WorldWideScience

Sample records for parental strategies contribute

  1. Truancy: How Parents and Teachers Contribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Linda F.; Thompson, Rock

    1983-01-01

    Compared attitudes and behaviors of parents and teachers toward junior-high habitually truant students (N=94) and regular attenders (N=94). Data from the Little Parenting Valuing Styles Scale and Little Teacher Valuing Styles Scale suggest parents may contribute to truancy by being overprotective and overindulgent. Teachers may reject and…

  2. Do parents of obese children use ineffective parenting strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; West, Felicity

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown mixed findings about the relationship between parenting style and child lifestyle outcomes. This paper describes a cross-sectional study that aimed to clarify the relationship between ineffective parenting and childhood obesity by using multiple measures of child and family functioning. Sixty-two families with an obese child (aged four to 11 years) were matched with 62 families with a healthy weight child on key sociodemographic variables. Significant differences were found on several measures, including general parenting style, domain-specific parenting practices, and parenting self-efficacy (d = .53 to 1.96). Parents of obese children were more likely to use permissive and coercive discipline techniques, and to lack confidence in managing children's lifestyle behaviour. In contrast, parents of healthy weight children were more likely to implement specific strategies for promoting a healthy lifestyle.

  3. Parental strategies for assisting children to wait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuskelly, Monica; Jobling, Anne; Gilmore, Linda; Glenn, Sheila

    2006-09-01

    This study examined parents' behaviours as they waited with their child. Children were presented with an attractively wrapped gift and then asked not to touch it until the experimenter returned from finishing some work in another room. Three parent groups and their children participated in the study - parents of children with Down syndrome, parents of children with intellectual disability from another cause, and parents of children who were developing typically. There were no significant differences between children in how long they were able to wait before touching the gift. The data from the first two groups were combined for all analyses after it was established that there were no significant differences between them. There were few significant differences between parents of a child with intellectual disability and comparison parents. The former group were more likely to be classified as Authoritarian than were comparison parents, however with one exception, parenting style was unrelated to the strategies parents used in the waiting situation. Very few parents in either group used the opportunity to teach or explicitly praise effective waiting strategies in their children.

  4. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Achievement Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the extents to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Respondents (N=354) identified four types of families: those with Authoritative; Authoritarian; Permissive; and Neglectful parenting styles. Results further reveal that adolescents from authoritative…

  5. Evaluating Parental Autism Disclosure Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jillian E.; Galijot, Ratka; Davies, W. Hobart

    2018-01-01

    The relative effects of different autism disclosure methods on the perceptions of a mother-child dyad were investigated. Using three conditions, disclosure card, disclosure bracelet, and no disclosure, U.S. community parents (N = 383) were asked 18 questions about their perceptions of the dyad. An ANOVA revealed significant protection from stigma…

  6. Parenting styles and adolescents' achievement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, K; Stattin, H; Nurmi, J E

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Three hundred and fifty-four 14-year-old adolescents completed a Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire and a family parenting style inventory. Analogous questionnaires were also completed by the adolescents' parents. Based on adolescents' report of the parenting styles, four types of families were identified: those with Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, and Neglectful parenting styles. The results further showed that adolescents from authoritative families applied most adaptive achievement strategies characterized by low levels of failure expectations, task-irrelevant behaviour and passivity, and the use of self-enhancing attributions. Adolescents from neglectful families, in turn, applied maladaptive strategies characterized by high levels of task-irrelevant behaviour, passivity and a lack of self-enhancing attributions. The results provide a basis for understanding some of the processes by which parenting styles may influence adolescents' academic achievement and performance.

  7. Formalized Search Strategies for Human Risk Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Pedersen, O. M.

    For risk management, the results of a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) as well as the underlying assumptions can be used as references in a closed-loop risk control; and the analyses of operational experiences as a means of feedback. In this context, the need for explicit definition...... risk contributions are described on the basis of general plant design features relevant for risk and accident analysis. With this background, search strategies for human risk contributions are treated: Under the designation "work analysis", procedures for the analysis of familiar, well trained, planned...... tasks are proposed. Strategies for identifying human risk contributions outside this category are outlined....

  8. Formalized search strategies for human risk contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.; Pedersen, O.M.

    1982-07-01

    For risk management, the results of a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) as well as the underlying assumptions can be used as references in a closed-loop risk control; and the analyses of operational experiences as a means of feedback. In this context, the need for explicit definition and documentation of the PRA coverage, including the search strategies applied, is discussed and aids are proposed such as plant description in terms of a formal abstraction hierarchy and use of cause-consequence-charts for the documentation of not only the results of PRA but also of its coverage. Typical human risk contributions are described on the basis of general plant design features relevant for risk and accident analysis. With this background, search strategies for human risk contributions are treated: Under the designation ''work analysis'', procedures for the analysis of familiar, well trained, planned tasks are proposed. Strategies for identifying human risk contributions outside this category are outlined. (author)

  9. Parental Contributions to Southeast Asian American Adolescents' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung

    2008-01-01

    Informed by acculturation, ecological, and social capital theories, the study examined the contribution of parental acculturation, parental involvement, and intergenerational relationship to well-being in Southeast Asian American adolescents. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, 491 Southeast Asian American adolescents…

  10. [Parents' and Children's Perspectives of Parental Mediation Strategies in Association with Children's Internet Skills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold

    2018-02-01

    Parents' and Children's Perspectives of Parental Mediation Strategies in Association with Children's Internet Skills The purpose of this study was to examine the association of parental mediation strategies (from parents' and children's perspective) and children's internet skills. In total 194 parent-child dyads were questioned about their parent's mediation strategies. The children (fifth to ninth grade) additionally answered questions about their internet skills and the amount of time they spent daily on the internet. Parents' and children's ratings of the parental mediation strategies showed moderate associations. Parents reported to use more often mediation strategies than was perceived by their children. The mediation strategies had only limited value for the prediction of the children's internet skills. Parents' and children's perspective about restrictive content mediation were both negatively associated to children's internet skills. After controlling for children's age, sex and time spent daily on the internet, results showed that only congruencies between children's and parental perspectives regarding the parental restrictive content mediation were associated with decreased technical and social internet skills. Additionally, discrepancies between the children's and parental perspectives regarding the parental use of technical mediation were associated with decreased technical internet skills. Discrepancies regarding the parental mediation strategy monitoring were related to increased information navigation skills.

  11. Age Differences in Children's Strategies for Influencing Parents' Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Ann; And Others

    The specific purposes of this study were to examine (1) age differences in the sophistication of influence strategies children use to affect parents' consumption decisions, and (2) whether or not parents differentially reinforce such strategies according to the child's age. Data were gathered by observing the interactions of 145 parent-child dyads…

  12. Behavioral side effects of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment: the role of parenting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Lamb, Karen E; McCarthy, Maria C

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral and emotional difficulties are a recognised side effect of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. Modifiable factors, such as parenting strategies, may be an appropriate target for interventions to assist families with managing their child's behavior, potentially leading to improved psychosocial and clinical outcomes. This study examined whether parenting strategies are associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in a pediatric oncology context, with the aim of establishing whether parenting is a potential modifiable target for psychosocial intervention. Participants included 73 parents of children aged 2-6 years who were either (i) in the maintenance phase of treatment for ALL at the Royal Children's Hospital Children's Cancer Centre, Melbourne (N = 43), or (ii) had no major medical history (healthy control group) (N = 30). Participants completed psychometrically validated questionnaires that assessed parenting strategies and child emotional and behavioral problems. Results revealed that the ALL group parents reported higher lax parenting and more spoiling and bribing of their child than the healthy control group. Results from regression models indicated that, after controlling for the significant contribution of illness status and child age on child emotional and behavioral difficulties, parental laxness and parental overprotection were significantly associated with child emotional and behavioral difficulties. Supporting parents to minimise sub-optimal parenting strategies, particularly lax parenting, may offer a fruitful avenue for future research directed toward modifiable factors associated with managing child emotional and behavioral problems in a pediatric oncology context. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Socioeconomic Differences in Parenting Strategies to Prevent Adolescent Smoking: A Case Study from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Haal, Sylke; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify possible socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. In 2012, survey data of adolescents (N = 225) aged 13 to 17 years and their mothers (N = 122) and fathers (N = 105) were collected in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Questions on smoking behaviour and eleven anti-smoking parenting strategies were answered by adolescents, mothers and fathers. School tracks of adolescents and educational level of parents were measured as indicators of socioeconomic position. Linear multilevel regression analyses were applied to study the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and standardised scores of anti-smoking strategies. Analyses were controlled for age, sex and smoking by parents and adolescents. We found no consistent socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. There were no statistically significant differences in relation to parental educational level or when using adolescent reports on parenting practices. However, when using parental reports, a few strategies varied significantly according to adolescent educational track. Adolescents in higher educational tracks were more likely to have no-smoking rules in the home (standardised regression coefficient (β) = 0.20, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.03; 0.37, p = 0.022) and more likely to have a no-smoking agreement (β = 0.17, 95 % CI: 0.00; 0.34, p = 0.048). However, they were less likely to frequently communicate about smoking with their parents (β = -0.25, 95 % CI: -0.41; -0.08, p = 0.004). In this specific population, there was no consistent support for the hypothesis that anti-smoking parenting strategies contribute to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Parental factors that are more likely to contribute to these inequalities include parental smoking and parenting styles.

  14. Mediating social media use : connecting parents mediation strategies and social media literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Daneels, Rowan; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Increasingly complex and multipurpose social media platforms require digital competences from parents and adolescents alike. While adolescents grow up with social media, parents have more difficulties with them, leading to uncertainties regarding their adolescents social media mediation. This study contributes to parental mediation research by (1) investigating whether mediation strategies defined by previous research are also relevant for social media use, and (2) exploring whether...

  15. Contribution to the strategy of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciconkov, Risto

    2003-01-01

    An explanation for the greenhouse effect, i.e.global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gasses (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their contributing on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate change in the previous period and projecting of likely scenarios for the future. Consequences on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resource. The main lines of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. Suggestions to the country strategy concerning to the acts of the Kyoto Protocol. A special attention is pointed out on the energy, its resource, the structure of energy consumption and energy efficiency. Main sectors of the energy efficiency: buildings, industry and transport. Buildings: importance of heat insulation. District heating, suggestions for space heating. Heat pumps and CHP. Air conditioning and refrigeration. Industry: process heating, and integrated energy system heat recovery, refrigeration, compressed air. Need of quality maintenance and servicing. Monitoring and automatic control. Education for energy and its saving. (Original)

  16. Contribution of school to building up the partnership with parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the way in which headmasters and class masters perceive and estimate the factors, obstacles and incentives to building up a partnership between school and parents. The sample consists of 60 headmasters and 305 class masters from 60 schools (37 urban and 23 rural in Serbia. Headmasters and teachers filled in separate, but parallel questionnaires (modified only in the segment of different roles that were created for the purposes of research. Questionnaire items inquire about the factors contributing to the inclusion of parents, the obstacles in developing the cooperation between parents and school and the peculiarities of school environment that can contribute to the development of that cooperation, as well as about the peculiarities of the communication with parents. Research findings indicate that headmasters and teachers assess the importance of different components in the field of cooperation with parents in a similar, but not identical way. Most similarities are found in the perception of obstacles for establishing cooperation (the problems of coordinating time periods for meetings, previous bad experiences of parents regarding cooperation. The majority of differences lie in perceiving the importance of cooperation factors (headmasters emphasise the "parent factor", while teachers do so both for the "parent factor" and "child factor", as well as in perceiving the necessary incentives for the improvement of cooperation between school and parents (headmasters emphasise the spatial-temporal organization components, and teachers do so for spatial components and personal initiatives. In the assessments of both the headmasters and teachers we obtained differences marked by gender, the longitude of years of service, size of the settlement where the school is located (town-village. The general conclusion indicates that the topic of cooperation between school and parents is highly and in many ways context sensitive, and that the

  17. Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies of Nurses at ... explore the factors contributing to nurses' stress and related coping strategies used ... of staff and materials, facing death and dying, dissatisfaction with the work ...

  18. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Learning Strategies in the Urban Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boveja, Marsha E.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between perceived parenting styles and urban adolescents' learning and studying strategies. Results revealed that those adolescents who perceived their parents as being authoritative tended to engage in more effective learning and study strategies. Discusses implications for counselors and teachers using this information…

  19. A Brief Coaching Intervention for Teaching Naturalistic Strategies to Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin D.; Ledford, Jennifer R.; Shepley, Collin; Mataras, Theologia K.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Davis, Alicia B.

    2016-01-01

    Coaching parents to implement evidence-based strategies is one method for increasing the number of hours young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) access intervention services. The purpose of this study was to teach parents of young children with ASD to implement naturalistic strategies during play in a clinic setting. Results indicate a…

  20. Strategies for parenting by mothers and fathers with a mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ende, P C; van Busschbach, J T; Nicholson, J; Korevaar, E L; van Weeghel, J

    2016-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The combination of coping with their mental health problems and caring for children makes parents vulnerable. Family-centred practice can help to maintain and strengthen important family relationships, and to identify and enhance the strengths of a parent with a mental illness, all contributing to the recovery of the person with the mental illness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO THE EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Taking the strength and the opportunities formulated by parents themselves as a starting point is fairly new. Parents with severe mental illness find strength for parenting in several ways. They feel responsible, and this helps them to stay alert while parenting, whereas parenthood also offers a basis for social participation through school contacts and the child's friendships. Dedication to the parent role provides a focus; parents develop strengths and skills as they find a balance between attending to their own lives and caring for their children; and parenting prompts them to find adequate sources of social support. In this study these strategies were found to be the fundamentals of recovery related to parenting. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses can support and coach patients who are identified as parents, and self-chosen parenting related goals are set and addressed. A family-focused approach by nurses can be used to prevent problems for children and their families, identify their strengths as well as vulnerabilities, and address the challenges to build resilience. Understanding of the problems of parents with mental illness is growing. Gaining insight into strategies for parenting, while taking the opportunities formulated by these parents themselves as a starting point is fairly new. What are the strategies of parents with a mental illness to be successful? Experiences of 19 mothers and eight fathers with a mental illness were explored with in-depth interviews. Data were content analysed, using qualitative methods. Next

  1. Parental Strategies for Knowledge of Adolescents’ Friends: Distinct from Monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2012-01-01

    Parental monitoring is defined as a set of behaviors used to gain knowledge about an adolescent’s whereabouts, friends and associates, and activities. However, can knowledge of adolescents’ whereabouts/activities, and friends all be attained through the same strategies? Or do they require their own strategies? This study used qualitative interviews with 173 parents of older adolescents from 100 families. Emergent themes described strategies by which parents gain information about their adolescents’ friends and the substance use of those friends. The strategies included direct interaction with the friend, gaining information from the teen, using second-hand sources, and making assumptions. Some of these strategies were consistent with previous research, while others raise new questions and provide interesting new directions to pursue. Primarily, additional consideration needs to be given to assessments of parental monitoring that include strategies for gaining knowledge of adolescents’ friends and their substance use. PMID:23209361

  2. Contribution of parents' adult attachment and separation attitudes to parent-adolescent conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, María José; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Máiquez, María Luisa

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the contribution to parent-adolescent conflict resolution of parental adult attachment styles and attitudes toward adolescent separation. Questionnaires were completed by 295 couples with early to late adolescent children. Structural equation models were used to test self and partner influences on conflict resolution for three attachment orientations: confidence (model A), anxiety (model B) and avoidance (model C). Model A showed self influences between parents' confidence orientation and negotiation and also via positive attitudes towards separation. Also, the fathers' use of negotiation was facilitated by the mothers' confidence orientation and vice versa, indicating partner influences as well. Model B showed self influences between parents' anxiety orientation and the use of dominance and withdrawal and also via negative attitudes towards separation. Model C showed self influences between parents' avoidance orientation and dominance and withdrawal, and a partner influence between fathers' avoidance and mothers' use of dominance. The results indicated that the parents' adult attachment system and the parenting system were related in the area of conflict resolution, and that self influences were stronger than partner influences. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  3. Between Concealing and Revealing Intersexed Bodies: Parental Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon, Limor Meoded; Krämer, Anike

    2017-08-01

    Parents of intersex children are perceived in many studies as hopeless, highly dependent on the medical system, and as gate keepers of normative gendered bodies. In this article, we challenge these perceptions and argue that parents of intersex children are problematically positioned between their children's needs for care and well-being and the socialmedical forces that aim to "normalize" them. Their in-between position leads them to establish different parental strategies within and outside of traditional sex/gender norms. We focus on three intertwined parental strategy frameworks: bodily dialogue, sex/gender framing, and concealing/revealing practices, and describe how, in each of these strategic frameworks, the parents maneuver, act in accordance with or against, react to, and challenge the medical system, social interactions, and the sex/gender paradigm. This is a comparative study based on narrative interviews with 22 parents of intersex children in Germany and Israel.

  4. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Challenges, Strategies, and Resources in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Bingham, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined mothers' and fathers' parenting challenges and strategies/resources used when parenting toddlers. Through a qualitative interview protocol, implemented with mothers and fathers separately at a university laboratory, this study found that both fathers and mothers appeared to be transitioning from traditional gender roles towards…

  5. Structure, coercive control, and autonomy promotion: A comparison of fathers' and mothers' food parenting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Mercedes; Hoffmann, Debra; Taylor, Maija; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2017-05-01

    This study explored differences in mothers' and fathers' food parenting strategies, specifically coercive control, structure, and autonomy promotion, and whether parenting style and parental responsibility for food parenting related to the use of these strategies. Parents of children aged 2.5-7.5 years ( N = 497) reported about their parenting practices and food parenting strategies. Parenting style accounted for the majority of the variance in food parenting. Fathers were more authoritarian than mothers. Authoritarian and permissive parenting practices were related to more coercive strategies. Mothers reported more food parenting responsibility. Responsibility was related to less coercive practices and more autonomy promotion and structure.

  6. Parents' experience of hospitalization: different strategies for feeling secure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensson-Hallström, I; Elander, G

    1997-01-01

    Twenty parents of boys (ages 2-14 years) hospitalized for hypospadias repair in a pediatric surgery department in Sweden, were interviewed concerning their experience when their child was hospitalized. A qualitative analysis of the interviews indicated that the most important issue to the parents was finding security at the hospital. Parents manifested one of three different strategies that enabled them to feel secure at the hospital; (a) relinquishing the care of their children to the nursing staff; (b) obtaining a measure of control over their children's care; and (c) relying on knowing their child best. The parental strategy adopted to feel secure was found to correspond with the way parents experienced the hospitalization. Differences were found in their children's experiences of pain and the alleviation of the pain during the hospitalization.

  7. Parenting styles, coping strategies, and the expression of homesickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Karin S; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2007-10-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles in the experience and expression of homesickness, and the way of coping with the feelings involved. Using a sample of 670 first year college and university students, aged 16 to 25, we tested three hypotheses: (1) authoritarian, permissive as well as uninvolved parenting are associated with the experience of homesickness, contrary to students with authoritative parents who are less likely to have feelings of homesickness; (2) students with authoritarian, permissive or uninvolved parents show their homesickness by internalizing and externalizing problems; and (3) students raised by authoritative or permissive parents use more effective coping strategies to deal with homesickness. Results indicated that students raised by authoritative and permissive parents experienced more homesickness with stronger feelings of homesickness than students raised by authoritarian or uninvolved parents. However, they hardly express homesickness by internalizing or externalizing problems when they use effective ways of coping, namely support-seeking and/or problem-solving. Students with parents endorsing an authoritarian or uninvolved parenting style, on the other hand, showed more internalizing and externalizing problems in reaction to feelings of homesickness. They also use less effective coping strategies. The results revealed the importance of a loving and accepting home environment for the development and expression of homesickness, as well as the importance of the way in which students learn to cope with their problems.

  8. Relationship with Parents and Coping Strategies in Adolescents of Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás P. Caycho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This correlational and comparative study aims to determine the relationship between the perception of the relationship with parents and coping strategies in a sample of 320 students chosen through a non-probabilistic sampling of 156 men (48.75% and 164 women (51.25%. To that end, information gathering instruments like the Children’s Report of Parental Behavior Inventory and Adolescent Coping Scale were used. The results suggest that there are statistically significant correlations between some dimensions of perception of the relationship with parents and coping strategies in the sample studied. Finally, with regard to the perception of parenting styles of both mother and father, we see no significant differences between men and women, except for the extreme autonomy of the father, in which men score higher than women. There were no some statistically significant differences in the analysis of coping strategies in the sample in relation to gender.

  9. Disruption of parent participation: nurses' strategies to manage parents on children's wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Imelda

    2008-12-01

    To investigate parent participation in the hospitalized child's care from the perspectives of children, parents and nurses. Parent participation in the hospitalized child's care has been increasingly promoted in paediatric nursing for many years because it ameliorates the adverse aspects of hospitalization, avoids parental separation and contributes to quality care for sick children. Parent participation is assumed to be unproblematic but evidence exists that nurses often have difficulty caring for parents. Using grounded method, data were collected through in-depth interviews, questionnaires and observation with 12 nurses from four paediatric wards in two hospitals in England. The dominant process appeared to be the socialization of parents to their role on the ward through inclusionary and exclusionary tactics. Nurses controlled the nature of parents' participation and parents had to 'toe the line'. Although participation was presented as optional, parents were presented with no course other than acceptance. Parents were expected to stay with their child, behave properly and be involved in care. When parents did not adhere to these norms, they caused disruption to the order and routine of the ward. Compliance or non-compliance to the set of norms and rules was followed by reward or punishment. The nurses' dependence on parents' active participation in the organization and delivery of the work suggests that parent participation as it is practised is clearly about administrative efficiency, not consumer empowerment. Organizational and managerial issues must be examined to ensure that nurses are adequately prepared and resourced to support parents on the ward. Continuing assessment of parents' expectations though a structured assessment tool would help reduce misunderstandings and conflict. Nurses should assess the situational context before relying on subjective impressions and assumptions about parents' participation in care.

  10. An asymmetric parental investment conflict with continuous strategy sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Osnat

    2005-12-07

    In the parental investment conflict each of the sexes decides how much to invest in its brood, where its decision influences both sexes' fitness. In nature, each species is usually characterized by a common parental care pattern, male-only care, female-only care or biparental care. A possible way for understanding the factors that have led each species to adopt its unique parental care pattern is to analyse a male's and a female's decision process using a game-theoretical model. This paper suggests a two-stage game-theoretical model with two types of players, male and female. During the game each parent makes three decisions. The interval between the beginning of the game, i.e. after mating and having offspring, and the moment a parent starts to care for them is a random variable. Thus, in the first stage a parent chooses the cumulative probability distribution of this interval, and its amount of parental care. In the second stage the other parent chooses its probability for cooperation. It is assumed that as long as parental care is not provided the offspring are at risk, and that parental caring accrues a different cost for each sex. We compute the Evolutionary Stable Strategies (ESS) under payoff-relevant asymmetry, and show that uniparental and biparental care are possible ESS. We also characterize cases where the sex having the lower cost "forces" the sex having the higher cost to care and vice versa.

  11. Coaching Parents to Use Naturalistic Language and Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamoglu, Yusuf; Dinnebeil, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic language and communication strategies (i.e., naturalistic teaching strategies) refer to practices that are used to promote the child's language and communication skills either through verbal (e.g., spoken words) or nonverbal (e.g., gestures, signs) interactions between an adult (e.g., parent, teacher) and a child. Use of naturalistic…

  12. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyroulla Georgiou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

  13. A Comparison of Three Online Recruitment Strategies for Engaging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Jodi; Hessel, Heather; Gliske, Kate; Rudi, Jessie H

    2016-10-01

    Family scientists can face the challenge of effectively and efficiently recruiting normative samples of parents and families. Utilizing the Internet to recruit parents is a strategic way to find participants where they already are, enabling researchers to overcome many of the barriers to in-person recruitment. The present study was designed to compare three online recruitment strategies for recruiting parents: e-mail Listservs, Facebook, and Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Analyses revealed differences in the effectiveness and efficiency of data collection. In particular, MTurk resulted in the most demographically diverse sample, in a short period of time, with little cost. Listservs reached a large number of participants and resulted in a comparatively homogeneous sample. Facebook was not successful in recruiting a general sample of parents. Findings provide information that can help family researchers and practitioners be intentional about recruitment strategies and study design.

  14. Experiencing Instigations and Trait Aggression Contribute to Harsh Parenting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Randy J

    2017-01-01

    Three studies (total N = 1777 parents) examined whether harsh parenting behaviors would increase when parents experienced an instigation and whether this increase would be especially pronounced for parents who were high in trait aggression. These predictions were tested both when parents' experience of an instigation was manipulated (Studies 1 and 2) and when parents' perceptions of their child's instigating behavior was reported (Study 3). Further, these predictions were tested across a variety of measures of parents' harsh behaviors: (1) asking parents to report their likelihood of behaving harshly (Study 1), (2) using proxy tasks for parents' inclinations to behave harshly (Study 2), and (3) having parents report their past child-directed behaviors, some of which were harsh (Study 3). Both child instigations and parents' trait aggression were consistently associated with parents' child-directed harsh behaviors. However, parents' trait aggression only moderated the extent to which the instigation was associated with their harsh parenting for self-reported physical harsh behaviors (Study 1). The results of the current studies demonstrate that both situational factors, such as experiencing an instigation, and individual difference variables, such as trait aggression, affect parents' likelihood to exhibit harsh behaviors, but found little evidence these factors interact.

  15. New directions in analyses of parenting contributions to children's acquisition of values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusec, J E; Goodnow, J J; Kuczynski, L

    2000-01-01

    Traditional theories of how children acquire values or standards of behavior have emphasized the importance of specific parenting techniques or styles and have acknowledged the importance of a responsive parent-child relationship, but they have failed to differentiate among forms of responsiveness, have stressed internalization of values as the desired outcome, and have limited their scope to a small set of parenting strategies or methods. This paper outlines new directions for research. It acknowledges the central importance of parents and argues for research that (1) demonstrates that parental understanding of a particular child's characteristics and situation rather than use of specific strategies or styles is the mark of effective parenting; (2) traces the differential impact of varieties of parent responsiveness; (3) assesses the conditions surrounding the fact that parents have goals other than internalization when socializing their children, and evaluates the impact of that fact; and (4) considers a wider range of parenting strategies.

  16. The Importance of Parenting and Financial Contributions in Promoting Fathers' Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Holly S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between residential, biological fathers' parental engagement, financial contributions, and psychological well-being in 2-parent families. Specifically, this study focuses on how fathers' parental engagement and financial contributions are related to their self-esteem, self-efficacy, and psychological distress.…

  17. General Parenting Strategies: Practical Suggestions for Common Child Behavior Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavan, Michael G; Saxena, Shailendra K; Rafiq, Naureen

    2018-05-15

    Parents often seek guidance from physicians on child behavior problems. Questions may range from general parenting strategies to managing specific child behaviors. Physicians and their staff can identify problematic parent-child interactions or behaviors within the office setting and assist parents by providing effective monitoring tools for behavior problems. Effective strategies for influencing a child's behavior include positive reinforcement to increase appropriate behavior, extinction (planned ignoring) for most low-level problematic behaviors, and time-out from reinforcement for more problematic behaviors. Written contracting provides parents the opportunity to communicate with their children about important behaviors and strengthens the commitment of each party to improve behavior. Parents should be cautioned about the use of punishment (e.g., scolding, taking away privileges or possessions) because it suppresses behavior only temporarily. Physicians should discourage physical or corporal punishment because it is related to negative parent-child relationships, increased aggressiveness, antisocial behavior, lower cognitive ability, lower self-esteem, mental health problems, and increased risk of physical abuse.

  18. Involving Latina/o parents in patient-centered outcomes research: Contributions to research study design, implementation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Jolles, Mónica; Martinez, Maria; Garcia, San Juanita; Stein, Gabriela L; Thomas, Kathleen C

    2017-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is supported by policymakers as a way to provide service providers and patients with evidence-based information to make better health-care decisions and ultimately improve services for patients. However, Latina/o patients are rarely involved as study advisors, and there is a lack of documentation on how their voices contribute to the research process when they are included as collaborators. The purpose of this article was to contribute to the literature by presenting concrete contributions of Latina/o parent involvement to study design, implementation and outcomes in the context of a CER study called Padres Efectivos (Parent Activation). Researchers facilitated a collaborative relationship with parents by establishing a mentor parent group. The contributions of parent involvement in the following stages of the research process are described: (i) proposal development, (ii) implementation of protocols, (iii) analysis plan and (iv) dissemination of results. Mentor parents' contributions helped tailor the content of the intervention to their needs during proposal, increased recruitment, validated the main outcome measure and added two important outcome measures, emphasized the importance of controlling for novice treatment status and developed innovative dissemination strategies. Mentor parents' guidance to the researchers has contributed to reaching recruitment goals, strengthened the study protocol, expanded findings, supported broad ownership of study implications and enriched the overall study data collection efforts. These findings can inform future research efforts seeking an active Latino parent collaboration and the timely incorporation of parent voices in each phase of the research process. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Parenting a Child with Phenylketonuria: An Investigation into the Factors That Contribute to Parental Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Olivia; Medford, Emma; Hare, Dougal J

    2018-04-20

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic condition that can lead to the onset of intellectual disabilities if not strictly managed through a low-protein diet. Parents are responsible for supervising their child's treatment for PKU, which may impact on their experience of distress. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the factors that contribute to distress in parents who care for a child with PKU, distinct from parents in the general population. Thirty-eight parents of children and adolescents with PKU and 32 parents in the general population completed the questionnaires measuring parental psychological resilience, child behaviour problems, perceived social support and distress. Parents of children with PKU also completed measures of their child's care dependency and behaviour related to developmental and intellectual disabilities. The findings revealed no statistically significant differences in distress between the groups, but parents of children with PKU reported more child behaviour problems. Multiple regression analysis identified that parental psychological resilience and child anxious behaviour explained 35% of the variance in distress for parents of children with PKU. By comparison, parental psychological resilience and generic child behaviour only accounted for 19% of the variance in distress for parents in the general population. This has implications for developing interventions in clinical settings that aim to reduce parents' distress by enhancing their psychological resilience and supporting them to manage child behaviour difficulties, particularly anxious behaviour. Future research should include larger, more diverse samples and use longitudinal study designs.

  20. Relationship with Parents and Coping Strategies in Adolescents of Lima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caycho, Tomás P.

    2016-01-01

    This correlational and comparative study aims to determine the relationship between the perception of the relationship with parents and coping strategies in a sample of 320 students chosen through a non-probabilistic sampling of 156 men (48.75%) and 164 women (51.25%). To that end, information gathering instruments like the Children's Report of…

  1. Exploring Parental Involvement Strategies Utilized by Middle School Interdisciplinary Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chris; Searby, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents present a unique collection of characteristics and challenges which middle school interdisciplinary teams were designed to address. This article describes a research study which explored parental involvement strategies employed by interdisciplinary teaching teams from three very different middle schools: an affluent suburban school, a…

  2. Parental contribution to over prescription of antibiotics for sore throat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Antibiotics are often prescribed by physicians for sore throat in children because of the danger of post streptococcal complications. The role of the parents in over prescription of antibiotics is less well known. Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of parents to antibiotic prescription for ...

  3. Externalizing and internalizing problems: contributions of attachment and parental practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between attachment and parental practices with externalizing (aggression and delinquency and internalizing (social withdrawal and anxiety/depression behavioral problems were investigated in this study. Participants were 289 children (from 9 to 12 years old and 205 caregivers who answered distinct questionnaires: the formers on attachment and the later on parental practices. Results indicated that poor maternal attachment relationships, high levels of parental rejection and being a boy predicted aggression. Moreover, poor paternal attachment and father's low education predicted social withdrawal. Finally, parental rejection was marginally associated with anxiety/depression. The results reinforce, partially, the existing literature and help to understand the complex relationship between parenting and behavioral problems.

  4. Issues and Strategies Involved in Helping Homeless Parents of Young Children Strengthen Their Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.

  5. Ranking and Mapping the Contributions by Overseas Chinese Strategy Scholars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Weiwen; Li, Peter Ping; Shu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The authors comment on an article by H. Jiao and colleagues regarding development of a ranking of overseas Chines strategy scholars in terms of their contributions to the strategy research. Topics include selection of 24 business journals ranked by the University of Texas at Dallas for their rese......The authors comment on an article by H. Jiao and colleagues regarding development of a ranking of overseas Chines strategy scholars in terms of their contributions to the strategy research. Topics include selection of 24 business journals ranked by the University of Texas at Dallas...... for their research; identifying authors who had published articles in periodicals such as "Management and Organization Review;" and development of a coding protocol and discussing coding procedure.....

  6. The Relative Contributions of Parents and Siblings to Child and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Updegraff, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Guided by an ecological framework, we explore how siblings' and parents' roles, relationships, and activities are intertwined in everyday life, providing unique and combined contributions to development. In a departure from past research that emphasized the separate contributions of siblings and parents to individual development, we find that…

  7. Strategies for parenting by mothers and fathers with a mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, P C; van Busschbach, J T; Nicholson, J; Korevaar, E L; van Weeghel, J

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction Understanding of the problems of parents with mental illness is growing. Gaining insight into strategies for parenting, while taking the opportunities formulated by these parents themselves as a starting point is fairly new. Question What are the strategies of parents with a

  8. Reflections on the theoretical contributions and clinical applications of parental insightfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Alicia F

    2018-06-01

    This paper outlines the theoretical antecedents that contextualize parental insightfulness and examines this concept's value in assessing parental functioning and in monitoring treatment progress with parents and young children who experience mental health and relationship problems. As a concept, parental insightfulness provides a much-needed bridge linking important aspects of attachment theory with their psychoanalytic origins, including early contributions that conceptualize parenting as a developmental process that furthers the unfolding capacities of the adult self. The paper examines the compatibility between the dimensions of parental insightfulness and the criteria for a healthy adult sense of self. The empirical body of knowledge generated by the concept of parental insightfulness is briefly reviewed as the basis for using the concept as a valuable tool for the empirical exploration of intrapsychic, interpersonal, and clinical processes in parents and their children.

  9. Management Strategies in Basic Education and Participation of Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johel Furguerle-Rangel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the educational process it is necessary to use management paradigms and active participation of parents. The objective was to determine the use of management strategies by the director of basic education and participation of parents in the educational process. It is a descriptive, transversal and field study, whose instrument was a questionnaire of 26 closed-questions.   The sample comprised 16 directors, 52 teachers and 62 parents. For most managers and faculty the technique of brainstorming, involvement in decision-making, continues knowledge management and radical change are crucial in the educational process of children.   But mothers and fathers believe that managerial groups do not use strategies properly except for reengineering.   The mother and fathers are mainly involved in education management but not in the learning process. It is recommended the deepening of policy management training teaching force, through continuous training provided by the government and the promotion of family participation in the teaching-learning process of children.

  10. Mother-son discrepant reporting on parenting practices: The contribution of temperament and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Robert D

    2017-06-01

    Despite low to moderate convergent correlations, assessment of youth typically relies on multiple informants for information across a range of psychosocial domains including parenting practices. Although parent-youth informant discrepancies have been found to predict adverse youth outcomes, few studies have examined contributing factors to the explanation of informant disagreements on parenting practices. The current study represents the first investigation to concurrently examine the role of mother and son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression as pathways to informant discrepancies on parenting practices. Within a community sample of 174 mother-son dyads, results suggest that whereas mother's self-reported temperament evidenced no direct effects on discrepancies, the association between the product term of mother's negative and positive temperament and discrepancies on positive parenting was fully mediated by mother's depression (a mediated moderation). In contrast, son's self-reported temperament evidenced both direct and indirect effects, partially mediated by depression, on rating discrepancies for positive parenting. All told, both son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression contributed to the explanation of discrepant reporting on parenting practices; only mother's self-reported depression, but not temperament, uniquely contributed. Results highlight the importance of considering both parent and youth's report in the investigation of informant discrepancies on parenting practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Counselling strategies for parents of infants with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, S

    1998-07-01

    Congenital heart disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn. Its diagnosis may lead to a crisis in the affected families; there are the perceived implications of having an abnormality of so vital an organ. To that may be added the assumed guilt or blame, grief and at times anger, frequently experienced by parents of abnormal infants. It often befalls the paediatric cardiologist to initiate counselling while providing the expert information concerning the abnormality and its optimum management. Such counselling differs from that needed for minor lesions as compared for more complex abnormalities where a fatal outcome may ensure. While it is important to provide an accurate diagnosis and management plan to the parents, early detailed information is often confusing and may not be assimilated at a time of great stress. The parents seem more concerned as to whether the infant will survive, what the long term outlook will be, whether he or she will attend school, play, work and so on. With the more severe cardiac abnormalities, especially where there is a family history, one need be aware of the often perceived guilt of the parents. At times, it may be necessary to help the parents retain sufficient 'self-control', delaying the grieving process to enable them to contribute to the decision making. Where the infant has died, a follow-up appointment can facilitate grieving and help deal with unresolved issues. Through skilled counselling, the cardiologist in addition to his/her diagnostic and management skills, may meaningfully influence the ongoing care of the infant. They may help avoid the development of unrealistic fears or an over-optimistic outlook, thereby fostering the normal development of the child.

  12. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility across Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Bridget B.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51% girls, 91% European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships. PMID:26346035

  13. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility Across Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-04-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.

  14. The coping strategies of foster parents in Hillbrow, Johannesburg

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    M.A. South Africa is facing a high proportion of children in need of care due to the high escalation of HIV/AIDS related illness. Most of the orphaned children are left with either paternal or maternal families. As a result the families are facing challenges to perform “social, emotional, and educational tasks” and to cope with the additional family members. The study was exploratory and aimed to explore the challenges faced by foster parents, and their coping strategies in Johannesburg. T...

  15. Parents' Discourses about Language Strategies for Their Children's Preschool Bilingual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The study focused on immigrant parents' discourses about strategies for their children's preschool bilingual development and education. The article investigated how immigrant parents described and explained these strategies. The study was based on semi-structured interviews with 4 families. The 8 parents were Russian-speaking immigrants to Israel…

  16. Talking to Youth about Drugs: What Do Late Adolescents Say about Parental Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Day, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This research, comprised of 2 studies, extends current knowledge of parent-child communication about drugs. The first study developed a typology of parental strategies used to deter children's substance use. The second study examined relationships among the parental strategies identified in the first study, which included family communication…

  17. Stress in Parents of a Child with Hemifacial Microsomia: The Role of Child Characteristics and Parental Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkosuwito, Edwin; van der Vlies, Lieneke; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia; van Neck, Han; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Hovius, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Objective Examine stress levels of parents of children with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) and the relationship of parental stress to child characteristics and cognitive coping strategies. Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Participants and Setting Parents with a child (age 3-19 years) with HFM (N = 31) were recruited through the Department of Orthodontics and the Craniofacial Center, Sophia-Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Intervention and Outcome Measures The adapted and shortened Dutch version of the parental stress index (NOSI-K) was used to measure parental stress, and the cognitive emotion-regulation questionnaire was used to measure cognitive coping strategies. Pearson correlations and a multiple regression analysis were performed. Results The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed associations between increased parental stress and learning difficulties and use of acceptance as a coping strategy. This suggests that problems other than the characteristic visual appearance of the child's face in HFM have a greater influence on parental stress. Conclusions Learning difficulties of the child with HFM and parental acceptance affect stress in parents with a child with HFM the most and are important in the search for a targeted tailoring of intervention for parents with high levels of parental stress.

  18. Nighttime parenting strategies and sleep-related risks to infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Lane E; Ball, Helen L; McKenna, James J

    2013-02-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004. Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may

  19. The relative contributions of parents and siblings to child and adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Updegraff, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Guided by an ecological framework, we explore how siblings' and parents' roles, relationships, and activities are intertwined in everyday life, providing unique and combined contributions to development. In a departure from past research that emphasized the separate contributions of siblings and parents to individual development, we find that examining the conjoint or interactive effects of sibling and parent influences promises to extend our understanding of the role of family in children's and adolescents' social, emotional, and cognitive development. Understood within the context of family and sociocultural characteristics, siblings' unique roles as agents of socialization are illuminated.

  20. Understanding Child-Based Effects on Parenting: Temperament as a Moderator of Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganiban, Jody M.; Ulbricht, Jennifer; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which child temperament moderates genetic and environmental contributions to parenting was examined. Participants were drawn from the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development project and included 720 sibling pairs, ages 13.5 + 2.0 years (Sibling 1) to 12.1 + 1.3 years (Sibling 2). The sample consisted of 6 sibling types: 93…

  1. Contribution of parenting to complex syntax development in preschool children with developmental delays or typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, C T; Baker, B L; Blacher, J

    2018-05-10

    Despite studies of how parent-child interactions relate to early child language development, few have examined the continued contribution of parenting to more complex language skills through the preschool years. The current study explored how positive and negative parenting behaviours relate to growth in complex syntax learning from child age 3 to age 4 years, for children with typical development or developmental delays (DDs). Participants were children with or without DD (N = 60) participating in a longitudinal study of development. Parent-child interactions were transcribed and coded for parenting domains and child language. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the contribution of parenting to complex syntax growth in children with typical development or DD. Analyses supported a final model, F(9,50) = 11.90, P < .001, including a significant three-way interaction between positive parenting behaviours, negative parenting behaviours and child delay status. This model explained 68.16% of the variance in children's complex syntax at age 4. Simple two-way interactions indicated differing effects of parenting variables for children with or without DD. Results have implications for understanding of complex syntax acquisition in young children, as well as implications for interventions. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Factors contributing to and strategies to combat emerging arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, David Michael

    2018-04-17

    Less than half a century ago infectious diseases appeared to be destined to be extinguished via as a culmination of medical triumphs. As focus turned towards combating non-communicable diseases, emerging and re-emerging diseases (EIDs) have bloomed from those ashes. Five epidemic mosquito-borne arboviruses (Yellow Fever virus (YFV), Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus) have emerged in the recent past. Arboviruses are of the utmost importance with respect to EIDs due to intensive growth of globalisation, arthropod urban fitness/adaption, and environmental changes. We focus on recent outbreaks of the arthropod borne viruses (arboviruses) Zika virus and YFV. Factors contributing to the blossoming of EIDs (environmental, globalisation, and urbanisation) and combating strategies (surveillance, containment, and prevention) will be discussed. Specifically, Zika virus and YFV will be used in the context of these factors and strategies. YFV is discussed in detail as it pertains to these factors and strategies in the United States (US), 2017 Brazil Outbreak, 2016 Africa Outbreak, and global risk. Vigilance is needed to focus on, prevent, and control the current and next arbovirus EIDs.

  3. Multi-Faceted Discipline Strategies of Chinese Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Heidi; Li, Jin; Lam, Chi Kwan

    2017-01-01

    Parental disciplining of their misbehaving children continues to draw much research attention. Baumrind's typology of parenting styles has been frequently used to classify Chinese parenting as more authoritarian. Although influential, research tends predominantly to focus on abstract characterization. Yet, parenting is a practice informed by…

  4. Employed parents' satisfaction with food-choice coping strategies. Influence of gender and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Jastran, Margaret; Farrell, Tracy J; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to understand parents' evaluations of the way they integrated work-family demands to manage food and eating. Employed, low/moderate-income, urban, U.S., Black, White, and Latino mothers (35) and fathers (34) participated in qualitative interviews exploring work and family conditions and spillover, food roles, and food-choice coping and family-adaptive strategies. Parents expressed a range of evaluations from overall satisfaction to overall dissatisfaction as well as dissatisfaction limited to work, family life, or daily schedule. Evaluation criteria differed by gender. Mothers evaluated satisfaction on their ability to balance work and family demands through flexible home and work conditions, while striving to provide healthy meals for their families. Fathers evaluated satisfaction on their ability to achieve schedule stability and participate in family meals, while meeting expectations to contribute to food preparation. Household, and especially work structural conditions, often served as sizeable barriers to parents fulfilling valued family food roles. These relationships highlight the critical need to consider the intersecting influences of gender and social structure as influences on adults' food choices and dietary intake and to address the challenges of work and family integration among low income employed parents as a way to promote family nutrition in a vulnerable population.

  5. Unique contributions of emotion regulation and executive functions in predicting the quality of parent-child interaction behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Obradović, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Parenting is a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral endeavor, yet limited research investigates parents' executive functions and emotion regulation as predictors of how parents interact with their children. The current study is a multimethod investigation of parental self-regulation in relation to the quality of parenting behavior and parent-child interactions in a diverse sample of parents and kindergarten-age children. Using path analyses, we tested how parent executive functions (inhibitory control) and lack of emotion regulation strategies uniquely relate to both sensitive/responsive behaviors and positive/collaborative behaviors during observed interaction tasks. In our analyses, we accounted for parent education, financial stress, and social support as socioeconomic factors that likely relate to parent executive function and emotion regulation skills. In a diverse sample of primary caregivers (N = 102), we found that direct assessment of parent inhibitory control was positively associated with sensitive/responsive behaviors, whereas parent self-reported difficulties in using emotion regulation strategies were associated with lower levels of positive and collaborative dyadic behaviors. Parent education and financial stress predicted inhibitory control, and social support predicted emotion regulation difficulties; parent education was also a significant predictor of sensitive/responsive behaviors. Greater inhibitory control skills and fewer difficulties identifying effective emotion regulation strategies were not significantly related in our final path model. We discuss our findings in the context of current and emerging parenting interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over 6 years: The contribution of each parent's depressive history to the other's parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen M; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E S; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-10-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents' depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. The results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent's permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. The results highlight the importance of considering both parents' depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms.

  7. Socioeconomic Differences in Parenting Strategies to Prevent Adolescent Smoking: A Case Study from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Haal, Sylke; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to identify possible socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. Methods In 2012, survey data of adolescents (N?=?225) aged 13 to 17?years and their mothers (N?=?122) and fathers (N?=?105) were collected in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Questions on smoking behaviour and eleven anti-smoking parenting strategies were answered by adolescents, mothers and fathers. School tracks of adolescents and educational level of parents were measured as in...

  8. Parents' Networking Strategies: Participation of Formal and Informal Parent Groups in School Activities and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined parent groups' involvement in school activities and their participation in decision making. Research questions included the following: (1) What is the nature of parent groups in schools? (2) What activities and issues gain parent groups' attention and participation? (3) How do parent groups communicate concerns about…

  9. The capacity for romantic intimacy: exploring the contribution of best friend and marital and parental relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, M; Mayseless, O

    2001-06-01

    This study examined, in a longitudinal design, the contributions of three different relationships, namely marital, parent-child and best friend, to the capacity for intimacy in romantic relationships of Israeli male adolescents, as well as the mediating role of socio-emotional capacities. Eighty-four 17-year-old adolescents and their parents filled out questionnaires concerning the quality of these relational contexts. Four years later the Intimacy Status Interview was administered to the adolescents at the conclusion of their mandatory military service to examine closeness, separateness, and commitment within their romantic relationships. Results showed that all relational contexts were related to capacity for intimacy (directly or indirectly), with higher relational qualities associated with better capability for intimacy. The marital relationship was associated with intimacy through its effect on the parent-child relationships. The effects of the parent-child relationships on the capacity for intimacy were mediated through the adolescents' socio-emotional capabilities. The contribution of the parent-adolescent relationships to the capacity for closeness and commitment was further mediated through relationships with the best friend, whereas the contribution to the capacity for separateness was not. A substantial number of our participants showed high capability for intimacy although in the military service context the circumstances for the development of intimacy were quite limited and non-optimal. Exploration of the separateness and closeness facets of intimacy in romantic relationships in the two sexes and in other contexts is recommended. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  10. The determination of contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predicts positive psychological components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Ebrahimi moghadam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:In this cross sectional study 200 psychological students of Azad university (Rudehen branch selected using cluster sampling method. Then they were estimated by Bradbery and Grivers emotional intelligence questionnaire , Bamrind parenting styles and Rajayi et al positive psychological components questionnaire. Research data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation, inferential statistics (multiple regression and Pierson correlation coefficient and SPSS software. Results:Among the components of emotional intelligence, the component of emotional self consciousness (β=0.464 had the greatest predictable , and reaction leadership showed no predictability in this research between parenting styles , authority parenting styles had positive significance relationship with positive psychological components. And no significant relationship was found between despot parenting styles and positive psychological components. Conclusion: Regarding the results of this research and importance of positive psychological components, it is suggested to treat the emotional intelligence from childhood and to learn it to parents and remind them the parenting way to decrease the satisfaction of individuals which leads to promotion of society mental health.

  11. Early warm-rewarding parenting moderates the genetic contributions to callous-unemotional traits in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jeffrey; Dionne, Ginette; Viding, Essi; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2018-04-23

    Previous gene-environment interaction studies of CU traits have relied on the candidate gene approach, which does not account for the entire genetic load of complex phenotypes. Moreover, these studies have not examined the role of positive environmental factors such as warm/rewarding parenting. The aim of the present study was to determine whether early warm/rewarding parenting moderates the genetic contributions (i.e., heritability) to callous-unemotional (CU) traits at school age. Data were collected in a population sample of 662 twin pairs (Quebec Newborn Twin Study - QNTS). Mothers reported on their warm/rewarding parenting. Teachers assessed children's CU traits. These reports were subjected to twin modeling. Callous-unemotional traits were highly heritable, with the remaining variance accounted for by nonshared environmental factors. Warm/rewarding parenting significantly moderated the role of genes in CU traits; heritability was lower when children received high warm/rewarding parenting than when they were exposed to low warm/rewarding parenting. High warm/rewarding parenting may partly impede the genetic expression of CU traits. Developmental models of CU traits need to account for such gene-environment processes. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Parental regret regarding children's vaccines-The correlation between anticipated regret, altruism, coping strategies and attitudes toward vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Ginossar-David, Eyal; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    Parental hesitancy for recommended childhood vaccines is a growing public health concern influenced by various factors. This study aimed to explore regret regarding parental decisions to vaccinate their children via possible correlations between anticipated regret, altruism, coping strategies, and parents' attitudes toward the vaccination of their children. The study was conducted during 2014 in Israel. Data were collected via snowballing methodology (i.e., Internet forums, Facebook and e- mails). 314 parents of children ages 0-6 years participated in the study. Questionnaires were distributed and completed on-line including attitudes toward vaccines, altruism, coping strategies, regret and anticipated regret. Pearson analysis revealed a moderate negative association between attitudes toward vaccinations and regret. In addition, weak but significant positive associations emerged between anticipated regret and regret as well as between gender and regret. Performing hierarchical regression analysis revealed contribution of 35.9 % to the explained variance of regret suggesting that coping strategy of instrumental support, attitudes toward vaccinations and anticipated regret are linked significantly to regret. Parental attitudes toward vaccines and anticipated regret have a salient role when deciding whether or not to vaccinate children and contribute to the prediction of regret regarding vaccination. In order to increase parental consent to vaccination of their children, it is important to minimize possible regret through the strength of the recommendation and/or knowledge base about risk/benefit (perceived, heuristic) of vaccines that might influence parental attitudes and lessen their anticipated regret. N/A. This is not a clinical trial and thus does not require registration. Ethics approval was received from Ariel University School of Social Work Ethics committee (18/02/14). This was an attitude survey. The Ariel University School of Social Work Ethics committee

  13. Relationships between parenting and adolescent adjustment over time: genetic and environmental contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiderhiser, J M; Reiss, D; Hetherington, E M; Plomin, R

    1999-05-01

    The predictive association between parenting and adolescent adjustment has been assumed to be environmental; however, genetic and environmental contributions have not been examined. This article represents one effort to examine these associations in which a genetically informative design was used. Participants were 395 families with adolescent siblings who participated in the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development (D. Reiss et al., 1994) project at 2 times of assessment, 3 years apart. There were 5 sibling types in 2 types of families: 63 identical twins, 75 fraternal twins, and 58 full siblings in nondivorced families and 95 full, 60 half, and 44 genetically unrelated siblings in stepfamilies. Results indicate that the cross-lagged associations between parental conflict-negativity and adolescent antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms can be explained primarily by genetic factors. These findings emphasize the need to recognize and examine the impact that adolescents have on parenting and the contribution of genetic factors to developmental change.

  14. Development of Infant Positive Emotionality: The Contribution of Maternal Characteristics and Effects on Subsequent Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J.; Laake, Lauren M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Dorn, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the influence of maternal characteristics on the development of infant smiling and laughter, a marker of early positive emotionality (PE) and how maternal characteristics and the development of infant PE contributed to subsequent maternal parenting. One hundred fifty-nine mothers with 4-month-old infants participated.…

  15. Emotion regulation strategies in bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder: differences and relationships with perceived parental style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Bayes, Adam; Paterson, Amelia; McClure, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Bipolar II disorder (BP II) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) share common features and can be difficult to differentiate, contributing to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Research contrasting phenomenological features of both conditions is limited. The current study sought to identify differences in emotion regulation strategies in BP II and BPD in addition to examining relationships with perceived parental style. Participants were recruited from a variety of outpatient and community settings. Eligible participants required a clinical diagnosis of BP II or BPD, subsequently confirmed via structured diagnostic interviews assessing DSM-IV criteria. Participants completed a series of self-reported questionnaires assessing emotion regulation strategies and perceived parental style. The sample comprised 48 (n=24 BP II and n=24 BPD) age and gender-matched participants. Those with BPD were significantly more likely to use maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, less likely to use adaptive emotion regulation strategies, and scored significantly higher on the majority of (perceived) dysfunctional parenting sub-scales than participants with BP II. Dysfunctional parenting experiences were related to maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in participants with BP II and BPD, however differential associations were observed across groups. Relatively small sample sizes; lack of a healthy control comparator group; lack of statistical control for differing sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication and psychological treatments; no assessment of state or trait anxiety; over-representation of females in both groups limiting generalisability of results; and reliance on self-report measures. Differences in emotion regulation strategies and perceived parental style provide some support for the validity of distinguishing BP II and BPD. Development of intervention strategies targeting the differing forms of emotion regulatory pathology in these groups

  16. Coping strategies and parental attitudes, a comparison of parents with children with autistic spectrum disorders and parents with non-autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivberg, Bengt

    2002-01-01

    This study focused on the coping strategies of parents' with children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and the relation between these strategies and parenting styles. Coping strategies were measured using the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and the Purpose in Life Test (PIL-R). Parental attitudes toward loving care, stress, worry, and guilt feelings were assessed using the Family Impact Questionnaire. Two groups of participants were included: parents with children with ASD (EG) (n = 66) and a matched control group (CG) (n = 66). Paired Samples t-Test and Pearson's r correlation were used as methods of analysis. Main results distinguished significant (p fathers and probably an indicator of a stronger burnout effect of the mothers.

  17. Effective home-school partnership: Some strategies to help strengthen parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinedu I Okeke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study from which this paper derives was to investigate the level of parental involvement in the schooling of their children. The study employed a descriptive case study research design. All data were based on unstructured interviews with the 30 parents whose children attended one of the primary schools located in the London area of England, United Kingdom. The results of the study showed that parents care about their children's education, and want to get involved. However, results also showed that most parents do not always know how to get involved, and some are even intimidated by the operational structures within the school. The study concludes that to effectively involve parents in the affairs of the school, as well as in their children's education, certain strategies must be popularised within the school. It is recommended that parents be made aware of the strategies for their involvement in children's education if such strategies are to be effective.

  18. Skills and Strategies of African American Parents in the Management of ADHD: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsberry, Alexandria; Bansa, Melishia; DeFrino, Daniela; Dallas, Constance M

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a strengths-based approach to determine African American parents' skills and strategies for management of children with ADHD. Four focus groups were conducted to identify African American parent beliefs about appropriate ADHD management. Sixteen parents participated and reported having a total of 21 children diagnosed with ADHD. Participants discussed several parenting challenges but advocated for the child by working closely with the child's school and physician. They also managed relationships with family members to protect the child from possible physical or emotional harm. However, parents desired more social support for management of ADHD. African American parents possess key skills and strategies in their management of children with ADHD. Further research is needed to determine the roles and responsibilities of extended family members for children with this disorder, and to identify the social supports parents access to aid with ADHD management.

  19. Strategies used by parents to influence their children's food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Catherine G; Worsley, Anthony; Campbell, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Food preferences are important determinants of children's food intakes. Parental feeding behaviours have a significant influence on the development of children's food preferences. The aim of the present study was to describe the ways in which parents attempt to influence their children's food preferences. Parents of 2-5 year old children participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, which were transcribed and content analysed using a thematic coding manual. The parents described the ways in which they tried to influence the foods their child liked and disliked. Participants (N = 57) were separated into three separate groups based on an a priori study measuring food preferences and food neophobia: those who either had children with healthy food preferences (i.e. closely aligned with dietary guidelines) (N = 20), or unhealthy food preferences (i.e. not closely aligned with dietary guidelines) (N = 18), or high levels of food neophobia (N = 19). The parents used many, diverse behaviours to influence their child's food preferences. Some of these behaviours were likely to be effective in promoting healthy food preferences in children (e.g. parental modelling, food exposure), whilst others were likely to be ineffective (e.g. forcing consumption, restricting food access). Parents of children with healthy food preferences appeared to use more of the feeding behaviours predicted to promote healthy preferences than parents in the other two groups. Parents of children with unhealthy food preferences and those of food neophobic children appeared to rely more on ineffective behaviours. Parents used a mixture of effective and ineffective behaviours, with parents of children with unhealthy food preferences or high food neophobia using fewer behaviours known to be effective. Interventions aimed at influencing parental feeding behaviours should include those behaviours targeted at children's food preferences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Could Poor Parental Recall of HPV Vaccination Contribute to Low Vaccination Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Gauri; Pierre-Joseph, Natalie; Vercruysse, Jessica L; Perkins, Rebecca B

    2015-09-01

    Rates of initiation and completion of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series remain below national goals. Because parents are responsible for ensuring vaccination of their children, we examined the accuracy of parental recall of the number of shots their daughters received. Parents/guardians of girls aged 11 to 17 years were asked to recall the number of HPV doses received by their daughters. Dose number was confirmed using provider-verified medical records. Logistic regression assessed variables associated with correct recall. A total of 79 (63%) parents/guardians correctly identified the number of shots their daughters received. Ninety-one (73%) were aware of whether their daughter started the series at all. The only factor significantly associated with accurate recall in logistic regression models was female gender of parent/guardian. Nearly 40% of parents/guardians inaccurately recalled the number of HPV shots their children received, which may contribute to low rates of vaccine initiation and completion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Independent Contributions of Early Positive Parenting and Mother-Son Coercion on Emerging Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcinar, Berna; Shaw, Daniel S

    2018-06-01

    In the current study, we explored associations between parent-child coercion and positive parenting in the toddler period in relation to children's social-behavioral development during the school-age period. The data were drawn from the Pitt Mother & Child Project, a sample of 310 low-income, ethnically diverse boys. Drawing on tenets of both attachment and social learning theory, it was hypothesized that coercive mother-son interaction would lead to reductions in positive maternal parenting in the toddler period, and that both positive parenting and mother-son coercion in the toddler period would contribute to children's conduct problems at school entry and lower social skills and peer rejection in middle childhood. The results were largely confirmed, such that mother-son coercive interaction at 18 months was related to decreases in positive parenting at 24 months. Additionally, mother-son coercive interaction and positive parenting at 24 months were linked to child conduct problems at age 5, which in turn predicted child social skills and peer rejection during middle childhood. In addition to indirect effects through child conduct problems, mother-son coercion continued to be independently related to school-age peer rejection. The findings are discussed with respect to the importance of early coercive interactions in the growth of child social-behavioral development from early to middle childhood.

  2. Parental Stress, Discipline Strategies, and Child Behavior Problems in Families with Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawler, Paul M.; Sullivan, Maureen A.

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the parent-child relationship by examining associations between parent stress, parental discipline strategies, child disruptive behavior problems, and level of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms. A sample of 130 parents of children with ASD ages 3 to 11 years participated. Parents reported high levels of parent…

  3. Effective Strategies for Communicating with Parents in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mullem, Pete; Cole, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Participation in athletics provides student-athletes a place to develop autonomy and grow socially through interactions with peers, parents, and coaches (Torres & Hager 2013). Coaches entrusted by parents to guide and nurture their child's sport experience fulfill the role of teacher, counselor, colleague, mentor, supervisor, and leader…

  4. Parenting Styles, Coping Strategies, and the Expression of Homesickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Karin S.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles in the experience and expression of homesickness, and the way of coping with the feelings involved. Using a sample of 670 first year college and university students, aged 16 to 25, we tested three hypotheses: (1) authoritarian, permissive as well as uninvolved parenting are associated with…

  5. Discipline strategies and parental perceptions of preschool children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiser, C; Eiser, J R; Town, C; Tripp, J H

    1991-03-01

    Parents of 37 children with asthma (aged between three and five years) and of 37 healthy controls were interviewed about their involvement in everyday care, discipline practices, perceptions of their child and situations which were particularly stressful. There was little correlation between mothers' and fathers' preferences for different discipline practices. There was, however, greater agreement in their perceptions. Parents of children with asthma did not differ from those of healthy controls in discipline practices. However, children with asthma were perceived to be generally less healthy. Parents of those with asthma also reported a greater number of everyday situations to be stressful. These data do not support traditional assumptions that parents of children with asthma are more permissive or overindulgent. At least in this preschool sample, there was only limited indication of adverse effects of chronic disease on parenting practices.

  6. Parent Perspectives of Applying Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Strategies to Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M; Chan, Neilson; Neece, Cameron L

    2017-06-01

    Parents of children with (versus without) intellectual and developmental disabilities report greater stress; such stress may be exacerbated by dissatisfaction with school services, poor parent-school partnerships, and the need for parent advocacy. Increasingly, mindfulness interventions have been used to reduce parent stress. However, it is unclear whether parents apply mindfulness strategies during the special education process to reduce school-related stress. To investigate whether mindfulness may reduce school-related stress, interviews were conducted with 26 parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities who completed a mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention. Participants were asked about their stress during meetings with the school, use of mindfulness strategies in communicating with the school, and the impact of such strategies. The majority of parent participants reported: special education meetings were stressful; they used mindfulness strategies during IEP meetings; and such strategies affected parents' perceptions of improvements in personal well-being, advocacy, family-school relationships, and access to services for their children. Implications for future research, policy, and practice are discussed.

  7. Parents' and peers' contribution to risky driving of male teen drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Ari, Orit Taubman; Kaplan, Sigal; Lotan, Tsippy

    2015-01-01

    recorders from actual driving of parents and their male teen driver with data collected from self-report questionnaires completed by the young drivers. The sample consists of 121 families, who participated in the study for 12 months, beginning with the licensure of the teen driver. The current examination......The current study joins efforts devoted to understanding the associations of parents' personality, attitude, and behavior, and to evaluating the added contribution of peers to the driving behavior of young drivers during their solo driving. The study combines data gathered using in-vehicle data...... concentrates on the last 3 months of this first year of driving. The experimental design was based on a random control assignment into three treatment groups (with different forms of feedback) and a control group (with no feedback). Findings indicate that the parents' (especially the fathers') sensation...

  8. Salinity Adaptation and the Contribution of Parental Environmental Effects in Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken S Moriuchi

    Full Text Available High soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and yield. Some taxa have evolved mechanisms for avoiding or tolerating elevated soil salinity, which can be modulated by the environment experienced by parents or offspring. We tested the contribution of the parental and offspring environments on salinity adaptation and their potential underlying mechanisms. In a two-generation greenhouse experiment, we factorially manipulated salinity concentrations for genotypes of Medicago truncatula that were originally collected from natural populations that differed in soil salinity. To compare population level adaptation to soil salinity and to test the potential mechanisms involved we measured two aspects of plant performance, reproduction and vegetative biomass, and phenological and physiological traits associated with salinity avoidance and tolerance. Saline-origin populations had greater biomass and reproduction under saline conditions than non-saline populations, consistent with local adaptation to saline soils. Additionally, parental environmental exposure to salt increased this difference in performance. In terms of environmental effects on mechanisms of salinity adaptation, parental exposure to salt spurred phenological differences that facilitated salt avoidance, while offspring exposure to salt resulted in traits associated with greater salt tolerance. Non-saline origin populations expressed traits associated with greater growth in the absence of salt while, for saline adapted populations, the ability to maintain greater performance in saline environments was also associated with lower growth potential in the absence of salt. Plastic responses induced by parental and offspring environments in phenology, leaf traits, and gas exchange contribute to salinity adaptation in M. truncatula. The ability of plants to tolerate environmental stress, such as high soil salinity, is likely modulated by a combination of parental effects and within

  9. Strategies parents use to give children oral medicine: a qualitative study of online discussion forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergene, Elin Høien; Rø, Torstein Baade; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe strategies parents use to give oral medicine to children. We conducted an Internet-based qualitative study of posts from online forums where parents discussed how to give children oral medicine. The posts were analyzed using systematic text condensation. The investigators coded and developed groups iteratively, ending up with a consensus on final themes. We included 4581 posts. Parents utilized three main strategies to give oral medicine to children: (1) Open administration give medicine to the child knowingly by changing the palatability, actively involve the child in play or use persuasion; (2) Hidden administration give medicine to the child unknowingly by camouflaging it in food, while sleeping or distracted by another activity; (3) Forced administration force children to take medicine with the use of restraint. Parents expressed three perspectives towards using force: Finding it unproblematic, using force despite not liking it or refusing to use force. No single strategy was described as the obvious first choice, and the strategies were not used in any particular order. Parents who gave up getting their child to ingest the medicine reported to contact the prescriber for a different medication, or stopped the treatment completely. The three strategies are a robust and precise way to categorize techniques used by parents to give children oral medicine. We suggest that health professionals use the strategies to talk to parents and children about administration of oral medicines.

  10. [Teaching coping strategies to parents of children suffering from cancer using a short film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, M C; Barón, Ma Carmen Espada; Grau, C; Rubio, Claudia Grau; Fortes, M C; Fortes del Valle, Ma Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the usefulness of a short film in teaching strategies for parents of children with cancer to cope with the situation. The short film is based on an analysis of the transcripts from eight sessions of a self-help group. The short film has been evaluated by psychologists working for each of the parent groups belonging to the Federation of parents of children with cancer. Furthermore, the film has been exhibited in group sessions that took place in the Valencia and Alicante branches of ASPANION (Association of Parents with Oncologic Children in the Valencia Region). About 70% of the experts have declared that the film is a valuable resource for teaching useful strategies to parents. The film also improves the group sessions since it addresses a number of issues that had not been addressed before, and it stimulates the participation of, and communication between, parents during the session.

  11. Sexual dimorphism in parental imprint ontogeny and contribution to embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourc'his, Déborah; Proudhon, Charlotte

    2008-01-30

    Genomic imprinting refers to the functional non-equivalence of parental genomes in mammals that results from the parent-of-origin allelic expression of a subset of genes. Parent-specific expression is dependent on the germ line acquisition of DNA methylation marks at imprinting control regions (ICRs), coordinated by the DNA-methyltransferase homolog DNMT3L. We discuss here how the gender-specific stages of DNMT3L expression may have influenced the various sexually dimorphic aspects of genomic imprinting: (1) the differential developmental timing of methylation establishment at paternally and maternally imprinted genes in each parental germ line, (2) the differential dependence on DNMT3L of parental methylation imprint establishment, (3) the unequal duration of paternal versus maternal methylation imprints during germ cell development, (4) the biased distribution of methylation-dependent ICRs towards the maternal genome, (5) the different genomic organization of paternal versus maternal ICRs, and finally (6) the overwhelming contribution of maternal germ line imprints to development compared to their paternal counterparts.

  12. Porter's contribution to more general and dynamic strategy frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. Understanding why firms are successful is a very basic question in strategy both from a practitioner and a research perspective. In the strategy and management literature, however, we are confronted with different analytical frameworks, applicable at different levels

  13. The determination of contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predicts positive psychological components

    OpenAIRE

    hosein Ebrahimi moghadam; mahin Fekraty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:...

  14. Cognitive coping strategies and stress in parents of children with Down syndrome: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-sectional and prospective relationships between cognitive coping strategies and parental stress in parents of children with Down syndrome. A total of 621 participants filled out questionnaires, including the Cognitive Emotion Regulation

  15. Parent Retrospective Recollections of Bullying and Current Views, Concerns, and Strategies to Cope with Children's Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Leigh A.; Nickerson, Amanda B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, parent history of bullying was examined in terms of general involvement with bullying, specific types of bullying experienced, level of hurtfulness associated with the experience, and when bullying occurred. Parent current views, levels of concern, and strategies used to cope with bullying were also evaluated. Finally, the…

  16. Parents and Preschool Workers' Perceptions of Competence, Collaboration, and Strategies for Addressing Bullying in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David Lansing; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and compare parents' (n = 141) and preschool workers' (n = 81) perceptions of bullying with respect to preschool workers' competence, collaboration with parents, and strategies for dealing with bullying. Whereas most participants held positive views about their collaboration, preschool workers tended to be…

  17. Where It Begins: Parental Strategies that Impact the Kindergarten Readiness of African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Katrina E.

    2010-01-01

    The need to close the educational gap between Black and White students necessitated a search for answers through parental strategies that impact school readiness. Educational and child development literature support the fact that what a caregiver/parent does and/or does not do for their children, essentially, beginning at birth , has an impact on…

  18. Teaching Practices and Strategies to Involve Inner-City Parents at Home and in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leontye; Kim, Yanghee A.; Bey, Juanita Ashby

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have observed what teachers actually do in the classroom to encourage parental involvement in their children's education. Over the school year, the various teaching practices and strategies of two teachers in an inner-city elementary school that has had public recognition in its efforts to involve parents were gathered through…

  19. Parental Stress, Coping Strategies and Social Support in Families of Children with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Murdaca, Anna Maria; Costa, Sebastiano; Filippello, Pina; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare parental stress, coping strategies and social support perceived in families of children with low functioning autism (n = 8), high functioning autism (n = 10), Down syndrome (n = 12) and parents of typically developing children (n = 20). Specifically, the objective was to investigate which variables (coping…

  20. Strategies low-income parents use to overcome their children's food refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents play a key role in the development of eating habits in preschool children, as they are the food "gatekeepers". Repeated exposure to new foods can improve child food preferences and consumption. The objective of this study was to determine parent feeding strategies used to influence child acc...

  1. Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E; Markus, Monica Th; Hoogendijk, Thea H G; Boer, Frits

    2009-07-01

    Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether the contribution of temperament is moderated by child-rearing style, as is suggested by some studies in the general population. Fifty children were included (25 with anxiety disorders and 25 non-clinical controls). Child-rearing and the child's temperament were assessed by means of parental questionnaire (Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) (Block in The Child-Rearing Practices Report. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1965; The Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): a set of Q items for the description of parental socialisation attitudes and values. Unpublished manuscript. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1981), EAS Temperament Survey for Children (Boer and Westenberg in J Pers Assess 62:537-551, 1994; Buss and Plomin in Temperament: early developing personality traits. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, 1984s). Analysis of variance showed that anxiety-disordered children scored significantly higher on the temperamental characteristics emotionality and shyness than non-clinical control children. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that temperament (emotionality and shyness) and child-rearing style (more parental negative affect, and less encouraging independence of the child) both accounted for a unique proportion of the variance of anxiety disorders. Preliminary results suggest that child-rearing style did not moderate the association between children's temperament and childhood anxiety disorders. The limited sample size might have been underpowered to assess this interaction.

  2. Enhancing Parent-Child Communication about Drug Use: Strategies for Professionals Working with Parents and Guardians

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that family connectedness is the leading protective factor against youth involvement in alcohol and other drug use. A vital component to building positive family connections is effective parent-child communication. This article discusses the importance of building positive parent-child communication skills and provides practical…

  3. Parents' Cognitions and Expectations about Their Pre-School Children: The Contribution of Parental Anxiety and Child Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatcroft, Rebecca; Creswell, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relative associations between parent and child anxiety and parents' cognitions about their children. One hundred and four parents of children aged 3-5 years completed questionnaires regarding their own anxiety level, their child's anxiety level and their cognitions about the child, specifically parents' expectations…

  4. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The contribution of parent-child numeracy activities to young Chinese children's mathematical ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Yingyi; Yang, Wen; Song, Zhanmei

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of recent research has shown that parent-child mathematical activities have a strong effect on children's mathematical learning. However, this research was conducted predominantly in Western societies and focused mainly on mothers' involvement in such activities. This study aimed to examine both mother-child and father-child numeracy activities in Hong Kong Chinese families and both parents' unique roles in predicting young Chinese children's mathematics ability. A sample of 104 Hong Kong Chinese children aged approximately 5 years and their mothers and fathers participated in this study. Mothers and fathers independently reported the frequency of their own numeracy activities with their children. Children were assessed individually using two measures of mathematical ability. Hierarchical regression models were used to investigate the contribution of parent-child numeracy activities to children's mathematical ability. Mothers' participation in number skill activities and fathers' participation in number game and application activities significantly predicted their children's mathematical performance even after controlling for background variables and children's language ability. This study extends previous research with a sample of Chinese kindergarten children and shows that parent-child numeracy activities are related to young children's mathematical ability. The findings highlight the important roles that mothers and fathers play in their young children's mathematical learning. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Real-Time Tracking of Parental Histones Reveals Their Contribution to Chromatin Integrity Following DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Salomé; Dabin, Juliette; Chevallier, Odile; Leroy, Olivier; Baldeyron, Céline; Corpet, Armelle; Lomonte, Patrick; Renaud, Olivier; Almouzni, Geneviève; Polo, Sophie E

    2016-10-06

    Chromatin integrity is critical for cell function and identity but is challenged by DNA damage. To understand how chromatin architecture and the information that it conveys are preserved or altered following genotoxic stress, we established a system for real-time tracking of parental histones, which characterize the pre-damage chromatin state. Focusing on histone H3 dynamics after local UVC irradiation in human cells, we demonstrate that parental histones rapidly redistribute around damaged regions by a dual mechanism combining chromatin opening and histone mobilization on chromatin. Importantly, parental histones almost entirely recover and mix with new histones in repairing chromatin. Our data further define a close coordination of parental histone dynamics with DNA repair progression through the damage sensor DDB2 (DNA damage-binding protein 2). We speculate that this mechanism may contribute to maintaining a memory of the original chromatin landscape and may help preserve epigenome stability in response to DNA damage. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Employee contributions: a primer on their use, historical trends and overall fit within benefits strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Hudson A

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of employee contributions as a strategic tool within employee health plans. While most employers require some form of employee contributions for health care, there is no clear "one-size-fits-all" solution. A myriad of strategies are in place, some active and some passive. This article reviews both common and emerging strategies and how they differ based on industry, employer size and region; discusses how employee contribution strategy fits within overall benefits strategy; and provides a strategic framework for approaching employee contributions in the future.

  8. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over six years: The contribution of each parent’s depressive history to the other’s parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E.S.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents’ depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fa...

  9. "Entre Familia": Immigrant Parents' Strategies for Involvement in Children's Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, Luis; Brooks, Maneka Deanna; Valdés, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and administrators in schools with large, working-class Latino populations often complain of parents' indifference or lack of involvement in children's schooling because of their low visibility at school events and relatively little face-to-face communication with teachers and school administration. In a series of semi-structured…

  10. School children with neuropsychological handicap: coping strategies and parents' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krener, P; Cranston, C

    1990-01-01

    One hundred forty six boys (mean age 9 years 1 months, SD = two years, nine months) and forty one girls (mean age 8 years 6 months, SD = three years, three months) received medical, developmental, psychoeducational, and psychiatric evaluations in a multidisciplinary developmental pediatric clinic. Two hundred fifty variables were analyzed by developing ten scales to quantitatively evaluate neuropsychological risk factors, family and parent functioning, and outcome measures of academic achievement, social adjustment and coping or psychiatric symptom pattern. Higher academic achievement, and lower behavioral symptomatology were associated with high IQ scores but not with higher scores on neurobehavioral risk factors. Chief complaints reported by parents did not correlate with their children's final psychiatric diagnoses and also were found to be independent of children's coping styles observed in the office. Problem parenting, as observed in the pediatrician's office, was associated with behavioral problems, and also with decreased competence on language measures and lower academic achievement in relation to IQ. In this sample, assessing parenting yielded a stronger prediction of the child's school and behavioral functioning than did taking a detailed history of neuropsychological risk factors.

  11. Direct marketing of parenting programs: comparing a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Backman, Anna

    2017-06-01

    : For parenting programs to achieve a public health impact, it is necessary to develop more effective marketing strategies to increase public awareness of these programs and promote parental participation. In this article, we compared a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy via two studies. : We designed two ads inviting parents to participate in a universal parenting program; one ad focused on the program increasing the likelihood of positive outcomes for children (promotion-focused) and the other on the program reducing the likelihood of negative outcomes (prevention-focused). In study I, the two ads were run online simultaneously. Those who clicked on an ad were directed to a website where they could read about and sign up for the program. In study II, a community sample of 706 parents answered a questionnaire about the ads. : In study I, over 85 days, the prevention ad generated more clicks. There was no difference in the number of pages visited on the website nor in the number of parents who signed up for the program. In study II, parents showed a preference for the promotion ad, perceiving it as more relevant and rating it as more effective in getting them interested in the program. : A prevention strategy may be more effective in drawing public attention, in general. However, a promotion strategy is more likely to reach parents, in particular, and inspire them to consider participating in parenting programs. These strategies should be developed further and tested in both general and clinical populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. A qualitative study of parents' perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children's snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-05-01

    Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children's snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents' conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children's snacking. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n = 60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents' child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Parents' commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children's snacks with phrases like "something small." Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ethnic groups and by household food security status. Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  14. Nursing Care and Parents Contribution in the Care of their Childern with Hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Orfanidou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The term hypospadias is derived from the Greek language and refers to the pathological condition of urethra, which the vestibule, by the time of embryology is imperfect. Approximately 1 to 300 male births appear this problem. The aim of this study is the best quality of nursing management. It is proved that the child recover earlier when the parents involved in care, so it is important to explain the procedure, educate parents about the care after leaving the hospital and to make sure that there are no questions unanswered. The new techniques, the nursing management and the parents’ contribution in care promote to reduce hypospadias hospitalization and so, the less suffering.

  15. Mothers' and Fathers' Well-being, Parenting Styles, and their Children's Cognitive and Behavioural Strategies at Primary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onatsu-Arvilommi, Tiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Aunola, Kaisa

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the extent to which parents' well-being and parenting styles provide a basis of the development of their children's cognitive and behavioral strategies in primary school. Reveals that maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with their children's use of maladaptive strategies, whereas maternal authoritative parenting styles…

  16. The role of coping strategies in predicting change in parenting efficacy and depressive symptoms among mothers of adolescents with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, A C; Hauser-Cram, P

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) face greater caregiving demands than parents of children without DD. There is considerable variability in parents' adjustment to raising a child with DD, however. In line with a strengths-based approach, this study explores coping strategies as potential mechanisms of resilience among mothers of adolescents with DD. This study examines the frequency with which mothers use various coping strategies and the extent to which those strategies moderate the relationship between adolescent behaviour problems and aspects of maternal well-being. Both positive and negative dimensions of well-being are explored, with maternal depressive symptoms and perceived parenting efficacy examined as outcomes cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The present study focuses on 92 mothers and their adolescents with DD. The adolescents had a wide range of diagnoses, all with continuing special needs. Data were collected from mothers through interviews and self-administered questionnaires when their adolescents were aged 15 and aged 18. A structured assessment of the adolescent was completed during home visits at age 15. Mothers reported frequently using strategies of denial and planning but rarely using strategies of mental and behavioural disengagement to cope with recent stressful situations. Adolescent behaviour problems were found to contribute to greater symptoms of depression and lower feelings of parenting efficacy as well as increases in depressive symptoms over time. Mothers of sons, but not daughters, reported increases in parenting efficacy across their child's adolescent period. Above and beyond adolescent factors, several coping strategies emerged as significant predictors of mothers' symptoms of depression and perceived parenting efficacy. Moreover, use of Active Coping/Planning, Positive Reinterpretation/Growth, and Behavioural/Mental Disengagement as coping strategies moderated the impact of adolescent behaviour

  17. Driving styles among young novice drivers--the contribution of parental driving styles and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gila; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2010-03-01

    As part of the effort to ascertain why young drivers are more at risk for car crashes, attention has recently turned to the effects of family, including the intergenerational transmission of driving styles from parents to offspring. The current study sought to further understanding of the nature and aspects of the family influence with the help of Bowen's family systems theory. In Phase 1 of the prospective study, 130 young driving students completed questionnaires tapping personal and personality measures, and their parents completed driving-related instruments. In Phase 2, a year after the young drivers had obtained their driver's license, they were administered the same questionnaires their parents had previously completed. The results show significant correlations between the parents' driving styles and those of their offspring a year after licensure. Furthermore, differentiation of self and self-efficacy in newly acquired driving skills were found to moderate or heighten the similarity between the driving styles of parents and their offspring. For young drivers reporting anxiety in Phase 1, this was associated with a reported anxious driving style a year later. Among young female drivers, anxiety was also associated with a reckless and careless style. Higher sensation seeking was related to higher reckless driving among young male drivers. The findings are discussed in the context of adolescence and the role of the study variables in the development and intergenerational transmission of driving styles. In addition to its theoretical contribution to the realms of intergenerational transmission in general, and young drivers in particular, the study may have practical implications for both family therapy and the design of driving interventions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescents' Compliance-Resistance: Effects of Parents' Compliance Strategy and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kim D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined choice of compliance-resisting behaviors among adolescents. Findings from 118 high school students revealed significant differences in resistance strategy the adolescent selected on basis of parent gender, adolescent gender, and compliance-gaining strategy (manipulation, nonnegotiation, emotional appeal, personal rejection, empathic…

  19. Contribution to the european discussion on the energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.; Valade, J.

    2001-01-01

    If no change occurs, the European Union will cover in 2020, 70% of its energy need by importation, for 50% today. This situation leads to a discussion on the energy dependence. In this context the European Commission provoked a discussion by publishing a ''green book'' on the european strategy concerning the energy supply. This document presents the point of view of the Senate Energy Study Group. (A.L.B.)

  20. A web-based communication system for integrated care in cerebral palsy: experienced contribution to parent-professional communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulmans, Jitske; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; van Harten, Wim H.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: to improve communication in the integrated care setting of children with cerebral palsy, we developed a web-based system for parent-professional and inter-professional communication. The present study aimed to evaluate parents' experiences regarding the system's contribution to their

  1. Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style and feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Samantha B; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia; Mattiske, Julie

    2015-09-01

    One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2-7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary-Care Weight-Management Strategies: Parental Priorities and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turer, Christy Boling; Upperman, Carla; Merchant, Zahra; Montaño, Sergio; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To examine parental perspectives/rankings of the most important weight-management clinical practices and to determine whether preferences/rankings differ when parents disagree that their child is overweight. We performed mixed-methods analysis of a 32-question survey of parents of 2- to 18-year-old overweight children assessing parental agreement that their child is overweight, the single most important thing providers can do to improve weight status, ranking American Academy of Pediatrics-recommended clinical practices, and preferred follow-up interval. Four independent reviewers analyzed open-response data to identify qualitative themes/subthemes. Multivariable analyses examined parental rankings, preferred follow-up interval, and differences by agreement with their child's overweight assessment. Thirty-six percent of 219 children were overweight, 42% obese, and 22% severely obese; 16% of parents disagreed with their child's overweight assessment. Qualitative analysis of the most important practice to help overweight children yielded 10 themes; unique to parents disagreeing with their children's overweight assessments was "change weight-status assessments." After adjustment, the 3 highest-ranked clinical practices included, "check for weight-related problems," "review growth chart," and "recommend general dietary changes" (all P parents disagreeing with their children's overweight assessments ranked "review growth chart" as less important and ranked "reducing screen time" and "general activity changes" as more important. The mean preferred weight-management follow-up interval (10-12 weeks) did not differ by agreement with children's overweight assessments. Parents prefer weight-management strategies that prioritize evaluating weight-related problems, growth-chart review, and regular follow-up. Parents who disagree that their child is overweight want changes in how overweight is assessed. Using parent-preferred weight-management strategies may prove useful in

  3. Dealing with Difficult Young Children: Strategies for Teachers and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, Anne K.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews current research on the individual temperament of young children and recommends strategies to understand and build upon children's personality strengths. Discusses the influence of adult perceptions and misperceptions on children's personality development. (DT)

  4. Asian cultural values gap, cognitive flexibility, coping strategies, and parent-child conflicts among Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Annie J; Kim, Bryan S K; Park, Yong S

    2008-10-01

    The study examined Korean American college students' perceived Asian cultural values gap between themselves and their parents, cognitive flexibility, and coping strategies. The relationships between these factors were studied with the intensities and types of parent-child conflicts. The results indicated that the participants adhered less strongly to Asian values than their parents. When faced with conflicts, the participants reported using problem solving coping strategy to the greatest extent, followed by social support coping strategy, and then avoidance coping strategy. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed a positive relationship between the participant-perceived parent-child values gap and the intensity of conflicts, particularly in the area of dating and marriage. There were inverse relationships between cognitive flexibility and the intensity of conflicts, specifically in the area of dating and marriage. A positive relationship was observed between the use of social support coping strategy and intensity of conflicts. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect in which participant-perceived parent-child values gap and cognitive flexibility were related to increased frequency of dating and marriage conflicts.

  5. Contribution to the european discussion on the energy strategy; Contribution au debat europeen sur la strategie energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revol, H.; Valade, J

    2001-07-01

    If no change occurs, the European Union will cover in 2020, 70% of its energy need by importation, for 50% today. This situation leads to a discussion on the energy dependence. In this context the European Commission provoked a discussion by publishing a ''green book'' on the european strategy concerning the energy supply. This document presents the point of view of the Senate Energy Study Group. (A.L.B.)

  6. Strategies of Learning Speaking Skill by Indonesian Learners of English and Their Contribution to Speaking Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik

    2014-01-01

    This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…

  7. Functional priorities reported by parents of children with cerebral palsy: contribution to the pediatric rehabilitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina B. Brandão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Collaborative actions between family and therapist are essential to the rehabilitation process, and they can be a catalyst mechanism to the positive outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Objectives: To describe functional priorities established by caregivers of CP children by level of severity and age, and to assess changes on performance and satisfaction on functional priorities reported by caregivers, in 6-month interval. Method: 75 CP children, weekly assisted at Associação Mineira de Reabilitação, on physical and occupational therapy services. The following information was collected: gross motor function (Gross Motor Function Classification System-GMFCS and functional priorities established by caregivers (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure-COPM. Data were collected in two moments, with a 6-month interval. Results: The main functional demands presented by caregivers were related to self-care activities (48.2%. Parents of children with severe motor impairment (GMFCS V pointed higher number of demands related to play (p=0.0036, compared to the other severity levels. Parents of younger children reported higher number of demands in mobility (p=0.025 and play (p=0.007, compared to other age groups. After 6 months, there were significant increase on COPM performance (p=0.0001 and satisfaction scores (p=0.0001. Conclusions: Parents of CP children identified functional priorities in similar performance domains, by level of severity and age. Orienting the pediatric rehabilitation process to promote changes in functional priorities indentified by caregivers can contribute to the reinforcement of the parent-therapist collaboration.

  8. Toward a holistic view of parents' discourse: Indirect communication as an emotion socialization strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Parents teach their children about emotions through a process called emotion socialization and one way that they can do so is through shared discussions about emotions. Research in developmental psychology indicates that parental emotion socialization strategies through discourse such as elaboration and labels and explanations are related to children's emotion understanding and social competence. In the current study, I apply the concept of indirect communication, which has been used in lingu...

  9. Challenges and coping strategies of parents of children with autism on the Kenyan coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gona, Joseph K; Newton, Charles R; Rimba, Kenneth K; Mapenzi, Rachel; Kihara, Michael; Vijver, Fonns V; Abubakar, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Research on the challenges of raising a child with autism is mostly conducted in Europe, North America and Australia, and has revealed that parents have to come to terms with living with a lifelong developmental disability. In addition, parents are faced with numerous concerns, such as caring burdens, poor prognosis, and negative public attitudes. Virtually no research has been conducted in Africa on this subject. Thirty-seven interviews and eight focus group discussions were conducted with parents of children with autism and professionals in regular contact with these parents from rural and urban counties of the Kenyan coast. The study investigated challenges faced by parents and how they cope with those challenges. A purposive-convenience sampling procedure was used in selecting the study participants. A digital recorder was used to record all the interviews and focus group discussions. Transcriptions were done in Swahili, translated into English, and then imported to the NVivo software program for content analysis. The results indicate that parents of children with autism on the Kenyan coast experience common challenges including stigma, lack of appropriate treatment, financial and caring burdens regardless of their religious and cultural backgrounds. Coping strategies applied by parents comprised problem-focused aspects that involve diet management and respite care, and emotion-focused aspects that consist of beliefs in supernatural powers, prayers and spiritual healing. This qualitative study reveals a range of challenges that could have significant impact when caring for a child with autism. Coping strategies applied by parents target the physical health of the child and the psychological wellbeing of the parent. Consideration of these outcomes is vital as they could impact the initiation of a community-based rehabilitation service delivery in rural settings where parents play an active role.

  10. Resources and strategies: how parents cope with the care of a disabled child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, B A

    1994-01-01

    This review has considered the ways parents cope with the chronic strain and daily stressors associated with caring for and bringing up a disabled child. The review has been structured around key concepts from the process model of stress and coping. Coping resources--both personal and socio-ecological--have been described, and the notion of vulnerability when resources are not available has been considered. It is only recently that research has turned to look at the coping strategies parents use. The review drew on research using a variety of methodologies to demonstrate the range of strategies used by parents. The relationship between coping strategies and adjustment was explored, although certain methodological difficulties impede firm conclusions being drawn. Finally, the review examined whether the process model of stress and coping could be usefully operationalised to inform intervention practices with families caring for a disabled child.

  11. Correlation of parenting style and pediatric behavior guidance strategies in the dental setting: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of parenting style on the choice of proper behavior guidance strategies in pedodontics. Seventy-two children aged between 4 and 6 years (mean 5.12 years) with carious primary mandibular molars were selected. The Primary Caregivers' Practices Report (PCPR) was used to quantify authoritarian, permissive and authoritative aspects of the caregivers' parenting style. After inferior alveolar nerve block, carious lesions were removed and the teeth were restored using amalgam. The children's behavior during operation was assessed according to the sound, eye, and motor (SEM) scale. Communicative guidance, advance behavior guidance, parental separation, and deferred treatment were used for behavior management. The dominant authoritative score was observed in 50% of parents, permissive in 37.5%, and authoritarian in 12.5%. The mean SEM score in children belonging to authoritative parents was significantly lower than in children of permissive and of authoritarian parents (pparenting style. Advanced behavior guidance (protective stabilization) was applied in 16.7% of cases in the authoritative category and in 100% in the permissive and authoritarian categories. The use of restrictive devices (7.4%) and sedation (3.7%) was limited to the permissive category. Parental separation (40.7%) and deferred treatment (3.7%) were performed only in the permissive category. This study provides preliminary evidence that a child's reaction to restorative dental procedures is influenced by the nature of the caregiver's parenting style.

  12. Food choices coping strategies of eating disorder patients' parents: what happens when both mother and father work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, I; Ruiz-Prieto, I; Bolaños-Ríos, P; Garrido-Casals, O

    2013-11-01

    Recently, it has been reported that food choices of relatives of eating disorder (ED) patients are not adequate having in mind a healthy model of eating habits. The aim of this study was to analyse how work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies in both families with a member suffering from an ED and families with no sick members. In addition, the differences in those strategies between the two types of working parents were studied. A total of 80 employed fathers (n = 27) and mothers (n = 53) of patients with an ED (n =50) and healthy offsprings (n = 30) were interviewed. The mean age was 43.57 ± 5.69 and they had moderate incomes. Food choice coping strategies, used by working parents to integrate work and family demands, were measured by means of 22 items included in five categories. Considering the food choice coping strategies, ED patients' relatives show better skills than relatives of healthy offsprings do. The fact of preparing more meals at home and less fast food as main meal are good examples of those better strategies as well as to miss less number of breakfasts and lunches because of work-family conflict, grabbing less frequently and overeat less after missing a meal. The therapeutic effort to improve the food choices of ED patients' relatives, especially when both father and mother work, are a key point to improve the eating habits of ED patients, thus contributing to a better outcome. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. The Contribution of Parenting Practices and Parent Emotion Factors in Children at Risk for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Holland, Kerry A.; Frankling, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of different parenting characteristics on child disruptive behavior and emotional regulation among a sample of at-risk children. The sample consisted of 373 Australian 5- to 9-year-old children who were screened for serious behavior problems. Seven parenting variables based on self-report were…

  14. Work conditions and the food choice coping strategies of employed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M; Farrell, Tracy J; Blake, Christine E; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-01-01

    How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Pilot telephone survey. City in the northeastern United States (US). Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible participated. Sociodemographic characteristics; work conditions (hours, shift, job schedule, security, satisfaction, food access); food choice coping strategies (22 behavioral items for managing food in response to work and family demands (ie, food prepared at/away from home, missing meals, individualizing meals, speeding up, planning). Two-tailed chi-square and Fisher exact tests (P restaurant meals, missed breakfast, and prepared entrees. Job security, satisfaction, and food access were also associated with gender-specific strategies. Structural work conditions among parents such as job hours, schedule, satisfaction, and food access are associated with food choice coping strategies with importance for dietary quality. Findings have implications for worksite interventions but need examination in a larger sample.

  15. Learning Experiences and Strategies of Parents of Young Children with Developmental Disabilities: Implications for Rehabilitation Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtubise, Karen; Carpenter, Christine

    2017-10-20

    To better understand the learning experiences of parents of children with developmental disabilities and the strategies they develop to support their caregiving role. A qualitative secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with parents of children with developmental disability was conducted to better understand parents' learning experiences and the strategies they developed to use this learning in supporting their children. A foundational thematic analysis process was used to identify the main themes, and the interpretive process was influenced by adult education theories. Findings suggest that participants are highly motivated to learn by a need to understand, to do, and to belong. They also demonstrated varying levels of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning. Learning style preferences are evident in participants' narratives and in their self-reported learning strategies. Conceptualizing parents, as adult learners, can be helpful in designing clinical interactions and education initiatives. Knowledge of adult learning principles may enable pediatric therapists to better meet the needs of parents and fulfill their information sharing responsibilities.

  16. Designing quality of care--contributions from parents: Parents' experiences of care processes in paediatric care and their contribution to improvements of the care process in collaboration with healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Susanne; Gremyr, Ida; Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article was to explore whether current quality dimensions for health care services are sufficient to capture how parents perceive and contribute to quality of health care. New quality improvement initiatives that actively involve patients must be examined with a critical view on established quality dimensions to ensure that these measures support patient involvement. This paper used a qualitative and descriptive design. This paper is based on interviews with parents participating in two experience-based co-design projects in a Swedish hospital that included qualitative content analysis of data from 12 parent interviews in paediatric care. Health care professionals often overemphasize their own significance for value creation in care processes and underappreciate parents' ability to influence and contribute to better quality. However, quality is not based solely on how professionals accomplish their task, but is co-created by health care professionals and parents. Consequently, assessment of quality outcomes also must include parents' ability and context. This paper questions current models of quality dimensions in health care, and suggests additional sub-dimensions, such as family quality and involvement quality. This paper underscores the importance of involving parents in health care improvements with health care professionals to capture as many dimensions of quality as possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. PARENTAL ATTITUDES IN THE PERCEPTION OF ADOLESCENTS AND COPING STRATEGIES IN A SOCIAL CONFLICT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Borecka-Biernat

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Whilst strategies preferences develop over a person’s lifetime, due to its proximal presence the parenting context is primary significant relational context where conflict resolution skills might being learned. While disciplining and guiding the child, nurturing the child‘s psychological, physical, social, and economic well-being parent provides child with a platform to learn how to deal with conflicts (Jonyniene et al., 2015; Missotten et al., 2016. The purpose of the study was to search for the family etiology of the strategies (aggression, avoidance, submission, problem solving for coping with a social conflict situation by adolescents, the source of which is inherent in parental upbringing attitudes. D. Borecka-Biernat’s Questionnaire on studying strategies for coping with a social conflict situation by adolescents (KSMK and Parental Attitudes Scale (SPR by M. Plopa were applied in the research. The empirical research was carried out in junior high schools in Wroclaw and neighbouring towns. It comprised 493 adolescents (269 girls and 224 boys aged 13-15. In the light of the research conducted, it was found that the adolescents’ aggressive way of reacting to emotional tension resulting from a social conflict situation is shaped by inappropriate upbringing attitudes of parents towards an adolescent child. The research results within the scope of the acceptance-rejection and autonomy attitude perception reveal their lower intensification in parents of adolescents who use aggression strategy. On the other hand, it is also possible to observe a higher result concerning the inconsistent and an over demanding attitude of adolescents’ parents who use aggression as a strategy for coping with a social conflict situation. It can be assumed that due to the attitudes observed in the mother and father, the adolescents who use the strategy of avoidance, submission, and task-oriented for coping with a social conflict situation constitute a

  18. Socioeconomic Differences in Parenting Strategies to Prevent Adolescent Smoking: A Case Study from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Haal, Sylke; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify possible socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. In 2012, survey data of adolescents (N = 225) aged 13 to 17 years and their mothers (N = 122) and fathers (N = 105) were collected in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Questions on smoking

  19. Work Conditions and the Food Choice Coping Strategies of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M.; Farrell, Tracy J.; Blake, Christine E.; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Design: Pilot telephone survey. Setting: City in the northeastern United States (US). Participants: Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible…

  20. Parental Verbal Strategies and Children's Capacities at 3 and 5 Years during a Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrell, Florence; Ubersfeld, Guillaume

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the influence on memorization of external inputs as well as children's own strategies, we examined both parental discourses in terms of distancing (Sigel, 1970) and spontaneous rehearsal by children during a memory task. Our aim was to assess the influence of each factor for children between 3 and 5 years of age. In our study of…

  1. Encouraging vegetable intake in children : the role of parental strategies, cognitive development and properties of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background
    Despite the health benefits, children’s fruit and vegetable intake is below that
    recommended. This thesis focuses on the role of parental strategies, children’s
    cognitive development and properties of food in order to develop new approaches
    to increase fruit and

  2. Strategies for Disseminating Information on Biomedical Research on Autism to Hispanic Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajonchere, Clara M.; Wheeler, Barbara Y.; Valente, Thomas W.; Kreutzer, Cary; Munson, Aron; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Cruz, Roxana; Martinez, Irene; Schrager, Sheree M.; Schweitzer, Lisa; Chklovski, Tara; Hwang, Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Low income Hispanic families experience multiple barriers to accessing evidence-based information on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study utilized a mixed-strategy intervention to create access to information in published bio-medical research articles on ASD by distilling the content into parent-friendly English- and Spanish-language ASD…

  3. Parental decisional strategies regarding HPV vaccination before media debates: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Empelen, P. van; Vogel, I.; Raat, H.; Ballegooijen, M. van; Korfage, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Before the introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, decisional strategies and factors that could guide HPV vaccination intentions were explored. The authors conducted 4 focus group discussions with 36 parents of children 8-15 years of age. Three groups consisted primarily of Dutch

  4. Children’s food-related consumer socialization: Parental goals and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Gram, Malene

    We study food-related consumer socialization through family interviews in a qualitative study. Parents socialize children for healthy eating, but other concerns, such as preserving family cohesion, are perceived as more important. The findings suggest that family dynamics, parents’ goals......, strategies and context are important for understanding children’s healthy eating socialization....

  5. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over six years: The contribution of each parent’s depressive history to the other’s parenting styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E.S.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents’ depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. Results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent’s permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering both parents’ depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms. PMID:28414019

  6. Statistical Significance of the Contribution of Variables to the PCA Solution: An Alternative Permutation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linting, Marielle; van Os, Bart Jan; Meulman, Jacqueline J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the statistical significance of the contribution of variables to the principal components in principal components analysis (PCA) is assessed nonparametrically by the use of permutation tests. We compare a new strategy to a strategy used in previous research consisting of permuting the columns (variables) of a data matrix…

  7. Disentangling the relative contribution of parental antisociality and family discord to child disruptive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A; Blazei, Ryan; Malone, Stephen H; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2013-07-01

    A number of familial risk factors for childhood disruptive disorders have been identified. However, many of these risk factors often co-occur with parental antisociality, which by itself may account for both the familial risk factors and the increased likelihood of offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). The current study aimed to examine the association of parenting behaviors, marital conflict, and divorce with child DBDs while accounting for (a) coparent parenting behaviors, and (b) parental adult antisocial behavior (AAB). A series of regressions tested the association between family-level variables (namely, parent-child relationship quality, parental willingness to use physical punishment, marital adjustment, and history of divorce) and DBDs (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder) alone and after statistically adjusting for coparent variables and parental AAB. Results indicated that parents with AAB were more likely to engage in various forms of maladaptive parenting, to divorce, and to have conflictual marriages. Maladaptive parenting, marital conflict, and divorce were associated with heightened rates of child DBDs, and these associations persisted after adjusting for coparent parenting and parental AAB. Finally, the mother's parenting behaviors had a higher impact on child DBDs than the father's parenting behaviors. Thus, familial variables continue to have an effect on childhood DBDs even after accounting for confounding influences. These variables should be a focus of research on etiology and intervention.

  8. The Role of Parents' Distancing Strategies in the Development of Five-Year-Old Children's Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galende, Nuria; de Miguel, Manuel Sanchez; Arranz, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relation between parents' distancing strategies and the performance of five-year-old children (N = 70) in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. The children's performances were assessed during individual sessions held at school. The distancing strategies practiced by the parents (cognitive and linguistic scaffolding,…

  9. The Effects of Parental Involvement, Trust in Parents, Trust in Students and Pupil Control Ideology on Conflict Management Strategies of Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Mehmet; Savas, Ahmet Cezmi

    2012-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to determine the effects of parental involvement, teachers' trust in parents and students, and teachers' pupil control ideology on the conflict management strategies used by teachers in classroom management. Data were collected from a sample of 254 teachers through paper and pencil questionnaires. Data were analyzed with…

  10. Two worlds: Adolescents' strategies for managing life with a parent in hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Denice Kopchak; Mayo, M Murray; Christ, Grace H; Heim, Kim; Parish, Stephanie; Shahrour, Ghada; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to generate an explanatory model of the coping strategies that adolescents employ to manage the stressors they experience in the final months of their ill parent's life and shortly after their death. The sample included 26 families of adolescents with a parent receiving care in a large hospice program in northeastern Ohio. A semistructured interview was conducted with 14 ill parents, 17 well parents/guardians, and 30 of their adolescent children before the parent's death and, additionally, with 6 of these families after the death. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a grounded-theory approach. The participants described two worlds that constituted the lives of the adolescents: the well world of normal adolescence and the ill world of having a parent near the end of life. The adolescents experienced a common challenge of living in two worlds and responded to the challenge with a process we labeled "managing two worlds." Five stages through which adolescents manage their worlds were identified: keeping the ill world and the well world separate; having the ill world intrude into the well world; moving between the ill world and the well world; being immersed in the ill world; and returning to the well world having been changed by the ill world. The explanatory model of "managing two worlds" outlines a complex and nuanced process that changes over time. The model can be used by health professionals who seek to help adolescents navigate this critical time when their parents are dying or have recently died. These results can also be used to inform the development of interventions that assist families with strategies tailored to an adolescent's specific needs. Future research should investigate associations among the process of "managing two worlds" and outcomes related to adolescent bereavement.

  11. Coping Strategies in Late Adolescence: Relationships to Parental Attachment and Time Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Anna-Sara; Svahn, Kajsa; Åström, Elisabeth; Rönnlund, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated adolescents' use of coping strategies in relation to attachment to parents and time perspective. Adolescents in Grade 3 upper secondary school (M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.6 years; n = 160) completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the Brief COPE. Correlational analyses showed that attachment to parents was associated with a more favorable view of the past (higher past positive and lower past negative), a less fatalistic view of the present, and a more favorable view of the future (higher future positive and lower future negative). Parental attachment accounted for significant variance in composite coping scores (adaptive and maladaptive) when entered before, but not after, time perspective subscales in hierarchical regression analyses. However, time perspective (mainly present hedonistic and positive or negative future) predicted adaptive or maladaptive coping over and beyond attachment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and coping is mediated by individual differences in time perspective. By contrast, factors other than attachment to parents (e.g., temperament) must be considered to fully account for the relationship between time perspective and coping.

  12. Understanding parental motivators and barriers to uptake of child poison safety strategies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, L; Waters, E; Sherrard, J; Ozanne-Smith, J; Robinson, J; Young, S; Hutchinson, A

    2005-12-01

    To develop an understanding of factors acting as barriers and motivators to parental uptake of child poison safety strategies. A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews and focus groups. A grounded theory approach was used for the collection and analysis of data. Sixty five parents of children under 5 years of age, some of whom had experienced an unintentional child poisoning incident. A range of knowledge based, environmental, and behavioral barriers to comprehensive parental uptake of poison safety practices were identified. As a result there tended to be only partial implementation of safety initiatives in the home. Selection of safety practices was often guided by the interests and behaviors of the child. This made the child vulnerable to changes in the home environment, inadequate supervision, and/or shifts in their own behavior and developmental ability. Personal or vicarious exposure of a parent to a child poisoning incident was a significant motivator for parental review of safety practices. Environmental measures targeting child resistant containers, warning labels, and lockable poisons cupboards will support parents' efforts to maintain poison safety. Additional education campaigns using stories of actual poisoning incidents may help to increase awareness of risk and encourage increased uptake.

  13. The contribution of parents' driving behavior, family climate for road safety, and parent-targeted intervention to young male driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Musicant, Oren; Lotan, Tsippy; Farah, Haneen

    2014-11-01

    One of the prominent issues in contemporary research on young drivers deals with the mechanisms underlying parents' influences on their offspring's driving behavior. The present study combines two sets of data: the first gathered from in-vehicle data recorders tracking the driving of parents and their teenage sons, and the second derived from self-report questionnaires completed by the young drivers. The aim was to evaluate the contribution of parents' driving behavior, participation in a parent-targeted intervention, and the teen drivers' perception of the family climate for road safety, to the driving behavior of young drivers during solo driving. The data was collected over the course of 12 months, beginning with the licensure of the teen driver, and examined a sample of 166 families who were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups (receiving different forms of feedback) or a control group (with no feedback). Findings indicate that young male drivers' risky driving events rate was positively associated with that of their parents. In addition, any type of intervention led to a lower rate of risky driving events among young drivers compared to the control group. Finally, a higher perception of parents as not committed to safety and lower perceived parental monitoring were related to a higher risky driving events rate among young drivers. The results highlight the need to consider a complex set of antecedents in parents' attitudes and behavior, as well as the family's safety atmosphere, in order to better understand young drivers' risky driving. The practical implications refer to the effective use of the family as a lever in the attempt to promote safety awareness among young drivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochet, C.; Fernandes, E.O.; Jantunen, M.

    ECA-IAQ (European Collaborative Action, Urban Air, Indoor Environment and Human Exposure), 2006. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX), Report No 25. EUR 22503 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications...... of the European Communities It is now well established that indoor air pollution contributes significantly to the global burden of disease of the population. Therefore, the knowledge of this contribution is essential in view of risk assessment and management. The ECA STRATEX report collates the respective...... information and describes the strategies to determine population exposure to indoor air pollutants. Its major goal is to emphasise the importance of the contribution of indoor air to total air exposure. Taking this contribution into account is a prerequisite for sound risk assessment of air pollution...

  15. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  16. The relationships among usage of motivation, learning strategies, parents' educational level and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Sadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Current study examines the following question: What is the relationship among Turkish high school students’ motivation and learning strategies use in biology, their gender and parents’ educational level? The aim of this study is to specify the relationships among family environment variables (fathers’ and mothers’ education levels, students’ gender, time/study environmental management, cognitive learning strategies (rehearsal, elaboration, organization and critical thinking and students’ goal orientations (intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientations. The participants were 400 students in 9th and 10th grades in Anatolian high schools in Turkey. So, they were in urban high school students. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ was applied to measure motivational orientations and self-regulated learning strategies use of students. Moreover, a Structural Equation Modeling was used to investigate the relationships among family environment variables, students’ gender, time/study environmental management, cognitive learning strategies and students’ goal orientations by using the LISREL 8.72 program. The results of the study showed that parents’ education level was related to each of the following variables: rehearsal, elaboration, organization, critical thinking, time/study environmental management, intrinsic goal orientation and extrinsic goal orientation. Gender was related to rehearsal, elaboration, organization strategies, intrinsic goal orientation and extrinsic goal orientation. The results showed that students, whose parents have high education level, were also more likely to succeed in using cognitive learning strategies (rehearsal, elaboration, organization and critical thinking and planning the necessary time for learning and making use of time well. The present study revealed that parental education levels and gender should be taken into consideration as major predictors of time/study environmental

  17. Solution-Focused Strategies for Effective Sexual Health Communication among African American Parents and Their Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sharon D; Williams, Sha-Lai

    2015-11-01

    The high rates of sexual risk behaviors, particularly among African American youths who may not be aware of their HIV status, provide indication that, unless prevention efforts are enhanced, this vulnerable group of youths will remain at greater risk for negative health status outcomes. Parents are important in efforts to reduce risk among youths and often have a willingness to be sexuality educators for their children; however, communication barriers often impede their ability to provide preventive sexual health knowledge to their youths. Social workers are often presented with opportunities to help parents develop effective sexual health communication skills in informal settings when formal interventions are not feasible. The present effort considers solution-focused strategies social workers can use to help parents overcome barriers and communicate more positively with their youths about sexual health.

  18. Quality of life in pediatric cancer survivors: contributions of parental distress and psychosocial family risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, N M; Khu, M; Reynolds, K; Guilcher, G M T; Schulte, F S M

    2018-02-01

    Pediatric survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk of poor quality of life and social-emotional outcomes following treatment. The relationship between parent psychological distress and child adjustment in pediatric cancer survivors has been well established. However, limited research has examined the factors that may buffer this association. The current study examined the associations between psychosocial family risk factors, parental psychological distress, and health-related quality of life (hrql) in pediatric cancer survivors. Fifty-two pediatric cancer survivors (34 males, 18 females, mean age = 11.92) and their parents were recruited from a long-term cancer survivor clinic. Children and their parents who consented to participate completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. Parents completed a demographic information form, the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (pat 2.0) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (bsi). The Intensity of Treatment Rating (itr-3) was evaluated by the research team. Multiple regression analyses revealed that parental psychological distress negatively predicted parent-reported hrql, while treatment intensity, gender, and psychosocial risk negatively predicted parent and child-reported hrql. Psychosocial risk moderated the association between parent psychological distress and parent-reported child hrql ( p = 0.03), whereby parents with high psychological distress but low levels of psychosocial risk reported their children to have higher hrql. Low levels of family psychosocial risk buffer the impact of parent psychological distress on child hrql in pediatric cancer survivors. The findings highlight the importance of identifying parents and families with at-risk psychological distress and psychosocial risk in order to provide targeted support interventions to mitigate the impact on hrql.

  19. The Contribution of School-Related Parental Monitoring, Self-Determination, and Self-Efficacy to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affuso, Gaetana; Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of school-related parental monitoring (SR-PM), self-determined motivation, and academic self-efficacy to academic achievement across time. The authors hypothesized that SR-PM would affect academic achievement indirectly via its effects on self-determined motivation and academic self-efficacy…

  20. Intergenerational Similarity in Callous-Unemotional Traits: Contributions of Hostile Parenting and Household Chaos during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; King-Casas, Brooks; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2016-01-01

    Extant research has examined both genetic and environmental risk involved in the transmission of callous-unemotional traits in youth populations, yet no study has examined the intergenerational similarity of these traits between parents and their offspring. The current study examined whether the association between parent callous-unemotional traits and child callous-unemotional traits was mediated by parenting behavior and whether this association was moderated by household environment. Participants included 115 dyads of adolescents (48% female; Mean age = 13.97) and their primary caregivers (87% female; Mean age = 42.54). Measures of callous-unemotional traits, hostile parenting, and household chaos were collected from both adolescents and parents. A two group structural equation modeling revealed that hostile parenting serves as a mediating process in the association between parent and adolescent callous-unemotional traits, but only in the context of high household chaos. Our findings suggest that hostile parenting practices are a mediating process that may explain intergenerational similarity in callous-unemotional traits. Additionally, household chaos may exacerbate the effects of hostile parenting on callous-unemotional traits within adolescents, resulting in heightened vulnerability to intergenerational transmission of callous-unemotional traits. PMID:28029442

  1. Do Coping Strategies Mediate the Relationship Between Parental Attachment and Self-Harm in Young People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    Insecure attachment is associated with self-harm in young people, but little research has explored the pathways through which this relationship develops. We investigated whether attachment impacts on self-harm via its effect on coping strategies and appraisal of problem-solving abilities. A total of 314 students aged 18-20 years completed an online survey with measures of parental attachment, emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies, and psychological distress and self-harm. A mediational model was not supported as there were no direct effects between parental attachment and self-harm. However, analysis of specific indirect pathways revealed that perceived parental attachment impacts on self-harm through problem-focused coping. Higher quality of attachment was associated with greater reliance on problem-focused (adaptive) coping, which in turn was associated with a decreased risk of having self-harmed. Furthermore, poorer paternal attachment was associated with lower appraisal of problem-solving skills, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of having self-harmed. Individuals with insecure attachment may be more vulnerable to self-harm because they lack other more constructive coping strategies for relieving stress.

  2. Online Coaching of Emotion-Regulation Strategies for Parents: Efficacy of the Online Rational Positive Parenting Program and Attention Bias Modification Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Oana A; Capris, David; Jarda, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Parenting programs are currently treatment of choice for behavioral disorders in children and one of their main components is reducing the negativity bias in the child-parent dyad. The Rational Positive Parenting Program (rPPP) is a program with a special focus on parent emotion-regulation functional reappraisal strategies, which has recently received consistent support for reducing child externalizing and internalizing disorders. In the last years, online interventions were proliferated and the Attention Bias Modification (ABM) becoming a promising implicit therapeutic intervention based on attention deployment emotion-regulation strategy, or adjunctive module to usual treatments, with results in multiple domains, varying from pain to self-esteem and emotional disorders (e.g., anxiety). We conducted two studies to investigate (1) the efficacy of the ABM procedures applied to parents and (2) the efficacy of the online version of the rPPP augmented with an ABM module. A total of 42 parents of children aged 2-12 years old participated in the first study, being allocated either to the ABM training or wait-list. Positive results were reported by the parents participating in the ABM group for own distress, satisfaction, positive interactions with the child, and child's strengths. In the second study, 53 parents and their children were allocated either in the rPPP group or in the rPPP + ABM group. Results show that ABM training can boost the effects of the rPPP on the strengths of children reported by the parents after the intervention. Findings are discussed in the light of limited research on using online tools for coaching effective emotion-regulation strategies for parents.

  3. Cognitive Strategies Use in Reading Comprehension and its Contributions to Students’ Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Suyitno

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The study outlined in this article describes the use of cognitive strategies designed to aid the comprehension of Indonesian texts. It also examines the contributions of such strategies to students' comprehension scores. The participants were 97 students who had completed and passed the reading course. In collecting the research data, the researcher used a reading comprehension test instrument in the form of a cloze test, as well as a Likert scale questionnaire. The cloze test was used to measure the students’ ability to understand the texts, while the questionnaire was used to obtain information about cognitive strategies used by students in comprehension of the texts. Data collection of the comprehension test results and understanding strategy data are performed sequentially over the same day. Research data are described and analyzed by product moment correlation technique. The research found that students' scores in cloze tests ranged from A to D. This score indicates that students have varying abilities in reading comprehension. The research findings also showed that students used various cognitive strategies in understanding text reading. The results of the correlation analysis showed that the use of cognitive strategy has a positive or negative contribution to the results of reading comprehension depending on the accuracy of the selection strategy in accordance with the text he read.

  4. How Parental Support during Homework Contributes to Helpless Behaviors among Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Melissa; May, Sidney; Wolf, Maryanne

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated the influence of parental practices on helpless behaviors of struggling readers during homework tasks. Parents (N = 36) of elementary students reported on their children's helpless behaviors, such as task avoidance and negative affect, during homework assignments, and on the nature and frequency of their support.…

  5. Parents' contributions to the narrative identity of offspring of donor-assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Maggie

    2003-12-01

    Donated sperm, eggs, and embryos are an increasing feature of assisted reproduction; people conceived in this way have different genetic and social histories. Although most offspring of donor-assisted conception are ignorant of their genetic history, recipient parents must negotiate increasing demand for full disclosure to offspring. This paper illustrates some of the reasons parents give for not telling their children, underlines the experience of many parents of being uncertain of how to go about telling, presents information from some parents who have endeavoured to be open with their children about conception from very early childhood, and discusses implications for the narrative identity of offspring of donor-assisted conception. Recipient parents (n=55) and offspring (12) from Australia; Canada, US, England, and Argentina were interviewed and subsequently consulted about the development of their narrative accounts and the way in which these have been interpreted. Parental narratives were found to be located along a continuum, broadly encompassing: (1). Parents who intend to exclude donor-assisted conception from the narratives they construct for their children, (2). parents who are uncertain about what they want to do, or confused about the best way to disclose and discuss donor conception with their children and (3). those have incorporated the donor in their children's narratives from the beginning. From interviews with offspring and on the basis of human rights issues and the increasing salience of genetic knowledge, it is concluded that disclosure to offspring before adolescence should be encouraged.

  6. The Impact of Childrens' Divorce on Parents: And Some Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Ralph; Kaslow, Florence

    1985-01-01

    Considers the impact of an adult child's divorce on his or her parents. Within the context of a cybernetic circular systems model of conceptualization about family relations, it is posited that older parents' reactions impact upon their childrens' post-divorce readjustment. (Author/NRB)

  7. Parenting Behaviours and Children's Development from Infancy to Early Childhood: Changes, Continuities and Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Feinstein, Leon

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated trajectories of parenting behaviours and children's development from infancy to early childhood, associations between parenting behaviours and children's development and how these associations vary according to socioeconomic indicators. Mothers and children were examined from an ongoing longitudinal study of families…

  8. The Development of Prosocial Behaviour in Early Childhood: Contributions of Early Parenting and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate E.; Berthelsen, Donna

    2017-01-01

    This research considers the role of parenting practices and early self-regulation, on children's prosocial behaviour when they begin school. Data for 4007 children were drawn from "Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children" (LSAC). The analyses explored relations between self-reported parenting practices for…

  9. Ethnicity, educational level and attitudes contribute to parental intentions about genetic testing for child obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Theunissen, M.H.C.; Schönbeck, Y.; Henneman, L.; Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Detmar, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess parental beliefs and intentions about genetic testing for their children in a multi-ethnic population with the aim of acquiring information to guide interventions for obesity prevention and management. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in parents of

  10. Feelings experienced by parents when their premature children are hospitalized. A contribution to the humanized care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Acosta Romo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the meaning of the experiences felt by parents of premature children who are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a hospital in the city of Pasto, Nariño, taking into account the phenomenological theory of Edmund Husserl. Materials and methods: In order to understand these experiences, a qualitative phenomenological study was carried out with eight parents in a range of age between 17 and 35. Results: The investigative process identified five categories, which emerged from the process of codification or nomothetic analysis of the speeches convergences. Two of these categories were considered for this article: Feelings and affective bond as an expression of parental love and process of interaction with the health staff. Conclusion: The parents of children in hospital were not prepared for the birth of a premature baby, so they experienced feelings of sadness, anxiety, self-criticism and fear, altering the affective bond between parents and children.

  11. Observations of parent-child co-shoppers in supermarkets: children's involvement in food selections, parental yielding, and refusal strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Story, Mary; Stang, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed to collect descriptive information on the decision-making processes of adult shoppers around food purchases when young children are present. Anthropological field observations were conducted on adult-child grocery shoppers. Eleven supermarkets in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region. A convenience sample (n = 142) of adult-child shoppers at 8 budget and 3 deluxe supermarkets located in diverse urban and suburban areas. Observations registered adult-child interactions over food selections, including parental yielding or refusal strategies and child engagement in shopping. Means and frequencies were calculated for food items considered. In 67 (50.4%) of the total 133 observations, a child initiated a request. Half (55.2%) of the requests were for sweets or snacks. Nearly half (47.8%) of adults yielded to the child's request. Brands and marketing techniques appeared to be a factor in 28.6% of selections. The most frequent adult refusals either provided an explanation or ignored the request. Adults yield to children's requests for sweets and snacks nearly as often as they refuse them. However, effective refusal strategies are used by many adults. Opportunities exist in the grocery store for adults to reinforce young children's interest in food and nutrition.

  12. Authoritative parenting and cigarette smoking among multiethnic preadolescents: the mediating role of anti-tobacco parenting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Cassandra A; Highland, Krista B; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Luta, Gheorghe; Niaura, Raymond S

    2014-01-01

    Parenting has been shown to affect smoking among children in U.S. majority groups, but less is known about this association among multiethnic urban populations. Our study examines the role of parenting on smoking among a highly diverse sample. Health surveys were collected from eighth graders (N = 459) in 2 low-income urban schools. Structural equation models examined the direct and indirect effects of authoritative parenting on lifetime smoking. A moderated mediation analysis examined whether indirect effects of authoritative parenting vary among racial/ethnic groups. Authoritative controlling parenting, characterized by limit setting, was positively associated with anti-tobacco parenting. Anti-tobacco parenting was inversely associated with smoking, mediating the relationship between controlling parenting and smoking. There was no evidence that mediation was moderated by race/ethnicity. Parent training, which focuses on setting rules and expectations, can be an important and universal element of smoking prevention programs targeted to youth in diverse communities.

  13. Coping strategies and self-esteem in the high-risk offspring of bipolar parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodday, Sarah M; Bentall, Richard; Jones, Steven; Weir, Arielle; Duffy, Anne

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated whether there were differences in coping strategies and self-esteem between offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (high-risk) and offspring of unaffected parents (control), and whether these psychological factors predicted the onset and recurrence of mood episodes. High-risk and control offspring were followed longitudinally as part of the Flourish Canadian high-risk bipolar offspring cohort study. Offspring were clinically assessed annually by a psychiatrist using semi-structured interviews and completed a measure of coping strategies and self-esteem. In high-risk offspring, avoidant coping strategies significantly increased the hazard of a new onset Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition twice revised mood episode or recurrence (hazard ratio: 1.89, p = 0.04), while higher self-esteem significantly decreased this hazard (hazard ratio: 2.50, p Self-esteem and avoidant coping significantly interacted with one another ( p self-esteem. A reduction of avoidant coping strategies in response to stress and improvement of self-esteem may be useful intervention targets for preventing the new onset or recurrence of a clinically significant mood disorder among individuals at high familial risk.

  14. Sibling relationship quality moderates the associations between parental interventions and siblings' independent conflict strategies and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E; Howe, Nina

    2009-08-01

    This study extends research on sibling conflict strategies and outcomes by examining unique and interactive associations with age, relative birth order, sibling relationship quality, and caregivers' interventions into conflict. Each of 62 sibling dyads (older sibling mean age = 8.39 years; younger sibling mean age = 6.06 years) discussed 1 recurring conflict alone (dyadic negotiation) and a 2nd conflict with their primary parental caregiver (triadic negotiation). Negotiations were coded for children's conflict strategies, outcomes, and caregiver interventions; each family member provided ratings of sibling relationship quality. Results revealed that age was associated with siblings' constructive strategies, particularly in the dyadic negotiation. With age controlled, younger siblings referred more frequently to their own perspective. Caregivers' future orientation in the triadic negotiation was associated with children's future orientation in the dyadic negotiation; however, this association was most evident when sibling relationship quality was high. Similarly, caregivers' past orientation was positively associated with dyadic compromise, especially when relationship quality was high. Results reveal the value of simultaneously considering associations among parental, affective, and developmental correlates of sibling conflict strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Contributions of Observed Parent Socialization of Coping and Skin Conductance Level Reactivity to Childhood Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Sarah; Abaied, Jamie; Wagner, Caitlin; Sanders, Wesley

    2018-03-01

    This research examined the longitudinal association between parent socialization of coping and child adjustment, as well as the moderating role of children's skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR). Participants were a community sample of children (n = 64, M age = 9.02, 54.5% females, 93.2% Caucasian) and their parent(s). Parent coping suggestions were observed while their child engaged in a stressful challenge task, during which the child's SCLR, a measure of children's physiological reactivity to stress, was also measured. Parent(s) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) at baseline and a 6-month follow-up to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Results revealed that secondary control engagement suggestions predicted fewer internalizing problems over time. In addition, disengagement suggestions predicted fewer externalizing problems over time among children with high SCLR. This study provides evidence that parent coping suggestions serve as a resource that protects youth from developing adjustment problems. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  16. Evaluation of the Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) Project Using the Multiattribute Utility (MAU) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Julia B.; Meadan, Hedda; Angell, Maureen E.; Daczewitz, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a multiattribute utility (MAU) evaluation to assess the Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) project which was funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES). In the PiCS project parents of young children with developmental disabilities are trained and coached in their homes on naturalistic and visual teaching…

  17. What Are Young People Doing on Internet? Use of ICT, Parental Supervision Strategies and Exposure to Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Ana M.; Luengo, José A.; Bartrina, M. José

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Current research emphasizes young people's access to and use of social networks, chat and WhatsApp. However, this situation is not associated with active parental mediation to protect them from the risks involved. This study analyzes Murcian students' perception of cell phone and computer use, parental mediation strategies and their…

  18. Complementation contributes to transcriptome complexity in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids relative to their inbred parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschold, Anja; Jia, Yi; Marcon, Caroline; Lund, Steve; Larson, Nick B.; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Ossowski, Stephan; Lanz, Christa; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S.; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Typically, F1-hybrids are more vigorous than their homozygous, genetically distinct parents, a phenomenon known as heterosis. In the present study, the transcriptomes of the reciprocal maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids B73×Mo17 and Mo17×B73 and their parental inbred lines B73 and Mo17 were surveyed in primary roots, early in the developmental manifestation of heterotic root traits. The application of statistical methods and a suitable experimental design established that 34,233 (i.e., 86%) of all high-confidence maize genes were expressed in at least one genotype. Nearly 70% of all expressed genes were differentially expressed between the two parents and 42%–55% of expressed genes were differentially expressed between one of the parents and one of the hybrids. In both hybrids, ∼10% of expressed genes exhibited nonadditive gene expression. Consistent with the dominance model (i.e., complementation) for heterosis, 1124 genes that were expressed in the hybrids were expressed in only one of the two parents. For 65 genes, it could be shown that this was a consequence of complementation of genomic presence/absence variation. For dozens of other genes, alleles from the inactive inbred were activated in the hybrid, presumably via interactions with regulatory factors from the active inbred. As a consequence of these types of complementation, both hybrids expressed more genes than did either parental inbred. Finally, in hybrids, ∼14% of expressed genes exhibited allele-specific expression (ASE) levels that differed significantly from the parental-inbred expression ratios, providing further evidence for interactions of regulatory factors from one parental genome with target genes from the other parental genome. PMID:23086286

  19. Ethnic/Racial Comparisons in Strategies Parents Use to Cope with Food Insecurity: A Systematic Review of Published Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Nipa; Rozmus, Cathy L; Grimes, Deanna E; Meininger, Janet C

    2018-03-16

    Food insecurity in US affects African Americans, Hispanic, and American Indians disproportionately compared to Caucasians. Ethnicity/race may influence the strategies parents use to reduce the effects of food insecurity. The purpose of this review is to compare coping strategies for food insecurity used by parents of different ethnicities/race as reported in published literature. A systematic search on PubMed and Embase yielded 983 studies, of which 13 studies met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. All groups used public and private assistance, social networks, nutrition related, and financial-related strategies. The limited evidence suggests that there are differences in how parents of different ethnicities/race apply these coping strategies. Current evidence is insufficient to confidently determine the extent of these differences. This review is a starting point for exploration of cultural differences in how parents of various ethnicities/race cope with food insecurity and identifies specific areas for further research.

  20. Unique contributions of dynamic versus global measures of parent-child interaction quality in predicting school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardack, Sarah; Herbers, Janette E; Obradović, Jelena

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the unique contribution of microsocial and global measures of parent-child positive coregulation (PCR) in predicting children's behavioral and social adjustment in school. Using a community sample of 102 children, ages 4-6, and their parents, we conducted nested path analytic models to identify the unique effects of 2 measures of PCR on school outcomes. Microsocial PCR independently predicted fewer externalizing and inattention/impulsive behaviors in school. Global PCR did not uniquely relate to children's behavioral and social adjustment outcomes. Household socioeconomic status was related to both microsocial and global measures of PCR, but not directly associated with school outcomes. Findings illustrate the importance of using dynamic measures of PCR based on microsocial coding to further understand how the quality of parent-child interaction is related to children's self-regulatory and social development during school transition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Adaptive functioning in pediatric epilepsy: contributions of seizure-related variables and parental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerne, Valerie; Chapieski, Lynn

    2015-02-01

    Young people with epilepsy are less likely to achieve the level of independence attained by their peers. We examined the seizure-related variables that placed a group of 97 pediatric patients with intractable seizures at risk for poor adaptive functioning. Analyses evaluated both the direct effects of the medical variables and indirect effects that were mediated through increased parental anxiety about their child's epilepsy. Higher numbers of anticonvulsants, presence of seizures that secondarily generalize, longer duration of seizure disorder, and younger age at onset were all identified as risk factors for poor adaptive functioning. Depending on the specific behavioral domain of adaptive functioning, the effects were sometimes direct and sometimes indirect. Lower levels of parental education and positive family history of seizures were associated with higher levels of parental anxiety. Interventions that target parental anxiety about seizures may mitigate the deleterious effects of epilepsy on social development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Negotiating a new day: parents' contributions to supporting students' school functioning after exposure to trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eline Grelland Røkholt,1 Jon-Håkon Schultz,2,3 Åse Langballe2 1Department of Allied Health, Bereavement Support Center, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, 2Norwegian Center for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Oslo, 3Department of Education, University of Tromsø, the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Abstract: Parents are advised to get their children back to school soon after exposure to trauma, so that they may receive social support and restore the supportive structure of everyday life. This study explores parents' experiences of supporting adolescents in regaining school functioning after the July 2011 massacre at Utøya summer camp in Norway. One year after the attack, 87 parents of 63 young people who survived the massacre were interviewed using qualitative interviews. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. All parents were actively supportive of their children, and described a demanding process of establishing new routines to make school attendance possible. Most parents described radical changes in their adolescents. The struggle of establishing routines often brought conflict and frustration into the parent–adolescent relationship. Parents were given general advice, but reported being left alone to translate this into action. The first school year after the trauma was described as a frustrating and lonely struggle: their adolescents were largely unable to restore normal daily life and school functioning. In 20% of the cases, school–home relationships were strained and were reported as a burden because of poor understanding of needs and insufficient educational adaptive measures; a further 20% reported conflict in school–home relationships, while 50% were either positive or neutral. The last 10%, enrolled in apprenticeship, dropped out, or started working, instead of finishing school. Implications for supporting parents with traumatized adolescent students are indicated. Keywords

  3. The Contribution of Attachment Theory to Parenting Interventions with Substance-abusing Mothers and Their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Micol Parolin; Alessandra Simonelli

    2016-01-01

    Children’s emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Empirical evidence indicates that parenting is negatively influenced by maternal drug use and its associated adverse psychosocial conditions. As a consequence, many interventions have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother-infant bond. Instead, Att...

  4. Acceptability of early infant male circumcision among chinese parents: strategy implications of HIV prevention for china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Lianjun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence has confirmed that circumcision can be performed as a preventive strategy for HIV and early infant male circumcision (EIMC is regarded to be safer than circumcision in adulthood; however, limited data are available in the literature about EIMC in China. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the willingness and attitudes of Chinese parents on newborn male circumcision so as to provide data for exploring the feasibility of implementing EIMC as an HIV prevention strategy in China. Methods Simple random sampling was used to draw participants from parents who had a newborn son delivered at Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, which is affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, between March and December 2010. A questionnaire was used to determine general medical knowledge or information about circumcision, attitudes about EIMC, and level of decision-making on circumcision for the newborn son. Results Data derived from 558 responses were analyzed and the ratio of respondents was 56.3% for fathers and 43.6% for mothers. Of the respondents, 34.4% agreed to circumcise their newborn son, and the level of agreement was 3.25 ± 1.17 (range, 1–5 with “1” being “reluctantly agree” and “5” being “very strongly agree”. The major reason for EIMC was for health (44.8%, followed by doctor’s advice (31.2%. The major reason not to agree to EIMC was concern about pain (50.5%, followed by the risk of the procedure (23.5%. Conclusion The willingness and acceptability of EIMC in China is low and the parents of newborn sons are usually not very affirmative when making a decision on such a procedure, suggesting that significant effort will be needed if EIMC is to be implemented as an HIV prevention strategy for China.

  5. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  6. The contribution of parent and youth information to identify mental health disorders or problems in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aebi, Marcel; Kuhn, Christine; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    were used to predict any problems/disorders, emotional problems/disorders and behavioural problems/disorders in a community sample (n = 252) and in a clinic sample (n = 95). RESULTS: The findings were strikingly similar in both samples. Parent and youth SDQ scales were related to any problem/disorder......BACKGROUND: Discrepancies between multiple informants often create considerable uncertainties in delivering services to youth. The present study assessed the ability of the parent and youth scales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to predict mental health problems/disorders....... Youth SDQ symptom and impact had the strongest association with emotional problems/disorder and parent SDQ symptom score were most strongly related to behavioural problems/disorders. Both the SDQ total and the impact scores significantly predicted emotional problems/disorders in males whereas...

  7. Contribution of Portuguese Vernacular Building Strategies to Indoor Thermal Comfort and Occupants’ Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernandes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar passive strategies that have been developed in vernacular architecture from different regions are a response to specific climate effects. These strategies are usually simple, low-tech and have low potential environmental impact. For this reason, several studies highlight them as having potential to reduce the demands of non-renewable energy for buildings operation. In this paper, the climatic contrast between northern and southern parts of mainland Portugal is presented, namely the regions of Beira Alta and Alentejo. Additionally, it discusses the contribution of different climate-responsive strategies developed in vernacular architecture from both regions to assure thermal comfort conditions. In Beira Alta, the use of glazed balconies as a strategy to capture solar gains is usual, while in Alentejo the focus is on passive cooling strategies. To understand the effectiveness of these strategies, thermal performances and comfort conditions of two case studies were evaluated based on the adaptive comfort model. Field tests included measurement of hygrothermal parameters and surveys on occupants’ thermal sensation. From the results, it has been found that the case studies have shown a good thermal performance by passive means alone and that the occupants feel comfortable, except during winter where there is the need to use simple heating systems.

  8. Didactic strategy to contribute to the development of communicative competence in Health Psychology students

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Molina Gómez; Angelina Roméu Escobar; Miriam Gutiérrez Escobar; María Elinor Dulzaides Iglesias

    2011-01-01

    Background: the cognitive, socio-cultural and communicative language teaching approach reveals the importance of syntactic speech closely related to semantic and pragmatic dimensions and aimed at understanding, analysis and construction of discourse. Objective: to design a didactic strategy that contributes to the development of communicative competence. Methods: pedagogic research on the teaching- learning process of Spanish grammar for first year students of Health Psychology in the Univers...

  9. Parenting styles and coping strategies among patients with early detected and treated congenital hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Campos, María L; Musso, Mariel; Keselman, Ana; Gruñeiro, Laura; Bergadá, Ignacio; Chiesa, Ana

    2018-04-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH), as any chronic disease, has an impact on the parent-child relationship and on the child's resources to cope with conflicting situations. To describe parenting styles according to the perception of children with CH and their coping strategies. Children aged 9-10 years who had CH detected by newborn screening and had received adequate treatment and a group without CH (control group). The Argentine Coping Questionnaire, the Argentine Scale for the Perception of Parent Relations, and the comprehension subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC III) were used. Results were compared using a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Sixty children with CH were included; they perceived that their mothers exercised a strict control and that their fathers showed more acceptance. They sought more support and became paralyzed more often in conflicting situations than the 60 children without CH. These findings may be associated with a higher level of dependence. They should be taken into consideration in CH care. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  10. Engaging military parents in a home-based reintegration program: a consideration of strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Abigail M; DeVoe, Ellen R

    2014-02-01

    For more than a decade, the long wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have placed tremendous and cumulative strain on U.S. military personnel and their families. The high operational tempo, length, and number of deployments-and greater in-theater exposure to threat-have resulted in well-documented psychological health concerns among service members and veterans. In addition, there is increasing and compelling evidence describing the significant deleterious impact of the deployment cycle on family members, including children, in military-connected families. However, rates of engagement and service utilization in prevention and intervention services continue to lag far below apparent need among service members and their families, because of both practical and psychological barriers. The authors describe the dynamic and ultimately successful process of engaging military families with young children in a home-based reintegration program designed to support parenting and strengthen parent-child relationships as service member parents move back into family life. In addition to the integration of existing evidence-based engagement strategies, the authors applied a strengths-based approach to working with military families and worked from a community-based participatory foundation to enhance family engagement and program completion. Implications for engagement of military personnel and their loved ones are discussed.

  11. Authoritative Parenting and Cigarette Smoking Among Multiethnic Preadolescents: The Mediating Role of Anti-Tobacco Parenting Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, Cassandra A.; Highland, Krista B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Luta, Gheorghe; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Parenting has been shown to affect smoking among children in U.S. majority groups, but less is known about this association among multiethnic urban populations. Our study examines the role of parenting on smoking among a highly diverse sample. Methods Health surveys were collected from eighth graders (N =459) in 2 low-income urban schools. Structural equation models examined the direct and indirect effects of authoritative parenting on lifetime smoking. A moderated mediation anal...

  12. Coping with pediatric cancer: strategies employed by children and their parents to manage cancer-related stressors during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Clawson, Kathleen J; Alderfer, Melissa A; Marsac, Meghan L

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric cancer patients and their families face significant physical, emotional, and psychosocial challenges. Few studies have investigated how children manage these challenges and how parents may help in the process. This qualitative study aimed to explore common cancer-related stressors for children and to examine child coping and parental assistance in coping with these stressors during treatment. Fifteen children undergoing cancer treatment and their parents participated in semistructured interviews. Four themes emerged capturing cancer-related stressors: cancer treatment/side effects, distressing emotions, disruption in daily routines, and social challenges. Six themes emerged regarding child coping strategies that were classified within an approach/avoidance coping framework. Approach coping strategies included the following: cognitive restructuring, relaxation, practical strategies, seeking social support, and emotional expression. Distraction was the only avoidant coping strategy. Parents tended to encourage approach coping strategies (eg, cognitive restructuring, social support). Within families, few coping strategies were reported (child: M = 1.47, SD = 0.99; parent: M = 3.33, SD = 1.18), suggesting that early family-based interventions teaching coping techniques for cancer-related stressors may be beneficial.

  13. The Contribution of Parent-Child Numeracy Activities to Young Chinese Children's Mathematical Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Yingyi; Yang, Wen; Song, Zhanmei

    2017-01-01

    Background: A growing body of recent research has shown that parent-child mathematical activities have a strong effect on children's mathematical learning. However, this research was conducted predominantly in Western societies and focused mainly on mothers' involvement in such activities. Aims: This study aimed to examine both mother-child and…

  14. Sibling Relationships: Parent-Child Agreement and Contributions of Siblings with and without ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconnier, Megan L.; Coffman, Marika C.; Kelso, Nicole; Wolf, Julie M.

    2018-01-01

    Research on the experiences of siblings of individuals with ASD and the quality of their sibling relationships has yielded mixed results. The present study examined the significance of parent- versus child-report of both positive and negative behaviors exhibited by siblings and their brothers and sisters with ASD within sibling dyads. Findings…

  15. The Contribution of Attachment Theory to Parenting Interventions with Substance-abusing Mothers and Their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol Parolin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Children’s emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Empirical evidence indicates that parenting is negatively influenced by maternal drug use and its associated adverse psychosocial conditions. As a consequence, many interventions have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother-infant bond. Instead, Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyse how drug addiction can affect the quality of an adult’s attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviours towards the child and can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies have also identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-addicted mothers and their children, but a specific model of insecurity is still needed to be attested, requiring further investigations. In recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs which address parenting and specifically focus on the mother-infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory.

  16. Predictors of Morphosyntactic Growth in Typically Developing Toddlers: Contributions of Parent Input and Child Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Colleen; Bahnsen, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Theories of morphosyntactic development must account for between-child differences in morphosyntactic growth rates. This study extends Legate and Yang's (2007) theoretically motivated cross-linguistic approach to determine if variation in properties of parent input accounts for differences in the growth of tense productivity. Method:…

  17. Authoritative Parenting and Cigarette Smoking Among Multiethnic Preadolescents: The Mediating Role of Anti-Tobacco Parenting Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Krista B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Luta, Gheorghe; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Parenting has been shown to affect smoking among children in U.S. majority groups, but less is known about this association among multiethnic urban populations. Our study examines the role of parenting on smoking among a highly diverse sample. Methods Health surveys were collected from eighth graders (N =459) in 2 low-income urban schools. Structural equation models examined the direct and indirect effects of authoritative parenting on lifetime smoking. A moderated mediation analysis examined whether indirect effects of authoritative parenting vary among racial/ethnic groups. Results Authoritative controlling parenting, characterized by limit setting, was positively associated with anti-tobacco parenting. Anti-tobacco parenting was inversely associated with smoking, mediating the relationship between controlling parenting and smoking. There was no evidence that mediation was moderated by race/ethnicity. Conclusions Parent training, which focuses on setting rules and expectations, can be an important and universal element of smoking prevention programs targeted to youth in diverse communities. PMID:24306966

  18. Impact of Parents' Motivation for Ethnocultural Continuity and Acculturation Strategies on Acculturation of Children in Russian Families in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabichenko T.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of an empirical research on the relationship between motivation for ethnocultural continuity and acculturation strategies in ethnocultural minorities (with Russians in Latvia as an example. Since acculturation is a process that affects several generations, we adopted a research plan that involved representatives of two generations of a family (parents and children. 112 Russian families participated in the research (parents: N=112, age 35—59, Me=42; children: N=112, age 16—24, Me=17. A questionnaire we used included J. Berry's acculturation strategies, scales of satisfaction with life and oneself, and the Motivation for Ethnocultural Continuity scale by C. Ward. The employed structural modeling revealed that acculturation strategies of the children correlate significantly with those of their parents as well as with their own motivation for ethnicultural continuity. The adolescents' choice of integration strategy is positively related to their satisfaction with themselves; however, in the cases of marginalization and assimilation this relation is negative.

  19. Coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life among parents of children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life (QoL) among parents of children with autistic disorder. The convenience sample of the study consisted of 184 parents of children with autistic disorder. Advanced statistical methods for analyses of mediator and moderator effects of coping strategies were used. The results revealed that 'accepting responsibility' was the only mediator strategy in the relationship between stress and QoL. The results also revealed that only 'seeking social support' and 'escape avoidance' were moderator strategies in the relationship between stress and QoL. This study is perhaps the first to investigate the mediating and moderating effects of coping on QoL of parents of children with autistic disorder. Recommendations for practice and future research are presented. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Managing the screen-viewing behaviours of children aged 5-6 years: a qualitative analysis of parental strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, R; Zahra, J; Edwards, M J; Kesten, J M; Solomon-Moore, E; Thompson, J L; Sebire, S J

    2016-03-01

    The present study used qualitative methods to: (1) examine the strategies that were used by parents of children aged 5-6 years to manage screen viewing; (2) identify key factors that affect the implementation of the strategies and (3) develop suggestions for future intervention content. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of children aged 5-6 years participating in a larger study. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an inductive and deductive content analysis. Coding and theme generation was iterative and refined throughout. Parents were recruited through 57 primary schools located in the greater Bristol area (UK). 53 parents of children aged 5-6 years. Parents reported that for many children, screen viewing was a highly desirable behaviour that was difficult to manage, and that parents used the provision of screen viewing as a tool for reward and/or punishment. Parents managed screen viewing by setting limits in relation to daily events such as meals, before and after school, and bedtime. Screen-viewing rules were often altered depending on parental preferences and tasks. Inconsistent messaging within and between parents represented a source of conflict at times. Potential strategies to facilitate reducing screen viewing were identified, including setting screen-viewing limits in relation to specific events, collaborative rule setting, monitoring that involves mothers, fathers and the child, developing a family-specific set of alternative activities to screen viewing and developing a child's ability to self-monitor their own screen viewing. Managing screen viewing is a challenge for many parents and can often cause tension in the home. The data presented in this paper provide key suggestions of new approaches that could be incorporated into behaviour change programmes to reduce child screen viewing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Teaching Parents Behavioral Strategies for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Effects on Stress, Strain, and Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadarola, Suzannah; Levato, Lynne; Harrison, Bryan; Smith, Tristram; Lecavalier, Luc; Johnson, Cynthia; Swiezy, Naomi; Bearss, Karen; Scahill, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    We report on parent outcomes from a randomized clinical trial of parent training (PT) versus psychoeducation (PEP) in 180 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disruptive behavior. We compare the impact of PT and PEP on parent outcomes: Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Parent Sense of Competence (PSOC), and Caregiver Strain Questionnaire…

  2. Attachment Theory and Maternal Drug Addiction: The Contribution to Parenting Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Children’s emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of f...

  3. Attachment Theory and Maternal Drug Addiction: The Contribution to Parenting Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Children's emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of fact, have identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-abusing mothers and their children. Many interventions for mothers with Substance Use Disorders have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother-infant bond. Instead, in recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs that address parenting and specifically focus on the mother-infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory.

  4. Coupling of replisome movement with nucleosome dynamics can contribute to the parent-daughter information transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bameta, Tripti; Das, Dibyendu; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2018-06-01

    Positioning of nucleosomes along the genomic DNA is crucial for many cellular processes that include gene regulation and higher order packaging of chromatin. The question of how nucleosome-positioning information from a parent chromatin gets transferred to the daughter chromatin is highly intriguing. Accounting for experimentally known coupling between replisome movement and nucleosome dynamics, we propose a model that can obtain de novo nucleosome assembly similar to what is observed in recent experiments. Simulating nucleosome dynamics during replication, we argue that short pausing of the replication fork, associated with nucleosome disassembly, can be a event crucial for communicating nucleosome positioning information from parent to daughter. We show that the interplay of timescales between nucleosome disassembly (τp) at the replication fork and nucleosome sliding behind the fork (τs) can give rise to a rich 'phase diagram' having different inherited patterns of nucleosome organization. Our model predicts that only when τp ≥ τs the daughter chromatin can inherit nucleosome positioning of the parent.

  5. Parents' strategies to elicit autobiographical memories in autism spectrum disorders, developmental language disorders and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD, n = 11). We focused on the prevalence of directives versus enrichment of events. Groups did not differ in number of events, length, and total turns. However, parents of children with ASD produced more direct questions, corrections, and unrelated turns than parents of TD children. Results highlight how parents adjusted their conversational style to their child's communication difficulties to maximize interactions and how these strategies may affect the development of personal conversations.

  6. Optimal Control and Operation Strategy for Wind Turbines Contributing to Grid Primary Frequency Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Kyeom Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a frequency regulation strategy to enable the participation of wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs. The optimal strategy focuses on developing the frequency support capability of PMSGs connected to the power system. Active power control is performed using maximum power point tracking (MPPT and de-loaded control to supply the required power reserve following a disturbance. A kinetic energy (KE reserve control is developed to enhance the frequency regulation capability of wind turbines. The coordination with the de-loaded control prevents instability in the PMSG wind system due to excessive KE discharge. A KE optimization method that maximizes the sum of the KE reserves at wind farms is also adopted to determine the de-loaded power reference for each PMSG wind turbine using the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control and operation strategy, three different case studies are conducted using the PSCAD/EMTDC simulation tool. The results demonstrate that the optimal strategy enhances the frequency support contribution from PMSG wind turbines.

  7. Measuring progress from nationally determined contributions to mid-century strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Gokul; Ledna, Catherine; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, James; McJeon, Haewon; Kyle, Page; Williams, James H.

    2017-12-01

    The Paris Agreement requires countries to articulate near-term emissions reduction strategies through to 2025 or 2030 by communicating nationally determined contributions (NDCs), as well as encouraging the formulation of long-term low-emission development strategies (Article 4.19)1. In response, many countries have either submitted or are preparing mid-century strategies2. Most NDCs set high-level near-term goals—such as limits on emissions or emissions intensity3—which do not provide information about the extent to which they lay the foundations of technology, infrastructure and institutions for deeper reductions in the future, which is a key question for decision makers. Here, using a state-level model of the US embedded within a global integrated assessment model4,5, we demonstrate that although the US NDC lies on a straight-line emissions pathway towards its mid-century strategy, the resulting energy system transitions involve nonlinear transformations. The rates of capacity additions and capital investments in electricity generation beyond 2025 are more than three times the rates during the next decade. Our results demonstrate the need for global stocktaking exercises to evaluate the NDCs using metrics broader than emissions to better illuminate their effectiveness in addressing the Paris Agreement's long-term goals6,7.

  8. Contributions of Neuroscience to Develop Teaching Strategies and Learning of Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Mogollón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to develop some strategies based on research in neurosciences that contribute to the teaching and learning of mathematics. The interrelationship of education with the brain, as well as the relationship of cerebral structures with mathematical thinking was discussed. Strategies were developed taking into consideration levels that include cognitive, semiotic, language, affect and the overcoming of phobias to the subject. The fundamental conclusion was the imperative educational requirement in the near future of a new teacher, whose pedagogic formation must include the knowledge on the cerebral function, its structures and its implications to education, as well as a change in pedagogy and curricular structure in the teaching of mathematics.

  9. Corporate Initiatives and Strategies to Meet the Environmental Challenges – Contributions Towards a Green Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ogrean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to emphasize, based on an interdisciplinary and multi-level approach, on the actual and potential contributions of businesses towards a green economic development - through the positive integration of the environmental challenges within their initiatives and strategies. The main objectives that the paper will target in order to accomplish this mission are: (1. to outline the general framework of the green economic development; (2. to identify the specific environmental challenges businesses could and have to address in order to support the green economic development; (3. to analyze particular initiatives and strategies which have been successfully developed by companies aiming at internalizing the environmental imperative - and to argue in favor of a new business model, able to end, through the green economic development, a virtuous circle of co-evolution between businesses and the environment.

  10. Negotiating a new day: parents' contributions to supporting students' school functioning after exposure to trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Grell; Røkholt E; Schultz JH; Langballe Å

    2016-01-01

    Eline Grelland Røkholt,1 Jon-Håkon Schultz,2,3 Åse Langballe2 1Department of Allied Health, Bereavement Support Center, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, 2Norwegian Center for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Oslo, 3Department of Education, University of Tromsø, the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Abstract: Parents are advised to get their children back to school soon after exposure to trauma, so that they may receive social su...

  11. The Contribution of the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System (DPICS) Warm-Up Segments in Assessing Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Jenelle R.; Niec, Larissa N.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the inclusion of uncoded segments in the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System, an analogue observation of parent-child interactions. The relationships between warm-up and coded segments were assessed, as well as the segments' associations with parent ratings of parent and child behaviors. Sixty-nine non-referred…

  12. Eating difficulties and parental feeding strategies during and after childhood cancer treatment: The experiences of parents. : A systematic literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe, Kaat

    2017-01-01

    Childhood cancer is a life-threatening disease with a profound impact on the family. Treatment side-effects and accompanied dietary difficulties are for example severe stressors, as appropriate nutrition is important for the treatment success and quality of life. In addition, (unhealthy) dietary patterns established in childhood tend to maintain in survivors. Parents are key players in feeding and establishing these pat-terns, though, systematic research on how parents experience these dietar...

  13. Quality of life among pediatric patients with cancer: Contributions of time since diagnosis and parental chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Taralee; Latzman, Robert D; Latzman, Natasha E; Elkin, T David; Majumdar, Suvankar

    2015-07-01

    Pediatric cancer is associated with a host of negative psychosocial consequences; however, outcomes vary extensively suggesting a need to better understand this variation. Empirical research suggests a positive association between time since diagnosis (TSD) and Quality of Life (QoL). In addition to TSD, family stressors have been found to be particularly important in predicting QoL among children. The current study examined parental chronic stress beyond TSD in explanation of QoL functioning among a sample of pediatric patients with cancer. Participants included 43 pediatric patients aged 5-18 years (M(age) = 10.2 ± 3.6) who were undergoing oncological treatment. Parents reported on TSD, child's QoL, and their own chronic stress. TSD was associated with greater physical functioning (r = 0.30, P stress was associated with poorer emotional (r = -0.54, P stress contributed incrementally beyond TSD in the explanation of physical (β = -0.37, t = -2.58, P stress is associated with reduced levels of emotional, physical, and social functioning among pediatric patients. Future research is needed to further investigate the process by which chronic stress within the family interferes with adaptive coping among pediatric patients. In addition, clinical services may benefit from increased consideration of family factors, such as parental chronic stress, during oncological treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fatherhood and Intimate Partner Violence: Bringing the Parenting Role into Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith; Morgos, Dorothy

    2013-08-01

    A large percentage of men who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) are fathers who continue to live with or have visitation with their children. Yet, providers rarely consider that fathers who perpetrate IPV may benefit from a parent-child focused intervention. Therapeutic work with men, who perpetrate IPV, especially with their children, is complex with issues of child safety taking precedence. This article is meant to provide: 1) a rationale for considering father-child intervention in the context of IPV; 2) specific strategies for assessment; 3) guidelines for determining if a father is appropriate for such intervention; and 4) a review of treatment approaches that have been developed that may assist clinicians in work with this population.

  15. Practitioner review: When parent training doesn't work: theory-driven clinical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Dadds, Mark R

    2009-12-01

    Improving the parent-child relationship by using strategies based on social learning theory has become the cornerstone for the treatment of conduct problems in children. Over the past 40 years, interventions have expanded greatly from small, experimental procedures to substantial, systematic programmes that provide clear guidelines in detailed manuals on how practitioners should implement the standardised treatments. They are now widely disseminated and there is a great deal of empirical support that they are very effective for the majority of cases. However, evaluations of even the best of these evidence-based programmes show that a quarter to a third of families and their children do not benefit. What does the practitioner then do, when a standard social learning approach, diligently applied, doesn't work? We argue that under these circumstances, some of the major theories of child development, family functioning and individual psychology can help the skilled practitioner think his or her way through complex clinical situations. This paper describes a set of practical strategies that can then be flexibly applied, based on a systematic theoretical analysis. We hold that social learning theory remains the core of effective parent training interventions, but that ideas from attachment theory, structural family systems theory, cognitive-attribution theory, and shared empowerment/motivational interviewing can each, according to the nature of the difficulty, greatly enrich the practitioner's ability to help bring about change in families who are stuck. We summarise each of these models and present practical examples of when and how they may help the clinician plan treatment.

  16. Perceived Parental Barriers to and Strategies for Supporting Physical Activity and Healthy Eating among Head Start Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; B Robbins, Lorraine; Hines-Martin, Vicki

    2016-06-01

    Despite the need for parents to support their children's healthy behaviors, knowledge of factors preventing parents from doing so is still rudimentary. This study primarily aimed to explore perceived parental barriers to and strategies for supporting physical activity and healthy eating among Head Start children. A semi-structured interview format was used with four focus groups conducted at two urban Head Start centers in the Midwestern U.S. A qualitative content analysis of audio-recorded sessions was facilitated using ATLAS.ti7. A convenience sample of 32 parents (Mage = 34.97 years) participated. Over half were female (78.1 %), African Americans (65.6 %), and single (65.6 %). About 61.3 % reported an annual family income parent): lack of time and cooking skills and a tight family budget; and (3) environmental: inaccessible programs, lack of age-appropriate education, electronic media use, and unsafe environment. Parents across all groups expressed high interest in enrolling in a program with their children. Recommendations included: parents' support team; family outings at parks; taking a walk or enrolling in a class with children; and planting a garden. Many parents showed their preference for face-to-face meetings and a support group, but repulsion of counseling. To promote parental support in future interventions with Head Start children, their perceived intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental barriers should be considered as intervention targets. Involving parents through a support group and face-to-face meetings is recommended.

  17. The Role of Coping Strategies in Predicting Change in Parenting Efficacy and Depressive Symptoms among Mothers of Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, A. C.; Hauser-Cram, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) face greater caregiving demands than parents of children without DD. There is considerable variability in parents' adjustment to raising a child with DD, however. In line with a strengths-based approach, this study explores coping strategies as potential mechanisms of resilience…

  18. Knowledge transfer in the field of parental mental illness: objectives, effective strategies, indicators of success, and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems are often transmitted from one generation to the next. However, transferring knowledge about interventions that reduce intergenerational transmission of disease to the field of parental mental illness has been very difficult. One of the most critical issues in mental health services research is the gap between what is generally known about effective treatment and what is provided to consumers in routine care. In this article we discuss several aspects of knowledge transfer in the field of parental mental illness. Effective strategies and implementation prerequisites are explored, and we also discuss indicators of success and sustainability. Altogether, this article presents a rationale for the importance of preventive strategies for children of mentally ill parents. Furthermore, the discussion shows how complex it is to change clinical practice.

  19. Parents' Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD,…

  20. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  1. Parental attitudes and personality traits, self-efficacy, stress, and coping strategies among mothers of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Development of children with cerebral palsy (CP depends on the quality of parental care. The aim of the research was to compare parenting attitudes in mothers of children with CP to mothers of typically developing children, and to study the relationship between parenting attitudes and personality traits, stress, coping strategies and self-efficacy in mothers of children with CP. Participants and procedure Twenty-seven mothers of children with cerebral palsy (MCCP (mean age 35.50 years, SD = 4.83 and twenty-eight mothers (mean age 35.60 years, SD = 4.27 of typically developing children (MTDC participated in this study. Each parent had a child between the ages of two and seven years. A battery of tests was administered to both groups, which included the Parenting Attitudes Scale (SPR, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES, and the COPE Inventory. Also, maternal stress and the amount of social support received were assessed. Results Although acceptance was the most common parental attitude among all participants, mothers of children with CP presented with a stronger tendency towards overprotective and demanding attitudes. MCCP obtained higher scores in neuroticism and lower in openness compared to MTDC. Furthermore, MCCP declared a higher level of distress than MTDC. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups of mothers regarding self-efficacy, the level of social support or the most often used coping strategies. Neuroticism was found to be the best predictor of overprotective and demanding parental attitudes. Conclusions The study emphasises the importance of parenting programmes for mothers with children with CP to promote the development of autonomy among children with developmental difficulties.

  2. Are Big Food's corporate social responsibility strategies valuable to communities? A qualitative study with parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Zoe; Phillipson, Lyn

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have identified parents and children as two target groups whom Big Food hopes to positively influence through its corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies. The current preliminary study aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of parents and children's awareness and interpretation of Big Food's CSR strategies to understand how CSR shapes their beliefs about companies. Community-based qualitative semi-structured interviews. New South Wales, Australia. Parents (n 15) and children aged 8-12 years (n 15). Parents and children showed unprompted recognition of CSR activities when shown McDonald's and Coca-Cola brand logos, indicating a strong level of association between the brands and activities that target the settings of children. When discussing CSR strategies some parents and most children saw value in the activities, viewing them as acts of merit or worth. For some parents and children, the companies' CSR activities were seen as a reflection of the company's moral attributes, which resonated with their own values of charity and health. For others, CSR strategies were in conflict with companies' core business. Finally, some also viewed the activities as harmful, representing a deceit of the public and a smokescreen for the companies' ultimately unethical behaviour. A large proportion of participants valued the CSR activities, signalling that denormalising CSR to sever the strong ties between the community and Big Food will be a difficult process for the public health community. Efforts to gain public acceptance for action on CSR may need greater levels of persuasion to gain public support of a comprehensive and restrictive approach.

  3. Top-Management Decision Making and Strategies : An Approach to a Theory of Leadership-Initiated Strategies(General Contribution)

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 東久夫; Tokuo, FUJITA; 株式会社サトー; Sato Corporation

    2006-01-01

    The article clarifies the relationship between top-management decisions and strategies. Whereas prior theoretical treatments of top-management strategies are both logical and managerial, the author recognizes the ad hoc nature of top-management decisions, which rely upon intuition and inspiration, and proposes a theory of strategies that emerge through top-management leadership. This theory of leadership-initiated strategies sees a balance between leadership and management functions as essent...

  4. Board members’ contribution to strategy: The mediating role of board internal processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Barroso-Castro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore what directors do on the board, to what extent the processes occurring in the board allow the sharing and integrating of the existing knowledge, thus facilitating the board members’ contributions to strategy. We adopt the view that the internal board processes increase the impact of the cognitive resources on board performance. Using survey data from 200 large Spanish companies we demonstrate that directors’ level of knowledge of the firm and board job-related diversity positively influence the degree of the board's strategic involvement. Additionally, the internal processes that take place within the board – particularly Cognitive Conflict, the Critical and Independent Approach and the Comprehensive Discussion Process – influence the board's strategic involvement and play a partial mediating role on the aforementioned relationships. However, our results show no evidence for a positive relationship between Board Meeting Dynamics and the board's strategic involvement.

  5. Contribution to the Optimization of Strategy of Maintenance by Lean Six Sigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssouf, Ayadi; Rachid, Chaib; Ion, Verzea

    The efficiency of the maintenance of the industrial systems is a major economic stake for their business concern. The main difficulties and the sources of ineffectiveness live in the choice of the actions of maintenance especially when the machine plays a vital role in the process of production. But as Algeria has embarked on major infrastructure projects in transport, housing, automobile, manufacturing industry and construction (factories, housing, highway, subway, tram, etc.) requiring new implications on maintenance strategies that meet industry requirements imposed by the exploitation. From then on and seen the importance of the maintenance on the economic market and sound impacts on the performances of the installations, methods of optimization were developed. For this purpose, to ensure the survival of businesses, be credible, contributing and competitive in the market, maintenance services must continually adapt to the progress of technical areas, technological and organizational even help maintenance managers to construct or to modify maintenance strategies, objective of this work. Our contribution in this work focuses on the optimization of maintenance for industrial systems by the use of Lean six Sigma bases. Lean Six Sigma is a method of improving the quality and profitability based on mastering statically of process and it is also a management style that based on a highly regulated organization dedicated to managing project. The method is based on five main steps summarized in the acronym (DMAIC): Define Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. Application of the method on the maintenance processes with using maintenance methods during the five phases of the method will help to reduce costs and losses in order to strive for optimum results in terms of profit and quality.

  6. Parenting stress, coping strategies and risk assessment in mothers from at-risk families assisted by Child and Family Protection Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pérez Padilla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study parenting stress and coping strategies in a sample of 109 mothers from at-risk families were analyzed. Results obtained show over half of these women experienced clinical levels of parenting stress, and problem focused coping strategies were the most commonly used. Moreover, the main characteristics of these families and their trajectories in Child and Family Protection Services were correlated with parenting stress and coping strategies. The global valuation of family risk informed by professionals was significantly related to parenting stress.

  7. Drought response strategies define the relative contributions of hydraulic dysfunction and carbohydrate depletion during tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick J; O'Grady, Anthony P; Tissue, David T; White, Donald A; Ottenschlaeger, Maria L; Pinkard, Elizabeth A

    2013-02-01

    Plant survival during drought requires adequate hydration in living tissues and carbohydrate reserves for maintenance and recovery. We hypothesized that tree growth and hydraulic strategy determines the intensity and duration of the 'physiological drought', thereby affecting the relative contributions of loss of hydraulic function and carbohydrate depletion during mortality. We compared patterns in growth rate, water relations, gas exchange and carbohydrate dynamics in three tree species subjected to prolonged drought. Two Eucalyptus species (E. globulus, E. smithii) exhibited high growth rates and water-use resulting in rapid declines in water status and hydraulic conductance. In contrast, conservative growth and water relations in Pinus radiata resulted in longer periods of negative carbon balance and significant depletion of stored carbohydrates in all organs. The ongoing demand for carbohydrates from sustained respiration highlighted the role that duration of drought plays in facilitating carbohydrate consumption. Two drought strategies were revealed, differentiated by plant regulation of water status: plants maximized gas exchange, but were exposed to low water potentials and rapid hydraulic dysfunction; and tight regulation of gas exchange at the cost of carbohydrate depletion. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between hydraulic regulation of water status and carbohydrate depletion during terminal drought. © 2012 CSIRO. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Parent Involvement in Urban Charter Schools: New Strategies for Increasing Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joanna; Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Kuzin, Chuan Ally; De Pedro, Kris

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research point to the benefits of parent involvement in education. However, research has also shown that White, middle-class parents are disproportionately involved. Charter schools, as schools of choice, have been assumed to have fewer involvement barriers for minority and low-income parents, but a 2007 survey of charter leaders found…

  9. But is this really the 'parent' or 'guardian'? Practical strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research ethics committees (RECs) in South Africa may require consent from a parent or legal guardian for child research. In instances where an REC determines that parental or guardianship consent is required, how far should researchers go to establish if the accompanying adult is in fact the parent or guardian? Should ...

  10. Parental Engagement Strategies in Greek and Nigerian Preschool Settings: Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentzou, Konstantina; Ekine, Adefunke

    2017-01-01

    Acknowledging the fact that parental engagement is more beneficial during early childhood compared to other developmental stages many countries have institutionalised parental engagement. In Nigeria, the government has taken initiatives in order to involve parents in their child's development by encouraging the establishment of School Management…

  11. Parenting Style as a Moderator of Associations between Maternal Disciplinary Strategies and Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Anne C.; Walls, Jill K.; Cook, Emily C.; Madison, Karis J.; Bridges, Tracey H.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigate whether parental use of punitive discipline and yielding to coercion varies in levels and associated child outcomes for mothers with different parenting styles. Participants were fourth-grade children (N = 370) and their mothers. Maternal parenting style was determined based on levels of responsiveness and demandingness.…

  12. Pain experiences and non-pharmacological strategies for pain management after tonsillectomy: a qualitative interview study of children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idvall, Ewa; Holm, Charlotta; Runeson, Ingrid

    2005-09-01

    Tonsillectomy is one of the most common paediatric surgical procedures. This study aimed to investigate children's experience of pain and the nonpharmacological strategies that they used to manage pain after tonsillectomy. A further aim was to investigate parental views on these same phenomena. Six children (aged seven to 18 years) and their parents (four mothers and two fathers) were interviewed separately on the day after tonsillectomy. The data were analysed using a qualitative approach. Pain experiences were divided into the categories of physiological pain and psychological pain. Children rated their 'worst pain' during the past 24 hours between 6 and 10 (visual analogue scale, 0-10). The non-pharmacological strategies used most frequently to manage pain were thermal regulation (physical method) and distraction (cognitive-behavioural method) according to the framework used. Specific non-pharmacological strategies for pain management relative to different surgical procedures need to be considered.

  13. Staff perceptions of challenging parent-staff interactions and beneficial strategies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joshua; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Collin, Marc; Martin, Richard J

    2018-01-01

    To characterise neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) staff perceptions regarding factors which may lead to more challenging staff-parent interactions, and beneficial strategies for working with families with whom such interactions occur. A survey of 168 physician and nursing staff at two NICUs in American teaching hospitals inquired about their perceptions of challenging parent-staff interactions and situations in which such interactions were likely to occur. From a medical perspective, staff perceptions of challenging interactions were noted when infants had recent decompensation, high medical complexity, malformations or long duration of stay in the NICU. From a psychological/social perspective, a high likelihood of challenging interactions was noted with parents who were suspicious, interfere with equipment, or parents who hover in the NICU, express paranoid or delusional thoughts, repeat questions, perceive the staff as inaccessible, are managing addictions, or who require child protective services involvement. Frequent family meetings, grieving opportunities, education of parents, social work referrals, clearly defined rules, partnering in daily care and support groups were perceived as the most beneficial strategies for improving difficult interactions. This study delineates what staff perceive as challenging interactions and provides support for an educational and interventional role that incorporates mental health professionals. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Adolescents', mothers', and fathers' gendered coping strategies during conflict: Youth and parent influences on conflict resolution and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-11-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle- to upper-middle-class, predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11-16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning, including normative, subclinical, and clinical levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a 2-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, (i.e., more problem solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers). Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents' coping across the discussion except boys' initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers' angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over 2 years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as on how these processes impact youth well-being and dysfunction over time.

  15. Parental and offspring contribution of genetic markers of adult blood pressure in early life: The FAMILY study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Robiou-du-Pont

    Full Text Available Previous genome wide association studies (GWAS identified associations of multiple common variants with diastolic and systolic blood pressure traits in adults. However, the contribution of these loci to variations of blood pressure in early life is unclear. We assessed the child and parental contributions of 33 GWAS single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for blood pressure in 1,525 participants (515 children, 406 mothers and 237 fathers of the Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In early life (FAMILY study followed-up for 5 years. Two genotype scores for systolic (29 SNPs and diastolic (24 SNPs blood pressure were built. Linear mixed-effect regressions showed significant association between rs1378942 in CSK and systolic blood pressure (β = 0.98±0.46, P = 3.4×10-2. The child genotype scores for diastolic and systolic blood pressure were not associated in children. Nominally significant parental genetic effects were found between the SNPs rs11191548 (CYP17A1 (paternal, β = 2.78±1.49, P = 6.1×10-2 for SBP and β = 3.60±1.24, P = 3.7×10-3 for DBP, rs17367504 (MTHFR (paternal, β = 2.42±0.93, P = 9.3×10-3 for SBP and β = 1.89±0.80, P = 1.8×10-2 for DBP and maternal, β = -1.32±0.60, P = 2.9×10-2 and β = -1.97±0.77, P = 1.0×10-2, for SBP and DBP respectively and child blood pressure. Our study supports the view that adult GWAS loci have a limited impact on blood pressure during the five first years of life. The parental genetic effects observed on blood pressure in children may suggest epigenetic mechanisms in the transmission of the risk of hypertension. Further replication is needed to confirm our results.

  16. Differences and Agreement in Perception of Child Picky Eating Among Center- and Home-Based Childcare Providers and Parents and Its Impact on Utilized Mealtime Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Luchini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Picky eating is a problematic eating behavior caregivers may encounter with children under their care. A picky eater (PE is typically characterized as consuming a narrow range of food, as well as rejecting several food items. Much of the literature regarding PEs involves parents, although use of nonparental childcare arrangements in the United States has increased in the past several decades. Although data on parental mealtime strategies exist, little is known about how parent and childcare provider pickiness perceptions differ between types of childcare, such as center-based childcare (CBCC and home-based childcare (HBCC, or how these perceptions influence the mealtime strategies utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1 compare perceptions of child pickiness between parents and childcare providers, (2 compare percent agreement in pickiness perception between the dyads of CBCC parents and providers and HBCC parents and providers, and (3 identify mealtime strategy utilization based on pickiness perception. A total of 52 child, parent, and childcare provider triads participated in the study and completed the Mealtime Assessment Survey and the Parent/Teacher Mealtime Strategy Survey regarding the same child. Results showed that parents are 1.4 times more likely than childcare providers to perceive a child as being picky, HBCC parents and providers are 1.4 times more likely to perceive a child as being picky than CBCC parents and providers, CBCC parents and providers disagree more in their perception of child pickiness than HBCC parents and providers (41% vs 26%, and finally, perception of child pickiness has a greater influence on mealtime strategies utilized by parents. These results can be used to focus intervention efforts aimed at improving child eating habits across the home and childcare location.

  17. Family environment and adult resilience: contributions of positive parenting and the oxytocin receptor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekh Bradley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abundant research shows that childhood adversity increases the risk for adult psychopathology while research on influences of positive family environment on risk for psychopathology is limited. Similarly, a growing body of research examines genetic and gene by environment predictors of psychopathology, yet such research on predictors of resilience is sparse. Objectives: We examined the role of positive factors in childhood family environment (CFE and the OXTR rs53576 genotype in predicting levels of adult resilient coping and positive affect. We also examined whether the relationship between positive factors in the CFEs and adult resilient coping and positive affect varied across OXTR rs53576 genotype. Methods: We gathered self-report data on childhood environment, trauma history, and adult resilience and positive affect in a sample of 971 African American adults. Results: We found that positive CFE was positively associated with higher levels of resilient coping and positive affect in adulthood after controlling for childhood maltreatment, other trauma, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. We did not find a direct effect of OXTR 53576 on a combined resilient coping/positive-affect-dependent variable, but we did find an interaction of OXTR rs53576 with family environment. Conclusions: Our data suggest that even in the face of adversity, positive aspects of the family environment may contribute to resilience. These results highlight the importance of considering protective developmental experiences and the interaction of such experiences with genetic variants in risk and resilience research.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  18. [Perception of parental socialization strategies in adoptive and non-adoptive families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernedo Muñoz, Isabel María; Fuentes Rebollo, María Jesús; Fernández-Molina, M; Bersabé Morán, Rosa

    2007-11-01

    Although parental socialization styles have been investigated in recent years, little research has been carried out on the issue of parental styles in adoptive families. The aim of this research is to analyse parental styles both from the point of view of the parents and of adopted and non-adopted adolescents, taking as covariables the adolescents' sex and age. The sample was made up of 55 adopted adolescents (20 boys and 35 girls with an age range of 11-17 years) and their 55 adoptive parents, and 402 non-adopted adolescents (200 boys and 202 girls with an age range of 11-17 years), and their 258 parents. Two scales evaluated parental styles: the Affect Scale and the Rules and Demands Scale. The results showed that, both from the point of view of the parents and of the adolescents, adoptive families are more affective, communicative and inductive, and less critical and indulgent than non-adoptive families. No differences were found between adopted and non-adopted adolescents on the Parents' Rigidity Scale.

  19. Adolescents’, Mothers’, and Fathers’ Gendered Coping Strategies during Conflict: Youth and Parent Influences on Conflict Resolution and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle-to-upper-middle class predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11–16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning including normative (~1/3) sub-clinical (~1/3) and clinical (~1/3) levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a two-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, i.e. more problem-solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers. Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents’ coping across the discussion except boys’ initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers’ angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over two years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as how these processes impact on youth well-being and dysfunction over time. PMID:26439060

  20. Evidence for an Evolutionary Cheater Strategy--Relationships Between Primary and Secondary Psychopathy, Parenting, and Shame and Guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Minna T

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, shame and guilt proneness were investigated in relation to primary and secondary psychopathy, looking at parental care as a possible mediator. A sample of 388 volunteers participated in an on-line study, completing several self-report measurements. Primary psychopathy, robust to parental care and sex of the participant, was associated with lower guilt proneness after a private transgression and lower negative self-evaluations after a public transgression. Secondary psychopathy was not associated with guilt or shame proneness. Paternal care played a mediating role between primary psychopathy and guilt, but only in male participants. High paternal care was associated with lower guilt repair in high psychopathy males, suggesting that a positive father-son relationship might be essential for development of exploitive strategies in primary psychopathy. The results highlight the fundamental differences between primary and secondary psychopathy, and provide support for the idea that primary psychopathy is an evolutionary cheater-strategy.

  1. Obtaining waivers of parental consent: A strategy endorsed by gay, bisexual, and queer adolescent males for health prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Dalmacio; McKinney, Ross; Arscott, Joyell; Barroso, Julie

    Requiring parental consent in studies with sexual minority youth (SMY) can sometimes be problematic as participants may have yet to disclose their sexual orientation, may not feel comfortable asking parents' permission, and may promote a self-selection bias. We discuss rationale for waiving parental consent, strategies to secure waivers from review boards, and present participants' feedback on research without parents' permission. We share our institutional review board proposal in which we made a case that excluding SMY from research violates ethical research principles, does not recognize their autonomy, and limits collection of sexuality data. Standard consent policies may inadvertently exclude youth who are at high risk for negative health outcomes or may potentially put them at risk because of forced disclosure of sexual orientation. Securing a waiver addresses these concerns and allows for rich data, which is critical for providers to have a deeper understanding of their unique sexual health needs. To properly safeguard and encourage research informed by SMY, parental consent waivers may be necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategies for parenting by mothers and fathers with a mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, Peter; van Busschbach, J.T.; Nicholson, J.; Korevaar, L.; van Weeghel, J.

    2016-01-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The combination of coping with their mental health problems and caring for children makes parents vulnerable. Family-centred practice can help to maintain and strengthen important family relationships, and to identify and enhance the strengths of a parent with a mental

  3. Using Active Listening to Improve Collaboration with Parents: The LAFF Don't CRY Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, David; Vostal, Brooks R.

    2010-01-01

    Effective parent-teacher communication builds working relationships that can support strong home-school collaboration and improved educational outcomes. Even though many teachers value the participation of parents, it can be challenging to communicate this positive intent. Effective communication is central to authentic collaboration and relies on…

  4. Challenges and coping strategies of parents of children with autism on the Kenyan coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gona, J. K.; Newton, C. R.; Rimba, K. K.; Mapenzi, R.; Kihara, M.; Vijver, F. V.; Abubakar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Research on the challenges of raising a child with autism is mostly conducted in Europe, North America and Australia, and has revealed that parents have to come to terms with living with a lifelong developmental disability. In addition, parents are faced with numerous concerns, such as

  5. Less than Optimal Parenting Strategies Predict Maternal Low-Level Depression beyond that of Child Transgressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; d'Entremont, Marc-Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between less than optimal parenting styles, child transgressions and maternal depression were examined. It was predicted that variations in parenting styles would predict maternal depression over and above child transgressions. The present study involved approximately 68 children, their mothers and their preschool teachers.…

  6. Information Management Strategies within Conversations about Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations with Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current…

  7. Hush Now Baby: Mothers’ and Fathers’ Strategies for Soothing Their Infants and Associated Parenting Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Carolyn Joy; Walsh, Tova B.; Oh, Wonjung; Volling, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the types of soothing behaviors used by mothers and fathers of infants, differences in use trajectories over time, and associated parenting outcomes. Methods Longitudinal study of 241 families expecting their second child. Data were collected at 1, 4 and 8 postnatal months and included measures of parental soothing techniques, involvement in soothing, distress in response to infant crying, and parenting self-efficacy. Results Average number of soothing techniques used was 7.7 for mothers and 5.9 for fathers. Soothing frequency decreased over time and change patterns of soothing differed over time by gender. In couples who shared responsibility for soothing fathers felt more efficacious in parenting and mothers were less upset by infant crying. Discussion Clinicians are encouraged to support fathers’ engagement in infant soothing, to facilitate the development of fathers’ parenting confidence, and to promote fathers’ involvement in children’s health and healthcare. PMID:25440811

  8. Parental perception and factors associated with treatment strategies for primary nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Thomson T; Tai, Brent T; Chang, Yu-Jun; Huang, Kuo-Hsuan

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to investigate the factors influencing parents seeking reasonable managements for their child and their overall outlook toward primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE). We recruited 93 children with PNE from enuresis clinics and requested their parents to complete questionnaires regarding their child's medical history and behavior, their methods for coping with PNE, and their perception of enuresis. Logistic regression models were applied to investigate factors influencing the parents to adopt a positive approach toward enuresis and to subsequently seek a medical consultation. One-third of the parents had an encouraging attitude toward children with PNE, whereas slightly less than half reacted with anger. The more educated the father or the younger the child with NE, the larger the possibility of the parents utilizing a positive approach, such as encouragement, for coping with NE. Factors that influenced parents to seek medical consultation for NE were socioeconomic status, maternal educational level, and the age and birth order of their child. From our results, angry and frustrated parents (43.0%) were significantly more likely to punish their child for bedwetting than were parents who approached NE positively (comfort and encouragement; 33.3%). A lack of encouragement may negatively affect the self-esteem of children with NE. Moreover, an individual's self-esteem or confidence, both of which can help them eliminate NE, determines the person's behavioral response to bedwetting. In our study, approximately 50% of the parents who approached NE positively (comfort and encouragement) or inconsistently (ambivalence) reported that they comforted their child after bedwetting. Nearly half the parents reacted angrily to children with NE, and some parents even punished their child. The parents' socioeconomic background, education, and the age and birth order of the child were the factors associated with their seeking active treatment for NE. A father's education and

  9. The Traveller Fórum : An Advice-seeking Site Contributing to the Construction of Parental Social Actors and to On-line Parental Bond Creations

    OpenAIRE

    Dolón Herrero, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how parental social actors and co-parental relationships are interactively constructed in traveller forums, analysing a corpus obtained from the London for Kids Trip Advisor forum, and carrying out a qualitative study of the interactants¿ uses of kids in their choice of transitivity patterns. Starting from a Critical Discourse Analytical methodological framework and from corpus-driven research, I address the question of how participants are endowed with authority and legiti...

  10. Attachment styles, grief responses, and the moderating role of coping strategies in parents bereaved by the Sewol ferry accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background : Previous studies on the influence of different types of attachment on grief responses have yielded contradictory outcomes. Little research has been conducted to identify the psychological processes that moderate the relationship between attachment representations and patterns of grief in disaster-related grief. Objective : The present study examines the effects of different attachment types on the grief responses of parents bereaved by loss of a child in a ferry accident, along with the moderating role of coping strategies. Methods : Bereaved parents ( n  = 81) completed self-report questionnaires evaluating attachment, coping strategies, complicated grief, and shame/guilt. We performed correlational analyses to examine the associations among variables. We also conducted hierarchical regression analyses and simple slope analyses to examine the moderation effects of coping strategies. Results : Anxious attachment was associated with severe shame/guilt, and avoidant attachment correlated with complicated grief. Anxious attachment was positively associated with all types of coping strategies, and avoidant attachment was negatively related to problem- and emotion-focused coping. The use of problem-focused coping strategies was a significant moderator of the relationship between the avoidant attachment dimension and shame/guilt. Avoidant attachment had a significant effect on shame/guilt in groups with a high level of problem-focused coping. In contrast, none of the coping strategies significantly moderated the relationship between anxious attachment and grief response. Conclusions : The results suggest that people with highly avoidant attachment might be overwhelmed by shame and guilt when they try to use problem-focused coping strategies. This finding suggests that grief interventions should be organized with consideration of individual differences in attachment representations.

  11. The Drift toward Problem Behavior during the Transition to Adolescence: The Contributions of Youth Disclosure, Parenting, and Older Siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Sabina; Snyder, James; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2011-01-01

    Prospective associations of mothers’ parenting processes, youth disclosure and youth problem behavior were examined in a longitudinal design following 244 adolescent sibling dyads over a three year period. For both siblings, authoritative parenting was positively associated with youth disclosure and negatively related to problem behavior, and coercive parenting was negatively associated with youth disclosure and positively related to problem behavior. When the influence of olde...

  12. "Snooping" as a Distinct Parental Monitoring Strategy: Comparisons With Overt Solicitation and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Skyler T; Becht, Andrik; Branje, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Parents can use solicitation (asking questions) and control (disclosure rules) to obtain information about adolescents, but only if youths comply. Snooping might uncover additional information, but also strongly violates privacy expectations. Three studies of parents and adolescents examined distinctions between snooping, solicitation, and control. Differences existed in terms of factor structure and frequency (Studies 1-2), links to perceived invasion (Study 1), correlations with problematic communication, behavior, and relationships (Study 2), and parent-adolescent (dis)agreement about acceptability (Study 3). Snooping is a relatively infrequent monitoring behavior, compared to solicitation and control, but appears to be a stronger indicator of problems in adolescent and family functioning. We discuss implications regarding the necessity and appropriateness of particular parental monitoring behaviors. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  13. Engaging Parents in Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme as Part of England's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy: Lessons for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Mairi Ann; Davis, Liz; Lindsay, Geoff; Davis, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Based on 65 interviews with professionals and parents conducted during 2007-2008, this 16-month, mainly qualitative evaluation of Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme (a preventative initiative within England's teenage pregnancy strategy) found that a community development approach and an ethos of partnership with parents and…

  14. A Pilot Study of the Feasibility and Efficacy of the Strategies to Enhance Positive Parenting (STEPP) Program for Single Mothers of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Flammer-Rivera, Lizette M.; Pelham, William E.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran W.; Visweswaraiah, Hema; Swanger-Gagne, Michelle; Girio, Erin L.; Pirvics, Lauma L.; Herbst, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The Strategies to Enhance Positive Parenting (STEPP) program was developed to address putative factors related to poor engagement in and outcomes following traditional behavioral parent training (BPT) for single mothers of children diagnosed with ADHD. Method: Twelve single mothers of children with ADHD were enrolled in an initial…

  15. The relationship between gambling attitudes, involvement, and problems in adolescence: Examining the moderating role of coping strategies and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Ramsay W; Youssef, George J; Hasking, Penelope; Yücel, Murat; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A

    2016-07-01

    Several factors are associated with an increased risk of adolescent problem gambling, including positive gambling attitudes, higher levels of gambling involvement, ineffective coping strategies and unhelpful parenting practices. It is less clear, however, how these factors interact or influence each other in the development of problem gambling behavior during adolescence. The aim of the current study was to simultaneously explore these predictors, with a particular focus on the extent to which coping skills and parenting styles may moderate the expected association between gambling involvement and gambling problems. Participants were 612 high school students. The data were analyzed using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression model, controlling for gender. Although several variables predicted the number of symptoms associated with problem gambling, none of them predicted the probability of displaying any problem gambling. Gambling involvement fully mediated the relationship between positive gambling attitudes and gambling problem severity. There was a significant relationship between gambling involvement and problems at any level of problem focused coping, reference to others and inconsistent discipline. However, adaptive coping styles employed by adolescents and consistent disciplinary practices by parents were buffers of gambling problems at low levels of adolescent gambling involvement, but failed to protect adolescents when their gambling involvement was high. These findings indicate that research exploring the development of gambling problems is required and imply that coping and parenting interventions may have particular utility for adolescents who are at risk of development gambling problems but who are not gambling frequently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Medical benefits in young Norwegians and their parents, and the contribution of family health and socioeconomic status. The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Kristine; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; De Ridder, Karin A A; Westin, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Krokstad, Steinar

    2013-07-01

    Family and intergenerational perspectives might contribute to a better understanding of why young people in many European countries experience work impairment and end up being dependent on public benefits for life sustenance. The aim of this cohort study was to explore the relationship between the receipt of medical benefits in parents and their young adult offspring and the contributions of family health and family socioeconomic status. Baseline information on the health of 7597 adolescents and their parents who participated in the HUNT Study 1995-1997 was linked to national registers to identify long-term receipt of medical benefits for parents (1992-1997) and adolescents as they entered adulthood (1998-2008). We used logistic regression to explore the association between parent and offspring receipt of medical benefits, adjusting for family health and socioeconomic status. Among adolescents, 13% received medical benefits from age 20-29. Adolescents whose parents had received medical benefits (26%) were more likely to receive such benefits themselves from age 20-29 compared with adolescents without benefit-receiving parents (age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.16, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.86-2.49). Adjustment for family health reduced this estimate considerably (to OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.38-1.99), whereas adjustment for family socioeconomic status had less impact. Adolescents whose parents receive medical benefits enter adult working life with an elevated risk of health-related work exclusion. Family health vulnerability appears to be a key to understanding this association, suggesting that more attention to intergenerational continuities of health could be a way to prevent welfare dependence in future generations.

  17. Engaging Foster Parents in Treatment: A Randomized Trial of Supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Evidence-based Engagement Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D.; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and ...

  18. The contribution of perceived parental support to the career self-efficacy of deaf, hard-of-hearing, and hearing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rinat; Most, Tova; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the contribution of different types of parental support to career self-efficacy among 11th and 12th grade students (N = 160): 66 students with hearing loss (23 hard of hearing and 43 deaf) and 94 hearing students. Participants completed the Career-Related Parent Support Scale, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-Efficacy for the Management of Work-Family Conflict questionnaire. Different aspects of parental support predicted different types of career self-efficacies across the 3 groups. Differences among groups were also found when levels of parental support were compared. The deaf group perceived lower levels of parental career-related modeling and verbal encouragement in comparison with the hard-of-hearing students and higher levels of parental emotional support compared with the hearing participants. No significant differences were found among the research groups in career decision-making self-efficacy and self-efficacy in managing work-family conflict. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  19. The Drift toward Problem Behavior during the Transition to Adolescence: The Contributions of Youth Disclosure, Parenting, and Older Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sabina; Snyder, James; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2012-01-01

    Prospective associations of mothers' parenting processes, youth disclosure, and youth problem behavior were examined in a longitudinal design following 244 adolescent sibling dyads over a 3-year period. For both siblings, authoritative parenting was positively associated with youth disclosure and was negatively related to problem behavior, and…

  20. Factors That Contribute to the Improvement in Maternal Parenting after Separation from a Violent Husband or Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

    2012-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A…

  1. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Danielle M; Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children's subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent's child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers' psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents' potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents' punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers' punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers' potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers' psychological control on children's externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers' potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers' psychological control on adolescent mothers' punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children's behavior.

  2. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Danielle M.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children’s subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent’s child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers’ psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents’ potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents’ punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers’ punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers’ potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers’ psychological control on children’s externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers’ potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers’ psychological control on adolescent mothers’ punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children’s behavior. PMID:26521948

  3. Parent Perspectives on Home-Based Intervention for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities: The Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) Project in Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Stoner, Julia B.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2015-01-01

    Parents' perspectives on a home-based, parent-implemented social-pragmatic communication intervention for young children aged 37 to 60 months with limited expressive language are presented in this report. The researchers analyzed the perspectives of seven parent participants in the Institute of Education Sciences-funded Parent-Implemented…

  4. An Enduring Framework for Assessing the Contributions of Force Structure to a Coercive Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beene, Eric

    2001-01-01

    The US Department of Defense is still struggling to define itself in the post Cold War age, over a decade after the new period has begun With a strategy and force structure review occurring on average...

  5. Validation of the modified Parenting Strategies for Eating and Physical Activity Scale-Diet (PEAS-Diet) in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra C; Arredondo, Elva M; Horton, Lucy A; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2016-03-01

    Research shows that Latino parenting practices influence children's dietary and weight outcomes. Most studies use parent-reported data, however data from children may provide additional insight into how parents influence their children's diet and weight outcomes. The Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) has been validated in Latino adults, but not in children. This study evaluated the factor structure and concurrent and predictive validity of a modified version of the PEAS (PEAS-Diet) among Latino children. Data were collected from 361 children ages 7-13 from Imperial County, California, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating. The PEAS-Diet included 25 candidate items targeting six parenting practices pertaining to children's eating behaviors: (a) monitoring; (b) disciplining; (c) control; (d) permissiveness; (e) reinforcing; and (f) limit-setting. Children were on average ten years old (±2), 50% boys, 93% self-identified as Latino, 81% were US-born, and 55% completed English versus Spanish-language interviews. Using varimax rotation on baseline data with the total sample, six items were removed due to factor loadings .32 on more than one component). Parallel analysis and interpretability suggested a 5-factor solution explaining 59.46% of the variance. The subscale "limit-setting" was removed from the scale. The final scale consisted of 19 items and 5 subscales. Internal consistency of the subscales ranged from α = .63-.82. Confirmatory factor analyses provided additional evidence for the 5-factor scale using data collected 4 and 6 months post-baseline among the control group (n = 164, n = 161, respectively). Concurrent validity with dietary intake was established for monitoring, control, permissiveness, and reinforcing subscales in the expected directions. Predictive validity was not established. Results indicated that with the reported changes, the interview-administered PEAS-Diet is valid among Latino

  6. Parent Refusal of Topical Fluoride for Their Children: Clinical Strategies and Future Research Priorities to Improve Evidence-Based Pediatric Dental Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L

    2017-07-01

    A growing number of parents are refusing topical fluoride for their children during preventive dental and medical visits. This nascent clinical and public health problem warrants attention from dental professionals and the scientific community. Clinical and community-based strategies are available to improve fluoride-related communications with parents and the public. In terms of future research priorities, there is a need to develop screening tools to identify parents who are likely to refuse topical fluoride and diagnostic instruments to uncover the reasons for topical fluoride refusal. This knowledge will lead to evidence-based strategies that can be widely disseminated into clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES: CRITICAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF ENTERPRISES THAT SEEK A COST LEADERSHIP STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Thais Ettinger Oliveira; George Berdinelli Rossi; Edson Keyso Kubo; Jose Turibio Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    This research aimed at identifying which organizational values of the Survey of Organizational Profiles’ Values (IPVO) are most closely related to the strategy of cost leadership for Brazilian companies seeking to internationalize. The literature suggests that organizational values are factors that influence the behavior of companies and therefore the strategy adopted by them to compete. For this reason, this article is based on exploratory research through personal interviews with executives...

  8. "You can only take so much, and it took everything out of me": coping strategies used by parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Baukje; Hamilton, Ryan; Fortin, Pierrette; Easley, Julie; Matthews, Maria

    2010-06-01

    This study qualitatively assesses the coping strategies of parents who care for a child with cancer. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 French and English families who had had a child diagnosed with cancer in the last ten years in two Eastern Canadian provinces. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded with a focus on parental coping strategies. Using coping behaviors as described and categorized in the Family Adjustment and Adaptation Response (FAAR) model as a foundation, we found that families used a variety of appraisal-, emotion-, and problem-focused coping. Appraisal-focused coping strategies involved trying to stay "positive" and "making positive comparisons." Problem-focused coping involved behaviors such as being an advocate for the child and seeking information. The majority of parents, however, described using emotion-focused coping behaviors such as trying to avoid "feeling too much" by hiding difficult emotions and "escaping" from problems. Others used more positive emotion-focused coping behaviors such as humor, seeking support (informal or formal), or writing diaries. A small group of parents used ineffective coping strategies (alcohol abuse, misdirected anger) that added to family stress. These ineffective strategies have led to a modification of the FAAR model indicating that not all coping behaviors are beneficial to family adjustment in crisis. Overall, many parents felt that their coping strategies were effective; however, a few described having a complete "coping breakdown". Parents used a range of coping strategies of which emotion-focused coping was the most prominent. We have enhanced the FAAR model by including additional coping behaviors as well as a description of how some coping behaviors add to the daily stressors for parents dealing with a child's illness. Professional health care providers need to understand the variability of the coping behaviors in order to appropriately assist parents to avoid coping breakdowns.

  9. Recruitment strategies at the Iowa site for parent/infant pairs in a longitudinal dental caries study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M; Levy, Barcey T; Xu, Yinghui; Levy, Steven M; Fontana, Margherita

    2016-06-01

    Recruitment of parent/infant pairs can be more difficult and challenging than recruitment of adult subjects alone as the parent has to consider themselves along with the infant to be study participants. In order to determine which recruitment methods most effectively resulted in accrual of subjects, recruitment efforts at the University of Iowa were evaluated, one of three clinical sites involved in a longitudinal prospective study of dental caries. Enrollment goals were 300 parent/infant pairs within a year. Recruitment strategies included (1) a direct mailing to potential subjects who were University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics patients and potentially met inclusion criteria; (2) face-to-face recruitment visits at medical offices; (3) provision of recruitment materials to staff at off-campus agencies and medical offices serving low-income individuals; (4) a campus-wide mass e-mail; (5) recruitment materials to daycare centers and neighborhood centers; and (6) recruitment at a children's museum. From these recruitment efforts, 515 potential participants expressed interest and were screened for this study and 348 (68%) were enrolled during an 11-month time period. The face-to-face strategy had the highest recruitment rate of 25%, followed by direct individual mailings at 9% and follow-up telephone calls at 7%. For the face-to-face strategy, the contact at the children's museum was most successful compared to the other office settings. The lowest rate of recruitment of 0.09% was attained with the mass e-mail. However, in terms of actual numbers recruited, the mass e-mail remained an important modality since it yielded 21 recruits and was much less time-intensive. An intensive, multi-pronged recruitment strategy proved successful in meeting enrollment goals and resulted in finishing the enrollment prior to the projected study deadline. Effective recruitment approaches are imperative for a study's success and each recruitment strategy needs to be budgeted and

  10. Taking Boys out of the Hood: Exile as a Parenting Strategy for African American Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…

  11. Parental smoking and children’s anxieties: An appropriate strategy for health education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Clare; Robinson, Jude

    2016-01-01

    While the prevalence of smoking has declined in the UK in recent years, class differentials in smoking behaviour have become more marked and smoking is increasingly recognised as a causal factor in inequalities in health. Health education initiatives to support both smoking cessation and to teach children about the health risks of smoking remain key initiatives in reducing health inequalities. However, teaching children about the risks of smoking and the impact of parental smoking in their health is not straightforward for children from backgrounds who are more likely to encounter smoking at home and in their local communities. These children have to reconcile the key messages taught at school and reinforced in smoking cessation campaigns with the knowledge that their parents and other family members smoke. In this paper we consider how children from smoking homes make sense of these education and health campaigns as observed by their parents, and the impact that this has on both parental smoking and relationships within the home. The paper thus seeks to challenge assumptions about the delivery of health education and the need to acknowledge family diversity. PMID:27695387

  12. Discovering and explaining work-family strategies of parents in Luxembourg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, Nevena

    2014-01-01

    The presented analysis discovers and explains typical patterns of work-family reconciliation for parents who had a child in the same period (2003) and in the same country (Luxembourg), thus facing the same macroeconomic and institutional conditions. Work-family trajectories are reconstructed as

  13. But is this really the 'parent' or 'guardian'? Practical strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consent for other child studies that are more than minimal risk, according ... a parent or legal guardian is required for child enrolment into a ... Should researchers accept disclosures at face value, probe assertions that are made, or even call for ...

  14. Parental Mediation of the Internet Use of Primary Students: Beliefs, Strategies and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartau-Rojas, Isabel; Aierbe-Barandiaran, Ana; Oregui-González, Eider

    2018-01-01

    The use of the Internet by children at an increasingly early age today constitutes a major challenge for families and schools, as well as affecting educational and social policy. This is a qualitative piece of research that analyzes parents' beliefs, everyday practices and the difficulties they face in teaching their children the benefits and…

  15. The Three Rs: Parental Risk Management Strategies in the International Secondary Education Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayling, Pere

    2017-01-01

    Risk permeates all aspects of modern life, and the International Secondary Education Market (ISEM) is no exception. Drawing on empirical data, this paper considers a specific type of risk: namely, the potential loss of cultural identity, which Nigerian parents associate with educating their children in the West. This paper argues that Nigerian…

  16. Parents' Interactions with Preschoolers during Shared Book Reading: Three Strategies for Promoting Quality Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jisu; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that home environments play a critical role in developing children's early literacy skills. Given the importance of developing early literacy skills to bolster children's chances for subsequent academic success, this article highlights the role of parent-child shared book reading. Summarizing research on different types of…

  17. The Child Whisperer: Effective Parenting Strategies Adapted from "The Dog Whisperer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Durr, Brandi

    2013-01-01

    Behavior modification with children has been popularized through television shows such as "Super Nanny" and "Nanny 911". The popularity of these shows may be related to the demand parents have for improving their children's behavior. Interestingly, an approach adopted by "The Dog Whisperer" may prove effective when used with children. The purpose…

  18. Physical Activity and Childhood Obesity: Strategies and Solutions for Schools and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gregory; Riley, Clarence; Hargrove, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    One of the reasons American children and adolescents gain weight over the generations is that children expend significantly less energy on a daily basis than their parents and grandparents did at their age. Today's youth spend many hours participating in sedentary activities. Additionally, we eat more fast food and vending machine food than we…

  19. Supporting Middle School Students Whose Parents Are Deployed: Challenges and Strategies for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Middle school students from military families face unique challenges, especially when their parents are deployed. Among the challenges they experience are frequent relocations; issues that affect academic achievement; uncertainty; and changes in roles, responsibilities, and relationships at home. Reunification involves issues of the returning…

  20. Academic Parenting: Work-Family Conflict and Strategies across Child Age, Disciplines and Career Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Anne; McDonald, Jan; Guijt, Rosanne; Leane, Elizabeth; Martin, Angela; James, Allison; Jones, Menna; Corban, Monica; Green, Bridget

    2018-01-01

    The research underpinning this article explores the impacts that parenting and primary caring responsibilities have upon academic careers. It takes an innovative approach by exploring three under-researched aspects of this issue: the longitudinal impacts that extend past the years immediately following the birth or adoption of a child; the…

  1. Microsatellite analysis of the parental contribution of Piaractus mesopotamicus to the production of offspring in the semi-natural system of reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme Aparecido Povh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and the parental contribution of Piaractus mesopotamicus in the production of offspring in the semi-natural system of reproduction. Twenty parental fishes (eleven males and nine females and the total of 100 larvae were evaluated by microsatellite marker. The parents and offspring had thirty-one alleles and heterozygosity of 0.550 and 0.563, respectively. The females were fertilised by two up to six males while the males fertilised three up to five females. The contribution of the females and males to the offspring were 66.6 and 58%, respectively. Such results indicated no loss in the genetic variability in the offspring, and the parents had multiple paternity and reasonable contribution to the offspring production.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética e a contribuição parental de Piaractus mesopotamicus na produção de descendência no sistema seminatural de reprodução. Vinte peixes parentais (onze machos e nove fêmeas e o total de 100 larvas foram avaliados por meio do marcador microssátelite. Os parentais e a progênie tiveram trinta e um alelos e heterozigosidade de 0,550 e 0,563, respectivamente. As fêmeas foram fertilizadas por dois até seis machos enquanto machos fertilizaram três até cinco fêmeas. A contribuição de fêmeas e machos para a descendência seja 66,6 e 58,0%, respectivamente. Tais resultados não indicam diminuição da variabilidade genética na progênie e os parentais apresentaram paternidade múltipla e razoável contribuição à produção de descendência.

  2. Contribution of organizational strategy to verbal learning and memory in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Robert M; Wishart, Heather A; Flashman, Laura A; Riordan, Henry J; Huey, Leighton; Saykin, Andrew J

    2004-01-01

    Statistical mediation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that poor use of a semantic organizational strategy contributes to verbal learning and memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comparison of 28 adults with ADHD and 34 healthy controls revealed lower performance by the ADHD group on tests of verbal learning and memory, sustained attention, and use of semantic organization during encoding. Mediation modeling indicated that state anxiety, but not semantic organization, significantly contributed to the prediction of both learning and delayed recall in the ADHD group. The pattern of findings suggests that decreased verbal learning and memory in adult ADHD is due in part to situational anxiety and not to poor use of organizational strategies during encoding. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  3. Beyond the Schoolyard: The Contributions of Parenting Logics, Financial Resources, and Social Institutions to the Social Class Gap in Structured Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Pamela R.; Lutz, Amy; Jayaram, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    We investigate cultural and structural sources of class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data. We find working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect: middle-class parents are concerned with customizing children’s involvement in activities, while working-class parents are concerned with achieving safety and social mobility for children through participation. Second, because of financial constraints, working-class families rely on social institutions for participation opportunities, but few are available. Schools act as an equalizing institution by offering low-cost activities, allowing working-class children to resemble middle-class youth in school activities, but they remain disadvantaged in out-of-school activities. School influences are complex, however, as they also contribute to class differences by offering different activities to working- and middle-class youth. Findings raise questions about the extent to which differences in participation reflect class culture rather than the objective realities parents face. PMID:25328250

  4. Beyond the Schoolyard: The Contributions of Parenting Logics, Financial Resources, and Social Institutions to the Social Class Gap in Structured Activity Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Pamela R; Lutz, Amy; Jayaram, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate cultural and structural sources of class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data. We find working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect: middle-class parents are concerned with customizing children's involvement in activities, while working-class parents are concerned with achieving safety and social mobility for children through participation. Second, because of financial constraints, working-class families rely on social institutions for participation opportunities, but few are available. Schools act as an equalizing institution by offering low-cost activities, allowing working-class children to resemble middle-class youth in school activities, but they remain disadvantaged in out-of-school activities. School influences are complex, however, as they also contribute to class differences by offering different activities to working- and middle-class youth. Findings raise questions about the extent to which differences in participation reflect class culture rather than the objective realities parents face.

  5. Working Memory and Strategy Use Contribute to Gender Differences in Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    In this review, a new model that is grounded in information-processing theory is proposed to account for gender differences in spatial ability. The proposed model assumes that the relative strength of working memory, as expressed by the ratio of visuospatial working memory to verbal working memory, influences the type of strategies used on spatial…

  6. Uncertainty contributions due to different measurement strategies applied to optomechanical hole plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morace, Renate Erica; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this paper deals with influence parameters in optical measurements, with particular respect to the choice of measurement strategy, which strongly affects the results of measurement. In this investigation, an optomechanical hole plate developed by DTU was measured with an opt...

  7. Participatory Water Management Strategies: Contributions for Canada from Brazil’s National Water Resources Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanderson Alberto Medeiros Leitao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Canadian decision-makers are encountering escalating socio-ecological pressures to introduce a national water strategy. Canada lags behind other countries such as Brazil which has had a comprehensive, participatory, watershed-based national strategy for over a decade. Similar to Canada, Brazil is a complex, federal, resource-based economy. These two states are world leaders in terms of possessing the vast quantities of the world’s fresh water supplies and in hydro-electric power production. In both cases, however, water abundance is predominantly concentrated in their northern territories with low population density, whereas in other geographical regions, the water demand associated with high population density lead to drought, shortages and social and economic inequalities. Despite these similarities, there are a number of differences particularly with respect to socio-economic and political structures. An examination ofthe Brazilian national water strategy offers some explanations as to why that federation has been able to develop innovative legislation as an important first step towards water security – a step that Canadahas yet to take. It also offers some very useful examples and lessons about how a federal state such as Canada might introduce and implement its own integrative national water strategy.

  8. The contribution of disaster management to integrated flood risk management strategies: lessons learned from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolen, B.; van Alphen, J

    2017-01-01

    An integrated flood risk management (IFRM) strategy consist of a comprehensive set of measures to reduce the risk: protective measures (to reduce the probability of a flood), and land use planning and disaster management (to reduce the consequences of a flood. In the Netherlands this is called a

  9. The Care of Corporal Punishment: Conceptions of Early Childhood Discipline Strategies among Parents and Grandparents in a Poor and Urban Area in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Sofia Johnson; Holmqvist, Rolf; Rubenson, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates conceptions of early childhood discipline strategies discussed in focus groups with parents and grandparents in a poor urban area in Tanzania. A grounded theory analysis suggested a model that included four discipline strategies related to corporal punishment: to beat with care, to treat like an egg, as if beating a snake…

  10. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities : What kind of communication challenges do parents face when communicating with their children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, and what kind of strategies the parents use to overcome the challenges?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Alexandra Jacinta

    2011-01-01

    This is a qualitative study that explores and tries to understand what kind of communicational challenges do parents face when communicating with their children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, and to comprehend what kind of strategies these parents use to overcome these challenges. The designation of the Nonverbal Learning Disabilities (NLD) was formerly proposed by Johnson and Myklebust. NLD were firstly described by Myklebust as an inability to read and understand nonverbal aspect...

  11. Dental fear and anxiety in older children: an association with parental dental anxiety and effective pain coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coric A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anka Coric,1 Adriana Banozic,2 Miro Klaric,3 Katarina Vukojevic,4 Livia Puljak5 1School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Health Center Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia; 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 4Department of Anatomy, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia; 5Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Abstract: An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociodemographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS, Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS, Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive correlation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS (r=0.35, P<0.001 and CDAS (r=0.32, P<0.001. Fathers' CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS (r=0.19, P<0.05. There were no significant differences in children's fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclusion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings

  12. Parental Leave Policy as a Strategy to Improve Outcomes among Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Jennifer C; Klawetter, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    Although gains have been made in premature birth rates among racial and ethnic minority and low socioeconomic status populations, tremendous disparities still exist in both prematurity rates and health outcomes for preterm infants. Parental involvement is known to improve health outcomes for preterm babies. However, a gap in evidence exists around whether parental involvement can help ameliorate the disparities in both short- and long-term out-comes for their preterm children. Families more likely to experience preterm birth are also less likely to have access to paid leave and thus experience significant systemic barriers to involvement, especially when their newborns are hospitalized. This article describes the research gap in this area and explores pathways by which social workers may ameliorate disparities in preterm birth outcomes through practice, policy, and research.

  13. Discovering and explaining work-family strategies of parents in Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Zhelyazkova, Nevena

    2014-01-01

    The presented analysis discovers and explains typical patterns of work-family reconciliation for parents who had a child in the same period (2003) and in the same country (Luxembourg), thus facing the same macroeconomic and institutional conditions. Work-family trajectories are reconstructed as sequences of states using administrative records, so that working hours and use of leave provisions or other social security benefits are taken into account. Next, a clustering algorithm is applied to ...

  14. New Photosafety Assessment Strategy Based on the Photochemical and Pharmacokinetic Properties of Both Parent Chemicals and Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masashi; Suzuki, Gen; Ohtake, Hiroto; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi

    2015-11-01

    Photoreactivity and dermal/ocular deposition of compounds have been recognized as key considerations for evaluating the phototoxic risk of compounds. Because some drugs are known to cause phototoxic reactions via generation of potent phototoxic metabolites, photosafety assessments on parent drugs alone may lead to false predictions about their photosafety. This study aimed to establish a new photosafety assessment strategy for evaluating the in vivo phototoxic potential of both a parent substance and its metabolites. The in vivo phototoxic risk of fenofibrate (FF) and its metabolites, fenofibric acid (FA) and reduced fenofibric acid, were evaluated based on photochemical and pharmacokinetic analyses. FF and FA exhibited intensive UV absorption, with molar extinction coefficient values of 17,000 (290 nm) and 14,000 M(-1)cm(-1) (295 nm), respectively. Superoxide generation from FA was significantly higher than from FF, and a marked increase in superoxide generation from FF was observed after incubation with rat hepatic S9 fractions, suggesting enhanced photoreactivity of FF after metabolism. FA showed high dermal/ocular deposition after oral administration (5 mg/kg, p.o.) although the concentration of FF was negligible, suggesting high exposure risk from FA. On the basis of these findings, FA was deduced to be a major contributor to phototoxicity induced by FF taken orally, and this prediction was in accordance with the results from in vitro/in vivo phototoxicity tests. Results from this study suggest that this new screening strategy for parent substances and their metabolites provides reliable photosafety information on drug candidates and would be useful for drug development with wide safety margins. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Moderation of Harsh Parenting on Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Child and Adolescent Deviant Peer Affiliation: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjiao; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-07-01

    Affiliation with deviant peers is associated with biologically influenced personal attributes, and is itself a major contributor to growth in antisocial behavior over childhood and adolescence. Several studies have shown that variance in child and adolescent deviant peer affiliation includes genetic and non-genetic influences, but none have examined longitudinal genetic and environmental stability or change within the context of harsh parenting. To address this gap, we tested the moderating role of harsh parenting on genetic and environmental stability or change of deviant peer affiliation in a longitudinal (spanning one and a half years) study of Chinese child and adolescent twin pairs (N = 993, 52.0% female). Using multiple informants (child- and parent-reports) and measurement methods to minimize rater bias, we found that individual differences in deviant peer affiliation at each assessment were similarly explained by moderate genetic and nonshared environmental variance. The longitudinal stability and change of deviant peer affiliation were explained by genetic and nonshared environmental factors. The results also revealed that the genetic variance for deviant peer affiliation is higher in the families with harsher parenting. This amplified genetic risk underscores the role of harsh parenting in the selection and socialization process of deviant peer relationships.

  16. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES: CRITICAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF ENTERPRISES THAT SEEK A COST LEADERSHIP STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Ettinger Oliveira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at identifying which organizational values of the Survey of Organizational Profiles’ Values (IPVO are most closely related to the strategy of cost leadership for Brazilian companies seeking to internationalize. The literature suggests that organizational values are factors that influence the behavior of companies and therefore the strategy adopted by them to compete. For this reason, this article is based on exploratory research through personal interviews with executives of the Human Resource area from companies affiliated with SINDIPEÇAS, which are inserted in the market by adopting a cost leadership strategy. The interviews were analyzed through content analysis technique, and the findings of this analysis provide evidence that organizational values that consist of roles, norms and values aimed at people, not only at physical parts or technical equipment, have a strong influence on these companies. The research provides evidence that organizational values most important for the internationalization of these companies are respectively: (1 welfare, (2 community, (3 domain, (4 autonomy and (5 realization. These results indicate that working in a pleasant and even enjoyable work environment can provide competitive advantage for the company.

  17. The contribution of Australian residential early parenting centres to comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants: evidence from a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jane RW

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia's public access residential early parenting services provide programs to assist parents who self-refer, to care for their infants and young children. Treatment programs target infant feeding and sleeping difficulties and maternal mental health. There is limited systematic evidence of maternal and infant mental health, psychosocial circumstances or presenting problems, or the effectiveness of the programs. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evidence base about residential early parenting services. Methods A prospective cohort design was used. A consecutive sample of mothers with infants under one year old recruited during admission to a public access residential early parenting service for a 4 or 5 night stay in Melbourne, Australia was recruited. They completed structured self-report questionnaires, incorporating standardised measures of infant behaviour and maternal mood, during admission and at one and six months after discharge. Changes in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning after discharge were observed. Results 79 women completed the first questionnaire during admission, and 58 provided complete data. Women admitted to the residential program have poor physical and mental health, limited family support, and infants with substantial behaviour difficulties. One month after discharge significant improvements in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning were observed (mean (SD daily crying and fussing during admission = 101.02 (100.8 minutes reduced to 37.7 (55.2 at one month post discharge, p Conclusions This psycho-educational approach is an effective and acceptable early intervention for parenting difficulties and maternal mood disturbance, and contributes to a system of comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants.

  18. How pre-service teachers' personality traits, self-efficacy, and discipline strategies contribute to the teacher-student relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Romi; Mainhard, Tim; van Tartwijk, Jan; Veldman, Ietje; Verloop, Nico; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-06-01

    Although the teacher-student relationship is a well-documented phenomenon, few attempts have been made to identify its predictors. Research has mainly focused on in-service teachers, less is known about characteristics of pre-service teachers in relation to the teacher-student relationship. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of pre-service secondary teachers' relationships with their students. It was hypothesized that friendliness and extraversion, self-efficacy in classroom management and in student engagement, and various discipline strategies would contribute to the teacher-student relationship in terms of influence and affiliation. A total of 120 pre-service teachers in teacher education programmes participated. Data on pre-service teachers' background (e.g., gender and age), personality traits, and self-efficacy were gathered with teacher questionnaires; data on teachers' discipline strategies and the teacher-student relationship with student questionnaires. The two personality traits and self-efficacy appeared not to be related to the teacher-student relationship in terms of affiliation or influence. However, significant relationships were found between the different discipline strategies and the teacher-student relationship in terms of influence and affiliation. There were differential effects for gender on the relationship between discipline strategies on the one hand and influence and affiliation on the other. This study provides relevant new insights into the research fields of classroom management and interpersonal relationships in education. It contributes to our understanding of discipline strategies by fine tuning an existing instrument and revealing interesting connections with the teacher-student relationship. Specific gender effects on this connection are discussed, as are implications for practice. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Hunting for the optimal hunt - Contributions to a sustainable harvest strategy for pink-footed geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gitte Høj

    As part of the recently endorsed African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird (AEWA) International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus, a stable population target of 60,000 (current population is c. 80,000 during 2011-2013) has been agreed...... the development of the AHM plan. This has been done at the flyway level by developing demographic population models and exploring the application of dynamic optimization methods to find an optimal management strategy. At the local and regional levels I explored effects of hunting practises and organisation at one...

  20. The Contribution of Earth Observation Technologies to Monitoring Strategies of Cultural Landscapes and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, B.

    2017-08-01

    Coupling of Climate change effects with management and protection of cultural and natural heritage has been brought to the attention of policy makers since several years. On the worldwide level, UNESCO has identified several phenomena as the major geo-hazards possibly induced by climate change and their possible hazardous impact to natural and cultural heritage: Hurricane, storms; Sea-level rise; Erosion; Flooding; Rainfall increase; Drought; Desertification and Rise in temperature. The same document further referrers to satellite Remote Sensing (EO) as one of the valuable tools, useful for development of "professional monitoring strategies". More recently, other studies have highlighted on the impact of climate change effects on tourism, an economic sector related to build environment and traditionally linked to heritage. The results suggest that, in case of emergency the concrete threat could be given by the hazardous event itself; in case of ordinary administration, however, the threat seems to be a "hazardous attitude" towards cultural assets that could lead to inadequate maintenance and thus to a risk of an improper management of cultural heritage sites. This paper aims to illustrate potential benefits that advancements of Earth Observation technologies can bring to the domain of monitoring landscape heritage and to the management strategies, including practices of preventive maintenance. The attempt here is to raise awareness on the importance of integrating satellite remote sensing imagery and the deriving products with other geospatial information (even geo-referenced historic maps) for a more complete insight on the environmental dynamics of landscapes.

  1. Energy technology of tomorrow. Strategies and concepts. Conference contributions; Energietechnik von morgen. Strategien und Konzepte. Konferenzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the meeting 'Energy technology of tomorrow - Strategies and concepts' at 12th June, 2007 in Nuremberg (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Cluster energy technology (Klaus Hassmann); (2) Dimension of future energy supply - prognoses/strategies/concepts (Ludger Mohrbach); (3) Future technologies for a CO{sub 2} reduced energy supply (Helmut Tschaffon); (4) Energy research - New specific targets and results (Hartmut Spliethoff); (5) Technological progress for future power plants at RWE (Frank Schwending); (6) Future potential of the generation of syngas with different energy sources (Sebastian Muschelknautz); (7) Innovations in plant engineering - on the way to a CO{sub 2} free power plant (Tobias Jockenhoevel); (8) Solar thermal power plants - status and prospects (Robert Piltz-Paal); (9) Perspectives of the generation of liquid hydrocarbons using nuclear energy (Kurt Kugeler); (10) Application of the MPG gasification technology in the refining of Canadian tar sands (Matthias Mueller-Hagedorn); (11) Perspectives for a sustainable supply with energy carriers (Ulrich Balfanz).

  2. Migration Timing and Parenting Practices: Contributions to Social Development in Preschoolers with Foreign-Born and Native-Born Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Jennifer E.; Hanish, Laura D.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Bradley, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how key aspects of parental migration or childrearing history affect social development across children from immigrant families. Relying on data on approximately 6,400 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, analyses assessed the role of mother's age at migration on children's social development in…

  3. Parental social support, coping strategies, resilience factors, stress, anxiety and depression levels in parents of children with MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome) or children with intellectual disabilities (ID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sheena; Cross, Elaine; Wraith, James Edmond; Jones, Simon; Mahon, Louise; Lomax, Michelle; Bigger, Brian; Hare, Dougal

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder, caused by a deficiency in one of four enzymes involved in the catabolism of the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate. It is a degenerative disorder, with a progressive decline in children's intellectual and physical functioning. There is currently no cure for the disorder. To date there is a paucity of research on how this disorder impacts parents psychological functioning. Specifically, research in the area has failed to employ adequate control groups to assess if the impact of this disorder on parents psychological functioning differs from parenting a child with intellectual disability (ID). The current study examined child behaviour and parental psychological functioning in 23 parents of children with MPS III and 23 parents of children with ID. Parents completed postal questionnaires about their child's behaviour and abilities and their own psychological functioning. Parents of children with MPS III reported fewer behavioural difficulties as their child aged, more severe level of intellectual disability, and similar levels of perceived social support, coping techniques, stress, anxiety and depression levels as parents of children with ID. Both groups of parents scored above the clinical cut off for anxiety and depression. Parents of children with MPS III rated themselves as significantly less future-orientated and goal directed than parents of children with ID. Services should develop support packages for parents of children with MPS III that incorporate an understanding of the unique stressors and current-difficulty approach of this population. Future research should examine gender differences between parental psychological functioning, using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches, and utilise matched developmental level and typically developing control groups.

  4. Parenting while Being Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  5. Goethe's anxieties, depressive episodes and (self-)therapeutic strategies: a contribution to method integration in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, Rainer M

    2013-01-01

    In psychiatry and psychotherapy, abstract scientific principles need to be exemplified by narrative case reports to gain practical precision. Goethe was one of the most creative writers, productive scientists, and effective statesmen that ever lived. His descriptions of feelings, emotions, and mental states related to anxieties, depressive episodes, dysthymia, and creativity are unique in their phenomenological precision and richness. His life and work can thus serve as an excellent example enhancing our understanding of the relationship between anxiety, depression and creativity. Furthermore, he described (self-)therapeutic strategies that reinforce and refine modern views. Goethe's self-assessments in his works and letters, and the descriptions by others are analyzed under the perspective of current psychiatric classification. His therapeutic techniques and recommendations are compared with cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, and existential psychotherapy to amplify modern concepts of psychotherapy. From a scientific perspective, several distinctive depressive episodes can be diagnosed in Goethe's life. They were characterized by extended depressive moods, lack of drive, and loss of interest and self-esteem combined with social retreat. Goethe displayed diffuse and phobic anxieties as well as dysthymia. His (self-)therapeutic strategies were: (a) the systematic use of helping alliances, (b) behavioral techniques, (c) cognitive reflection on meanings and beliefs, (d) psychodynamic and psychoanalytic remembering, repeating, and working through, and (e) existential striving for self-actualization, social commitment, meaning, and creativity. In Goethe's life, creative incubation, illumination, and elaboration appear to have been associated with psychic instability and dysthymia, sometimes with depressive episodes in a clinical sense. On the one hand, his creative work was triggered by anxieties, dysthymia, and depressive moods. On the other hand, his creativity

  6. Cerebellar and prefrontal cortex contributions to adaptation, strategies, and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, motor learning has been studied as an implicit learning process, one in which movement errors are used to improve performance in a continuous, gradual manner. The cerebellum figures prominently in this literature given well-established ideas about the role of this system in error-based learning and the production of automatized skills. Recent developments have brought into focus the relevance of multiple learning mechanisms for sensorimotor learning. These include processes involving repetition, reinforcement learning, and strategy utilization. We examine these developments, considering their implications for understanding cerebellar function and how this structure interacts with other neural systems to support motor learning. Converging lines of evidence from behavioral, computational, and neuropsychological studies suggest a fundamental distinction between processes that use error information to improve action execution or action selection. While the cerebellum is clearly linked to the former, its role in the latter remains an open question. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [The Pro-ABEn project: contributions and reflexions for a marketing strategy for the association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isília Aparecida; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Ciampone, Maria Helena Trench

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, an internal analysis of the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn) was carried out in order to identify the representations of the members of the national and regional management departments of ABEn, regarding this association. The objective was to gather subsidies for the planning and implementation of a project aiming at institutional empowerment. The scenarios for data collection were the regional and national management departments, as well as all the members available from the each regional section and two members from the national office. Data collection was done through a form, which was answered by 15 sections during the period between 1997 and 2002. The analysis of the empirical data material was done in two ways. The first analysis was based on the Discourse of the Collective Subject--DCS, and the second through Institutional Analysis. The representations of the subjects interviewed could be identified, enabling the planning of marketing strategies for ABEn.

  8. The Contribution of Innovation Strategy Development and Implementation in Active Facilitation of Pharmaceutical Front End Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth

    2012-01-01

    Front end innovation (FEI) represents the first building blocks of product development, but is often regarded as a weak link in innovation literature. Various theorists emphasize that a firm’s innovation can benefit substantially by improving the front end of innovation process (Reinertsen, 1999,......-oriented longitudinal case study of a Danish pharmaceutical company. The findings and key learnings from the study are presented as propositions of how innovation strategies can be applied to actively facilitate FEI and with measurable results.......Front end innovation (FEI) represents the first building blocks of product development, but is often regarded as a weak link in innovation literature. Various theorists emphasize that a firm’s innovation can benefit substantially by improving the front end of innovation process (Reinertsen, 1999...

  9. The role of coping strategies and self-efficacy as predictors of life satisfaction in a sample of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque Salas, Bárbara; Yáñez Rodríguez, Virginia; Tabernero Urbieta, Carmen; Cuadrado, Esther

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to understand the role of coping strategies and self-efficacy expectations as predictors of life satisfaction in a sample of parents of boys and girls diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder. A total of 129 parents (64 men and 65 women) answered a questionnaire on life-satisfaction, coping strategies and self-efficacy scales. Using a regression model, results show that the age of the child is associated with a lower level of satisfaction in parents. The results show that self-efficacy is the variable that best explains the level of satisfaction in mothers, while the use of problem solving explains a higher level of satisfaction in fathers. Men and women show similar levels of life satisfaction; however significant differences were found in coping strategies where women demonstrated higher expressing emotions and social support strategies than men. The development of functional coping strategies and of a high level of self-efficacy represents a key tool for adapting to caring for children with autism. Our results indicated the necessity of early intervention with parents to promote coping strategies, self-efficacy and high level of life satisfaction.

  10. From individual to herd protection with pneumococcal vaccines: the contribution of the Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Linares-Pérez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is currently undergoing advanced clinical evaluation prior to its planned introduction in Cuba. The implementation of the pneumococcal vaccination strategy has been designed with consideration of the need to maximize both its direct and indirect effects. A novel approach is suggested, which addresses preschool children as the first-line target group to generate herd immunity in infants and to have an impact on transmission at the community level. The clinical evaluation pipeline is described herein, including evaluations of effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and impact. The scientific contribution of the Cuban strategy could support a paradigm shift from individual protection to a population effect based on a rigorous body of scientific evidence.

  11. THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE FOR STRATEGY IN THE CONTEXT OF A BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Esteves de Carvalho

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Brazilian banking have generally similar products and services, with little distinction between them. Therefore, the use of strategic and intelligent way information can determine the success and permanence in the market. Competitive intelligence (CI have been concerned about the management of this information, structuring their process to improve the knowledge of its competitors, anticipating in order to conquer new markets and achieve better results. Objective: To understand how the IC has contributed to the achievement of strategic objectives of a bank from the perception of managers, addressing the structure, personnel and technological resources of the IC. Methodology: By systematically reviewing scientific literature concerning IC processes, the research procedures along with its specific analytical tools, have been defined. For the current study, the answers given by managers, working for the abovementioned sector, to a close-ending interview have been taken into account. Out of overall 50 employees from strategic, tactical and operational levels, 15 employees have been included in the final corpus, which consists in interviews and focus-groups. The results were split into four categories (vision, cycle, practices and challenges where each includes its themes. Results: The CI was considered an essential tool to be implemented in the strategic process although presente in early stage. However, already needs to show if there were a possible correlation between the intelligence process and our results, which should allow to improve its strategic value. Conclusions: Theoretically, this study contributes to understanding of CI processes by considering a specific scientific approach, which defines the dynamic cycle of these processes. From a pragmatic point of view, otherwise, na in-depth implementation and redefinition of the CI processes has been promoted.

  12. Offspring Hg exposure relates to parental feeding strategies in a generalist bird with strong individual foraging specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cátia S A; Blondel, Léa; Sotillo, Alejandro; Müller, Wendt; Stienen, Eric W M; Boeckx, Pascal; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Monteiro, Marta S; Loureiro, Susana; de Neve, Liesbeth; Lens, Luc

    2017-12-01

    Generalist species can potentially exploit a wide variety of resources, but at the individual level they often show a certain degree of foraging specialization. Specific foraging strategies, however, may increase exposure to environmental contaminants that can alter the cost-benefit balance of consuming particular food items. The Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus) is known to opportunistically feed on a wide range of marine and terrestrial prey that differ in contaminant load, such as mercury (Hg) that strongly biomagnifies through the aquatic food web. The hypothesis tested in this study were: i) a predominant use of marine prey by females during egg-formation and by both parents during chick rearing increases the exposure to Hg during embryonic development and chick growth, and ii) this affects parental investment in clutch volume, chick growth and body condition. Total Hg burden and isotopic signatures of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) were determined for eggs, down feathers, and primary feathers of L. fuscus chicks collected at a coastal colony in Belgium. As expected, eggs and feathers of chicks from parents with a stable isotope signature that suggested a predominantly marine diet had higher levels of Hg. The use of marine resources by females during the egg-formation period positively correlated to maternal investment in egg size, though entailing the cost of increased Hg-concentrations which in turn negatively affected clutch volume. Furthermore, it is shown that the use of chick down feathers is a suitable matrix to non-lethally estimate Hg concentrations in eggs. Contrary to our expectations, no relationship between Hg exposure and chick growth or chick body condition was found, which may be due the low concentrations found. We conclude that currently Hg contamination does not constitute a risk for development and condition of L. fuscus offspring at the levels currently observed at the Belgian coast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. Emotion Regulation Strategies in Preschoolers with Autism: Associations with Parent Quality of Life and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuske, Heather Joy; Hedley, Darren; Tseng, Chen Hsiang; Begeer, Sander; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Children with autism experience challenges with emotion regulation. It is unclear how children's management of their emotions is associated with their family's quality of life. Forty-three preschoolers with autism and 28 typically developing preschoolers were coded on emotion regulation strategies used during low-level stress tasks. Parents…

  14. Turkish Adolescents' Conflict Resolution Strategies toward Peers and Parents as a Function of Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Ayse; Demir, Ayhan; Bikos, Lynette Heim

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of loneliness on the conflict resolution strategies of adolescents toward their friends, mothers, and fathers. High school students (N = 180) from 8 different schools in Ankara, Turkey, completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and Conflict Resolution Questionnaire with respect to their friends, mothers, and fathers.…

  15. Multiple Strategies for Multiple Audiences: SJSU's Contributions to the Geoscience Education Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, P.; Metzger, E. P.

    2007-12-01

    for middle- and high-school teachers. These curricula use jig-saw and cooperative learning strategies to enhance educators' understanding, and to build confidence in teaching geoscience ideas by modeling effective pedagogy. The Bay Area Earth Science Institute (BAESI) augments these formal education options, offering summer and weekend workshops for which teachers may earn inexpensive university credit. Established in 1990, BAESI has served more than 1500 teachers with geoscientist- and master teacher-led workshops that supply standards- based Earth science concepts and effective strategies for teaching them.

  16. Promoting Second Language Learners’ Vocabulary Learning Strategies: Can Autonomy and Critical Thinking Make a Contribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania Nosratinia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the findings of previous studies which highlight the role of vocabulary knowledge in English as a Foreign Language/English as a Second Language (EFL/ESL learners’ learning process, this study investigated the relationship among EFL learners’ Critical Thinking (CT, Autonomy (AU, and choice of Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS. To fulfill the purpose of this study, 100 male and female undergraduate EFL learners, between the ages of 18 and 25 (Mage = 21 were randomly selected. These participants, who were receiving formal instruction by means of English as the main language along with learners’ first language, were asked to complete three questionnaires, estimating their CT, AU, and VLS. Analyzing the collected data by Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient revealed significant relationships between participants' AU and CT, CT and VLS, and AU and VLS. Furthermore, a linear regression through the stepwise method revealed that between CT and AU, AU is the best predictor of VLS. The findings of this provide EFL teachers, EFL learners, and syllabus designers with insights into the nature of VLS and the way it can be promoted through other internal factors.

  17. Individual differences in the development of early peer aggression: Integrating contributions of self-regulation, theory of mind, and parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    OLSON, SHERYL L.; LOPEZ-DURAN, NESTOR; LUNKENHEIMER, ERIKA S.; CHANG, HYEIN; SAMEROFF, ARNOLD J.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study focused on self-regulatory, social–cognitive, and parenting precursors of individual differences in children’s peer-directed aggression at early school age. Participants were 1993-year-old boys and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (5.5–6 years). Peer aggression was assessed in preschool and school settings using naturalistic observations and teacher reports. Children’s self-regulation abilities and theory of mind understanding were assessed during a laboratory visit, and parenting risk (corporal punishment and low warmth/responsiveness) was assessed using interview-based and questionnaire measures. Individual differences in children’s peer aggression were moderately stable across the preschool to school transition. Preschool-age children who manifested high levels of aggressive peer interactions also showed lower levels of self-regulation and theory of mind understanding, and experienced higher levels of adverse parenting than others. Our main finding was that early corporal punishment was associated with increased levels of peer aggression across the transition from preschool to school, as was the interaction between low maternal emotional support and children’s early delays in theory of mind understanding. These data highlight the need for family-directed preventive efforts during the early preschool years. PMID:21262052

  18. Implementing nationally determined contributions: building energy policies in India’s mitigation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Tan, Qing; Gupta, Ashu; Patel, Pralit

    2018-03-01

    The Nationally Determined Contributions are allowing countries to examine options for reducing emissions through a range of domestic policies. India, like many developing countries, has committed to reducing emissions through specific policies, including building energy codes. Here we assess the potential of these sectoral policies to help in achieving mitigation targets. Collectively, it is critically important to see the potential impact of such policies across developing countries in meeting national and global emission goals. Buildings accounted for around one third of global final energy use in 2010, and building energy consumption is expected to increase as income grows in developing countries. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study finds that implementing a range of energy efficiency policies robustly can reduce total Indian building energy use by 22% and lower total Indian carbon dioxide emissions by 9% in 2050 compared to the business-as-usual scenario. Among various policies, energy codes for new buildings can result in the most significant savings. For all building energy policies, well-coordinated, consistent implementation is critical, which requires coordination across different departments and agencies, improving capacity of stakeholders, and developing appropriate institutions to facilitate policy implementation.

  19. Transition to Early Childhood Education: Parents' Use of Coping Strategies in Dealing with Children's Adjustment Difficulties in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mei Seung

    2014-01-01

    The transition from home to early childhood education can be stressful for both children and parents. How parents cope with this potentially stressful event affects both the children's adaptation and the parents' lives during the preschooler stage of the family lifecycle. This paper examines how parents respond to their children's adjustment…

  20. THE CONTRIBUTION OF EARTH OBSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES TO MONITORING STRATEGIES OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES AND SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cuca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coupling of Climate change effects with management and protection of cultural and natural heritage has been brought to the attention of policy makers since several years. On the worldwide level, UNESCO has identified several phenomena as the major geo-hazards possibly induced by climate change and their possible hazardous impact to natural and cultural heritage: Hurricane, storms; Sea-level rise; Erosion; Flooding; Rainfall increase; Drought; Desertification and Rise in temperature. The same document further referrers to satellite Remote Sensing (EO as one of the valuable tools, useful for development of “professional monitoring strategies”. More recently, other studies have highlighted on the impact of climate change effects on tourism, an economic sector related to build environment and traditionally linked to heritage. The results suggest that, in case of emergency the concrete threat could be given by the hazardous event itself; in case of ordinary administration, however, the threat seems to be a “hazardous attitude” towards cultural assets that could lead to inadequate maintenance and thus to a risk of an improper management of cultural heritage sites. This paper aims to illustrate potential benefits that advancements of Earth Observation technologies can bring to the domain of monitoring landscape heritage and to the management strategies, including practices of preventive maintenance. The attempt here is to raise awareness on the importance of integrating satellite remote sensing imagery and the deriving products with other geospatial information (even geo-referenced historic maps for a more complete insight on the environmental dynamics of landscapes.

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle and reactor strategies: Adjusting to new realities. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The International Symposium on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Reactor Strategies: Adjusting to New Realities was held from 3 to 6 June 1997 in Vienna, Austria. It was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in co-operation with the European Commission, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (OECD/NEA) and the Uranium Institute (UI). More than 300 participants from more than 40 countries and 5 organizations took part. The reason for organizing the symposium was to face the new realities in the nuclear fuel cycle and to come to conclusions on how these new realities should be addressed. In the light of these objectives, international working groups prepared key issue papers on six topics that were selected as the central themes for consideration at the symposium. An International Steering Group composed of the representatives of 12 countries and three international organizations co-ordinated the work of the six working groups. Each of the six working groups wrote a key issue paper. These key issue papers are published as a separate publication. During the symposium, addresses and papers presented by leading experts and policy makers provided additional information in these fields. The key issues were explored further in discussions by the participants and a panel of experts, which helped to highlight the main problems to be addressed in designing the policies for the nuclear fuel cycle in the next 50 years. Special emphasis was placed on the problem of disposition of separated plutonium of civil origin and of plutonium originating from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons. This TECDOC contains all the papers presented, together with a summary of the symposium and a list of participants

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle and reactor strategies: Adjusting to new realities. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The International Symposium on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Reactor Strategies: Adjusting to New Realities was held from 3 to 6 June 1997 in Vienna, Austria. It was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in co-operation with the European Commission, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (OECD/NEA) and the Uranium Institute (UI). More than 300 participants from more than 40 countries and 5 organizations took part. The reason for organizing the symposium was to face the new realities in the nuclear fuel cycle and to come to conclusions on how these new realities should be addressed. In the light of these objectives, international working groups prepared key issue papers on six topics that were selected as the central themes for consideration at the symposium. An International Steering Group composed of the representatives of 12 countries and three international organizations co-ordinated the work of the six working groups. Each of the six working groups wrote a key issue paper. These key issue papers are published as a separate publication. During the symposium, addresses and papers presented by leading experts and policy makers provided additional information in these fields. The key issues were explored further in discussions by the participants and a panel of experts, which helped to highlight the main problems to be addressed in designing the policies for the nuclear fuel cycle in the next 50 years. Special emphasis was placed on the problem of disposition of separated plutonium of civil origin and of plutonium originating from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons. This TECDOC contains all the papers presented, together with a summary of the symposium and a list of participants. Refs, figs, tabs.

  3. VObs.it, the Italian contribution to the international Virtual Observatory-History, activities, strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasian, F.

    2015-06-01

    The origins of the Italian contribution to the international Virtual Observatory (VO) were mainly tied to the definition and implementation of a Data Grid using Grid standards. From there on, by means of a step-wise evolution, activities started including the implementation of VO-aware tools and facilities, or the production of services accessing data archives in ways compliant to the international VO standards. An important activity the Italian VO community has carried out is the dissemination of the VO capabilities to professionals, students and amateurs: in particular, an important and maybe unique success has been bringing to the classrooms the VO, and using it as a powerful tool to teach astronomy at all levels, from junior high school to undergraduate courses. Lately, there has been also direct involvement of the Italian community in the definition of standards and services within the framework of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), and participation and leadership in the IVOA Working Groups. Along this path, the national funding for these activities has been rather low, although essential to carry the activities on. There were no bursts of funding to allow a quick rise in activities leading to the fast realisation of tools and systems. Rather, the manpower involved in VObs.it has been always fairly low but steady. In the view of managing a national VO initiative with a low budget, strategic choices were made to exploit the available resources and to guarantee a constant background activity, mainly geared at providing services to the community, development in lower-priority VO areas, dissemination and support.

  4. Engaging foster parents in treatment: a randomized trial of supplementing trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with evidence-based engagement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen et al., 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and one of their foster parents. Attendance, engagement, and clinical outcomes were assessed 1 month into treatment, end of treatment, and 3 months post-treatment. Youth and foster parents who received TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies were more likely to be retained in treatment through four sessions and were less likely to drop out of treatment prematurely. The engagement strategies did not appear to have an effect on the number of canceled or no-show sessions or on treatment satisfaction. Clinical outcomes did not differ by study condition, but exploratory analyses suggest that youth had significant improvements with treatment. Strategies that specifically target engagement may hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and for increasing likelihood of treatment completion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavioral Contexts, Food-Choice Coping Strategies, and Dietary Quality of a Multiethnic Sample of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E.; Wethington, Elaine; Farrell, Tracy J.; Bisogni, Carole A.; Devine, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Employed parents’ work and family conditions provide behavioral contexts for their food choices. Relationships between employed parents’ food-choice coping strategies, behavioral contexts, and dietary quality were evaluated. Data on work and family conditions, sociodemographic characteristics, eating behavior, and dietary intake from two 24-hour dietary recalls were collected in a random sample cross-sectional pilot telephone survey in the fall of 2006. Black, white, and Latino employed mothers (n=25) and fathers (n=25) were recruited from a low/moderate income urban area in upstate New York. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward’s method) identified three clusters of parents differing in use of food-choice coping strategies (ie, Individualized Eating, Missing Meals, and Home Cooking). Cluster sociodemographic, work, and family characteristics were compared using χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests. Cluster differences in dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index 2005) were analyzed using analysis of variance. Clusters differed significantly (P≤0.05) on food-choice coping strategies, dietary quality, and behavioral contexts (ie, work schedule, marital status, partner’s employment, and number of children). Individualized Eating and Missing Meals clusters were characterized by nonstandard work hours, having a working partner, single parenthood and with family meals away from home, grabbing quick food instead of a meal, using convenience entrées at home, and missing meals or individualized eating. The Home Cooking cluster included considerably more married fathers with nonemployed spouses and more home-cooked family meals. Food-choice coping strategies affecting dietary quality reflect parents’ work and family conditions. Nutritional guidance and family policy needs to consider these important behavioral contexts for family nutrition and health. PMID:21338739

  6. Impact of Perceived Stress, Anxiety-Depression and Social Support on Coping Strategies of Parents Having A Child With Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussé, Véronique; Czernecki, Virginie; Denis, Pierre; Stilgenbauer, Jean-Louis; Deniau, Emmanuelle; Hartmann, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports have indicated that raising a child with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) could be considered a stressful experience. Thus our study aimed to assess the impact of perceived stress (i.e. parental cognitive perception of their child's disorder) and social support (number of people surrounding the subject providing support) on coping strategies-defined as processes of restoring balance between excessive demands and inadequate resources-of parents having a child with GTS. Twenty-eight parents of 21 patients with GTS (aged 6 to 16years) completed questionnaires on perceived stress (ALE Scale), social support (SSQ6), coping strategies (WCC-R) and anxiety-depression (HAD). Principal component analysis showed a negative correlation between social support on one side and perceived stress and anxiety/depression on the other. Problem- and emotion-focused coping both correlated with social support, all of them being independent from perceived stress and anxiety/depression. Hierarchical ascendant classification showed three clusters of individuals in our parents' groups: i) those having high scores in perceived stress and anxiety-depression; ii) those having high scores in social support associated with low scores in perceived stress; iii) parents having lower than average scores on both problem- and emotion- focused coping and social support. Our results reinforce the need for developing training programs for parents with GTS children to better understand and tolerate the disorder to decrease their stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Commentary and contributions to green paper (alphabetical sort. Towards a European strategy for the security supply)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    major efforts in terms of Research and Development, investment aid and operational aid. Should co-financing of this aid include a contribution from sectors which received substantial initial development aid and which are now highly profitable? 8. Since nuclear energy is one of the factors in the debate on tackling climate change and energy self-sufficiency, how can the Community find a solution to the problem of nuclear waste, enhancing nuclear safety and expanding research into the reactors of the future, and in particular fusion technology? 9. Which policies should enable the European Union to meet its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol? What action could be taken in order fully to exploit potential energy savings which would help to reduce both our external dependence and CO 2 emissions? 10. Can an ambitious programme to promote biofuels and other substitute fuels, including hydrogen, geared to 20% of total fuel consumption by 2020, continue to be implemented via national initiatives, or are co-ordinated decisions required on taxation, distribution and prospects for agricultural production? 11. Should energy saving in buildings, whether public or private, new or under renovation, be promoted through incentives such as tax breaks, or are regulatory measures required along the lines of those adopted for major industrial installations? 12. Energy saving in the transport sector depends on redressing the growing imbalance between road haulage and rail. Is this imbalance inevitable, or could corrective action be taken, however unpopular, notably to encourage lower use of cars in urban areas? How can the aims of opening up the sector to competition, investment in infrastructure to remove bottlenecks and inter-modality be reconciled? 13. How can we develop more collaborative visions and integrate the long-term dimension into deliberations and actions undertaken by public authorities and other involved parties in order to evolve a sustainable system of energy supply. How

  8. Commentary and contributions to green paper (alphabetical sort. Towards a European strategy for the security supply)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    major efforts in terms of Research and Development, investment aid and operational aid. Should co-financing of this aid include a contribution from sectors which received substantial initial development aid and which are now highly profitable? 8. Since nuclear energy is one of the factors in the debate on tackling climate change and energy self-sufficiency, how can the Community find a solution to the problem of nuclear waste, enhancing nuclear safety and expanding research into the reactors of the future, and in particular fusion technology? 9. Which policies should enable the European Union to meet its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol? What action could be taken in order fully to exploit potential energy savings which would help to reduce both our external dependence and CO{sub 2} emissions? 10. Can an ambitious programme to promote biofuels and other substitute fuels, including hydrogen, geared to 20% of total fuel consumption by 2020, continue to be implemented via national initiatives, or are co-ordinated decisions required on taxation, distribution and prospects for agricultural production? 11. Should energy saving in buildings, whether public or private, new or under renovation, be promoted through incentives such as tax breaks, or are regulatory measures required along the lines of those adopted for major industrial installations? 12. Energy saving in the transport sector depends on redressing the growing imbalance between road haulage and rail. Is this imbalance inevitable, or could corrective action be taken, however unpopular, notably to encourage lower use of cars in urban areas? How can the aims of opening up the sector to competition, investment in infrastructure to remove bottlenecks and inter-modality be reconciled? 13. How can we develop more collaborative visions and integrate the long-term dimension into deliberations and actions undertaken by public authorities and other involved parties in order to evolve a sustainable system of energy supply

  9. A Hybrid Strategy for the Lattice Evaluation of the Leading Order Hadronic Contribution to (g - 2)μ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golterman, Maarten; Maltman, Kim; Peris, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    The leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magentic moment, aμLO,HVP, can be expressed as an integral over Euclidean Q2 of the vacuum polarization function. We point out that a simple trapezoid-rule numerical integration of the current lattice data is good enough to produce a result with a less-than-1% error for the contribution from the interval above Q2 ≳ 0.1 - 0.2GeV2. This leaves the interval below this value of Q2 as the one to focus on in the future. In order to achieve an accurate result also in this lower window Q2 ≲ 0.1 - 0.2GeV2, we indicate the usefulness of three possible tools. These are: Padé Approximants, polynomials in a conformal variable and a NNLO Chiral Perturbation Theory representation supplemented by a Q4 term. The combination of the numerical integration in the upper Q2 interval together with the use of these tools in the lower Q2 interval provides a hybrid strategy which looks promising as a means of reaching the desired goal on the lattice of a sub-percent precision in the hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment.

  10. Gender gap in parents' financing strategy for hospitalization of their children: evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay; Lamanna, Francesca; Klasen, Stephan

    2010-03-01

    The 'missing women' dilemma in India has sparked great interest in investigating gender discrimination in the provision of health care in the country. No studies, however, have directly examined discrimination in health-care financing strategies in the case of severe illness of sons versus daughters. In this paper, we hypothesize that households who face tight budget constraints are more likely to spend their meager resources on hospitalization of boys rather than girls. We use the 60th round of the Indian National Sample Survey (2004) and a multinomial logit model to test this hypothesis and to throw some light on this important but overlooked issue. The results reveal that boys are much more likely to be hospitalized than girls. When it comes to financing, the gap in the usage of household income and savings is relatively small, while the gender gap in the probability of hospitalization and usage of more onerous financing strategies is very high. Ceteris paribus, the probability of boys to be hospitalized by financing from borrowing, sale of assets, help from friends, etc. is much higher than that of girls. Moreover, in line with our theoretical framework, the results indicate that the gender gap intensifies as we move from the richest to poorest households. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Adoption as a gosling strategy to obtain better parental care? Experimental evidence for gosling choice and age-dependency of adoption in greylag geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmbach, E; van der Aa, P; Komdeur, J

    2005-01-01

    Adoptions of unrelated young by successful breeders are a form of alloparental care which has been observed in many species of geese. Depending on costs and benefits to the parents, adoptions might represent an inter-generational conflict ora mutually beneficial strategy. Although most studies of

  12. Predicting Early Spelling: The Contribution of Children's Early Literacy, Private Speech during Spelling, Behavioral Regulation, and Parental Spelling Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aram, Dorit; Abiri, Shimrit; Elad, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend understanding of preschoolers' early spelling using the Vygotskian ("Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes," Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978) paradigm of child development. We assessed the contribution of maternal spelling support in predicting children's word…

  13. Teleworking strategy based on to contribute to the socio-labor inclusion of internal conditionally released from prison "Heliconias"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mary Corrales-López

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the issue of telework oriented population deprived of freedom by the INPEC, specifically those inmates categorized under low, held in EP HELICONIAS Florence Caqueta, which will be provided with their application due to its characteristics objective and subjective, providing greater opportunities and social and labor inclusion; strengthening given that this form of employment currently present in the country. To achieve this objective a descriptive methodology used giving a qualitative approach to describe the characteristics and policies that apply in telework, especially those that refer to the prison and prison environment in Colombia. As a result it is found that the relevant regulations to this project is clearly established (including information security given the nature of the target population, allowing a strategy that suits your needs in which factors such as include: security, business, technology, and internal, obtained from the SWOT analysis of the establishment. The implementation of this strategy will enable the beneficiaries actively participate in the workplace contributing financially to your household and improving their self-esteem.

  14. END TB – THE NEW WHO STRATEGY IN THE SDG ERA* , AND THE CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Raviglione

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is written to update tuberculosis (TB experts in the Russian Federation about the most recent data on the global TB situation, the progress in global TB care and control efforts, the challenges ahead, and the response expected by all countries. In particular, the article will detail the new End TB Strategy that the World Health Organization (WHO is promoting for the new era of the Sustainable Development Goals 2016-2030 after the World Health Assembly approved it in a resolution during its 2014 meeting. The Russian Federation, with its extraordinary resources and knowledge needs to contribute to the roll-out of the new Strategy, both nationally and internationally. For this, the Ministerial Conference called by the Russian Federation Government to be held in Moscow on 16-17 November 2017 will play a crucial role in calling for the political attention necessary at the highest governmental levels in all high-burden countries, with an ultimate aim to raise the struggle against TB in the heads-of-state agenda.

  15. Could it be asthma? Using social marketing strategies to increase parent and caregiver knowledge of asthma symptoms in children in a rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Kristi; Lustik, Faith; LaLone, Joel

    2010-11-01

    Many parents and caregivers do not recognize the symptoms of asthma in children, and consequently children may not receive the appropriate diagnosis and treatment for this potentially fatal disease. This article describes how Steps to a HealthierNY used social marketing strategies to design a media campaign called "Could It Be Asthma?" to educate parents and caregivers about the symptoms of asthma. The campaign used television advertising, brochures, and posters to educate parents and caregivers in rural Jefferson County, New York, about asthma symptoms. The campaign ran in March and April 2005. A follow-up survey was conducted among 756 parents and caregivers in collaboration with four local pediatricians' offices. Results showed that approximately 60% of participants were familiar with "Could It Be Asthma?" Of those participants, approximately 68% indicated that the ads had a positive impact and 46% indicated that they had learned the symptoms of asthma. The campaign and survey were repeated in the fall of 2005. Results were consistent, with a significant increase in the percentage of people who were familiar with the campaign. This social marketing campaign was successful in reaching parents in a rural community with important educational messages; similar strategies should be considered in educating the public about asthma and other health issues.

  16. Thoracic lymph node station recognition on CT images based on automatic anatomy recognition with an optimal parent strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoping; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, Yubing; Cao, Hanqiang; Odhner, Dewey; Torigian, Drew A.; Wu, Xingyu

    2018-03-01

    Currently, there are many papers that have been published on the detection and segmentation of lymph nodes from medical images. However, it is still a challenging problem owing to low contrast with surrounding soft tissues and the variations of lymph node size and shape on computed tomography (CT) images. This is particularly very difficult on low-dose CT of PET/CT acquisitions. In this study, we utilize our previous automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) framework to recognize the thoracic-lymph node stations defined by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) lymph node map. The lymph node stations themselves are viewed as anatomic objects and are localized by using a one-shot method in the AAR framework. Two strategies have been taken in this paper for integration into AAR framework. The first is to combine some lymph node stations into composite lymph node stations according to their geometrical nearness. The other is to find the optimal parent (organ or union of organs) as an anchor for each lymph node station based on the recognition error and thereby find an overall optimal hierarchy to arrange anchor organs and lymph node stations. Based on 28 contrast-enhanced thoracic CT image data sets for model building, 12 independent data sets for testing, our results show that thoracic lymph node stations can be localized within 2-3 voxels compared to the ground truth.

  17. THE CONTRIBUTION OF ENGLISH STUDENTS’ SPEAKING STRATEGIES AND MOTIVATION ON THEIR SPEAKING ABILITY AT TARBIYAH FACULTY OF IAIN IMAM BONJOL PADANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kustati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aims of the study are to describe: 1. Speaking strategies that are most frequently used by the students of the English Department in Tarbiyah Faculty; 2. The contribution of Students’ Speaking-Related LLS in developing their speaking ability; and, 3. The contribution of students’ learning motivation in the development of their speaking skills. speaking test, strategy inventory for language learning (SILL, and learning motivation questionnaire were employed to collect the data. The research findings revealed that there were thirty-four speaking strategies which were most frequently used by high, average, and low achievement students. The findings also showed that bothe students’ speaking strategies and motivation give significant contribution on students’ speaking ability.  Thus, speaking lecturers are expected to be able to implement innovative and varied teaching techniques.

  18. Trajectories of child externalizing problems between ages 3 and 10 years: Contributions of children's early effortful control, theory of mind, and parenting experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sheryl L; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2017-10-01

    Preventing problem behavior requires an understanding of earlier factors that are amenable to intervention. The main goals of our prospective longitudinal study were to trace trajectories of child externalizing behavior between ages 3 and 10 years, and to identify patterns of developmentally significant child and parenting risk factors that differentiated pathways of problem behavior. Participants were 218 3-year-old boys and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (age 5-6 years) and during the late school-age years (age 10). Mothers contributed ratings of children's externalizing behavior at all three time points. Children's self-regulation abilities and theory of mind were assessed during a laboratory visit, and parenting risk (frequent corporal punishment and low maternal warmth) was assessed using interview-based and questionnaire measures. Four developmental trajectories of externalizing behavior yielded the best balance of parsimony and fit with our longitudinal data and latent class growth analysis. Most young children followed a pathway marked by relatively low levels of symptoms that continued to decrease across the school-age years. Atypical trajectories marked chronically high, increasing, and decreasing levels of externalizing problems across early and middle childhood. Three-year-old children with low levels of effortful control were far more likely to show the chronic pattern of elevated externalizing problems than changing or low patterns. Early parental corporal punishment and maternal warmth, respectively, differentiated preschoolers who showed increasing and decreasing patterns of problem behavior compared to the majority of children. The fact that children's poor effortful regulation skills predicted chronic early onset problems reinforces the need for early childhood screening and intervention services.

  19. Youth Appraisals of Inter-parental Conflict and Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Examination of G×E Effects in a Twin Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Identification of gene × environment interactions (GxE) for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a crucial component to understanding the mechanisms underpinning the disorder, as prior work indicates large genetic influences and numerous environmental risk factors. Building on prior research, children's appraisals of self-blame were examined as a psychosocial moderator of latent etiological influences on ADHD via biometric twin models, which provide an omnibus test of GxE while managing the potential confound of gene-environment correlation. Participants were 246 twin pairs (total n=492) ages 6–16 years. ADHD behaviors were assessed via mother report on the Child Behavior Checklist. To assess level of self-blame, each twin completed the Children's Perception of Inter-parental Conflict scale. Two biometric GxE models were fit to the data. The first model revealed a significant decrease in genetic effects and a significant increase in unique environmental influences on ADHD with increasing levels of self-blame. These results generally persisted even after controlling for confounding effects due to gene-environment correlation in the second model. Results suggest that appraisals of self-blame in relation to inter-parental conflict may act as a key moderator of etiological contributions to ADHD. PMID:22006350

  20. The role of parents in public views of strategies to address childhood obesity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Gollust, Sarah E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-03-01

    POLICY POINTS: The American public--both men and women and those with and without children in the household--holds parents highly responsible and largely to blame for childhood obesity. High attributions of responsibility to parents for reducing childhood obesity did not universally undermine support for broader policy action. School-based obesity prevention policies were strongly supported, even among those viewing parents as mostly to blame for childhood obesity. Americans who viewed sectors outside the family (such as the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government) as helping address childhood obesity were more willing to support a wider range of population-based obesity prevention policies. The public's views of parents' behaviors and choices--and the attitudes held by parents themselves--are likely to influence the success of efforts to reverse obesity rates. We analyzed data from 2 US national public opinion surveys fielded in 2011 and 2012 to examine attributions of blame and responsibility to parents for obesity, both among the general public and parents themselves, and we also explored the relationship between views of parents and support for obesity prevention policies. We found that attribution of blame and responsibility to parents was consistently high, regardless of parental status or gender. Support for policies to curb childhood obesity also did not differ notably by parental status or gender. Multivariable analyses revealed consistent patterns in the association between public attitudes toward parents' responsibility and support for policies to curb childhood obesity. High parental responsibility was linked to higher support for school-targeted policies but generally was not associated with policies outside the school setting. Attribution of greater responsibility to entities external to children and their parents (schools, the food and beverage industry, and the government) was associated with greater support for both school

  1. The Role of Parents in Public Views of Strategies to Address Childhood Obesity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    WOLFSON, JULIA A; GOLLUST, SARAH E; NIEDERDEPPE, JEFF; BARRY, COLLEEN L

    2015-01-01

    Policy PointsThe American public—both men and women and those with and without children in the household—holds parents highly responsible and largely to blame for childhood obesity.High attributions of responsibility to parents for reducing childhood obesity did not universally undermine support for broader policy action. School-based obesity prevention policies were strongly supported, even among those viewing parents as mostly to blame for childhood obesity.Americans who viewed sectors outs...

  2. Parental alienation: when parents and children need help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Filipa Mendonça Gomes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The social changes that are contributing to modifications in family structure are also, among others, associated with an increase in divorces and difficulties in parenting. In this context, there are specific problems that arise such as parental alienation, where one of the parents, through manipulative strategies and maneuvers, tries to tarnish the image of the other, seeking to exclude him of child's life, destroying their bonding. Often, these actions can turn on false allegations of child abuse. For this reason it becomes even more important raising awareness on this issue. This article will focus the concept of parental alienation, as well as its causes, manifestations and effects that are associated with their practice.

  3. Understanding how different recruitment strategies impact parent engagement with an iPad-based intervention to provide personalized information about adolescent vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Maertens, Julie; Beaty, Brenda L; O'Leary, Sean T

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate provider time for addressing parents' questions and concerns about adolescent vaccines is a barrier to vaccine utilization. We sought to determine how different recruitment strategies impact the degree of engagement with an intervention that provided this information via an iPad placed in a clinical setting. We provided to three pediatric practices in the Denver area the "Teen VaxScene" web site that generates individually customized information for parents about adolescent vaccines. Three recruitment strategies were assessed for their impact on parental use of the intervention as follows: passive recruitment using posters to advertise a "kiosk" version of the intervention; posters plus a $10 incentive for using the kiosk; and posters plus a $10 incentive plus decoupling the iPad from the kiosks to enable "roving." We assessed the engagement with the intervention at multiple levels including log in, consent, and completion of a baseline survey and viewing individually tailored web pages. Surveys were used to assess barriers to using the intervention. During the 14-month study period, 693 people had contact with the iPad, 199 consented, and 48 completed the survey to enable creation of tailored content; and 42 used the tailored site. Five times as many parents (n = 40) consented to participation during the 2 months when the intervention was "roving" than during the 10-month "passive" recruitment period. Engagement with the tailored material was low, with most users viewing only the "table of contents" pages. Utilizers and nonutilizers of the intervention had similar demographic characteristics. Enabling the iPad to "rove" in the clinic greatly increased the proportion of parents consenting to use the intervention. However, meaningful engagement with the material was low. Further research is needed to understand the most effective and time efficient ways to provide vaccine-related educational information to parents of adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society

  4. Ash turbidites from Southern Italy help understanding the parent eruptions and contributing to geodynamic evolution cadre of the Tyrrhenian sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronzo, Domenico Maria

    2010-05-01

    volcaniclastic material is typical of a transitional high-K calc-alkaline series (basaltic andesite to rhyolite for the ash). The age and chemical composition constrain the provenance of the volcaniclastic Craco levels from the Southern Tyrrhenian domain, where a volcanic arc was probably active during the Pliocene. The hypothetical eruptive centres have been located at the northern termination of the arc, exactly in the Pontine islands area. Other neighbouring volcanic centres have been located on land in the Volturno plain. The integrated approach used in this work can be applied in the future to other tephra layers of Neogene successions for contributing to geodynamic evolution cadre of the Tyrrhenian sea.

  5. Parental control, nurturance, self-efficacy, and screen viewing among 5- to 6-year-old children: a cross-sectional mediation analysis to inform potential behavior change strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L; Sebire, Simon J

    2015-04-01

    Children's screen viewing (SV) is associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. Many children exceed the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 2 hours of television (TV) per day. There is limited information about how parenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit child screen time are associated with children's SV. This study examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children and whether any effects were mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. Data were from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. Child and parent SV were reported by a parent, who also provided information about their parenting practices and self-efficacy to restrict SV. A four-step regression method examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children. Mediation by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was examined using indirect effects. On a weekday, 90% of children watched TV for mediated associations between parental control and SV. Parental control was associated with lower levels of SV among 5- to 6-year-old children. This association was partially mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. The development of strategies to increase parental self-efficacy to limit screen-time may be useful.

  6. The Word Game: an innovative strategy for assessing implicit processes in parents at risk for child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L; Irwin, Lauren M; Wells, Brett M; Shelton, Christopher R; Skowronski, John J; Milner, Joel S

    2012-06-01

    Contemporary theories of child physical abuse (CPA) emphasize the proximal role of social cognitive processes (many of which are implicit in nature) in the occurrence of parental aggression. However, methods that allow for the systematic examination of implicit cognitive processes during the course of aggressive interactions are needed. To address this need, the present study was designed to examine the utility of the Word Game, an innovative procedure designed to assess implicit changes in schema accessibility during the course of an interpersonal exchange involving aggressive response options. The game involves a series of competitive reaction time trials which are actually lexical decision making trials designed to determine the accessibility of schema throughout the game. Each parent was led to believe that they were competing against another player with whom they exchanged sound blasts of varying intensities. Participants in the present study were parents who were either low (n=50) or high (n=20) risk for CPA. Results revealed that high CPA risk parents behaved more aggressively than low CPA risk parents and that provocation augmented the aggressiveness of all participants. Among high CPA risk parents, positive schema became less accessible (whereas negative schema became more accessible) following lost rounds. At the conclusion of the game, high CPA risk parents reported more aggressive motives than low CPA risk parents. Further, aggressive motives significantly mediated the association between CPA risk status and aggressiveness (i.e., mean sound blast selections). Collectively, results support the potential utility of the Word Game as a means of advancing the study of social cognitive processes involved in parental aggression. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  8. Successful recruitment strategies for prevention programs targeting children of parents with mental health challenges: An international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesum, K.T.M. van; Riebschleger, J.; Carroll, J.; Grové, C.; Lauritzen, C.; Mordoch, E.; Skerfving, A.

    2016-01-01

    Research substantiates children of parents with mental disorders including substance abuse face increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Although evidence suggests that support programs for children enhance resiliency, recruiting children to these groups remains problematic. This study

  9. Role modeling as an early childhood obesity prevention strategy: effect of parents and teachers on preschool children's healthy lifestyle habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby A; Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan; Arheart, Kris L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a child care center-based parent and teacher healthy lifestyle role-modeling program on child nutrition and physical activity outcomes. Child care centers (N = 28) serving low-income families were randomized to intervention or control arms. Intervention centers (N = 12) implemented (1) menu modifications, (2) a child's healthy lifestyle curriculum, and (3) an adult (teacher- and parent-focused) healthy lifestyle role-modeling curriculum. Control centers (N = 16) received an attention control safety curriculum. Nutrition and physical activity data were collected at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the school year. Exploratory factor analysis identified positive and negative nutrition and physical activity practices by children, parents, and teachers. Intervention parents' baseline (β = .52, p consumption (β = .47, p consumption of fruits/vegetables from T1 to T2. Intervention parents significantly influenced a decrease in children's junk food consumption (β = -.04, p junk food consumption (β = .60, p junk food consumption (β = .11, p = .01) and sedentary behavior (β = .09, p consumption of fruits/vegetables, junk food, and level of sedentary behavior. Future obesity prevention intervention efforts targeting this age group should include parents as healthy lifestyle role models for their children.

  10. Effects of the CD-Rom Version of the "Self-Advocacy Strategy" on Quality of Contributions in IEP Meetings of High School Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cease-Cook, Jennifer; Test, David W.; Scroggins, La' Shawndra

    2013-01-01

    This study used a multiple-probe across participants design to examine the effects of the CD-Rom version of the "Self-Advocacy Strategy" on quality of contributions in Individual Education Plan (IEP) meetings of five high school students with intellectual disability. Results indicated a functional relationship between using the CD-Rom…

  11. Quality of life and mental health among parents of children with cerebral palsy: the influence of self-efficacy and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillamón, Noemí; Nieto, Ruben; Pousada, Modesta; Redolar, Diego; Muñoz, Elena; Hernández, Eulàlia; Boixadós, Mercè; Gómez-Zúñiga, Benigna

    2013-06-01

    To explore the quality of life and mental health of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy and to examine the impact of self-efficacy and coping strategies on these outcomes. Few studies analyse the impact of caring for a child with cerebral palsy on the caregivers' quality of life besides mental health. Also, less attention has been paid to the influence of caregiver's personal resources like self-efficacy or coping strategies on how they adjust to the child's illness and the care situation. Cross-section correlational design. Sixty two parents of children with cerebral palsy completed measures to assess the quality of life (i.e. physical, environmental and social relationships), mental health (i.e. general mental health, depression and anxiety), self-efficacy and coping strategies. Parents of children with cerebral palsy had, in general terms, low levels of quality of life and mental health. Self-efficacy was related to most of the outcomes, whereas any of the coping strategies assessed was significantly related to the outcomes. Quality of life and mental health can be affected in caregivers of children with CP. Personal resources like self-efficacy also need attention as they can help in the understanding of the differences in these outcomes and the design of effective interventions. RELEVANCE OF CLINICAL PRACTICE: Self-efficacy should be a key element in interventions addressed to parents of children with CP to elicit a process of empowerment that can improve the well-being of the family as a whole. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Strategies that facilitate participation in family activities of children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: parents' and personal assistants' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin; Imms, Christine; Wilder, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Participation throughout one's life plays a significant role for development and emotional well-being. For this reason, there is a need to identify ways to facilitate participation in family activities for children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The study design was qualitative and explorative, based on semi structured interviews with 11 parents and 9 personal assistants of children with PIMD. The interviews revealed participation-facilitating strategies relating to the children's/adolescent's proximal environment, such as "Availability and acceptability of the activity", "Good knowledge about the child" and a "A positive attitude of people close to the child", as well as strategies related to the children/adolescents themselves: "Sense of belonging", "Possible for the child/adolescent to understand", "Opportunities to influence" and "Feeling of being needed". Children and adolescents with PIMD are dependent on support obtained through their environment. The identified strategies, individually adapted through awareness and knowledge by the parents and the personal assistants, provide important evidence to assist our understanding in gaining understanding about how to improve participation in family activities of children and adolescents with PIMD. Participation-facilitating strategies related to the child/adolescent and his or her proximal environments are identified to improve participation in children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Examples of strategies for the child's/adolescents' proximal environment include "good knowledge about the child/adolescent", and, for the child/adolescent, include creating "sense of belonging" and "opportunities to influence". Identifying and making these strategies explicit may assist in enhancing the participation of children and adolescents with PIMD in family activities. People in the child's/adolescent's proximal environment need to set

  13. Predicting Long-Term Growth in Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Unique Contributions of Motivation and Cognitive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10;…

  14. Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: the unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10; Mage  = 11.7 years at baseline; N = 3,530), latent growth curve modeling was employed to analyze growth in achievement. Results showed that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining additional variance. In contrast, intelligence had no relation with the growth of achievement over years, whereas motivation and learning strategies were predictors of growth. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and learning strategies in facilitating adolescents' development of mathematical competencies. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Parent-child interaction: Does parental language matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2016-11-01

    Although parental language and behaviour have been widely investigated, few studies have examined their unique and interactive contribution to the parent-child relationship. The current study explores how parental behaviour (sensitivity and non-intrusiveness) and the use of parental language (exploring and control languages) correlate with parent-child dyadic mutuality. Specifically, we investigated the following questions: (1) 'Is parental language associated with parent-child dyadic mutuality above and beyond parental behaviour?' (2) 'Does parental language moderate the links between parental behaviour and the parent-child dyadic mutuality?' (3) 'Do these differences vary between mothers and fathers?' The sample included 65 children (M age  = 1.97 years, SD = 0.86) and their parents. We observed parental behaviour, parent-child dyadic mutuality, and the type of parental language used during videotaped in-home observations. The results indicated that parental language and behaviours are distinct components of the parent-child interaction. Parents who used higher levels of exploring language showed higher levels of parent-child dyadic mutuality, even when accounting for parental behaviour. Use of controlling language, however, was not found to be related to the parent-child dyadic mutuality. Different moderation models were found for mothers and fathers. These results highlight the need to distinguish parental language and behaviour when assessing their contribution to the parent-child relationship. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  16. The impact of demand management strategies on parents' decision-making for out-of-hours primary care: findings from a survey in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Marie-Jeanne; Keizer, Ellen; van de Pol, Julia; Knoben, Joris; Wensing, Michel; Giesen, Paul

    2017-05-09

    To explore the potential impact of demand management strategies on patient decision-making in medically non-urgent and urgent scenarios during out-of-hours for children between the ages of 0 and 4 years. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with paper-based case scenarios. A survey was sent to all 797 parents of children aged between 0 and 4 years from four Dutch general practitioner (GP) practices. Four demand management strategies (copayment, online advice, overview medical cost and GP appointment next morning) were incorporated in two medically non-urgent and two urgent case scenarios. Combining the case scenarios with the demand management strategies resulted in 16 cases (four scenarios each with four demand management strategies). Each parent randomly received a questionnaire with three different case scenarios with three different demand strategies and a baseline case scenario without a demand management strategy. The response rate was 47.4%. The strategy online advice led to more medically appropriate decision-making for both non-urgent case scenarios (OR 0.26; CI 0.11 to 0.58) and urgent case scenarios (OR 0.16; CI 0.08 to 0.32). Overview of medical cost (OR 0.59; CI 0.38 to 0.92) and a GP appointment planned the next morning (OR 0.57; CI 0.34 to 0.97) had some influence on patient decisions for urgent cases, but not for non-urgent cases. Copayment had no influence on patient decisions. Online advice has the highest potential to reduce medically unnecessary use. Furthermore it enhanced safety of parents' decisions on seeking help for their young children during out-of-hours primary care. Valid online information on health symptoms for patients should be promoted. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Assessing the effectiveness of a community-based sensitization strategy in creating awareness about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among parents in North West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamai, Richard G; Ayissi, Claudine Akono; Oduwo, Geofrey O; Perlman, Stacey; Welty, Edith; Manga, Simon; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2012-10-01

    In 2010, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) received a donation of HPV vaccine (Gardasil®) to immunize girls of ages 9-13 years in the North West Region of Cameroon. We evaluated the effectiveness of the CBCHS campaign program in sensitizing parents/guardians to encourage HPV vaccine uptake, identified factors that influence parents' decisions to vaccinate girls, and examined the uptake of cervical cancer screening among mothers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in four healthcare facilities run by CBCHS, churches and other social settings. A total of 350 questionnaires were distributed and 317 were used for the analysis. There were high levels of awareness about cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine. 75.5% understood HPV is sexually transmitted and 90.3% were aware of the use of vaccine as a preventive measure. Effectiveness of the vaccine (31.8%) and side effects/safety (18.4%) were the major barriers for parents to vaccinate their daughters. Bivariate analysis further revealed that the level of education (p = 0.0006), income level (p = 0.0044) and perceived risks (p = 0.0044) are additional factors influencing parents' decisions to vaccinate girls. 35.3% of women had sought a cervical cancer screening, significantly higher than the general estimated rate of screening (<10%) in other parts of Cameroon and sub-Saharan Africa. These results support the viability of a community-tailored sensitization strategy to increase awareness among the targeted audience of parents/guardians, who are critical decision-makers for vaccine delivery to children.

  18. Do peers' parents matter? A new link between positive parenting and adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Michael J; Feinberg, Mark E; Osgood, D Wayne; Moody, James

    2012-05-01

    Although studies have demonstrated that an adolescent's parents and friends both influence adolescent substance use, it is not known whether the parenting experienced by one's friends also affects one's own use. Drawing on conceptions of shared parenting and the tenets of coercion theory, we investigated the extent to which three domains of parenting behaviors (parental knowledge, inductive reasoning, and consistent discipline) influenced the alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use of not only their own adolescent children but also of members of their adolescents' friendship groups. Analyses of friendship nominations within each of two successive ninth-grade cohorts in 27 Iowa and Pennsylvania schools (N = 7,439 students, 53.6% female) were used to identify 897 friendship groups. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine prospective associations between 9th-grade friendship group-level parenting behaviors and adolescent self-reported alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in 10th grade. Adolescent substance use in 10th grade was significantly related to parenting behaviors of friends' parents, after controlling for adolescents' reports of their own substance use and their own parents' behaviors at the 9th grade level. These associations were particularly strong for parents' knowledge about their children and use of inconsistent discipline strategies. Significant interaction effects indicated that these relationships were strongest when adolescents received positive parenting at home. Some, but not all, of the main effects of friends' parents' parenting became nonsignificant after friends' substance use in ninth grade was included in the model. The findings suggest that the parenting style in adolescents' friends' homes plays an important role in determining adolescent substance use. Implications of the joint contribution of parents and peers for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  19. Improving support for parents of children with hearing loss: provider training on use of targeted communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Karen; Nelson, Lauri; Blaiser, Kristina; Price, Tanner; Twohig, Michael

    2015-02-01

    When proper protocols are followed, children who are identified with a permanent hearing loss early in life have opportunities to develop language on par with their typical hearing peers. Young children with hearing loss are dependent on their parents to manage intervention during early years critical to their development, and parents' ability to effectively integrate recommendations in daily life is foundational for intervention success. Audiologists and early intervention professionals not only need to provide current evidence-based services, but also must address parents' emotional and learning needs related to their child's hearing loss. This study explored practice patterns related to education and support provided to parents of children with hearing loss and the influence of an in-service training on provider attitudes. This study used a prepost design with a self-report questionnaire to identify practice patterns related to communication skills and support used by providers when working with parents of children with hearing loss. A total of 45 participants (21 professionals and 24 graduate students) currently working with children completed the pretraining questionnaire, and 29 participants (13 professionals and 16 graduate students) completed the postquestionnaire. Data were collected using an online questionnaire before the training and 1 mo after training. Descriptive analyses were done to identify trends, and paired-samples t-tests were used to determine changes pretraining to posttraining. Findings revealed that professionals most frequently teach skills to mothers (91%) and infrequently teach skills to fathers (19%) and other caregivers (10%). Professionals reported frequently collaborating with other intervention providers (76%) and infrequently collaborating with primary care physicians (19%). One-third of the professionals reported addressing symptoms of depression and anxiety as an interfering factor with the ability to implement management

  20. Perceived effective and feasible strategies to promote healthy eating in young children: focus groups with parents, family child care providers and daycare assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children's eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14), family child care providers (n = 9), and daycare assistants (n = 10). The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy). Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.

  1. Perceived effective and feasible strategies to promote healthy eating in young children: focus groups with parents, family child care providers and daycare assistants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vandeweghe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children’s eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14, family child care providers (n = 9, and daycare assistants (n = 10. The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Results Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy. Conclusions Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.

  2. Successful Reading Strategies To Meet the Texas Reading Initiative Components: A Literary Review and Manual for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bridget; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper provides a literary review and research-based techniques for teaching reading. The paper also examines the different philosophies of reading to ascertain beneficial commonalities. Based on the literature review, a manual was produced to support administrators, teachers, and parents in securing quality reading instruction. Appendix A…

  3. The "Word Game": An Innovative Strategy for Assessing Implicit Processes in Parents at Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L.; Irwin, Lauren M.; Wells, Brett M.; Shelton, Christopher R.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contemporary theories of child physical abuse (CPA) emphasize the proximal role of social cognitive processes (many of which are implicit in nature) in the occurrence of parental aggression. However, methods that allow for the systematic examination of implicit cognitive processes during the course of aggressive interactions are needed.…

  4. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Minimally Verbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…

  5. Adolescent Secretive Behavior: African American and Hmong Adolescents' Strategies and Justifications for Managing Parents' Knowledge about Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Jeremy P.; Brown, B. Bradford

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon the expectancy violation-realignment theory of autonomy development, this qualitative study examined African American and Hmong adolescent autonomy-seeking behaviors and parent-child communication about activities and relationships with peers. Twenty-two African American and 11 Hmong adolescents in grades 6-12 and 14 African American…

  6. The contribution of parental alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric illness to the risk of alcohol use disorders in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Manzardo, Ann M; Knop, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Few population-based studies have investigated associations between parental history of alcoholism and the risk of alcoholism in offspring. The aim was to investigate in a large cohort the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the offspring of parents with or without AUD and with or without...

  7. Parental Depressive Symptoms and Marital Intimacy at 4.5 Years: Joint Contributions to Mother-Child and Father-Child Interaction at 6.5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Jennifer M.; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from a subset of 606 families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we assessed emotional intimacy in the marriage as a buffer of the negative effects of parental depression on the quality of parent-child interaction. Maternal and paternal…

  8. Actor modelling and its contribution to the development of integrative strategies for management of pharmaceuticals in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titz, Alexandra; Döll, Petra

    2009-02-01

    Widespread presence of human pharmaceuticals in water resources across the globe is documented. While some, but certainly not enough, research on the occurrence, fate and effect of pharmaceuticals in water resources has been carried out, a holistic risk management strategy is missing. The transdisciplinary research project "start" aimed to develop an integrative strategy by the participation of experts representing key actors in the problem field "pharmaceuticals in drinking water". In this paper, we describe a novel modelling method, actor modelling with the semi-quantitative software DANA (Dynamic Actor Network Analysis), and its application in support of identifying an integrative risk management strategy. Based on the individual perceptions of different actors, the approach allows the identification of optimal strategies. Actors' perceptions were elicited by participatory model building and interviews, and were then modelled in perception graphs. Actor modelling indicated that an integrative strategy that targets environmentally-responsible prescription, therapy, and disposal of pharmaceuticals on one hand, and the development of environmentally-friendly pharmaceuticals on the other hand, will likely be most effective for reducing the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water (at least in Germany where the study was performed). However, unlike most other actors, the pharmaceutical industry itself does not perceive that the production of environmentally-friendly pharmaceuticals is an action that helps to achieve its goals, but contends that continued development of highly active pharmaceutical ingredients will help to reduce the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle. Investment in advanced waste or drinking water treatment is opposed by both the wastewater treatment company and the drinking water supplier, and is not mentioned as appropriate by the other actors. According to our experience, actor modelling is a useful method to suggest effective

  9. Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, J G

    1995-04-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 110 primarily white, middle-class sixth, eighth, and tenth graders (M = 11.98, 13.84, and 16.18 years of age) and their parents (108 mothers and 92 fathers). Parents judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated family conflict and rules regarding 24 hypothetical moral, conventional, personal, multifaceted (containing conventional and personal components), prudential, and friendship issues. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Parents' parenting styles differentiated their conceptions of parental authority, but adolescents' perceptions did not. Differences were primarily over the boundaries of adolescents' personal jurisdiction. Furthermore, conceptions of parental authority and parenting styles both contributed significantly to emotional autonomy and adolescent-parent conflict. The implications of the findings for typological models of parenting and distinct domain views of social-cognitive development are discussed.

  10. Predicting parenting stress in caregivers of children with brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Emily; English, Martin William; Rennoldson, Michael; Starza-Smith, Arleta

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify factors that contribute to parenting stress in caregivers of children diagnosed with brain tumours. The study was cross-sectional and recruited 37 participants from a clinical database at a specialist children's hospital. Parents were sent questionnaires, which were used to measure factors related to stress in caregivers of children diagnosed with a brain tumour. Stress levels were measured using the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the associations between parenting stress and coping styles, locus of control, parent-perceived child disability and time since diagnosis. Results revealed that 51% of parents were experiencing clinically significant levels of stress. The mean stress level of parents in the study was significantly higher than the PSI/SF norms (t = 4.7, p parenting stress. Other styles of coping, child behaviour problems and the amount of time since diagnosis were not found to be predictive of levels of parenting stress. There was a high prevalence of parenting stress in caregivers of children with a brain tumour. An external locus of control and coping by accepting responsibility increased the likelihood of elevated levels of stress. Results emphasised the importance of ongoing support for parents of children with brain tumours. Intervention might helpfully be centred on strategies to increase parents' internal locus of control. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Attachment styles, grief responses, and the moderating role of coping strategies in parents bereaved by the Sewol ferry accident

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Previous studies on the influence of different types of attachment on grief responses have yielded contradictory outcomes. Little research has been conducted to identify the psychological processes that moderate the relationship between attachment representations and patterns of grief in disaster-related grief. Objective: The present study examines the effects of different attachment types on the grief responses of parents bereaved by loss of a child in a ferry accident, ...

  12. Adjustment to divorce and co-parental relations: contributions from the theory of attachment / Adaptação ao divórcio e relações coparentais: contributos da teoria da vinculação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lamela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is proposed the contribution of the attachment theory for understanding adults' adjustment processes to their divorce and how detachment to ex-spouse can infer in co-parenting relationships after marital dissolution. This article makes two theoretical assumptions that focus on two dimensions. The first hypothesis states that the divorce, while a relational process, should be read as a moment of loss that germinates similar psychological reactions to those experienced by widows. Bowlby describes it in his model of loss of the attachment figure as dependent on attachment styles of divorced adults. The second hypothesis argues that the post-divorce co-parenting relationships are predicted by the attachment styles and by the quality of parents' attachment reorganization. At the end, a theoretical integration is built, based on a proposal for future research in this area.

  13. Predictors of Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism: The Contribution of Certain Socio-demographic Features, Ideological Self-identification and Individualism/Collectivism on a Sample of Students and Their Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Križanec

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research has been to compare the levels of and to establish the connection between results of psychology students and their parents in relation to nationalism and cosmopolitanism and collectivism, and to horizontal and vertical individualism. In addition, an attempt has been made to define the contribution of socio-demographic variables, the importance of religion and the ideological orientation of the respondents along with collectivism/individualism in explaining the pronounced nature of nationalism and/or cosmopolitanism among the students and their parents. The research was carried out on a group of 200 students (26 male and 174 female and 296 parents (143 male and 153 female, all of Croatian nationality. Three questionnaires were applied: the Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism Scale (Čorkalo and Kamenov, 1999, the HVIC questionnaire on horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism (Singelis et al., 1995 and a socio-demographic questionnaire. The results showed that parents of students express more marked nationalism and collectivism than their (adult children, while students express more marked cosmopolitanism and horizontal individualism than their parents. However, as far as vertical individualism is concerned, there is no difference between the average results of students and parents. The correlation between the collectivism and individualism of students and their mothers and fathers is lower than that between nationalism and cosmopolitanism. The set of socio-demographic predictors, the importance of religion, ideological orientations and collectivism/individualism more reliably foresee nationalism rather than cosmopolitanism, both in the parental and student sample. The type and contribution of the individual predictors are similar in both samples, with the exception of certain socio-demographic predictors that were shown to be significant in the parental, but not in the student sample. Apart from socio

  14. Progression of impairment in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through the transition out of high school: Contributions of parent involvement and college attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrea L; Strickland, Noelle J; Murray, Desiree W; Tamm, Leanne; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G

    2016-02-01

    Long-term, prospective follow-up studies of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that symptoms tend to decline with age, but impairments in daily life functioning often persist into adulthood. We examined the developmental progression of impairments before and after the transition out of high school in relation to parent involvement during adolescence, parent support during adulthood, and college attendance, using 8 waves of data from the prospective 16-year follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study. Participants were 548 proband children diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) ADHD Combined Type and 258 age- and sex-matched comparison children (Local Normative Comparison Group; LNCG) randomly sampled from probands' schools. Impairment was assessed consistently by parent report from childhood through adulthood. Results showed that impairment worsens over time both before and after the transition to adulthood for those with ADHD histories, in contrast to non-ADHD peers, whose impairments remained stably low over time. However, impairment stabilized after leaving high school for young adults with ADHD histories who attended college. Involved parenting in adolescence was associated with less impairment overall. Attending college was associated with a stable post-high school trajectory of impairment regardless of parents' involvement during adolescence, but young adults with histories of involved parenting and who attended college were the least impaired overall. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Contribution of Regional White Matter Integrity to Visuospatial Construction Accuracy, Organizational Strategy, and Memory for a Complex Figure in Abstinent Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2009-12-01

    Visuospatial construction ability as used in drawing complex figures is commonly impaired in chronic alcoholics, but memory for such information can be enhanced by use of a holistic drawing strategy during encoding. We administered the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT) to 41 alcoholic and 38 control men and women and assessed the contribution of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of integrity of selected white matter tracts to ROCFT copy accuracy, copy strategy, and recall accuracy. Although alcoholics copied the figure less accurately than controls, a more holistic strategy at copy was associated with better recall in both groups. Greater radial diffusivity, reflecting compromised myelin integrity, in occipital forceps and external capsule was associated with poorer copy accuracy in both groups. Lower FA, reflecting compromised fiber microstructure in the inferior cingulate bundle, which links frontal and medial temporal episodic memory systems, was associated with piecemeal copy strategy and poorer immediate recall in the alcoholics. The correlations were generally modest and should be considered exploratory. To the extent that the inferior cingulate was relatively spared in alcoholics, it may have provided an alternative pathway to the compromised frontal system for successful copy strategy and, by extension, aided recall.

  16. Contributions for Repositioning a Regional Strategy for Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C): Results of a Pan-American Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Marilyn; Vizzotti, Carlos; Frassia, Romina; Vizzotti, Pablo; Akerman, Marco

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of the 1st Regional Survey of Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C) carried out in 2008 by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and ISALUD University of Argentina. It discusses the responses obtained from 12 countries in the Americas Region. Key informants in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay were selected and encouraged to answer the survey, while informants from Canada and Honduras answered voluntarily and were included in this analysis. The discussion of the results of the Survey provides insight into the current status of HM&C in the Region and suggests key topics for repositioning the Regional strategy relative to: (1) the conceptual identity and tools for HM&C; (2) challenging areas in the implementation process (scale, legal framework, and development of capacities); (3) related strategies and participatory processes such as the ways citizen empowerment in governance is supported; (4) the need to monitor and assess the impact of the HM&C strategy on the health and quality of life of the populations involved; and (5) the need for developing a strategic research and training agenda. The analysis and discussion of these results aims to provide useful input for repositioning the strategy in the Region and contributing to the emergence of a second generation of concepts and tools capable of meeting the developing priorities and needs currently faced by the HM&C strategy. PMID:20532989

  17. First aid strategies that are helpful to young people developing a mental disorder: beliefs of health professionals compared to young people and parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Annemarie

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the best ways for a member of the public to respond when someone in their social network develops a mental disorder. Controlled trials are not feasible in this area, so expert consensus may be the best guide. Methods To assess expert views, postal surveys were carried out with Australian GPs, psychiatrists and psychologists listed on professional registers and with mental health nurses who were members of a professional college. These professionals were asked to rate the helpfulness of 10 potential first aid strategies for young people with one of four disorders: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, social phobia and psychosis. Data were obtained from 470 GPs, 591 psychiatrists, 736 psychologists and 522 mental health nurses, with respective response rates of 24%, 35%, 40% and 32%. Data on public views were available from an earlier telephone survey of 3746 Australian youth aged 12–25 years and 2005 of their parents, which included questions about the same strategies. Results A clear majority across the four professions believed in the helpfulness of listening to the person, suggesting professional help-seeking, making an appointment for the person to see a GP and asking about suicidal feelings. There was also a clear majority believing in the harmfulness of ignoring the person, suggesting use of alcohol to cope, and talking to them firmly. Compared to health professionals, young people and their parents were less likely to believe that asking about suicidal feelings would be helpful and more likely to believe it would be harmful. They were also less likely to believe that talking to the person firmly would be harmful. Conclusion Several first aid strategies can be recommended to the public based on agreement of clinicians about their likely helpfulness. In particular, there needs to be greater public awareness of the helpfulness of asking a young person with a mental health problem about

  18. Economic and clinical contributions of an antimicrobial barrier dressing: a strategy for the reduction of surgical site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, David; Nazir, Jameel; Roberts, Chris; Searle, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In patients at risk of surgical site infection (SSI), there is evidence that an antimicrobial barrier dressing (Acticoat* ) applied immediately post-procedure is effective in reducing the incidence of infection. The objective of this study was to assess when it is appropriate to use an antimicrobial barrier dressing rather than a post-operative film dressing, by evaluating the net cost and budget impact of the two strategies. An economic model was developed, which estimates expected expenditure on dressings and the expected costs of surgical site infection during the initial inpatient episode, based on published literature on the pre-discharge costs of surgical infection and the efficacy of an antimicrobial barrier dressing in preventing SSI. At an SSI risk of 10%, an antimicrobial barrier dressing strategy is cost neutral if the incidence of infection is reduced by at least 9% compared with a post-operative film dressing. At 35% efficacy, expenditure on dressings would be higher by £30,760 per 1000 patients, and the cost of treating infection would be lower by £111,650, resulting in a net cost saving of £80,890. The break-even infection risk for cost neutrality is 2.6%. Although this cost analysis is based on published data, there are limitations in methodology: the model is dependent on and subject to the limitations of the data used to populate it. Further studies would be useful to increase the robustness of the conclusions, particularly in a broader range of surgical specialties. A strategy involving the use of an antimicrobial barrier dressing in patients at moderate (5-10%) or high (>10%) risk of infection appears reasonable and cost saving in light of the available clinical evidence.

  19. How Taxes Can Contribute to The Implementation of The Public Governance Strategy? – An Analysis for Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with a short literature review regarding the public governance concept in the EU approach and its methods for establishing a common way to manage different situations for all member states; we discovered that the problems they confront with have to do with good governance and qualitative public administration. In the second part, we developed an econometric model for three Eastern European countries and we found a strong correlation between the total revenues from taxes and social contributions and total gross debt in 2002-2014 period. We ended the paper by emphasizing the conclusions obtained.

  20. Contribution of diagnostic tests for the etiological assessment of uveitis, data from the ULISSE study (Uveitis: Clinical and medicoeconomic evaluation of a standardized strategy of the etiological diagnosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumet, Pierre; Kodjikian, Laurent; de Parisot, Audrey; Errera, Marie-Hélène; Sedira, Neila; Heron, Emmanuel; Pérard, Laurent; Cornut, Pierre-Loïc; Schneider, Christelle; Rivière, Sophie; Ollé, Priscille; Pugnet, Grégory; Cathébras, Pascal; Manoli, Pierre; Bodaghi, Bahram; Saadoun, David; Baillif, Stéphanie; Tieulie, Nathalie; Andre, Marc; Chiambaretta, Frédéric; Bonin, Nicolas; Bielefeld, Philip; Bron, Alain; Mouriaux, Frédéric; Bienvenu, Boris; Vicente, Stéphanie; Bin, Sylvie; Labetoulle, Marc; Broussolle, Christiane; Jamilloux, Yvan; Decullier, Evelyne; Sève, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    ULISSE is the only study that prospectively assessed the efficiency of a standardized strategy, compared to an open strategy for the etiologic diagnosis of uveitis. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of the tests prescribed in the ULISSE study to clarify their relevance. ULISSE is a non-inferiority, prospective, multicenter and cluster randomized study. The standardized strategy is a two-steps strategy: in the first step, common standard tests were performed, and in the second step, tests were guided by the clinical and anatomic type of uveitis. We reported the relevance of the diagnostic tests used in the standardized strategy, as well as the profitability of the tests that were prescribed to more than twenty patients in each group. Based on diagnostic criteria, either an ophthalmologist, or an internist, established the profitability of a test by considering whether the test lead to a diagnosis or not. Among the 676 patients included (standardized 303; open 373), a diagnosis was made for 152 (50.4%) in the standardized group and 203 (54.4%) in the open group. The most common entities were HLA-B27 associated uveitis (22%), spondyloarthritis (11%), sarcoidosis (18%), tuberculosis (10.7%) and herpes virus infections (8.5%). Among the first step's systematic tests, tuberculin skin test was the most contributive investigation (17.1%), followed by chest X-ray (8.4%), C reactive protein and ESR (6.6% and 5.1%), complete blood count (2.2%) and VDRL (2.0%). The second step's most often contributive tests were: HLA B27 (56.3%), chest-CT (30.3%) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (16.5%). HLA B27 and ACE were significantly more contributive in the standardized group than in the open group. Immunological tests were never contributive. Among the free investigations, or among the investigations guided by clinical or paraclinical findings, the most often contributive tests were: Quantiferon® (24%), electrophoresis of serum protein (7.8%) and sacroiliac imagery

  1. Potential contributions of renewable energy sources and economically and ecologically feasible development strategies for Nordrhein-Westfalen. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, M.; Skiba, M.; Gernhardt; Ziolek, A.; Unger, H.

    1995-08-01

    This final technical report of the study contains the important equations and results of the above mentioned project. The main aim of the study was to show the importance of renewable energy in Nordrhein-Westfalen regarding its possible contribution to the energy supply as well as the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, caused by the convertion of energy. Considering the energy sources photovoltaic, solar heating, wind and biomass, an economically oriented energy mix of renewable energy systems is developed, which describes the most economical combination of renewable energy sources and its production costs in dependence on the converted energy. In this connection a regional disaggregated estimation of the theoretical possible maximum contribution of the single renewable energy sources to the energy supply in the communities of Nordrhein-Westfalen is investigated. Basing on this estimation and on the technical datas of commerical manufactured systems, converting the energy sources sun, wind and biomass, the technical possibilities for an extension of the renewable energy are determined for every community. The result of the examinations shows, that the energy supply in Nordrhein-Westfalen could by based in future on barely a fourth by using renewable energy sources, on barely a third by using energy more efficient and on nearly the half by using fossil and nuclear energy sources. The costs however, which would be connected with an extension of renewable energy sources according to the suggested energy mix, can economical not be accepted in the further future. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Teacher and parent experiences of parent-teacher conferences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teachers are seldom trained to interact with parents, and both parents and teachers often find such encounters stressful and ineffective. This paper investigates parent and teacher perspectives on the parent-teacher conference through a qualitative inquiry. This is framed by the contributions of ecological theorists to home- ...

  3. When a Parent Is Away: Promoting Strong Parent-Child Connections during Parental Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Julia; Zoll, Sally; Reschke, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    How does a parent stay connected with an infant or toddler during a prolonged separation? Research has shown how important early connections are for child development. When a parent is not present physically, there are strategies that military parents have been using to keep a parent and child connected, promoting mindfulness. Because infants and…

  4. Family Functioning Predictors of Self-Concept and Self-Esteem in Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities in Oman: Exclusion of Parent and Gender Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Abu-Serei, Usama Saad

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated whether family functioning can predict the self-concept and self-esteem of normally achieving (NA) and at risk for learning disabilities (LD) students in Oman regardless of parent education level and gender status. A total of 259 elementary school students were selected from schools in the main districts of Muscat, the…

  5. Communicating with parents about vaccination: a framework for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Julie; Kinnersley, Paul; Jackson, Cath; Cheater, Francine; Bedford, Helen; Rowles, Greg

    2012-09-21

    A critical factor shaping parental attitudes to vaccination is the parent's interactions with health professionals. An effective interaction can address the concerns of vaccine supportive parents and motivate a hesitant parent towards vaccine acceptance. Poor communication can contribute to rejection of vaccinations or dissatisfaction with care. We sought to provide a framework for health professionals when communicating with parents about vaccination. Literature review to identify a spectrum of parent attitudes or 'positions' on childhood vaccination with estimates of the proportion of each group based on population studies. Development of a framework related to each parental position with determination of key indicators, goals and strategies based on communication science, motivational interviewing and valid consent principles. Five distinct parental groups were identified: the 'unquestioning acceptor' (30-40%), the 'cautious acceptor' (25-35%); the 'hesitant' (20-30%); the 'late or selective vaccinator' (2-27%); and the 'refuser' of all vaccines (parents' readiness to vaccinate. In all encounters, health professionals should build rapport, accept questions and concerns, and facilitate valid consent. For the hesitant, late or selective vaccinators, or refusers, strategies should include use of a guiding style and eliciting the parent's own motivations to vaccinate while, avoiding excessive persuasion and adversarial debates. It may be necessary to book another appointment or offer attendance at a specialised adverse events clinic. Good information resources should also be used. Health professionals have a central role in maintaining public trust in vaccination, including addressing parents' concerns. These recommendations are tailored to specific parental positions on vaccination and provide a structured approach to assist professionals. They advocate respectful interactions that aim to guide parents towards quality decisions.

  6. Parents' Executive Functioning and Involvement in Their Child's Education: An Integrated Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Damali M; Gross, Deborah

    2018-04-01

    Parents' involvement in their children's education is integral to academic success. Several education-based organizations have identified recommendations for how parents can best support their children's learning. However, executive functioning (EF), a high-ordered cognitive skill set, contributes to the extent to which parents can follow through with these recommendations. This integrative review of the literature describes how executive function can affect parents' ability to facilitate and actively participate in their child's education and provides strategies for all school staff to strengthen parent-school partnerships when parents have limitations in EF. EF skills are fluid and influenced by several factors, including parental age, sleep, stress, and mood/affect. Despite possible limitations in parental EF, there are strategies school personnel can employ to strengthen partnership with parents to support their children's academic success. As reforms in education call for increased customization and collaboration with families, parental EF is an important consideration for school personnel. Awareness and understanding of how parents' EF affects children's learning will help schools better support parents in supporting their children's academic success. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of School Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American School Health Association.

  7. The relationship between perceived parenting styles and resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results — Authoritative parenting provided the most significant contribution to the explanation of the variance in resilience for black and white adolescents, and both genders. Surprisingly, the findings suggest that there is a positive relationship between fathers' authoritarian styles and emotion-focused coping strategies in ...

  8. One-parent family as agent of socialization: interrelation of mother’s conception of child’s psychological well-being and her strategies of coping with difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinskaya E.P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of psychological characteristics of one-parent families. The family, in which a child is brought by one parent, now is becoming an important independent object of socio-psychological research. According to authors’ opinion, the subject of importance is not only the specifics of individual psychologi- cal characteristics of single-parent families, but also the interaction of these impor- tant characteristics. The authors chose the following socio-psychological variables for investigation: the mother’s perception of psychological well-being of her child, the nature of her coping strategies and style of upbringing. The authors revealed a variety of social and psychological characteristics of single-parent families. Thus, the parent strategy of positive reformulation of problems is involved as a way to see the positive aspects of the situation in the family and the relationship with the child on case of the lack of consistency in style of education and lack of inhibitions; and active coping strategies — with a focus on promotion rather than punishment in the child's behavior regulation. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project № 14-18-00598 «Patterns and mechanisms of positive socialization in modern children and teenagers».

  9. Independent contributions of the central executive, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior to developmental change in the strategies used to solve addition problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara

    2012-09-01

    Children's (N=275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7=4+3 and thus 6+7=6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between capacity of the central executive component of working memory, controlling for intelligence and in-class attentive behavior, and grade-related changes in children's use of these strategies. The predictor on intercept effects from multilevel models revealed that children with higher central executive capacity correctly retrieved more facts and used the most sophisticated counting procedure more frequently and accurately than their lower capacity peers at the beginning of first grade, but the predictor on slope effects indicated that this advantage disappeared (retrieval) or declined in importance (counting) from first grade to fourth grade. The predictor on slope effects also revealed that from first grade to fourth grade, children with higher capacity adopted the decomposition strategy more quickly than other children. The results remained robust with controls for children's sex, race, school site, speed of encoding Arabic numerals and articulating number words, and mathematics achievement in kindergarten. The results also revealed that intelligence and in-class attentive behavior independently contributed to children's strategy development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mapping the Flavor Contributing Traits on "Fengwei Melon" (Cucumis melo L. Chromosomes Using Parent Resequencing and Super Bulked-Segregant Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available We used a next-generation high-throughput sequencing platform to resequence the Xinguowei and Shouxing melon cultivars, the parents of Fengwei melon. We found 84% of the reads (under a coverage rate of "13×" placed on the reference genome DHL92. There were 2,550,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 140,000 structural variations in the two genomes. We also identified 1,290 polymorphic genes between Xinguowei and Shouxing. We combined specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq and bulked-segregant analysis (super-BSA to analyze the two parents and the F2 extreme phenotypes. This combined method yielded 12,438,270 reads, 46,087 SLAF tags, and 4,480 polymorphic markers (average depth of 161.81×. There were six sweet trait-related regions containing 13 differential SLAF markers, and 23 sour trait-related regions containing 48 differential SLAF markers. We further fine-mapped the sweet trait to the genomic regions on chromosomes 6, 10, 11, and 12. Correspondingly, we mapped the sour trait-related genomic regions to chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 12. Finally, we positioned nine of the 61 differential markers in the sweet and sour trait candidate regions on the parental genome. These markers corresponded to one sweet and eight sour trait-related genes. Our study provides a basis for marker-assisted breeding of desirable sweet and sour traits in Fengwei melons.

  11. The effectiveness of mindful parenting programs in promoting parents' and children's wellbeing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townshend, Kishani; Jordan, Zoe; Stephenson, Matthew; Tsey, Komla

    2016-03-01

    The rationale for undertaking this review was to investigate a potential strategy to address the rising prevalence of child and adolescent mental health disorders. The central tenants of mindful parenting appear to be emotional awareness, emotional regulation, attention regulation, intentionality and non-judgmental acceptance. The primary objective of this review was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of mindful parenting programs in promoting children's, adolescents' and parents' wellbeing, particularly in relation to the intensity of symptoms associated with internalizing (depression, anxiety, stress) and externalizing (conduct) disorders. The secondary objective was to evaluate how effective mindful parenting programs are in improving emotional regulation, attention regulation, quality of the parent-child relationship, resilience and mindfulness of the children, adolescents and parents. Children aged between 0 and 18 years and their parents who have completed a mindful parenting program were the focus of this review. Mindful parenting programs included in this review had a minimum duration of one to two hours per week for 6 to 8 weeks, delivered in a group format, by a facilitator with appropriate training. It included parenting programs that drew upon mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavior therapy or acceptance commitment therapy. The comparator was the control or waitlist conditions. This review focused on randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of mindful parenting programs. Primary outcomes were wellbeing or intensity of symptoms associated with internalizing disorders (depression, anxiety, stress) and externalizing disorders (conduct disorders) in children, adolescents and parents. Secondary outcomes were emotional regulation, quality of the parent-child relationship, resilience and mindfulness of the children, adolescents and

  12. TEORÍAS DE NIÑAS Y NIÑOS SOBRE EL CASTIGO PARENTAL. APORTES PARA LA EDUCACIÓN Y LA CRIANZA (THEORIES OF GIRLS AND BOYS ABOUT PARENTAL PUNISHMENT. CONTRIBUTIONS FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD-RAISING PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Gutiérrez Ginette

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente estudio cualitativo, correspondiente a una tesis de grado en psicología, expone las teoríasde niñas y niños escolares sobre las prácticas de castigo parental a partir del modelo teórico del desarrollo moral -emocional. Mediante los aportes del Método de Comparación Constante (o Teoría Fundamentada se elaboró uninstrumento adecuado a la población del estudio, al tema y según algunos criterios ético-metodológicos parafinalmente, realizar entrevistas individuales a partir de estímulos visuales y narrativos.Como conclusión general, se encontró una pluralidad de sentidos y perspectivas sobre las prácticas de castigoparental, posible como teoría, desde el sentido común, debido a la capacidad infantil de dimensionar la posiciónadulta y el contexto global de las situaciones desde una actitud empática que derivó en razonamientos yexplicaciones con contenido cognitivo-afectivo.Abstract:This qualitative study, corresponding to a graduate thesis in Psychology, details the theories of primary school girls and boys about parental punishment from a moral -emotional theoretical model of development.Through the use of the Constant Comparison Method (or Grounded Theory, an instrument was designed that could fit the subjects, the topic and some ethical and methological criteria, in order to finally carry out individual interviews based on visual and narrative stimuli.As a general conclusion, a plurality of meanings and perspectives about parental punishment was found: a possible commonsense theory about child's capacity to visualize the adult position and the global context resulted in empathetic ideas and explanations of a cognitive-affective nature.

  13. Parental overprotection and metacognitions as predictors of worry and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Manfredi, Chiara; Rebecchi, Daniela; Rovetto, Francesco; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Nikčević, Ana V; Sassaroli, Sandra

    2012-05-01

    Parental overprotection may have a direct effect on worry through hindering children's exploration experiences and preventing the learning of action-oriented coping strategies (Cheron, Ehrenreich and Pincus, 2009; Nolen-Hoeksema, Wolfson, Mumme and Guskin, 1995) and an indirect effect through fostering the development of maladaptive metacognitions that are associated with the activation of worry and the escalation of anxiety (Wells, 2000). The aim was to investigate the relative contribution of recalled parental overprotection in childhood and metacognitions in predicting current levels of worry. A community sample (n = 301) was administered four self-report instruments to assess parental overprotection, metacognitions, anxiety and worry. Metacognitions were found to predict levels of worry independently of gender, anxiety and parental overprotection. They were also found to predict anxiety independently of gender, worry and parental overprotection. The combination of a family environment perceived to be characterized by overprotection and high levels of maladaptive metacognitions are a risk factor for the development of worry.

  14. Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Dorothy VM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children who are late talkers go on to develop normal language, but others go on to have longer-term language difficulties. In this study, we considered which factors were predictive of persistent problems in late talkers. Methods Parental report of expressive vocabulary at 18 months of age was used to select 26 late talkers and 70 average talkers, who were assessed for language and cognitive ability at 20 months of age. Follow-up at 4 years of age was carried out for 24 late and 58 average talkers. A psychometric test battery was used to categorize children in terms of language status (unimpaired or impaired and nonverbal ability (normal range or more than 1 SD below average. The vocabulary and non-word repetition skills of the accompanying parent were also assessed. Results Among the late talkers, seven (29% met our criteria for specific language impairment (SLI at 4 years of age, and a further two (8% had low nonverbal ability. In the group of average talkers, eight (14% met the criteria for SLI at 4 years, and five other children (8% had low nonverbal ability. Family history of language problems was slightly better than late-talker status as a predictor of SLI.. The best predictors of SLI at 20 months of age were score on the receptive language scale of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the parent's performance on a non-word repetition task. Maternal education was not a significant predictor of outcome. Conclusions In this study, around three-quarters of late talkers did not have any language difficulties at 4 years of age, provided there was no family history of language impairment. A family history of language-literacy problems was found to be a significant predictor for persisting problems. Nevertheless, there are children with SLI for whom prediction is difficult because they did not have early language delay.

  15. "I Don't Want Them to Feel Different": A Mixed Methods Study of Parents' Beliefs and Dietary Management Strategies for Their Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Susana R; Clements, Mark A; George, Katie; Goggin, Kathy

    2016-02-01

    Many young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) do not consume a healthful diet; exactly why this occurs despite T1DM education remains poorly understood. This study describes parents' perceptions of healthful eating for T1DM in young children and identifies factors related to parents' dietary management. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods study was performed. Parents completed a questionnaire, 3-day weighed diet record, and a semi-structured interview regarding their perceptions of healthful eating for T1DM and their dietary management practices. Twenty-three families, recruited from a pediatric diabetes clinic in the midwestern United States between February 2012 and April 2013, participated. Eligible families had a child with T1DM who was 1 to 6 years old, at least 6 months from diagnosis, and was following an intensive insulin regimen. Mean scores and percentages were calculated from the diet diaries and parent questionnaires, and parents' interviews were coded to identify common themes. Results showed that while parents may believe they know what constitutes a healthful diet for T1DM, they do not always feed their child a healthful diet. Parent-identified barriers to healthful eating included limited time to prepare homemade meals, perceived higher costs of healthier foods, the influence of peers on children's food preferences, and picky eating. Parents also discussed a desire not to limit their child's diet or make their child "feel different," which many parents said often led them to give into their child's requests for less healthful food options. Parents of young children with T1DM identified several barriers to healthful eating that are common for all parents, such as time constraints, expense, and child food preferences. However, unique themes emerged, including parents' desire not to limit their child's diet or make their child "feel different." Nutrition components of T1DM education should include psychological and behavioral strategies to help

  16. Parents, Peers and Pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Marsha

    This book looks at the problem of drug abuse, particularly the use of marihuana by children ages 9 to 14, and describes one strategy parents can use to prevent drug use by their children. On the premise that nonmedical drug use is not acceptable for children, parents need to provide guidance and exercise discipline with respect to drug use among…

  17. Contribution analysis as an evaluation strategy in the context of a sector-wide approach: Performance-based health financing in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Noltze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sector-wide approaches (SWAps emerged as a response to donor fragmentation and non-adjusted and parallel programming. In the health sector, SWAps have received considerable support by the international donor community due to their potential to reduce inefficiencies through alignment to common procedures and hence to increase development effectiveness. Evaluating development cooperation in the context of a SWAp, however, translates into methodological challenges for evaluators who have to disentangle the cumulative effects in strongly donor-aligned, complex sector environments. In this article the authors discussed the application of a methodological strategy for evaluating development interventions in complex settings – for example in the context of a SWAp –and reflected the suitability of the approach. The authors conducted a contribution analysis, a theory-based approach to evaluation, and exemplified the approach for an intervention of performance-based financing for Rwandan health workers supported by the Rwanda-German cooperation. The findings suggested that the Rwandan system of performance based financing increased service orientation and outputs of health professionals, but also indicated that negative motivational side effects and resource constraints are real. With regard to the methodological approach, the authors conclude that contribution analysis has a high potential to evaluate development cooperation in the context of a SWAp dueto its high flexibility to use different data collection tools and its capability to assess risks and rival explanations. Challenges can be identified with regard to the efficiency of the evaluation strategy and a remaining trade-off between scope and causal strength ofevidence.

  18. Infantile anorexia, co-excitation and co-mastery in the parent/baby cathexis: The contribution of Sigmund and Anna Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show that 2% of babies in ordinary paediatric clinics suffer from infantile anorexia. In the first part of this paper we present a case study from our hospital clinical activity. Our framework combines clinical psychoanalytic sessions and perinatal videos. In the second part, we will focus on the concepts of instinct and excitation proposed by Sigmund Freud and the concept of mastery proposed by Anna Freud. In the third part, we will examine these concepts in the light of the case study. The fourth part is devoted to clinical recommendations from our hospital psychoanalytic practice. In conclusion, unlike other clinical settings, the psychoanalytic setting allows for the elaboration of the parental hatred included in the libidinal cathexis. Our psychoanalytic setting (sessions/videos) makes it possible to decontaminate parental intrapsychic elements overloaded with excitement, saturated with hate elements, and rendered sterile by the instinct for mastery. An initial part of the treatment process involves working through the intersubjective elements observed in the video. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  19. Improved nurse-parent communication in neonatal intensive care unit: evaluation and adjustment of an implementation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Janne; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Egerod, Ingrid

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate and adjust systematic implementation of guided family-centred care in a neonatal intensive care unit. Family-centred care is valued in neonatal intensive care units internationally, but innovative strategies are needed to realise the principles. Guided family-centred care was developed to facilitate person-centred communication by bridging the gap between theory and practice in family-centred care. Main mechanisms of guided family-centred care are structured dialogue, reflection and person-centred communication. Qualitative and quantitative data were used to monitor participatory implementation of a systematic approach to training and certification of nurses delivering guided family-centred care. Systematic implementation of guided family-centred care included workshops, supervised delivery and certification. Evaluation and adjustment of nurse adherence to guided family-centred care was conducted by monitoring (1) knowledge, (2) delivery, (3) practice uptake and (4) certification. Implementation was improved by the development of a strategic framework and by adjusting the framework according to the real-life context of a busy neonatal care unit. Promoting practice uptake was initially underestimated, but nurse guided family-centred care training was improved by increasing the visibility of the study in the unit, demonstrating intervention progress to the nurses and assuring a sense of ownership among nurse leaders and nonguided-family-centred-care-trained nurses. An adjusted framework for guided family-centred care implementation was successful in overcoming barriers and promoting facilitators. Insights gained from our pioneering work might help nurses in a similar context to reach their goals of improving family-centred care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Parental Alienation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Torun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Children who have been programmed by one parent to be alienated from the other parent are commonly seen in the context of child-custody disputes. Its primary manifestation is the child’s campaign of denigration against a parent, a campaign that has no justification. It is said to result from a combination of a programming (brainwashing parent’s indoctrinations and the child’s own contributions to the vilification of the targeted parent. Many evaluators use the term parental alienation syndrome to refer to the disorder engendered in such children. However, there is significant controversy going on about the validity of parental alienation syndrome. The purpose of this article has been to describe and help to differentiate parental alienation syndrome and abuse for mental health professionals working in the field, and discuss the arguments about the validity of this syndrome.

  1. Ergonomics Contributions to Company Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dul (Jan); W.P. Neumann (Patrick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractManagers usually associate ergonomics with occupational health and safety and related legislation, not with business performance. In many companies, these decision makers seem not to be positively motivated to apply ergonomics for reasons of improving health and safety. In order to

  2. Communicating with parents about vaccination: a framework for health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leask Julie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical factor shaping parental attitudes to vaccination is the parent’s interactions with health professionals. An effective interaction can address the concerns of vaccine supportive parents and motivate a hesitant parent towards vaccine acceptance. Poor communication can contribute to rejection of vaccinations or dissatisfaction with care. We sought to provide a framework for health professionals when communicating with parents about vaccination. Methods Literature review to identify a spectrum of parent attitudes or ‘positions’ on childhood vaccination with estimates of the proportion of each group based on population studies. Development of a framework related to each parental position with determination of key indicators, goals and strategies based on communication science, motivational interviewing and valid consent principles. Results Five distinct parental groups were identified: the ‘unquestioning acceptor’ (30–40%, the ‘cautious acceptor’ (25–35%; the ‘hesitant’ (20–30%; the ‘late or selective vaccinator’ (2–27%; and the ‘refuser’ of all vaccines ( Conclusions Health professionals have a central role in maintaining public trust in vaccination, including addressing parents’ concerns. These recommendations are tailored to specific parental positions on vaccination and provide a structured approach to assist professionals. They advocate respectful interactions that aim to guide parents towards quality decisions.

  3. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...... on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection...

  4. Characterization of Courtesy Stigma Perceived by Parents of Overweight Children with Bardet-Biedl Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlington, Barbara; Ivey, Lauren E; Brenna, Ethan; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biesecker, Barbara B; Sapp, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    A child's obesity is generally perceived by the public to be under the control of the child's parents. While the health consequences of childhood obesity are well understood, less is known about psychological and social effects of having an obese child on parents. We set out to characterize stigma and courtesy stigma experiences surrounding obesity among children with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), a multisystem genetic disorder, and their parents. Twenty-eight parents of children with BBS participated in semi-structured interviews informed by social stigmatization theory, which describes courtesy stigma as parental perception of stigmatization by association with a stigmatized child. Parents were asked to describe such experiences. Parents of children with BBS reported the child's obesity as the most frequent target of stigmatization. They perceived health care providers as the predominant source of courtesy stigma, describing interactions that resulted in feeling devalued and judged as incompetent parents. Parents of children with BBS feel blamed by others for their child's obesity and described experiences that suggest health care providers may contribute to courtesy stigma and thus impede effective communication about managing obesity. Health care providers may reinforce parental feelings of guilt and responsibility by repeating information parents may have previously heard and ignoring extremely challenging barriers to weight management, such as a genetic predisposition to obesity. Strategies to understand and incorporate parents' perceptions and causal attributions of their children's weight may improve communication about weight control.

  5. Characterization of Courtesy Stigma Perceived by Parents of Overweight Children with Bardet-Biedl Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hamlington

    Full Text Available A child's obesity is generally perceived by the public to be under the control of the child's parents. While the health consequences of childhood obesity are well understood, less is known about psychological and social effects of having an obese child on parents. We set out to characterize stigma and courtesy stigma experiences surrounding obesity among children with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS, a multisystem genetic disorder, and their parents.Twenty-eight parents of children with BBS participated in semi-structured interviews informed by social stigmatization theory, which describes courtesy stigma as parental perception of stigmatization by association with a stigmatized child. Parents were asked to describe such experiences.Parents of children with BBS reported the child's obesity as the most frequent target of stigmatization. They perceived health care providers as the predominant source of courtesy stigma, describing interactions that resulted in feeling devalued and judged as incompetent parents.Parents of children with BBS feel blamed by others for their child's obesity and described experiences that suggest health care providers may contribute to courtesy stigma and thus impede effective communication about managing obesity. Health care providers may reinforce parental feelings of guilt and responsibility by repeating information parents may have previously heard and ignoring extremely challenging barriers to weight management, such as a genetic predisposition to obesity. Strategies to understand and incorporate parents' perceptions and causal attributions of their children's weight may improve communication about weight control.

  6. Stress in parents of children born very preterm is predicted by child externalising behaviour and parent coping at age 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Mark A; Cepeda, Ivan L; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-06-01

    To examine factors which predict parenting stress in a longitudinal cohort of children born very preterm, and seen at age 7 years. We recruited 100 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestational age) child-parent dyads and a control group of 50 term-born dyads born between 2001 and 2004 with follow-up at 7 years. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Child Behavior Check List, Beck Depression Inventory and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires. Child IQ was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-IV. After controlling for maternal education, parents of preterm children (95% CI 111.1 to 121.4) scored higher (p=0.027) on the Parenting Stress Index than term-born controls (95% CI 97.8 to 113.2). Regression analyses showed that child externalising behaviour, sex and parent escape/avoidance coping style, predicted higher parenting stress in the preterm group. Parents of preterm girls expressed higher levels of stress than those of boys. Maladaptive coping strategies contribute to greater stress in parents of very preterm children. Our findings suggest that these parents need support for many years after birth of a very preterm infant. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Analysis of the factors that prevent adherence to treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus and the strategies that contribute to the improvement in adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Likhodey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This review examined the current problem of low adherence to treatment in patients with chronic diseases, particularly type 2 diabetes mellitus. According to the definition of the World Health Organization, ‘adherence to treatment’ is the degree to which a patient’s behaviour corresponds to the doctor’s recommendations with respect to medications and implementation of dietary advice and/or lifestyle changes. The current medical literature includes a large number of scientific publications devoted to the study of various factors that lead to low adherence to treatment. The term ‘barriers’ is most often used to designate these factors. The first part of this work contains an analysis of the main factors that impede compliance to the doctor’s recommendations, such as socioeconomic and psychological (personal barriers related to the disease itself, the peculiarities of its treatment and the organisation of medical care (the health care system. The second part of this review examines the different theoretical models of patient behaviour and strategies that improve adherence to treatment. Most researchers believe that there is an unsatisfactory (low adherence to treatment and that none of the existing intervention strategies can improve adherence to treatment among all patients. The cornerstone of the entire diabetes management system is the training of patients within the framework of developed structured programmes. Conversely,, success depends on the individual approach, the course of the disease and the mandatory consideration of the individual psychological characteristics of each person. Establishment of a partnership built on trust between a doctor and a patient contributes to greater patient satisfaction with treatment and improved adherence, and this relationship ultimately affects the treatment efficacy and clinical outcomes.

  8. Parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour before and after a parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Linda; Kendall, Sally

    2012-10-01

    To explore whether changes in parenting self-efficacy after attending a parenting programme are related to changes in parenting stress and child behaviour. Adverse parenting is a risk factor in the development of a range of health and behavioural problems in childhood and is predictive of poor adult outcomes. Strategies for supporting parents are recognised as an effective way to improve the health, well-being and development of children. Parenting is influenced by many factors including the behaviour and characteristics of the child, the health and psychological well-being of the parent and the contextual influences of stress and support. Parenting difficulties are a major source of stress for parents, and parenting self-efficacy has been shown to be an important buffer against parenting stress. In all, 63 parents who had a child under the age of 10 years took part in the research. Of those, 58 returned completed measures of parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour at the start of a parenting programme and 37 at three-month follow-up. Improvements in parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress were found at follow-up, but there was less evidence for improvements in child behaviour. The findings clearly suggest a relationship between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress; parents who are feeling less efficacious experience higher levels of stress, whereas greater parenting self-efficacy is related to less stress. This study adds to the evidence that parent outcomes may be a more reliable measure of programme effectiveness than child outcomes at least in the short term.

  9. Contribution of the European Commission to a European Strategy for HLW Management through Partitioning and Transmutation: Presentation of MYRRHA and its Role in the European P and T Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahim, H.A.; Van den Eynde, G.; Baeten, P.; Schyns, M.; Vandeplassche, D.; Kochetkov, A.

    2015-01-01

    To be able to answer the world's increasing demand for energy, nuclear energy must be part of the energy mix. As a consequence of the nuclear electricity generation, high-level nuclear waste (HLW) is produced. The HLW is presently considered to be managed through its burying in geological storage. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) has been pointed out as the strategy to reduce the radiological impact of HLW. Transmutation can be achieved in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, both in critical fast reactors as well as in accelerator driven systems (ADSs). For more than two decades, the European Commission has been co-funding various research and development projects conducted in many European research organisations and industries related to P and T as a complementary strategy for high-level waste management to the geological disposal. In 2005, a European strategy for the implementation of P and T for a large part of the HLW in Europe indicated the need for the demonstration of its feasibility at an 'engineering' level. The R and D activities of this strategy were arranged in four 'building blocks': 1. Demonstration of the capability to process a sizable amount of spent fuel from commercial light water reactors (LWRs) in order to separate plutonium, uranium and minor actinides. 2. Demonstration of the capability to fabricate at a semi-industrial level the dedicated fuel needed as load in a dedicated transmuter. 3. Design and construction of one or more dedicated transmuters. 4. Provision of a specific installation for processing of the dedicated fuel unloaded from the transmuter, which can be of a different type than the one used to process the original spent fuel unloaded from the commercial power plants, together with the fabrication of new dedicated fuel. MYRRHA contributes to the third building block. MYRRHA is an ADS under development at SCK.CEN in collaboration with a large number of European partners. One of

  10. Female high school biology students' biofilm-focused learning: The contributions of three instructional strategies to patterns in understanding and motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ales, Jo Dale Hill

    2000-12-01

    This exploratory study examined three instructional strategies used with female high school biology students. The relative contributions of the strategies to student understanding of microbiology and motivation in science were analyzed. The science education community targeted underachievement in science by implementing changes in content and practices (NRC, 1996). Research suggested that teachers facilitate learnirig environments based on human constructivism (Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1997) that is rooted in meaningful learning theory (Ausubel, Novak & Hanesian, 1978). Teachers were advised to use both visual and verbal instructional strategies (Paivio, 1983) and encourage students to construct understandings by connecting new experiences to prior knowledge. The American Society for Microbiology supports the study of microorganisms because of their prominence in the biosphere (ASK 1997). In this study, two participating teachers taught selected microbiology concepts while focused on the cutting edge science of biofilms. Biology students accessed digitized biofilm images on an ASM web page and adapted them into products, communicated with biofilm researchers, and adapted a professional-quality instructional video for cross-age teaching. The study revealed improvements in understanding as evidenced on a written test; however, differences in learnirig outcomes were not significant. Other data, including student journal reflections, observations of student interactions, and student clinical interviews indicate that students were engaged in cutting edge science and adapted biofilm images in ways that increased understanding of microbiology (with respect to both science content and as a way of knowing) and motivation. An ASM CD-ROM of the images did not effectively enhance learning and this study provides insights into what could make it more successful. It also identifies why, in most cases, students' E-mail communication with biofilm researchers was unsuccessful

  11. Parents' perspectives on the quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: trajectory, choices and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Bogossian, Aline; Lach, Lucyna M; Shevell, Michael; Majnemer, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome of health interventions for children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). When planning interventions it is fundamental to understand what constitutes a good QoL, a subjective construct, and what factors are important to consider from both parents' and children's perspectives. We used a grounded theory methodology to explore parents' perspectives on the factors that are important for the QoL of their adolescents with CP. Fourteen parents were interviewed using a purposeful sampling strategy, followed by theoretical sampling until saturation was reached. Parents reflected on several important aspects of their children's QoL. In particular, they described how their trajectories as parents of a child with a disability have contributed to their adolescents' current well-being. Over time, parents' hopes for a cure were transformed into hopes for their child's happiness. This trajectory was influenced by the adolescents' intrinsic characteristics and the parents' strategies to overcome challenges and was informed by the parents' and their children's ability to make choices in pursuit of their preferences. Adolescents' and parents' accounts should be considered when planning interventions for adolescents with disabilities. It is important to consider parents' personal characteristics, experiences and the strategies that have been proven to be efficacious in improving their children's QoL and to understand their need to make choices relating to participation and accessibility in order to promote QoL for this at-risk population. Implications for Rehabilitation Parents' trajectory on raising a child with a disability is important for understanding adolescents' QoL. Parents' characteristics and environmental factors influence adolescents' well-being. Hope and choice experiences by parents of children with CP are important for their children's QoL. Transition from pediatric to adult services are required to address disability

  12. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  13. Proactive Parent Engagement in Public Schools: Using a Brief Strengths and Needs Assessment in a Multiple-Gating Risk Management Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin J.; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Gau, Jeff M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Brown, Kimbree L.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Seeley, John R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the viability of a brief, parent-reported strengths and needs assessment as the first step in a multiple-gating approach to proactive positive behavior support for families. The "Positive Family Support--Strengths and Needs Assessment" (PFS-SaNA) was designed to collaboratively engage parents early in the school year…

  14. You and Your Child: Practical Child Development Information from High/Scope for Parents, with Helpful Support Strategies To Use at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nancy

    This document is comprised of 12 issues of a High/Scope newsletter designed to give parents information on child development and to provide suggestions for ways parents can support their preschool child's development at home. Each issue focuses on one aspect of development or learning. The topics for the 12 issues are: (1) dramatic play; (2)…

  15. The contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events and white roof mitigation strategy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingna

    2015-04-01

    The UHI effect can aggravate summertime heat waves and strongly influence human comfort and health, leading to greater mortality in metropolitan areas. Many geo-engineering technological strategies have been proposed to mitigate climate warming, and for the UHI, increasing the albedo of artificial urban surfaces (rooftops or pavements) has been considered a lucrative and effective way to cool cities. The objective of this work is to quantify the contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events of the early 21st century in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, using the mesoscale WRF model coupled with a single urban canopy model and actual urban land cover datasets. This work also investigates a simulation of the regional effects of white roof technology by increasing the albedo of urban areas in the urban canopy model to mitigate the urban heat island, especially in extreme heat waves. The results show that urban land use characteristics that have evolved over the past ~20 years in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area have had a significant impact on the extreme temperatures occurring during extreme heat events. Simulations show that new urban development has caused an intensification and expansion of the areas experiencing extreme heat waves with an average increase in temperature of approximately 0.60°C. This change is most obvious at night with an increase up to 0.95°C, for which the total contribution of anthropogenic heat is 34%. We also simulate the effects of geo-engineering strategies increasing the albedo of urban roofs. White roofs reflect a large fraction of incoming sunlight in the daytime, which reduced the net radiation so that the roof surface keep at a lower temperature than regular solar-absorptive roofs. Urban net radiation decreases by approximately 200 W m-2 at local noon because of high solar reflectance of white roofs, which cools the daytime urban temperature afer sunrise, with the largest decrease of almost -0.80

  16. Partnering with parents to enhance habilitation: a parent's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Lisa

    2012-11-01

    Parents play a very important role in language habilitation for their children who are deaf or hard of hearing. However, many times parents are not aware of the difference they can make in their child's language development. It is important that professionals working with children support parents in understanding their role and identifying language learning strategies that parents can incorporate into their daily routines to increase language development opportunities. Parents also have a key role in monitoring their child's progress to assist the professionals in assessing how well the habilitation strategies they are using are working. Family support and coaching strategies that professionals can use to encourage and support the parent's role in habilitation are discussed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Social class and parental investment in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, A.H.; Scott, Robert A.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    This essay critically reviews the literature on social class differences in parental investment in children including differences in (i) parenting practices or behavior; (ii) parenting styles, logics, and strategies; and (iii) parenting values and ideologies. The essay reveals how structural and

  18. Characterization of Courtesy Stigma Perceived by Parents of Overweight Children with Bardet-Biedl Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlington, Barbara; Ivey, Lauren E.; Brenna, Ethan; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Biesecker, Barbara B.; Sapp, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A child’s obesity is generally perceived by the public to be under the control of the child’s parents. While the health consequences of childhood obesity are well understood, less is known about psychological and social effects of having an obese child on parents. We set out to characterize stigma and courtesy stigma experiences surrounding obesity among children with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), a multisystem genetic disorder, and their parents. Methods Twenty-eight parents of children with BBS participated in semi-structured interviews informed by social stigmatization theory, which describes courtesy stigma as parental perception of stigmatization by association with a stigmatized child. Parents were asked to describe such experiences. Results Parents of children with BBS reported the child’s obesity as the most frequent target of stigmatization. They perceived health care providers as the predominant source of courtesy stigma, describing interactions that resulted in feeling devalued and judged as incompetent parents. Conclusions Parents of children with BBS feel blamed by others for their child’s obesity and described experiences that suggest health care providers may contribute to courtesy stigma and thus impede effective communication about managing obesity. Health care providers may reinforce parental feelings of guilt and responsibility by repeating information parents may have previously heard and ignoring extremely challenging barriers to weight management, such as a genetic predisposition to obesity. Strategies to understand and incorporate parents’ perceptions and causal attributions of their children’s weight may improve communication about weight control. PMID:26473736

  19. 父母教养方式对子女焦虑的影响:认知情绪调节策略与男性化特质的中介作用%The Effect of Parenting Styles on a Child's Later Anxiety:Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Masculinity Play the Role of a Mediator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方琳; 温红博; 张云运; 董奇

    2011-01-01

    i.e.namely control and care) explaining 71.7%of the total variance.The first factor(control) explained 38.7%of the variance and had high to very high loadings on overprotection and rejection.The second factor(care) explained 33%of the variance and had very high loadings on emotional warmth. We used Amos 4.0 to evaluate the hypothesized model.The results suggested a superior fitness of the model(x~2(6)=15.103,p =.019,IFI=.962,CFI=.960,RMSEA=.075) and it explained 26%of the variance of child's anxiety.Parenting styles influence child's later anxiety through the following three ways:(1) Direct effect:control style and care style can negatively and positively predict a child's later anxiety,respectively.(2) Cognitive emotion regulation strategies play a mediating role:control style promotes the using of the catastrophizing strategy,which is a significant positive predictor of anxiety symptoms;whereas care style can reduce the using of catastrophizing strategy and increase the using of the positive reappraisal strategy simultaneously,and then in turn negatively predicts anxiety symptoms.(3) Masculinity and positive reappraisal cooperate as mediators:the care parenting style contributes to shaping masculinity,which indirectly influences anxiety via the complete mediation of positive reappraisal strategies. The present study outlined a mediational role of cognitive and personality factors between parenting styles and child's later anxiety. On the one hand,parenting styles are important to a child's anxiety development,and different parenting styles influence a child's anxiety in different ways.On the other hand,there exists a complicated relationship within personality,cognitive factors and mental disorders. It suggests the need for further research and theory development of the models of effects of parenting styles and behavior on child anxiety.

  20. Parents' perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence: implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Melanie J; Emshoff, James; Buck, Chad A; Cook, Sarah L

    2006-05-01

    This study explores perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence in a sample of 202 parents interviewed in the wake of nationally publicized school shootings. We also investigate the effects the school shootings had on children, parents' perceptions regarding firearms, and changes in parenting behavior. Parents exhibited strong support for almost all proposed causes and solutions, and we address their desire for immediate and often invasive interventions to prevent future violence. We contrast parents' perceptions with their own parenting behaviors and with literature on effective interventions. Results are discussed within the context of policy implications.Editors' Strategic Implications: Parents' perceptions and behaviors are frequently influenced by history effects. The national attention received by school shootings provided an opportunity for exploration of those perceptions and self-reported behaviors. The authors provide evidence from timely surveys that parents struggle with identifying causal factors that may contribute to school violence and consequently support a myriad of strategies for intervention including very invasive environmental preventive strategies. The findings suggest that social scientists should play a proactive role in translating research-supported preventive strategies to effective replications in the community and make research available in formats that are available and comprehensible by the lay public.

  1. Family-Based Obesity Prevention: Perceptions of Canadian Parents of Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Carley; Wallace, Angela; Wilson, Laura; Annis, Angela; Ma, David W L; Haines, Jess

    2018-03-01

    Our objectives were to explore the perspectives of a community-based sample of Canadian parents with 2-5-year-old children on: (i) strategies to support the development of healthful weight-related behaviours and (ii) assessment approaches to measure weight-related behaviours and outcomes among children and families. We conducted 4 focus groups with 28 parents (89% mothers and 68% identified as White). Transcripts were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Regarding parent's perceptions of strategies to support healthful behaviours, we found that parents largely valued: home-based interventions, expert opinion, practical health behaviour strategies delivered in a nonjudgmental manner, and opportunities for social support. Regarding perceptions of assessment procedures, parents had mixed views on children providing blood samples, but looked upon it more favourably if it would contribute to research on child health. Our results suggest that to increase parental engagement interventions focused on improving weight-related behaviours among families with young children should be delivered within the home and include easy-to-implement behaviour change strategies communicated by experts, such as dietitians working in the clinical or public health setting. Using social media to share information and provide a platform for social support may also be an effective way to engage parents of young children.

  2. Hard time to be parents? Sea urchin fishery shifts potential reproductive contribution of population onto the shoulders of the young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Loi

    2017-03-01

    undersized ones. Conversely, the high density of the undersized individuals released a similar amount of gametes to the commercial-size class in the low-pressure zone. Discussion Overall, the lack of the commercial-size class in the high-pressure zone does not seem to be very alarming for the self-supporting capacity of the population, and the reproductive potential contribution seems to depend more on the total density of fertile sea urchins than on their size. However, since population survival in the high-pressure zone is supported by the high density of undersized sea urchins between 30 and 50 mm, management measures should be addressed to maintain these sizes and to shed light on the source of the larval supply.

  3. Parental responses to child experiences of trauma following presentation at emergency departments: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria; Creswell, Cathy; Butler, Ian; Christie, Hope; Halligan, Sarah L

    2016-11-07

    Parents are often children's main source of support following fear-inducing traumatic events, yet little is known about how parents provide that support. The aim of this study was to examine parents' experiences of supporting their child following child trauma exposure and presentation at an emergency department (ED). Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using thematic analysis. The setting for this study was two National Health Service EDs in England. 20 parents whose child experienced a traumatic event and attended an ED between August 2014 and October 2015. Parents were sensitive to their child's distress and offered reassurance and support for their child to resume normal activities. However, parental beliefs often inhibited children's reinstatement of pretrauma routines. Support often focused on preventing future illness or injury, reflective of parents' concerns for their child's physical well-being. In a minority of parents, appraisals of problematic care from EDs contributed to parents' anxiety and perceptions of their child as vulnerable post-trauma. Forgetting the trauma and avoidance of discussion were encouraged as coping strategies to prevent further distress. Parents highlighted their need for further guidance and support regarding their child's physical and emotional recovery. This study provides insight into the experiences of and challenges faced by parents in supporting their child following trauma exposure. Perceptions of their child's physical vulnerability and treatment influenced parents' responses and the supportive strategies employed. These findings may enable clinicians to generate meaningful advice for parents following child attendance at EDs post-trauma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Parental fatigue and parenting practices during early childhood: an Australian community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Giallo, R; Rose, N

    2012-09-01

    Parenting behaviours are influenced by a range of factors, including parental functioning. Although common, the influence of parental fatigue on parenting practices is not known. The first aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fatigue and parenting practices. The second aim was to identify parental psychosocial factors significantly associated with fatigue. A sample of 1276 Australian parents, of at least one child aged 0-5 years, completed a survey. Demographic, psychosocial (social support, coping responses) and parental sleep and self-care information was collected. Hierarchical regression was performed to assess the contribution of fatigue (modified Fatigue Assessment Scale) to parental practices (warmth, irritability and involvement), and parenting experiences (Parenting Stress Index, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale). Hierarchical multiple regression assessed the contribution of a range of parental sleep, psychosocial (social support, coping responses) and self-care variables to fatigue when demographic characteristics were held constant. Higher fatigue was significantly associated with lower parental competence (β=-0.17, P parenting stress (β= 0.21, P parent-child interactions (β= 0.11, P parental fatigue, including inadequate social support, poorer diet, poorer sleep quality and ineffective coping styles including self-blame and behaviour disengagement. Fatigue is common, and results suggest that fatigue contributes to adverse parental practices and experiences. However, possible risk factors for higher fatigue were identified in this study, indicating opportunities for intervention, management and support for parents. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Involving Roma parents: analysing the good practice of a primary school in Ghent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauters, J.; Van Mol, C.; Clycq, N.; Michielsen, J.; Timmerman, C.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, societal and academic attention toward the topic of Roma integration has been increasing. With this article we aim to make a contribution to the domain of educational research. We explore strategies that schools can adopt to improve the involvement of Roma parents. Using a theory-based

  6. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is n...

  7. Adaptação ao divórcio e relações coparentais: contributos da teoria da vinculação Adjustment to divorce and co-parental relations: contributions from the theory of attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lamela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo propõe-se uma contribuição da teoria da vinculação na compreensão dos processos de adaptação dos adultos ao seu divórcio e como a desvinculação ao ex-cônjuge interfere na coparentalidade pós-divórcio. Este artigo formula duas hipóteses teóricas. A primeira hipótese afirma que o divórcio, enquanto processo relacional, deve ser lido como um momento de perda que germina reacções psicológicas similares às experienciadas pelos viúvos, tal como descreve Bowlby no modelo de perda da figura de vinculação, estando dependente dos estilos de vinculação dos adultos. A segunda hipótese sustenta que a coparentalidade pós-divórcio é predita pelos estilos de vinculação e pela qualidade da reorganização da vinculação dos pais. Finalmente, uma integração teórica é apresentada, operacionalizada numa proposta de investigação futura neste domínio.In this article, it is proposed the contribution of the attachment theory for understanding adults' adjustment processes to their divorce and how detachment to ex-spouse can infer in co-parenting relationships after marital dissolution. This article makes two theoretical assumptions that focus on two dimensions. The first hypothesis states that the divorce, while a relational process, should be read as a moment of loss that germinates similar psychological reactions to those experienced by widows. Bowlby describes it in his model of loss of the attachment figure as dependent on attachment styles of divorced adults. The second hypothesis argues that the post-divorce co-parenting relationships are predicted by the attachment styles and by the quality of parents' attachment reorganization. At the end, a theoretical integration is built, based on a proposal for future research in this area.

  8. Supporting Head Start Parents: Impact of a Text Message Intervention on Parent-Child Activity Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Lisa B.; Lauricella, Alexis R.; Hanson, Ann; Raden, Anthony; Wartella, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Head Start emphasises parent engagement as a critical strategy in promoting children's long-term learning. Parents can support children's positive development by engaging them in stimulating activities. The following study assessed whether a service that delivered parenting tips via text message could prompt parents of children enrolled in Head…

  9. Parent, Peer, and Media Influences on Body Image and Strategies to Both Increase and Decrease Body Size among Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the nature of body image and body change strategies, as well as sociocultural influences on these variables, among a group of 1,266 adolescents. Findings indicated females were less satisfied with their bodies and were more likely to adopt strategies to lose weight, whereas males were likely to adopt strategies to increase weight and…

  10. Low-Income Parental Profiles of Coping, Resource Adequacy, and Public Assistance Receipt: Links to Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Angela N.; Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Schiffman, Rachel F.; Bocknek, Erika L.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in perceptions of resources and in coping strategies among low-income parents likely influences parenting. The purposes of this study were to identify differences in parental profiles, as indicated by receipt of public assistance, perceptions of adequacy of resources, and coping strategies, and to examine these profiles relative to…

  11. 幼儿家长倾听行为现状及策略探析%Analyze the present situation and strategy of Parents listening behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娟

    2014-01-01

    Parents listening behavior, refers to the parents in the process of communication with their children, encourage children to express their ideas in various ways, active carefully listen to the children and give children the idea in the positive feedback process. Investigation shows, listen to the behavior of parents for parents ofdeaf, one-sided to listen, false to listen,lack to listen. Establish the equality of the parent-child relationship is the premise of effective listening, parents have to through a variety of ways to learn listening skills and methods of child. For example, arrange a specific time to listen to children;listen to the way the game;learn todiscriminate listening etc..%家长倾听行为,指的是家长在与孩子沟通的过程中,鼓励孩子用各种方式表达自己的想法,主动认真的听取孩子想法并给与孩子及时积极的反馈的过程。调查显示,幼儿家长的倾听行为表现为家长失聪,片面倾听,虚假倾听,缺乏倾听方法。建立平等的亲子关系是有效倾听的前提,家长还要通过各种途径学习倾听孩子的技巧和方法。比如,安排一段专门的时间倾听孩子;用游戏的方式倾听;学会辨析式倾听等。

  12. Parents of terror victims. A longitudinal study of parental mental health following the 2011 terrorist attack on Utøya Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about parents' health following their children's exposure to trauma. We investigated the mental health of parents of young terrorist survivors and assessed parental distress and guilt as potential predictors of mental health. Mothers and fathers (N=531) participated in two study waves 4-5 and 14-15 months after the shooting. Posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSS) and anxiety/depression were compared with age- and gender-adjusted expected scores that were calculated from a concurrent population study. Mixed effects models investigated the associations between parental distress, parental guilt, and mental health. Parents' level of anxiety/depression was three times higher and PTSS was five times higher than that of the general population. Parental distress and guilt about their child's traumatic experience contributed uniquely to symptoms at both time points. Parents of traumatized youth constitute a vulnerable group that has been overlooked in the literature. Intervention strategies following trauma should include both survivors and their parents. Copyright © 2016 Z. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Modifying the 'Positive Parenting Program' for parents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazemakers, I; Deboutte, D

    2013-07-01

    Many parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) want and/or need professional guidance and support to learn skills and strategies to prevent and manage child behaviour problems. However, the available support is rarely suitable, and suitable support is rarely available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a popular mainstream parenting training programme, known as 'Group Triple P' (Positive Parenting Program), could be successfully modified for this parent group. A pilot study was undertaken to determine whether a modified version of Group Triple P would engage and retain parents with ID. A non-experimental, pre-test post-test study, involving a total of 30 parents with ID, was then undertaken to obtain preliminary efficacy data. Parent engagement and participation levels were high. No parent 'dropped out' of the programme. After completing the modified Group Triple P programme, parents reported a decrease in psychological distress, maladaptive parenting and child conduct problems. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the information and support they received. Research-informed adaptation of mainstream behavioural family interventions, such as Group Triple P, could make 'suitable support' more readily available, and more engaging for parents with ID. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  14. Reaching Back Strategy: Using Mirroring, Trust, and Cultural Alignment in a Service-Learning Course to Impact Hispanic Parents' Perception of College--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Astrid; Rivera, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-four undergraduate public relations majors participating in a problem-based service-learning project at a Hispanic-Serving Institution executed an event that attracted more than 100 low-income Hispanic families to campus. The purpose was to help parents prepare their children for college. From primary and secondary research, the students…

  15. Parent Training on Generalized Use of Behavior Analytic Strategies for Decreasing the Problem Behavior of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Data-Based Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Regina M.; Mehta, Smita Shukla

    2016-01-01

    Setting variables such as location of parent training, programming with common stimuli, generalization of discrete responses to non-trained settings, and subsequent reduction in child problem behavior may influence the effectiveness of interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of home-versus clinic-based training…

  16. Effect of Trajectories of Friends' and Parents' School Involvement on Adolescents' Engagement and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G

    2016-12-01

    In a sample of 527 academically at-risk youth, we investigated trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement across ages 12-14 and the joint contributions of these trajectories to adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement. Girls reported higher levels of friends' and parents' school involvement than boys. Both parents' and friends' school involvement declined across ages 12-14. Combined latent growth models and structural equation models showed effects of the trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement on adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement, over and above adolescents' prior performance. These effects were additive rather than interactive. Strategies for enhancing parent involvement in school and students' affiliation with peers who are positively engaged in school are discussed.

  17. Direct and indirect relationships between parental personality and externalising behaviour : The role of negative parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P; Onghena, P; Hellinckx, W; Grietens, H; Ghesquiere, P; Colpin, H

    2005-01-01

    Although the impact of parent characteristics and parenting practices on the development of behavioural problems in childhood is often recognised, only a few research programmes have assessed the unique contributions of negative parenting as well as the parent personality characteristics in the same

  18. Buds of Parenting in Emerging Adult Males: What We Learned from Our Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine the precursors of parenting buds (representations regarding parenting before actual parenting) by following 60 men from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Quality of relationships with parents, and attachment representations (state of mind with respect to attachment and attachment styles) assessed in adolescence, contribute to…

  19. My parent is an alcoholic..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    Alcoholism is still kept as a secret, inside and outside the family. Parents often hope to protect their children by not talking about their drink habits. Interviews with children of al-coholics show they always know, and from an early age they generate coping strategies to stop their parent from...

  20. Parental involvement and educational achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, G.; Smit, F.; Sleegers, P.

    2005-01-01

    Parental involvement is seen as an important strategy for the advancement of the quality of education. The ultimate objective of this is to expand the social and cognitive capacities of pupils. In addition, special attention is paid to the children of low-educated and ethnic minority parents.

  1. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  2. Pathways linking war and displacement to parenting and child adjustment: A qualitative study with Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Amanda; Fazel, Mina; Bowes, Lucy; Gardner, Frances

    2018-03-01

    Forcibly displaced children are at risk of a range of negative outcomes, yet little is known about how to support war-affected caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial resilience. The current study uses qualitative methods to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of war and displacement on parenting and child adjustment in order to inform intervention development. In April and November 2016, group and individual interviews were conducted with 39 Syrian parents and 15 children in partnership with a humanitarian organization in Lebanon. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results show three interrelated pathways linking daily displacement stressors to various dimensions of parenting: (1) economic hardship prevents parents from meeting their children's basic needs and forces adaptation strategies that impair positive parent-child interactions; (2) parental psychological distress contributes to harsh parenting; and (3) perceptions and experiences of insecurity in the community results in increased parental control. Greater economic resources and social support emerged as potential protective factors for maintaining positive parenting despite exposure to war and displacement-related adversity. Our findings suggest that implementation of policies and programs to remove structural barriers to refugees' physical and economic security can have tangible impacts on parental mental health, parenting quality, and child psychosocial outcomes. Future research priorities include a stronger focus on the effects of war and displacement on family processes, taking into account interactions with the broader social, economic and political context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heavy Drinking in University Students With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Contributions of Drinking Motives and Protective Behavioral Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Howard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems in relation to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies in university students with a documented current diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 31 compared with students with no history of ADHD (n = 146. Participants completed a Web-based questionnaire, and logistic regression models tested interactions between ADHD/comparison group membership and motives and protective strategies. Group differences in rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems were not statistically significant, but medium-sized risk ratios showed that students without ADHD reported heavy drinking at a rate 1.44 times higher than students with ADHD and met screening criteria for problematic alcohol use at a rate of 1.54 times higher than students with ADHD. Other key findings were, first, that drinking to enhance positive affect (e.g., drinking because it is exciting, but not to cope with negative affect (e.g., drinking to forget your worries, predicted both heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Second, only protective behavioral strategies that emphasize alcohol avoidance predicted both heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Contrary to expectations, we found no ADHD-related moderation of effects of motives or protective strategies on our alcohol outcomes. Results of this study are limited by the small sample of students with ADHD but highlight tentative similarities and differences in effects of motives and strategies on drinking behaviors and alcohol problems reported by students with and without ADHD.

  4. Parental Divorce, Adolescents' Feelings toward Parents and Drunkenness in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3,

  5. Authoritative Parenting, Parenting Stress, and Self-Care in Pre-Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning. PMID:22350495

  6. Authoritative parenting, parenting stress, and self-care in pre-adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R; Streisand, Randi

    2012-09-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning.

  7. Parental Socialization of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children's emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children's emotions, (b) socializers' discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers' expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children's emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children's expression of emotion are associated with children's negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.

  8. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  9. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  10. Parental Monitoring and Family Relations: Associations with Drinking Patterns among Male and Female Mexican Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A.; Fernández-Varela, Héctor; Solís-Torres, Cuauhtémoc

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parental monitoring and family relations are recognized as protective factors for youth alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived parental monitoring and family relations among subgroups of Mexican youths with different patterns of drinking behaviors and consequences. Methods A Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) identified profiles of drinking behavior in a cross-sectional survey of entering first year university students. Multinomial regression examined associations between parental monitoring, family relations and drinking profiles among 22,224 students. Results Both lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were associated with heavier drinking profiles among males and females, but more strongly associated with female than male heavier drinking profiles. Being older, having parents with lower education, and not living with parents were also associated with lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations. There was a general trend of lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations as the profiles increased from Non/Infrequent-No Consequences to Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers. Lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were more strongly associated with drinking profiles among females than among males. Both the parental monitoring and family relations scales had similar associations with drinking profiles. Conclusions Findings suggest drinking norms and values may contribute to any protective influences of parental monitoring and family relations on Mexican youths’ drinking. Research about changes in drinking norms, contextual factors, and youth-parent trust would inform the utility of parental monitoring or family relations as protective strategies against alcohol misuse among Mexican and Mexican American youths and also youths from other backgrounds. PMID:26256470

  11. Do parents of adolescents request the same universal parental support as parents of younger children? A random sample of Swedish parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorslund, Karin; Johansson Hanse, Jan; Axberg, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    Universal parental support intended to enhance parents' capacity for parenting is an important aspect of public health strategies. However, support has mostly been aimed at parents, especially mothers, of younger children. There is a gap in the research concerning parents of adolescents and fathers' interest in parenting support. To investigate and compare the interest in parenting support of parents of adolescents and younger children, potential differences between mothers and fathers, and their knowledge of what is being offered to them already, and to explore their requirements for future universal parental support. Telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 1336 parents. Quantitative methods were used to analyze differences between groups and qualitative methods were used to analyze open-ended questions in regard to parents' requirements for future universal parental support. About 82% of the parents of adolescents interviewed think that offering universal parental support is most important during child's adolescence. There is a substantial interest, particularly among mothers, in most forms of support. Despite their interest, parents have limited awareness of the support available. Only 7% knew about the local municipality website, although 70% reported a possible interest in such a website. Similarly, 3% knew that a parent phone line was available to them, while 59% reported a possible interest. It poses a challenge but is nevertheless important for municipalities to develop support targeted at parents of adolescents which is tailored to their needs, and to reach out with information.

  12. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF ROMANIAN COMPANIES: CONTRIBUTION TO A “GOOD SOCIETY” OR EXPECTED BUSINESS STRATEGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badulescu Daniel

    2013-07-01

    financially and legally to ensure maximum efficacy and visibility of CSR actions. Finally we conclude on the importance of CSR within society but also on the risk that it could be converted in a business strategy or marketing tool, without any social impact.

  13. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  14. Parent Scaffolding in Children's Oral Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Ann; Moretti, Shelley; Shaw, Deborah; Fox, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    Examined parental coaching strategies during shared book reading between parents and their first-grade children. Found that parents provided more feedback clues when their child was unsuccessful in rereading a word after initial feedback, causing children's success levels to rise. Children with weaker word recognition skill were offered feedback…

  15. Bringing parenting interventions back to the future: How randomized microtrials may benefit parenting intervention efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Dishion, T.J.; Thomaes, S.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Matthys, W.

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach is needed to promote the efficacy of parenting interventions designed to improve children's mental health. The proposed approach bridges developmental and intervention science to test which intervention elements contribute to parenting intervention program efficacy. The approach

  16. Strategy of global European atmosphere protection, Polish contribution within European project of Eureka; Strategia globalnej ochrony atmosfery nad Europa, wklad Polski poprzez udzial w europejskim programie Eureki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasiuk-Bronikowska, W.; Bronikowski, T.; Ujejczyk, M. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Chemii Fizycznej

    1996-12-31

    Related to general topics of the project EUROTRAC (set up within initiative of the European Research Coordination Agency EUREKA), main objectives of the subproject HALIPP bound with chemistry leading to `acid rains` are discussed. Exemplary results of the kinetic-mechanistic study of sulfur pollutants transformations in troposphere are shown as the Polish contribution to this project. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs.

  17. Rare variant association analysis in case-parents studies by allowing for missing parental genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yumei; Xiang, Yang; Xu, Chao; Shen, Hui; Deng, Hongwen

    2018-01-15

    The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated the identification of rare variants. Family-based design is commonly used to effectively control for population admixture and substructure, which is more prominent for rare variants. Case-parents studies, as typical strategies in family-based design, are widely used in rare variant-disease association analysis. Current methods in case-parents studies are based on complete case-parents data; however, parental genotypes may be missing in case-parents trios, and removing these data may lead to a loss in statistical power. The present study focuses on testing for rare variant-disease association in case-parents study by allowing for missing parental genotypes. In this report, we extended the collapsing method for rare variant association analysis in case-parents studies to allow for missing parental genotypes, and investigated the performance of two methods by using the difference of genotypes between affected offspring and their corresponding "complements" in case-parent trios and TDT framework. Using simulations, we showed that, compared with the methods just only using complete case-parents data, the proposed strategy allowing for missing parental genotypes, or even adding unrelated affected individuals, can greatly improve the statistical power and meanwhile is not affected by population stratification. We conclude that adding case-parents data with missing parental genotypes to complete case-parents data set can greatly improve the power of our strategy for rare variant-disease association.

  18. Rural parents, teenagers and alcohol: what are parents thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melissa L; Ward, Bernadette; Munro, Geoffrey; Snow, Pamela; Ellis, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental role of alcohol in the lives of young Australians is mirrored in the level of drinking by adolescents. In 2001, more than one in four Australian adolescents aged 14-19 years consumed alcohol weekly. Teenagers in rural areas are more likely to consume alcohol than their metropolitan counterparts. Parents are key 'gatekeepers' of adolescent behaviour and as such are a salient group to consider in relation to adolescent alcohol use. The aim of this study was to explore parents' attitudes, beliefs, concerns and receptiveness to harm minimisation strategies with respect to teenage use of alcohol. A convenience sample of parents with adolescent children attended a series of focus groups across the north and north-western area of the State of Victoria, Australia. Schools were approached to advertise the project and invite parents to participate. Snowball sampling was used to enhance recruitment. Parents described patterns of alcohol use such as 'drinking to get drunk' and the influence of both parents and peers on the consumption of alcohol by adolescents. Few parents were concerned about the long-term risks of alcohol use by teenagers; rather they were more concerned about the short-term harms, for example, road trauma and other accidents and risky behaviours such as binge drinking. Parents indicated that they perceived alcohol to be less harmful than other drugs and many indicated that alcohol was often not perceived to be a drug. A number of strategies were adopted by parents to negotiate teenagers' drinking and to minimise the risks associated with alcohol use. These included transporting teenagers to parties, providing teenagers with a mobile phone, setting clear guidelines about alcohol use and/or providing teenagers with a small amount of alcohol. These were seen by parents as strategies for reducing the risks associated with alcohol consumption. Many parents reported that they do not feel well informed about alcohol use and how and when to use harm

  19. Sexual conflict between parents: offspring desertion and asymmetrical parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Tamás

    2014-09-25

    Parental care is an immensely variable social behavior, and sexual conflict offers a powerful paradigm to understand this diversity. Conflict over care (usually considered as a type of postzygotic sexual conflict) is common, because the evolutionary interests of male and female parents are rarely identical. I investigate how sexual conflict over care may facilitate the emergence and maintenance of diverse parenting strategies and argue that researchers should combine two fundamental concepts in social behavior to understand care patterns: cooperation and conflict. Behavioral evidence of conflict over care is well established, studies have estimated specific fitness implications of conflict for males or females, and experiments have investigated specific components of conflict. However, studies are long overdue to reveal the full implications of conflict for both males and females. Manipulating (or harming) the opposite sex seems less common in postzygotic conflicts than in prezygotic conflicts because by manipulating, coercing, or harming the opposite sex, the reproductive interest of the actor is also reduced. Parental care is a complex trait, although few studies have yet considered the implications of multidimensionality for parental conflict. Future research in parental conflict will benefit from understanding the behavioral interactions between male and female parents (e.g., negotiation, learning, and coercion), the genetic and neurogenomic bases of parental behavior, and the influence of social environment on parental strategies. Empirical studies are needed to put sexual conflict in a population context and reveal feedback between mate choice, pair bonds and parenting strategies, and their demographic consequences for the population such as mortalities and sex ratios. Taken together, sexual conflict offers a fascinating avenue for understanding the causes and consequences of parenting behavior, sex roles, and breeding system evolution. Copyright © 2014 Cold

  20. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  1. Authoritative parenting and drug-prevention practices: implications for antidrug ads for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T; Quick, Brian L; Atkinson, Joshua; Tschida, David A

    2005-01-01

    This research employed the theory of reasoned action to investigate the role of authoritative parenting in 3 drug-prevention behaviors: (a) parental monitoring, (b) parent-child discussions, and (c) awareness of the child's environment. A phone survey of 158 parents of adolescents in 7th, 9th, and 11th grades revealed that authoritative parenting was correlated with parenting practices that reduce the likelihood of adolescent drug use, including discussing family rules about drugs, discussing strategies to avoid drugs, discussing those in trouble with drugs, parental monitoring, knowing the child's plans for the coming day, and personally knowing the child's friends well. Additionally, authoritative parenting moderated the attitude-behavioral intention relation for parental monitoring and awareness of the child's environment, with the weakest relation detected for low-authoritative parents. The utility of these findings in helping design and target antidrug messages for parents more effectively is discussed.

  2. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  3. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 'Doctor Google' ending the diagnostic odyssey in lysosomal storage disorders: parents using internet search engines as an efficient diagnostic strategy in rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Machtelt G; Teunissen, Quirine G A; Wijburg, Frits A; Linthorst, Gabor E

    2010-08-01

    The expansion of the internet has resulted in widespread availability of medical information for both patients and physicians. People increasingly spend time on the internet searching for an explanation, diagnosis or treatment for their symptoms. Regarding rare diseases, the use of the internet may be an important tool in the diagnostic process. The authors present two cases in which concerned parents made a correct diagnosis of a lysosomal storage disorder in their child by searching the internet after a long doctor's delay. These cases illustrate the utility of publicly available internet search engines in diagnosing rare disorders and in addition illustrate the lengthy diagnostic odyssey which is common in these disorders.

  5. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  6. Mediators and moderators of parental alcoholism effects on offspring self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Sripriya

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the proposed study was fourfold: (i) to examine the effects of parental alcoholism on adult offspring's self-esteem; (ii) to identify and test possible mediators and moderators of parental alcoholism effects on the self-esteem of adult offspring; (iii) to examine the utility and relevance of attachment theory (Bowlby J. (1969) Attachment and Loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books) in explaining parental alcoholism effects on self-esteem and (iv) to address some of the methodological limitations identified in past research on adult children of alcoholics (ACOA). Participants (N = 515) completed retrospective reports of parental alcoholism, family stressors, family communication patterns, parental attachment and a current measure of self-esteem. The results showed support for the detrimental effects of parental alcoholism on offspring self-esteem and offered partial support for family stressors as a mediator of parental alcoholism effects on parental attachment and parental attachment as a mediator of parental alcoholism effects on offspring self-esteem, respectively. Finally, support was found for family communication patterns as a moderator of the effects of family stressors on attachment. The study findings offer preliminary support for the utility of attachment theory in explicating parental alcoholism effects on the self-esteem of adult offspring. Findings from the present study make salient the need to consider factors beyond the identification of parental alcohol abuse when explicating individual differences in offspring self-esteem in adulthood. The identification of protective and risk factors can contribute to the development of optimal intervention strategies to help ACOAs better than simply the knowledge of family drinking patterns.

  7. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  8. The Link between Social Interaction with Adults and Adolescent Conflict Coping Strategy in School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhuojun; Enright, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Based on social learning theory, this study aimed at providing a better understanding of the influence of social interaction on adolescents' conflict coping strategy. This study used the data from the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (N = 8717) to test the unique contribution of religious involvement, parent-child interaction, teacher-student…

  9. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...

  10. Parent refugee status, immigration stressors, and Southeast Asian youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, James H; Le, Thao N

    2006-10-01

    To assess the effects of parents' experience of traumatic events on violence among Southeast Asian and Chinese youth. The study examines independent effects of parents' refugee camp experiences and immigration stress on serious or family/partner violence among youth. Findings contribute evidence on the intergenerational effects of community-level trauma that can help policy makers better integrate family and community strategies to reduce youth violence. Obtained cross-sectional, face-to-face interview data including peer delinquency, parental engagement, parental discipline, serious violence, and family/partner violence from a sample of 329 Chinese and Southeast Asian adolescents. Measures of socioeconomic status, refugee status, and immigration stressors were collected from their respective parents. Data were analyzed using LISREL 8.54 for structural equation modeling. Findings show that parents' refugee status facilitated serious violence, and was fully mediated by peer delinquency and parental engagement, but for Vietnamese only. Parents' refugee status was also significantly related to family/partner violence, and mediated by peer delinquency. This relationship was not observed among the other Asian ethnic groups. The immigration stress variable had no significant effects on either serious violence or family/partner violence. Refugee communities may not transform easily into stereotypical immigrant Asian communities characterized by little youth violence. Results suggest that the refugee process, as experienced second-hand through the children of refugees, has a strong effect on externally oriented violence (serious violence) and on family/partner violence for particular subgroups. Therefore, community-oriented policy makers should join social workers in developing programs to address youth violence in Southeast Asian families and communities. Findings have implications for other forms of community trauma such as natural disasters.

  11. Professional orientation strategy in agricultural engineering; a contribution to the management of human resources for the scientist-professional work in the agricultural branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis Garcia, Lourdes; Alvarez, Abdiel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The management of human resources (GRH) has become a strategic element important for the progress of organizations, taking into account that represents the human potential based on its projection and development and in the achievement of the objectives and goals that will mark them, recognizing in the 21st century as 'the resort competitive more important, constituting your training an investment, not a cost' (Hammer and Champy, 1994). The actions contained in this strategy are an example of the necessary and fruitful relationship between the substantive functions of the University: University - extension as premise for a real correspondence between the University and the environment in accordance with the needs which demand scientific development of society. (author)

  12. Innovative non-animal testing strategies for reproductive toxicology: the contribution of Italian partners within the EU project ReProTect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lorenzetti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive toxicity, with its many targets and mechanisms, is a complex area of toxicology; thus, the screening and identification of reproductive toxicants is a main scientific challenge for the safety assessment of chemicals, including the European Regulation on Chemicals (REACH. Regulatory agencies recommend the implementation of the 3Rs principle (refinement, reduction, replacement as well as of intelligent testing strategies, through the development of in vitro methods and the use of mechanistic information in the hazard identification and characterization steps of the risk assessment process. The EU Integrated Project ReProTect (6th Framework Programme implemented an array of in vitro tests to study different building blocks of the mammalian reproductive cycle: methodological developments and results on male and female germ cells, prostate and placenta are presented.

  13. The contribution of oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to central nervous system repair in multiple sclerosis: perspectives for remyelination therapeutic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Octaviana Dulamea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligodencrocytes (OLs are the main glial cells of the central nervous system involved in myelination of axons. In multiple sclerosis (MS, there is an imbalance between demyelination and remyelination processes, the last one performed by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs and OLs, resulting into a permanent demyelination, axonal damage and neuronal loss. In MS lesions, astrocytes and microglias play an important part in permeabilization of blood-brain barrier and initiation of OPCs proliferation. Migration and differentiation of OPCs are influenced by various factors and the process is finalized by insufficient acummulation of OLs into the MS lesion. In relation to all these processes, the author will discuss the potential targets for remyelination strategies.

  14. Educating Parents on Developmentally Age-Appropriate Learning in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mitzi C.

    This practicum paper reports on a project undertaken to enhance the knowledge of age-appropriate learning for parents of 3-year-old preschoolers. The project implemented a variety of techniques and strategies to improve parent knowledge, including parent education classes, a monthly newsletter for parents that addressed current research on…

  15. Teaching Children to Care: Engendering Prosocial Behavior through Humanistic Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton-Parker, Radha J.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on how counselors can help parents understand that parenting styles influence children's behavior. Offers ideas for humanistic parenting to elicit socially desirable outcomes behavior in children. Presents strategies that parents can use to increase the likelihood that young children will develop prosocial behavior and learn to respond to…

  16. Parenting and socialization of only children in urban China: an example of authoritative parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a semistructured interview of 328 urban Chinese parents regarding their parenting beliefs and practices with respect to their only children. Statistical analyses of the coded parental interviews and peer nomination data from the children show none of the traditional Chinese parenting or child behaviors that have been widely reported in the literature. The parenting of only children in urban China was predominantly authoritative rather than authoritarian. The parenting strategies and beliefs were child-centered, egalitarian, and warmth-oriented rather than control-oriented. Chinese parents encouraged prosocial assertiveness and discouraged behavioral constraint and modesty. The parenting of only children was also gender egalitarian in that there were few gender differences in child social behaviors and little gender differential parenting and socialization of these only children. Together with other recent studies, these findings and conclusions challenge the traditionalist view of Chinese parenting and beliefs and behaviors about child socialization.

  17. Harsh, Firm, and Permissive Parenting in Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumow, Lee; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Posner, Jill K.

    1998-01-01

    Parents' reports of their child-rearing expectations and intentions were measured for 184 low-income urban families when children were in the third and fifth grades. Parenting strategies were stable over time. Parenting strategies were related to measures of adjustment at school, behavior problems in the home, academic achievement, and…

  18. The contribution of geology and groundwater studies to city-scale ground heat network strategies: A case study from Cardiff, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, David; Farr, Gareth; Patton, Ashley; Kendall, Rhian; James, Laura; Abesser, Corinna; Busby, Jonathan; Schofield, David; White, Debbie; Gooddy, Daren; James, David; Williams, Bernie; Tucker, David; Knowles, Steve; Harcombe, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    The development of integrated heat network strategies involving exploitation of the shallow subsurface requires knowledge of ground conditions at the feasibility stage, and throughout the life of the system. We describe an approach to the assessment of ground constraints and energy opportunities in data-rich urban areas. Geological and hydrogeological investigations have formed a core component of the strategy development for sustainable thermal use of the subsurface in Cardiff, UK. We present findings from a 12 month project titled 'Ground Heat Network at a City Scale', which was co-funded by NERC/BGS and the UK Government through the InnovateUK Energy Catalyst grant in 2015-16. The project examined the technical feasibility of extracting low grade waste heat from a shallow gravel aquifer using a cluster of open loop ground source heat pumps. Heat demand mapping was carried out separately. The ground condition assessment approach involved the following steps: (1) city-wide baseline groundwater temperature mapping in 2014 with seasonal monitoring for at least 12 months prior to heat pump installation (Patton et al 2015); (2) desk top and field-based investigation of the aquifer system to determine groundwater levels, likely flow directions, sustainable pumping yields, water chemistry, and boundary conditions; (3) creation of a 3D geological framework model with physical property testing and model attribution; (4) use steps 1-3 to develop conceptual ground models and production of maps and GIS data layers to support scenario planning, and initial heat network concept designs; (5) heat flow modelling in FEFLOW software to analyse sustainability and predict potential thermal breakthrough in higher risk areas; (6) installation of a shallow open loop GSHP research observatory with real-time monitoring of groundwater bodies to provide data for heat flow model validation and feedback for system control. In conclusion, early ground condition modelling and subsurface

  19. Integrating a family-focused approach into child obesity prevention: Rationale and design for the My Parenting SOS study randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Marci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 20% of US children ages 2-5 yrs are classified as overweight or obese. Parents greatly influence the behaviors their children adopt, including those which impact weight (e.g., diet and physical activity. Unfortunately, parents often fail to recognize the risk for excess weight gain in young children, and may not be motivated to modify behavior. Research is needed to explore intervention strategies that engage families with young children and motivate parents to adopt behaviors that will foster healthy weight development. Methods This study tests the efficacy of the 35-week My Parenting SOS intervention. The intervention consists of 12 sessions: initial sessions focus on general parenting skills (stress management, effective parenting styles, child behavior management, coparenting, and time management and later sessions apply these skills to promote healthier eating and physical activity habits. The primary outcome is change in child percent body fat. Secondary measures assess parent and child dietary intake (three 24-hr recalls and physical activity (accelerometry, general parenting style and practices, nutrition- and activity-related parenting practices, and parent motivation to adopt healthier practices. Discussion Testing of these new approaches contributes to our understanding of how general and weight-specific parenting practices influence child weight, and whether or not they can be changed to promote healthy weight trajectories. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00998348

  20. Integrating a family-focused approach into child obesity prevention: rationale and design for the My Parenting SOS study randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber E; Bangdiwala, Kant I; Campbell, Marci; Jones, Deborah J; Panter, Abigail T; Stevens, June

    2011-06-05

    More than 20% of US children ages 2-5 yrs are classified as overweight or obese. Parents greatly influence the behaviors their children adopt, including those which impact weight (e.g., diet and physical activity). Unfortunately, parents often fail to recognize the risk for excess weight gain in young children, and may not be motivated to modify behavior. Research is needed to explore intervention strategies that engage families with young children and motivate parents to adopt behaviors that will foster healthy weight development. This study tests the efficacy of the 35-week My Parenting SOS intervention. The intervention consists of 12 sessions: initial sessions focus on general parenting skills (stress management, effective parenting styles, child behavior management, coparenting, and time management) and later sessions apply these skills to promote healthier eating and physical activity habits. The primary outcome is change in child percent body fat. Secondary measures assess parent and child dietary intake (three 24-hr recalls) and physical activity (accelerometry), general parenting style and practices, nutrition- and activity-related parenting practices, and parent motivation to adopt healthier practices. Testing of these new approaches contributes to our understanding of how general and weight-specific parenting practices influence child weight, and whether or not they can be changed to promote healthy weight trajectories. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00998348.

  1. Health Informatics for Development: a Three-pronged Strategy of Partnerships, Standards, and Mobile Health. Contribution of the IMIA Working Group on Health Informatics for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, A; Adejumo, A; Luna, D

    2011-01-01

    Describe the issues surrounding health informatics in developing countries and the challenges faced by practitioners in building internal capacity. From these issues, the authors propose cost-effective strategies that can fast track health informatics development in these low to medium income countries (LMICs). The authors conducted a review of literature and consulted key opinion leaders who have experience with health informatics implementations around the world. Despite geographic and cultural differences, many LMICs share similar challenges and opportunities in developing health informatics. Partnerships, standards, and inter-operability are well known components of successful informatics programs. Establishing partnerships can be comprised of formal inter-institutional collaborations on training and research, collaborative open source software development, and effective use of social networking. Lacking legacy systems, LMICs can discuss standards and inter-operability more openly and have greater potential for success. Lastly, since cellphones are pervasive in developing countries, they can be leveraged as access points for delivering and documenting health services in remote under-served areas. Mobile health or mHealth gives LMICs a unique opportunity to leapfrog through most issues that have plagued health informatics in developed countries. By employing this proposed roadmap, LMICs can now develop capacity for health informatics using appropriate and cost-effective technologies.

  2. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  3. Concepts in modern parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of my dissertation represents changes in parenthood, which are a consequence of a wider specter of social changes. Besides, I am interested in modern trends of educational strategies and how parents deal with the demands of society and those of professional public for nothing less than a perfect parenthood. Theoretical cognitions are divided into three parts: in the first one, new forms of family and social changes which affected the development of the modern family are describ...

  4. Characterizing the association between parenting and adolescent social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, Susanne; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Fehm, Lydia; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-06-01

    For characterizing the association between parenting and offspring social phobia (SP), contrasting maternal vs. paternal contributions, putative predictors of unfavorable parenting behaviors and its specificity for SP are warranted to delineate targeted prevention and intervention strategies. A population-based sample of 1053 adolescents was followed-up using the M-CIDI. Parenting was assessed via questionnaire in offspring passing the high risk period for SP-onset. Natal complications and childhood serious health problems as assessed by maternal reports were hypothesized to relate to unfavorable parenting. The pattern of maternal overprotection, paternal rejection and lower emotional warmth was associated with SP, but not with other offspring anxiety disorders. Natal complications were related to overprotection and lower emotional warmth; trend-level associations emerged for serious health problems and unfavorable parenting. Paternal behavior appears particularly relevant for SP. The pattern of maternal overprotection, paternal rejection and lower emotional warmth was observed in SP only, suggesting that its detailed assessment provides a promising opportunity for targeted prevention and intervention in SP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental permissiveness, abuse experience and gender roles as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parental abuse as a societal problem has been in obscurity for years especially in Africa where utmost respect is required from children towards their parents. In African society abuse and disrespect to parents are viewed as a taboo. This study examined some factors which could contribute to parent abuse. Descriptive ...

  6. Inter-annual trend of the primary contribution of ship emissions to PM2.5 concentrations in Venice (Italy): Efficiency of emissions mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea; Donateo, Antonio; Cescon, Paolo; Cesari, Daniela; Merico, Eva; Belosi, Franco; Citron, Marta

    2015-02-01

    Ships and harbour emissions are currently increasing, due to the increase of tourism and trade, with potential impact on global air pollution and climate. At local scale, in-port ship emissions influence air quality in coastal areas impacting on health of coastal communities. International legislations to reduce ship emissions, both at Worldwide and European levels, are mainly based on the use of low-sulphur content fuel. In this work an analysis of the inter-annual trends of primary contribution, ε, of tourist shipping to the atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of Venice has been performed. Measurements have been taken in the summer periods of 2007, 2009 and 2012. Results show a decrease of ε from 7% (±1%) in 2007 to 5% (±1%) in 2009 and to 3.5% (±1%) in 2012. The meteorological and micrometeorological conditions of the campaigns were similar. Tourist ship traffic during measurement campaigns increased, in terms of gross tonnage, of about 25.4% from 2007 to 2009 and of 17.6% from 2009 to 2012. The decrease of ε was associated to the effect of a voluntary agreement (Venice Blue Flag) for the use of low-sulphur content fuel enforced in the area between 2007 and 2009 and to the implementation of the 2005/33/CE Directive in 2010. Results show that the use of low-sulphur fuel could effectively reduce the impact of shipping to atmospheric primary particles at local scale. Further, voluntary agreement could also be effective in reducing the impact of shipping on local air quality in coastal areas.

  7. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  8. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  9. Parent-to-parent support for parents with children who are deaf or hard of hearing: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rebecca J; Johnson, Andrew; Moodie, Sheila

    2014-12-01

    Parent-to-parent support for parents with children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) is identified as an important component of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs for children with hearing loss. The specific aim of this review was to identify the constructs and components of parent-to-parent support for parents of children who are D/HH. An extensive scoping literature review identified 39 peer-reviewed articles published from 2000 to 2014. Studies were selected and reviewed based on standardized procedures. Data were identified, extracted, and organized into libraries of thematic and descriptive content. A conceptual framework of parent-to-parent support for parents of children who are D/HH was developed and presented in a comprehensive, bidirectional informational graphic. The constructs and components of the conceptual framework are (a) well-being: parent, family, and child; (b) knowledge: advocacy, system navigation, and education; and (c) empowerment: confidence and competence. The findings from this scoping review led to the development of a structured conceptual framework of parent-to-parent support for parents of children who are D/HH. The conceptual framework provides an important opportunity to explore and clearly define the vital contribution of parents in EHDI programs.

  10. Detachment from Parents, Problem Behaviors, and the Moderating Role of Parental Support among Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of emotional detachment from parents, parental support, and problem behaviors and focused on the unique and common contribution that detachment and parental support made to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. A total of 461 young adolescents, 13 to 14 years old ("M" = 13.4;…

  11. Correlates of Parental Differential Treatment: Parental and Contextual Factors during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether parental and contextual risk factors contribute to mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (MDT/FDT) when accounting for sibling dyad characteristics. Also explored was whether family type (single mothers vs. 2 parents) moderated the links between the parental and contextual correlates and MDT. One hundred…

  12. Evaluating a brief parental-education program for parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, B C; Janz, P C; Fox, R A

    1998-06-01

    The effectiveness of a brief parental-education program for 40 families with very young children was studied. Families were assigned to either a parental-education or waiting-list control group. The parental-education program included information and strategies drawn from developmental and cognitive psychology and social learning theory. Analysis showed that participating parents significantly reduced their use of corporal and verbal punishment, changed their parenting attitudes, and improved their perceptions of their children's behavior in comparison to the control group. Effects were maintained at six weeks follow-up. Results supported tailoring parental-education programs to the unique needs of participants.

  13. Strategies for Determining Correct Cytochrome P450 Contributions in Hepatic Clearance Predictions: In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation as Modelling Approach and Tramadol as Proof-of Concept Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'jollyn, Huybrecht; Snoeys, Jan; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; De Bock, Lies; Annaert, Pieter; Van Peer, Achiel; Allegaert, Karel; Mannens, Geert; Vermeulen, An; Boussery, Koen

    2017-06-01

    Although the measurement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) contributions in metabolism assays is straightforward, determination of actual in vivo contributions might be challenging. How representative are in vitro for in vivo CYP contributions? This article proposes an improved strategy for the determination of in vivo CYP enzyme-specific metabolic contributions, based on in vitro data, using an in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approach. Approaches are exemplified using tramadol as model compound, and CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 as involved enzymes. Metabolism data for tramadol and for the probe substrates midazolam (CYP3A4) and dextromethorphan (CYP2D6) were gathered in human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant human enzyme systems (rhCYP). From these probe substrates, an activity-adjustment factor (AAF) was calculated per CYP enzyme, for the determination of correct hepatic clearance contributions. As a reference, tramadol CYP contributions were scaled-back from in vivo data (retrograde approach) and were compared with the ones derived in vitro. In this view, the AAF is an enzyme-specific factor, calculated from reference probe activity measurements in vitro and in vivo, that allows appropriate scaling of a test drug's in vitro activity to the 'healthy volunteer' population level. Calculation of an AAF, thus accounts for any 'experimental' or 'batch-specific' activity difference between in vitro HLM and in vivo derived activity. In this specific HLM batch, for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, an AAF of 0.91 and 1.97 was calculated, respectively. This implies that, in this batch, the in vitro CYP3A4 activity is 1.10-fold higher and the CYP2D6 activity 1.97-fold lower, compared to in vivo derived CYP activities. This study shows that, in cases where the HLM pool does not represent the typical mean population CYP activities, AAF correction of in vitro metabolism data, optimizes CYP contributions in the prediction of hepatic clearance. Therefore, in vitro parameters for any test compound

  14. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  15. Factors that Hinder Parents from the Communicating of Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Directorate of Research, Ethics and Consultancy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, ... Parent-adolescent communication about sexual matters is one of the means that ... and media to promote the strategy of parent-adolescent.

  16. Estrategias de Afrontamiento beneficiosas para las mujeres que cuidan de un progenitor con Alzheimer Coping strategies of women who care for a parent suffering from Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Ruiz de Alegría Fernández de Retana

    2006-11-01

    this with work outside the home make heavy demands on them which put their physical and mental health at risk. Aim: To discover the strategies and tools that have helped these women to deal with the implications of caring for a an elderly relative diagnosed as having Alzheimer's disease in phase 3-4. Methods: We used a qualitative design and case study as research methods Data were collected with the strategy of in-depth consecutive interviews. The six participants were women carers aged between 45 and 55, chosen through a theoretical selection of key informants. The study uses an emergent, inductive approach applying categorial content analysis Results and conclusions: Responding to the demands of work and caring leads them to suffer distressing situations in which the carer is aware of loss of control and a high degree of stress, as they themselves express it. In the face of this situation the carers have resorted to cognitive and conductual strategies such as the the search for support, information, hobbies, problem-solving and reassessment. All these coping strategies lead to greater competence in caring for the elderly person, more control of the situation, a better acceptance of the process and a better social adjustment. The end result is a positive approach to this complicated, difficult and stressful situation.

  17. Becoming a parent: a model of parents' post-partum experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine de Montigny

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving oneself as parent is a key challenge during the transition to parenthood. The importance of health professionals in determining perceived efficacy in parents upon the birth of their child is few explored. The objective of this study is to analayze the relations between the first time parents' perceived efficacy and their perceptions of nurses' help-giving and critical events during post-partum period. SAMPLE AND METHOD: One hundred sixty couples participated in a correlational study by completing questionaires after the birth of their first child. RESULTS: A model of parents' postpartum experience was established where nurses' collaboration and help-giving practices contribute directly and indirectly to the parents' perception of control and perceptions of events. They contribute indirectly to parent's perceived self-efficacy. IMPLICATIONS: The help given by health professionals, especially nurses, to parents following the birth of a child makes a major positive difference in the parents' experiences.

  18. Original Contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    reported behaviour among commercial .... The active strategies applied in this study were to educate commercial bus drivers on road ..... After the stratified analysis, drivers' age, educational level, professional driving experience and distance ...

  19. Original Contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    The active strategies applied in this study were to educate commercial bus drivers on road ..... International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 9. Clarke, D. ... British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(9), 681–685. Erkoboni, D.

  20. When nurses compete with parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, B L

    1980-01-01

    Subtle competition flourishes between parents and nurses in neonatal intensive care settings. Because the parents have so little opportunity to contribute to the care of their infants, and because they come to the experience with a broad range of emotional preparation, they often feel displaced by the competent and occassionally overprotective staff nurses. The nurses may not recognize the subtle forms of competition but they do cope with outcomes: hostile or uncooperative parents. This article describes competitive situations, discusses the impact upon the family, and recommends alternatives to competitive nursing care.