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Sample records for parental socio-economic position

  1. Longitudinal Models of Socio-Economic Status: Impact on Positive Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George

    2014-01-01

    Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early…

  2. Inequalities in child mortality in Mozambique: differentials by parental socio-economic position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macassa, Gloria; Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus; Bernhardt, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    statistical association with postneonatal and child mortality. However, maternal education as a measure of socio-economic position was not statistically significantly associated with child mortality. This finding may partly be explained by the extreme hardships experienced by the country (civil war...... before the survey. In spite of the Western system of classification used in the study, the results partly showed a parental socio-economic gradient of infant and child mortality in Mozambique. Father's education seemed to reflect the family's social standing in the Mozambique context, showing a strong...

  3. Cancer awareness and socio-economic position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Line; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Wulff, Christian Nielsen;

    2014-01-01

    Formålet med dette studie var at undersøge ”cancer awareness”, dvs. kendskabet til symptomer på kræft, risikofaktorer for kræft og 5-års overlevelsen for fire kræfttyper, i en dansk population. Derudover ses der nærmere på sammenhænge mellem socio-økonomisk position og ”cancer awareness......”. Resultaterne viser, at der er en stærk social gradient i ”cancer awareness”. Personer med et lavt uddannelsesniveau og en lav husstandsindkomst var mindre tilbøjelige til at genkende symptomer på kræft og risikofaktorer for kræft end personer med et højt uddannelsesniveau og en høj husstandsindkomst....... Resultaterne viser dog ingen klar sammenhæng mellem socio-økonomisk position og kendskabet til 5-års overlevelsen af kræft. Studiet bygger på data fra i alt 3.000 tilfældigt udvalgte danskere (på mindst 30 år), som besvarede den danske version af spørgeskemaet ”Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer”. Da ”cancer...

  4. Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-01-01

    Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

  5. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  6. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  7. Influence of socio-economic status, parents and peers on smoking behaviour of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, AM; Stewart, R; van Dijk, JP; Orosova, O; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    2005-01-01

    With the aim of analysing the importance of psycho-social factors in predicting adolescents' smoking behaviour, a model of the interrelations between socio-economic status, parents', peers' and adolescents' own smoking behaviours was tested. The sample consisted of 2,616 adolescents. LISREL analyses

  8. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  9. Measured Parental Weight Status and Familial Socio-Economic Status Correlates with Childhood Overweight and Obesity at Age 9

    OpenAIRE

    Eimear Keane; Richard Layte; Janas Harrington; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES) play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. Methodology/Principal Findings: Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) o...

  10. Measured Parental Weight Status and Familial Socio-Economic Status Correlates with Childhood Overweight and Obesity at Age 9

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Eimear; Layte, Richard; Harrington, Janas; Patricia M Kearney; Perry, Ivan J

    2012-01-01

    Background Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES) play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. Methodology/Principal Findings Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of ...

  11. Cooperation of Preschool Teachers and Parents – The Differences in Environments with Different Socio-Economics Status

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    Irena Janžekovič Žmauc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preschool education is not possible without the cooperation of the parents, because it represents a complement to family education. Socio-economic status of parents is one of the factors that affect the cooperation of preschool teachers and parents. The empirical study checked whether there are differences in the types and frequency of participation of preschool teachers and parents in the areas of two Slovenian statistical regions that differ in the socio-economic status. We found that preschool teachers in the environment with lower socio-economic status more often cooperate with parents in some formal and informal modes of cooperation than they do in the environment with higher socio-economic status.

  12. The Role of Parenting Styles and Socio-Economic Status in Parents' Knowledge of Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    September, Shiron Jade; Rich, Edna Grace; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) has been recognised to be the most important contributor to long-term social and emotional development. Therefore, positive parenting is paramount to foster quality parent-child interaction. Previous research shows that for parents to adopt a positive parenting style, some degree of parental knowledge is required.…

  13. The dynamics of household dissolution and change in socio-economic position: A survival model in a rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sartorius, Kurt; Sartorius, Benn K. D.; Collinson, Mark A.; TOLLMAN, STEPHEN M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates household dissolution and changes in asset wealth (socio-economic position) in a rural South African community containing settled refugees. Survival analysis applied to a longitudinal dataset indicated that the covariates increasing the risk of forced household dissolution were a reduction in socio-economic position (asset wealth), adult deaths and the permanent outmigration of more than 40% of the household. Conversely, the risk of dissolution was reduced by bigger ho...

  14. Association of an adult obesity, blood pressure adulthood socio-economic position

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    Zahra Dana Siadat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate an effect of childhood and adulthood socio-economic position on selected cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, blood pressure level and smoking behavior. Materials and Methods: This is a crosssectional study performed on 479 individuals, randomly selected by random clustered sampling from men and women aged 30-50 years, living in Esfahan. Their demographic characteristics, education, occupation and smoking behavior were questioned. Their weight, height and blood pressure were also measured, and their BMI (Body Mass Index was calculated. The data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Results: In men, the odds ratio for ever smoking to never smoking at higher levels of education in comparison with the lower levels was 6.08 (2.65-14.11. For manual occupation to non-manual occupation, it was 3.55 (1.88-6.68. The odds ratio for obesity and overweight vs no overweight, for manual occupation to non-manual occupation was 3.12 (1.81-5.40 in men and for father′s occupation it was 2.03 (1.10-3.74. In women, their education with the odds ratio of 2.11 (1.17-3.82 and father′s occupation with the odds ratio of 6.63 (3.50-12.58 altered their chance of being obese or overweight. Also, in women, the mean systolic blood pressure was significantly lower at higher educational levels and in those whose fathers′ occupation were manual but lower in manual workers. Conclusion: The current socio-economic position in individuals is associated with an obesity and smoking behavior, particularly in men. Childhood socio-economic position increases the chance of an obesity and higher blood pressure, particularly in women.

  15. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; Δ = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe. PMID:24330831

  16. Infants' behavioral styles in joint attention situations and parents' socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Monika; Hutman, Ted

    2015-08-01

    In this study the eco-cultural model of parenting (Keller, H. (2007). Cultures of infancy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum) was applied to the study of joint attention behavior of children from families with different socio-economic status (SES). It was hypothesized that infants' early communication styles would differ with SES reflecting more independent or interdependent interactions with their caregivers. It was also hypothesized that infants would use the same types of behaviors whether they have declarative or imperative communication goals. The Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS, Mundy et al., 2003) was administered to 103 typically developing infants of 12 months (approximately half of them siblings of children with autism). A factor analysis, yielding four behavioral factors, namely pointing, eye contact, actions and following points, confirmed the hypothesis that infants use behaviors consistently across situations independent of their communicative intent. MANOVAs (comprising parental education and income) revealed that higher SES infants showed actions more frequently in the ESCS whereas lower SES infants followed experimenter's points more frequently. The results are discussed in the context of presumably differing socialization goals for infants and the divergent contribution of parental education and income that seem to have additive contribution to some factors (actions, following points) but divergent contributions to others (pointing, eye contact). PMID:26164418

  17. Infants' behavioral styles in joint attention situations and parents' socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Monika; Hutman, Ted

    2015-08-01

    In this study the eco-cultural model of parenting (Keller, H. (2007). Cultures of infancy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum) was applied to the study of joint attention behavior of children from families with different socio-economic status (SES). It was hypothesized that infants' early communication styles would differ with SES reflecting more independent or interdependent interactions with their caregivers. It was also hypothesized that infants would use the same types of behaviors whether they have declarative or imperative communication goals. The Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS, Mundy et al., 2003) was administered to 103 typically developing infants of 12 months (approximately half of them siblings of children with autism). A factor analysis, yielding four behavioral factors, namely pointing, eye contact, actions and following points, confirmed the hypothesis that infants use behaviors consistently across situations independent of their communicative intent. MANOVAs (comprising parental education and income) revealed that higher SES infants showed actions more frequently in the ESCS whereas lower SES infants followed experimenter's points more frequently. The results are discussed in the context of presumably differing socialization goals for infants and the divergent contribution of parental education and income that seem to have additive contribution to some factors (actions, following points) but divergent contributions to others (pointing, eye contact).

  18. Parents' Socio-Economic Status as Predictor of Secondary School Students' Academic Performance in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu-Raheem, B. O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated parents' socio-economic status on secondary school students' academic performance in Ekiti State. Descriptive research design of the survey type was adopted. The population for the study comprised all Junior Secondary School students in Ekiti State. The sample consisted of 960 students from 20 secondary schools randomly…

  19. The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey

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    Leppin Anja

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems

  20. 'How poor are you?' -- a comparison of four questionnaire delivery modes for assessing socio-economic position in rural zimbabwe.

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    Sophie J S Pascoe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assessing socio-economic position can be difficult, particularly in developing countries. Collection of socio-economic data usually relies on interviewer-administered questionnaires, but there is little research exploring how questionnaire delivery mode (QDM influences reporting of these indicators. This paper reports on results of a trial of four QDMs, and the effect of mode on poverty reporting. METHODS: This trial was nested within a community-randomised trial of an adolescent reproductive health intervention conducted in rural Zimbabwe. Participants were randomly allocated to one of four QDMs (three different self-administered modes and one interviewer-administered mode; a subset was randomly selected to complete the questionnaire twice. Questions covered three socio-economic domains: i ownership of sellable and fixed assets; ii ability to afford essential items; and iii food sufficiency. Statistical analyses assessed the association between QDM and reporting of poverty, and compared the extent of response agreement between questionnaire rounds. RESULTS: 96% (n = 1483 of those eligible took part; 395 completed the questionnaire twice. Reported levels of poverty were high. Respondents using self-administered modes were more likely to report being unable to afford essential items and having insufficient food. Among those completing the questionnaire twice using different modes, higher levels of poverty and food insufficiency were reported when they completed the questionnaire using a self-administered mode. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that QDM plays a significant role in how different socio-economic indicators are reported, and reminds us to consider the mode of collection when identifying indicators to determine socio-economic position.

  1. Measured parental weight status and familial socio-economic status correlates with childhood overweight and obesity at age 9.

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    Eimear Keane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008 of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI study. GUI is a nationally representative study of 9-year-old children (N = 8,568. Schools were selected from the national total (response rate 82% and age eligible children (response rate 57% were invited to participate. Children and their parents had height and weight measurements taken using standard methods. Data were reweighted to account for the sampling design. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated using International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Multinomial logistic regression examined the association between parent weight status, indicators of SES and child weight. Overall, 25% of children were either overweight (19.3% or obese (6.6%. Parental obesity was a significant predictor of child obesity. Of children with normal weight parents, 14.4% were overweight or obese whereas 46.2% of children with obese parents were overweight or obese. Maternal education and household class were more consistently associated with a child being in a higher body mass index category than household income. Adjusted regression indicated that female gender, one parent family type, lower maternal education, lower household class and a heavier parent weight status significantly increased the odds of childhood obesity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Parental weight appears to be the most influential factor driving the childhood obesity epidemic in Ireland and is an independent predictor of child obesity across SES groups. Due

  2. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, Johanna J. C.; Doak, Colleen; Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G.; Haisma, Hinke

    2011-01-01

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast mi

  3. Socio-economic position and adolescents’ health in Italy: the role of selfesteem and self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Alessio Zambon; Patrizia Lemma; Paola Dalmasso; Alberto Borraccino; Franco Cavallo

    2007-01-01

    Background: To underline the importance of self-esteem and self-efficacy as aspects of health promotion, we investigated the hypothesis that self-esteem and self-efficacy mediate the effect of socio-economic position on adolescents’ health. This association has been confirmed by our data.

    Methods: Data derive from the international Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, 2001- 02 edition: a re...

  4. Socio-Economic Implications of Female Inclusion in Organizational Structures and in Leadership Positions

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    Krawiec Alexandra E.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The perception of women’s statutory place within organizations has been influenced by gender bias, which has led to discrimination. Lowering barriers related to gender inequality and introducing constructive changes takes a surprisingly long time. This procrastination can, to some extent, be attributed to the fear of potential economic costs, which is a misconception. A deeper understanding of the interplay between socio-economic factors and gender inequality within organizations can result in designing better, less biased, more merit-based structures and provide women with better career opportunities. Countries and organizations promoting gender equality practices prove that women’s inclusion in the labor market can be ‘cost-effective’ and beneficial in socio-economic terms.

  5. Low socio-economic position is associated with poor social networks and social support: results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jöckel Karl; Möhlenkamp Stephan; Stang Andreas; Beck Eva-Maria; Möbus Susanne; Dragano Nico; Weyers Simone; Erbel Raimund; Siegrist Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Social networks and social support are supposed to contribute to the development of unequal health within populations. However, little is known about their socio-economic distribution. In this study, we explore this distribution. Methods This study analyses the association of two indicators of socio-economic position, education and income, with different measures of social networks and support. Cross-sectional data have been derived from the baseline examination of an epid...

  6. Secondary School Track Selection of Single - Parent Children Evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Philippe; Winkelmann, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    In present day Germany, one in seven children is raised in a single parent household. We investigate the effect of single parenthood on children's educational attainment, measured by the school track at the age 14, using ordered probit models. We study whether the effect of living in single parenthood during early or late childhood differs. Finally, we ask whether the family effect operates through resources - fewer income and parental time available for the child -, or through adverse effect...

  7. Effects of time and socio-economic status on the determinants of oral health-related behaviours of parents of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Branden, Sigrid; Van den Broucke, Stephan; R. LEROY; Declerck, D; Hoppenbrouwers, K

    2012-01-01

    The oral health-related beliefs of parents have an important impact on the oral health status of their children; however, they are not stable over time. This study aimed to assess the changes, over time, in the determinants of parental oral health-related behaviour based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and to investigate socio-economic inequalities. The cohort consisted of the parents - mainly the mothers - of 1,057 children born in 2003 and 2004 in Flanders (Belgium). According to the The...

  8. Socio-economic position as an intervention against overweight and obesity in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Li, Ruisheng; Hu, Yan; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong

    2015-06-01

    Studies that investigated the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and obesity in children suggest inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to summarize and quantify the current evidence on SEP and risks of overweight and obesity in children aged 0-15 years. Relevant studies published between 1990 to Sep 4, 2014 were searched in Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Risk estimates from individual studies were pooled using random-effects models, according to lowest vs the highest SEP category. A total of 62 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The odds of both overweight risk and obesity risk were higher in the children with lowest SEP than in those with highest SEP (OR, 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.17, and OR, 1.41, 95% CI: 1.29-1.55, respectively). Sub-group analyses showed that the inverse relationships between SEP and childhood overweight and obesity were only found in high-income countries and in more economic developed areas. In conclusion, our study suggests that children with lower SEP had higher risks of overweight and obesity, and the increased risks were independent of the income levels of countries.

  9. Socio-economic position as an intervention against overweight and obesity in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Li, Ruisheng; Hu, Yan; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong

    2015-06-26

    Studies that investigated the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and obesity in children suggest inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to summarize and quantify the current evidence on SEP and risks of overweight and obesity in children aged 0-15 years. Relevant studies published between 1990 to Sep 4, 2014 were searched in Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Risk estimates from individual studies were pooled using random-effects models, according to lowest vs the highest SEP category. A total of 62 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The odds of both overweight risk and obesity risk were higher in the children with lowest SEP than in those with highest SEP (OR, 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.17, and OR, 1.41, 95% CI: 1.29-1.55, respectively). Sub-group analyses showed that the inverse relationships between SEP and childhood overweight and obesity were only found in high-income countries and in more economic developed areas. In conclusion, our study suggests that children with lower SEP had higher risks of overweight and obesity, and the increased risks were independent of the income levels of countries.

  10. Low socio-economic position is associated with poor social networks and social support: results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

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    Jöckel Karl

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks and social support are supposed to contribute to the development of unequal health within populations. However, little is known about their socio-economic distribution. In this study, we explore this distribution. Methods This study analyses the association of two indicators of socio-economic position, education and income, with different measures of social networks and support. Cross-sectional data have been derived from the baseline examination of an epidemiological cohort study of 4.814 middle aged urban inhabitants in Germany (Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out to estimate the risk of having poor social networks and support across socio-economic groups. Results Socially disadvantaged persons more often report poor social networks and social support. In multivariate analyses, based on education, odds ratios range from 1.0 (highest education to 4.9 (lowest education in a graded way. Findings based on income show similar effects, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5. There is one exception: no association of SEP with close ties living nearby and regularly seen was observed. Conclusion Poor social networks and low social support are more frequent among socio-economically disadvantaged people. To some extent, this finding varies according to the indicator chosen to measure these social constructs.

  11. The Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Status on Academic Performance of Students in Selected Schools in Edu Lga of Kwara State Nigeria

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    Femi Ogunshola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools within a local government area in Kwara State is investigated. Samples were obtained with one hundred and eighty (180 students randomly selected from three secondary schools. The four factors that were examined and statistically analyses were: parental socio-economic background, parental educational background, parental educational qualification and students’ health statuses. Diverse statistical tests were performed on the various data collected to establish statistical significance of the effects on students’ academic performance. Parental socio-economic statuses and parental educational background did not have significance effect on the academic performance of the students. However, the parental educational qualification and health statuses of the students were identified tom have statistical significant effect o the academic performance of the students. The two variables that indicated significant influence do reflect nature of the student’ home environment and played notable role in the academic achievement of the respondents. Government could intervene to raise level of academic achievement among students in rural area.

  12. Socio-economic inequalities in childhood mortality in low- and middle-income countries: A review of the international evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Houweling (Tanja); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the probability of dying in childhood is strongly related to the socio-economic position of the parents or household in which the child is born. This article reviews the evidence on the magnitude of socio-economic inequalities in

  13. Socio-economic inequalities in childhood mortality in low- and middle-income countries: a review of the international evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.J. Houweling; A.E. Kunst

    2010-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the probability of dying in childhood is strongly related to the socio-economic position of the parents or household in which the child is born. This article reviews the evidence on the magnitude of socio-economic inequalities in childhood mortality withi

  14. Socio-economic position and adolescents’ health in Italy: the role of selfesteem and self-efficacy

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    Alessio Zambon

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To underline the importance of self-esteem and self-efficacy as aspects of health promotion, we investigated the hypothesis that self-esteem and self-efficacy mediate the effect of socio-economic position on adolescents’ health. This association has been confirmed by our data.

    Methods: Data derive from the international Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC study, 2001- 02 edition: a representative sample of Italian children (age groups of 11, 13 and 15years, N=4386 was administered a questionnaire at school. We tested with a multivariate model the effect of economic wellbeing on health and behavioural outcomes, first excluding, and then including, self-esteem and self-efficacy among the determinants.

    Results: Perceiving poorer health, not eating enough fruits and vegetables and doing too little physical activity are conditions affected by economic well-being (O.R. of best-off to worst-off are 0.65, 0.83 and 0.46, all statistically significant, while smoking habit is not affected. Including self-esteem and self-efficacy into the model significantly lowers, or annihilates, the effect of economic conditions on these outcomes.

    Conclusions: Economic well-being affects adolescents’ health (perceived health and health behaviours in Italy, but it is reasonable to hypothesize that self-esteem and self-efficacy are among the mediators of this effect. Targeted interventions aimed at enhancing self-esteem and self-efficacy could therefore help in mitigating the effect of health inequalities.

  15. The Effect of Socio-Economic status of Parents, Family Financial Management Education and Learning in Universities Connected with the Financial Literacy of the Students

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    Irin Widayati

    2015-02-01

    Key Words: socio-economic status of parents, family financial management education, learning in college, financial literacy   Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengkaji pengaruh langsung maupun tak langsung status sosial ekonomi orang tua, pendidikan pengelolaan keuangan keluarga, dan pembelajaran di perguruan tinggi terhadap literasi finansial. Data dikumpulkan dengan melalui tes dan angket. Teknik analisis data dengan analisis jalur dan analisis regresi dengan uji selisih mutlak. Hasil penelitian adalah terdapat pengaruh langsung maupun tak langsung status sosial ekonomi orang tua, pendidikan pengelolaan keuangan keluarga, dan pembelajaran di perguruan tinggi terhadap literasi finansial. Kata kunci: status sosial ekonomi orang tua, pendidikan pengelolaan keuangan keluarga, pembelajar-an di perguruan tinggi, literasi finansial

  16. Positive Interactions in Early Childhood An ICDP Baseline Study of Three Cases of Mother-Child Dyads in Socio-Economically Underprivileged Families

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdowshi, Nafiza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate positive interaction patterns in three mother-child dyads, to search for the similarities and differences among them, to dig out the mothers perception of interactions with their children, and to identify influential contextual factors of their interactions. The study is conducted in one of the socio-economically underprivileged areas of Dhaka, Capital of Bangladesh. For understanding the phenomenon of this study, main emphasis lays on the...

  17. Issues in the construction of wealth indices for the measurement of socio-economic position in low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huttly Sharon RA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies often require measures of socio-economic position (SEP. The application of principal components analysis (PCA to data on asset-ownership is one popular approach to household SEP measurement. Proponents suggest that the approach provides a rational method for weighting asset data in a single indicator, captures the most important aspect of SEP for health studies, and is based on data that are readily available and/or simple to collect. However, the use of PCA on asset data may not be the best approach to SEP measurement. There remains concern that this approach can obscure the meaning of the final index and is statistically inappropriate for use with discrete data. In addition, the choice of assets to include and the level of agreement between wealth indices and more conventional measures of SEP such as consumption expenditure remain unclear. We discuss these issues, illustrating our examples with data from the Malawi Integrated Household Survey 2004–5. Methods Wealth indices were constructed using the assets on which data are collected within Demographic and Health Surveys. Indices were constructed using five weighting methods: PCA, PCA using dichotomised versions of categorical variables, equal weights, weights equal to the inverse of the proportion of households owning the item, and Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Agreement between indices was assessed. Indices were compared with per capita consumption expenditure, and the difference in agreement assessed when different methods were used to adjust consumption expenditure for household size and composition. Results All indices demonstrated similarly modest agreement with consumption expenditure. The indices constructed using dichotomised data showed strong agreement with each other, as did the indices constructed using categorical data. Agreement was lower between indices using data coded in different ways. The level of agreement between wealth

  18. The effect of health, socio-economic position, and mode of data collection on non-response in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Gundgaard, Jens; Rasmussen, Niels K R;

    2010-01-01

    : Data derives from The Danish Health Interview Survey 2000 (face-to-face interview) and The Funen County Health Survey 2000/2001 (telephone interview). Data on all invited individuals were obtained from administrative registers and linked to survey data at individual level. Multiple logistic regression...... generally associated with non-response in both modes of interview. The non-response rate was high among persons with low socio-economic position. No significant associations between health and non-response were found. CONCLUSIONS: Health status does not play a systematic role for non-response rates...

  19. Promoting School Readiness in the Context of Socio-Economic Adversity: Associations with Parental Demoralization and Support for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Existing research suggests that parenting stress and demoralization, as well as provision of learning activities at home, significantly affect child school readiness. However, the degree to which these dimensions of parenting uniquely influence child school readiness remains unclear. Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that…

  20. Recalled Test Anxiety in Relation to Achievement, in the Context of General Academic Self-Concept, Study Habits, Parental Involvement and Socio-Economic Status among Grade 6 Ethiopian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. Mohan; Asfaw, Abebech

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants…

  1. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Poeplau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past two decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988–1997 (Inventory I, 2001–2007 (Inventory II and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III, and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0–20 cm SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr−1 over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72. Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  2. Socio-economic position has no effect on improvement in health-related quality of life and patient satisfaction in total hip and knee replacement: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Christiaan Keurentjes

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Considerable evidence suggests that patients with more advantaged Socio-Economic Positions undergo Total Hip and Knee Replacement (THR/TKR more often, despite having a lower need. We questioned whether more disadvantaged Socio-Economic Position is associated with an lower improvement in Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL and a lower patient satisfaction after THR/TKR. METHODS: Patients who underwent primary THR/TKR in one academic and three community hospitals between 2005 and 2009, were eligible for inclusion. The highest completed levels of schooling were aggregated to index social class. We compared the improvement in HRQoL and postoperative satisfaction with surgery (measured using the Short-Form 36 (SF36 and an 11-point numeric rating scale of satisfaction between the aggregated groups of highest completed levels of schooling, using linear mixed model analysis, with center as a random effect and potential confounders (i.e. age, gender, Body Mass Index and Charnley's comorbidity classification as fixed effects. RESULTS: 586 THR patients and 400 TKR patients (40% of all eligible patients agreed to participate and completed all questionnaires sufficiently. We found no differences in HRQoL improvement in any dimension of the SF36 in THR patients. Patients with a higher completed level of schooling had a larger improvement in role-physical (9.38 points, 95%-CI:0.34-18.4, a larger improvement in general health (3.67 points, 95%-CI:0.56-6.79 and a smaller improvement in mental health (3.60 points, 95%-CI:0.82-6.38 after TKR. Postoperative patient satisfaction did not differ between different highest completed level of schooling groups. DISCUSSION: Completed level of schooling has no effect on the improvement in HRQoL and patient satisfaction in a Dutch THR population and a small effect in a similar TKR population. Undertreatment of patients with more disadvantaged Socio-Economic Position cannot be justified, given the similar

  3. Can Parenting Practices Explain the Differences in Beverage Intake According to Socio-Economic Status: The Toybox-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinket, An-Sofie; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet; Androutsos, Odysseas; Koletzko, Berthold; Moreno, Luis A.; Socha, Piotr; Iotova, Violeta; Manios, Yannis; Van Lippevelde, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicated that preschoolers of lower socioeconomic status (SES) consume less healthy beverages than high SES preschoolers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between SES and plain water, soft drink and prepacked fruit juice (FJ) consumption in European preschoolers. Parents/caregivers of 3.5 to 5.5 years old (n = 6776) recruited through kindergartens in six European countries within the ToyBox-study completed questionnaires on socio-demographics, parenting practices and a food frequency questionnaire. Availability of sugared beverages and plain water, permissiveness towards sugared beverages and lack of self-efficacy showed a mediating effect on SES-differences in all three beverages. Rewarding with sugared beverages significantly mediated SES-differences for both plain water and prepacked FJ. Encouragement to drink plain water and awareness significantly mediated SES-differences for, respectively, plain water and prepacked FJ consumption. Avoiding negative modelling did not mediate any associations. Overall, lower SES preschoolers were more likely to be confronted with lower levels of favourable and higher levels of unfavourable parenting practices, which may lead to higher sugared beverage and lower plain water consumption. The current study highlights the importance of parenting practices in explaining the relation between SES and both healthy and unhealthy beverage consumption. PMID:27669290

  4. Can Parenting Practices Explain the Differences in Beverage Intake According to Socio-Economic Status: The Toybox-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinket, An-Sofie; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet; Androutsos, Odysseas; Koletzko, Berthold; Moreno, Luis A; Socha, Piotr; Iotova, Violeta; Manios, Yannis; Van Lippevelde, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicated that preschoolers of lower socioeconomic status (SES) consume less healthy beverages than high SES preschoolers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between SES and plain water, soft drink and prepacked fruit juice (FJ) consumption in European preschoolers. Parents/caregivers of 3.5 to 5.5 years old (n = 6776) recruited through kindergartens in six European countries within the ToyBox-study completed questionnaires on socio-demographics, parenting practices and a food frequency questionnaire. Availability of sugared beverages and plain water, permissiveness towards sugared beverages and lack of self-efficacy showed a mediating effect on SES-differences in all three beverages. Rewarding with sugared beverages significantly mediated SES-differences for both plain water and prepacked FJ. Encouragement to drink plain water and awareness significantly mediated SES-differences for, respectively, plain water and prepacked FJ consumption. Avoiding negative modelling did not mediate any associations. Overall, lower SES preschoolers were more likely to be confronted with lower levels of favourable and higher levels of unfavourable parenting practices, which may lead to higher sugared beverage and lower plain water consumption. The current study highlights the importance of parenting practices in explaining the relation between SES and both healthy and unhealthy beverage consumption. PMID:27669290

  5. Can Parenting Practices Explain the Differences in Beverage Intake According to Socio-Economic Status: The Toybox-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Sofie Pinket

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicated that preschoolers of lower socioeconomic status (SES consume less healthy beverages than high SES preschoolers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between SES and plain water, soft drink and prepacked fruit juice (FJ consumption in European preschoolers. Parents/caregivers of 3.5 to 5.5 years old (n = 6776 recruited through kindergartens in six European countries within the ToyBox-study completed questionnaires on socio-demographics, parenting practices and a food frequency questionnaire. Availability of sugared beverages and plain water, permissiveness towards sugared beverages and lack of self-efficacy showed a mediating effect on SES-differences in all three beverages. Rewarding with sugared beverages significantly mediated SES-differences for both plain water and prepacked FJ. Encouragement to drink plain water and awareness significantly mediated SES-differences for, respectively, plain water and prepacked FJ consumption. Avoiding negative modelling did not mediate any associations. Overall, lower SES preschoolers were more likely to be confronted with lower levels of favourable and higher levels of unfavourable parenting practices, which may lead to higher sugared beverage and lower plain water consumption. The current study highlights the importance of parenting practices in explaining the relation between SES and both healthy and unhealthy beverage consumption.

  6. Implications of Parents' Socio-Economic Status in the Choice of English Language Learning Strategies among Nigeria's Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikkoi, Mallam Adamu; Razak, Noor Zainab binti Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Studies have indicated that, less affluent families are less likely to have the financial and or time availability to provide their children with academic support compared to affluent families. This study investigated the relationship between Language Learning Strategies used by secondary school students in Nigeria and their Parents Socio-economic…

  7. Low socio-economic environmental determinants of children's physical activity in Coventry, UK: A Qualitative study in parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L.J. Eyre

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Parent's perceptions of an unsupportive physical and social environment restrict children's opportunities to play outside and be physically active and may lead to increased body fat (BF. Schools provide a supportive environment for children from low SES to be physically active in.

  8. Socio-Economic Impact of Higher Education in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Anam Azam, Muhammad Rafiq, Fauzia Nazir

    2015-01-01

    In  this study, the socio-economic impact of higher education in Pakistan are studied. The main objective of this study was to examine and analyse the casual relationship between socio/economic impacts in higher education. The study has also highlighted the firm relationship in higher education. The findings showed that there is positive relationship in higher education.

  9. Parental Socio-Economic Status, Self-Concept and Gender Differences on Students' Academic Performance in Borno State Colleges of Education: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Umar; Bello, S.

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey study, designed to determine gender differences and socio-economic status, self-concept on students' academic performance in Colleges of Education, Borno State: Implications for counselling. The study set two research objectives, answered two research questions and tested two research hypotheses. The target population of this…

  10. The ECHR, Socio-Economic Disadvantage and Access to Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Liam; Walsh, Judy

    2014-01-01

    This Part addresses the dual, interrelated themes of socio-economic rights and access to justice. Both themes raise questions about the capacity of human rights law to effect positive social change in practice. The indivisibility and interdependence of all human rights is a core feature of the contemporary human rights regime, yet the inadequacy of mechanisms for redressing socio-economic rights violations in particular continues to feature in debates about the potential of transnational and ...

  11. Impact of socio-economic position on cancer stage at presentation: Findings from a large hospital-based study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Susanne; Roick, Julia; Briest, Susanne; Stark, Sylvia; Gockel, Ines; Boehm, Andreas; Papsdorf, Kirsten; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Müller, Tobias; Prietzel, Torsten; Schiefke, Franziska; Dietel, Anja; Bräunlich, Jens; Danker, Helge

    2016-10-15

    We explored the relationship between socio-economic characteristics and cancer stage at presentation. Patients admitted to a university hospital for diagnosis and treatment of cancer provided data on their education, vocational training, income, employment, job, health insurance and postcode. Tumor stage was classified according to the Union International Contre le Cancer (UICC). To analyze disparities in the likelihood of late-stage (UICC III/IV vs. I/II) diagnoses, logistic regression models adjusting for age and gender were used. Out of 1,012 patients, 572 (59%) had late-stage cancer. Separately tested, increased odds of advanced disease were associated with post-compulsory education compared to college degrees, with apprenticeship and no vocational training, with unemployment, disability pension, jobs with a low hierarchy level, blue collar jobs and with low income. Health insurance and community size were not related with late-stage cancer. Jointly modelled, there was evidence for an independent effect of unemployment (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8), disability pension (OR 1.8, CI 1.0-3.2) and very low income (OR 2.6, CI 1.1-6.1) on the likelihood of advanced disease stage. It is of great concern that these socio-economic gradients occur even in systems with equal access to health care. PMID:27244597

  12. Note about socio-economic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Salling, Kim Bang

    2006-01-01

    for socio-economic calculations within the transportation area (Ministry of Traffic, 2003). The note also explains the theory of socio-economic calculations – reference is here made to ”Road Infrastructure Planning – a Decision-oriented approach” (Leleur, 2000). Socio-economic evaluations of infrastructure......This note gives a short introduction of how to make socio-economic evaluations in connection with the teaching at the Centre for Traffic and Transport (CTT). It is not a manual for making socio-economic calculations in transport infrastructure projects – in this context we refer to the guidelines...

  13. Socio-economic impacts of GKI activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1979-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the potential socio-economic impacts of Geokinetics, Inc. (GKI) activities on Uintah Basin. Potential impacts on socio-economic conditions in the Uintah Basin are limited by the scope of GKI operations. In 1978, the population of Uintah and Duchesne counties was nearly 30,000. GKI employees represented 0.1% of the Basin population. 1978 Gross Taxable Sales were estimated to be $167.182 million for the Uintah Basin. GKI expenditures totaled less than 1% of gross taxable sales, even if it is assumed that all expenditures went to Basin businesses. GKI employment and expenditures are likely to increase in the years ahead, but projected increases will have insignificant socio-economic impacts on local communities. However, some employees will already own and others will seek to purchase homes in the area. Resulting impacts, though insignificant, will be positive. Several years ago, Utah State University researchers developed estimates of population changes and impacts associated with employment growth in Uintah County. Their report indicated that a project increasing basic employment by 400 persons would have minor impact, but would increase the tax base of the county. It is unlikely that GKI employment will approach, let alone exceed, the threshold level of 400 employees. In addition, GKI growth will be incremental and gradual, even to commercial scale operations. This leads us to conclude that GKI operations will have minimal adverse impact upon the Uintah Basin and in fact will probably have a net positive impact on the Basin.

  14. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt;

    2009-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic posi......During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio......-economic position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (preterm birth (32-36 gestational weeks) were calculated...... by maternal educational attainment and analysed in 5-year intervals from 1981 to 2000. Compared with mothers with >12 years of education, mothers with preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient...

  15. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  16. The effects of parents'socio-economic status on depressive symptoms of students in middle or high schools%父母社会经济状况对中学生抑郁症状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚圣香; 洪忻; 王志勇; 杨华凤; 陈旭鹏; 周海茸; 徐斐

    2013-01-01

    Objective The investigate the depressive symptoms and to assess the association of depressive symptoms with parents'socio-economic status in students of middle or high schools.Methods The subjects were 2 202 middle or high school students selected from 53 classes of 5 schools by random cluster sampling method from September to October in 2011.The questionnaire was used in present investigation.The depressive symptoms were assessed by Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS).The morbidities of depressive symptoms were calculated according to the evaluation standard.Parents' socio-economic status was evaluated with three indicators (parental occupation,final education level and family income).Results The response rate of 2 032 students was 92.3% in present investigation.The morbidity of depressive symptoms was 47.2%,which included the mild depressive symptoms (28.6%),moderate depressive symptoms (15.1%) and severe depressive symptoms (3.5%).Logistic analyses indicated that after controlling the factors of age,sex and middle schools or high schools,the risk of students whose parents had postgraduate education levels was 2.553 fold (95%CI:1.140~5.717),as compared with students whose parents had university or college education levels.Conclusion The morbidity of depressive symptoms in middle schools or high schools of Nanjing is high.There are the effects of parental socio-economic status on depressive symptoms among middle or high school students in Nanjing after controlling the factors of age,gender,middle or high schools.%目的 调查中学生抑郁症状的现状,并评价与父母社会经济状况的相关性.方法 采用整群抽样方法,随机抽取南京地区5个学校53个班级2 202名在校中学生,于2011年9-10月期间对其进行抑郁自评量表问卷调查.按照评价标准,计算抑郁症状检出率.选取父母职业和最高受教育程度以及家庭收入来评价社会经济状况.结果 实际调查2 032

  17. Sustainable Livestock Farming for Improving Socio-Economic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamsuddoha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is the most effective concept to improve socio-economic condition, including environment. Constructive socio-economic changes are getting priority in recent years among academia and business sector in Bangladesh. Bangladesh poultry sub-sector has long supply chains having associated with various stakeholders. In this paper, a case poultry farm was taken to examine a production process that links with socio-economic benefits. Design science method under the quantitative paradigm was chosen to develop a model for the case industry. A Simulation model was developed using simul8 software to construct the real poultry operation. The objectives of this paper are to construct a sustainable model for a case poultry industry along with socio-economic issues. Later, simulated model output will examine it through various performance indicators (KPIs to find out the impacts on socio-economic benefits. Numbers of KPIs have been briefly discussed in light of the research problem to illustrate positive effects of sustainable production.

  18. Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie; Holm, Anne

    Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia   Rashmi Singla,  Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark....... Based on two interdisciplinary empirical studies, it investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s....... Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of Indian and Pakistani background. The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature...

  19. Secondary School Track Selection of Single-Parent Children � Evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Mahler; Rainer Winkelmann

    2004-01-01

    In present day Germany, one in seven children is raised in a single parent household. We investigate the effect of single parenthood on children�s educational attainment, measured by the school track at the age 14, using ordered probit models. We study whether the effect of living in single parenthood during early or late childhood differs. Finally, we ask whether the family effect operates through resources � fewer income and parental time available for the child �, or through adverse ...

  20. Does parenting help to explain socio-economic inequalities in children’s body mass index trajectories? Longitudinal analysis using the Growing Up in Scotland Study

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Young, Robert; Wight, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pathways leading to socioeconomic inequalities in young children's body mass index (BMI) are not well understood. This study examined whether parenting related to the physical and social context of children's food consumption helped to explain associations between maternal educational level and child BMI trajectory. Methods: The study used data from 2957 families in a nationally representative birth cohort study surveyed from 2004 to 2011, with child BMI z-score measured 3 tim...

  1. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis in School aged Children of Iran : Role of Personal and Parents Related Socio- Economic and Educational Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Mahmoodzadeh; Morteza Amestejani; Mohammad Karamyar; Ahmad-Ali Nikibakhsh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Iranian children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem.Methods: A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children [7-11 years old] from Urmia were investigated. The su...

  2. Barriers to healthcare seeking, beliefs about cancer and the role of socio-economic position. A Danish population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Line; Wulff, Christian Nielsen; Pedersen, Anette Fischer;

    2014-01-01

    besvaret den danske version af måleredskabet ”Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer”. Måleredskabet inkluderer bl.a. fire udsagn om forventede barrierer for lægesøgning samt tre positive og tre negative forestillinger om kræft. Resultaterne viser, at personer med lavt uddannelsesniveau og med lav...

  3. Association of socio-economic position and suicide/attempted suicide in low and middle income countries in South and South-East Asia – a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Carroll, Robert; Thomas, Kyla H; Pease, Anna; Gunnell, David; Metcalfe, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Forty percent of the world’s suicide deaths occur in low and middle income countries (LAMIC) in Asia. There is a recognition that social factors, such as socioeconomic position (SEP), play an important role in determining suicidal risk in high income countries, but less is known about the association in LAMIC. Methods The objective of this systematic review was to synthesise existing evidence of the association between SEP and attempted suicide/suicide risk in LAMIC countries in So...

  4. Homogamy in socio-economic background and education, and the dissolution of cohabiting unions

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Mäenpää; Marika Jalovaara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the increasing prevalence of cohabitation, knowledge of how socio-economic homogamy affects the stability of cohabiting unions is scant. Few studies have compared the effects of homogamy in both ascribed and achieved socio-economic status on union dissolution. Objective: Our aim is to determine how homogamy and heterogamy in educational level and parental social class affect the risk of cohabitation dissolution in Finland. Methods: We use unique Finnish register data...

  5. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  6. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongondo, F.O., E-mail: f.ongondo@soton.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dietrich, J. [Technische Universität Berlin, Centre for Scientific Continuing Education and Cooperation, Cooperation and Consulting for Environmental Questions (kubus) FH10-1, Fraunhoferstraße 33-36, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Carroll, C. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  7. Lifetime socio-economic position and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    among variables. Results: Social circumstances during the life course were associated with depressive mood. Further, low lifetime SEP was associated with lower cognitive score, smoking, alcohol use, high body mass index (BMI) and increased level of high sensitive ProReactive Protein and Interleukin-6....... These covariables were also associated with depressive mood and when they were included into the regression model together with life time SEP, the β-estimates for the latter attenuated, when smoking, alcohol and BMI were entered, while the inclusion of cognitive function and the inflammatory biomarkers had limited...... effect on the relation between lifetime SEP and depressive mood. Conclusions: Lifetime SEP was associated with depressive mood and health-related behaviour explained a part of the relation....

  8. SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF FARMING PRACTICES IN THE PERI-URBAN HINTERLANDS OF NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatta, G.D.; Doppler, W

    2010-01-01

    Spatial location of the farm households shapes farming practices and livelihoods of the farmers. Many socio-economic variables have strong spatial relations that would otherwise be missed by data aggregation at household level. Geographic Information System (GIS)provides display and analysis of socio-economic data that may be fundamental for many social scientists to understand socio-economic reality influenced by geographical position of the farm households. Present article aims at integrat...

  9. Socio-Economic Diversity and Mathematical Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has proved that in Germany the impact that socio-economic background has on 15-year-old pupils' achievement is stronger than in other countries. The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) showed that the correlation is less with 10-year-old children, but is still apparent.…

  10. THE IMPACT OF MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC LIVES OF PEOPLE IN ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGARET MUTENGEZANWA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an exploratory research whose main purpose was to investigate the impact of micro finance institutions on the socio economic lives of Zimbabweans. The study sought to establish whether micro finance empowers the poor and reduces poverty. The study was conducted through the use of eighty questionnaires randomly distributed to clients of five micro finance institutions. The study revealed that there is a positive relationship between microcredit and the socio economic lives of people. It was found out that the activities of microfinance institutions resulted in increased social interaction and socio economic sustainability.

  11. Time trends in socio-economic factors and risk of hospitalisation with infectious diseases in pre-school children 1985-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Søndergaard, Grethe; Vitting Andersen, Karen;

    2012-01-01

    respiratory, lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, ear and fever infections. The data were analysed using Cox regression. Children of parents on sick leave or early retirement had an increased risk of being hospitalised with an infection compared with children of employed parents. A clear inverse educational......The purpose of this study was to examine socio-economic differences in the risk of hospitalisation among children aged 0-5 years in Denmark from 1985 to 2004. All children born between 1985 and 2004 (n=1,278,286) were followed for hospital admissions for infectious diseases from the 29th day...... of life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was gathered through record linkage with administrative registries. Infections were grouped into upper...

  12. School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents: risk factors differ between socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors...... to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups. METHODS: The study population was a random sample of 1453 Danish 15-year-old students. The outcome measure was drunkenness 10 times or more, as a lifetime measure. Predictor variables comprised five aspects of well-being at school. Socio-economic position (SEP...

  13. Socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Chetna; Do, Young Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the magnitude of socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India after correcting for potential reporting heterogeneity by socio-economic characteristics (education and wealth).

  14. Educational Justice and Socio-Economic Segregation in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighouse, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Sociologists exploring educational injustice often focus on socio-economic segregation as a central measure of injustice. The comprehensive ideal, furthermore, has the idea of socio-economic integration built into it. The current paper argues that socio-economic segregation is valuable only insofar as it serves other, more fundamental values. This…

  15. Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

  16. Validity of two simple measures for estimating life-course socio-economic position in cross-sectional postal survey data in an older population: results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacey Rosie J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since few cohorts encompass the whole life-course, many studies that measure socio-economic position (SEP across the life-course rely on participant recall of SEP measures from cross-sectional postal or interview surveys. It is also particularly important that SEP measures should be appropriate for the age of the population studied, as the level of missing data has been shown to increase in older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of recall of two SEP measures in older adults, age left school and longest job, by examining their validity in a general population postal survey in North Staffordshire, UK. Methods Sets of questions on education and longest job were included in a questionnaire at different stages of the study. All patients aged 50+ registered with three general practices were sent a baseline Health Questionnaire. 6 years later, 3410 responders were mailed a follow-up Health Questionnaire; a sub-sample of these participants took part in independent qualitative interviews. Validity was assessed by: percentage completion; internal percentage agreement within each set of questions; percentage agreement of qualitative and quantitative data for age left school and longest job; comparing recall of age left school with historical change in legal school leaving age; comparing frequency of pottery job titles with those in 1981 Census data for Stoke-on-Trent. Results The adjusted response to different stages of the study was 71–85%. Completion of questions was 83–98%. Internal agreement was 84–97% (education and 95–100% (longest job. Comparison of survey and interview data showed 86% agreement (± 1 year for age left school and 91% agreement for longest job. The change in age left school data concurred with the historical shift in legal school leaving age. 11% of job titles were pottery in NorStOP data and 15% in Stoke-on-Trent Census data. Conclusions The results from this study provide

  17. 'Faking til you make it': social capital accumulation of individuals on low incomes living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods and its implications for health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2013-05-01

    People on low-income living in low socio-economic neighbourhoods have poorer health in comparison with those living in advantaged neighbourhoods. To explore neighbourhood effects on health and social capital creation, the experiences of low-income people living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods were compared, in order to examine how low-income status and differing levels of neighbourhood resources contributed to perceived health and wellbeing. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed: survey data from 601 individuals living in contrasting socio-economic areas and in-depth interviews with a new sample of 24 individuals on low-incomes. The study was guided by Bourdieu's theory of practice, which examines how social inequalities are created and reproduced through the relationship between individuals' varying resources of economic, social and cultural capital. This included an examination of individual life histories, cultural distinction and how social positions are reproduced. Participants' accounts of their early life experience showed how parental socio-economic position and socially patterned events taking place across the life course, created different opportunities for social network creation, choice of neighbourhood and levels of resources available throughout life, all of which can influence health and wellbeing. A definition of poverty by whether an individual or household has sufficient income at a particular point in time was an inadequate measure of disadvantage. This static measure of 'low income' as a category disguised a number of different ways in which disadvantage was experienced or, conversely, how life course events could mitigate the impact of low-income. This study found that the resources necessary to create social capital such as cultural capital and the ability to socially network, differed according to the socio-economic status of the neighbourhood, and that living in an advantaged area does not automatically guarantee

  18. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    Full Text Available Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respiratory infections, and overweight, health related school absence and family socio-economic status on children's school performance.We used data from 1,865 children in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. School performance was measured as the teacher's assessment of a suitable secondary school level for the child, and the child's score on a standardized achievement test (Cito Test. Both school performance indicators were standardised using Z-scores. Childhood health was indicated by eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and health related school absence. Children's health conditions were reported repeatedly between the age of one to eleven. School absenteeism was reported at age eleven. Highest attained educational level of the mother and father indicated family socio-economic status. We used linear regression models with heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors for our analyses with adjustment for sex of the child.The health indicators used in our study were not associated with children's school performance, independently from parental educational level, with the exception of asthma symptoms (-0.03 z-score / -0.04 z-score with Cito Test score after adjusting for respectively maternal and paternal education and missing more than 5 schooldays due to illness (-0.18 z-score with Cito Test score and -0.17 z-score with school level assessment after adjustment for paternal education. The effect estimates for these health indicators were much smaller though than the effect estimates for parental education, which was strongly associated with children's school performance.Children's school performance was affected only

  19. Socio-economic expenditure impacts report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

  20. The first injustice : Socio-economic inequalities in birth outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Gisselmann, Marit

    2007-01-01

    Adverse birth outcomes like preterm birth and infant mortality are unevenly distributed across socio-economic groups. Risks are usually lowest in groups with high socio-economic status and increase with decreasing status. The general aim of this thesis was to contribute to the understanding of the relation between socio-economic status and birth outcomes, focussing on maternal education and class, studying a range of birth outcomes. More specific aims were to investigate the relation between ...

  1. Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudette D. Ncho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory usingpurposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realisedas 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in SoshanguveExtension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using opencoding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and geneticconstitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and workingconditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of peopleliving in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approachfrom registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned andimplemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in thecommunity without evidence based on a family perspective.

  2. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariël

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent resp

  3. School Performance : A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respi

  4. Climate Change: Socio-Economic impacts and violent conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland EC; Klaassen MG; Nierop T; van der Wusten H; PB-NOP; LUW

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a literature study on the socio economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect. The socio economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors in chapter 2 of the study. The impacts on property, ecos

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C;

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  6. Socio-economic differences in health among Slovak adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Zezula, I.; Tuinstra, J.; Groothoff, J.W.; Post, Doeke

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To explore socio-economic health differences among Slovak adolescents. Methods: Socio-economic differences in health (psychological health: GHQ-12, vitality and mental health scale of RAND, experienced health complaints, chronic illness, use of medicines, self-reported health, self-perce

  7. Socio-economic Models During the Period of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MANOLESCU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the state involving importance in finding the solutions for getting over the present economic crisis through responsibility, the labor relations and the affairs environment regulation and the income redistribution. Into this work, are analyzed the 4 socio-economic European models: the Anglo-Saxon liberal model, the Scandinavian universalistic model, the continental corporatist model, the Mediterranean model and the European Union countries position into these models. Also, are pointed out the EU countries economic performances by analyzing the rankings of these countries on base of Global Competitiveness Index 2010-2011 and the evolution of this index during 2009-2011. The article follows to underline the necessity of the state action for durable, healthy, sustainable economic growth, capable for getting over the economic crisis and for ensuring the social welfare and economic competitiveness.

  8. The socio-economic dimension of modern globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Sidenko

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the views of eminent analysts on the driving forces of and explanations for economic globalization today. It examines the main characteristics of this process, such as the growth of world trade, the increased mobility of financial capital, the growing role of transnational corporations and the development of network technologies and the internet. The author analyzes the positive impact of globalization on the development of productive forces and human development. Problems arising from the growing interdependence of a globalized world, such as environmental issues, security, increased worldwide disparity of socio-economic development of countries and regions, are also examined. In conclusion, the author voices the need for establishing a system of global management.

  9. Socio-economic effects of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report studies the socio-economic effects and benefits of domestic fuels - peat and wood, and agricultural energy plants also - in power and heat generation. For evaluation of employment and income effects, it compares the costs of domestic as well a imported fuels as regards production, transportation and power stations by looking especially at the direct labour input and inputs in terms of intermediate products and investment. Their indirect employment effects and allocation to domestic factor income and imports are introduced by means of an input-output model. The net changes in the disposable incomes of local households, firms and municipalities, the government and others are derived from factor incomes by means of income redistribution. The economy-wide profitability of the domestic fuels was evaluated using a macroeconomic model, the FMS model system. The particular question posed was how much the domestic fuels could cost at most to be economically profitable. It was shown that macroeconomic profitability is affected essentially by real production costs and the import prices of the imported fuels. Subsidies and differentiated fuel taxes have only little impact on the macroeconomic profitability although they change the private profitability of the fuels considerably. This is why fuel taxes were excluded in the macroeconomic profitability evaluations

  10. Positive Parenting and Challenging Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Positive parenting focuses on developing proactive ways to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors, as opposed to focusing on reacting to and attempting to decrease negative behaviors. Dr. Sheldon Braaten, Executive Director of Behavioral Institute for Children and Adolescents, offers some keys for setting up and using a positive reinforcement…

  11. Obesity and Association with Area of Residence, Gender and Socio-Economic Factors in Algerian and Tunisian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Madjid Atek; Pierre Traissac; Jalila El Ati; Youcef Laid; Hajer Aounallah-Skhiri; Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay; Nadia Mézimèche; Souha Bougatef; Chiraz Béji; Leila Boutekdjiret; Yves Martin-Prével; Hassiba Lebcir; Agnès Gartner; Patrick Kolsteren; Francis Delpeuch

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Methods: Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n...

  12. Socio-Economic Status and Academic Achievement Trajectories from Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    Although a positive relationship between socio-economic status and academic achievement is well-established, how it varies with age is not. This article uses four data points from Canada's National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to examine how the academic achievement gap attributed to SES changes from childhood to adolescence…

  13. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

  14. SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND EDUCATIONAL PROFILE OF GIRL CHILD LABOURERS IN GULBARGA DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmibai Somalingappa; Sindhe Jaganath R

    2015-01-01

    Child labour is a social problem and it is observed that compared to males, more females are working outside at an early age. As such, to study the problems of girl child labourers, socio-economic and educational background of girl child labourers working in Gulbarga district is studied. Primary data is collected through interview schedules from 400 girl child labourers. The collected primary data is revealed that poverty and negligence of parents are major reasons for the girl child labou...

  15. Oral-Dental Health Problems and Related Risk Factors Among Low Socio-Economic Status Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Kocoglu

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Poor socio-economic situation is considered a major risk for dental health however parents with low education, not having toothbrush and not to consume milk per day were risk factors for dental health negatively affect. Providing toothbrush for students with low socioeconomic status and distribution of milk in school can decrease the problems of in terms of dental health for this group [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 479-486

  16. Multiple risk behaviour in adolescence and socio-economic status: findings from a UK birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Kipping, Ruth R.; Smith, Michèle; Heron, Jon; Hickman, Matthew; Campbell, Rona

    2014-01-01

    Background. Patterns of risk behaviour during teenage years may vary by socio-economic status (SES). We aimed to examine possible associations between individual and multiple risk behaviours and three measures of SES in mid-adolescence. Methods. The sample (n = 6406) comprised participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK birth cohort. Thirteen risk behaviours spanning sexual health, substance use, self-harm, vehicle-related injury, criminality and physical inact...

  17. THE NATURE OF ENTROPY IN SOCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana MYKHAILOVSKA

    2014-01-01

    This report analyzes the relationship between thermodynamic and information entropy. It is shown that in the case of socio-economic impact of information systems on the organization of social and economic systems is ambiguous.

  18. Socio-Economic Implications of New Information Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Page, J.; Lechleuthner, F.; Hervey, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    Socio-Economic Implications of New Information Technology provides not only an exploration of the relevant literature and some guidelines for further, more detailed research, but also some stimulating insights into a host of issues raised by the communications revolution.

  19. Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island

    OpenAIRE

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah; Jaafar Mastura; Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Par...

  20. Enhancing chestnut coppices: silvicultural management and socio-economic context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Manetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available  Castanea sativa is one of the most important species for timber production in Italy but, both management system, ownership type and wood chain structure, aren’t able to  enhance enough the market value of wood assortments. Although the high demand of quality timber, the internal production is heavily  reduced, mainly as far as timber quality is concerned and because of the lack of suitable timber sizes. In this context, experimental trials  have been approached to identify and verify which silvicultural methods are best suited to reach high yields depending to the investments  needed and the local socio-economical condition. Two technical approaches were evaluated: stand silviculture and single-tree oriented silviculture. As for the socio-economical aspects, a few demographic indexes have been examined and the first-phase processing enterprises  acting in the concerned area were analyzed. The goals of this paper are to evaluate the biological response to the applied silviculture, to  analyze the problems arisen and to estimate the applicability of the proposed methods in relation to the different socio-economic contexts. The research has been carried out in Tuscany in two important forest areas - Monte Amiata and Colline Metallifere - in young chestnut  coppices characterized by an homogeneous stand density and a good site index. The two examined districts showed some similarities  but they have mainly highlighted important differences about the social structure and concerns and enterprises characteristics. The area of Monte Amiata is typified by a higher residents density then the Colline Metallifere but only 1/3 of the population is employed in the agro-forest sector. In addition, in the Monte Amiata district most concerns are sized less than 2 hectares and chestnut is the main forest  species. On the contrary, in the Colline Metallifere the agro-forest sector (57% of workers is one of the main sources of income for the  local

  1. Homogamy in socio-economic background and education, and the dissolution of cohabiting unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Mäenpää

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the increasing prevalence of cohabitation, knowledge of how socio-economic homogamy affects the stability of cohabiting unions is scant. Few studies have compared the effects of homogamy in both ascribed and achieved socio-economic status on union dissolution. Objective: Our aim is to determine how homogamy and heterogamy in educational level and parental social class affect the risk of cohabitation dissolution in Finland. Methods: We use unique Finnish register data that includes information on non-marital cohabitation. Cox regression is used to analyse the risk of dissolution in 20,452 cohabitations. We examine the dissolution rates in all possible combinations of partner status, and analyse how these estimates deviate from the main effects of each partner's status. Results: According to the findings, homogamy in parental social class is of little consequence in cohabitation dissolution, although cohabitations between people from upper-white-collar and farmer families are disproportionately likely to dissolve. Educational differences between partners are more significant determinants of cohabitation stability: extreme heterogamy is associated with an increased separation risk, and homogamy decreases the separation risk among cohabitors with a higher university degree. Conclusions: In line with the perception that personal achievement is more significant than social origins in contemporary union dynamics, similarity in educational level increases cohabitation stability more than similarity in socio-economic origin. Although previous Nordic studies report little or no association between educational homogamy or heterogamy and marriage dissolution, our study shows that educational differences do matter in cohabiting unions.

  2. Transformation of institute of a family in Ural in the conditions of socio-economic destructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sergeyevich Pavlov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of social risks and deviations related to family group in Ural, manifestations of these risks for a family way of life, socio-economic development of the region. The author emphasizes that today the dialectics of creation and destructions, risks and reliability, optimism and pessimism is illustrated in the various parts of the institute of family in Russia as a whole and, in particular, in the Ural region. In our modern age, there is no risk-free behavior. «Risk — safety» dichotomy means that there is no absolute reliability or safety. Whereas «risk — danger» dichotomy means that it is impossible to avoid risk, making any decisions. The author shows the identity of socio-economic health of the adult population of various regions of the Russian Federation throughout almost the whole quarter of a century on the basis of a number of research assignments conducted by sociologists of Institute of Economics of the UB RAS, in a monitoring mode. Division of the population on rather identical (on particular weight in the total number of the population groups of the Russian society referred to the category of «rich», «medium people» and «poor people» is observed. At the same time, according to the author, the social inequality in principle has both positive, and negative consequences for functioning and society development. The author made an attempt of the problem analysis of «family — children», «fathers — children» from a perspective social risks. The special relevance of these processes in relation to family policy in Russia seeking to pass from depopulation tendencies to a favorable treatment of nation-expanded reproduction is emphasized. Altogether, the level of family wellbeing, first of all, is defined by the quality of the relations in the system of «parents — children». The intra-familial conflicts conduct to family trouble and so for children. In article, the author’s position

  3. ABORTION IN RELATION TO SOME SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Majd

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available The data for this study has been collected from a questionnaire examining the relationship between birth weight of the new born and some physical and socio-economic characteristics of the mother. Between Dec.1975 to Jan.1976, 1553 women who had referred to two hospitals in Tehran for labor: 981 to Farah Maternity and 572 to Firoozgar Hospital have been interviewed. The results of the study have indicated that women who had referred to Firoozgar Hospital, were older, more literate, had higher per capita income, used more contraceptives and had fewer pregnancies, all these figures are statistically significant. Regression analysis indicates that factors such as age of the mother, literacy, household income, husband's job position are not significant towards increase of abortion rate amongst these women, but when these factors are fixed and place of reference is analyzed this variable becomes significant, increase of abortion, which have not been considered in this study. Parity regardless of the above factors increases abortion rate and for each increase in the number of pregnancy, mean number of abortion is increased by 0.09.

  4. The effect of socio-economic characteristics of parents on student achievement: Is poverty destiny?Ailelerin sosyo-ekonomik özelliklerinin öğrenci başarısı üzerindeki etkisi: Fakirlik kader midir?

    OpenAIRE

    Cemil Çiftçi; Atalay Çağlar

    2014-01-01

    The social, economic and cultural characteristics of family, that is transmitted to children biologically and culturally, has an impact on socio-economic achievements of individuals in question throughout their life. In that respect, we analyzed the impact of socio-economic characteristics of families on numerical and equal-weighted “The Transition to Higher Education Examination” (YGS) scores of high-school graduate students in Denizli in 2012. The findings of the study show that private tea...

  5. Socio-economic development of northern regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusif Alimovich Gadzhiev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the characteristics and trends of socio-economic development of northern regions. To assess the socio-economic differentiation, groups of 21 primary indicator were selected (five economic, three financial, eleven social and two spacial. With the help of the statistical characteristics, the degree of economic and social divergence and convergence of the territories is determined. On the basis of principal component factor analysis and Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis, four groups of regions in terms of socio-economic development were identified - highly developed, developed, underdeveloped and problematic. A meaningful characterization of these clusters, which allows differential regulation of the development in the northern regions, is given. With respect to each type is necessary to develop a focused state regional policy in order to soften the uneven development and improve social and economic development of northern regions.

  6. Socio-economic correlates of pesticide usage: the case of citrus farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The socio-economic factors affecting adoption of pesticides on citrus trees in Sargodha Division, Pakistan was studied. Six villages were selected (three from each subdivision) for data collection. Overall 150 orchard owners (25 from each sample village) were interviewed. Data were analyzed using SPSS programme. Gamma test and chi-square were used to check the direction and magnitude of relationship between independent and dependent variables. Among the sample, 48% respondents were spray users. The socio-economic factors that influenced farmer's receptivity to citrus spray were age (negatively correlated), education (positively correlated), social status (positively correlated), farm size (negatively correlated) and farming experience (negatively correlated). By incurring Rs. 3,600.00 per ha on spray farmers received Rs. 19,000.00 as an incremental benefit. Marginal rate of return indicated that by spending Re. 1.00 on spray farmers would get an increase of Rs. 5.27 in their income. (author)

  7. Mortality and socio-economic differences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Svarer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    the negative correlation between socio-economic status and mortality prevails for some diseases, but for women we find that factors such as being married, income, wealth and education are not significantly associated with higher life expectancy. Marriage increases the likelihood of dying from cancer for women....... This method is important as some factors have unequal (and sometimes opposite) influence on the cause-specific mortality rates. We find that the often-found inverse correlation between socio-economic status and mortality is to a large degree absent among Danish women who die of cancer. In addition, for men...

  8. Socio-Economic Transformation and Gender Relations in Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Khouangvichit, Damdouane

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine socio-economic transformation and gender relations in Lao PDR after the adoption of economic liberalization by the Lao government in the late 1980s. Against a background of general socio-economic transformation in Laos the main focus of the study is on the local level, with emphasis on how people in their everyday lives have engaged with and handled the changes. The application of economic liberalization shaped new conditions for people in local communities...

  9. Assessing the Rise of Organic Farming in the European Union: Environmental and Socio-economic Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinidis, Charalampos

    2012-01-01

    Although organic farming is considered the poster child of rural development in Europe, there is little empirical evidence assessing its success in achieving the ambitious environmental and socio-economic objectives that it is purported to assist. This paper presents empirical evidence from the growth of organic farming in Europe over the past two decades that questions the highly optimistic claims of policy makers. Although policies in support of organic impact have had an overall positive e...

  10. Subclinical psychopathology and socio-economic status in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg Christensen, Maj; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2006-01-01

    work position and tendency towards being more often unemployed and early retired than the Low-Risk twins. Furthermore, they presented higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and were more likely to experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Healthy twins with a high genetic liability...... the causality of these findings, thus genetic liability to affective disorder, socio-economic status and minor psychopathology seem to have a complex interrelation....... to affective disorder seem to present lower socio-economic status, higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and more often experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis than twins with no familial history of affective disorder. It is not possible from the present cross-sectional data to determine...

  11. The effect of socio-economic characteristics of parents on student achievement: Is poverty destiny?Ailelerin sosyo-ekonomik özelliklerinin öğrenci başarısı üzerindeki etkisi: Fakirlik kader midir?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Çiftçi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The social, economic and cultural characteristics of family, that is transmitted to children biologically and culturally, has an impact on socio-economic achievements of individuals in question throughout their life. In that respect, we analyzed the impact of socio-economic characteristics of families on numerical and equal-weighted “The Transition to Higher Education Examination” (YGS scores of high-school graduate students in Denizli in 2012. The findings of the study show that private teaching institution, education level of father and elementary family variables have a positive impact, while being transferred from another school has a negative impact on these scores. On the other hand the result of numerical scores are effected by much more socio-economic variables than equal-weighted scores have important clues for the politics devoted to increasing academic achievements and decreasing income-inequalities. ÖzetAilelerin sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik özellikleri biyolojik ve kültürel olarak çocuklara aktarılarak, söz konusu bireylerin hayatları boyunca elde edecekleri ekonomik, sosyal ve kültürel kazanımlarını bir bütün olarak etkilemektedir. Bu doğrultuda çalışmamızda ailelerin sosyo-ekonomik özelliklerinin Denizli’de 2012 yılında mezun olan lise öğrencilerinin YGS sayısal ve eşit ağırlık puanları üzerindeki etkisi analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmamızın sonuçlarına göre dershane, babanın eğitim düzeyi ve çekirdek aile durumu sayısal ve eşit ağırlık puan türlerinin her ikisinde de başarıyı olumlu etkileyen, başka bir okuldan nakil ise olumsuz etkileyen ortak değişkenler olarak öne çıkmaktadır. Sayısal puan türünde başarıyı etkileyen sosyo-ekonomik faktörlerin çok daha fazla olması ise, eğitimde başarıyı artırmaya ve gelir dağılımındaki eşitsizlikleri azaltmaya yönelik politikalar için önemli ipuçları vermektedir.

  12. Socio-economic determinants of underweight children in West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharati S; Chakrabarty S; Som S; Pal M; Bharati P

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the extent of undernutrition at district level and the socio-economic determinants of underweight children aged 0-71 months in West Bengal.Methods: The data were accessed from the Reproductive and Child Health Survey (RCHS-II), which contained information of 7 550 children and their parents. Information of socio-economic variables about the associated families of these children had also been taken for our study. This study computed weight-for-age z-scores to assess the nutritional status of the children using WHO (2006) reference.Results: The prevalence of underweight varied over the districts. Districts with very high prevalence of underweight children were Murshidabad, Burdwan, Purulia, Medinipur, Howrah and South 24 Parganas. High prevalent districts for both boys and girls were Jalpaiguri and Coochbihar. Low prevalent districts for both boys and girls were South Dinajpur, Nadia and Kolkata. The percentage of underweight children were more in rural areas among Muslim families with illiterate parents and low standard of living. In Murshidabad, Bankura, Nadia, Medinipur and South 24 Parganas districts, i.e., where prevalence of underweight children were higher, the rural and urban differences were less. The characteristics like religion, parents' educational status and standard of living index showed significant effect on the children's weights.Conclusions: Public intervention programs on the parent's education and the standard of living of the households at district level should be given high priority to combat the children's undernutrition problems so far as weight for age is concerned.

  13. Socio-economic monitoring report for St Martin's Island, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This report was based on fieldwork conducted by trainees at the Socio-economic Monitoring (SocMon) workshop held at St Martin's Island. Topics included: community infrastructure; educational services; health services; water and sewerage; coastal and marine activities; material style of life; status of women; governance; and perceptions

  14. Socio-economic data for global environmental change research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ilona; Biewald, Anne; Coumou, Dim;

    2015-01-01

    Subnational socio-economic datasets are required if we are to assess the impacts of global environmental changes and to improve adaptation responses. Institutional and community efforts should concentrate on standardization of data collection methodologies, free public access, and geo-referencing....

  15. Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

  16. Socio-economic disparity in preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Gry

    2016-01-01

    Socioøkonomisk position er associeret med risiko for præterm fødsel i både høj- og lavindkomstlande og i lande med gratis svangreomsorg. Præterm fødsel er den vigtigste årsag til spædbørnsdødelighed og sygdom og selv præterm børn nær termin har risiko for helbredsproblemer som voksne. Mekanismern...

  17. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  18. Socio-economic cultural transformations and Depression in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranieri, Giuseppe; Carabetta, Carmelo

    2015-09-01

    The socio-economic and cultural evolution in the last decades encouraged a significant process of transformation of the life conditions in advanced societies, particularly the average duration of the life of the elderly population, which since the second half of the past century has increased by about 60%, becoming from an average of fifty years to about eighty two for women and eighty for men. This phenomenon enables scholars and in particular demography scholars, to assume that in 2030 the number of elderly persons will reach about two billion worldwide. This development of an increasingly longer life expectancy, justifies the trust in the great progress that characterizes our society. The rapid growth of this segment of population, due to the improved living conditions and the related progress in science, technology and medicine, in addition to its positive aspects, also includes negative elements, which already affect the Welfare State and, more generally, the public administration that is called to fill the gaps that the transformation of the family and kinship networks have treated with indifference. The problems of the increasingly long-lived, is not freed from new elements of negativity related to the physical and mental decline that leads to the development of new diseases in addition to those already present, ans is increasingly motivated to seek the best remedies to shorten or eliminate the diseases of the elderly. In this context, Depression assumes a central dimension which will surely be a central concern for the economic, social and health impact and for the multitude of changes that put in crisis many of the traditional institutions. This work aims to analyze through a careful review of the scientific literature, the causes of the spread of this disease, the diagnostic difficulties and possible solutions for prevention and care.

  19. Socio-economic cultural transformations and Depression in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranieri, Giuseppe; Carabetta, Carmelo

    2015-09-01

    The socio-economic and cultural evolution in the last decades encouraged a significant process of transformation of the life conditions in advanced societies, particularly the average duration of the life of the elderly population, which since the second half of the past century has increased by about 60%, becoming from an average of fifty years to about eighty two for women and eighty for men. This phenomenon enables scholars and in particular demography scholars, to assume that in 2030 the number of elderly persons will reach about two billion worldwide. This development of an increasingly longer life expectancy, justifies the trust in the great progress that characterizes our society. The rapid growth of this segment of population, due to the improved living conditions and the related progress in science, technology and medicine, in addition to its positive aspects, also includes negative elements, which already affect the Welfare State and, more generally, the public administration that is called to fill the gaps that the transformation of the family and kinship networks have treated with indifference. The problems of the increasingly long-lived, is not freed from new elements of negativity related to the physical and mental decline that leads to the development of new diseases in addition to those already present, ans is increasingly motivated to seek the best remedies to shorten or eliminate the diseases of the elderly. In this context, Depression assumes a central dimension which will surely be a central concern for the economic, social and health impact and for the multitude of changes that put in crisis many of the traditional institutions. This work aims to analyze through a careful review of the scientific literature, the causes of the spread of this disease, the diagnostic difficulties and possible solutions for prevention and care. PMID:26417765

  20. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species.

  1. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species. PMID:26460136

  2. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. PMID:25100315

  3. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage.

  4. Development of Socio-Economic Potential of Russia: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of assessing and using the socio-economic potential of Russia is considered within the fundamental monograph prepared on the basis of the Institute of Economics of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The main achievements of the large research of the problem of the Russian socio-economic potential conducted by a group of authors with the definition of the most rational and important suggestions for the prospects of the Russian economy are allocated. Certain critical comments are noted, and the author’s position is specified concerning the policy of the new industrialization and innovative development within the modern scientific polemic about the subject and tools of economic policy, and also the need of ensuring it by the system efficiency. The main achievement of the presented teamwork of the scientists of the Ural economic school is the development of a methodological framework and hardware (techniques, models of the diagnostics of the socio-economic potential of the economic system of any level of complexity (despite the main specialization of this school on the regional research and measuring base. These achievements will give the chance of more exact identification of a condition of the system and definition of the direction of its movement, which will make it possible to affect the mode of this dynamics by the economic policy of regional and federal level.

  5. Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ► Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ► Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ► “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ► A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ► Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

  6. Intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting: The association with child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Shinyoung; Neppl, Tricia K

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting across generations based on both the family stress model (FSM) and the family resilience framework. The study included 220 generation 1 (G1) parents, their target youth (generation 2: G2) who participated from adolescence through adulthood, and the target's child (generation 3: G3). Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Results indicated that G1 economic hardship negatively influenced both G1 positivity and G1 positive parenting. Similarly, G2 economic hardship was negatively related to both G2 positivity and G2 positive parenting, which in turn was associated with G3 positive behavior to G2. For both G1 and G2, parental positivity mediated the association between economic hardship and positive parenting. G2 economic hardship was indirectly related to G3 positive behavior through G2 parental positivity and positive parenting. An important finding is that the intergenerational continuity of economic hardship, positivity, and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 to G2. Results suggest that even in times of economic adversity, parental positivity and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 parents to their G2 youth during adulthood. Such continuity seems to influence the positive behavior of the G3 children.

  7. Relations among Positive Parenting, parent-child Relationship, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic......,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent......-child relationship mediates the relationship between positive parenting(Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress or warmth) and empathy. In conclusion,parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy. Warmth had indirect effects on children’s empathy through near...

  8. SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: SOME LESSONS FROM THE PILOT TISSUE-CULTURE (TC) BANANA PRODUCTION PROMOTION PROJECT IN KENYA, 1997-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Mbogoh, Stephen G.; Wambugu, Florence M.; Wakhusama, Sam

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a socio-economic impact study of the introduction and adoption of tissue-culture (tc) technology in banana production in Kenya. It attempts to demonstrate that a prudent introduction and promotion of a new biotechnological innovation in farming can make a positive contribution to the socio-economic status of resource poor farmers in a developing country, such as Kenya. Adoption of tc technology in banana production in Kenya is considered a good example of biotechnolog...

  9. Socio-economic analysis in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This compendium is intended to be a tool for students in conducting socio-economic appraisals in the transport sector following the recommendations made by the Danish Manual for Socio-economic Appraisal (DMT, 2003). The appraisal process is in this compendium outlined as a step-by-step process...... not have unlimited economic resources. Thus it is necessary to prioritise between the many projects and initiatives which are being discussed in the public sector. In order to conduct such a comprehensive prioritisation (across different sectors or within the same sector) it is a precondition...... is one of the most basic and tangible contributions to the planning and decision process within the transport sector when an initiative’s advantages and disadvantages are to be evaluated. The appraisal can be used both for political decision making as well as internally in organisations with planning...

  10. Socio-economic inequality and prospects of institutional Econophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic inequality is quantitatively measured from data using various indices. The Gini ($g$) index, giving the overall inequality is the most common, while the recently introduced Kolkata ($k$) index gives a measure of $1-k$ fraction of population who possess top $k$ fraction of wealth in the society. This article reviews the character of such inequalities, as seen from a variety of data sources, the apparent relationship between the two indices, and what toy models tell us. These socio-economic inequalities are also investigated in the context of man-made social conflicts or wars, as well as in natural disasters. Finally, we forward a proposal for an international institution with sufficient fund for visitors, where natural and social scientists from various institutions of the world can come to discuss, debate and formulate further developments.

  11. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare...... coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across...... wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage...

  12. Russian Socio-Economic Geography: Status, Challenges, Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic geography studies the processes, characteristics and patterns of spatial development. In the recent decades, however, this area of scientific investigation has failed its promise, which happened for a number of external and internal reasons. The main external reason is the development of "consumer society", which does not require the search of new space and therefore ignores the "spatial" science, geography. Internal reason is the blurring of socio-economic geography along the variety of new lines of research. The discipline was, in many ways, redundant, and unselective in the application of theoretical and methodological tools liberally borrowed from other branches of both geography and economics. The only way this discipline can return to its former glory is by going all the way back to doing proper spatial research.

  13. Intergenerational mobility of socio-economic status in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Björklund; Markus Jäntti

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews three strands of literature on socio-economic intergenerational mobility. The first is a mostly recent and rapidly growing economics literature that measures mobility in labour earnings and income. This approach is compared with two classical sociological approaches that measure the mobility in class and status. The United States seems to rank quite high in terms of class and status mobility, but low in terms of earnings and income mobility. This seemingly contradictory res...

  14. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF WOMEN CONSTRUCTION WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Kalyanrao; Sindhe Jaganath R

    2015-01-01

    Construction is dynamic industry which is attracted by many unskilled workers including women. In case of construction works, the contractors are exploiting and discriminating women workers. Hence, socio-economic conditions of the women construction workers are analyzed by collecting primary data through interview schedules from total 200 women construction workers in Kalaburagi city. As there is lower income and exploitation of these workers, it is suggested to form Self-Help Groups and g...

  15. Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs

  16. How does socio-economic status shape a child's personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Deckers, Thomas; Falk, Armin; Kosse, Fabian; Schildberg-Hörisch, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    We show that socio-economic status (SES) is a powerful predictor of many facets of a child's personality. The facets of personality we investigate encompass time preferences, risk preferences, and altruism, as well as crystallized and fluid IQ. We measure a family's SES by the mother's and father's average years of education and household income. Our results show that children from families with higher SES are more patient, tend to be more altruistic and less likely to be risk seeking, and sc...

  17. Socio-economic inequality: Relationship between Gini and Kolkata indices

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic inequality is characterized from data using various indices. The Gini ($g$) index, giving the overall inequality is the most common one, while the recently introduced Kolkata ($k$) index gives a measure of $1-k$ fraction of population who possess top $k$ fraction of wealth in the society. Here, we show the relationship between the two indices, using both empirical data and analytical estimates. The significance of their relationship has been discussed.

  18. Socio-Economic Rights: Legally Enforceable or Just Aspirational?

    OpenAIRE

    Ilias Trispiotis

    2010-01-01

    Although the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 cited social welfare rights without distinguishing them from civil and political rights, the separation has been widely accepted by judges, scholars and politicians. Historically, the classification of human rights into two groups, with the relegation of socio-economic rights into a lower category of human rights, emerged and developed mainly after the 1950s during the Cold War and ultimately led to the adoption of two separate UN Cov...

  19. Socio-economic determinants of eating practices of Ukrainians

    OpenAIRE

    Chagarna, Natalia; Andreeva, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthy eating practices are among important public health goals worldwide. We aimed to investigate socio-economic determinants of the nutrition habits of Ukrainian families. METHODS: Data from the “Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey 2007” were analysed. Factor analysis produced variables characterising eating practices, which were re-coded in binary variables indicating low/high food consumption. The bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to identify associations...

  20. Internal migration and socio-economic change in Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Kabmanivanh Phouxay; Gunnar Malmberg; Aina Tollefsen

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes how the migration pattern in Laos is influenced by the regionally differentiated modernization process, socioeconomic change, international migration and resettlement, by using census data from 1995 and 2005. Though Laos has experienced a rather dramatic socio-economic change during this period the inter-district and inter-province migration rate has decreased. But the empirical analyses show an increasing rural-urban migration and indicate a strong impact on migration fro...

  1. Socio-economic inequalities: a statistical physics perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Socio-economic inequalities are manifested in different aspects of our social life. We discuss various aspects, beginning with the evolutionary and historical origins, and discussing the major issues from the social and economic point of view. The subject has attracted scholars from across various disciplines, including physicists, who bring in a unique perspective to the field. The major attempts to analyze the results, address the causes, and understand the origins using statistical tools and statistical physics concepts are discussed.

  2. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  3. Exploring the socio-economics of enhanced landfill mining

    OpenAIRE

    Van Passel, S.; de Gheldere, S.; Dubois, M; Eyckmans, J; Van Acker, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the socio-economics of Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). A conceptual framework including performance drivers is presented. Technology (Waste-to-Energy, WtE) and Waste-to-Material (WtM) technologies), regulation (subsidies, taxes, allowances,...) and markets (energy, material prices and input costs) determine the economic performance of ELFM. Especially variations in WtE efficiency, electricity and CO2 price, investment and operational WtE-costs and ELFM support explain the...

  4. Socio-economic Scenario Development for Climate Change Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    KRIEGLER Elmar; O'Neill, Brian-C; Hallegatte, Stéphane; Kram, Tom; Moss, Richard-H; Lempert, Robert; Wilbanks, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Socio-economic scenarios constitute an important tool for exploring the long-term consequences of anthropogenic climate change and available response options. They have been applied for different purposes and to a different degree in various areas of climate change analysis, typically in combination with projections of future climate change. Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) has used them to develop greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios for the 21st century and to investigate strategies...

  5. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  6. Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Part B contains perceptions and opinions in economic and social impatcs and the last part was Part C where consists tourism utility assessment in social, economy and transportation. Simple frequency of mean and paired sample -test analysis were used to analyse the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis proved that tourism development had a significant effect on the socio-economic impact and on the tourists’ perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. In addition, it is viewed that public participation must be encouraged by tourism developers and planners to ensure the sustainability of tourism development in the community. Thus, this paper aims to give emphasis on the establishment of standard social guidelines within the tourism development framework for the purpose of preserving and protecting the social and economic values.

  7. Diet quality in older age: the influence of childhood and adult socio-economic circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, J. L.; Ramsay, S. E.; Whincup, P H; Morris, R W; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on dai...

  8. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  9. Socio-economic consequences of rheumatoid arthritis in the first years of the disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, JMC; Kuper, HH; van Riel, PLCM; Prevoo, MLL; Van't Hof, MA; van Gestel, AM; Severens, JL

    1999-01-01

    Objective. Few data have been presented to document the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on socio-economic well-being. In this study, exact figures on socio-economic consequences were assessed. Methods. The socio-economic consequences were studied in an inception cohort (186 early RA patients, me

  10. Vigorously Develop Satellite Application Industry to Serve National Socio-economic Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Ji

    2010-01-01

    @@ China International Aviation and Aerospace Forum 2010 was held on November 15 in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province.Vice President of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC)Rui Xiaowu delivered a speech at the forum with the theme of "vigorously developing satellite application industry to serve national socio-economic construction".He stated in his speech that as an important method for information transmission, navigation and position and obtaining geographic information satellite applications have been integrated into all industries in the national economy in China and have become one of the indispensable information infrastructures for national security, the economy and society.

  11. Health and Socio-Economic Status: Factors impacting care and treatment in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, L.; Petersen, L. K.; Blaakaer, J.;

    2011-01-01

    To provide knowledge about health status, socio-economic status and use of public health care in women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery, in order to improve their care during the perioperative period. Method: An epidemiological methodology was applied. The material consisted of data from...... and a tendency to be overweight. Many had a low educational level, were retired, and lived alone with few financial resources. The quality of the surgical treatment had improved in terms of centralisation and staging procedures. Conclusions: As a group the women proved to be in a vulnerable position in terms...

  12. The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville Saayman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4% of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region.Conservation implication: The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

  13. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander;

    2011-01-01

    of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case...... of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio...

  14. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2014-10-06

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective.

  15. Socio-economic determinants of eating practices of Ukrainians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagarna, Natalia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy eating practices are among important public health goals worldwide. We aimed to investigate socio-economic determinants of the nutrition habits of Ukrainian families. METHODS: Data from the “UKRAINIAN LONGITUDINAL MONITORING SURVEY 2007” were analysed. Factor analysis produced variables characterising eating practices, which were re-coded in binary variables indicating low/high food consumption. The bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to identify associations between socio-economic state and eating modes. RESULTS: Three dimensions of nutrition practices were identified in the factor analysis: “standard diet” variable associated with quantities of most food products consumed, it actually shows how much food in general the household consumes, “fruit-and-vegetable diet” variable was associated with quantities of various fruits and vegetables included in the questionnaire, and “processed-(pre-packed-food diet” variable was created based on its associations with products like sausage. More “processed” food was consumed by members of households which were generally better-off (equipped with dvd-player, computer (laptop, garage, and Russian-speakers. More plant food was consumed by the households with attributes of rural living (equipped with bottled gas, central or individual system of heating, those who possessed a motorcycle or a truck. The owners of a plot adjacent to rural house or land used for gardening were eating more fruits and vegetables. A small group of well-off urban dwellers (like those possessing tumble-dryers, tend to eat more plant food; however, this group is not numerous. CONCLUSION: Plant food eating in Ukraine stays a factor of survival rather than healthy eating for those households which dwell in rural areas and have no means to choose foods they want. Those people who achieve better socio-economic status tend to increase processed food portion of their diets. Only a very

  16. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AND ADOPTION OF ENERGY CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Gedikoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study analyzes the socio-economic factors that impact farmers’ willingness to grow switchgrass and miscanthus in Missouri and Iowa. The results of the current study show that current level of farmers’ willingness to grow for either crop is low. Hence, there are barriers to accomplishing the goal of producing 21 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuel by 2022. It is also found that currently growing energy crops is more attractive to small farms as a source of crop diversification, rather than an alternative crop production system in the big scale by large farms.

  17. Socio-economic applications of finite state mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo

    2014-10-06

    In this paper, we present different applications of finite state mean field games to socio-economic sciences. Examples include paradigm shifts in the scientific community or consumer choice behaviour in the free market. The corresponding finite state mean field game models are hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, for which we present and validate different numerical methods. We illustrate the behaviour of solutions with various numerical experiments,which show interesting phenomena such as shock formation. Hence, we conclude with an investigation of the shock structure in the case of two-state problems.

  18. Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyland Alastair H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56 and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68, respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

  19. Socio-economic impact of Horseshoe Canyon coalbed methane development in Alberta : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized the results of a socio-economic benefits analysis of coalbed methane (CBM) and natural gas from coal (NGC) development in the Horseshoe Canyon in Alberta. Economic analysis assumptions for evaluating the economic outcomes of different scenarios of future CBM development in the region were also provided. The data and forecasts were used to evaluate the socio-economic benefits of CBM development through the use of an economic impact assessment model. The study resulted in a revised resource assessment for the Horseshoe Canyon coals of approximately 36 trillion standard cubic feet (Tcf) of gas in place. Nine different development scenarios were run which predicted peak Horseshoe Canyon CBM rates of between 1.4 and 1.9 Bdf/day between 2011 and 2017, with sustained rates of approximately 185 MMcf/day as far into the future as 2050. The analysis indicated that CBM development in the region will result in approximately $9 billion of cumulative investment between 2006 and 2026, resulting in total production revenues of $80 to $106 billion. Between 2006 and 2064, CBM development will contribute between $97 and $123 billion to Alberta's gross domestic product (GDP), and another $7 to $12 billion in GDP outside of Alberta. GDP and other socio-economic impacts were distributed over 19 different economic sectors in the report. Results of the report suggested that over 650,000 man-years of employment, and between $15 to $19 billion in tax and royalty revenues will be created by CBM development in the region. Tax and royalty revenues include provincial, federal, and municipal governments. It was concluded that the development of CBM in Alberta will have a significant and positive impact on the future economy of Alberta and Canada. It was noted that there are non-economic impacts associated with the development, including environmental and sociological impacts, that were not addressed in the study. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  20. Correlates of socio-economic inequalities in women's television viewing: a study of intrapersonal, social and environmental mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teychenne Megan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational inequalities in women's television viewing. Methods Cross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65 who participated in the 'Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study' of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level, television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status, social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities. Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity partly explained the educational inequalities in women's television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the

  1. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS IN DESIGN OF AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMMING IN RADIO TEOCELO, VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antolin Silvestre Martiñón-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass media, are an important complement in the agricultural extension, however, radio is the most economical mass media, so their potential is huge especially in rural areas. The present study was carried out at a community radio station (Radio Teocelo, with coffee producers, in three municipalities in the area Center of Veracruz, it should be noted that the radio has an audience formed mainly by agricultural producers, also this medium has been used for agricultural extension by the UNCADER (training unit for Rural Development, through an agricultural program called "The Moon in Uncader", with mainly technical information, however, it is necessary to propose relevant socio-economic issues that may be part of an optional agricultural programming, and/or complement the technical programming that is transmitted by the agricultural program. The study found a positive attitude to the proposed socio-economic issues, since most was obtained 80% of positive responses, highlighting the transmission of information on: marketing, government programs, visits to successful producers and transmission of successful cases of successful producers, also adopted a positive attitude for the program is disseminated by mass media mainly Teocelo Radio and are willing to personally spread mainly with friends.

  2. Study Of Socio- Economic Factors In Relation To Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahjabeen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: what are the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy and their implications? Objectives: (i To study the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy.(ii To assess the impact of disease on patients’ job/income. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Participants: Patients attending the dermatology OPD, J.N. Medical college hospital, A.M.U., Aligarh. Sample size: 200 leprosy patients. Study variables: education, occupation, social class, incapacitation, change in job, reduction in income. Statically analysis: Chi-square test Results: 46% of the leprosy patients were illiterate. A large majority of patients (78% were involved in heavy manual work as farmers and labourers. 68.5% patients belonged to low social classes (IV and V. More males (26.3% suffered from incapacitation than females (8.5%. 2.5% patients lost their job or were unable to work and 11.5% had to change their jobs due to the disease or disability caused by it. 17.5% patients had a history of reduction in their income after occurrence of leprosy.

  3. Ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, M.Aa.; Rich, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge conducted ten years after the opening in July 2000. The study applies historical micro data to re construct the travel pattern with no bridge in place and compare this to the current situation. To complete the socio......-economic assessment, the consumer benefits including all freight and passenger modes, are compared with the cost profile of the bridge. The monetary contributions are extrapolated to a complete 50 year period. It is revealed that the bridge from 2000–2010 generated a consumer surplus of €2 billion in 2000 prices...... discounted at 3.5% p.a., which should be compared with a total construction cost of approximately €4 billion. Seen over the 50 year period and by assuming a medium growth scenario the bridge is expected to generate an internal rate of return in the magnitude of 9% corresponding to a benefit-cost rate of 2...

  4. Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of Intelligent Transport Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUAN Zhicai; WU Jianping; Mike McDonald

    2006-01-01

    A general review of the socio-economic impact of the intelligent transport system (ITS) is presented with a case study to demonstrate the data envelopment analysis method. Cost-benefit analyses are still the dominant method for evaluating ITS and other transport engineering projects, while cost effective analyses and multi-criteria appraisals are widely used to define and prioritize objectives by providing useful information for the most promising policy decisions. Both cost-benefit analyses and a data envelopment analysis method are applied to analyze the socio-economic impact of convoy driving systems. The main findings are that a convoy provides a worthwhile benefit-cost ratio when more than 30% of the traffics in the convoys and the traffic load exceeds 5500 vehicles/h for a three-lane motorway. The results also show that for a fixed percentage of convoys, increased demand will increase the data envelopment analysis method relative efficiency and that the neglect of certain output indicators of an ITS may result in underestimation of the system effects.

  5. SUSTAINABILITY IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: SOCIO-ECONOMICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is wide the discussion involving the importance of production adjustment activities in general, to the concept of sustainable development. Among the agricultural activities, the agroforestry systems have been considered sustainable, coming as alternatives to the intensive systems of agricultural production. To monitor the sustainability of agricultural activities, includings  AF,  the  literature  emphasizes  the  biophysical  indicators,  in  detriment  of  the  socio-economical ones. Seeking to define a list of socio-economical indicators that can be adapted to the several models recommendations of  AF a study was developed, supported by specialists and technicians and wide literature review. The conclusions were: the categories related  to the operation of the systems had the largest number of indicators in the socioeconômic component, with larger concentration in the endogenous operations of the system, followed by the endogenous and exogenous resources; the largest number of indicators suggested in the category operation of the system was in the descriptors health and nutrition, employment, habitation and sanity and economic analysis; in the category operation of exogenous systems, there were certain larger number of indicators for the descriptors commercialization and rural infrastructure; practically there was no difference among the number of indicators obtained for the agroforestry systems with and without the animal component.

  6. Research progress of socio-economic water cycle in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China has made great progress in the study of socio-economic water cycle. She has completed national water resources appraisement and medium to long-term water supply planning. She has been engaging in study on water-deficient regions in North China and Northwest China for about half a century. For solving water shortage problem in northern China, she has put forward the famous South-to-North Water Transferring Projects, which has been set as one of the four biggest national projects in the Tenth Five-Year-Plan period although there are still debates. For promoting water use efficiency, China has been reforming her water management system, including water right system and water price system. There has already been a case of water right purchase. China has also done a lot of research on the interaction between human activity, water and ecosystem. For meeting the need of sustainability and coordinating water resources development and environmental protection, the study of ecological water requirement became very hot in recent years. There are three focuses of socio-economic water cycle study now in China: water transfer projects from the south to the north, water resources management and ecological water requirement.

  7. Socio-economic institutions in classical political economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Ushchapovskyy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentary researches of socio-economic institutions by classical political economy are caused by the absence of social components in its methodological «core». The article concentrates on the ideas of institutionalism in the context of classical political economy formation. The author underlines the necessity to adapt the analysis of socio-economic institutions in the heritage of classical political economy in Ukraine of the 19-th century to the creation of an integral conception of genesis and evolution of institutionalism in Ukrainian economic thought. Following the traditions of European economic science, Ukrainian scientists tried to take into account social contradictions, the needs in democratic transformations of social relations in their works. In spite of absence of the category of «standard (rule» among Adam Smith’s followers, and Ukrainian economists paid attention to a social problematic in the context of traditional researches of classical political economy, there is the necessity to examine socio-economic institutions in their heritage and the possibility of its application to the formation of the paradigm of modern institutionalism. Michail Baludyanskiy considered that a state could limit the freedom of an economic activity only on the base of generally accepted standards, but in this case contributing to safety and freedom of an economic activity. National system of economy, its legislative and management systems must conceptually obey economic policy, Anthropocentrism defined the philosophical conception of Tihon Stepanov’s political economy. He followed methodological holism as he concluded the characteristics of an individual on the base of characteristics of institutions (society. Ivan Vernadskiy’s researches concerning behavior of an individual and his trials to characterize value from a consumer’s point of view don’t fully correspond to traditional classical political economy. To improve Adam Smith’s study

  8. Familial and socio-economic correlates of somatisation disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola M. Obimakinde

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Somatisation disorder can result from an interplay between suboptimal family environment and socio-economic deprivation, which enhances the underlying cognitive tendency for this disorder. There are pertinent familial and socio-economic factors associated with this disorder, but research addressing this is sparse.Aim and setting: The study aims to evaluate family and socio-economic factors that are associated with somatisation disorder amongst patients presenting to the Family Medicine clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.Methods: This is an observational case-control study of 120 participants who presented to the clinic between May and August 2009. Data collection was by interviewer-administered structured questionnaire using the World Health Organization Screener for Somatoform Disorder and Somatoform Disorder Schedule to ascertain somatisation in 60 patients who were then matched with 60 controls. The respondents’ demographic and family data were also collected and their interpersonal relationships were assessed with the Family Relationship Index.Results: The somatising patients were mostly females (70%, with a female to male ratio of 2.3:1 and mean age of 43.65 ± 13.04 years.Living in a polygamous family (as any member of the family was significantly related to somatisation (p = 0.04. Somatisation was also more common in people who were separated, divorced or widowed (p = 0.039. Somatisers from a lower social class or those earning below a dollar a day experienced poorer cohesion (p = 0.042 and more conflicts (p = 0.019 in their interpersonal relationship.Conclusion: This study was able to demonstrate that a polygamous family setting, disrupted marriage, low social status and financial constraints are correlates of somatisation. It is of essence to identify these factors in holistic management of somatising patients.

  9. Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it

  10. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, David; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesise that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large data sets: price on on-line exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in on-line social media, volume of information search, and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observ...

  11. Socio-economic factors of bacillary dysentery based on spatial correlation analysis in Guangxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjing Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. METHODS: Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. RESULTS: The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other.

  12. Socio-economic factors of the Russian society consolidation: regional aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Veniaminovich Lokosov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic contradictions have become the key obstacles in the transition of contemporary Russian society to a new model of development, which is to replace the obsolete “gas and oil” one. The novel model involves social consolidation to form a civil Russian nation. On the base of statistical analysis, the author’s empirical data (mass all-Russian and regional focus group inquiries confirm that the social inequality between the rich and the poor has reached extreme critical values making them a disfactor of national integrity. If the gap does not decrease, the Russian society will experience serious difficulties. A number of indicators show that social inequality is caused by inefficient ruling system. Despite positive changes in the quality of life and living standards, the inertia of the social ties destruction and anomie still continue. The transition of the socio-economic system to a new model of reproduction supposes that the values of justice, gradualness, and continuity will be supported by the majority of the population

  13. Are self reported morbidities deceptive in measuring socio-economic inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Kshipra; Goli, Srinivas; Arokiasamy, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: The ambiguity and variability in existing literature on the magnitude of socio-economic inequality in self-reported morbidities makes it difficult to set priorities in health policy. This study examined three critical research questions: first, how far self-reporting affects measuring socio-economic inequalities in case of obstetric morbidities. Second, does using simple bivariate variations mislead in estimating socio-economic differentials in prevalence of obstetric...

  14. Common Organizing Mechanisms in Ecological and Socio-economic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra, Serguei; Uzzi, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown that species interacting in an ecosystem and actors transacting in an economic context may have notable similarities in behavior. However, the specific mechanism that may underlie similarities in nature and human systems has not been analyzed. Building on stochastic food-web models, we propose a parsimonious bipartite-cooperation model that reproduces the key features of mutualistic networks - degree distribution, nestedness and modularity -- for both ecological networks and socio-economic networks. Our analysis uses two diverse networks. Mutually-beneficial interactions between plants and their pollinators, and cooperative economic exchanges between designers and their contractors. We find that these mutualistic networks share a key hierarchical ordering of their members, along with an exponential constraint in the number and type of partners they can cooperate with. We use our model to show that slight changes in the interaction constraints can produce either extremely nested or rand...

  15. Socio-Economic Resilience to Floods in 90 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, S.; Bangalore, M.; Vogt-Schilb, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global losses from floods are increasing, with renewed calls for action to reduce their impact. In each country, region or city, many actions can protect the population and help rebuild and recover: building dikes and restoring mangroves; land-use planning; early warning and evacuation; insurance and social safety nets. What should be the priorities? How to build a comprehensive strategy? Is progress being made? We propose a tool - a national-level scorecard based on welfare economics - to assess a country's socio-economic resilience to river floods and identify the most promising policy options in different contexts to reduce the impact of floods on well-being. The tool is applied to 90 countries using open databases, and can serve as a starting point for designing policies and more in-depth local studies.

  16. Socio-economic benefits from Hibernia operations in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report identifies and describes the socio-economic effects of oil production from this offshore site, over and above the initial socio-economic effects of construction and fabrication. It documents a wide range of Newfoundlanders and Labradorians who benefit, directly and indirectly, from Hibernia operations. It builds on a series of reports which have examined the effects of Hibernia construction activity on employment, businesses and communities, including those resulting from spending and technology transfer. The report discusses the large scale and long term nature of the social and economic benefits of production activity and a wide range of benefits and beneficiaries. The report documents the ways in which Hibernia and other offshore oil activity are helping to transform the provincial economy. Another section of the report provides an overview of economic benefits. Based on information from Hibernia's production, expenditures and employment during 1998, the provincial government's Newfoundland and Labrador Econometric Model was used to calculate and describe Hibernia's effect on the gross domestic product, employment, unemployment rate, total incomes, retail sales and housing starts. Another section looks at the range of infrastructure that has resulted from Hibernia and other offshore petroleum activity, including industrial, training and research and development infrastructure. A further section on training and technology transfer describes the ways in which the oil industry has increased local training capabilities and provided opportunties for Newfoundlanders and Labradorians to learn locally and work elsewhere. Another section examines the effects of all this on a range of companies. A last section provides a brief review of the findings related to the activity to date and what can be expected in the future. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Agro-Ecological Assessment for the Transition of the Agricultural Sector in Ukraine. Part I: Socio-Economic Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Mishchenko, N.; Gumeniuk, K.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1991, Ukraine has been undergoing a transformation of its economic and social system to enable the transition to a market economy. There are a number of positive developments that have already resulted from the changes in the socio-economic environment. However the transformation of farming systems into new forms did not greatly improve the sustainable use of natural resources or strengthen the economic performance, so that the influence of this intervention on sustainability of ...

  18. Rural Tourism as a Prospective Direction of Entrepreneurship in the Socio-Economic Mechanism of Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dovgal Yelena V.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of rural tourism as a prospective direction of activity of entrepreneurship in rural districts of Ukraine, since it positively influences restoration, preservation and development of local traditions, trades, monuments of historical and cultural heritage and also expands channels of realisation of products of private farms of rural population. It analyses the essence of the rural tourism and its place in the complex socio-economic rural development. It iden...

  19. Socio-economic analysis of CCS/EOR in Denmark; Samfundsoekonomisk analyse af CCS/EOR i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The Danish Energy Agency has initiated an analysis of the socio-economic sustainability of a CCS / EOR system based on CO{sub 2} capture from Danish sources and injected into selected Danish North Sea oil fields. The analysis shall assess the socioeconomic consequences of such a project as well as highlight the budgetary economic effects for the parties involved. Taking into account a realistic time frame for conversion of the cogeneration power plants and for the extent of the possible capture of CO{sub 2} in each of these plants, it has been chosen only to presuppose the establishment of CCS in three plants, namely Studstrupvaerket, Fynsvaerket and Nordjyllandsvaerket. Only the oil fields Dan, Halfdan and Gorm were selected for the analysis. The analysis shows that in the selected oil fields it is possible to increase the oil production by approx. 151 million. barrels of oil to the year 2049, which corresponds to approx. 40% of the estimated potential in these fields. The increased oil production requires that approx. 95 million. tonnes of CO{sub 2} is captured in the three power plants, which are subsequently transported and injected in the oil fields in the North Sea. The transport of CO{sub 2} from the CHP plants to the North Sea are assumed to be done by ship, since this solution is economically favorable and also offers logistical advantages and increased flexibility. The analysis shows that both the budget economic and the socio-economic analysis as a whole provide a positive economic net present value over a 30-year period. The socio-economic benefit is expected to be about. 3.5 billion DKK higher. This difference is due to especially the following conditions: a) CO{sub 2} emissions of CO{sub 2} transport are only included in the socio-economic analysis, since shipping is outside the quota system. In the socio-economic analysis, the estimated value of damage impact on the environment is included; b) The value of the oil produced after 2049 is included in

  20. Socio-Economic and Environmental Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in Children Aged 6–8 Years Living in Five Italian Cities (the MAPEC_LIFE Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Grassi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity among Italian children has reached such alarming levels as to require detailed studies of the causes of the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the weight status of 1164 Italian children aged 6–8 years (the Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy (MAPEC_LIFE cohort and to identify any associations between selected socio-economic and environmental factors and overweight/obesity. The data were obtained by means of a questionnaire given to parents, and any associations were examined by binomial logistic regression analyses. Overweight was found to be positively associated with male gender, parents of non-Italian origin, and parents who smoke, and negatively associated with the parents’ level of education and employment. In addition, the frequency of overweight varied in relation to the geographical area of residence, with a greater prevalence of overweight children in the cities of central-southern Italy. This study highlights the need to implement appropriate obesity prevention programs in Italy, which should include educational measures concerning lifestyle for parents from the earliest stages of their child’s life.

  1. Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…

  2. Impact of selected family socio-economic factors on coordinational predispositions of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Domaradzki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological growth of children is genetically determined but there are a lot of factors modifying trends of growth. Among them the most important seems to be parents’ education and number of children in family – socio-economical factors. Factors don’t affect organism individually. Interactions between them can increase or decrease. So the aim of the work was to estimate the influence of socio-economic factors like parents’ education and number of children in family on coordinational traits of children aged 10–11. Material and methods: 199 children aged 10-11 underwent medical examination in 2008 in Polkowice and data collected were used in this study.. Information on parents’ education and number of children was used to divide children into four groups: lower education and 3 or more children in family, lower education and less than 3 children in family, higher education and more than 3 children in family and higher education and less than 3 children in family. Three coordinational traits were measured: short time memory, precision of hand and speed movement of the hand. MANOVA test was used to estimate differences between groups and to check interactions between factors. Results: From among 4 groups of boys, these from the worst socio-economic status of family received the worst results in all three tests. Differences between them and the rest of the groups were statistically significant. Differences between the rest of the groups were not statistically significant. In the girls groups children from families with higher parents’ education received statistically significant better results in test of memory. There were not differences between all 4 groups in precision of the hand test. Girls from family with higher parents’ education and 3 or more children in family received the best results in speed of the hand test. Conclusions: Boys are the gender more eco-sensitive. The family with more than 2 children in family

  3. Global Value Chain in Agro-export Production and Its Socio-economic Impact in Michoacán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Crespo Stupková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mexican blackberry production is very geographically concentrated in the Valley Los Reyes, where most of blackberries, which the country exports, are produced. Taking into account that Mexico is the world's largest exporter of this fruit in terms of quantity; we can conclude that a relatively small area produces most of the blackberries that are traded worldwide. The paper aims to analyze the blackberry value chain and its local socio-economic impact. The main conclusion is that the global value chain of blackberries brings benefits for the small farmers and investors too, but it is necessary establish contract terms ensuring that contractors do not abuse their market power. Also it was demonstated the positive local socio-economic impact of the activity.

  4. Intake of wholegrain products is associated with dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and socio-economic factors in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Rikke; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Olsen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between wholegrain products intake and other dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and socio-economic factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, with data on diet, lifestyle and socio-economic factors obtained from questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were...... collected by trained professionals. Multiple linear and principal components regression analyses were used in statistical analyses. SETTING: Part of the Diet, Cancer and Health study, a prospective cohort study to evaluate the aetiological role of diet on cancer risk, conducted in the greater Copenhagen...... identified by principal components analysis yielded similar results. Also, wholegrain products intake was positively associated with cycling, taking dietary supplements and high school education, and negatively associated with intake of alcohol, BMI and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Intake of wholegrain products...

  5. The Changing Family Background of the Low-Educated in the Netherlands: Socio-Economic, Cultural, and Socio-Demographic Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Gesthuizen, Maurice; Graaf, Paul M. de; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses two questions: (a) to what extent have the effects of family background on leaving school without qualifications changed over time in the Netherlands, and (b) to what extent have the background family characteristics of the unqualified changed. We estimate discrete-time event-history models, using data from the Family Surveys Dutch Population 1992, 1998, and 2000. The results show that the effects of parental socio-economic resources and parental educational attainment ...

  6. Socio-Economic Status and Language Acquisition: Children's Performance on the New Reynell Developmental Language Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, Carolyn; Edwards, Susan; Sinka, Indra; Schaefer, Blanca; Gibbons, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies in recent years have indicated a link between socio-economic status (SES) of families and children's language development, including studies that have measured children's language through formal standardized test procedures. High numbers of children with low performance have been found in lower socio-economic groups in…

  7. 77 FR 68104 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Profile of Small-Scale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ...-economic performance of small- scale fleets, and evaluate the socio-economic impacts of Federal regulatory...-Economic Profile of Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries in the U.S. Caribbean AGENCY: National Oceanic and... socio-economic data about small scale fishermen and seafood dealers operating in the U.S. Caribbean....

  8. Socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands: A review of recent empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Evidence on variation in the frequency of health problems between socio-economic groups in the Dutch population has accumulated rapidly in recent years. This paper presents a review of these recent data. It is clear now that a lower socio-economic status is associated

  9. Influence of social support on health among gender and socio-economic groups of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, A; van Dijk, JP; Stewart, R; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: The influence of social support on health was explored among gender and socio-economic groups with the aim of contributing to the explanation of socio-economic health differences among Slovak adolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 2616 Slovak adolescents (52.4% male, 47.6% female,

  10. Socio-economic and geographic differentials in costs and payment strategies for primary healthcare services in Southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin

    2005-03-01

    The study explored socio-economic and geographic inequalities that exist in healthcare seeking, expenditures and methods of paying for healthcare. The study was conducted in two communities (one rural and urban) in Southeast Nigeria. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to household heads or their representatives by trained interviewers. A socio-economic status (SES) index, together with urban-rural comparisons was used to examine the inequalities. The expenditures on healthcare and the proportions of respondents that used the different payment strategies were compared across SES quartiles and between the urban and rural areas. There were varying degrees of socio-economic and geographic inequalities in treatment expenditures, providers seen and payment modalities that were used. User fee without reimbursement was the commonest type of payment strategy, followed distantly by instalment payment. The two poorest quartiles were less likely to have used user fee and they mostly used instalment payment in the rural area. Logistic regression analysis showed that location was significantly and positively related to user fee but not to instalment payment. In conclusion, the poorest SES group and rural dwellers are the major sufferers of inequality and this could be mitigated through improved provision of primary healthcare services in rural areas and initiation of exemptions, vouchers and other pro-poor payment strategies for the poorest SES groups.

  11. Biobank Finances: A Socio-Economic Analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Sally; Oliver, Rob; Corfield, Julie; Georghiou, Luke; Yuille, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This socio-economic study is based on the widely held view that there is an inadequate supply of human biological samples that is hampering biomedical research development and innovation (RDI). The potential value of samples and the associated data are thus not being realized. We aimed to examine whether the financing of biobanks contributes to this problem and then to propose a national solution. We combined three methods: a qualitative case study; literature analysis; and informal consultations with experts. The case study enabled an examination of the complex institutional arrangements for biobanks, with a particular focus on cost models. For the purposes of comparison, a typology for biobanks was developed using the three methods. We found that it is not possible to apply a standard cost model across the diversity of biobanks, and there is a deficit in coordination and sustainability and an excess of complexity. We propose that coordination across this diversity requires dedicated resources for a national biobanking distributed research infrastructure. A coordination center would establish and improve standards and support a national portal for access. This should be financed centrally by public funds, possibly supplemented by industrial funding. We propose that: a) sample acquisition continues to be costed into projects and project proposals to ensure biobanking is driven by research needs; b) core biobanking activities and facilities be supported by central public funds distributed directly to host public institutions; and c) marginal costs for access be paid for by the user.

  12. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Surendranath; Samanta, Diptirani; Mishra, Saumyaranjan; Bose, Chaitali

    2016-06-28

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development. PMID:27441070

  13. EU socio-economic research on fusion: Findings and program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 the European Commission launched a Socio-Economic Research program to study under which conditions future fusion power plants may become competitive, compatible with the energy supply system and acceptable for the public. It has been shown, among others, that: 1) local communities are ready to support the construction of an experimental fusion facility, if appropriate communication and awareness campaigns are carried out; 2) since the externalities are much lower than for competitors, fusion power plants may become the major producer of base load electricity at the end of the century in Europe, if climate changes have to be mitigated, if the construction of new nuclear fission power plants continues to be constrained and if nuclear fusion power plants become commercially available in 2050. Cooperating with major international organizations, the program for next year aims to demonstrating, through technical economic programming models and global multi-regional energy environmental scenarios, that the potential global benefits of fusion power plants in the second half of the century largely outdo the RD and D costs borne in the first half to make it available. Making the public aware of such benefits through field experiences will be part of the program. (author)

  14. Explaining socio-economic inequalities in immunization coverage in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataguba, John E; Ojo, Kenneth O; Ichoku, Hyacinth E

    2016-11-01

    Globally, in 2013 over 6 million children younger than 5 years died from either an infectious cause or during the neonatal period. A large proportion of these deaths occurred in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunization is one way to reduce childhood morbidity and deaths. In Nigeria, however, although immunization is provided without a charge at public facilities, coverage remains low and deaths from vaccine preventable diseases are high. This article seeks to assess inequalities in full and partial immunization coverage in Nigeria. It also assesses inequality in the 'intensity' of immunization coverage and it explains the factors that account for disparities in child immunization coverage in the country. Using nationally representative data, this article shows that disparities exist in the coverage of immunization to the advantage of the rich. Also, factors such as mother's literacy, region and location of the child, and socio-economic status explain the disparities in immunization coverage in Nigeria. Apart from addressing these issues, the article notes the importance of addressing other social determinants of health to reduce the disparities in immunization coverage in the country. These should be in line with the social values of communities so as to ensure acceptability and compliance. We argue that any policy that addresses these issues will likely reduce disparities in immunization coverage and put Nigeria on the road to sustainable development.

  15. Biobank Finances: A Socio-Economic Analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Sally; Oliver, Rob; Corfield, Julie; Georghiou, Luke; Yuille, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This socio-economic study is based on the widely held view that there is an inadequate supply of human biological samples that is hampering biomedical research development and innovation (RDI). The potential value of samples and the associated data are thus not being realized. We aimed to examine whether the financing of biobanks contributes to this problem and then to propose a national solution. We combined three methods: a qualitative case study; literature analysis; and informal consultations with experts. The case study enabled an examination of the complex institutional arrangements for biobanks, with a particular focus on cost models. For the purposes of comparison, a typology for biobanks was developed using the three methods. We found that it is not possible to apply a standard cost model across the diversity of biobanks, and there is a deficit in coordination and sustainability and an excess of complexity. We propose that coordination across this diversity requires dedicated resources for a national biobanking distributed research infrastructure. A coordination center would establish and improve standards and support a national portal for access. This should be financed centrally by public funds, possibly supplemented by industrial funding. We propose that: a) sample acquisition continues to be costed into projects and project proposals to ensure biobanking is driven by research needs; b) core biobanking activities and facilities be supported by central public funds distributed directly to host public institutions; and c) marginal costs for access be paid for by the user. PMID:26697914

  16. North and South of world (world socio-economics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas the 4.2 billion inhabitants of third word countries are now struggling with a per capita income of roughly $1,030 and an energy consumption of about 0.48 tpe per year, the 1.27 billion people living in industrialized nations earn an average of $15,000 and consume 4.70 tpe of energy per person. The author investigates the underlying reasons for this disparity by making reference to numerous tabled statistical world production and energy supply and demand data, e.g., petroleum trade, production, consumption and price figures; per capita production expressed in dollars; distribution and duration of fossil fuel reserves; etc. Emphasis is placed on an examination of the role that will be played by fossil fuels in determining the future outcome for developed and developing countries in the coming century. Based on current trends, forecasts are prepared for energy consumption, resource depletion and pollution levels. Noting that the continued pursuit of current policies is leading towards disastrous word socio-economic imbalances, the author suggests international policies of rational energy use, reforestation on a global scale, and the increased use of coal with pollution abating gasification systems for greater energy price stability, and thus, political stability. He concurs with the United Nations recommendations for curbs on population dynamics and the opting for tenable growth strategies

  17. Diet quality in older age: the influence of childhood and adult socio-economic circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Janice L; Ramsay, Sheena E; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2015-05-14

    Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on daily fruit and vegetable consumption and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), with higher scores indicating better diet quality. Adult and childhood socio-economic measures included occupation/father's occupation, education and household amenities, which combined to create composite scores. Social relationships included social contact, living arrangements and marital status. Both childhood and adult socio-economic factors were independently associated with diet quality. Compared with non-manual social class, men of childhood manual social class were less likely to consume fruit and vegetables daily (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66, 0.97), as were men of adult manual social class (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79), and less likely to be in the top EDI quartile (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61, 0.88), similar to men of adult manual social class (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.79). Diet quality decreased with increasing adverse adult socio-economic scores; however, the association with adverse childhood socio-economic scores diminished with adult social class adjustment. A combined adverse childhood and adulthood socio-economic score was associated with poor diet quality. Diet quality was most favourable in married men and those not living alone, but was not associated with social contact. Diet quality in older men is influenced by childhood and adulthood socio-economic factors, marital status and living arrangements.

  18. REVISED SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS SCALE FOR URBAN AND RURAL INDIA – REVISION FOR 2015

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    Guru Raj M.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The health status of any country depends on the socio economic status (SES and the per capita income of the citizens of that country. The SES also decides the affordability and utilization of the health facilities. Socioeconomic status (SES refers to an individual’s position within a hierarchical social structure, which is one of the important determinants of health status. Composite scales are generally used to measure the SES, which has a combination of social and economic variables. Several studies namely hospital and community based require assessment of socio-economic status of an individual/family. This reflects the affordability of health services, necessities and purchasing power of the same. Several methods or scales have been proposed for classifying different populations by socioeconomic status: Rahudkar scale 1960, Udai Parikh scale 1964, Jalota Scale 1970, Kulshrestha scale 1972, Kuppuswamy scale 1976, Shrivastava scale 1978, Bharadwaj scale 2001. Kuppuswamy classification is used in urban and peri urban areas which consider the education of the head of family, occupation of head of the family and per capita monthly income. Uday Pareekh classification is used for rural areas which takes into account following characteristics namely caste, occupation of family head, education of family head, and level of social participation of family head, landholding, housing, farm power, material possessions and type of family. B.G Prasad’s classification, Standard of living index and poverty line assessment are used in both urban and rural areas. Standard of living indices(SLI is based on following items- type of house, own/ rented house, possession of agricultural land, irrigated land, possession of live stalk, separate kitchen, fuel used for cooking, source of lighting, source of drinking water, type of toilet, items owned by the family e.g. cooker, TV, telephone. Measurement of poverty line is based on the following Scoreable Socio

  19. Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study

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    Cunningham Heather

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In

  20. Council tax valuation band predicts breast feeding and socio-economic status in the ALSPAC study population

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    Herrick David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a breast-feeding (b personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Methods Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. Results Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs – at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude – that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. Conclusion CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.

  1. National identity of high-school adolescents in an era of socio-economic change: Russia and Ukraine in the post-perestroika period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2011-02-01

    This study focuses on the national identity of high-school adolescents in Russia and Ukraine in the post-perestroika period. Adolescents studying in public high schools in 12 medium-size and large cities completed questionnaires in 1999 (n = 468) and 2007 (n = 646). Russian adolescents consistently reported a more positive attitude towards their country and a stronger identification with the nation than did Ukrainian adolescents. The effect of socio-economic changes on the two components of national identity differed: the adolescents reported a more positive attitude towards their country in 2007 than in 1999, while their identification with the nations did not change significantly. Social support received from peers was associated with a more positive attitude towards the country and a stronger identification with the nation, while social support received from parents and teachers was not related to the national identity of adolescents. Adolescents' better psychological adjustment was associated with a more positive attitude towards the country but was not related to their identification with the nation. Adolescents who belonged to the ethnic majority reported a more positive attitude towards the country and a stronger identification with the nation as compared to adolescents who belonged to ethnic minorities.

  2. Strategic considerations in Indian space programme—Towards maximising socio-economic benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Madhusudan, H. N.

    2008-07-01

    Strategic thinking and planning have been the hallmarks of Indian space programme, whose objectives are sharply focused on deriving socio-economic benefits of space technology. The purpose of this paper is to identify various strategies, which played a role in different phases of the programme, contributing to social and economic outcomes and effectiveness. While self-reliant development of technological capacity and evaluation of applications with involvement of users formed the backbone of strategy in the initial phase of the programme, subsequent strategies were centred on development of organisational culture and systems, industry role and promotion of spin offs. Other strategies dealt with the response to challenges inherent in space endeavours in terms of risk management, sustainability, investments and long-term commitments, judicious make or buy decisions, safeguard of sensitive technologies, space commerce and finally harmonising international cooperation with national objectives. The strategies in the programme were consistently driven by a clear-cut vision and objectives to develop and use space technology in diverse areas where space systems become relevant for socio-economic development such as telecommunications and broadcasting, meteorology, disaster management support, remote sensing of natural and anthropogenic phenomena, and positioning and navigation services. This paper synthesises various studies and experiences in India in order to analyse strategies in the face of changes in technology, application needs and international policies. It also examines the effectiveness of these strategies in terms of economic and social costs and benefits. Based on the above analysis, a typical conceptual model for use of space for development is suggested.

  3. MODELING OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC REFORMS IN SERBIA

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    Sofija Adžić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting premise of the paper is that for the development of a sustainable recovery of the republic of Serbia one needs to replace the welfare state paradigm with socially responsible state paradigm. The main tasks of the socially responsible state are: (1 Socially acceptable way of dealing with redundant work force, (2 Reduction in the differences of income distribution which are not linked to the manufacturing enterprises, (3 Social Security (pensions, health care, social protection, and (4 Implementation of the National strategy for poverty reduction. In this context, the socially responsible state should cover: (1 Pension system, (2 Health (3 Unemployment insurance, (4 Financial and related support to the poor and the children, and (5 Homes for orphans, disabled and the elderly. The problem of building the model of regulation of social-economic sphere according to the socially responsible state encompasses four dimensions: The first is a determination of the area of activity of the state, as well as the basic principles of how to carry out reforms in the socio-economic sphere. The second is to improve the economic rationality of the structure and quality of social security services on the basis of a compromise between the minimum criteria of the European Union. The third focuses on implementing spatial distribution of regulation functions of the social and economic spheres in four levels (central, regional, sub-regional and local. The fourth is the precise determination of a relationship between the content of the attributes of social, economic and development policies.

  4. Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  5. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of childhood anemia

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    Sankar Goswmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate socio-economic and demographic determinants of anemia among Indian children aged 6-59 months. METHODS: Statistical analysis was performed on the cross-sectional weighted sample of 40,885 children from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey by using multinomial logistic regression to assess the significance of some risk factors in different degrees of child anemia. Anemia was diagnosed by World Health Organization (WHO cut-off points on hemoglobin level. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to justify the associations of anemia with different categories of the study population. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 69.5%; 26.2% mild, 40.4% moderate, and 2.9% severe anemia. Overall prevalence rate, along with mild and moderate cases, showed an increasing trend up to 2 years of age and then decreased. Rural children had a higher prevalence rate. Of 28 Indian states in the study, 10 states showed very high prevalence, the highest being Bihar (77.9%. Higher birth order, high index of poverty, low level of maternal education, mother's anemia, non-intake of iron supplements during pregnancy, and vegetarian mother increased the risks of all types of anemia among children (p < 0.05. Christian population was at lower risk; and Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, and Other Backward Class categories were at higher risk of anemia. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a need for proper planning and implementation of preventive measures to combat child anemia. Economically under-privileged groups, maternal nutrition and education, and birth control measures should be priorities in the programs.

  6. Positive parenting for positive parents: HIV/AIDS, poverty, caregiver depression, child behavior and parenting in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lachman, J.; Cluver, L; Boyes, M.; Kuo, C.; Casale, M.

    2013-01-01

    Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than non-affected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child wellbeing. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries...

  7. Inclusion and Implementation of Socio-Economic Considerations in GMO Regulations: Needs and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Binimelis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic considerations are included in the regulatory frameworks on genetically modified organisms (GMOs of many countries. This is a reflection of an increasing interest in and recognition of the necessity to consider a broader range of issues when conducting a GMO risk assessment. At the same time, there are discussions about how socio-economic considerations can be identified and how their assessment can be carried out. To provide an understanding of the advances achieved so far, we describe the state of the art of existing biosafety institutional frameworks, legislation and policies with provisions on socio-economic considerations. We analyse the scope of the socio-economic considerations that have been included, the methodological options taken and the role of participatory processes and stakeholders involvement in the GMO-related decision-making. Since many of the countries that have legislation for assessing socio-economic considerations lack implementation experience, we provide an analysis of how implementation has evolved in Norway with the intention to illustrate that the inclusion of socio-economic considerations might be based on a learning process. Norway was the first country to include broader issues in its GMO assessment process, and is at present one of the countries with the most experience on implementation of these issues. Finally, we emphasise that there is a great need for training on how to perform assessments of socio-economic considerations, as well as reflection on possible ways for inclusion of participatory processes.

  8. Socio-Economic Statues and Physical Activity Levels of 3th Grade Students: A Case Study in Istanbul Beykoz Province

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    Pinar Salih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The children and adolescent period is critical time to acquire positive lifestyle habits. The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI’s and socio-economic level of their school environments. This study also reviewed the articles about physical activity level of children, its relation to their socio-economic status and some other related tasks. Inactive life style sustained together with bad eating habits brings many healthy problems such as obesity and cardiovascular disease Approach: Technological development brings with it improving life style causing sedentary life for the public in developed and also developing Country. Physical activity can be viewed as a form of healthy life because it predicts functioning and adaptation and offers capabilities that enable people to live healthy. In this purposed three different socio-economic levels of six schools were determined accordance with declaration of National Education Department in Beykoz province. Each couple of school reflected one’s Socio-Economic Status (SES. Totally 250 students from three different SES were participated (low-SES, n = 92; middle-SES, n = 73; high-SES, n = 85. Student’s height and weight were measured and their Body Mass Index (BMI was determined. BMIs were classified according to Cole’s BMI tables which were underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Children Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ, which is proposed by World Health Organization, was used for assessment of their Physical Activity Level (PAL. Data from the questionnaires was collected in a suitable relational database and analyzed with SPSS statistical package. Logit log linear analysis was applied to understand the trend of qualitative variables (SES, BMIs and PALs. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance

  9. A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways – Part 2: Water availability and scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y; Hijioka, Y.; M. Kainuma; Kanamori, Y; T. Masui; Takahashi, K; Kanae, S.

    2013-01-01

    A global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century was conducted under the latest socio-economic scenario for global change studies, namely Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). SSPs depict five global situations with substantially different socio-economic conditions. In the accompanying paper, a water use scenario compatible with the SSPs was developed. This scenario considers not only quantitative socio-economic factors such as population and electricity production but also qualitativ...

  10. Water Scarcity under Various Socio-economic Pathways and its Potential Effects on Food Production in the Yellow River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qiuhong; Liu, Xingcai; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing population and socio-economic development have put great pressure on water resources of the Yellow River (YR) basin. The anticipated climate and socio-economic changes may further increase water stress. Many studies have investigated the changes in renewable water resources under various climate change scenarios but few have considered the joint pressure from both climate change and socio-economic development. In this study, we assess water scarcity under various socio-economic pat...

  11. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

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    Inge Huybrechts

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.

  12. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood : results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Droomers, Mariel

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with higher socio-economic status (SES) are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic heal

  13. Analytical Assessment of Financial Ability of Local Budgets to Ensure Socio-Economic Development of Regions

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    Ryabushka Lyudmila Borisivna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes conceptual grounds of functioning of local budgets, their role, importance and aim in socio-economic development of the state and its regions. The main task of the study is improvement of theoretical and methodological grounds for assessment of financial capability of local budgets as an instrument of socio-economic development of regions and development of practical recommendations on strategic directions of financial provision of regional development. The proposed model of assessment of ability of a local budget to ensure socio-economic development of a region is based on indicators of the budget potential, financial potential of the population and investment potential of the region. The article justifies importance of re-formation of local budgets as a main component of socio-economic development of territories through application of strategic directions of financial provision of local budgets with absolute, average, low and crisis levels of financial capacity.

  14. Goals and priorities of socio-economic reforms with consideration of the current economic situation

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    Dykha Mariya V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article defines goals and priorities of reforms in Ukraine with consideration of the current situation in economy and social sphere. It marks the necessity of changing strategic goals and giving realistic orientation to the process of reformation. The author marks the necessity of development of institutional grounds of state management, activation of internal reserves of development of socio-economic processes, development of science intensive technologies and innovation activity, development of the weighted socio-economic policy, refusal from the paternalistic model and consequent establishment of conditions for activation of possibilities of the population to solve their social problems independently. The article provides a strategic contour of participation of the state in achievement of goals of socio-economic development, which includes a strategic analysis and identification of goals, strategic and tactical levels of goal-setting, strategic control and regulation of socio-economic development.

  15. The modern concept of individualized marketing in transforming the socio-economic system

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    Vera Nakaryakova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the transformation of the socio-economic system. The evolution of marketing concepts and the emergence of the modern concept of individualized marketing, which correlates well with the development of handicrafts.

  16. Health inequities: lower socio-economic conditions and higher incidences of intestinal parasites

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    Limoncu M Emin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections affect child health and development and slow down growth, while reducing adults' productivity and work capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the incidences of intestinal parasitic infections and the socio-economic status of two near primary school children in Manisa, a western city of Turkey. Methods A total of 352 children were involved a questionnaire study from a private school (Ülkem Primary School – ÜPS, 116 children and a community-based school (Şehzadeler Primary School – ŞPS, 236 children. Of these, stool samples could be obtained from a total of 294 students; 97 (83.6% from ÜPS, and 197 (83.5% from ŞPS. The wet mount preparations of the stool samples were examined; samples were also fixed in polyvinyl alcohol and examined with modified formalin ethyl acetate sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 10.0. The chi-squared test was used for the analytic assessment. Results The percentages of the students found to be infected with intestinal parasites, were 78 (39.6% and 13 (13.4% in ŞPS and ÜPS, respectively. Totally 91 (31.0% of the students from both schools were found to be infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite and Blastocystis hominis was prevalent independently from the hygienic conditions. The factors which significantly (p Conclusion Intestinal parasitic infections in school children were found to be a public health problem that increased due to lower socio-economic conditions. We conclude that organization of education seminars including the topics such as prevention of the infectious diseases, improving general hygienic conditions, and application of supportive programs for the parents may be suggested not only to reduce intestinal parasitic infections, but also to elevate the socio

  17. FORMATION OF TEACHER’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC COMPETENCE THROUGH HIGH SCHOOL’S PUBLIC MANAGEMENT

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    Inna G . Ryabova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article explores one of topical issues in modernisation of contemporary education – enhancement of socio-economic competence of a teacher. Social and economic functions, such as goal-setting, planning, organisation, analysis, control and correction act as integral components in its structure. Materials and Мethods: scholarly works on the formation of social and economic competence of teacher and public school management are a basis for the article. Methods of pedagogical research with emphasis on theoretical and practical methods were used in this study. Results: the pedagogical analysis examines the ways of shaping socio-economic competence of a teacher capable of comprehending a social situation, able to effectively operate educational institution in market conditions, to think economically, to find social consent, to shape open educational environment, to quickly solve problems of specific goal realisation. The article substantiates that the problem of formation of social and economic competence can be solved if a teacher acquires skills of public intraschool management. Further, the authors present the analysis of results of a long-term experimental work on the organisation of public management environment at the educational institution, lyceum no. 26 in Saransk (Republic of Mordovia. Discussion and Сonclusion: the article highlights the importance of professional development of educators specialising in “State and public management: public expert review” as a factor in broadening social and economic competence of a teacher. Criteria of participation in public management of education are discussed. It is proved that democratisation of management and its public character allow to involve the personality (administrator, teacher, pupil, parents in the processes of a goal-setting, joint administrative activity, improvement of the interpersonal relations. All these factors make educational system open and take it to a

  18. Socio-economic Statistics and Public Policy: A New Role for Microsimulation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfson, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Users of socio-economic statistics typically want more and better information. Often, these needs can be met simply by more extensive data collections, subject to usual concerns over financial costs and survey respondent burdens. Users, particularly for public policy purposes, have also expressed a continuing, and as yet unfilled, demand for an integrated and coherent system of socio-economic statistics. In this case, additional data will not be sufficient; the more important constraint is th...

  19. Addressing the Impediments to the Realization and Enjoyment of Socio-Economic Rights under the ICESCR

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    Abiodun Odusote

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The realization and enjoyment of socio-economic rights is crucial to overcoming the challenges of abject poverty. These rights offer those living in poverty access to the basic and essential things that are necessary to live a dignified life. However, it is generally agreed that the protection and enjoyment of socio-economic rights is accorded less importance amongst the comity of civilized nations. Majority of governments give priority to the protection of civil and political rights to the detriment of socio-economic rights. Despite the United Nations stance on the non-hierarchical structure within human rights classifications, there is general ambivalence towards the violation of socio-economic rights by those entrusted to protect them. Though many international and regional treaties protect socio-economic rights, which instruments have been domesticated by countries; the picture appears gloomy in terms of effective realisation and protection of socio-economic rights. Their enforcements still remain a challenge for this millennium. The impediments to the realization of these rights are the focus of this paper. Through a detailed analysis of international, regional and domestic legislative framework and jurisprudence, this study provides a systematic exposition of the obstacles that impact on the ability of states to fulfil their socio-economic rights obligations under the various and diverse instruments. The impediments that are discussed in this paper include: a proliferations of human rights; corruption and inept leadership in Africa; inadequate enforcement mechanism; poor and ineffective state reports; international sanctions; wars and conflicts; globalization; debt repayment by developing countries; difficulties of monitoring compliance by State Parties and conflict of laws. In conclusion, the paper proffers a panacea and alternative models for the realization and enjoyments of socio-economic rights.

  20. Induced Socio-economic Behavior in Long Waves : the Recurrence of Normal and Revolutionary Economic Science

    OpenAIRE

    Orley M. Amos Jr.; Edward O. Price III

    1991-01-01

    This research empirically examines the relationship between economic development and the progression of economic thought. It is based on three propositions: 1) economic development progresses by long waves, 2) long waves induce a cyclical pattern of general entrepreneurial and managerial socio-economic behavior, and 3) economists pursue alternating periods of revolutionary and normal economic science as part of the general socio-economic pattern of behavior. The general hypothesis of this stu...

  1. Socio-economic situation as the determinant of internal migration in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Wilk; Michal Bernard Pietrzak; Stanislaw Matusik

    2013-01-01

    Internal population migration flows constitute an inherent element of the market economy. Under relatively stable political conditions, the nature of internal migration is reflected in economic reasons as a result of the regional socio-economic situation. The subject of this paper was to examine relationships between socio-economic situation and internal migration phenomena in Poland. The investigation covers the period of time after Poland’s accession to the EU, with two sub-periods reflect ...

  2. Analytical Assessment of Financial Ability of Local Budgets to Ensure Socio-Economic Development of Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ryabushka Lyudmila Borisivna; Koylo Viktoriya V.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes conceptual grounds of functioning of local budgets, their role, importance and aim in socio-economic development of the state and its regions. The main task of the study is improvement of theoretical and methodological grounds for assessment of financial capability of local budgets as an instrument of socio-economic development of regions and development of practical recommendations on strategic directions of financial provision of regional development. The proposed mode...

  3. Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: Increasing Separation between Poor and Rich (discussion paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Musterd, S.; Marcinczak, S.; Van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.

    2015-01-01

    Socio-economic inequality is on the rise in major European cities as are the worries about that, since this development is seen as threatening social cohesion and stability. Surprisingly, relatively little is known about the spatial dimensions of rising socioeconomic inequality. This paper builds on a study of socio-economic segregation in twelve European cities: Amsterdam, Athens, Budapest, London, Madrid, Oslo, Prague, Riga, Stockholm, Tallinn, Vienna, and Vilnius. Data are used from nation...

  4. Explaining socio-economic differences in intention to smoke among primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Oenema, Anke; Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking prevalence is higher among low socio-economic status (LSES) groups, and this difference may originate from a higher intention to smoke in childhood. This study aims to identify factors that explain differences in intention to smoke between children living in high socio-economic status (HSES) and LSES neighbourhoods. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from the baseline assessment of a smoking prevention intervention study. Dutch primary school children, aged 10 – 11 y...

  5. Socio-economic Development of Ukraine in the Context of Strategic Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoliy Stepanenko; Alla Omelchenko

    2014-01-01

    The essence and fundamental peculiarities of the strategic risks and their role in socio-economic development are revealed. It is shown that Ukrainian economics face the long-term system calls, the character and quality of which is defined by the combination of profound factors raising considerable strategic risks within socio-economic development of the state. Three groups of risks are analysed: geo-economical, geo-political and geo-ecological. The strategic risks are distinguished within ea...

  6. The influence of the promotion of the Irish language on Ireland's socio-economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, John Charles

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation of the influence of the promotion of the Irish language on Ireland's socio-economic development. The research question is based on a tradition of understanding of the link between the Irish language and Ireland's socio-economic development, stretching back at least 150 years. Various authors have argued that the promotion of Irish is not only about re-establishing the language as a means of communication, but that it will bring broader social, economic an...

  7. Socio-Economic Inequality, Human Trafficking, and the Global Slave Trade

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Barner; David Okech; Meghan A. Camp

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss human trafficking within the broader framework of socio-economic inequality. The presence of socio-economic inequality in the world creates a system where those in power very easily dominate and take advantage of those people without power. One of the most serious contemporary effects of inequalities between and within nations is the phenomenon of global sex trade or human trafficking for the purposes of sex. Deriving from unequal power relations, human...

  8. To what extent does IQ 'explain' socio-economic variations in function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Eijk Jacques

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which higher intellectual abilities protect higher socio-economic groups from functional decline and to examine whether the contribution of intellectual abilities is independent of childhood deprivation and low birth weight and other socio-economic and developmental factors in early life. Methods The Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS is a prospective cohort study based upon participants in a registration network of general practices in The Netherlands. Information was available on 1211 men and women, 24 – 81 years old, who were without cognitive impairment at baseline (1993 – 1995, who ever had a paid job, and who participated in the six-year follow-up. Main outcomes were longitudinal decline in important components of quality of life and successful aging, i.e., self-reported physical, affective, and cognitive functioning. Results Persons with a low occupational level at baseline showed more functional decline than persons with a high occupational level. Socio-economic and developmental factors from early life hardly contributed to the adult socio-economic differences in functional decline. Intellectual abilities, however, took into account more than one third of the association between adult socio-economic status and functional decline. The contribution of the intellectual abilities was independent of the early life factors. Conclusion Rather than developmental and socio-economic characteristics of early life, the findings substantiate the importance of intellectual abilities for functional decline and their contribution – as potential, but neglected confounders – to socio-economic differences in functioning, successful aging, and quality of life. The higher intellectual abilities in the higher socio-economic status groups may also underlie the higher prevalences of mastery, self-efficacy and efficient coping styles in these groups.

  9. Behavioral economics and socio-economics journals: A citation-based ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Ofer H.

    2006-01-01

    Journal quality is a major consideration for authors, readers, and promotion and tenure committees, among others. Unfortunately, most behavioral economics and socio-economics journals are not included in published rankings or in Journal Citation Reports. Consequently, no objective ranking of these journals exists. To address this need, a list of journals in behavioral economics and socio-economics was compiled, and the number of articles that cited each journal was recorded for the periods 20...

  10. Socio-economic Status of Women Influences of Domestic Violence:A Sociological Analysis at Urban Area in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Rabi Ullah; Shahanaz Parvin

    2015-01-01

    From the early stages women are confined at some definite work, position and role which generally differ to men in society. Their status is seen as below than men in patriarchal social structure like Bangladesh. Today the situation is more or less remaining same to some extent in their family roles and responsibilities that causes to domestic violence. The article mainly focuses on the socio-economic status of women and different forms of domestic violence at urban area in Dhaka city. The stu...

  11. Prevalence of Violence against Children in Families in Tripura and Its Relationship with Socio-economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Modak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Methods: A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the study after obtaining their informed consent from eight randomly selected English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala, Tripura (India. Data were collected by using a specially designed ‘Semi-structured Questionnaire’. Results: Findings revealed that about 20.9% (67/320, 21.9% (70/230 and 18.1% (58/230 of the children experienced psychological, physical and sexual violence respectively. Male children were more likely to be victims of psychological and physical violence while female children experienced more sexual violence (p=sign. Further analysis of data revealed some relationship between violence against children and nuclear family (p=sign, uncongenial and/or disturbed family environment (p=sign and dominating, short-tempered and/or aggressive parent personality (p=sign, irrespective of the nature of the violence. Physical violence was found to be more prevalent in high income families (p=sign while children from the lower income group of families experienced more psychological violence (p=sign. Sexual violence was found to be equally prevalent in all socio-economic groups. The study also clearly indicated that academic performance of violence-experienced children, irrespective of nature of violence and socio-economic groups was poor compared to academic performance of non-violence-experienced children (p=sign. Conclusions: About one-fifth of the children under study did experience violence in Tripura. Findings speak in favor of an intervention program for

  12. Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvigneaud Nathalie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ≥ 94 cm (men or ≥ 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are

  13. Physical-Socio-Economic Modeling of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Vatan, F.

    2008-12-01

    Because of the global nature of climate change, any assessment of the effects of plans, policies, and response to climate change demands a model that encompasses the entire Earth System, including socio- economic factors. Physics-based climate models of the factors that drive global temperatures, rainfall patterns, and sea level are necessary but not sufficient to guide decision making. Actions taken by farmers, industrialists, environmentalists, politicians, and other policy makers may result in large changes to economic factors, international relations, food production, disease vectors, and beyond. These consequences will not be felt uniformly around the globe or even across a given region. Policy models must comprehend all of these considerations. Combining physics-based models of the Earth's climate and biosphere with societal models of population dynamics, economics, and politics is a grand challenge with high stakes. We propose to leverage our recent advances in modeling and simulation of military stability and reconstruction operations to models that address all these areas of concern. Following over twenty years' experience of successful combat simulation, JPL has started developing Minerva, which will add demographic, economic, political, and media/information models to capabilities that already exist. With these new models, for which we have design concepts, it will be possible to address a very wide range of potential national and international problems that were previously inaccessible. Our climate change model builds on Minerva and expands the geographical horizon from playboxes containing regions and neighborhoods to the entire globe. This system consists of a collection of interacting simulation models that specialize in different aspects of the global situation. They will each contribute to and draw from a pool of shared data. The basic models are: the physical model; the demographic model; the political model; the economic model; and the media

  14. Close relations to parents and emotional symptoms among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Holstein, Bjørn E; Koushede, Vibeke;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between trustful communication with parents and frequency of emotional symptoms in schoolchildren and whether this relationship was modified by the family's socio-economic position. METHODS: Pooled data (n = 15,646) from the Danish Health Behaviour...... in School-aged Children surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010 were analysed by multilevel multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: 8 % of all schoolchildren reported emotional symptoms almost daily. Odds ratio for daily symptoms was 2.1 (1.8-2.4) for children without trustful communication with parents compared...... to children with trustful communication. This association appears unaffected by family occupational class. A substantial socio-economic gradient in emotional symptoms persisted, independent of parent-child communication. CONCLUSIONS: Trustful communication with parents might have a fundamental importance...

  15. Projecting the Spatial and Socio-Economic Development of Large City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandas Anastasiia V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article proves that managerial impact in the form of socio-economic projecting in the best way suits the task of integrated solutions to the problems of socio-economic development of a large city in the situation where it is supported by implementing differentiation of urban areas by the preparedness of city people to innovation in the social sphere, carried out by municipal administration. For social projecting in terms of a large city, distances within the level of well-being of social groups should be linked to the division of city on a territorial basis (into urban areas. It is displayed that socio-economic development of a large city can be achieved with a combination of programtarget approach to developing a strategy for such development together with the principles and technologies for socio-economic projecting. Optimization of administrative activity, based on the projecting socio-economic development of city, leads to a gradual increase in the volume and quality of social participation of city people in the implementation of city-wide strategic development programs.

  16. Study for urbanization corresponding to socio-economic activities in Savannaket, Laos using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2014-06-01

    In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development.

  17. The Innovative Socio-economic Interventions Against Tuberculosis (ISIAT) project: an operational assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C.; Montoya, R.; Zevallos, K.; Curatola, A.; Ynga, W.; Franco, J.; Fernandez, F.; Becerra, N.; Sabaduche, M.; Tovar, M. A.; Ramos, E.; Tapley, A.; Allen, N. R.; Onifade, D. A.; Acosta, C. D.; Maritz, M.; Concha, D. F.; Schumacher, S. G.; Evans, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    SETTING Tuberculosis (TB) affected households in impoverished shantytowns, Lima, Peru. OBJECTIVE To evaluate socio-economic interventions for strengthening TB control by improving uptake of TB care and prevention services. DESIGN Barriers to TB control were characterised by interviews with TB-affected families. To reduce these barriers, a multidisciplinary team offered integrated community and household socio-economic interventions aiming to: 1) enhance uptake of TB care by education, community mobilisation and psychosocial support; and 2) reduce poverty through food and cash transfers, microcredit, microenterprise and vocational training. An interim analysis was performed after the socio-economic interventions had been provided for 2078 people in 311 households of newly diagnosed TB patients for up to 34 months. RESULTS Poverty (46% earned socio-economic interventions were associated with increases in household contact TB screening (from 82% to 96%); successful TB treatment completion (from 91% to 97%); patient human immunodeficiency virus testing (from 31% to 97%); and completion of preventive therapy (from 27% to 87%; all P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Socio-economic interventions can strengthen TB control activities. PMID:21740659

  18. Study for urbanization corresponding to socio-economic activities in Savannaket, Laos using satellite remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development

  19. Socio-economic differences in use of prescribed and over-the-counter medicine for pain and psychological problems among Danish adolescents—a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Mette Jørgine; Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2014-01-01

    The objective for this study was to investigate socio-economic status (SES) differentials in the use of overthe- counter and prescribed medicine for pain and psychological problems among adolescents. Data consisted of questionnaire data on medicine use and health status, collected from 17- to 18...... of medicine for pain and psychological problems according to parental educational level and household income. Young girls used twice as much medicine for pain and psychological problems compared to young boys. SES differences based on parental educational level were directly associated with the use...

  20. The influence of financial incentives and other socio-economic factors on electric vehicle adoption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric vehicles represent an innovation with the potential to lower greenhouse gas emissions and help mitigate the causes of climate change. However, externalities including the appropriability of knowledge and pollution abatement result in societal/economic benefits that are not incorporated in electric vehicle prices. In order to address resulting market failures, governments have employed a number of policies. We seek to determine the relationship of one such policy instrument (consumer financial incentives) to electric vehicle adoption. Based on existing literature, we identified several additional socio-economic factors that are expected to be influential in determining electric vehicle adoption rates. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we examined the relationship between those variables and 30 national electric vehicle market shares for the year 2012. The model found financial incentives, charging infrastructure, and local presence of production facilities to be significant and positively correlated to a country's electric vehicle market share. Results suggest that of those factors, charging infrastructure was most strongly related to electric vehicle adoption. However, descriptive analysis suggests that neither financial incentives nor charging infrastructure ensure high electric vehicle adoption rates. - Highlights: • This research analyzes electric vehicle adoption of 30 countries in 2012. • Financial incentives and charging infrastructure were statistically significant factors. • Country-specific factors help to explain diversity in national adoption rates. • Socio-demographic variables e.g., income and education level were not significant

  1. Demographic and socio-economic factors affecting the physical development, haemoglobin and parasitic infection status of schoolchildren in Sanliurfa province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanligil, M; Seyrek, A

    2004-03-01

    A cross-sectional population-based survey was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status and parasitic infections of schoolchildren and demographic, socio-economic factors in Sanliurfa province, southern Turkey. Nine hundred and eight schoolchildren took part in the survey: 57.2% boys and 42.7% girls. The children's mean z scores were as follows: height for age-0.8 (+/-1.0) and weight for age-1.0 (+/-0.9). The mean haemoglobin concentration was 123 g/l (+/-2.1) and the prevalence of parasitic infections was 55.1%. In total, 50.2% of children were hungry when they arrived at school and 13.4% worked after school. Over 70% (70.4%) of mothers and 18.1% of fathers were illiterate, 16.1% of fathers were unemployed and 46.3% of fathers were engaged in low-income labour. The mean number of children in each family was 5.4 (+/-2.5), and the mean number of children from each family who attended school was 2.1 (+/-1.1). The school-attendance ratio was 0.4 (+/-1.0). Data indicated that older children had significantly lower mean z scores of height (P school had significantly lower mean haemoglobin concentrations than those who had eaten (P : 0.04). Multiple regression analyses indicated that mean z scores of height for age were significantly related to maternal (multiple R = 0.183; P school health programmes may improve the nutritional and health status of schoolchildren. The participation of the local community, which such a programme would entail, may help to increase maternal awareness regarding the feeding of their children before sending them to school. School health programmes may also motivate parents to send their daughters to school, thus increasing maternal literacy in the future. In turn, better levels of maternal literacy will positively affect the socio-economic development of society. PMID:15037047

  2. The Effect of Socio-economic Status on Authoritarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Pour Afkari

    2013-02-01

    Scodel, A. & Freedman, M. L. , (1956 ”Additional Observation on the Social Perceptions of Authoritarians and Nonauthoritarians ”. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, Vol. 52(1, PP. 92-95. Scodel, A. & Mussen, P. (1953 “Social perceptions of authoritarians and nonauthoritarians. ” Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, vol. 48(2, PP. 181-184. Shek,D. T. L (2006. Assessment of perceived parental psychological control in chinese adolescents in hongkong. ” Research on social work practice, V. 16, N. 383. Simons, H. W. (1966”Authoritarianism and social Perceptiveness. Journal of Social Psychology. ” vol. 68, PP (2. 291-297. Sonnak, Carina; Towell, Tony (2000. "the impostor phenomenon in british university students: relationship between self esteem, mental health, parental rearing style and socioeconomic status. Personality and individual difference, 31, 863-874. Srole, L. (1956. Social integration and certain corollaries: an exploratory study. American Sociological Review, 21(6, 709- 716. Teevan Jr, J. J. (1975. On measuring anomia: Suggested modification of the Srole scale. The Pacific Sociological Review, 18(2, 159-170. Wright, James D. (1972” The Working Class, Authoritarianism, and the War in Vietnam. ” Social Problems, Vol. 20, No. 2 , pp. 133-150. Xiao, Hong. 2000. "Class, Gender, and Parental Values in the 1990s". Gender & Society 14(6:785-803

  3. Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, L; Lamborn, S D; Dornbusch, S M; Darling, N

    1992-10-01

    This article examines the impact of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14-18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing practices and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive impact of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial impact of parental involvement in schooling on adolescents achievement. Parental involvement is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment.

  4. A STUDY OF SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF CONCEPT OF HIGH AND LOW SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS HIGH AND LOW SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Subhash Bindwal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives of the Study: 1. to search the self esteem of high and low socio-economic status college students. 2. To examine the self concept of high and low socio-economic status college students. Hypotheses: 1. There will be no significant difference between high and low socio-economic status college students on dimension self esteem. 2. There will be no significant difference between high and low socio-economic status college students on dimension self concept. Participants: A total of 80 s...

  5. Divergent socio-economic gradients in smoking by type of tobacco use in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, D J; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    We describe the relationship between socio-economic status and current bidi or cigarette smoking among Indian men aged ≥15 years. The prevalence of bidi smoking was 13.7% (95%CI 13.3-14.1) and that of cigarette smoking was 6.3% (95%CI 6.1-6.6). bidi smoking was concentrated among the socio-economically disadvantaged, while cigarette smoking was common among men with higher status occupations and greater levels of education and household wealth. This suggests that India has not transitioned to the later stages of the tobacco epidemic, and underscores the need for prevention and control strategies adapted to current patterns of consumption across socio-economic groups in India.

  6. Measuring socio-economic inequality: From dwellers' perspective within Bangalore urban agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Planners and researchers have realized that larger regional framework of urban areas are significant in assessing various inequality aspects in a developing country like India. The framework consists of heterogeneity in spatial and demographic aspects and in quality of socio-economic development levels as well. Against this background, the present paper has proposed a methodological framework to assess socio-economic inequality within Bangalore Urban Agglomeration (BUA as governed by the composite set of Human Development Index (HDI based indicators. Assessments are based on local data of dwellers' preferences on the indicators. On the whole, this paper has tried to establish the significance of application of HDI based indicators in an assessment of socio-economic inequality within BUA. Consequently, the paper has arrived at the need for improvement of comprehensive HDI governed basic public services, amenities, and advanced facilities, across all trans-urban-area levels to ensure a holistic development within BUA.

  7. Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980 - 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sede, Peter I; Ohemeng, Williams

    2015-01-01

    Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency. PMID:25853000

  8. The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel

    The following paper discusses how a passenger delay model can be used in socio-economic calculations. At present passenger delays are often omitted in the modeling phase and therefore not included in the analysis. By using a passenger delay model passenger delays can be included in a cost......-benefit analysis. Including passenger delays in the cost-benefit analysis will increase the level of details and thereby improve the accuracy of socio-economic analysis. In this paper the third generation passenger delay model is used. This model is the newest and most detailed passenger delay model created so far....... The main problem when including passenger delays is to determine the value of time for passenger delays and how to include the delays in a socio-economic analysis. This is due to the fact that passenger delays are not defined unambiguously. In general, delays can occur on different parts of a journey...

  9. Chapter 5 : socio-economic assessment auditing: a Hibernia case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential socio-economic impacts of the Hibernia project were discussed. An audit was conducted to study the socio-economic predictions made during the Hibernia Environmental Impact Study conducted in the early stages of the project regarding the offshore platform construction site at Bull Arm. The audit methods were reviewed and optimization strategies were suggested. Several predictions were made regarding housing, employment, demography, the fishery, and the effects on Newfoundland's social fabric. The audit revealed that most impact predictions were inaccurate. In this instance the adverse impacts of the project proved to be much less significant than had been originally considered before and during the Hibernia public review. It was suggested that the simple accounting framework which calculates and examines the difference between predicted and actual outcomes is not an adequate approach for auditing environmental impact assessment procedures, given the dynamic nature of the projects and the socio-economic context in which they operate. 35 refs., 5 tabs

  10. Chapter 5 : socio-economic assessment auditing: a Hibernia case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, J.; Storey, K. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The potential socio-economic impacts of the Hibernia project were discussed. An audit was conducted to study the socio-economic predictions made during the Hibernia Environmental Impact Study conducted in the early stages of the project regarding the offshore platform construction site at Bull Arm. The audit methods were reviewed and optimization strategies were suggested. Several predictions were made regarding housing, employment, demography, the fishery, and the effects on Newfoundland`s social fabric. The audit revealed that most impact predictions were inaccurate. In this instance the adverse impacts of the project proved to be much less significant than had been originally considered before and during the Hibernia public review. It was suggested that the simple accounting framework which calculates and examines the difference between predicted and actual outcomes is not an adequate approach for auditing environmental impact assessment procedures, given the dynamic nature of the projects and the socio-economic context in which they operate. 35 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Inequality and rising levels of socio-economic segregation: lessons from a pan-European comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van der Ham; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West project investigates changing levels of socio-economic segregation in 13 major European cities: Amsterdam, Budapest, Vienna, Stockholm, Oslo, London, Vilnius, Tallinn, Prague, Madrid, Milan, Athens and Riga. The two main conclusions of this major study are that the levels of socio-economic segregation in European cities are still relatively modest compared to some other parts of the world but that the spatial gap betwe...

  12. The Impact of Socio-Economic Determinants on the Vaccination Rates with Rotavirus and Human Papiloma Virus Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Grdadolnik Urška; Sočan Maja

    2015-01-01

    Background Socio-economic inequalities may have an impact on the uptake of selfpaid vaccines. The aim of the study was to identify the effect of some socio economic determinants on vaccination rates with self-paid human papilloma virus (HPV) and rotavirus (RV) vaccines. Methods Vaccination coverage data, available in electronic database cepljenje.net (administered by the National Institute of Public Health), were collected at administrative unit level. The socio-economic determinants (the ave...

  13. Coastal vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the coastal zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of coastal vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based coastal vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to coastal forcing, socio-economic and coastal characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage sites, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The coastal forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the Coastal Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (coastal geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional coastal slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.

  14. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2016-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  15. Socio Economic and Nutritional Status as Dental Caries Risk Factors in 12 Year Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Naskova, Sanja; Iljovska, Snezana; Pavlevska, Meri; Alimani - Jakupi, Jetmire

    2016-01-01

    The examined material consisted of 71 examinees from both genders at the age of 12, from which the experimental group consisted of 40 children and the control group consisted of 31 examinees.A survey was carried out in order to assess the socio-economic status of the families, to assess the nutritional status (BMI) of the examinees, to verify the dental health while noting the DMFS, DMFT and the intensity of dental caries. The data that presented the socio-economic status of the e...

  16. CONSTITUTIONAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL LAW: "YOU ARE NOT ALONE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Stein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The second oratio was a keynote speech delivered by Torsten Stein, the Director of the Institute of European Studies and holder of the chair for European law and European Public Law at Saarland University, Germany. He delivered his speech during November 2012 at the 3rd Human Rights Indaba on The Role of International Law in Understanding and Applying the Socio-economic Rights in South Africa's Bill of Rights, which was held by the Faculty of Law (NWU, Potchefstroom Campus in collaboration with the Konrad-Adenauer Foundation. He shared some thoughts about the nature, development and implementation of socio-economic rights within an international and European setting.

  17. Socio-economic characteristics of patients with generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    95, 0.33-0.45). More patients than controls were pensioners (OR, 6.04; CI95, 5.23-6.97). CONCLUSIONS: We found that patients with generalized retinal dystrophy differed significantly from a matched control group on several socio-economic characteristics. The differences were more pronounced...... in patients with systemic involvement and patients with an early age at disease presentation. The socio-economic inequalities of this group of blinding diseases emphasize the importance of rehabilitation and need for a substantial and multidisciplinary support from the healthcare, educational and social...... systems....

  18. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC COST OF STRICTO SENSU GRADUATION: A SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS BY ACCAUNTANT MASTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Tiago Guimarães; Ensslin, Sandra Rolim

    2014-01-01

    The human capital theory suggests that higher education levels generate greater economic return. Socio-economic costs for Master degree are important to the properly measurement of possible return, and they may be used as evidences in the make decision processes by users. The aim is evaluate the cost on the personal aims socio-economic scopes for strictu sensu degree, according to their egresses perception. The survey evaluates cost situations by groups. Total costs varied from 0.58 to 7.18, ...

  19. Impact Assessment of Water Crisis on Socio Economic Life of Agrarian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Irfan Sabir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study will be to explore the effects of scarcity of water on farmers’ socio economic values & standard of living while taking adoption of water saving technologies or better water resource management plan by farmers as moderating variable. A sample of 150 household farmers in district Okara was selected through multistage sampling techniques. A well structured questionnaire was designed on five point licker scale covering various dimensions of water crises and their impact on socio economic dimension of farmer’s lives. For data analysis quantitative techniques of multiple regression & regression for moderation were applied by using SPSS 16.

  20. Socio-economic influences on anthropometric status in urban South African adolescents: sex differences in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeilles, Rebecca; Griffiths, Paula L.; Norris, Shane A.; Feeley, Alison B; Rousham, Emily K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of household and neighbourhood socio-economic position (SEP) with indicators of both under- and overnutrition in adolescents and to explore sex differences. Design Analysis of anthropometric, household and neighbourhood SEP data from the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort born in 1990. Anthropometric outcomes were BMI (thinness, overweight and obesity) and percentage body fat (%BF; low, high). Associations between these and the household wealth index, caregi...

  1. Parenting Children with Developmental Delays: The Role of Positive Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Emilie; Baker, Bruce L

    2008-07-01

    Parents of children with developmental delays consistently report higher levels of child behavior problems and also parenting stress than parents of typically developing children. This study examined how mothers' positive beliefs influence the relation between children's behavior problems and mothers' parenting stress among families of children who are developmentally delayed (DD: n = 72) or typically developing (TD: n = 95) and assessed at ages 3, 5, and 7 years. Positive beliefs had a main effect on parenting stress at all ages, which was mediated by child behavior problems for mothers in the DD group at every age and across time. In the TD group, mediation was found at age 3 years. Additionally, support was found for a moderation effect of positive beliefs on the relation between child behavior problems and parenting stress, but only in the DD group at age 3. These findings have implications for interventions drawing on Seligman's (1991) work on learned optimism, the positive counterpart of learned helplessness. PMID:20107620

  2. Association of Socio-economic Status with Injuries in Children Andadolescents:the CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Childhood and adolescence injuries are still frequently occuring in developing countries. This study aims to assess the association  of socio-economic status (SES with injuriesin Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This multicentricsurvey was part of a national surveillance program, which was conducted in 2011-2012 amongst 14,880 students aged6-18 years. Participants were randomly selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Socio- economic status (SES of participants was categorized to “low”, “middle” ,and “high” by using principle component analysis method by considering parental job and education as well as family assets. Prevalence, types and places of injuries were based on the questionnaire of the World Health Organization- Global School-based student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS.Multivariate modelwas used for comparison of variables between SES groups. Results: Overall, 13486 out of 14880 invited students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this study.Their mean (SD age was12.47 (3.36 years.Boys and urban residents constituted the majority of participants (50.8% and 75.6%, respectively. Compared with low SES group, oddsof sport injury was higher in students with middle (OR=1.44; 95%CI: 0.92-2.26 and highSES (OR=1.96; 95%CI: 1.27-3.01. Compared to participants withlow SES,odds of home injuries was significantly lower in high SES group (OR=0.78; 95%CI: 0.64-0.95. Conclusion: This study revealedconsiderable differences in injuries of children and adolescents according to their SES, with higher prevalence of home injuries in low SES families and higher prevalence of sport injuries in middle and high SES levels. When implementing injury prevention programs, such differences should be taken into account.

  3. International Students' Perceptions of Race and Socio-Economic Status in an American Higher Education Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…

  4. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF SPECIFIC FEATURES OF TRANSFORMATIONAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Dzhorayev, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with an analysis of socio economic processes. In the author's opinion to avoid the carrying out of administrative-territorial management reforms by trial and error method it is necessary to study and to be ascertained in the methodological basis of economy transformations under the conditions of regions integration

  5. Jatropha Assessment. Agronomy, socio-economic issues, and ecology. Facts from literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van J.A.J.; Smeets, E.; Romijn, H.A.; Balkema, A.J.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) has been promoted as a potential renewable energy source for many of its advantageous properties in comparison to other biomass feedstock. This report summarises the agronomy, socio-economic issues, and ecology facts from literature on Jatropha. Such an overview is esse

  6. Building Lectures and Building Bridges with Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…

  7. Attitudes towards the Euro: An Empirical Study Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isengard, Bettina; Schneider, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates changing attitudes towards the euro over time in Germany using longitudinal micro-data from the German Socio Economic Panel Study. We observe that a large part of the German population was worried about the new currency both before and after its introduction. Social psychological theories provide insight into these…

  8. Informal waste harvesting in Victoria Falls town, Zimbabwe: Socio-economic benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masocha, M.

    2006-01-01

    Waste harvesting, which occurs mostly but not exclusively at open waste dumps in Zimbabwe, constitutes one of the most important survival options for the urban poor. This paper analyses and discusses socio-economic benefits of informal waste harvesters in Victoria Falls town. Victoria Falls town has

  9. Socio-Economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of…

  10. Unwilling or Unable? Spatial, Institutional and Socio-Economic Restrictions on Females' Labor Market Access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M. van; Büchel, F.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the effects of regional structures on both females’ willingness to work and the probability of being employed for those willing to work. Special permission was granted to link regional data to individual respondents in the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). Results of a bivariate probit

  11. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of technica

  12. The formation of the local housing market in the socio-economic system in the region

    OpenAIRE

    Motorina Irina Mikhailovna

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the interpretations imeyuschihs the concept of «local housing market» and therefore stated the author's point of view. Also in this paper we consider the function and structure of the local housing market and its role in the socio-economic system in the region.

  13. Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M; Munck, A P;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general pr...

  14. Research framework of integrated simulation on bilateral interaction between water cycle and socio-economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, C. F.; Yang, X. L.; Niu, C. W.; Jia, Y. W.

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of bilateral interaction between natural water cycle evolution and socio-economic development has been obscured in current research due to the complexity of the hydrological process and the socio-economic system. The coupling of economic model CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) and distributed hydrological model WEP (Water and Energy transfer Processes) provides a model-based tool for research on response and feedback of water cycle and social development, as well as economic prospects under the constraint of water resources. On one hand, water policies, such as water use limitation and water price adjustment under different levels of socio-economic development, are to be evaluated by CGE model as assumed conditions and corresponding results of water demand could be put into WEP model to simulate corresponding response during the whole process of water cycle. On the other hand, variation of available water resources quantity under different scenarios simulated by WEP model may provide proper limitation for water demand in CGE model, and corresponding change of economic factors could indicate the influence of water resources constraints on socio-economic development. The research is believed to be helpful for better understanding of bilateral interaction between water and society.

  15. Socio-economic determinants of age differences between spouses in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A U

    1989-01-01

    "This study examines socio-economic differentials in age differences between spouses in Bangladesh. The variables considered for the analysis are bride's current and childhood residences, education, work status before and after marriage; and groom's childhood residence, education and occupation. Among these variables, childhood residence, education and occupation evince the strongest differentials." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA)

  16. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  17. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  18. Socio-economic consequences of large scale resource development; cases of mining in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole

    2004-01-01

    Parallel to the attempts to look for new means of economic independence for Greenland, there is still a growing awareness of the possible problems and potential negative consequences of such a development. The contribution has its focus on the short and long term socio-economic consequences...... of resource development experienced in Greenland in connection with mining acitivities....

  19. How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…

  20. Socio-economic status and physical activity among adolescents : The mediating role of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study w

  1. Socio-economic health differences among the elderly population in Krakow, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knurowski, T.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, A.M.; Brzyski, P.; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether socio-economic health differences persist into old age in Poland and if there are SES-related differences in health by age group and gender. Methods: 528 randomly chosen, not institutionalized elderly people aged 65-85 living in Krakow were interviewed about their socio

  2. The health and socio-economic circumstances of British lone mothers over the last two decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shouls, S; Whitehead, M; Burström, B;

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the trends in the socio-economic circumstances and health of lone mothers compared to couple mothers from 1979 to 1995 in Great Britain using secondary analysis of data from General Household Survey and covering 9,159 lone mothers and 51,922 couple mothers living in private...

  3. Review of existing studies and unresolved problems associated with socio-economic impact of nuclear powerplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of socio-economic impact statements for nuclear powerplants began only a few years ago. The number of these statements is increasing, and some states, such as Washington, now require them as a condition to state approval for thermal powerplants. The major purpose of this paper was to review existing socio-economic impact statements to identify where additional research to improve the impact analysis process would be useful and appropriate. A second purpose was to summarize the type of information included in existing statements. Toward this end a number of socio-economic impact statements were reviewed. Most of the statements are for nuclear power plants; however, some are for other large construction projects. The statements reviewed are largely predictive in nature; i.e., they attempt to predict socio-economic impacts based on the existing knowledge. A few of the reports contain retroactive case studies of plants already completed. One describes an ongoing monitoring analysis of plants under construction. As a result of this preliminary study, a need was identified for a better-defined impact statement methodology and for guidelines identifying appropriate areas for analysis and analytical techniques

  4. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…

  5. How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...

  6. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  7. Socio-Economic Status Affects Sentence Repetition, but Not Non-Word Repetition, in Chilean Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balladares, Jaime; Marshall, Chloë; Griffiths, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Sentence repetition and non-word repetition tests are widely used measures of language processing which are sensitive to language ability. Surprisingly little previous work has investigated whether children's socio-economic status (SES) affects their sentence and non-word repetition accuracy. This study investigates sentence and non-word…

  8. Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Australian Mining Towns: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonts, Matthew; Plummer, Paul; Lawrie, Misty

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the links between resource dependence and socio-economic wellbeing has long been a subject of interest amongst social scientists in North America. By contrast, relatively few Australian studies exist on this topic. This is despite the significant role of resource industries in shaping Australia's economic and social geography. Where…

  9. Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Qvist, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced ...

  10. Socio-Economic Status and Enrollment in Higher Education: Do Costs Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Koen; Verboven, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of socio-economic status on enrollment and study decisions in higher education. We use a discrete choice approach to distinguish between three channels. First, students from disadvantaged backgrounds may be more sensitive to the costs of education. Second, they may have lower preferences for education. Third, they may have…

  11. Modelling Socio-Economic Differences in the Mortality of Danish Males Using a New Affluence Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Andrew J.G.; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.;

    We investigate and model how the mortality of Danish males aged 55-94 has changed over the period 1985-2012. We divide the population into ten socio-economic subgroups using a new measure of affluence that combines wealth and income reported on the Statistics Denmark national register database...

  12. Socio-Economic Background and Access to Internet as Correlates of Students' Achievement in Agricultural Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Sunday Paul; Osokoya, Modupe M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated access to internet and socio-economic background as correlates of students' achievement in Agricultural Science among selected Senior Secondary Schools Two Students in Ogbomoso South and North Local Government Areas. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique. Simple random sampling was used to select 30 students from…

  13. Socio-economic impacts of biofuels in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijck, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The production and use of biofuels in developing countries, can have positive effects such as increased and diversified agricultural income, employment in rural areas, a general improvement in the standard of living of the local population and improved access to energy. However, it can also lead to

  14. Integrating socio-economic and infrastructural dimension to reveal hazard vulnerability of coastal districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Jublee; Paul, Saikat

    2015-04-01

    Losses of life and property due to natural hazards have intensified in the past decade, motivating an alteration of disaster management away from simple post event resettlement and rehabilitation. The degree of exposure to hazard for a homogeneous population is not entirely reliant upon nearness to the source of hazard event. Socio-economic factors and infrastructural capability play an important role in determining the vulnerability of a place. This study investigates the vulnerability of eastern coastal states of India from tropical cyclones. The record of past hundred years shows that the physical vulnerability of eastern coastal states is four times as compared to the western coastal states in terms of frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. Nevertheless, these physical factors played an imperative role in determining the vulnerability of eastern coast. However, the socio-economic and infrastructural factors influence the risk of exposure exponentially. Inclusion of these indicators would provide better insight regarding the preparedness and resilience of settlements to hazard events. In this regard, the present study is an effort to develop an Integrated Vulnerability Model (IVM) based on socio-economic and infrastructural factors for the districts of eastern coastal states of India. A method is proposed for quantifying the socio-economic and infrastructural vulnerability to tropical cyclone in these districts. The variables included in the study are extracted from Census of India, 2011 at district level administrative unit. In the analysis, a large number of variables are reduced to a smaller number of factors by using principal component analysis that represents the socio-economic and infrastructure vulnerability to tropical cyclone. Subsequently, the factor scores in socio-economic Vulnerability Index (SeVI) and Infrastructure Vulnerability Index (InVI) are standardized from 0 to 1, indicating the range from low to high vulnerability. The factor

  15. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land

  16. Malaysia's socio-economic transformation in historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kalim SIDDIQUI

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to explain the pattern and evolution of economic development in Malaysia since independence. It focuses on the impact of growth and analyses how the government policy of positive discrimination (also known as Bumiputeras) has helped to address historical backwardness and thus reduce ethnic tensions in the country. The state also launched the policy of diversification, which involved various combinations of policy initiatives; for instance, the expansion of new ...

  17. Socio-Economic Determinants of the Need for Dental Care in Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Trohel

    Full Text Available Oral health has improved in France. However, there are still inequalities related to the socio-economic status.The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dental care needs in an adult population and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables that may explain variations in this parameter.A cross-sectional analysis of the French SIRS cohort (n = 2,997 adults from the Paris region; 2010 data was carried out to determine the prevalence of self-reported dental care needs relative to demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables. A logistic regression model was used to identify the variables that were most strongly associated with the level of need.In 2010, the prevalence of the need for dental care in the SIRS cohort was 35.0% (95% CI [32.3-37.8]. It was lower in people with higher education levels (31.3% [27.9-34.6], without immigrant background (31.3% [28.0-34.6] and with comprehensive health insurance (social security + complementary health cover; 32.8% [30.2-35.4]. It decreased as the socio-economic status increased, but without following a strict linear change. It was also lower among individuals who had a dental check-up visit in the previous two years. In multivariate analyses, the socioeconomic variables most strongly associated with the need for dental care were: educational attainment (OR = 1.21 [1.02-1.44], income level (OR = 1.66 [1.92-2.12] and national origin (OR = 1.53 [1.26-1.86].These results confirm that the prevalence of dental care needs is higher among adults with low socio-economic status. Education level, income level and also national origin were more strongly associated with the need for dental care than insurance cover level.

  18. Women's relative immunity to the socio-economic health gradient: artifact or real?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P. Phillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individual and area socio-economic status (SES are significant predictors of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. However, the span in health from poorest to richest, that is, the socio-economic gradient, appears steeper for men than women. Objective: Our aim is to understand women's apparent immunity to the health harms of the SES gradient. Design: Findings from a non-systematic search of Medline for population-based, SES gradient studies reporting results for both men and women and with health outcomes of morbidity, mortality or self-rated health (SRH were reflectively analyzed. Results: The 36 papers reviewed generally showed women to be relatively immune to the SES gradient for all but cardiovascular health outcomes. However, addressing the interconnected nature of socio-economic circumstances, exploring whether some measures of SES had ambiguous meanings for either women or men, including modifiers of SES such as household circumstances, social capital or area gender equity, or using indicators of area SES that were contextual rather than aggregates of individual, compositional measures increased the SES gradient for women. Outcome measures that combined mental and physical health, accounted for gender differences in SRH and adjusted for sex-specific differences in causes of mortality also explained some of the observed amelioration of the SES gradient among women. Conclusions: Socio-economic circumstances have a real and sustained impact on individual health. The SES gradient appears stronger for men than for women for all health outcomes other than heart disease. However, some of the observed variability between men and women may be an artifact of biased methodology. Considering webs of causation rather than individual markers of SES along with other sources of gender bias can explain much of women's blunted socio-economic gradient and deepen understanding of the pathways from SES to morbidity and

  19. Socio-economic inequalities in the use of postnatal care in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: First, our objective was to estimate socio-economic inequalities in the use of postnatal care (PNC compared with those in the use of care at birth and antenatal care. Second, we wanted to compare inequalities in the use of PNC between facility births and home births and to determine inequalities in the use of PNC among mothers with high-risk births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Rich-poor ratios and concentration indices for maternity care were estimated using the third round of the District Level Household Survey conducted in India in 2007-08. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine the socio-economic inequalities associated with use of PNC after adjusting for relevant socio-economic and demographic characteristics. PNC for both mothers and newborns was substantially lower than the care received during pregnancy and child birth. Only 44% of mothers in India at the time of survey received any care within 48 hours after birth. Likewise, only 45% of newborns received check-up within 24 hours of birth. Mothers who had home births were significantly less likely to have received PNC than those who had facility births, with significant differences across the socio-economic strata. Moreover, the rich-poor gap in PNC use was significantly wider for mothers with birth complications. CONCLUSIONS: PNC use has been unacceptably low in India given the risks of mortality for mothers and babies shortly after birth. However, there is evidence to suggest that effective use of pregnancy and childbirth care in health facilities led to better PNC. There are also significant socio-economic inequalities in access to PNC even for those accessing facility-based care. The coverage of essential PNC is inadequate, especially for mothers from economically disadvantaged households. The findings suggest the need for strengthening PNC services to keep pace with advances in coverage for care at birth and prenatal services in India through targeted policy

  20. Obesity and association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic factors in Algerian and Tunisian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Atek

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n = 2004 and Tunisia (women n = 2964, men n = 2379. Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI = weight/height <18.5 kg/m(2, obesity as BMI ≥30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ≥0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9-8.7]. Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8-32.4] and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4-39.6]. It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1-11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2-15.4].The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4-5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1-4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9-3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0-5.5] in Algeria. Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must

  1. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annique Smeding

    Full Text Available In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning, but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society. Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals, instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  2. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dumitrascu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

  3. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER A. EKUNWE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. Analytical techniques used were percentages, frequency counts, gross margin,profitability and multiple regression analysis. The results of the data analysis showed that majority (93% of the broiler marketers werefemale. The average age of the respondents was 42 years and the mean number of schooling years of the respondents was 8 years. The mean marketing margin per week was N350 ($2.17 while the mean gross margin per week was N5, 150 ($32. However, the average net returns per week for the entire markets were N4, 600 ($28.6. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that the semi-log model gave the best fit with an adjusted R2 of 0.857 (85.7% and a F-ratio of 70.245. The age of broiler marketers, level of education and marketers income had positive coefficients. Thus, increase in these variables will increase the number of broilers handled per purchase. Major problems faced were loss of weight of broilers and mortality of broilers. Finance and processing were minor constraints faced by the marketer. The study recommended adequate feeding of broilers to maintain market weight, proper weighing of broiler chicken during sales, increase awareness about the need to purchase live broilers instead of frozen chicken and encouraging marketers into backward integration to increase profitability of the business. These recommendations would help to develop the poultry industry and increase marketing efficiency.

  4. Increasing organic carbon stocks in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Eriksson, Jan O.; Lundblad, Mattias; Kätterer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Management changes can induce significant alterations of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Including trends in SOC within a certain land-use category can thus strongly influence the annual national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. In 2013, the European Union has therefore decided that all member states shall report the evolvement of SOC within agricultural soils to increase the incentives to mitigate climate change by improving the management of those soils. Here, we present the country and county-wise SOC trends in Swedish agricultural mineral soils on the basis of three soil inventories conducted between 1988 and 2013. In the past two decades, the average topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC content of the whole country increased from 2.48% to 2.67% representing a relative change of 7.7% or 0.38% yr-1. This is in contrast to trends observed in neighboring countries such as Norway and Finland. We attributed this positive SOC trend to the increasing cultivation of leys throughout the country. Indeed, the below-ground carbon input of perennial grasses is up to fourfold as compared to cereals, which leads to a significant soil carbon sequestration potential under cropping systems with ley. The increase in ley proportion was significantly correlated to the increase in horse population in each county (R2=0.71), which has more than doubled in the past three decades. Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area as long-term set-aside land (mostly old leys) also contributed to an increase in leys. This discloses the strong impact of rather local socio-economic trends on soil carbon storage, which also need to be considered in larger-scale model applications. This database is used in the continuous validation process of the Swedish national system for reporting changes in SOC stocks.

  5. Climate and socio-economic scenarios for climate change research and assessment: reconciling the new with the old

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, D.P.; Carter, T.R.

    2014-01-01

    A suggestion for mapping the SRES illustrative scenarios onto the new scenarios framework of representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) is presented. The mapping first compares storylines describing future socio-economic developments for SRES and SSPs. Nex

  6. Evaluation of socio-economic effects of R and D results at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. 2. Socio-economic evaluation of the basic research at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), as a core organization devoted to comprehensive nuclear energy research, has steadily promoted various types of research and development (R and D) studies since its establishment in June 1956. Research activities are aimed at performing (1) R and D for nuclear energy, (2) the utilization and application of radiation-based technologies, and (3) the establishment of basic and fundamental research in the nuclear field. Last year, the socio-economic effects on items (1) and (2) were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. The quantitative evaluation of item (3) from the viewpoint of a socio-economic effect, however, calls for a different concept and methodology than previously used cost-benefit approach. Achievements obtained from the activities conducted over the last 10 years implied that socio-economics in basic research funded by the public could contribute to the (1) increase in useful intellectual stocks, (2) upbringing of highly skilled college graduates, (3) construction of new scientific facilities and creation of methodologies, (4) stimulation and promotion of social interrelations by networking, (5) increase of one's ability to solve scientific problems, and (6) establishment of venture companies. In this study, we focused on item (4) for the analysis because it assumed that the external economic effect has a link with the socio-economic effects accompanying the networking formation. For the criteria of socio-economic effects we assume that the external effect becomes significant in proportion to the width of networking and/or the magnitude of cooperation measured by numbers of co-writing studies between JAERI and the research bodies, namely private and governmental sectors and universities. Taking these criteria into consideration, the subsequent four items are prepared for quantitative study. They are (1) to clarify the basic research fields where JAERI has been established a significant effort to

  7. How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajnc, N. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Domac, J. [Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2007-12-15

    Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO{sub 2} emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems. (author)

  8. How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO2 emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems

  9. How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO2 emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems. (author)

  10. Building a Complex Scorecard on the Basis of Assessment of Influence of Socio-economic Factors of Enterprise Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbitska Tetiana V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in building a complex scorecard used for assessment of influence of socio-economic factors of enterprise development. The article specifies such groups of socio-economic factors as factors of organisational and managerial impact; workers potential and their professional development; social protection of workers; labour protection and healthcare; and social infrastructure. Having analysed and compared concepts and approaches to assessment of enterprise activity, the article identifies that insufficient attention is paid to socio-economic indicators. That is why a scorecard is developed in the context of the said groups of factors, which gives a possibility to identify weaknesses in enterprise development and to direct measures on their elimination or minimisation on the basis of it. The proposed scorecard of assessment of socio-economic factors of enterprise development gives a possibility to, objectively and timely, monitor the socio-economic state of an enterprise, which allows maintaining the development trajectory.

  11. The epidemiology and socio-economic impact of Rift Valley fever epidemics in Tanzania: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Sindato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted to provide comprehensive update on Rift Valley fever (RVF in Tanzania, with particular attention devoted to trend of occurrence, epidemiological factors, socio-economic impact and measures which were applied to its control. Information presented in this paper was obtained through extensive literature review. Rift Valley fever was documented for the first time in Tanzania in 1977. This was followed by epidemics in 1997 and 2007. Contrary to the latest epidemic in 2007 sporadic cases of RVF during the previous epidemics were confined to mainly livestock and mostly affecting northern parts of Tanzania. The latest disease epidemic expanded to cover wider areas (mostly northern and central zones of the country involving both human and domestic ruminants. During the latest disease outbreak 52.4% (n = 21 of regions in Tanzania mainland were affected and majority (72.7, n = 11 of the regions had concurrent infections in human and animals. Phylogenetic comparison of nucleotide and amimo acid sequences revealed different virus strains between Kenya and Tanzania.Epidemiological factors that were considered responsible for the previous RVF epidemics in Tanzania included farming systems, climatic factors, vector activities and presence of large population of ruminant species, animal movements and food consumption habits. Majority of the RVF positive cases in the latest epidemic were livestock under pastoral and agro-pastoral farming systems.The disease caused serious effects on rural people’s food security and household nutrition and on direct and indirect losses to livestock producers in the country. Psycho-social distress that communities went through was enormous, which involved the thinking about the loss of their family members and/or relatives, their livestock and crop production. Socially, the status of most livestock producers was eroded in their communities.Cessation of lucrative trade in ruminants resulted in serious

  12. The effect of positive parenting program on parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research indicates that impaired hearing is one of the most stressful disabilities. The parenting stress involved could lead to family malfunction and improper parenting. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of positive parenting programs on the parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children.Methods: The statistical population comprised mothers of all 7-12-year-old impaired hearing children in Tehran city. Thereafter, using the random sampling method, 24 individuals were shortlisted as research participants and were randomly assigned to two groups: control and experimental. The experimental group was trained with a positive parenting program based on the Sanders program (1993 over eight sessions. The measurement instrument was the Abidin parenting stress questionnaire.Results: The mean score for grades in the experimental groups’ parent and child domains at the pre- and post-test stages had reduced more than that in the control group. In addition, the results of a multivariate covariance analysis indicated that positive parenting training was effective in the reduction of parenting stress scores, reinforcement, and child mood components in the child domain, and in the feelings of competence, relationships with the spouse, and role limitation components (p<0.05 in the parent domain.Conclusion : Considering the benefits of training parents for the reduction of parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children, this method is recommended in all learning centers for the deaf.

  13. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF WOMEN BEEDI WORKERS IN BUNDELKHAND REGION OF UTTAR PRADESH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shamim Ansari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of this paper is to explore link between socio-economic positions of women working in unorganized sector with special reference to beedi rolling. In India Beedi making is an age old industry and one of the largest job providers for women in the unorganized sector. Women are having inherent advantage in this job in this job of beedi rolling due to deft fingers; yet significant gender bias exists. The job is mainly done by weaker economic class in the country who don’t have adequate education and skill to look for alternate job. The work of beedi rolling is preferred by the women because it can be carried from home along with domestic chores. Thus, they supplement family income along with managing the household jobs. However, in the recent year the trade is shrinking thus there is situation of underemployment.

  14. Logit analysis of socio-economic factors influencing people to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acquah Henry D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the socio-economic factors that influence people’s decision to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana. Using a well structured interview schedule, a random sample of 98 people from Elmina in the central region of Ghana was selected for the study. Results from the descriptive statistics analysis of respondents identified fishing as a family business, minimum skills requirement and ready market for fish demand as factors that motivated majority of the people into fishing. Lack of storage facilities, access to credit, lack of government assistance and unpredictable changes in weather conditions on sea were the main constraints to fishing activities. Results from the logistic regression model indicated that household size and access to credit were significant factors that positively influenced people’s decision to become fishermen. The regression analysis further revealed that engaging in other income generating activity and being educated significantly reduces the probability to start fishing business.

  15. Positive Parenting among African American Mothers with a Serious Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol T.; MacFarlane, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Using a sample of African American mothers (N=202) diagnosed with mental illness, the effects of poverty; maternal education; social support; maternal and social stress; current mental health; and psychiatric history were examined for effects on positive parenting. Strongest predictors of parenting attitudes were stress and current mental health.…

  16. Analysis of Coordination between the Public Service in Rural Areas and Socio-economic Development——A Case Study of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking Sichuan Province as an example,by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan’s rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level,we conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan’s rural areas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008.The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan Province is not high,and the equalization phenomenon of rural public service construction and socio-economic development is very prominent.The equalization development of public service in rural areas of Sichuan Province from 2003 to 2008 lags behind socio-economic development.The coordination between public service equalization system in rural areas of Sichuan Province and socio-economic development system abates continuously;the coordination between infrastructure and socio-economic development increases slowly;the coordination between education and socio-economic development declines sharply;the coordination between public culture and socio-economic development tends to decrease;the coordination between ecological environment construction and socio-economic development decreases continuously with great amplitude;the coordination between public health and socio-economic development decreases continuously;the coordination between science and technology and socio-economic development lingers at low level;the coordination between social security and employment,and socio-economic development increases in fluctuation,but with small amplitude.

  17. Looking for a better future: identity construction in socio-economically deprived 16-year olds considering a career in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Nadia; Dunkley, Lisa; Boynton, Petra; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2007-08-01

    The medical profession has traditionally been dominated by middle-class white males in the UK, but it is a political priority to widen access to all socio-economic and ethnic groups. This paper describes an empirical study based on biographical life narrative interviews with 45 16-year olds from inner London who were considering applying to medical school, drawn mainly from the most socio-economically deprived 25% of the population. Most of them were immigrants or the children of immigrants, and all had been selected by their teachers as highly able and motivated. Students were asked to "tell the story of your life so far". Interviews were tape recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Five influences on the development of academic identity and medical ambition were identified: (1) the private sphere (Bourdieu's 'family habitus'), especially a family meta-narrative of immigration to secure a better future and of education as the vehicle to regaining a high social position previously held in the family of origin; (2) the school (Bourdieu's 'institutional habitus'), and especially the input of particular teachers who inspired and supported the student; (3) friends and peers, many of whom the student had chosen strategically because of shared aspirations to academic success; (4) psychological resources such as maturity, determination and resilience; and (5) past experiences (especially meeting the challenge of immigration, changing school, or dealing with illness or death in a relative), which had proved formative and strengthening to the individual's developing ego. Despite their talents and ambitions, many students had important gaps in their knowledge of the application process and lacked sophistication in the 'admissions game'. The findings are discussed in relation to contemporary educational and social theories. PMID:17493726

  18. Environmental and school influences on physical activity in South Asian children from low socio-economic backgrounds: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Emma Lisa Jane; Duncan, Michael J; Birch, Samantha L; Cox, Val

    2015-09-01

    South Asian (SA) children are less active but have enhanced metabolic risk factors. Physical activity (PA) is a modifiable risk factor for metabolic disease. Evidence suggests that environmental factors and socio-economic status influence PA behaviour. The purpose of this study was to understand PA environments, barriers and facilitators of PA in deprived environments for children from SA backgrounds. Focus groups were conducted with 5 groups of children aged 7-9 years (n = 33; male = 16, female = 17; SA = 17, White = 8 and Black = 8) from two schools in deprived wards of Coventry, England. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes and subthemes across all transcripts. From the results, emergent themes included school and home environment, outdoor activity, equipment, weather, parental constraints and safety. Ethnic differences were apparent for sources of beliefs and knowledge and religious practice as constraints for PA. The findings suggest that school provides a good foundation for PA attitude, knowledge and behaviour, especially for SA children. To increase PA, multi-component interventions are needed, which focus on changing the home environment (i.e. junk food and media time), encouraging outdoors activity, changing perceptions of safety and weather conditions, which provide parental constraints for children. Interventions also need to be considerate to religious practices that might constrain time.

  19. Psychological distress, health, and socio-economic factors in caregivers of terminally ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Kjaergaard; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: At some point in life, most people become caregivers to a terminally ill relative. Previous studies have shown that many caregivers experience psychological distress and declining physical health, but these studies have predominantly been conducted in specialized palliative care settings....... Therefore, caregiver studies with a population-based approach are needed. We aimed to describe socio-economic characteristics, situational factors, pre-loss grief symptoms, depressive symptoms, caregiver burden, and health status in a general population of caregivers to terminally ill patients. METHOD: We...... conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study. Caregivers were systematically recruited through patients registered with drug reimbursement for terminal illness in 2012. Data on socio-economic characteristics was mainly obtained from Danish registries, whereas data on situational factors, distress...

  20. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Boerema

    Full Text Available The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed. Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed.

  1. Colon cancer trends in Norway and Denmark by socio-economic group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Larsen, Inger Kristin;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Norway has experienced an unprecedented rapid and so far unexplained increase in colon cancer incidence. Norwegian rates passed Danish rates for men in 1985 and for women in 1990. This study aimed to unravel clues to the development in colon cancer incidence by investigating changes over time...... in incidence by socio-economic group. METHODS: Persons participating in the 1970 censuses in Norway and Denmark were aged 55-75 years in 1971-1980 (called pre-crossing period) and in 1991-2000 (called post-crossing period), respectively. Country, sex, age and socio-economic group-specific colon cancer...... incidence rates. Percent change in the average rate from the pre- to the post-crossing period. RESULTS: In the pre-crossing period, Norwegian male managers/administrators had the highest colon cancer incidence, but the largest increase in incidence from the pre-to the post-crossing period was seen...

  2. Agent-Based and Macroscopic Modeling of the Complex Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejus Kononovičius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The focus of this contribution is the correspondence between collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Currently there is a wide selection of papers proposing various models for the both collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Yet the papers directly relating these two concepts are still quite rare. By studying this correspondence we discuss a cutting edge approach to the modeling of complex socio-economic systems. Design/methodology/approach – The collective behavior is often modeled using stochastic and ordinary calculus, while the inter-individual interactions are modeled using agent-based models. In order to obtain the ideal model, one should start from these frameworks and build a bridge to reach another. This is a formidable task, if we consider the top-down approach, namely starting from the collective behavior and moving towards inter-individual interactions. The bottom-up approach also fails, if complex inter-individual interaction models are considered, yet in this case we can start with simple models and increase the complexity as needed. Findings – The bottom-up approach, considering simple agent-based herding model as a model for the inter-individual interactions, allows us to derive certain macroscopic models of the complex socio-economic systems from the agent-based perspective. This provides interesting insights into the collective behavior patterns observed in the complex socio-economic systems. Research limitations/implications –The simplicity of the agent-based herding model might be considered to be somewhat limiting. Yet this simplicity implies that the model is highly universal. It reproduces universal features of social behavior and also can be further extended to fit different socio-economic scenarios. Practical implications – Insights provided in this contribution might be used to modify existing

  3. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of socio-economic values of time for public transport projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    supported by examples. Traffic modelling of the two light rail projects has been performed and the results are used to generate the time benefits. The time benefits for the two light rail projects using the expected new values of time will increase around 20% compared to the result when using the values......The socio-economic time benefits of two light rail projects in Copenhagen are investigated using three different sets of values of time. The first set is the one the Ministry of Transport recommends for use in socio-economic analysis in Denmark; this is used as basis for comparison with the two...... other sets of values of time. The second set is the expected new recommended values of time that has the same time values for non-business travel. The third set is estimated from traffic modelling parameters and operates with different in-vehicle time values; the reason for this is thoroughly described...

  5. Socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will;

    2009-01-01

    ' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. METHODS: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random......OBJECTIVES: To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries...... samples of schools in 37 countries in Europe and North America. The outcome measure was prevalence of at least two daily health complaints, measured by the HBSC Symptom Check List. We included three independent variables at the individual level (sex, age group, family affluence measured by the Family...

  6. Dietary and socio-economic factors in relation to Helicobacter pylori re-infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miroslaw Jarosz; Ewa Rychlik; Magdalena Siuba; Wioleta Respondek; Malgorzata Ry(z)ko-Skiba; Iwona Sajór; Sylwia Gugala; Tomasz Bla(z)ejczyk; Janusz Ciok

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine if dietary and socio-economic factors contribute to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) re-infection.METHODS: The population of patients consisted of subjects in whom H py/or/infection had been successfully treated in the past. Patients were divided into two groups;I-examined group (111 persons with Hpy/or/re-infection) and Ⅱ-control group (175 persons who had not been re-infected). The respondents were interviewed retrospectively on their dietary habits and socio-economic factors.RESULTS: A statistically significant lower frequency of fermented dairy products (P < 0.0001), vegetables (P = 0.02), and fruit (P = 0.008) consumption was noted among patients with H pylori re-infection as compared to those who had not been re-infected.CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of probiotic bacteria, mainly lactobacillus, and antioxidants, mainly vitamin C (contained in fruit and vegetables), might decrease the risk of Hpylori re-infection.

  7. Agent-based and macroscopic modeling of the complex socio-economic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kononovicius, Aleksejus

    2013-01-01

    The current economic crisis has provoked an active response from the interdisciplinary scientific community. As a result many papers suggesting what can be improved in understanding of the complex socio-economics systems were published. Some of the most prominent papers on the topic include (Bouchaud, 2009; Farmer and Foley, 2009; Farmer et al, 2012; Helbing, 2010; Pietronero, 2008). These papers share the idea that agent-based modeling is essential for the better understanding of the complex socio-economic systems and consequently better policy making. Yet in order for an agent-based model to be useful it should also be analytically tractable, possess a macroscopic treatment (Cristelli et al, 2012). In this work we shed a new light on our research group's contributions towards understanding of the correspondence between the inter-individual interactions and collective behavior. We also provide some new insights into the implications of the global and local interactions, the leadership and the predator-prey i...

  8. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerema, Annelies; Peeters, Alain; Swolfs, Sanne; Vandevenne, Floor; Jacobs, Sander; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion) as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed). Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed. PMID:27244079

  9. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerema, Annelies; Peeters, Alain; Swolfs, Sanne; Vandevenne, Floor; Jacobs, Sander; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion) as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed). Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed. PMID:27244079

  10. Socio-Economic Inequality, Human Trafficking, and the Global Slave Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Barner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss human trafficking within the broader framework of socio-economic inequality. The presence of socio-economic inequality in the world creates a system where those in power very easily dominate and take advantage of those people without power. One of the most serious contemporary effects of inequalities between and within nations is the phenomenon of global sex trade or human trafficking for the purposes of sex. Deriving from unequal power relations, human trafficking is a serious global crime that involves the exploitation of many, but mostly females and children. This paper provides an extensive discussion of inequality and its links with human trafficking as contemporary slavery. In conclusion, the paper provides a list of selected intra-national and multi-national service organizations that are adopting strategies for combating trafficking through the reduction of social and economic inequality. Implications for social welfare advocates and international collaborative efforts are highlighted.

  11. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  12. The Effect of Demographic, Socio-economic and Other Characteristics on Donations

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Younus Awan; Farhina Hameed

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to find the effect of demographic, socio-economic and other characteristics on donations. Secondly, the relationship of fundraising campaigns and trust of an individual on an organization is explored. The objectives of the study are to find out the characteristics that can effect donations and to verify which characteristics have strong influence on donations. Data is collected from the donors of a non-profit organization (Shaukat Khanum Memorial Trust) and classify into two ca...

  13. Foundations and social economy: conceptual approaches and socio-economic relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Rey García; Luis Ignacio Álvarez González

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical debate about the nature of charitable foundations has traditionally become polarized around two distinct conceptual approaches: the non-profit or third sector approach, versus the social economy approach. This research tries to find a common ground between these two approaches, and to highlight the specificities of the foundation as an organizational formula, supporting its current socio-economic relevance with latest quantitative data on the contemporary Spanish foundation sector...

  14. Socio-economic status and enrollment in higher education: do costs matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Declercq, Koen; Verboven, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We study the impact of socio-economic status on enrollment and study decisions in higher education. We use a discrete choice approach to distinguish between three channels. First, students from disadvantaged backgrounds may be more sensitive to the costs of education. Second, they may have lower preferences for education. Third, they may have developed less academic ability during previous schooling and are therefore less likely to participate. We apply our analysis to Flanders, where tuition...

  15. The Influence of Socio-Economic Characteristics on Food Advertisement Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Govindasamy, Ramu; Italia, John

    1999-01-01

    Only 22 percent of surveyed consumers reported making frequent use of food advertisements when purchasing food products. However, certain demographic segments appear to place a greater emphasis on food advertisements than others. This study empirically evaluates which socio-economic characteristics encourage consumers to be more likely to take food advertisements into account when purchasing grocery products. The results indicate that those with lower annual incomes, those with lower levels o...

  16. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin C. Asogwa; J. A. C. Ezihe; Ater, P.I.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

  17. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. EKUNWE; FIONA O. OGBEIDE

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets) in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. ...

  18. Socio-economic and cultural aspecrs of changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    2009-01-01

    ! is chapter evaluates the possibility for projecting socio-economic and cultural impacts on Greenland’s society caused directly or indirectly by changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet. ! ere are, as yet, no well-documented direct causative links between the conditions for a society dictated by nature...... at the margin of human existence over a millennium of climate change and external cultural in# uences...

  19. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, D.R.; N. Forsythe; Fowler, H J; Shah, S M

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with ...

  20. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy

    OpenAIRE

    David Garcia; Claudio Juan Tessone; Pavlin Mavrodiev; Nicolas Perony

    2014-01-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesise that these ...

  1. Annual research activity report year 3: Socio-economic monitoring study

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmanulloh, Arif; Budidarsono, Suseno

    2008-01-01

    Overall objective of socioeconomic team is to assess the socio-economic impacts of integrated vegetable-agroforestry systems on small (women and men) farmers in Nanggung Sub-district. In Year 3, series of activities have been done partly to achieve this objective. In collaboration with T team, vegetable cultivation technologies/practices within agroforestry systems were observed to assess financial viability. Secondly, we collected all farm inputs data (including labor used) of drip irrigatio...

  2. Understanding Reduced Rotavirus Vaccine Efficacy in Low Socio-Economic Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Lopman, Benjamin A.; Pitzer, Virginia E.; Rajiv Sarkar; Beryl Gladstone; Manish Patel; John Glasser; Manoj Gambhir; Christina Atchison; Grenfell, Bryan T.; W John Edmunds; Gagandeep Kang; Umesh D Parashar

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Rotavirus vaccine efficacy ranges from >90% in high socio-economic settings (SES) to 50% in low SES. With the imminent introduction of rotavirus vaccine in low SES countries, understanding reasons for reduced efficacy in these settings could identify strategies to improve vaccine performance. METHODS We developed a mathematical model to predict rotavirus vaccine efficacy in high, middle and low SES based on data specific for each setting on incidence, protection conferred by...

  3. Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2015-04-14

    Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help.

  4. Declining reliance on marine resources in remote South Pacific societies: ecological versus socio-economic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. A.; Cakacaka, A.; Graham, N. A. J.; Polunin, N. V. C.; Pratchett, M. S.; Stead, S. M.; Wilson, S. K.

    2007-12-01

    Degraded coral reef ecosystems yield limited goods and services, which is expected to have significant socio-economic impacts on isolated tropical island communities with strong reliance on coral reefs. This study investigates socio-economic changes, specifically in fresh fish consumption and fishing activities, associated with environmental degradation at five fishing grounds ( qoliqoli) in the Lau Islands (Fiji). Semi-structured interviews with fishers and senior household members revealed that the importance of fishing was low relative to other occupations, and consumption of fresh fish has declined over the last decade. Reduced fishing and choice of fresh fish is largely attributable to an increased need to derive income as well as new income-generating opportunities. A possible consequence of reduced reliance on marine resources was limited awareness of recent environmental degradation caused by climate-induced coral bleaching and outbreaks of coral-feeding crown-of-thorns starfish. Limited use and reduced awareness of the local marine environment in the short term may erode social memory and local ecological knowledge, reducing opportunities to fall back on marine resources. This may also compromise long-term economic and social stability. Conversely, low reliance on marine resources may confer greater flexibility to adapt to future ecological change in the marine environment. Importantly, changes in fish consumption and exploitation of marine resources were linked to socio-economic factors rather than a consequence of recent degradation of marine environments. Greater knowledge of the dynamics driving change in marine resource use is necessary to understand how societies respond to ecological and socio-economic change, and to identify opportunities for adaptive sustainable ecosystem management.

  5. Socio-Economic Impact of Women Entrepreneurship in Sylhet City, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury Abdullah Al-Hossienie

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on exploring the socio-economic impact of women entrepreneurship. Based on primary and secondary sources, it is found that nearly three quarters of the women entrepreneurs in Sylhet city are married and that they are mainly involved in tailoring and beauty parlor businesses. About half of the women entrepreneurs use their income for family purposes and most of them do not need permission of their husbands in using their income. Women entrepreneurship typically brings a posi...

  6. Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nargis Akhter; Feroz Ahmed; Sohrab Hossain

    2011-01-01

    The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided...

  7. Ecological and socio-economic functions across tropical land use systems after rainforest conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Jochen; Rembold, Katja; Allen, Kara; Beckschäfer, Philip; Buchori, Damayanti; Clough, Yann; Faust, Heiko; Anas M. Fauzi; Gunawan, Dodo; Hertel, Dietrich; Irawan, Bambang; Jaya, I. Nengah S.; Klarner, Bernhard; Kleinn, Christoph; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Tropical lowland rainforests are increasingly threatened by the expansion of agriculture and the extraction of natural resources. In Jambi Province, Indonesia, the interdisciplinary EFForTS project focuses on the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of rainforest conversion to jungle rubber agroforests and monoculture plantations of rubber and oil palm. Our data confirm that rainforest transformation and land use intensification lead to substantial losses in biodiversity and related ecosy...

  8. Croatia's EU accession: socio-economic assessment of farm households and policy recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Möllers, Judith; Zier, Patrick; Frohberg, Klaus; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Bojnec, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Croatia is very close to meeting the requirements necessary for becoming a member of the European Union (EU). On February 6, 2008, the European Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn said that accession negotiations with Croatia are moving ahead well. As in all new member states (NMS), the agricultural sector and food processing chain are core issues within the negotiation process. Successful negotiation requires intimate knowledge of the issue at hand, including the socio-economic situation and ...

  9. Modeling the Travel Behavior Impacts of Micro-Scale Land Use and Socio-Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshmand Ebrahimpour Masoumi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of neighborhood-level land use characteristics on urban travel behavior of Iranian cities are under-researched. The present paper examines such influences in a microscopic scale. In this study the role of socio-economic factors is also studies and compared to that of urban form. Two case-study neighborhoods in west of Tehran are selected and considered, first of which is a centralized and compact neighborhood and the other is a sprawled and centerless one. A Multinomial Logit Regression model is developed to consider the effects of socio-economic and land use factors on urban travel pattern. In addition, to consider the effective factors, cross-sectional comparison between the influences of local accessibility and attractiveness of the neighborhood centers of the two case-study areas are undertaken. Also the causality relationships are considered according to the findings of the survey. The findings indicate significant effects of age and household income as socio-economic factors on transportation mode choice in neighborhoods with central structure. One the other hand, no meaningful association between socio-economic or land use variables are resulted by the model for the sprawled case. The most effective land use concept in micro-scale is considered to be satisfaction of entertainment facilities of the neighborhood. Also the descriptive findings show that the centralized neighborhood that gives more local accessibility to shops and retail generates less shopping trips. In considering the causal relations, the study shows that providing neighborhood infrastructures that increase or ease the accessibility to neighborhood amenities can lead to higher shares of sustainable transportation modes like walking, biking, or public transportation use.

  10. Pathways of neighbourhood-level socio-economic determinants of adverse birth outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Gang; Thompson, Mary E.; Hall, G Brent

    2013-01-01

    Background Although socio-economic factors have been identified as one of the most important groups of neighbourhood-level risks affecting birth outcomes, uncertainties still exist concerning the pathways through which they are transferred to individual risk factors. This poses a challenge for setting priorities and developing appropriate community-oriented public health interventions and planning guidelines to reduce the level of adverse birth outcomes. Method This study examines potential d...

  11. Diet composition, socio-economic status and food outlets development in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Paola

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among the British population. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975-2000. Daily intakes-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study a...

  12. The relationship between food consumption and socio-economic status: evidence among British youths

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Paola

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among British youths. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975- 2000. Daily calories-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study and the...

  13. Socio-economic status and physical activity among adolescents: The mediating role of self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S.A.; Dijk, J.P. van

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of socioeconomic status and the self-esteem of adolescents with physical activity, and their joint effects. Methods: A sample of 3694 elementary-school students from ...

  14. The Demographic and Socio-economic Distribution of Excess Mortality during the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    de Walque, D; Verwimp, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the demographic consequences of the Rwandan genocide and how the excess mortality due to the conflict was distributed in the population. Data collected by the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey indicate that although there were more deaths across the entire population, adult males were the most likely to die. Using the characteristics of the survey respondent as a proxy for the socio-economic status of the victims' family, the results also show that individuals with an urba...

  15. FINANCIAL SITUATION OF FARMERS HOUSEHOLDS IN COMPARISON WITH OTHER SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analysed the financial situation of farmers households as compared with other socio-economic groups in the years 2000, 2005 and 2012. The analysis examined the households finances: the amount and structure of disposable income and the mode of its disbursement. The research was based on aggregated data derived from Household Budgets Surveys, published annually by the Central Statistical Office.

  16. THE QUESTION OF THE EXTENT APPLICABILITY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES TO MANAGE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Anatolievna Rozanova

    2015-01-01

    The problem of the applicability of information and communication technologies in the management of the various socio-economic systems. The role of ICT in modern society, and governance processes. The urgency and the need to study the relationship of ICT and management. A brief description of the existing management paradigm in science and examines its origins and key approaches. The reasons of lack of effectiveness of the use of ICT in various spheres of government. Analyzes the most importa...

  17. A multi-factor approach to understanding socio-economic segregation in European capital cities

    OpenAIRE

    Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van der Ham; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    Growing inequalities in Europe, even in the most egalitarian countries, are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. Surprisingly, though, there is a lack of systematic and representative research on the spatial dimension of rising inequalities. This gap is filled by our book project Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West, with empirical evidence from Amsterdam, Athens, Budapest, London, Mad...

  18. Role-Based Panel Discussions to Teach Socio-Economic Consequences of Wastewater Treatment †

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Vrabl; Olivia Vrabl

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater treatment is getting more and more complex. From a biotechnological point of view, numerous new treatment techniques have been established in the past two decades to meet the increasing need to remove harmful substances. In addition, wastewater treatment is governed by socio-economic and geopolitical interests. As discussions outside the scientific community often include irrational reasoning, students need to be trained to react to invalid arguments. By use of a role-based ...

  19. Socio-Economic Consequences of Improved Indoor Air Quality in Danish Primary Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Foldbjerg, Peter; Eriksen, Kurt Emil;

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt to estimate the socio-economic effects of upgrading the indoor air quality in Danish schools to the level of Swedish schools. The OECD “PISA” score is used to quantify the effects together with the Danish Rational Economic Agent Model (DREAM). The following effects a...... in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of €173 million per annum, and in the public finances of €37 million per annum...

  20. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, Van H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of technical and non-technical literature has addressed in the last two decades. However, contradictory results between individual studies abound. Extensive and transparent reviews concerning this contentious...

  1. The Importance of Early Conscientiousness for Socio-Economic Outcomes: Evidence from the British Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Prevoo, Tyas; ter Weel, Bas

    2013-01-01

    This research estimates models of the importance of conscientiousness for socio-economic outcomes. We use measures of conscientiousness at age 16 to explain adult wages and other outcomes, such as crime, health and savings behaviour. We use several waves from the 1970 British Cohort Study. Our estimates suggest a significant and sizeable correlation between early conscientiousness and adult outcomes. Measurement error is corrected for by applying IV-techniques, errors-in-variables estimators ...

  2. Conformity of House Physical Condition and Socio-Economic Mobility in Post Disaster Resettlement

    OpenAIRE

    Anggraeni Puspitaningtyas; Happy R. Santosa; V. Totok Noerwasito

    2015-01-01

    Mudflow disaster damage job opportunity, disrupt social life and settlement, thus requiring resettlement. Need to understand whether physical condition of resettlement is in accordance with background and housing preference of victim, due to significant differences of housing design. Aspects studied were characteristic of resettlement, physical condition of house and socio-economic mobility. Research was done using qualitative method. Technique of data collection was u...

  3. Associations between socio-economic status and dietary patterns in US black and white adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kell, K. P.; Judd, S. E.; Pearson, K. E.; Shikany, J. M.; Fernández, J.R

    2015-01-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with measures of diet quality; however, such measures have not directly captured overall eating practices in individuals. Based on the factor analysis of fifty-six food groups from FFQ, associations between patterns of food consumption and SES were examined in a nationwide sample of 17 062 black (34·6 %) and white participants (age >45 years) from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Logistic regression mo...

  4. Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shan-Qing; Li, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Guang-Ze; Hu, Xi-min; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-01-01

    Background Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013....

  5. Socio-Economic-Political-Cultural Aspects in Malaria Control Programme Implementation in Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, S. K.; Patil, Rajan R.; S. N. Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Objective. A Socio-economic-political-cultural (SEPC) study was undertaken under the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative to understand the process of programme implementation and how far in the changing malaria context, the broader environment has been understood and programme components have undergone changes. Material and Methods. Two studies were carried out; first in four villages under the primary health unit (PHU) Banavaralu in Tiptur Taluka in September 2002 and the second one in April ...

  6. SOCIO - ECONOMIC STATUS OF DALIT WOMEN-A STUDY IN ANDHRA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    D. Swarupa Rani; Sadu Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    The present paper examines issues related to the Dalit women vis-à-vis socio-economic problems of Andhra Pradesh. The disadvantages of caste, class gender and the exclusionary mechanism entrenched hierarchical social relations have had differential outcomes for Dalit women in our society. The constitution of India is enriched with several provisions for schedule castes to safeguard and promote their cultural, social, educational, and economic status in order to bring them in t...

  7. Coffee cooperatives promoting peacebuilding and socio-economic development of farmers in Huye District , Southern Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Bititi, Gisaro M-Ya; Lebailly, Philippe; Mbonyinkebe, Déo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative organisations play an important role in the peacebuilding efforts undertaken in the wake of the Rwanda genocide in1994. The genocide tore apart and destroyed large parts of the country’s socio-economic and institutional foundations, its consequences are still evident. Coffee is the main source of income for approximatively 500.000 households. The paper aimed to analyze the impact of coffee cooperatives and the coffee washing stations in the peacebuilding socio-econo...

  8. Study of knowledge and contraception practices in low socio-economic women of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Pandey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective of current study was to assess the knowledge and practice of contraception among the low socio-economic women of reproductive age group in Delhi. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on 272 low socio-economic women attending a family planning clinic at a Delhi municipal corporation hospital, of which 106 came for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP and 166 came for family planning advice. They were interrogated through a pre-designed structured questionnaire, to evaluate their knowledge and practices towards regular contraceptive methods, Emergency Contraception (EC and medical abortion. They were counselled about the available contraceptive methods and allowed to make choices according to their suitability. Results: All women belonged to low socio-economic group according to the modified Kuppuswamy scale. 22.1% were illiterate. 47.8% were ignorant of contraception. 38.3% women were aware of EC. Only 24.2% knew about medical abortion. The main reasons cited for not using contraception was desire for male child (24.6%, fear of side effects (20%, desire for another child (20%, opposition from family members (15.4%, inaccessibility (4.6% and inconvenience and lack of privacy (5.4%. Conclusions: This study highlights that lack of education, knowledge and awareness led to inadequate usage of regular methods of contraception in reproductive age group women belonging to low socio-economic status. Thus only availability is not sufficient to reach optimum female health. Accessibility need to be increased by educating females and motivating couples to make adequate use of existing family planning methods and resources. In contrast the awareness for emergency contraception is more than regular methods. It mandates need to educate women that emergency contraception should not replace regular methods. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1022-1026

  9. Economic Citizenship and Socio-Economic Rationality as Foundations of an Appropriate Economic Education

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Schank; Alexander Lorch

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that social science education needs to convey more than operational mechanisms of society. Especially in socio-economic education, questions of business ethics, i.e. phenomena of economics and society need to be integrated and reflected, decidedly focusing on the moral content of economics. With the introduction of economic citizenship as the ideal economic actor to be the purpose of economic education, this paper proposes that economic education needs to connect econ...

  10. Socio-economic and Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture: An Integrated Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G.; Shah, M. M.; Tubiello, F.N.; H.T. van Velthuizen

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro- ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological- economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in...

  11. Socio-economic and cultural aspecrs of changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    2009-01-01

    ! is chapter evaluates the possibility for projecting socio-economic and cultural impacts on Greenland’s society caused directly or indirectly by changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet. ! ere are, as yet, no well-documented direct causative links between the conditions for a society dictated by nature, and the way a given society develops. ! is chapter describes the development of the modern Greenland society from a historical perspective and introduces a number of speci" c cases that illustrate ...

  12. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; N. Tubiello, Francesco; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conj...

  13. Application of Supercomputer Technologies for Simulation Of Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Valentinovich Okrepilov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, an extensive experience has been accumulated in investigation of problems related to quality, assessment of management systems, modeling of economic system sustainability. The performed studies have created a basis for development of a new research area — Economics of Quality. Its tools allow to use opportunities of model simulation for construction of the mathematical models adequately reflecting the role of quality in natural, technical, social regularities of functioning of the complex socio-economic systems. Extensive application and development of models, and also system modeling with use of supercomputer technologies, on our deep belief, will bring the conducted research of socio-economic systems to essentially new level. Moreover, the current scientific research makes a significant contribution to model simulation of multi-agent social systems and that is not less important, it belongs to the priority areas in development of science and technology in our country. This article is devoted to the questions of supercomputer technologies application in public sciences, first of all, — regarding technical realization of the large-scale agent-focused models (AFM. The essence of this tool is that owing to the power computer increase it has become possible to describe the behavior of many separate fragments of a difficult system, as socio-economic systems are. The article also deals with the experience of foreign scientists and practicians in launching the AFM on supercomputers, and also the example of AFM developed in CEMI RAS, stages and methods of effective calculating kernel display of multi-agent system on architecture of a modern supercomputer will be analyzed. The experiments on the basis of model simulation on forecasting the population of St. Petersburg according to three scenarios as one of the major factors influencing the development of socio-economic system and quality of life of the population are presented in the

  14. Cellular automata for the spreading of technologies in socio-economic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kun, Ferenc; Kocsis, Gergely; Farkas, Janos

    2008-01-01

    We introduce an agent-based model for the spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems where the technology is mainly used for the collaboration/interaction of agents. Agents use products of different technologies to collaborate with each other which induce costs proportional to the difference of technological levels. Additional costs arise when technologies of different providers are used. Agents can adopt technologies and providers of their interacting partners in order...

  15. Ancient Human Bone Microstructure in Medieval England: Comparisons between Two Socio-Economic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J; Mahoney, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the links between bone microstructure and human lifestyle is critical for clinical and anthropological research into skeletal growth and adaptation. The present study is the first to report correspondence between socio-economic status and variation in bone microstructure in ancient humans. Products of femoral cortical remodeling were assessed using histological methods in a large human medieval sample (N = 450) which represented two distinct socio-economic groups. Osteonal parameters were recorded in posterior midshaft femoral sections from adult males (N = 233) and females (N = 217). Using univariate and multivariate statistics, intact, fragmentary, and osteon population densities, Haversian canal area and diameter, and osteon area were compared between the two groups, accounting for sex, age, and estimated femoral robusticity. The size of osteons and their Haversian canals, as well as osteon density, varied significantly between the socio-economic groups, although minor inconsistencies were observed in females. Variation in microstructure was consistent with historical textual evidence that describes differences in mechanical loading and nutrition between the two groups. Results demonstrate that aspects of ancient human lifestyle can be inferred from bone microstructure. PMID:26480030

  16. Snakebite and its socio-economic impact on the rural population of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families.

  17. Prospective Associations Between Socio-economic Status and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenandez-Alviraa, Juan Miguel; Börnhorst, Claudia; Bammann, Karin;

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes in children's diet over time and the relationship between these changes and socio-economic status (SES) may help to understand the impact of social inequalities on dietary patterns. The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns by applying a cluster analysis to 9...... to 9301 children participating in the baseline (2–9 years old) and follow-up (4–11 years old) surveys of the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants Study, and to describe the cluster memberships of these children over time...... food); sweet (higher frequency of consumption of sweet foods and sweetened drinks); healthy (higher frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal products). Children with higher-educated mothers and fathers and the highest household income were more likely to be allocated to the healthy...... from a lower socio-economic background presenting persistently unhealthier dietary profiles. This finding reflects the need for healthy eating interventions specifically targeting children from lower socio-economic backgrounds....

  18. Socio-Economic Importance Of Associated Plant Species In Short Rotation Coppice Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniak Michal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many ecosystem services do not pass through markets. Therefore, the benefits which ecosystems provide to society are largely unrecorded. Fast-growing woody crops represent a quite new and still insufficiently explored ecosystem of agricultural land which has a potential to provide several utility functions. It may contribute to satisfaction of human needs and may enhance regional health. The goal of this paper was to detect the socio-economic importance of associated spontaneous vegetation in plantations of the energy crops (hybrids of the genera Salix and to compare it with the socio-economic importance of adjacent permanently cultivated agricultural field. There was examined the therapeutic, melliferous, feed, allergenic and toxic potential of undergrowth for each experimental plot inside the SRC plantations. The research was carried out on the agricultural land formerly used for growing cereals and root crops – the research base Kolíňany. Our results showed that energy plantation understoreys can be assumed to be the better option for contribution to the total socio-economic value of a region than agricultural fields.

  19. British Columbia offshore oil and gas socio-economic issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the key social and economic issues regarding offshore oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia's coastal waters were examined by the Science, Technology and Environment Division of Royal Roads University in conjunction with Glenn Bridges and Associates. In 1972, the federal government imposed a moratorium to prevent crude oil tankers from travelling the west coast due to concerns over environmental impacts. A provincial moratorium on exploration followed shortly thereafter. The government of British Columbia recently suggested lifting the moratorium, and conducted public hearings and scientific reviews of issues related to offshore oil and exploration. In the Spring of 2002, the provincial government asked the federal government to consider lifting its moratorium. In response, a Federal Interdepartmental Offshore Oil and Gas Socio-Economic Issues Working Group conducted a series of study plans in the areas of science, legal, aboriginal, socio-economic, oceans and management regimes. This report provides the outcomes of the studies. It is organized in tabular form to facilitate presentation. All 8 tabs were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. They include: (1) an introduction and overview, (2) illustrative development scenarios, (3) resource revenues report, (4) socio-economic expenditure report, (5) human resources report, (6) due diligence issues report, (7) knowledge management strategy for policy formation, and, (8) bibliography. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HA Qazi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling was used to select the EVACUE housing situated and model village. From each house selected, interviews were conducted based on one participant per house. The main outcome variables were measure of different qualities of drinking water safety, taste, etc. Problems of waste and sanitation included disposal of solid waste and leakage of drainage system in the area."nResults: The results found water quality to be good with safe drinking water and less residents complained in EVACUEE as compared to Model. The results also found better sanitary services with proper drainage system and less open dumping of garbage in EVACUEE as compared to Model."nConclusion: Health problems of drinking water and sanitation were more prevalent in low socio economic areas as com­pared to higher socio economic area.

  1. Increasing socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy and QALYs in Sweden 1980-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, Kristina; Johannesson, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the change in socio-economic differences in life expectancy and in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), for men and women at different ages, in Sweden 1980 to 1997. We used data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions (the ULF survey), which is linked...... to mortality data, to estimate the life expectancy in different socio-economic groups in 1980 and 1997 (n=100 868). Health state scores were obtained by mapping responses to selected ULF survey interview questions into the generic health-related quality of life measure EQ-5D, using the UK EQ-5D index tariff (n......=34 447). For 20-year-old men the difference in life expectancy between the highest (higher non-manual) and the lowest socio-economic group (unskilled manual) was 2.11 years in 1980 and 3.79 years in 1997. The corresponding figures for 20-year-old women were 1.56 in 1980 and 2.15 in 1997...

  2. Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Sean G; Merriwether, Ann M; Garcia, Justin R

    2013-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child's undesirable behavior. The parents' sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or negative quality) were varied randomly. It was predicted that participants who score higher in modern prejudice would rate the negative parenting behaviors of same-sex parents more negatively than similar behaviors in opposite-sex parents. It was also predicted that this modern prejudice effect would be most pronounced for male participants. Both hypotheses were supported. PMID:23667347

  3. On environmental equity : Exploring the distribution of environmental quality among socio-economic categories in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruize, H.

    2007-01-01

    The high spatial pressure and the historically egalitarian character make the Netherlands an interesting country for investigating environmental equity (the distribution of environmental burdens and amenities across socio-economic categories). This study developed an approach for analysing environme

  4. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood: results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriette A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA birth cohort study were used for the analyses. The PIAMA study followed 3,963 Dutch children during their first eight years of life. Common childhood health problems (i.e. eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and obesity were assessed annually using questionnaires. Maternal educational level was used to indicate SES. Possible explanatory lifestyle determinants (breastfeeding, smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the first three months, and day-care centre attendance and biological determinants (maternal age at birth, birthweight, and older siblings were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results This study shows that socio-economic differences in a broad range of health problems are already present early in life, and persist during childhood. Children from families with low socio-economic backgrounds experience more asthma symptoms (odds ratio (OR 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.08-1.49, poorer general health (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60, more frequent respiratory infections (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83, more overweight (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.73, and more obesity (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.80-4.41. The most important contributors to the observed childhood socio-economic health disparities are socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding, and day-care centre attendance. Conclusions Socio-economic health disparities already occur very early in life. Socio-economic

  5. Socio-economic factors associated with maternal health-seeking behaviours among women from poor households in rural Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Benova, L.; Campbell, OM; Sholkamy, H; Ploubidis, GB

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Socio-economic inequalities in basic maternal health interventions exist in Egypt, yet little is known about health-seeking of poor households. This paper assesses levels of maternal health-seeking behaviours in women living in poor households in rural Upper Egypt, and compares these to national averages. Secondly, we construct innovative measures of socio-economic resourcefulness among the rural poor in order to examine the association between the resulting variables and the fou...

  6. Streamlining information flow and improving the system of indicators of socio-economic monitoring of regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulina Alevtyna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of proposals to streamline information flows and improve the system of indicators of social-economic monitoring of regional development. The author reveals the essence of the socio-economic monitoring of the territory development. Socio-economic monitoring is considered as the factor of increasing the efficiency of economy and complex development of the territory. The proposals on optimization of the process of monitoring of the country are scientifically grounded

  7. Socio-economic impacts of land degradation at Gunungsari Village of Tlogowungu District, Pati Regency, Central Java

    OpenAIRE

    C Y Lastiantoro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the socio-economic impact of land degradation and the role of watershed management in the development of agroforestry to support food safety and security. This study used descriptive analytical method that was based on the observations, interviews, and literature survey. Thirty respondents were randomly selected for this study. The results showed that the socio-economic impact of land degradation was the decline production of cassava for the last four...

  8. THE IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC MEGATRENDS UPON SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT (METHODOLOGICAL ASPECT OF STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    Siscan, Zorina

    2016-01-01

    The article reflects some outcomes of the author’s scientific research which has been conducted for recent few years. The purpose of the study was to reveal the most influential socio-economic trends that have determined the development of the contemporary social and economic systems, including business. In doing so, there has been precised the notion of a socio-economic megatrend (SEM), there have been conceptualized and systematized some key SEMs which produced an impact on the formation of...

  9. Socio-economic differences in self-esteem of adolescents influenced by personality, mental health and social support

    OpenAIRE

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Gajdosova, Beata; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that self-esteem is lower among adolescents of low socio-economic status and is associated with a number of intrapersonal, interpersonal and socio-cultural factors. Evidence on the mechanisms by which these factors contribute to the connection between socio-economic status and developing self-esteem is incomplete, however. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess whether personality, mental health and social support contribute to the relatio...

  10. A social work study on relationship between thinking styles, self-esteem and socio-economic conditions among university students

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Mirghobad Khodarahmi; Abbass Mokhtari

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a social work study on relationship between thinking style and self-esteem as well as socio-economic conditions among university students. The study selects 512 students from Islamic Azad University of Najafabad in province of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire, which measures creativity and self-esteem. We also collect students’ socio-economic conditions and analyze the information. The results of our survey disclose that thinking style and self-esteem have ove...

  11. The Forgotten Rights - the Case for the Legal Enforcement of Socio-Economic Rights in the UK National Law

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Socio-economic rights relate to an individual’s social, economic and cultural entitlements. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966 enumerates the following socio-economic rights: Right to work; Right to Social Security and social insurance; Right to an adequate standard of living including adequate food, clothing, housing and to continuous improvement of the standard of living; Right to health; and Right to education. In contrast, The International Covenant of...

  12. Time trends in socio-economic inequalities for women and men with disabilities in Australia: evidence of persisting inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Anne M Kavanagh; Krnjacki, Lauren; Beer, Andrew; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Bentley, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The socio-economic circumstances and health of people with disabilities has been relatively ignored in public health research, policy and practice in Australia and internationally. This is despite emerging evidence that the socio-economic circumstances that people with disabilities live in contributes to their poorer health. Compared to other developed countries, Australians with disabilities are more likely to live in disadvantaged circumstances, despite being an economically pr...

  13. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, L.H.; Nicolau, M; Van Dam; Vries, de, H.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective: We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design: Cross-sectional multi-ethnic p...

  14. Socio-economic scenarios for climate change impact assessment : a guide to their use in the UK Climate Impacts Programme

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Enormous challenges are faced in devising socio-economic scenarios for the assessment of future impacts and there is very little experience to draw upon. Socio-economic scenarios have not been widely used within impacts studies, but this report will serve to encourage their use more widely within the UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP). The aim has been to develop a scenarios framework through which stakeholders are able to reflect upon possible alternative futures and to make...

  15. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Ijaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economic status of parents. Methods: In the descriptive and cross-sectional study, a total of one hundred (100 infants were included. The sampling technique was non-probability convenience sampling. This study was conducted at vaccination centers and children clinics in different hospitals in city of Lahore -Pakistan. Results: The results showed that 67% of the mothers exclusively breastfed their babies. 64% of the mothers had knowledge of exclusive breast feeding. The practice of breast feeding was found as 81% while artificial feeding was practiced among 19% of the mothers. Majority of the mothers started weaning their babies at the age 4 (31% and 6 months (32% whereas 28% mothers started after 6 months. 54% of mothers continued breastfeeding along with weaning. 72% of the mothers were aware of the importance of colostrum. Conclusion: Maternal education and women's employment have been found major determinants for breastfeeding. The result indicates that in Pakistan, mothers receive counseling on breast feeding which is quite satisfactory and feeding practices of infants are found as better in Pakistan.

  16. The impact of demographic and socio-economic conditions on the prevalence of speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajchanovska Domnika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Speech development in preschool children should be consistent with a child’s overall development. However, disorders of speech in childhood are not uncommon. Objective. The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of demographic and socio-economic conditions on the prevalence of speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola. Methods. The study is observational and prospective with two years duration. During the period from May 2009 to June 2011, 1607 children aged 3 and 5 years, who came for regular examinations, were observed. The following research methods were applied: pediatric examination, psychological testing (Test of Chuturik, interviews with parents and a questionnaire for behavior of children (Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Results. 1,607 children were analyzed, 772 aged three years, 835 aged five years, 51.65% male and 49.35% female. The prevalence of speech disorders was 37.65%. Statistical analysis showed that these disorders were more frequent in three years old children, males living in rural areas and in larger families. They did not have their own rooms at home, they were using mobile phones and were spending many hours per day watching television, (p<0.01. Also, children whose parents had lower levels of education and were engaged in agriculture, often had significant speech disorders, (p<0.01. Conclusion. Speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola have a high prevalence. Because of their influence on later cognitive development of children, the process requires cooperation among parents, children, speech and the audiologist with the significant role in prevention, early detection and treatment.

  17. Modifying the rebound: It depends! Explaining mobility behavior on the basis of the German socio-economic panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We address the empirical question of the extent to which higher fuel efficiency of cars affects additional travel and the way this behavioral aspect is modified by additional variables. The data set used to estimate a theoretical model of the rebound effect covers two panel waves, 1998 and 2003, taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). To take full advantage of the information in the data available, and to avoid problems due to possible selection effects, we estimated an unbalanced two-wave random effects panel model. Our results suggest that in line with the rebound hypothesis, car efficiency has a negative effect on the kilometers driven. That is, the lower the fuel consumption, the greater the distance driven. However, contrasting recent empirical literature about the rebound effect in the transportation sector, this seems to be true only for cars with a consumption of more than roughly 8 l per 100 km. In addition, we find a positive diesel effect, which implies that owning a diesel engine car is positively correlated with the distance driven. Both effects can be interpreted as support for the rebound hypothesis, although not in a simple linear way. Moreover, it can be shown that some “soft” variables such as certain attitudes towards the environment tend to amplify this non-linear rebound effect. - Research Highlights: ► We address the empirical question of the extent to which higher fuel efficiency of cars affects additional travel. ► The data set covers two panel waves, 1998 and 2003, taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). We estimate an unbalanced two-wave random effects panel model. ► Contrasting recent empirical literature, this seems to be true only for cars with a consumption of more than roughly 8 l per 100 km.► In addition, we find a positive diesel effect: Owning a diesel engine car has a positive effect on the distance driven. Both effects support the rebound hypothesis, although not in a simple linear way.► It can

  18. Oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary countries development; O impacto do pagamento de royalties do petroleo no desenvolvimento socio-economico dos municipios beneficiarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchesi, Cesar Augusto M.; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

    2004-07-01

    This research proposes to evaluate oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary counties indicators. In the first step, it has been made royalties payments distribution among beneficiary counties (942), what showed a meaningful paid resources concentration between 1993 and 1999, when 20% of the beneficiaries apportioned of 98,5% from this period paid royalties. For these 188 greatest exaction counties the royalties impact analyses on County Human Development Index (IDH-M) evolution showed the received royalties amount positively influenced the 2000 IDH-M additional comparing to 1991. It indicates the petroleum industry contribution to municipal development of those counties which receive these resources. (author)

  19. Comparison of environmental and socio-economic domains of vulnerability to flood hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidel, M.; Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.

    2009-04-01

    Socio-economic and environmental based vulnerability models have been developed within the research context of the FP6 project BRAHMATWINN. The conceptualisation of vulnerability has been defined in the project and is characterised as a function of sensitivity and adaptive capacity, where sensitivity is used to refer to systems that are susceptible to the impacts of environmental stress. Adaptive capacity is used to refer to systems or resources available to communities that could help them adapt or cope with the adverse consequences of environmental stresses in the recovery phase. In a wider context the approach reflects the wider objective and conceptualizations of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) framework, where vulnerability is characterized as a component of overall risk. A methodology has been developed which delineates spatial units of vulnerability (VULNUS). These units share a specific common characteristic and allow the independent spatial modelling of a complex phenomena independent from administrative units and raster based approaches. An increasing detail of spatial data and complex decision problems require flexible means for scaled spatial representations, for mapping the dynamics and constant changes, and delivering the crucial information. Automated techniques of object-based image analysis (OBIA, Lang & Blaschke, 2006), capable of integrating a virtually unlimited set of spatial data sets, try to match the information extraction with our world view. To account for that, a flexible concept of manageable units is required. The term geon was proposed by Lang (2008) to describe generic spatial objects that are homogenous in terms of a varying spatial phenomena under the influence of, and partly controlled by, policy actions. The geon concept acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. It is flexible in terms of a certain perception of a problem

  20. Environmental and socio-economic risk modelling for Chagas disease in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischler, Paula; Kearney, Michael; McCarroll, Jennifer C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Vounatsou, Penelope; Malone, John B

    2012-09-01

    Accurately defining disease distributions and calculating disease risk is an important step in the control and prevention of diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies, with maximum entropy (Maxent) ecological niche modelling computer software, were used to create predictive risk maps for Chagas disease in Bolivia. Prevalence rates were calculated from 2007 to 2009 household infection survey data for Bolivia, while environmental data were compiled from the Worldclim database and MODIS satellite imagery. Socio-economic data were obtained from the Bolivian National Institute of Statistics. Disease models identified altitudes at 500-3,500 m above the mean sea level (MSL), low annual precipitation (45-250 mm), and higher diurnal range of temperature (10-19 °C; peak 16 °C) as compatible with the biological requirements of the insect vectors. Socio-economic analyses demonstrated the importance of improved housing materials and water source. Home adobe wall materials and having to fetch drinking water from rivers or wells without pump were found to be highly related to distribution of the disease by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) (0.69 AUC, 0.67 AUC and 0.62 AUC, respectively), while areas with hardwood floors demonstrated a direct negative relationship (-0.71 AUC). This study demonstrates that Maxent modelling can be used in disease prevalence and incidence studies to provide governmental agencies with an easily learned, understandable method to define areas as either high, moderate or low risk for the disease. This information may be used in resource planning, targeting and implementation. However, access to high-resolution, sub-municipality socio-economic data (e.g. census tracts) would facilitate elucidation of the relative influence of poverty-related factors on regional disease dynamics.

  1. Environmental and socio-economic risk modelling for Chagas disease in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mischler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurately defining disease distributions and calculating disease risk is an important step in the control and prevention of diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing technologies, with maximum entropy (Maxent ecological niche modelling computer software, were used to create predictive risk maps for Chagas disease in Bolivia. Prevalence rates were calculated from 2007 to 2009 household infection survey data for Bolivia, while environmental data were compiled from the Worldclim database and MODIS satellite imagery. Socio-economic data were obtained from the Bolivian National Institute of Statistics. Disease models identified altitudes at 500-3,500 m above the mean sea level (MSL, low annual precipitation (45-250 mm, and higher diurnal range of temperature (10-19 °C; peak 16 °C as compatible with the biological requirements of the insect vectors. Socio-economic analyses demonstrated the importance of improved housing materials and water source. Home adobe wall materials and having to fetch drinking water from rivers or wells without pump were found to be highly related to distribution of the disease by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC area under the curve (AUC (0.69 AUC, 0.67 AUC and 0.62 AUC, respectively, while areas with hardwood floors demonstrated a direct negative relationship (-0.71 AUC. This study demonstrates that Maxent modelling can be used in disease prevalence and incidence studies to provide governmental agencies with an easily learned, understandable method to define areas as either high, moderate or low risk for the disease. This information may be used in resource planning, targeting and implementation. However, access to high-resolution, sub-municipality socio-economic data (e.g. census tracts would facilitate elucidation of the relative influence of poverty-related factors on regional disease dynamics.

  2. Socio-economic outcome after blunt orthopaedic trauma: Implications on injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilkens Anna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several large studies have identified factors associated with long-term outcome after orthopaedic injuries. However, long-term social and economic implications have not been published so far. The aim of this investigation is to study the long-term socio-economic consequences of patients sustaining severe trauma. Methods Patients treated at a level one trauma center were invited for a follow-up (at least 10 years examination. There were 637 patients who responded and were examined. Inclusion criteria included injury severity score (ISS ≥ 16 points, presence of lower and upper extremity fractures, and age between 3 and 60 years. Exclusion criteria included the presence of amputations and paraplegia. The socio-economic outcome was evaluated in three age groups: group I ( 50 years. The following parameters were analyzed using a standardized questionnaire: financial losses, net income losses, pension precaution losses, need for a bank loan, and the decrease in number of friends. Results 510 patients matched all study criteria, and breakdown of groups were as follows: 140 patients in group I, 341 patients in group II, and 29 patients in group III. Financial losses were reported in all age groups (20%-44%. Younger patients (group I were associated with less income losses when compared with other groups (p Conclusions Economic consequences are reported by polytraumatized patients even ten or more years after injury. Financial losses appear to be common in patients between 19 and 50 years. In contrast, social deprivation appears to be most pronounced in the younger age groups. Early socio-economic support and measures of injury prevention should focus on these specific age groups.

  3. Analysing Relationships Between Urban Land Use Fragmentation Metrics and Socio-Economic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapena, M.; Ruiz, L. A.; Goerlich, F. J.

    2016-06-01

    Analysing urban regions is essential for their correct monitoring and planning. This is mainly accounted for the sharp increase of people living in urban areas, and consequently, the need to manage them. At the same time there has been a rise in the use of spatial and statistical datasets, such as the Urban Atlas, which offers high-resolution urban land use maps obtained from satellite imagery, and the Urban Audit, which provides statistics of European cities and their surroundings. In this study, we analyse the relations between urban fragmentation metrics derived from Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) data from the Urban Atlas dataset, and socio-economic data from the Urban Audit for the reference years 2006 and 2012. We conducted the analysis on a sample of sixty-eight Functional Urban Areas (FUAs). One-date and two-date based fragmentation indices were computed for each FUA, land use class and date. Correlation tests and principal component analysis were then applied to select the most representative indices. Finally, multiple regression models were tested to explore the prediction of socio-economic variables, using different combinations of land use metrics as explanatory variables, both at a given date and in a dynamic context. The outcomes show that demography, living conditions, labour, and transportation variables have a clear relation with the morphology of the FUAs. This methodology allows us to compare European FUAs in terms of the spatial distribution of the land use classes, their complexity, and their structural changes, as well as to preview and model different growth patterns and socio-economic indicators.

  4. A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways – Part 1: Water use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Masui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect the key concepts underpinning each situation. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigation area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, industrial water withdrawal, and municipal water withdrawal. The first three factors are used to estimate agricultural water withdrawal. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century at 5-yr intervals. Each factor displays a wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigation area in 2085 varies between 270 and 450 km2, industrial water between 246 and 1714 km3 yr−1, and domestic water withdrawal between 573 and 1280 km3 yr−1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments by identifying the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyzing the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  5. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668

  6. Histological subtype of lung cancer in relation to socio-economic deprivation in South East England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have found differences in the histological subtypes of lung cancers affecting males and females. Our objective was to investigate trends in the incidence of histological subtypes of lung cancer in males and females in relation to socio-economic deprivation in South East England. Data on 48,031 males and 30,454 females diagnosed with lung cancer between 1995 and 2004 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry database. Age-standardised incidence rates for histological subtypes were calculated for each year, using the European standard population. Using the Income Domain of the Multiple Index of Deprivation 2004, patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 were classified into quintiles of socio-economic deprivation based on their postcode of residence. Age-standardised rates for each histological subtype were then calculated for each deprivation quintile. A Poisson regression model was fitted to the data for males and females separately to test the hypothesis that the relationship between socio-economic deprivation and adenocarcinoma was less strong than for other subtypes. In males all specific histological subtypes except adenocarcinoma declined in incidence. Squamous cell carcinoma remained the most common specific subtype and large cell carcinoma the least common. In females squamous cell carcinoma was initially most common, but its incidence declined slightly and that for adenocarcinoma increased. In both sexes the overall age-standardised incidence rate of lung cancer increased with increasing deprivation. However, these trends were less strong for adenocarcinoma than for the other subtypes in both males (p < 0.001) and females (p = 0.003). The temporal trends and distribution of histological subtypes of lung cancer in males and females are similar to that reported from other western populations. In both males and females, adenocarcinoma was less strongly related to deprivation than other subtypes. This may be because its development is less

  7. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  8. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial 'socially' performs in comparison with its alternatives. 'Industrial economics' methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a 'pragmatic regulatory impact analysis', that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is 'pragmatic' in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess 'what happens' with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  9. A bridge between liquids and socio-economic systems: the key role of interaction strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2005-03-01

    One distinctive and pervasive aspect of social systems is the fact that they involve several kinds of agents. Thus, in order to draw parallels with physical systems one is led to consider binary (or multi-component) compounds. Recent views about the mixing of liquids in solutions gained from neutron and X-ray scattering show these systems to have a number of similarities with socio-economic systems. It appears that such phenomena as rearrangement of bonds in a solution, gas condensation, and selective evaporation of molecules can be transposed in a natural way to some socio-economic phenomena. These connections provide with a novel perspective for looking at social systems which we illustrate through examples. For instance, we interpret suicide as an escape phenomenon and in order to test this interpretation we consider social systems characterized by very low levels of social interaction. For these systems suicide rates are found to be 10 to 100 times higher than in the general population. Another interesting parallel concerns the phase transition that occurs when locusts gather together to form swarms which may contain several billion insects. What hinders the thorough investigation of such cases from the standpoint of collective phenomena that we advocate is the lack or inadequacy of statistical data; up to now socio-economic data were collected for completely different purposes. Most essential, for further progress, are the statistics which would permit to estimate the strength of social ties and interactions. Once adequate data become available, rapid advancement may be expected. At the end of the paper, we will discuss whether or not the ergodic principle applies to social systems.

  10. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated.

  11. Induced abortion in Denmark: effect of socio-economic situation and country of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine; Knudsen, Lisbeth B;

    2007-01-01

    study focuses on how socio-economic characteristics and country of birth are associated with induced abortion. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information among 1351 women requesting abortion and a control group of 1306 women intending birth. RESULTS: The strongest factor.......11-2.46). When evaluating the effect of social exposure on abortion among Danish-born and foreign-born women, the higher rate of abortion among non-Westerners was found to be caused by the composition of non-Westerners more often being unemployed, having a low income and having two or more children rather than...

  12. A Study on Socio-Economic Status of Maid-Servant in Purulia Town

    OpenAIRE

    SHYAMAL KUMAR BISWAS

    2012-01-01

    Over last few decades, there have been rapid growths in the number of women employee in India and majority of them being engaged in informal sector of the economy where jobs are often low paid and repetitive. An attempt has been made in this study to trace out the socio-economic status of maid-servant as well as the manner in which they lives in the informal sector in Purulia Municipal area of the same district of West Bengal. The study has been carried out through personal interview and obse...

  13. Evaluating socio-economic state of a country analyzing airtime credit and mobile phone datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, Thoralf; Blondel, Vincent D

    2013-01-01

    Reliable statistical information is important to make political decisions on a sound basis and to help measure the impact of policies. Unfortunately, statistics offices in developing countries have scarce resources and statistical censuses are therefore conducted sporadically. Based on mobile phone communications and history of airtime credit purchases, we estimate the relative income of individuals, the diversity and inequality of income, and an indicator for socioeconomic segregation for fine-grained regions of an African country. Our study shows how to use mobile phone datasets as a starting point to understand the socio-economic state of a country, which can be especially useful in countries with few resources to conduct large surveys.

  14. Socio-economic perspectives on shifting cultivation landscapes in Northern Laos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinimann, Andreas; Hett, Cornelia; Hurni, Kaspar;

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rapid agricultural transition that has occurred in the past decade, shifting cultivation remains a widespread agricultural practice in the northern uplands of Lao PDR. Little information is available on the basic socio-economic situation and respective possible patterns in shifting...... Laos. Results showed that over 550,000 people live in shifting cultivation regions. The poverty rate of this population of 46.5 % is considerably higher than the national rural rate. Most shifting cultivation landscapes are located in remote locations and a high share of the population comprises ethnic...

  15. Conformity of House Physical Condition and Socio-Economic Mobility in Post Disaster Resettlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggraeni Puspitaningtyas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mudflow disaster damage job opportunity, disrupt social life and settlement, thus requiring resettlement. Need to understand whether physical condition of resettlement is in accordance with background and housing preference of victim, due to significant differences of housing design. Aspects studied were characteristic of resettlement, physical condition of house and socio-economic mobility. Research was done using qualitative method. Technique of data collection was used retrospective interviews and observation. This research result indicates that most participants experienced conformity in house physical condition and socioeconomic mobility. Reason of unconformity condition is housing facility which has not meet housing standard.

  16. Socio-Economic Factors, Food Habits and Phosphorus Levels in Patients on Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Hyperphosphoremia is one of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality for chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, and also, for the general population. Excessive dietary intake of phosphate (P is one of the key factors. In particular, P in its inorganic form, which is contained in food additives, is more readily absorbed. Unfortunately, these food additives are mostly present in convenience so called “fast foods” (pre-cooked, soft drinks, which represent the typical food consumed by our hemodialysis (HD population, composed by elderly people, mostly low-socio economic class, who often live alone. Objectives We performed an observational retrospective multicenter study to find any association between social, cultural and economic situation, as well as food habits, and P levels in a cohort of patients on HD. Secondarily; we also examined the association between the fast food consumption and increased P levels, as well as patient compliance for P binding products. Patients and Methods To explore the association between socio-economic factors and serum P levels, we enrolled 100 patients on periodic HD treatment from three different units. Information on social, cultural, economic, diet habits, therapy for hyperphosphoremia and hematological and clinical parameters had been collected through specific questionnaires, administered by a physician. Results Results showed serum P level was reduced in patients who live alone compared to patients in family (P = 0.04, in self-sufficient (P = 0.05 and in patients belonging to middle-upper class, versus low-class (P = 0.003. Fast foods intake correlates with increase in P serum levels (P = 0.002, whilst the same correlation was not found for cheese intake. Our data show that socio-economic status and food habits are useful predictors of P serum levels. Conclusions In conclusion, dietary counseling of patients on HD is mandatory. Interventions that consider the socio-economic

  17. Integrating socio-economical dimensions in the ICRP cost-benefit model (a theoretical approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims at analysing, from a methodological point of view, the main problems associated with the integration of socio-economical dimensions in the cost-benefit model recommended by the ICRP in its publication no. 26. After recalling the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis, the elements to be retained in the objective function characterizing the analysis, and the question of the social benefit definitions are discussed. The theory of social surplus with an illustration taken from the radiological protection field is presented

  18. Multibeam Data and Socio-Economic Issues in West-Central San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Carlson, Paul R.; Wong, Florence L.; Cacchione, David A.

    1998-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is the largest estuary on the conterminous U.S. Pacific Coast and is one of the world's largest natural harbors. It is a biologically productive and diverse environment. San Francisco Bay has a maritime economy that annually generates over $7.5 billion, handles 50 million tons of cargo, and involves thousands of jobs. Recent investigations by the USGS in this estuary help address both socio-economic and scientific issues: *Trimming pinnacles may prevent a calamitous oil spill. *Can San Francisco Bay accept more dredge spoil? *Bay floor biological habitats are quite varied. *How thick and how variable is the sediment fill in central San Francisco Bay?

  19. Socio-Economic and Nutritional Determinants of Low Birth Weight in India

    OpenAIRE

    Manzur Kader; Nirmala K P Perera

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality, consequently an important public health concern. Aim: This study aims to identify significant socio-economic and nutritional determinants associated with LBW in India. Materials and Methods: Data from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) of India was analyzed. A total of 20,946 women (15-49 years) who gave birth at least once 5 years preceding the NFHS-3 were included i...

  20. Application of Electronic Data Collection in Research of Socio-Economic Importance of Forest Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pospíšil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the project is the application of electronic data collection using the web interface to the research of the socio-economic importance of forest functions. A unique system for data collection, the provision of evidence and processing was designed. The system leads to the simplification of the research, to the possibility of extending the investigation in the field and to the survey of forest visit trends in the long term. The approach will enable the formation of an extended database. The paper describes the steps of the project’s implementation. The e-survey started at the end of September 2010 continues to this time.

  1. Time-Use in the Older Population: Variation by Socio-economic Status and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Hurd; Susann Rohwedder

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on time-use from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a large general-purpose survey that is representative of the U.S. population age 51 and over. The data stand out for its rich set of covariates which are used to present variation in time-use by health and socio-economic status. The HRS interviews about 20,000 persons about a wide array of topics, covering economic status, physical and mental health, family relations and support, labor market status and retir...

  2. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF PROGRAMS FOR THE FINANCING OF CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara BORZA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of European funding shows a great interest for present and, especially, for the future. The common problems of areas implied in the cross-border programs are correlated to socio-economic development of communities. By this paper we propose an analysis, by inventory type, descriptive and qualitative, of implemented projects and of the perspectives for projects in 2014-2020 period. The results of paper consist in identification of solid arguments about the importance and necessity of these programmes and projects.

  3. Socio-economic impacts between the nuclear industry and Aboriginal people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper explores several aspects of the socio-economic impact of the nuclear industry on Aboriginal people in northern Canada. The issues discussed include decision-making by consensus, community-based development, the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems (TEKMS), relationships with land and nature, and social and health issues. The issues are discussed with respect to the divergence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures, which affect the timelines for project viability as well as the continued harmony between industry and community. It is concluded that economic gains can be achieved through continuous community dialogue from the moment of project inception. (author)

  4. The Virtual Manufacturing concept: Scope, Socio-Economic Aspects and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien; Noël, Eric; Woelk, Peer-Oliver

    2007-01-01

    The research area "Virtual Manufacturing (VM)'' is the use of information technology and computer simulation to model real world manufacturing processes for the purpose of analysing and understanding them. As automation technologies such as CAD/CAM have substantially shortened the time required to design products, Virtual Manufacturing will have a similar effect on the manufacturing phase thanks to the modelling, simulation and optimisation of the product and the processes involved in its fabrication. After a description of Virtual Manufacturing (definitions and scope), we present some socio-economic factors of VM and finaly some "hot topics'' for the future are proposed.

  5. How uncertainty in socio-economic variables affects large-scale transport model forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    time, especially with respect to large-scale transport models. The study described in this paper contributes to fill the gap by investigating the effects of uncertainty in socio-economic variables growth rate projections on large-scale transport model forecasts, using the Danish National Transport...... showed how the model output uncertainty grows over time, reflecting the increase in the uncertainty of the model variables. Furthermore, the resulting uncertainty temporal pattern was neither linear nor similar for the different model outputs investigated. This highlights the importance of investigating...

  6. The impact of socio-economic factors and incentives on farmers' inestment behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Lund, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how socio-economic factors and incentives affect farmers’ investment behaviour. The motivation is a need for a better quantitative knowledge of investment behaviour in order to support farmers’ investment decisions through extension services and public investment support...... incentives as the most important when making investments are those who yield the best financial results. Off-farm income and partial productivity were also higher on these farms. As hypothesised, young farmers with a large production are more likely to invest in real assets than others. No cross sectional...

  7. The socio-economic role of salt in Northern Highland Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Apaak, Clement Abas

    2008-01-01

    Salt is a known cross-cultural item of early trade with documented socio-political consequences. Written records on the Ethiopian salt industry go back at least 2,000 years. This dissertation is an ethnoarchaeological investigation of the socio-economic role of the salt trade in northern Ethiopia. Ethnoarchaeological methods are used to explore all aspects of the salt trade in an attempt to provide a basis to understand the role of salt as an economic item, in socio-cultural developments as w...

  8. Economic evaluation of urban track systems: integration of Life Cycle Costs and Socio-Economic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    DE JONG, Marjolein; Declercq, Katrien

    2012-01-01

    Urban Track is an EU funded research project (2006-2010) aiming at the development and construction of modular track systems for tram, metro and light rail with a low life cycle cost and a high performance. Systems should be safe, and produce a minimum of noise and vibrations. In total, 28 different partners have worked on the development, implementation and assessment of the innovative rail technologies. To assess the Life Cycle Costs (LCC) and Socio-Economic Costs (SEC) of the newly develop...

  9. Positive parenting in ethnic minority families : challenges and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, Rosalia Antonia Grada (Rosanneke)

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of the current dissertation is to uncover predictors and outcomes of positive parenting in ethnic minority families. Chapter 2 provides an overview of commonly used observational instruments to measure sensitivity, showing the versatility and scientific importance of the construct.

  10. The socio-economic weight of the electronuclear sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report highlights the socio-economic weight of the electronuclear sector in France. It outlines that France is among the first three world leader on each link of the supply chain, and that the electronuclear sector has therefore a significant role in the French economy: 125.000 direct jobs and 410.000 generated jobs, a direct contribution of 0,71% to the GDP, each link of the supply chain (upstream, building, exploitation and maintenance, downstream) is present in the French economy, the electronuclear sector is part of the economic activity of local communities, the expertise of specialised companies contributes to their competitiveness in other domains, and the sector now invests to prepare its future. The socio-economic impacts of an EPR are analysed in terms of activity during nearly 90 years, with respect to its location, and according to technical and economic criteria. The last part outlines that the weight of this sector in the French economy could significantly increase

  11. Future Discounting in Congo Basin Hunter-Gatherers Declines with Socio-Economic Transitions.

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    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available Humans have a tendency to discount the future; that is we value small, short-term rewards over larger, long-term rewards. The degree of future discounting, however, changes in response to socio-ecological factors. Here, we study Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers of northern Congo and their farmer neighbours to investigate adaptations in inter-temporal preferences in humans. We argue that in immediate-return systems, where food storage is absent and egalitarianism is enforced through levelling mechanisms, future discounting is an adaptive strategy to prevent wealth accumulation and the emergence of hierarchies. This ensures food sharing and allows for survival in unpredictable environments where there is risk of an energy shortfall. On the other hand, when food storage is made possible by the emergence of agriculture or as seen in some delayed-return hunter-gatherer populations, wealth accumulation, hierarchies and lower discount rates become the adaptive strategy. Therefore, individuals in immediate-return, egalitarian societies will discount the future more than those in non-egalitarian, delayed-return societies. Consistent with the predictions we found that market integration and socio-economic transitions decrease the future discounting in Mbendjele hunter-gatherers. Our measures of socio-economic differences marked this transition in hunter-gatherers living in a logging town. The degree of future-discounting was the same between more market-integrated hunter-gatherers and their farmer neighbours.

  12. Socio-economic and environmental aspects of the industry imbalances in the regional economy

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    Dmitriy Valer'evich Eidenzon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of current socio-economic and environmental aspects of the industry imbalances in the regional economy by the example of Ural Federal District and Siberian Federal District. The main aim of it is to identify the actual socio-economic problems in the development of the regional economies. The authors analyze the economic, ecological and social aspects in the development of regional economies by the examples. They investigate the specifics of the correlation between industrial development, ecological problems and health problems of the local population. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of correlations between the mortality of the population and industrial pollution of air and water. The analysis has resulted in making proposals for optimization of the regional policy in the field of investments, manufacturing and ecology. The special attention is given to environment-oriented projects. The most practicable way in solving the problem of these regional industry imbalances would be the development of regional diversification programs of the Siberia and the Ural economies. It has to support manufacturing and the largest public-private investment projects for the foundation of enterprises in agriculture, food and other industries. The most prosperous among them is the direction of bioenergy and forest-engineering-oriented businesses. The results of the research can be useful in solving the problem of the industry imbalances in the regional economic policy of the Russian Federation.

  13. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Pratt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities.

  14. Socio-economic features of commercial fishery in the bordering upper Danube River area of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smederevac-Lalić, Marija; Pešić, Radmilo; Cvejić, Slobodan; Simonović, Predrag

    2012-05-01

    The multidisciplinary socio-economic study of fisheries in the bordering part of the Danube River between Serbia and Croatia (at the following sites: Apatin, Bačka Palanka, Bačko Novo Selo, Bezdan, and Sombor) that was performed in order to investigate various aspects of fish resource utilization (management, policy of protection and exploitation of freshwater fishery resources, present fisheries legislation, catch statistics), was realized during 2004 and 2005. Data were collected via survey with a structured interview. Socio-economic circumstances, together with ecological factors, have had an influence on the fish stock and number of commercial fishermen. Awareness of the occurring problems, both economic and ecological ones, is apparent, regardless of whether it is assessed in the field of commercial or recreational fishing. Fishery sector in Serbia is in a prolonged process of transition, with the enforcement of fishing regulations, but also the lack of control that leaves space for illegal commercial fishing. The statements, consciousness, experience and behavior of commercial fishermen represent a good basis for planning the sustainable development of fishing in this section of the Danube River.

  15. Public health in China: An environmental and socio-economic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjing; Li, Yonghua; Hao, Zhe; Li, Hairong; Wang, Wuyi

    2016-03-01

    Despite the large literature on public health, few studies have examined the associations between public health outcomes and environmental and socio-economic factors. This study bridges this gap by demonstrating the relationships between public health and 10 selected environmental and socio-economic factors from the spatial perspective. In particular, three public health outcomes in China are investigated, namely the number of centenarians per 100,000 people (termed the centenarian ratio), the proportion of nonagenarians of the 65 years and older population (termed the longevity index), and life expectancy at birth. We base our analysis on stepwise regression and geographically weighted regression models, with study areas of 31 provinces in China. Our results show that SO2 (sulfur dioxide) concentration decreases the centenarian ratio; PM10 (particles with diameters of 10 μm or less) concentration and coal consumption (CC) per capita decrease the longevity index, and GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita prolongs life expectancy at birth, while energy consumption (EC) per capita decreases life expectancy at birth. Further, our findings demonstrate that public health outcomes show clear regional differences in China.

  16. Female Foeticide in Delhi/NCR: Exploring the Socio-Economic and Cultural Dimensions

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    Deb Roumi, Bhatnagar P, Avasthy D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The social and psychological fibres of India are predominantly patriarchal and contributing extensively to the secondary status of women. It is yet to be seen if the difference in attitudes towards the practice of female foeticide varies in different socio-economic strata, and in among the different communities of India. Methodology: The present study is based on a door-to-door survey comprising 100 families, conducted in slum areas of Delhi/NCR. Most of the families living in these areas were immigrants from different states of India with different cultural practices and beliefs. Results: Though the studied participants differed in their cultural perceptions on role and status of women in society, majority of them testified that the practice is more prevalent in the middle and upper class society, and escalating demands of dowry was cited as the main reason behind it. Conclusion: The extent of practice of female foeticide is seen to vary among different socio-economic strata and communities. Taking this diversity into consideration, customized social-awareness campaigns must be organized in accordance with different cultural and socioeconomic circumstances existing in the diverse range of communities in India.

  17. Marketing of Public and Business Affairs Subsystems of Socio-Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grigorescu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian society is crossing one of the most important stages of its transition toward the integration in the European Union started with January 1st, 2007; this will define the final processes bound for the socio-economic reconstruction. Based on the previous experiences, an assumption rose up that, at this moment in the Romanian society there are two systems business and public administration, placed on opposite, antagonistic, unfriendly sides. At the same time, there is the opinion that a proper public and private marketing could be the link between them. The link between these systems should make the relation useful to create and handle the cooperation and cooperation climate in these two environments. The paper aims to present the systems, their characteristics, the opinion about the other, the identified link components, and to propose a solution for the link improvement. A small survey of the members opinions, in both systems, will be the base of the analysis. The first stage is to analyze each environment as an independent system: business system (BSy and public administration system (PASy. We will present the structure, characteristics, interactions with other socio-economic components, etc. The second stage will focus on the role of public and private marketing as tools of feedback reaction of the systems to the general environment dynamics. The marketing behavior is typical for the BSy and its level of marketing knowledge is higher than the poor level of marketing knowledge in PASy lacking the marketing attitude about public services.

  18. Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people

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    SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

  19. Evolutionary quantum game theory in the context of socio-economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of socio-economic systems depend on the interdependent decision processes of its underlying system components. The mathematical model to describe the strategic decision of players within a socio-economic game is ''game theory''. ''Quantum game theory'' is a mathematical and conceptual amplification of classical game theory. The space of all conceivable decision paths is extended from the purely rational, measurable space in the Hilbert-space of complex numbers - which is the mathematical space where quantum theory is formulated. By the concept of a potential entanglement of the imaginary quantum strategy parts, it is possible to include cooperate decision path, caused by cultural or moral standards. If this strategy entanglement is large enough, then additional Nash equilibria can occur, previously present dominant strategies could become nonexistent and new evolutionary stable strategies do appear for some game classes. Within this PhD thesis the main results of classical and quantum games are summarized and all of the possible game classes of evolutionary (2 player)-(2 strategy) games are extended to quantum games. It is shown that the quantum extension of classical games with an underlying dilemma-like structure give different results, if the strength of strategic entanglement is above a certain barrier. After the German summary and the introduction paper, five different applications of the theory are discussed within the thesis. (orig.)

  20. Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authority

  1. Impact of socio-economic growth on desalination in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R; Reyes, Reuben

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, around 1336 desalination plants in the United States (US) provided purified water mainly to municipalities, the industry sector and for power generation. In 2013 alone, ∼200 million m(3) of water were desalinated; the amount that could satisfy annual municipal water consumption of more than 1.5 million people in the US. Desalination has proven to be a reliable water supply source in many countries around the world, with the total global desalination capacity of ∼60 million m(3)/day in 2013. Desalination has been used to mitigate water scarcity and lessen the pressure on water resources. Currently, data and information about desalination are still limited, while extensive socio-economic analyses are missing. This paper presents an econometric model to fill this gap. It evaluates the impact of selected socio-economic variables on desalination development in the US in the time span 1970-2013. The results show that the GDP and population growth have significantly impacted the desalination sector over the analyzed time period. The insights into the economics of desalination provided with this paper can be used to further evaluate cost-effectiveness of desalination both in the US and in other countries around the world.

  2. The Christian ethics of socio-economic development promoted by the Catholic Social Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony E. Persico

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the relationship between economic scienceand Christian moral in order to analyze the idea of socio-economic development promoted by the Catholic Social Teaching (CST. In the first period leading up to the Second Vatican Council (1891-1962, from Pope Leo XIII to Pope John XXIII, the idea of development was connected both to technical and industrial progress, and to the universal values of justice, charity, and truth,which national communities were asked to follow. During the Conciliar period (1962-1979, the concept of development assumes a social and economic dimension, and so it becomes one of the main pillars of Catholic Social Teaching, which introduces the earliest definition of integral human development. Ultimately, in the post-Conciliar phase (1979-2009 including Benedict XVI’s pontificate, the idea of integral human development reaches its maturity by incorporating the complexity of real-world economic interactions. Finally, this paper shows how the ethics bolstered by the Catholic Social Teaching is characterized by two distinct but complementary lines of thought: moral rules for both political action, and for socio-economic issues.

  3. Modelling the socio-economic impact of river floods in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Salamon, Peter; Thielen, Jutta; Bianchi, Alessandra; Dottori, Francesco; Burek, Peter

    2016-06-01

    River floods generate a large share of the socio-economic impact of weather-driven hazards worldwide. Accurate assessment of their impact is a key priority for governments, international organization, reinsurance companies and emergency responders. Yet, available databases of flood losses over large domains are often affected by gaps and inconsistencies in reported figures. In this work, a framework to reconstruct the economic damage and population affected by river floods at continental scale is applied. Pan-European river flow simulations are coupled with a high-resolution impact assessment framework based on 2-D inundation modelling. Two complementary methods are compared in their ability to estimate the climatological average flood impact and the impact of each flood event in Europe between 1990 and 2013. The event-based method reveals key features, such as the ability to include changes in time of all three components of risk, namely hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Furthermore, it skilfully reproduces the socio-economic impact of major flood events in the past two decades, including the severe flooding hitting central Europe in June 2013. On the other hand, the integral method is capable of reproducing the average flood losses which occurred in Europe between 1998 and 2009. Strengths and limitations of the proposed model are discussed to stress the large potential for filling in the gaps of current datasets of flood impact.

  4. ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATORY INSTRUMENTS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rymkina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the administrative regulatory instruments of socio-economic development of solar energy in Ukraine. This article considers that the current state of the energy market requires fundamental change. Analysis of international studies and publications indicates the balance between social, economic and environmental aspects that give rise to the development of alternative energy. Scientific originality of this article in a study of the dynamics of solar energy in Ukraine. International studies show that among the proposed renewable energy is the most environmentally friendly solar power. The practical significance of the study is to seek proposals for ensuring effective socio-economic development of enterprises in the industry for the future. For the implementation and development of the national energy strategy based on alternative energy in Ukraine has everything: raw materials, experience, technical and technological developments, training of highly qualified specialists in higher education. An important issue is the comprehensive state support, which will attract additional investment resources. As a result, at the macroeconomic level to mitigate the potential effects of the energy crisis.

  5. Economic Tomography: Opportunity to Foresee and Respond to Socio-Economic Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kuklin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the approach based on the authors’ hypothesis is considered: the development of Russia has specific characteristics (on the one hand, its size, mentality and certain closed nature of its economy, on the other hand, the considerable dominating resource and human potential, and, as the result, its real role in the world economic community. The diagnostics of these characteristics (at the level of the individual’s welfare and territory of accommodation reveals crises, estimates threats to region socio-economic development at early stages and helps to evaluate the state of a region for 3-5 years. In other words, managers have time necessary for rapid response to the crisis phenomena and administrative mistakes, for decreasing the impact of the arising threats. The purpose of the article is to present the theoretical and methodological tools of the appearing threats recognition at their early stages, which allows to enter the crisis period with smaller losses. Computational experiments to classify the prior socio-economic crises have been conducted (9 possible options are considered, the trajectories of change of the main indicators of the individual’s welfare and territory of residence influenced by various factors are digitized. On the basis of the proposed approach (named as the economic tomography, the attempt of the comprehensive assessment of the state of Russian typical representative regions is made.

  6. Impact of socio-economic growth on desalination in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R; Reyes, Reuben

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, around 1336 desalination plants in the United States (US) provided purified water mainly to municipalities, the industry sector and for power generation. In 2013 alone, ∼200 million m(3) of water were desalinated; the amount that could satisfy annual municipal water consumption of more than 1.5 million people in the US. Desalination has proven to be a reliable water supply source in many countries around the world, with the total global desalination capacity of ∼60 million m(3)/day in 2013. Desalination has been used to mitigate water scarcity and lessen the pressure on water resources. Currently, data and information about desalination are still limited, while extensive socio-economic analyses are missing. This paper presents an econometric model to fill this gap. It evaluates the impact of selected socio-economic variables on desalination development in the US in the time span 1970-2013. The results show that the GDP and population growth have significantly impacted the desalination sector over the analyzed time period. The insights into the economics of desalination provided with this paper can be used to further evaluate cost-effectiveness of desalination both in the US and in other countries around the world. PMID:26610194

  7. Strong regional links between socio-economic background factors and disability and mortality in Oslo, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0-74 in the period 1991-1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50-66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed

  8. Mobile phone call data as a regional socio-economic proxy indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Šćepanović

    Full Text Available The advent of publishing anonymized call detail records opens the door for temporal and spatial human dynamics studies. Such studies, besides being useful for creating universal models for mobility patterns, could be also used for creating new socio-economic proxy indicators that will not rely only on the local or state institutions. In this paper, from the frequency of calls at different times of the day, in different small regional units (sub-prefectures in Côte d'Ivoire, we infer users' home and work sub-prefectures. This division of users enables us to analyze different mobility and calling patterns for the different regions. We then compare how those patterns correlate to the data from other sources, such as: news for particular events in the given period, census data, economic activity, poverty index, power plants and energy grid data. Our results show high correlation in many of the cases revealing the diversity of socio-economic insights that can be inferred using only mobile phone call data. The methods and the results may be particularly relevant to policy-makers engaged in poverty reduction initiatives as they can provide an affordable tool in the context of resource-constrained developing economies, such as Côte d'Ivoire's.

  9. FOOD INSECURITY INFLUENCE ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE AND COSTS OF LIVING

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    Márcia Yane Girolometto Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: this research is needed because when compared with the men the woman is more susceptible to food insecurity, as a consequence of the precarious access to income. Regarding the relevance of nutrition, socio-economic conditions and the access to health care, this research will contribute in quality of life, considering that the food insecurity could decline the welfare and cause uncertainty of the food supply. Consequently, this research aims to establish the relation between food insecurity and the socio-economic profile of women who have been attended in the Santa Maria’s primary healthcare, also verifying the costs of life. Methods: descriptive quantitative research with primary data collection, conducted with adult and elderly women seen in primary healthcare in Santa Maria / RS. Data collection took place from March to April 2013. The Researcher did a questionnaire that filled out the Interview within the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA. Results: Overall, participated 100 women between 19 and 77 years old, with an average age of 44,13 (±16,33 years old. The prevalence of marital status was 55% stable marriage and the occupation prevalence was 31% housewife. The higher cost with nutrition was 79%. Conclusion: Despite years of study be equal to or greater than eight years can be observed presence of mild food insecurity. Keywords: Income. Women. Educational Status. Marital Status. Social vulnerability.

  10. Understanding socio-economic impacts of geohazards aided by cyber-enabled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.; Webersik, C.

    2008-12-01

    Due to an increase in the volume of geohazards worldwide, not only are impoverished regions in less developed countries such as Haiti, vulnerable to risk but also low income regions in industrialized countries, e.g. USA, as well. This has been exemplified once again by Hurricanes Gustav, Hanna and Ike and the impact on the Caribbean countries during the summer of 2008. To date, extensive research has been conducted to improve the monitoring of human-nature coupled systems. However, there is little emphasis on improving and developing methodologies to a) interpret multi-dimensional and complex data and b) validate prediction and modeling results. This presentation tries to motivate more research initiatives to address the aforementioned issues, bringing together two academic disciplines, earth and social sciences, to research the relationship between natural and socio-economic processes. Results are presented where cyber-enabled methods based on artificial intelligence are applied to different geohazards and regions in the world. They include 1) modeling of public health risks associated with volcanic gas hazards, 2) prediction and validation of potential areas of mining-triggered earthquakes, and 3) modeling of socio-economic risks associated with tropical storms in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

  11. The cities as a socio-economic basis of the Russian North's development

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    Vladimir Grigor'evich Loginov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the problems of socio-economic development of cities in the Russian North. The peculiarities of their formation and evolution from the strong points of reclamation to multifunctional development of urban settlements are shown. The periods are marked and the reasons for the emergence of cities in historical perspective are identified. The peculiarities of placing cities on the territory of the Russian North, and some of its macro-regions defined as compact urban areas are reviewed. A grouping procedure of urban settlements according to the economic specialization and administrative functions is made. A close relationship between the developments of urban settlements with the cyclic use of natural resources is shown; the risks arising from their single-industry development and economic diversification problems of cities associated with the high cost northern factors are noted. The role and influence of cities on the social and economic processes in selected macro regions and subjects of the northern zone of the Russian Federation are revealed. A special role of cities in the socio-economic development of the northern subjects of the Federation is underlined. The main directions of the development of different functionality cities in a promising period are reviewed.

  12. Integrated Approach To The Analysis Of The Quality Of Socio-Economic Regional Development Governance

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    Roman Michailovich Kachalov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospects of the methods of the analysis and improvement of quality of governance the socio-economic systems application, based conceptual provisions of the system theory of economics, multilevel stratification of the economic space and the operational economical risk management theory are considered. For mesoeconomics, the types of system resources of the economy are defined. Also, it is analyses the influence on the quality of governance socio-economic region development the disparity of different types of system economical resources. Potential possibilities of the improvement of quality of governance due to thinner stratification of economical space and improvement the interaction parameters of the main actors of regional economic space are revealed. Leaning on the operational theory of risk management, ways of justification of administrative, strategic decisions by identification of the relevant economic risk factors and on the basis of received information development the program of anti-risk measures are offered. The methodical solutions promoting successful introduction of considered tools in practice of regional government are proposed.

  13. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+ 20%; high–very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high–very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status

  14. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M. Lourdes, E-mail: mlima@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Romanelli, Asunción, E-mail: aromanel@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Massone, Héctor E., E-mail: hmassone@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+ 20%; high–very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high–very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status

  15. Spatial analysis of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases during summer months in Berlin taking bioclimatic and socio-economic aspects into account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherber, Katharina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available International environmental health studies of the past years have discussed the impacts of heat stress on human health. In particular, respiratory morbidity has shown significant heat effects in European cities. Metropolitan areas such as Berlin are characterised by an intra-urban spatial variability in socio-economic and bioclimatic conditions that is assumed to result in spatial differences in respiratory health risks. In essence, the elderly, children and people with chronic diseases suffer most from heat stress. A spatial epidemiological approach was chosen to map elevated risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with respiratory diseases (RD during the summer months (June–September from 2000 to 2009 and to link respiratory health risks to bioclimatic and socio-economic conditions in Berlin. The study aims to detect significant clusters with elevated relative risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with RD in due consideration of socio-economic conditions as a covariate for health outcomes. The findings from the purely spatial analysis show significant intra-urban disparities in the relative risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with RD. The highest relative risks within significant clusters were basically detected in the north-western and south-eastern city centre based on the study period 2000–2009 and also during the hot months of July and August in 2003 and 2006. The correlation analysis depicted significantly positive relationships between relative risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with RD and population density, socio-economic conditions and the annual mean number of days with heat loads on the basis of the period 1971–2000 and the average of the periods 1971–2000 and 2021–2050 at the zip code level in Berlin. To specifically implement health care intervention and prevention strategies into urban planning and to apply a directed practice of telemedicine for patients with

  16. Risk factors in road crossing among elderly pedestrians and readiness to adopt safe behavior in socio-economic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Sapir-Lavid, Yael; Perlman, Amotz

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the Health Promotion Behavior (HPB) models regarding elderly pedestrians' behaviors and attitudes. We studied cognitive-psychological variables, such as risk estimation, self-efficacy and demographic variables and compared elderly pedestrians' attitudes and behaviors in a city with higher socio-economic level (Tel Aviv) versus a city with low socio-economic level (Beer Sheva). We expected to find more problematic behaviors among elderly pedestrians in the low socio-economic city compared to the high socio-economic city, and also less feeling of self-efficacy, and lessened awareness of the risks, that leads to lessened willingness to adopt preventive behaviors. The research was conducted in two studies. The first study was based on observations on 2591 pedestrians in six similar crosswalks in both cities. It revealed that pedestrians in the high socio-economic city demonstrated safer road crossing patterns than in the low socio-economic city and that elderly pedestrians reveal safer crossing patterns than younger pedestrians. We found an interaction of location and age due to greater gap of safe behaviors of elderly and young pedestrians in the high socio-economic city than in the low socio-economic city. In Tel Aviv elderly adhere to the crossing rules much more than the young while in Beer Sheva elderly and young people are almost similar in their crossing patterns. The second study used questionnaires that have been completed by 143 elderly in both cities. The questionnaires referred to (a) demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, education, socio-economic level, (b) variables related to the affiliation to the main culture such as migration, date of migration, knowledge in Hebrew (local language) and connectivity to media and (c) cognitive as well as psychological variables related to the decline to adopt healthy behaviors based on Schwarzer and Fuchs (1995). This part also indicated that elderly in Tel Aviv have higher

  17. Socio-economic analysis for the authorisation of chemicals under REACH: a case of very high concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbert, Silke; Scheringer, Martin; Ng, Carla A; Stolzenberg, Hans-Christian

    2014-11-01

    Under the European chemicals' legislation, REACH, substances that are identified to be of "very high concern" will de facto be removed from the market unless the European Commission grants authorisations permitting specific uses. Companies who apply for an authorisation without demonstrating "adequate control" of the risks have to show by means of a socio-economic analysis (SEA) that positive impacts of use outweigh negative impacts for human health and ecosystems. This paper identifies core challenges where further in-depth guidance is urgently required in order to ensure that a SEA can deliver meaningful results and that it can effectively support decision-making on authorisation. In particular, we emphasise the need (i) to better guide the selection of tools for impact assessment, (ii) to explicitly account for stock pollution effects in impact assessments for persistent and very persistent chemicals, (iii) to define suitable impact indicators for PBT/vPvB chemicals given the lack of reliable information about safe concentration levels, (iv) to guide how impacts can be transformed into values for decision-making, and (v) to provide a well-balanced discussion of discounting of long-term impacts of chemicals. PMID:25220186

  18. Socio-demographic and socio-economic determinants of adults’ knowledge on fungal and aflatoxin contamination in the diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabran,Mohd Redzwan; Jamaluddin,Rosita; Abdul Mutalib,Mohd Sokhini; Abdul Rahman,Nurul ‘Aqilah

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The occurrence of food contaminants such as aflatoxin in the foodstuffs has been reported widely. Unfortunately, only a few know about the impact of aflatoxin to human health and this phenomenon let us to question the extent of public’s knowledge on fungal and aflatoxin contamination in the diets. Thus, this study aimed to investigate determinants of adults’ knowledge on fungal and aflatoxin contamination in the diets based on two factors namely socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. Method: A questionnaire was self-administered to 160 respondents from a faculty in Universiti Putra Malaysia. Results: Most of respondents had low level of knowledge in regard to fungal and aflatoxin contamination. Besides, the total score of knowledge on fungal and aflatoxin contamination was significantly and positively correlated (r=0.340, P<0.0001). The multivariate analysis indicated that personal income (below US $487) was the only predictor of respondent’s knowledge (β=-0.288, P<0.001) [Odds ratio (OR)=4.996]. Nonetheless, being male and single, divorced or widowed had significant OR of 2.040 and 0.313 respectively as predictors of low level of knowledge. Conclusions: Income inequalities may have impact to the respondents in acquiring knowledge on fungal and aflatoxin contamination in the diets. Additionally, an extensive survey on aflatoxin should be warranted in order to assess the public awareness and knowledge about this food contaminant.

  19. Nutrition in the first year of life in a multi-ethnic poor socio-economic municipality in Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H E; Carmichael, A

    1983-06-01

    In a longitudinal epidemiological study of 304 consecutively born infants in a poor socio-economic multi-ethnic municipality (Brunswick) nutrition was suboptimal in approximately 50%. This was mainly due to a high failure rate in establishing effective lactation in the 82% of mothers who commenced breast feeding, but also to the early and frequent feeding of solids, usually refined carbohydrates, and minimal use of fresh fruit and vegetables. The low rate of breast feeding to 6 months in Brunswick (16% compared with the State of Victoria average of 27%) was associated with demographic changes due to immigration. Of the 304 mothers, 62% were born overseas, most had limited schooling, no working skills, and 50% were unable to speak English. Successful breast feeding was positively correlated with better education and working skills while early introduction of solids and canned food was negatively correlated. Professional advice and influence in infant feeding was very limited as most mothers decided their feeding methods on their own preferences or their experience with other children, or on advice from their own mothers or relatives. These findings indicate that it will be a slow and complex task to change attitudes and teach poorly educated mothers, especially immigrants with limited English, the importance of optimum nutrition. PMID:6626059

  20. Sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Brazil considering land use change, GHG emissions and socio-economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sustainability aspects of bioethanol production in Brazil were considered in this paper. Results show that the recent expansion of sugarcane has mostly occurred at the expense of pasturelands and other temporary crops, and that the hypothesis of induced deforestation is not confirmed. Avoided greenhouse gas emissions due to the use of anhydrous ethanol blended with gasoline in Brazil (E25) were estimated as 78%, while this figure would be 70% in case of its use in Europe (E10). Conversely, considering the direct impacts of land use change, the avoided emissions (e.g., ethanol consumed in Europe) would vary from -2.2% (i.e., emissions slightly higher than gasoline) to 164.8% (a remarkable carbon capture effect) depending on the management practices employed previous to land use change and also along sugarcane cropping. In addition, it was shown that where the bulk of sugarcane production takes place, in state of Sao Paulo, positive socio-economic aspects are observed. The general conclusion is that a significant share of ethanol production in Brazil can be considered sustainable, in particular regarding the three aspects assessed. However, as production conditions are extremely heterogeneous, a generalization of results is not possible.

  1. Spatial analysis of the regional variation of hypertensive disease mortality and its socio-economic correlates in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Yong; Kwak, Jin-Mi; Seo, Eun-Won; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2016-05-31

    This paper presents a cross-sectional study based on the cause of death statistics in 2011 extracted from all 229 local governments in South Korea. The standardised hypertensive disease mortality rate (SHDMR) was defined by age- and sex-adjusted mortality by hypertensive diseases distinguished by International Classification of Disease- 10 (ICD-10). Variables taken into account were the number of doctors per 100,000 persons, the proportion with higher education (including university students and high school graduates), the number of recipients of basic livelihood support per 100,000 persons, the annual national health insurance premium per capita and the proportion of persons classified as high-risk drinkers. Ordinary least square (OLS) regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR) were applied to identify the potential associations. The statistical analysis was conducted with SAS ver. 9.3, while ArcGIS ver. 10.0 was utilised for the spatial analysis. The OLS results showed that the number of basic livelihood recipients per 100,000 persons had a significant positive association with the SHDMR, and the proportion with higher education had a significant negative one. GWR coefficients varied depending on region investigated and some regional variables had various directions. GWR showed higher adjusted R2 than that of OLS. It was found that the SHDMR was affected by socio-economic status, but as the effects observed were not consistent in all regions of the country, the development of health policies will need to consider the potential for regional variation.

  2. Allostatic load in parents of children with developmental disorders: moderating influence of positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L; Greenberg, Jan S; Hong, Jinkuk

    2014-02-01

    This study examines whether parents of children with developmental disorders are at risk of elevated allostatic load relative to control parents and whether positive affect moderates difference in risk. In all, 38 parents of children with developmental disorders and 38 matched comparison parents were analyzed. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between parent status and positive affect: parents of children with developmental disorders had lower allostatic load when they had higher positive affect, whereas no such association was evident for comparison parents. The findings suggest that promoting greater positive affect may lower health risks among parents of children with developmental disorders.

  3. Microfinance Impact on Socio-Economic Empowerment: A special Reference to Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vachya L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the role of microfinance and its impact on economic and social empowerment of women. There are great debates going on whether forming groups, membership for women, providing credit and imparting some business skills would change the social equations in the society or whether provision of credit may lead to pervasively entrenched political and economic relations among the genders. The proponents argue that providing credit, targeting women can prove to be a suitable mechanism in ameliorating poor women’s socio-economic conditions and thereby can alter the relations between gender and class. Undoubtedly, there have been significant advances in women empowerment in recent years and the concept and practice of SHG-based microfinance has now developed deep roots in many parts of the country. Impact assessment being rather limited so far, it is hard to measure and quantify the effect the Indian microfinance experience so far had on the poverty situation in rural India. The present study seeks to examine the process of women empowerment and changes in the economic status of SHG members in particular and rural women in general. For this study, multi-stage stratified proportionate random sampling technique was adopted for selecting the representative districts, mandals/talukas, villages and households. The primary data was collected from six villages in the three regions (Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana of Andhra Pradesh. Tabular and statistical analyses were applied for examining the data. Empirically acclaimed logistic regression model has been employed for analyzing significant impact of plausible socio-economic factors on women empowerment. The study found that the socio-economic indicators have changed. It also emerged that there has been an increase in women participation in the household decision making process. The study has suggested that the government should prepare suitable plans and programmes

  4. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal

  5. A neuropsychological study of children with elevated dentine lead level: Assessment of the effect of lead in different socio-economic groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, O.N.; Trillingsgaard, A.; Beese, I.; Lyngbye, T.; Grandjean, P. (Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark))

    1989-05-01

    The study was carried out in the municipality of Aarhus, a city of 250,000 inhabitants. The study was designed as a cross-sectional cohort study of school children in first grade in 1982-83. A total of 2,412 children were contacted and asked to submit their shed teeth to the teacher, and 1,291 children delivered at least one usable tooth (response rate, 54 percent). The lead level in circumpulpal dentin showed an average of 10.7 micrograms/g. Eight percent of the children (N = 110) had a lead level above 18.7 micrograms/g and were selected as a high lead exposure group. This group was matched by sex and socio-economic status of the parents with control children with a dentin lead level below 5 micrograms/g. Following a detailed interview with the parents, children were excluded from the study if medical risk factors were present. A clinical psychologist, blind to the lead data, administered selected psychometric tests to 162 of the children selected. The high-lead children scored lower on the WISC when compared to low-lead children, especially on the Verbal IQ (p less than 0.001) and Full Scale IQ (p less than 0.01). No significant difference was seen between the high- and low-exposure groups on the Performance IQ and on several experimental tests. Impaired function associated with lead exposure was also found on the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (p less than 0.001) and on a behavioral rating scale (p less than 0.01). These results remained statistically significant even after controlling for socio-economic status and other confounding variables.

  6. A Randomized Study of a Literacy-Integrated Science Intervention for Low-Socio-economic Status Middle School Students: Findings from first-year implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Guerrero, Cindy; Fan, Yinan; Huerta, Margarita

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the findings from a randomized control trial study of reading/literacy-integrated science inquiry intervention after 1 year of implementation and the treatment effect on 5th-grade low-socio-economic African-American and Hispanic students' achievement in science and English reading. A total of 94 treatment students and 194 comparison students from four randomized intermediate schools participated in the current project. The intervention consisted of ongoing professional development and specific instructional science lessons with inquiry-based learning, direct and explicit vocabulary instruction, and integration of reading and writing. Results suggested that (a) there was a significantly positive treatment effect as reflected in students' higher performance in district-wide curriculum-based tests of science and reading and standardized tests of science, reading, and English reading fluency; (b) males and females did not differ significantly from participating in science inquiry instruction; (c) African-American students had lower chance of sufficiently mastering the science concepts and achieving above the state standards when compared with Hispanic students across gender and condition, and (d) below-poverty African-American females are the most vulnerable group in science learning. Our study confirmed that even a modest amount of literacy integration in inquiry-based science instruction can promote students' science and reading achievement. Therefore, we call for more experimental research that focus on the quality of literacy-integrated science instruction from which middle grade students, particularly low-socio-economic status students, can benefit.

  7. Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality.

  8. Socio-economic scenario development for the assessment of climate change impacts on agricultural land use: a pairwise comparison approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.; Fekete-Farkas, M.;

    2006-01-01

    on European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise...... for each of the four SRES scenario families. In the second step, European agricultural driving forces are derived for each scenario from global driving forces. Finally, parameters for the agricultural land use model are quantified. The stepwise procedure is appropriate when developing socio......Assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is strongly dependent on concurrent changes in socio-economic development pathways. This paper presents an integrated approach to the construction of socio-economic scenarios required for the analysis of climate change impacts...

  9. The Parent Positive programme: opportunities for health visiting

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Parker, Kirk SA.

    2006-01-01

    Health Visitors have a key role in programmes that support and enhance partenting as part of their public health work. This paper reports the findings of an in-depth study that explored 12 purposefully sampled health visitors who had undergone training in the Parent Positive programme viewed their role after training and how they felt it had influenced their practice. Participants reported that the training developed their communication skills, enabled them to make the links between public he...

  10. The Challenges of Research Informed Consent in Socio-Economically Vulnerable Populations: A Viewpoint From the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalabuanga, Marion; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Maketa, Vivi; Muhindo Mavoko, Hypolite; Fungula, Blaise; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    In medical research, the ethical principle of respect for persons is operationalized into the process of informed consent. The consent tools should be contextualized and adapted to the different socio-cultural environment, especially when research crosses the traditional boundaries and reaches poor communities. We look at the challenges experienced in the malaria Quinact trial, conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and describe some lessons learned, related to the definition of acceptable representative, the role of independent witness and the impact of socio-economic vulnerability. To ensure children's protection, consent is required by the parents or, in their absence, by a legally mandated representative. In our setting, children's responsibility is often entrusted permanently or temporarily to relatives or friends without a tribunal mandate. Hence, a notion of 'culturally acceptable representative' under supervision of the local Ethics Committee may be more suitable. To ensure protection of illiterate subjects, an independent witness is required to confirm that the consent was freely given. However, in low-literacy contexts, potential witnesses often don't have any previous relationship with patient and there may be power-unbalance in their relationship, rather than genuine dialogue. In poor communities, trial participation may be seen as an opportunity to secure access to healthcare. Poverty may also lead to 'competition' to access the research-related benefits, with a risk of disturbance at societal or household level. Adjusting consent procedures to sociocultural and socioeconomic realities is essential for fulfilling the underlying ethical principles. This requires a collaborative dialogue between researchers, regulators and ethics committees. PMID:26346178

  11. Analysis of Coordination between the Public Service in Rural Areas and Socio-economic Development - a Case Study of Sichuan Province

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ye; Wang, Fang-min

    2011-01-01

    Taking Sichuan Province as an example, by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan's rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level. We conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan's rural areas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008. The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan Province is not high, and the equalization phenomenon o...

  12. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  13. Influence of socio-economic changes on students' health of Siberian Federal University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temnykh A.S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of statistical researches of morbidity of students of university are presented in times of socio-economic reforms from 1990 to 2011. 1775 students took part in an experiment. The tendency of decline of health of young people level is marked. It is set that principal reason of increase of morbidity is an unhealthy way of life of young people and low level of motive activity. The annual medical inspection of all of students, engaged in a physical culture and sport is recommended. The necessity of maintainance is marked for an educational process on a physical culture volume of employments in an amount 408 hours on 1, 2 and 3 courses. An increase of activity of students and efficiency of employments is possibly at the permanent improvement of financial base. It is recommended to organize in student dormitories sporting rooms with the proper equipment.

  14. GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

    2010-01-01

    The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

  15. Is the relationship between type of alcohol and mortality influenced by socio-economic status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Schnohr, P; Jensen, G;

    2004-01-01

    controlling for intake of the other types of alcohol, and for sex, smoking, physical activity and body mass index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and time of death from all causes. RESULTS: Consumers of wine were better educated and wealthier compared with beer and spirits drinkers. The association between......OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of socio-economic status on the relationship between type of alcohol and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: A prospective population study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 14,223 men and women participated in the first examination...... of The Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1976-1978. The participants were followed up until 18th of September 2001 during which 7208 persons died. The effect of beer, wine and spirits on mortality was stratified according to levels of education, income and cohabitation, and the association was examined after...

  16. Ageing of power plants socio-economical, sanitary and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Association of the local Commissions of Information (A.N.C.L.I.) presents a colloquium about the ageing of nuclear power plants. The different following points are presented. The life cycle of nuclear power plants and the new types of reactors. The ageing of power plants: stakes and perspectives for the French and world nuclear park. A power plant of 30 years is it sure? The role of the studies of ageing and the follow-up according to the age. Stop or continue to exploit a nuclear power plant: who decides, when and how. The socio-economic consequences of a stop of power plant: the Spanish experience. Ten-year visits of a power plant: the associative experience. 58 reactors today: how to assume their end of life and welcome equipments to come. (N.C.)

  17. Socio-economic factors associated with intestinal parasites among children living in Gombak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, B; Sinniah, B; Hussein, H

    1994-01-01

    Fecal specimens collected from 456 school children in Gombak, Malaysia, revealed an overall prevalence rate of 62.9%. The most common parasite found was Trichuris trichiura (47.1%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (14.7%), Entamoeba coli (11.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (9.9%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (7.9%). Infection rates were high among the Indonesian immigrant workers' children (90%) followed by the Orang Asli (79.5%), Malay (59.4%) and Indians (36.4%). Females (66.3%) had a higher prevalence rate than the males (58.5%). The prevalence of infection was found to be associated with the socio-economic status, water supply, sanitary disposal of feces and family size. Albendazole administered as a single dose (400 mg) was found to be effective against Ascaris (100%) and hookworm (92.3%) but was not effective against Trichuris (39.2%). PMID:8074940

  18. Economic Citizenship and Socio-Economic Rationality as Foundations of an Appropriate Economic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schank

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we argue that social science education needs to convey more than operational mechanisms of society. Especially in socio-economic education, questions of business ethics, i.e. phenomena of economics and society need to be integrated and reflected, decidedly focusing on the moral content of economics. With the introduction of economic citizenship as the ideal economic actor to be the purpose of economic education, this paper proposes that economic education needs to connect economic expertise and moral judgment and should also allude to the necessity of every market action’s conditional legitimization by society. We propose to discuss different ‘sites’ of morality as a heuristic approach to the different areas of economic responsibility. The individual, organizational and political level of responsibility helps to categorize the different moral issues of economic activity and serves as a great pattern to explain economic relations to scholars and students.

  19. Management of socio-ecological systems in terms of socio-economic changes in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Danylevych, N. M.; Yastrubskyy, M. Ya.; Kuznyetsov, Ya. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of organizational development of socio-ecological systems management in conditions of socio-economic changes in Ukraine that foresee the development and approval of integrated state ecological-economic policy based on the ecological-economic system of market reforms and accounts for the mechanisms of the structural-functional model of the socio-ecological system management proposed by the authors. Розкрито актуальні питання організаційної побудови...

  20. Socio-economic Classification and its Scope in Crafting Rural Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinalini Pathak Kakati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the liberalization of the Indian Economy in the mid 1990’s, substantial growth has been seen in the rural areas. Rural India which comprises around 70% of the total population of the country has become an emerging area for marketers. This study tries to identify key market variables that can help in crafting rural market segments. The socio-economic classification (SEC 2011 which segments the market based on education level and possession of consumer durables. This study examines income as another key market variable together with education in the creation of distinct segments or hybrid segments. It then further identifies important criteria like technical, promotional and social in influencing consumers’ behaviour in the context of the purchase of consumer durables which can thereby help to create segments. The study concludes that the increase in education level has higher impact than increase in income on the important identified purchase criteria.

  1. Diffusion of Telecommunications Services in a Complex Socio-Economic Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, Abdullah

    This research aims at creating a detailed account on the diffusion of telecommunications services in a complex socio-economic context, taking Pakistan as a case study. The core research question of this thesis is to investigate why the successful experience of the rapid and an effective diffusion....... Hence, the study reveals 47 major attributes (indicators) that fully explain why some telecom services successfully diffuse in the market; whereas the others fail to produce similar results. The thesis also conducts a detailed impact analysis of the diffused telecommunications services within the local......, user, and supporting domains. There were several workshops organized primarily in different universities across the country in order to collect a substantial amount of users’ responses, using a well-structured questionnaire. The research makes an effective use of the detailed observations and extensive...

  2. Oral health in children and adolescents with different socio-cultural and socio-economic backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Twetman, Svante; Sundby, Annette

    2010-01-01

    , a social gradient still exists for dental health. In addition, in all age groups, major inequalities in dental health were found when families with Danish and non-Danish backgrounds were compared. The findings indicate a need for social action by policymakers. Furthermore, a change in the oral health...... in 2006. Data on children's caries experience were collected from public oral health registers and pooled with socio-cultural and socio-economic data obtained from official statistics. The study population represented 76% of all registered inhabitants. RESULTS: Among 5- and 7-year-old children with non...... preventive strategy is proposed to meet the needs of children in risk of caries, and appropriate oral health-promotion programmes should be organized in collaboration with leaders from different ethnic minorities....

  3. On the Laws and Causes of Socio-economic Territorial Differentiation in Minority Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Mei; Dong Suocheng

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of applying quantitative and qualitative approaches as well as GIS technology,this paper established an index system to make a comprehensive evaluation on socioeconomic development of minority areas in China.The result showed that socio-economic development in minority area presents a series of characteristics that the north is high and the south is low,center-margin pattern is obvious and the areas with middle and lower development indices are distributed centrally and continuously.However,the causes of the socioeconomic characteristics mainly include natural conditions,economic development basic,population cultural quality,regional combination and development conditions of mineral and energy resources,informal institutional factors and distribution of major traffic lines..

  4. Assessment of socio-economic potential of regions for placement of the logistic infrastructure objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nelevich Rakhmangulov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, at the regional markets, there is a disproportion between the growing demand for transportation and logistics services and the availability of facilities needed for their implementation, which is because the high logistics costs and does not meet the strategic objectives of the country to create a common economic space. The article describes the system of market factors that have the most significant influence on the distribution of logistics facilities. Study and evaluation of potential changes in the region of logistics facility disposition are proposed to perform using simulation techniques and statistical data analysis. The article presents the engineered multivariate statistical models that control the kind and effect of correlation between socio-economic development factors of regions, as well as a simulation model, which allows to assess the dynamics of these factors and predict demand for logistics infrastructure facilities. The choice of region (subject dislocation of the logistics center is proposed to realize by the developed technique based on the calculation of the integrated index that takes into account differences in the level of socio-economic and infrastructural development of the regions. This technique in conjunction with a simulation model is applicable to a variety of administrative and territorial levels (region, city and allows to take into account both the current demand in the logistics infrastructure and demand dynamics. The technique given in the article can be used to assess the level of attractiveness of the Russian Federation in the development of public and private investment projects for the development of logistics infrastructure

  5. Implications of Reverse Innovation for Socio-Economic Sustainability: A Case Study of Philips China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Shan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of reverse innovation, local innovation happening in emerging markets for the global market, has gained much academic and managerial attention in recent years. The purpose of this study is to understand how reverse innovation has successfully diffused into the product and market development strategies at Philips Inc., a prominent multinational company (MNC of the modern era. Furthermore, the study presents the success achieved by these innovations at both the domestic and global levels, along with their implications regarding socio-economic sustainability in emerging markets. In order to investigate the research questions, a case study of Philips China was conducted involving three product innovations that were found to be suitable examples of reverse innovation. After the study of extant literature on the topic, drawing from research databases, newspaper articles, and company press releases, five semi-structuredinterviews were conducted with key managers and a market practitioner to gain sufficient understanding for this exploratory study. Subsequent case analysis concludes that these innovations are examples of reverse innovation representing a new paradigm change in innovation flow. This flow of innovation from emerging markets to developed markets as confirmed by Corsi’s framework could potentially disrupt developed markets as well as contribute to ensure healthy living conditions for the population living in developing countries. If so, this represents a sustainable socio-economic change in-line with the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal (SDG of “ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages.” This is relevant as Philips aspires to be a prominent private sector player in achieving the above-stated goal by defeating non-communicable disease and strengthening local healthcare systems.

  6. Socio-economic class, rurality and risk of cutaneous melanoma by site and gender in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavsson Per

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous melanoma (CM is a cancer usually associated with high socio-economic level in the literature. Few studies have, however, assessed this relationship by gender and site or the association between CM and rurality. Methods A major-sized historical occupational Swedish cohort comprising 2,992,166 workers was used to estimate relative risk of cutaneous melanoma, broken down by gender and anatomical site, for occupational sectors (as a proxy of socio-economic class and rurality. To this end, Poisson models were fitted for each site in men and women, including occupational sector and town size, with adjustment for age, period of diagnosis and geographical area as possible confounding factors. Results White collar workers presented a marked increased of risk in men in all melanoma cases, as well as in trunk, upper and lower limbs. This pattern was less clear for women, in which some heterogeneity appeared, as low risks in lower socioeconomic sectors in trunk, or risk excesses in white collar workers in lower limbs did not achieve statistical significance. Males also showed significant differences in risk by rural/urban distribution, but in women this association was limited to CM of lower limb. Risk of CM of head/neck did not vary by occupational sector or town size, thus depicting a specific epidemiological profile, which proved common to both sexes. Conclusion While differences in risk between men and women could suggest greater homogeneity in UV-exposure behaviour among women, the uniform risk pattern in head and neck melanoma, present in both sexes, might support the coexistence of different aetiological pathways, related to anatomical site.

  7. Socio-economic characteristics and quality of life in diabetes mellitus--relation to metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, D; Lager, I; Nilsson, P M

    1999-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with wide implications for well-being and social life. The aim of this cross-sectional, observational study was to describe possible differences in clinical characteristics, socio-economic factors and quality of life between diabetes patients in poor and good/acceptable metabolic control, as defined by levels of glycated haemoglobin A1c. From a population-based register of diabetes patients at a clinical chemistry department, we selected 96 subjects in poor metabolic control (HbA1c > 10%), and 96 subjects in good/acceptable (HbA1c 6.5-7.5%) metabolic control, matched for sex, age and duration of diabetes. Each participant was sent a self-administered questionnaire regarding medical history, family situation and socio-economic background, as well as self-rated health based on a validated instrument (SF-36). The diabetes patients in poor metabolic control reported more retinopathy, vascular complications and nervous problems than did the patients in acceptable metabolic control. Furthermore, the group in poor metabolic control was also characterized by a lower educational level, a higher number of sick leave days or disability pension and a lower degree of physical activity. Both of the diabetic groups reported lower scorings for physical functioning, general health, vitality and mental health, than did a comparable non-diabetic group from another study. In summary, diabetic patients in poor metabolic control have a lower educational level and report more complications, nervous problems, sick leave days and disability pensions than patients in good/acceptable metabolic control. The lower degree of physical activity adds to the problems of the first group and should be the target for intervention to achieve better metabolic control.

  8. Fossil fuel depletion and socio-economic scenarios: An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progressive reduction of high-quality-easy-to-extract energy is a widely recognized and already ongoing process. Although depletion studies for individual fuels are relatively abundant, few of them offer a global perspective of all energy sources and their potential future developments, and even fewer include the demand of the socio-economic system. This paper presents an Economy-Energy-Environment model based on System Dynamics which integrates all those aspects: the physical restrictions (with peak estimations for oil, gas, coal and uranium), the techno-sustainable potential of renewable energy estimated by a novel top-down methodology, the socio-economic energy demands, the development of alternative technologies and the net CO2 emissions. We confront our model with the basic assumptions of previous Global Environmental Assessment (GEA) studies. The results show that demand-driven evolution, as performed in the past, might be unfeasible: strong energy-supply scarcity is found in the next two decades, especially in the transportation sector before 2020. Electricity generation is unable to fulfill its demand in 2025–2040, and a large expansion of electric renewable energies move us close to their limits. In order to find achievable scenarios, we are obliged to set hypotheses which are hardly used in GEA scenarios, such as zero or negative economic growth. - Highlights: • The paper presents and describes a new Energy–Economy–Environment global model. • GEA scenario dynamics have the potential to lead us to energy resource scarcity in the next 2 decades. • Global forecasts of international agencies show inconsistency in energy constraints. • Renewable energies are only partially able to replace fossil fuels depletion. • Climate change still reaches dangerous dimensions

  9. Socio-economic status and feeding habits of students in lower secondary schools in Bytom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Wypych-Ślusarska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating habits are formed in childhood and adolescence.. Economic issues including social and demographic factors influence the choice and quality of products consumed. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the impact of socio-economic status (SES on eating habits of students in lower secondary schools. Material and methods: At the turn of 2011 and 2012, an epidemiological cross-sectional study on 1,099 students in lower secondary schools from Bytom was conducted. The questionnaire was based on the form used in Health Behaviour in School – aged Children study (HBSC. The socio-economic status of students was determined according to the Family Affluence Scale (FAS and the mother’s level of education. The statistical analysis was conducted using Statistica 10.0 software. The significance level was set at p40.05. Results: 1,099 students in lower secondary school took part in the study (55.6% females and 44.4% males. 59% of students skip vegetables in their daily diet, (58.5% fruits and (49.4%. milk but 59.7% have breakfast every day. Nevertheless the high percentage of children eating sweets every day or several times a day (37.2% is worrying. Those children whose mothers declared secondary education and high level of FAS have proper eating habits. Children eating sweets at least once a day come mostly from families with low level of FAS. Conclusions: Bad eating habits are mostly among children whose mothers are of primary or vocational education and a low level of FAS.

  10. Socio-Economic Concerns and Essential Elements in Estuary Management Strategies; Haliç Case, Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpar, Bedri; Isil Cetin, Basak

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries are transitional areas between the land and sea and home to a large and growing proportion of the world's population. They are highly productive ecosystems which create jobs, and boosts local economic growth with a higher percentage of collective and private enterprises and a larger share of production. They serve many important socio-economic functions and therefore receive untreated urban wastes and riverine inputs and concentrate various pollutants coming from inland domestic, agricultural and industrial activities. Therefore such kinds of complex systems are highly vulnerable because they are usually the sink for the hinterlands. Due to serious environmental problems felt more intensively day by day, central and local governments must adopt an integrated policy and decision making process to promote a balance of uses. As surrounded by many historical attractions, heritage sites, buzzing cultural scenes and other natural resources, the Haliç (the Golden Horn estuary) offers great opportunities and has a vitality fed by widespread economic and cultural factors. The typical landscape of the estuary, its bridges, geomorphic features, oceanographic and hydrodynamic features of its waters, sea bottom characteristics, environmental pollution, make this estuary a critical marine environment which impacts to economy, environment and community. However, rapid urban growth and uncontrolled industrial development (1950-1985) led to a severe increase in pollution levels of its water and cohesive sediments. The siltation due to liquid and solid waste dumped by two streams caused anaerobic decomposition problems. In addition, the ecological processes occurring in the Haliç are rather complex as they are interacted with the socio-economic system. This study focuses on the essential elements of integrated coastal zone management for the Haliç, and its probable impacts to economy, environment and community. All objectives and probable impacts need to be integrated

  11. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Archer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation.

    The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes – a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

  12. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Archer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation.

    The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes – a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

  13. Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Allison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity, socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas. Results In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. Conclusion A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.

  14. The Socio-economic Impact of Stroke on Households in Livingstone District, Zambia: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mapulanga, M; Nzala, S; Mweemba, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Stroke, which affects mostly the productive age group, leaves about 65% of its victims disabled, leads to increased loss of manpower both at individual and national levels. Little is known about the socio-economic burden of the disease in terms of its impacts on the individual, family and community both directly and indirectly in Sub-Sahara Africa region and Zambia at large. Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the socio-economic i...

  15. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ADOPTION OF E-COMMERCE BY COMSUMERS IN SINGAPORE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Y. SIYAL; Chowdhry, B. S.; A. Q. RAJPUT

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years, a steady growth has been observed in the Internet-based commerce activities in Singapore and Asia-Pacific region. However, there has been very limited study that empirically investigates the socio-economic factors and their influence on the adoption of electronic commerce (e-commerce) by consumers in Singapore. This study seeks to fill some of the gaps in this area. Viewing such a medium as a form of new innovation, the five socio-economic characters namely gender, age...

  16. How do socio-economic factors and distance predict access to prevention and rehabilitation services in a Danish municipality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette L; Bonde, Ane; Schipperijn, Jasper;

    2016-01-01

    , ethnicity, and education) as well as the health care systems (resource availability and cultural acceptability). METHODS: A total of 347 participants referred to the centre during a 10-month period were included. For each of 44 districts within the catchment area, the degree of socio-economic vulnerability...... the planned activities, depending on sex, age, SE-score of district of residence, and distance to the centre. Findings Citizens from locations with a high socio-economic vulnerability had increased probability of being referred by general practitioners, hospitals, and job centres. Citizens living further away...

  17. How do socio-economic factors and distance predict access to prevention and rehabilitation services in a Danish municipality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke; Bonde, Ane; Schipperijn, Jasper;

    2016-01-01

    , ethnicity, and education) as well as the health care systems (resource availability and cultural acceptability). Methods: A total of 347 participants referred to the centre during a 10-month period were included. For each of 44 districts within the catchment area, the degree of socio-economic vulnerability...... the planned activities, depending on sex, age, SE-score of district of residence, and distance to the centre. Findings: Citizens from locations with a high socio-economic vulnerability had increased probability of being referred by general practitioners, hospitals, and job centres. Citizens living further...

  18. "International workshop on socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops co-organised by JRC-IPTS and FAO"

    OpenAIRE

    LUSSER MARIA; RANEY Terri; TILLIE PASCAL; DILLEN KOEN; Rodriguez Cerezo, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This JRC Scientific and Technical report provides proceedings of the "International workshop on socio-economic impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops" which was co-organised by JRC-IPTS and FAO in Seville on 23-24 November 2011. JRC-IPTS has been requested to review for policy makers the main findings of scientists active in this field world-wide in co-operation with FAO. The objective of this workshop, which was directed at socio-economic experts from the Competent Authorities of the...

  19. Climate change and river floods in the European Union: Socio-economic consequences and the costs and benefits of adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    ROJAS MUJICA RODRIGO FELIPE; Feyen, Luc; Watkiss, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first appraisal of the socio-economic impacts of river floods in the European Union in view of climate and socio-economic changes. The assessment is based on two trajectories: (a) no adaptation, where the current levels of protection are kept constant, and (b) adaptation, where the level of protection is increased to defend against future flooding events. As a basis for our analysis we use an ensemble-based pan-European flood hazard assessment for present and future co...

  20. Effects of Natural and Socio-Economic Changes on Coastal and Upland Ecosystems in San Miguel Island, Albay, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Plutomeo M., Nieves; Raul G., Bradecina

    2011-01-01

    Survey results demonstrate the interconnected effect of natural and socio-economic conditions onthe coastal and upland ecosystem changes. When nature works negatively, it can severely affect the ecosystem and the socio-economic well-being of the people who depend on it. For instance, typhoons can wipe out gains from years of trying to reduce poverty, causing loss of life and damage to property and the environment. The effect of nature on the island’s ecosystem is noticeable in the landscape a...