law has implications for legal education and requires that lawyers become more capable to understand empirical research.
Mehmet Ali Çelikel
Full Text Available During the First World War, Dardanelles witnessed one of the fiercest clashes in history between the British and the Turkish forces. This eight-month-war caused the settlement of British army that included Australian and New Zealand Army Corps known as Anzacs on particularly the Gallipoli Peninsula. The Australian and New Zealander soldiers and officers constantly kept diaries and wrote letters that in a sense recorded history from the personal perspective contributing to history with individual observation. If Anzac diaries kept during the Gallipoli clashes in 1915 function as secondary historical sources, they also do function as reminiscences of military officers who found consolation in expressing themselves lyrically during harsh conflicts. Some Anzac officers quote poems in their diaries and some write their own poetry to cope with the violence of war using the aestheticism of poetry. Their poems, on the other hand, remain not only as the lyrical reflections of a deadly reality but also as even more painful portrayals of war. This paper aims to read poems either quoted or written in the diaries of Anzac soldiers and officers in order to analyse the emotional effects of war on individuals. The poems will be analysed through the perspective of cultural landscape and question the influence of landscape on the perception of war in the minds of the Anzacs. From the new historicist perspective, the diaries bearing poetry will be read not as the sources of historical information but as the texts that use history as the material for poetry. The paper will also question whether or not the individual observations change the perception of official history that does not become the main impulse behind the writing of poetry but turns merely into one of its sources.
Mattanah, J.F.; Pratt, M.W.; Cowan, P.A.; Cowan, C.P.
The current study examined the relationships among authoritative parenting, parental scaffolding of long-division math problems, and children's academic competence. In a sample of 70 two-parent middle class families participating in a longitudinal study on the transition to school, authoritative parenting was assessed globally at the beginning of…
Full Text Available Four years after the French Revolution, in 1793 a series of wars among France and other major powers of Europe began and they lasted until 1815. There is disagreement among economic historians about the effects of these wars on the trend of US economic growth. This paper aims to answer the following question. Did America as a neutral nation take advantage of economic possibilities caused by Europe at war through trade? To put it differently, this paper questions whether there was an export-led growth due to the war. To answer this question, we re-examined the export-led growth hypothesis for the period 1790-1860 using the ARDL methodology. Based on this methodology, a cointegrated relationship is found among the variables of real GDP, labor, exports and exchange rates. The results suggest that the economic growth of the US was not export-driven. In addition, parallel to the results of unit root tests with structural breaks, the coefficient of the dummy variable was statistically significant in the long run, implying that the war did have a significant effect on the economic growth trend of the US.
Trimble, Virginia L.
World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.
Glazemakers, I; Deboutte, D
Many parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) want and/or need professional guidance and support to learn skills and strategies to prevent and manage child behaviour problems. However, the available support is rarely suitable, and suitable support is rarely available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a popular mainstream parenting training programme, known as 'Group Triple P' (Positive Parenting Program), could be successfully modified for this parent group. A pilot study was undertaken to determine whether a modified version of Group Triple P would engage and retain parents with ID. A non-experimental, pre-test post-test study, involving a total of 30 parents with ID, was then undertaken to obtain preliminary efficacy data. Parent engagement and participation levels were high. No parent 'dropped out' of the programme. After completing the modified Group Triple P programme, parents reported a decrease in psychological distress, maladaptive parenting and child conduct problems. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the information and support they received. Research-informed adaptation of mainstream behavioural family interventions, such as Group Triple P, could make 'suitable support' more readily available, and more engaging for parents with ID. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Tani, Franca; Bonechi, Alice; Peterson, Carole; Smorti, Andrea
The authors evaluated the role parent-child relationship quality has on two types of memories, those of parents and those of friends. Participants were 198 Italian university students who recalled memories during 4 separate timed memory-fluency tasks about their preschool, elementary school, middle school, high school and university years. Half were instructed to recall memories involving parents and the remainder memories involving friends. Moreover, parent-child relationships were assessed by the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; W. Furman & D. Buhrmester, 1985) and Adolescents' Report of Parental Monitoring (D. M. Capaldi & G. R. Patterson, 1989). Results showed that men with positive parent-son relationships had more memories of parents and more affectively positive memories of friends, supporting a consistency model positing similarity between parent-child relationships and memories of friends. Women with positive parental relationship quality had more affectively positive memories of parents but for friends, positive relationship quality only predicted positive memories when young. At older ages, especially middle school-aged children, negative parent-daughter relationships predicted more positive memories of friends, supporting a compensatory model. The gender of parent also mattered, with fathers having a more influential role on affect for memories of friends.
Morgos, Dorothy; Worden, J William; Gupta, Leila
This study focused on assessing the psychosocial effects of the long standing, high intensity, and guerrilla-style of warfare among displaced children in Southern Darfur. The goal was to better understand the etiology, prognosis, and treatment implications for traumatic reactions, depression, and grief symptoms in this population. Three hundred thirty-one children aged 6-17 from three IDP Camps were selected using a quota sampling approach and were administered a Demographic Questionnaire, Child Post Traumatic Stress Reaction Index, Child Depression Inventory, and the Expanded Grief Inventory. Forty-three percent were girls and 57% were boys. The mean age of the children was 12 years. Results found that children were exposed to a very large number of war experiences with no significant differences between genders for types of exposure, including rape, but with older children (13-17 years) facing a larger number of exposures than younger children (6-12 years). Out of the 16 possible war experiences, the mean number was 8.94 (SD = 3.27). Seventy-five percent of the children met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD, and 38% exhibited clinical symptoms of depression. The percentage of children endorsing significant levels of grief symptoms was 20%. Increased exposure to war experiences led to higher levels of: (1) traumatic reactions; (2) depression; and (3) grief symptoms. Of the 16 war experiences, abduction, hiding to protect oneself, being raped, and being forced to kill or hurt family members were most predictive of traumatic reactions. Being raped, seeing others raped, the death of a parent/s, being forced to fight, and having to hide to protect oneself were the strongest predictors of depressive symptoms. War experiences such as abduction, death of one's parent/s, being forced to fight, and having to hide to protect oneself were the most associated with the child's experience of grief. In addition to Total Grief, Traumatic Grief, Existential Grief, and Continuing Bonds
Shakya, Holly B.; Christakis, Nicholas; Fowler, James H.
Objective To evaluate the relationship between the parenting style of an adolescent's peers' parents and an adolescent's substance use. Design Longitudinal survey. Setting Adolescents across the United States were interviewed at school and at home. Participants Nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Main Exposure Authoritative vs neglectful parenting style of adolescent's parents and adolescent's friends' parents and adolescent substance use. ...
In the aftermath of a nuclear war, genetic effects may appear trivial in comparison with the enormity of the catastrophic development in the survivors' health and the environment. Gross effects are immediately or subtly demonstrable on the basis of diverse war scenarios. On the other hand, in a great number of organisms, genetic effects of radiation have been shown to occur according to a no-threshold dose-effect curve, thus implying that effects may be found even in situations and population groups where other direct effects are small. The discussions on the effects of nuclear war have indicated that whatever sector of effects is focused on, closer examination has, in each case - be it treatment of casualties, effects on climate, or effects on world trade - led to a picture of possible and often probable catastrophic collapse
Speeches of Soviet and foreign scientists at the Second Section of 2d All-UNION conference of scientists on problems of peace and prevention of nuclear war related to possible consequences of nuclear war have been considered. It is noted that production of a large amount of aerosol particles, dust, smoke and combustion products due to forest-fires, fires in cities, which change considerably atmosphere properties, will be the greatest effect of nuclear strike from the point of view of global consequencies. ''Nuclear winter'', photosynthesis suppression, plant bioproductivity weakening, long-term climate changes, ozone layer disturbance, mass and irreversible degeneration of all biosphere on the whole are great consequencies of nuclear conflict. Attention is paid to medical service, industrial accidents, radioactive fallouts consequence of radiation and other harmful factors for people in nuclear war
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans...... and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk...... outcomes and information on deployment history was studied using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until April 27, 2014. RESULTS: As the main finding, no difference was found between veterans...
U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.
Schott, Robin May
Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.
Zec, S; Telebak, B; Sljepcevic, O; Filipovic-Hadziomeragic, A
To assess nutritional status, dietary intake and lifestyle habits of non-manual workers in Sarajevo. Healthy employees in non-manual occupations from four large companies were invited to participate in a nutrition and health survey during 1990 and 1991. All the subjects were working in the city centre of Sarajevo. 1860 subjects (1120 men and 740 women) aged from 20-65 years of age participated. Nutritional status was evaluated through anthropometric measurements (weights and heights) and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Data on health status, diet and lifestyle were gathered through individual questionnaires. Overall, 4.3% of the sample was found to be underweight (BMI 30.5). The majority of the obese men were in responsible positions (for example, directors, heads of departments). The majority of obese women were in the 35-45 years old age group in the post-maternity period. Intakes of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate exceeded former Yugoslavian recommended dietary allowances. About one third of participants (34.3% men and 27.3% women) smoked heavily and 18.1% of men drank alcohol. A total of 16.2% of men and 11.6% of women suffered from hypertension. The food intake of the population of Sarajevo before the war was generally high. There was high consumption of meat, fatty foods and alcoholic drinks (particularly among men) and low levels of physical activity. This resulted in high levels of obesity and chronic degenerative diseases such as hypertension. Thus, high living standards and physical inactivity had a damaging effect on the health of non-manual workers in pre-war Sarajevo.
Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.
This study investigated how parental beliefs about children’s emotions and parental stress relate to children’s feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children’s feelings of security were tested. Participants were 85 African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian 4th and 5th grade children and one ...
Castro, D.C.; Bryant, D.M.; Peisner-Feinberg, E.S.; Skinner, M.L.
The purposes of this study were to determine the extent and types of parent involvement in Head Start programs, and to examine the relations between parent participation and family, teacher and classroom characteristics. Parents (n = 1131) and teachers (n = 59) from four Head Start programs participated. Data were gathered through volunteer logs,…
Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J
Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.