WorldWideScience

Sample records for parental leave policies

  1. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  2. Parental Leave Policies and Pediatric Trainees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avika; Feldman-Winter, Lori; Szucs, Kinga A

    2015-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) states that each residency program should have a clearly delineated, written policy for parental leave. Parental leave has important implications for trainees' ability to achieve their breastfeeding goals. This study aimed to measure the knowledge and awareness among members of the AAP Section on Medical Students, Residents, and Fellowship Trainees (SOMSRFT) regarding parental leave. An online survey was emailed to SOMSRFT members in June 2013. Quantitative data are presented as percentage of respondents. Awareness of leave policies was analyzed based on having children and the sex of respondents. Nine hundred twenty-seven members responded to the survey. Among those with children, 40% needed to extend the duration of their training in order to have longer maternity leave, 44% of whom did so in order to breastfeed longer. Thirty percent of respondents did not know if their program had a written, accessible policy for parental leave. Trainees without children and men were more unaware of specific aspects of parental leave such as eligibility for the Family Medical Leave Act as compared to women and those with children. Despite the fact that United States national policies support parental leave during pediatrics training, and a majority of programs comply, trainees' awareness regarding these policies needs improvement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Preventing intimate partner violence through paid parental leave policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Inverno, Ashley Schappell; Reidy, Dennis E; Kearns, Megan C

    2018-05-30

    Paid parental leave policies have the potential to strengthen economic supports, reduce family discord, and provide opportunities to empower women (Basile et al., 2016; Niolon et al., 2017). In this article, we present a theory of change and evidence to suggest how paid parental leave may impact intimate partner violence (IPV). In doing so, we present three mechanisms of change (i.e., reduction in financial stress, increase in egalitarian parenting practices, and promotion of child/parent bonding) through which paid parental leave could reduce rates of IPV. We also describe limitations of the current state of knowledge in this area, as well as opportunities for future research. Ultimately, our goal is to facilitate the identification and implementation of approaches that have the potential to reduce violence at the population level. Paid parental leave embodies the potential of policies to change societal-level factors and serve as an important prevention strategy for IPV. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Parental leave policies in graduate medical education: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Laura S; Lyon, Sarah; Garza, Rebecca; Butz, Daniel R; Lemelman, Benjamin; Park, Julie E

    2017-10-01

    A thorough understanding of attitudes toward and program policies for parenthood in graduate medical education (GME) is essential for establishing fair and achievable parental leave policies and fostering a culture of support for trainees during GME. A systematic review of the literature was completed. Non-cohort studies, studies completed or published outside of the United States, and studies not published in English were excluded. Studies that addressed the existence of parental leave policies in GME were identified and were the focus of this study. Twenty-eight studies addressed the topic of the existence of formal parental leave policies in GME, which was found to vary across time and ranged between 22 and 90%. Support for such policies persisted across time. Attention to formal leave policies in GME has traditionally been lacking, but may be increasing. Negative attitudes towards parenthood in GME persist. Active awareness of the challenges faced by parent-trainees combined with formal parental leave policy implementation is important in supporting parenthood in GME. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.

  6. Parental Leave Policies in 21 Countries: Assessing Generosity and Gender Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Ray; Janet C. Gornick; John Schmitt

    2008-01-01

    This report examines the parental leave policies in 21 high-income nations and identifies five "best practices" for parental leave policies. The study shows that the U.S. has the least generous leave policies of the 21 countries examined in the report. The states exhibiting the five best practices include Finland, France, Greece, Norway, Spain, and Sweden.

  7. Sharing the caring : State, family and gender equality in parental leave policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widener, Anmarie J.

    2006-01-01

    Parental leave policies give parents a temporary leave from employment in order to care for a child. Secondary aims are to increase women’s attachment to the labour force as well as supporting gender equal roles in paid and unpaid work. This study researched parent satisfaction of parental leave

  8. The Effect of New Jersey’s Paid Parental Leave Policy on Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Joshua; Vandegrift, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Paid parental leave policy remains a continuing source of controversy in the United States. Advocates for parental leave policy maintain that it has a positive effect on child rearing outcomes and family happiness. Critics, however, maintain that paid parental leave will cause firms to hire fewer women. This paper evaluates the critics’ claim that paid family leave entitlements will reduce employment using the New Jersey family leave law that took effect in 2009. We conduct a difference-in-di...

  9. Gender Equality and Social Policy: Implications of a Study of Parental Leave in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of parental leave as a social policy designed to eliminate the traditional, gender-based division of labor. Examined whether fathers' taking parental leave equalized women's and men's involvement in the labor market and in child care once the leave was over by analyzing 319 sets of Swedish parents. (Author/ABL)

  10. Putting Parenting First: Why It's Time for Universal Paid Leave. PPI Policy Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    Although the Family and Medical Leave Act enabled some parents to take unpaid parental leave in order to fulfill family responsibilities, it did not cover all workers and did not provide workers the financial support to do so. This policy report calls for Congress to: require states to allow new parents who have been working to collect…

  11. The Link between National Paid Leave Policy and Work-Family Conflict among Married Working Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, T.D.; Lapierre, L.M.; Spector, P.E.; Poelmans, S.A.Y.; O'Driscoll, M.P.; Sanchez, J.I.; Cooper, G.L.; Walvoord, A.G.; Antoniou, A.S.; Brough, P.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kinnunen, U.; Pagon, M.; Shima, S.; Woo, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated relationships between four dimensions of work–family conflict (time- and strain-based work interference with family, time- and strain-based family interference with work) and three key national paid leave policies (paid parental leave, paid sick leave, paid annual leave) among a

  12. Rethinking work and family policy: the making and taking of parental leave in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, M; Litwin, A S

    2005-10-01

    Despite the continued increase in female participation rates, Australia remains one of only two developed nations in the world without a paid maternity leave scheme. While research interest and public policy debate about paid maternity leave entitlements continues, little is known about the actual utilization of the 52 weeks unpaid parental leave that is currently available to all employees. Moreover, research and policy debate on the availability and provision of paid paternity leave has only just begun. This paper argues that, given the gendered nature of employee entitlements, it is time to re-evaluate all aspects of parental leave policy in Australia. Using unique data from a national survey of Australian employees, the paper provides a statistical analysis of the use of unpaid parental leave and the availability of paid maternity leave. The paper models the availability of paid maternity leave to Australian employees as a function of demographic and organizational characteristics, including annual income, union status, and establishment size. A parallel analysis of the likelihood that an individual has used the unpaid parental leave provision is also provided. The results show that the existing unpaid parental leave provision is rarely used and that the current availability of paid maternity leave is inequitable. The paper discusses the conceptual and policy implications of these results and concludes that a re-thinking of parental leave policy in Australia is essential if gender inequities at work and in society are to be addressed.

  13. Parental Leave Policies, Intra-household Time Allocations and Children's Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Raquel; Fruttero, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a general equilibrium model of marriage and divorce to assess how public policies on parental leave and leave benefits affect intra-household decision making, family structure, intergenerational mobility, and the distribution of income. The benchmark economy is calibrated to US data to replicate some characteristics relevant to the interaction between the marriage and labor markets. The effects of unpaid leave, paid leave benefits, and mandated leave on human capital investmen...

  14. Working around Childbirth: Comparative and Empirical Perspectives on Parental Leave Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Patricia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Cites research that supports a U.S. parental leave policy that includes job protection and wage replacement during childbirth. Issues dealt with in the literature include current U.S. child welfare legislation, international parental leave legislation, job continuity, reduced stress on the child welfare system, and prejudice against young mothers.…

  15. Survey of parental-leave policies and experiences in Ontario academic departments of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D E; Richardson, B; Lent, B

    1998-11-01

    To analyze psychiatrists' self-reports on a survey of faculty parental leaves conducted in 5 Ontario faculties of medicine. A self-report questionnaire was mailed to all Ontario academic medical faculty members requesting information on demographics, parenting status, knowledge of parental-leave policies, personal and collegial experience of recent parental leave, and opinions about ideal parental-leave policies. The survey yielded a 48.6% response rate (3104 respondents). Of the respondents, 318 (10.2%) were academic psychiatrists and 113 (35.5%) of them had or adopted children since 1990. Of the 113 recent parents, 59 (53.2%) did not know their official university parental-leave policy. Fifty-one (48.1%) psychiatrists had recently taken parental leave (30 female, 21 male). Of these, females (26, 86.7%) were more likely than males (0%) to take more than 8 weeks' leave (P = 0.001). The income paid during parental leave was highly variable. Although 192 (64.4%) psychiatrists recommended that temporary replacements be hired and 175 (59.1%) recommended that the replacements be paid from a common faculty risk pool, replacements were hired for only 7 (13.7%) recent leaves. This replacement rate for psychiatry parental leaves was the second lowest of 8 medical specialties. Several leave takers felt that the leave negatively affected their research (32, 32.7%), administration (24, 23.3%), overall career course (23, 21.5%), colleagues' workload (27, 26.2), clinical work (19, 18.3%), teaching (18, 17.3%) and colleagues' attitudes toward them (11, 10.4%). Although 220 (71.5%) academic psychiatrists recommended paid leave to the primary caregiver for 16 or more weeks, 88 (28.6%) recommended less than the 17-week national standard. For secondary caregivers, 202 (66.0%) academic psychiatrists recommended a paid leave of 1-8 weeks, but 63 (20.6%) recommended paid leave for less than 1 week. One hundred and fifty-four psychiatrists (53.1%) recommended that parental-leave income

  16. Maternity and parental leave policies at COTH hospitals: an update. Council of Teaching Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, I; Bickel, J

    1995-11-01

    Because residents' demands for parental leave are increasing, updated information about maternity and paternity leave policies was solicited from hospitals that are members of the Council of Teaching Hospitals (COTH) of the AAMC. A 20-item questionnaire, combining forced-choice categories and open-ended questions, was faxed to 405 COTH hospitals in October 1994; 45% responded. A total of 77% of the respondents reported having written policies for maternity and/or parental leave; in 1989, only 52% of COTH hospitals had reported having such policies. Forty-one percent of the 1994 responding hospitals offered dedicated paid maternity leave, with a mean of 42 days allowed. Twenty-five percent of the respondents offered paternity leave, and 15% offered adoption leave. It is encouraging that the majority of the teaching hospitals that responded to the survey had adopted written policies, but the 23% without written policies remain a source of concern. Well-defined policies for maternity, paternity, and adoption leave can reduce stress and foster equity both for trainees requiring leave and for their colleagues.

  17. A National Survey of Parental Leave and Childcare Policies for Graduate Students in Departments of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, David; Women in Astronomy, AAS Committee on Status of

    2013-01-01

    The AAS Committee on the Status of Women in Astronomy conducted a national survey to determine current policies regarding parental leave and childcare for graduate student parents. We sent a letter to the Chair of each U.S. department of astronomy and/or astrophysics that offers the PhD degree. The letter inquired both about leave following the birth or adoption of a child (including questions about eligibility, whether the leave was paid or unpaid, and whether benefits including health care and housing were retained during leave), as well as childcare (including questions about eligibility, access, and financial assistance). The letter sought to determine the official departmental policies, but also inquired about any unofficial policies. We also inquired as to mechanisms to cover costs associated with both parental leave and childcare, and the means by which graduate students were informed about the policies. The response rate was 100%. We will present the results at this special session, and then lead a discussion of the changing landscape of parental leave for graduate students in our field.

  18. Family Policies in Eastern Europe: A Focus on Parental Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Family policy is an issue of concern for many Governments. Family policies are organized around the four main functions of the family: marriage, childrearing, financial support and family care. Eastern Europe is an area with significant socio-economic and political changes in the last decades that determined revisions of social policies. The goal…

  19. From maternity to parental leave policies: women's health, employment, and child and family well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerman, S B

    2000-01-01

    Pregnancy and maternity are increasingly viewed as social as well as individual risks that require health protection, employment protection and security, and protection against temporary loss of income. Begun more than a century ago in Germany, paid and job-protected maternity leaves from work were established in most countries initially out of concern for maternal and child physical health. Beginning in the 1960s, these policies have expanded to cover paternity and parental leaves following childbirth and adoption as well. Moreover, they have increasingly emerged as central to the emotional and psychological well-being of children as well as to the employment and economic security of their mothers and fathers. They are modest social policies, but are clearly an essential part of any country's child and family policy. No industrialized country today can be without such provision, and the United States is a distinct laggard in these developments.

  20. Parental Leave Policy as a Strategy to Improve Outcomes among Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Jennifer C; Klawetter, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    Although gains have been made in premature birth rates among racial and ethnic minority and low socioeconomic status populations, tremendous disparities still exist in both prematurity rates and health outcomes for preterm infants. Parental involvement is known to improve health outcomes for preterm babies. However, a gap in evidence exists around whether parental involvement can help ameliorate the disparities in both short- and long-term out-comes for their preterm children. Families more likely to experience preterm birth are also less likely to have access to paid leave and thus experience significant systemic barriers to involvement, especially when their newborns are hospitalized. This article describes the research gap in this area and explores pathways by which social workers may ameliorate disparities in preterm birth outcomes through practice, policy, and research.

  1. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  2. When Academics Become Parents: An Overview of Family Leave Policies at Canadian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Susan; Pankratz, Curtis J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews family leave policies in Canadian universities through March 2002. Analysis of pregnancy, adoption, and partner (paternity) leave policies reveal that most Canadian university policies produce income loss and disruption and are characterized by gender regulation and familialism. The paper proposes that improving faculty family leave…

  3. Childcare and the division of parental leave

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Despite several policies aimed at increasing fathers' participation in the caring of children, Swedish mothers still use the bulk of the paid parental leave which may have several negative consequences for the family e.g. in terms of weaker labor market attachment for the mother. Division of parental leave is likely affected by how parents value the costs associated with parental leave. I investigate whether a reduction in the care burden, or a decreased non-monetary cost, of parental leave t...

  4. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  5. Access and Definition: Exploring how STEM Faculty, Department Heads, and University Policy Administrators Navigate the Implementation of a Parental Leave Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Schimpf, Corey T; Santiago, Marisol Mercado; Pawley, Alice L.

    2012-01-01

    Access and Definition: Exploring how STEM Faculty, Department Heads and University Policy Administrators Navigate the Enactment of a Parental Leave Policy A key feature in various reports exploring women’s persisting underrepresentation in STEM faculty positions in the US is the need to disseminate policy information to all stakeholders involved in issues relating to women STEM faculty underrepresentation and retention. Indeed, the National Academies of Science Beyond Barriers and Bias: Fulfi...

  6. Parenting, Pressures and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Graham W.

    2000-01-01

    In the 1990s, parenting became a difficult effort to balance work demands with children's needs. However, Canadian and U.S. government policies have not met changing family needs for child care, other services, paid parental leave, and work flexibility. Canada's long-awaited National Children's Agenda has the potential to modernize family policy…

  7. What is the Role of Parental Leave policies in shaping Work and Care in the Enlarged EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the article is to examine the role of parental leave in shaping a mother's choice between work and care in the enlarged EU. A central question is how parental leave schemes affect mothers' employment and the occupational consequences for mothers who spend time on full-time caring...

  8. Father's Rights to Paid Parental Leave in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Haas, L.

    2011-01-01

    to what extent government-provided, paid parental leave and quotas for fathers could bring about equality in the division of leave between men and women by focusing on the pioneers in the field, the Nordic countries – the first nations to offer fathers parental leave and introduce quotas. First, we......European Union policy encourages men and women to share parental leave to balance work and family life and promote gender equality in the labor market. A new directive extends parental leave to four months and introduces a quota, so one month is reserved for each parent. This article explores...... describe the extent to which parental leave policies have been established and implemented in a way that is likely to promote equal sharing of leave. Next, we evaluate the impact of particular configurations of gender equality incentives in present parental leave policies for the actual division of leave...

  9. The Problems of Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2017-10-01

    The United States is the only major industrialized country in the world to not require paid parental leave. Numerous studies have shown that allowing parents time with a newborn makes the child and the parents healthier, both physically and mentally. Many physicians, especially those who work in practices with five or fewer doctors, worry about how to pay for parental leave for themselves and their staff.

  10. Maternity and family leave policies in rural family practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, S; Crouse, B J

    1998-09-01

    To help recruit and retain physicians, especially women, rural family practice groups need to establish policies regarding maternity and other family leaves. Also important are policies regarding paternity leave, adoptive leave, and leave to care for elderly parents. We surveyed members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in rural practice in 1995 to assess the prevalence of leave policies, the degree to which physicians are taking family leave, and the characteristics of ideal policies. Currently, both men and women physicians are taking family leaves of absence, which indicates a need for leave policies. Furthermore, a lack of family leave policies may deter women from entering rural practice.

  11. Measuring policy entitlements at the micro-level: maternity and parental leave in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bártová, A.; Emery, T.

    2018-01-01

    Comparative social policy analysis has been shaped by the measurement of policy as a macro phenomenon. However, social policy theories have consistently asserted that policy entitlements vary across class, gender, ethnicity and the life-course. This paper synthesises a number of innovations to

  12. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  13. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  14. Access to paid parental leave for academic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itum, Dina S; Oltmann, Sarah C; Choti, Michael A; Piper, Hannah G

    2018-01-31

    Parental leave is linked to health benefits for both child and parent. It is unclear whether surgeons at academic centers have access to paid parental leave. The aim of this study was to determine parental leave policies at the top academic medical centers in the United States to identify trends among institutions. The top academic medical centers were identified (US News & World Report 2016). Institutional websites were reviewed, or human resource departments were contacted to determine parental leave policies. "Paid leave" was defined as leave without the mandated use of personal time off. Institutions were categorized based on geographical region, funding, and ranking to determine trends regarding availability and duration of paid parental leave. Among the top 91 ranked medical schools, 48 (53%) offer paid parental leave. Availability of a paid leave policy differed based on private versus public institutions (70% versus 38%, P leaves (>6 wk) than public institutions (67% versus 33%; P = 0.02). No difference in paid leave duration was noted based on region (P = 0.60) or rank (P = 0.81). Approximately, 50% of top academic medical centers offer paid parental leave. Private institutions are more likely to offer paid leave and leave of longer duration. There is considerable variability in access to paid parenteral leave for academic surgeons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fathers' use of parental leave. What do we know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the the literature on fathers' use of parental leave. Parental leave is a work-life reconciliation instrument with great potential to bring about a more equal distribution of paid and unpaid work between men and women. However, policy evaluation studies reveal that simply making

  16. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses...

  17. Examining the Evolution of Paid Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Carol

    While the United States continues to be the only developed nation without mandated paid maternity leave, U.S. employers are blazing their own trail for new parents. This article defines parental leave, explains what's driving the increased interest in paid parental leave among employers offering it and discusses how paid parental leave can benefit employers and employees alike. Finally, the author discusses why not all employers are offering these benefits as well as considerations for employers contemplating whether paid parental leave is right for them.

  18. Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies.

  19. Barefoot and in a German kitchen: federal parental leave and benefit policy and the return to work after childbirth in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrich, J; Spiess, C K; Yang, Q

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1979 German federal maternity leave and benefit policy has given women incentives to stay at home and take care of their newborn and youngest children. In 1986 this leave and benefit policy was changed in several ways, turning it into a powerful instrument for delaying mothers' return to work after childbirth.... We estimate post childbirth return to work hazards for women during the federally protected leave protection period and immediately upon completion of this leave period. During the leave mothers are less likely to return to work the longer is the time left in the leave protection period; however, this result cannot be attributed generally to high levels of maternity benefits. When the leave protection period ends, mothers with strong labor force attachment who are still on leave return to their jobs." excerpt

  20. There's a Policy: Nobody Bats an Eye at Babies Being Born, a Critical Feminist Policy Discourse Analysis of a Paid Parental Leave Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie, Jennifer Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Research has continued to suggest high institutional costs of not accommodating work-life balance, and institutions of higher education are recognizing the importance of formally addressing these issues in the increasingly competitive labor market. However, there is concern whether faculty members 1) are actually aware of policies; 2) feel safe in…

  1. Parental leave: the impact of recent legislation on parents' leave taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-02-01

    We use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine the impact of leave entitlements on unpaid leave usage by men and women after the birth of a child from 1991 to 1999. The results indicate that legislation providing the right to unpaid leave has not affected men's leave usage. The results for women are mixed: in some specifications, leave entitlements are associated with increased leave taking or longer leaves, but the results depend on how we define leave coverage. Our results point to the limited impact of unpaid leave policies and the potential importance of paid-leave policies.

  2. Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason F.; Thunström, Linda

    Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint? While becoming a parent is transformational as one focuses more on the future, the time constraints are more binding right now. Using a unique data set that allows us to compare CO2 emissions from Swedish two-adult households with and without children......, we find becoming a Swedish parent causes a person to leave a larger carbon ootprint—due to changes in transportation patterns and food consumption choices....

  3. Does parental leave influence the gender division of labour? Recent empirical findings from Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Dearing, Helene

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasingly interest in parental leave policies as instruments for the implementation of gender equality in society. This review essay explores the link between parental leave policies and the gender division of labour - referring to both paid employment and unpaid family work. Against this backdrop the essay systematically reviews evidence from quantitative empirical research on the effects of parental leave policies on mothers' employment and fathers' involvement in family w...

  4. Labour Supply Responses to Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Arizo; Lindahl, Erica; Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Women account for the majority of parental leave take-up, which is likely one of the major reasons for the gender gap in income and wages. Consequently, many countries exert effort to promote a more gender equal division of parental leave. Indeed, the last decades have seen an increase in fathers' take-up of parental leave benefits, but the gender earnings gap has remained fairly constant. In this paper we re-evaluate the labour supply responses of both mothers and fathers to three major refo...

  5. Parental leave: comparing children's hospitals with Fortune 500 companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A H; Gordon, E J; O'Connor, M E

    1998-07-01

    To identify parental leave policies and availability of support systems for new parents employed by children's hospitals and compare these benefits with those offered by Fortune 500 companies. Telephone or facsimile survey of all (n=118) children's hospitals and pediatric medical centers in the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions 1995 Directory of Members, and 118 geographically matched Fortune 500 companies. Policies for maternity and paternity leave, adoption benefits, and support services for new parents were compared. Ninety-four children's hospitals (80%) and 82 Fortune 500 companies (69%) responded to the survey. No difference in duration of maternity (P>.30) or paternity (P=.12) leave was found. Sixty-two companies (77%) classified maternity leave as short-term disability while 47 hospitals (50%) classified it as sick time (Pleave as short-term disability generally gives better benefits to employees with short duration of service, whereas classifying maternity leave as sick time usually favors employees with longer employment. Companies provided more financial support for adoption expenses (Ppaid or unpaid leave for adoption (P=.14). Hospitals provided more on-site day care (69% vs 42%; Pparental leave benefits than Fortune 500 companies; however, they offer better support systems for parents returning to work after the birth of a child.

  6. Parental Leave: Options for Working Parents. A Report of a Conference Sponsored by the Association of Junior Leagues (March 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Sally; Haskett, George

    This conference report addresses the issue of parental leave, particularly maternity leave at childbirth and parenting leaves for fathers and mothers after childbirth. Growing interest in this area is attributed to the dramatic change over the past 10 years in the labor force behavior of women. Currently existing national and employer policies for…

  7. Intra-Household Allocation of Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbi, Paula Eugenia; Parys, Juliane; Schwerhoff, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce childcare sharing in a collective model of household behavior to investigate which factors make spouses increase or decrease their share of parental leave. The concern about future consumption motivates parents to invest in their human capital and to limit their leave duration. Using relative income and the age difference between spouses as distribution factors, we cannot reject Pareto efficiency in childcare sharing. Higher relative incomes and larger age differences shift the c...

  8. Maternal Employment Effects of Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Bergemann, Annette; Riphahn, Regina T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the short, medium, and longer run employment effects of a substantial change in the parental leave benefit program in Germany. In 2007, a means-tested parental leave transfer program that had paid benefits for up to two years was replaced by an earnings related transfer which paid benefits for up to one year. The reform generated winners and losers with heterogeneous response incentives. We find that the reform speeds up the labor market return of both groups of mothers after benefit...

  9. Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm; Drews, Lea Vedel

    2005-01-01

    In the article it is argued that contemporary fatherhood and masculinity differ increasingly from hegemonic masculinity according to which men are primarily responsible for ensuring the financial basis of the family. The article “Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark”, based on interviews with 15...

  10. Policies to assist parents with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    The struggle to balance work responsibilities with family obligations may be most difficult for working parents of the youngest children, those five and under. Any policy changes designed to ease the difficulties for these families are likely to be controversial, requiring a careful effort to weigh both the costs and benefits of possible interventions while respecting diverse and at times conflicting American values. In this article, Christopher Ruhm looks at two potential interventions-parental leave and early childhood education and care (ECEC)-comparing differences in policies in the United States, Canada, and several European nations and assessing their consequences for important parent and child outcomes. By and large, Canadian and European policies are more generous than those in the United States, with most women eligible for paid maternity leave, which in a few countries can last for three years or more. Many of these countries also provide for paid leave that can be used by either the mother or the father. And in many European countries ECEC programs are nearly universal after the child reaches a certain age. In the United States, parental leave, if it is available, is usually short and unpaid, and ECEC is generally regarded as a private responsibility of parents, although some federal programs help defray costs of care and preschool education. Ruhm notes that research on the effects of differences in policies is not completely conclusive, in part because of the difficulty of isolating consequences of leave and ECEC policies from other influences on employment and children's outcomes. But, he says, the comparative evidence does suggest desirable directions for future policy in the United States. Policies establishing rights to short parental leaves increase time at home with infants and slightly improve the job continuity of mothers, with small, but positive, long-run consequences for mothers and children. Therefore, Ruhm indicates that moderate extensions

  11. Taking paid leave: the role of paid parental leave benefits in the alleviation of role overload of working mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Haaf, Meredith Summerfield

    2012-01-01

    This study examines ways to alleviate feelings of role overload experienced by working mothers in Canada through changes to the current paid parental leave policy. Although women have made great strides in labour market participation and career development since the 1970’s, they are still maintaining the majority of childcare and household care activities, leading to difficulties balancing their roles of parent and employee. Using mothers’ blog entries from parenting websites and a comparativ...

  12. Trends in parental leave in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eydal, Guðný; Gíslason, Ingólfur; Rostgaard, Tine

    2015-01-01

    are witnessing a paradigm shift in some of these countries, away from an emphasis on gender equality to a more traditional family approach, with the mother as the main parent, thinly guised as ‘free choice’ of individual families. Furthermore, the article asks why the changes in question have taken place......The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the development of parental leave in the Nordic countries in the last decade or so and explain the different roads taken by individual countries in this regard. Focusing on the recent development, mainly on father’s quota, we discuss whether we...... and examines the positions of different political parties towards the issue. The article shows that the Nordic countries are developing somewhat different policies and the gap between both policies and politics in the Nordic countries seems to be increasing rather than closing up....

  13. Maternal leave policies and vaccination coverage: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daku, Mark; Raub, Amy; Heymann, Jody

    2012-01-01

    Childhood vaccination is a proven and cost-effective way to reduce childhood mortality; however, participation in vaccination programs is not universal even where programs are free or low cost. Studies in diverse countries have reported work conflicts as limiting parents' ability to vaccinate their children. Using policy data for 185 UN member countries, we explore the hypothesis that an increased opportunity for parents to bring children to vaccination sites will translate into higher childhood vaccination rates. To do so, we use OLS regression to examine the relationship between the duration of adequately paid maternal leave and the uptake of vaccines. We find that a higher number of full-time equivalent weeks of paid maternal leave is associated with higher childhood vaccination rates, even after controlling for GDP per capita, health care expenditures, and social factors. Further research is needed to assess whether this association is upheld in longitudinal and intervention studies, as well as whether other forms of leave such as paid leave to care for the health of family members is effective at increasing the ability of parents to bring children for needed preventive care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Duration of Paid Parental Leave and Children's Scholastic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Nordström Skans, Oskar

    2009-01-01

    We study how the duration of paid parental leave affects the accumulation of cognitive skills among children. We use a reform which extended parental leave benefits from 12 to 15 months for Swedish children born after August 1988 to evaluate the effects of prolonged parental leave on children's test scores and grades at age 16. We show that, on average, the reform had no effect on children's scholastic performance. However, we do find positive effects for children of well-educated mothers, a ...

  15. Parental Leave and Children's Schooling Outcomes: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from a Large Parental Leave Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Danzer; Victor Lavy

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the question whether long-term human capital outcomes are affected by the duration of maternity leave, i.e. by the time mothers spend at home with their newborn before returning to work. Employing RD and difference-in-difference approaches, this paper exploits an unanticipated reform in Austria which extended the maximum duration of paid and job protected parental leave from 12 to 24 months for children born on July 1, 1990 or later. We use test scores from the Austria...

  16. The Effect of Paid Parental Leave on Child Health in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Broadway, Barbara; Kalb, Guyonne; Kühnle, Daniel; Maeder, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Providing mothers with access to paid parental leave may be an important public policy to improve child and maternal health. Using extensive information from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Children (LSAC), we contribute to the literature by estimating the effect of paid parental leave entitlements on child health up to age seven. Exploiting detailed information on children's health, family background, mothers' pre-birth work histories and mothers' health behaviours during pregnancy with...

  17. The Effect of Paid Parental Leave on Child Health in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Broadway; Guyonne Kalb

    2015-01-01

    Providing mothers with access to paid parental leave may be an important public policy to improve child and maternal health. Using extensive information from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Children (LSAC), we contribute to the literature by estimating the effect of paid parental leave entitlements on child health up to age seven. Exploiting detailed information on children’s health, family background, mothers’ pre-birth work histories and mothers’ health behaviours during pregnancy with...

  18. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one...

  19. Paid parental leave and family wellbeing in the sustainable development era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Jody; Sprague, Aleta R; Nandi, Arijit; Earle, Alison; Batra, Priya; Schickedanz, Adam; Chung, Paul J; Raub, Amy

    2017-01-01

    The Sustainable development goals (SDGs) have the potential to have a significant impact on maternal and child health through their commitments both to directly addressing health services and to improving factors that form the foundation of social determinants of health. To achieve change at scale, national laws and policies have a critical role to play in implementing the SDGs' commitments. One particular policy that could advance a range of SDGs and importantly improve maternal and infant health is paid parental leave. This article analyzes literature on paid leave and related policies relevant to SDG 1 (poverty), SDG 3 (health), SDG 5 (gender equality), SDG 8 (decent work), and SDG 10 (inequality). In addition, this article presents global data on the prevalence of policies in all 193 UN Member States. A review of the literature finds that paid parental leave may support improvements across a range of SDG outcomes relevant to maternal and child health. Across national income levels, paid leave has been associated with lower infant mortality and higher rates of immunizations. In high-income countries, studies have found that paid leave increases exclusive breastfeeding and may improve women's economic outcomes. However, factors including the duration of leave, the wage replacement rate, and whether leave is made available to both parents importantly shape the impacts of paid leave policies. While most countries now offer at least some paid maternal leave, many provide less than the 6 months recommended for exclusive breastfeeding, and only around half as many provide paternal leave. To accelerate progress on the SDGs' commitments to maternal and child health, we should monitor countries' actions on enacting or strengthening paid leave policies. Further research is needed on the duration, wage replacement rate, and availability of leave before and after birth that would best support both child and parental health outcomes and social determinants of health more

  20. Pregnancy and parental leave among obstetrics and gynecology residents: results of a nationwide survey of program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariton, Eduardo; Matthews, Benjamin; Burns, Abigail; Akileswaran, Chitra; Berkowitz, Lori R

    2018-04-16

    The health and economic benefits of paid parental leave have been well-documented. In 2016, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists released a policy statement about recommended parental leave for trainees; however, data on adoption of said guidelines are nonexistent, and published data on parental leave policies in obstetrics-gynecology are outdated. The objective of our study was to understand existing parental leave policies in obstetrics-gynecology training programs and to evaluate program director opinions on these policies and on parenting in residency. A Web-based survey regarding parental leave policies and coverage practices was sent to all program directors of accredited US obstetrics-gynecology residency programs. Cross-sectional Web-based survey. Sixty-five percent (163/250) of program directors completed the survey. Most program directors (71%) were either not aware of or not familiar with the recommendations of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 2016 policy statement on parental leave. Nearly all responding programs (98%) had arranged parental leave for ≥1 residents in the past 5 years. Formal leave policies for childbearing and nonchildbearing parents exist at 83% and 55% of programs, respectively. Program directors reported that, on average, programs offer shorter parental leaves than program directors think trainees should receive. Coverage for residents on leave is most often provided by co-residents (98.7%), usually without compensation or schedule rearrangement to reduce work hours at another time (45.4%). Most program directors (82.8%) believed that becoming a parent negatively affected resident performance, and approximately one-half of the program directors believed that having a child in residency decreased well-being (50.9%), although 19.0% believed that it increased resident well-being. Qualitative responses were mixed and highlighted the complex challenges and competing priorities related to parental

  1. Mother on parental leave and child in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    KRUPILOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with currently expanding phenomenon of placing children of mothers on parental leave in kindergarten. This work presents the basic theoretical background of the topic. It defines the contemporary family and its changes, meaning and function of the family, changes in the concept of motherhood and the role of mother, a preschool child, current kindergartens and current legislation regulating parental leave. The second part presents the results of a questionnaire survey among m...

  2. Maternity leave policies in academic and private radiology practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirt, B.A.; Rauth, V.; Price, A.P.F.; Pagani, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    In 1987, the American Association of Women Radiologists surveyed both academic and private radiology departments regarding pregnancy and maternity leave policies. One hundred academic institutions (70% response), 30 radiotherapy departments (38% response), and 31 private practices responded. Details were obtained regarding maternity leave policy for residents and attending physicians; availability of paternity leave; policies regarding on-call time, fluoroscopy time and intracavitary/interstitial applications during pregnancy; and problems that occurred during resident or attending physician pregnancies. There was a wide range of responses regarding paid leave time, availability of additional time, and the use of vacation time during maternity leave

  3. Fathers’ Experience of Shared Parental Leave in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Chronholm

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Swedish parental leave reform in 1974, fathers have had the same rights to use parental leave as mothers. Between 2000 and 2003, a research project at the Department of Sociology, University of Gothenburg, focused on fathers who had taken more than four months of paid parental leave. The approach of the study was mainly qualitative, based upon a combination of a survey and interviews. A majority of the fathers who answered the questionnaire had been the main caregivers for their children during their parental leave. During the interviews many of the men described their mothers as role models for their fatherhood. The men also described their own partner as both anxious to get back to her work after her own parental leave period and convinced of the importance of a nurturing father. An early decision to take part of the parental leave probably made it easier for the men to reach workplace agreements. Most of the men described themselves as both nurturing fathers and as sharing housework equally. They stressed the importance of being alone with their child during a long period, to be able to develop a deep relationship with their child.

  4. Implementing a Paid Leave Policy for Graduate Students at UW-Madison: The Department Chair Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 the University of Wisconsin - Madison Astronomy Department developed and implemented a departmental paid leave policy for our graduate students, even though the university lacks a campus-wide policy and cannot provide institutional funding for such programs. This policy includes 12 weeks of paid leave in event of a medical emergency or chronic medical condition, as well as paid parental leave for both male and female graduate research assistants. Building on the graduate student perspective of Gosnell (2012), I will discuss the process of this successful development of a departmental family and medical leave policy for graduate students from the perspective of a faculty member and chair. In particular I will discuss implications of university policies, the importance of faculty and staff support, the role of private funds, and issues of effort certification.

  5. School Board Policies on Leaves and Absences. Educational Policies Development Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Waterford, CT. Educational Policies Service.

    This report provides board policy samples and other policy resources on leaves and absences. The intent in providing policy samples is to encourage thinking in policy terms and to provide working papers that can be edited, modified, or adapted to meet local requirements. Topics covered in the samples include (1) sick leave, (2) maternity leave,…

  6. Population Health and Paid Parental Leave: What the United States Can Learn from Two Decades of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Burtle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, numerous studies have suggested that dedicated time for parents to be with their children in the earliest months of life offers significant benefits to child health. The United States (US is the only wealthy nation without a formalized policy guaranteeing workers paid time off when they become new parents. As individual US states consider enacting parental leave policies, there is a significant opportunity to decrease health inequities and build a healthier American population. This document is intended as a critical review of the present evidence for the association between paid parental leave and population health.

  7. Population Health and Paid Parental Leave: What the United States Can Learn from Two Decades of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtle, Adam; Bezruchka, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Over the last two decades, numerous studies have suggested that dedicated time for parents to be with their children in the earliest months of life offers significant benefits to child health. The United States (US) is the only wealthy nation without a formalized policy guaranteeing workers paid time off when they become new parents. As individual US states consider enacting parental leave policies, there is a significant opportunity to decrease health inequities and build a healthier American population. This document is intended as a critical review of the present evidence for the association between paid parental leave and population health.

  8. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J R

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  9. Implementing a Paid Leave Policy for Graduate Students at UW - Madison: The Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell, Natalie M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 the University of Wisconsin - Madison Astronomy Department developed and implemented a departmental paid leave policy for our graduate students, even though the university lacks a campus-wide policy and cannot provide institutional funding for such programs. This policy includes 12 weeks of paid leave in event of a medical emergency or chronic medical condition, as well as paid parental leave for both male and female graduate research assistants. (The policy in its entirety can be found at http://www.astro.wisc.edu/grad-students/policies-procedures/medical-and-family-leave-policy.) This is the first of two presentations describing our policy implementation using a "bottom-up" approach, beginning with the graduate students. I will present the perspective of the graduate students who led the effort and will discuss the steps we took to put our policy in place, from the conception of the plan to the full implementation. These steps included identifying faculty allies, becoming knowledgeable about university policies and resources, involving department staff, and anticipating procedural and bureaucratic hurdles in order to come up with creative solutions in advance. Although each individual institution and department's path to implementing a similar plan will be unique, we hope the methods used to implement our policy at UW - Madison may serve as an example.

  10. Maternity leave: existing policies in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J L; Baillie, S; Hodgson, C S; Vontver, L; Platt, L D

    2001-12-01

    To survey program directors in obstetrics and gynecology regarding maternity leave and to determine how programs are dealing with maternity leave coverage. Questionnaires regarding impact and policy on maternity leave were mailed to accredited obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. A total of 188 of 274 (69%) questionnaires were returned completed. Respectively, 80% and 69% of respondents indicated that they have a formal maternity (maximum mean 8.7 weeks) and paternity (mean 5.27 days) leave policy. Approximately 75% of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 8 weeks during the first 3 years. Eighty-five percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 6 weeks during the fourth year. Ninety-three percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 20 weeks over the 4 years. Seventy-seven percent of respondents have other residents in their program cover for the absent resident. Thirty-seven percent of programs have schedules flexible enough to allow rearrangement so that some rotations go uncovered. Eighty-three percent of programs surveyed stated that maternity leave has a somewhat to very significant impact on the residents' schedules. Most residency programs have written maternity/paternity leave policies. A more flexible curriculum may help to accommodate the residents on leave without overburdening the residents who are left to cover.

  11. Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2010-01-01

    Investments in children are generally seen as investments in the future economy. In this study I focus on time investments in children as I investigate the long-term educational effects on children of increasing parents' birth-related leave from 14 to 20 weeks using a natural experiment from 1984...

  12. Labour Market Effects of Parental Leave: A European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Plantenga, J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the aggregate-level effects of parental leave legislation on various labour market outcomes of women in 16 European countries for the period since 1970. The paper updates and extends previous findings in the literature. Results show increases in participation rates that diminish with

  13. Challenging Sex Discrimination Through the Courts: Maternity Leave Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottker, Janice

    This study attempted to determine the extent to which school districts had brought their maternity leave policies into compliance with the latest Supreme Court ruling. The study also analyzed the maternity leave requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC), and sought to determine which variables were associated with…

  14. Child-Care in Norway: Use of Parental Leave by Fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Naz, Ghazala

    2011-01-01

    An important feature of parental leave in Norway is that it allows significant sharing of leave between parents. Parents may take 54 weeks of leave and receive 80 per cent of previous earnings or 44 weeks of leave with 100 per cent of earnings, up to a ceiling amount. Nine weeks of total leave are, however, reserved for the mother and six weeks for the father and, as a general rule, these weeks cannot be transferred to the other parent. The remaining parental leave can be shared between paren...

  15. Father's Migration and Leaving the Parental Home in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia; Hayford, Sarah R.; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Migration is an increasingly common demographic phenomenon and has important implications for the well-being of family members left behind. Although extensive research has examined the impact of parental labor migration on school-age children, less is known about its effect on adolescents. In this study, the authors used longitudinal survey data collected in rural Mozambique (N = 515) to assess the association between father's migration and adolescent children's leaving the parental home, an important component of the transition to adulthood. The results showed that father's migration delays home-leaving for adolescent girls and that these effects are not mediated by school enrollment. The results for boys were inconclusive. The authors also found that remittances and longer durations of paternal migration were negatively associated with the transition out of the home. On the basis of the findings, they argue that father's migration delays girls’ marriage. PMID:27499554

  16. State Maternity/Parental Leave Laws. Facts on Working Women No. 90-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The status of state maternity/parental leave laws throughout the United States is depicted in eight figures and three tables. Information is reported by state for maternity/parental leave laws, months of available leave, maternity/family illness laws, days of leave for family illness, temporary disability insurance laws, temporary disability…

  17. Workplace Policies and Mental Health among Working-Class, New Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Wadsworth, Lauren Page; Halpern, Hillary Paul

    2016-01-01

    Little research has explored linkages between workplace policies and mental health in working-class, employed parents, creating a gap in our knowledge of work-family issues across social class levels. The current U.S. study addresses this gap by employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how workplace policies and parental leave benefits predicted parents' depressive symptoms and anxiety in a sample of 125, low-income, dual-earner couples interviewed across the transition to...

  18. Male use of parental leave in Luxembourg : empirical analysis of administrative records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, N.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the decisions of fathers to use parental leave at the individual level. The focus is on the opportunity cost fathers would face for using the leave. Opportunity cost is measured in two ways: as the difference between the parental leave benefit and the salary of the father and

  19. Medical faculty's views and experiences of parental leave: a collaborative study by the Gender Issues Committee, Council of Ontario Faculties of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S P; Richardson, B; Lent, B

    2000-01-01

    To examine medical faculty's actual and ideal parental leave arrangements with the aim of informing policy decisions. Leave lengths, effect on career, financial arrangements, and availability of temporary replacements were explored. All medical faculty (6387) in Ontario, Canada were surveyed by mail and asked about parental leave experiences since 1990. Responses of men and women were compared as were those of leave takers and the entire group. Thirty-two percent (n = 996) of the 3107 respondents were women and 68% (n = 2067) were men. Ninety-eight percent (n = 317) of new mothers had taken maternity leave, while only 21% (n = 159) of new fathers had. Both paid and unpaid leave was generally shorter than that allowed by law or identified as ideal. Parental leave had a somewhat negative effect on the careers of all faculty. Women were more worried than men about the effect of their absence on colleagues' work and more generous with ideal leave length and funding. Temporary replacement of leave takers was central to an effective leave policy. Institutional and academic culture may cause new parents to take suboptimal leave despite legislation allowing more. A change in the work environment is required for medicine to offer its teachers what it teaches--that infants benefit from nurturing, nursing, and stability early in life.

  20. The Making of a Good Woman: Extended Parental Leave Entitlements and Mothers' Work Commitment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Markus; Ziefle, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The authors investigate the relationship between family policy and women's attachment to the labor market, focusing specifically on policy feedback on women's subjective work commitment. They utilize a quasi-experimental design to identify normative policy effects from changes in mothers' work commitment in conjunction with two policy changes that significantly extended the length of statutory parental leave entitlements in Germany. Using unique survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and difference-in-differences, triple-differenced, and instrumental variables estimators for panel data, they obtain consistent empirical evidence that increasing generosity of leave entitlements led to a decline in mothers' work commitment in both East and West Germany. They also probe potential mediating mechanisms and find strong evidence for role exposure and norm setting effects. Finally, they demonstrate that policy-induced shifts in mothers' preferences have contributed to. retarding women's labor force participation after childbirth in Germany, especially as far as mothers' return to full-time employment is concerned.

  1. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    occupations (67.3%) and Management , Business , and Financial occupations (65.0%), and Production occupations (63.7%). Occupations with lower shares of...married a spouse of the same sex, regardless of the employee’s … state of residency.” (U.S. Government, Office of Personnel Management , Fact Sheet: Family ...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): Policy Issues Gerald

  2. Maternity Leave Policies: Trade-Offs Between Labour Market Demands and Health Benefits for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society.

  3. Parental Leave and Work Adaptation at the Transition to Parenthood: Individual, Marital, and Social Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Sussman, Amy L.; Zigler, Edward

    2004-01-01

    This study examined individual, marital, and social--contextual factors associated with the length of maternity and paternity leave and the parents' work adaptation at the transition to parenthood. Ninety-eight dual-earner parents of 3- to 5-month-old infants were surveyed following the mother's return to work. A shorter maternity leave (less than…

  4. Need for and use of family leave among parents of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Paul J; Garfield, Craig F; Elliott, Marc N; Carey, Colleen; Eriksson, Carl; Schuster, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    Parents of children with special health care needs are especially vulnerable to work-family conflicts that family leave benefits might help resolve. We examined leave-taking among full-time-employed parents of children with special health care needs. We identified all children with special health care needs in 2 large inpatient/outpatient systems in Chicago, Illinois, and Los Angeles, California, and randomly selected 800 per site. From November 2003 to January 2004, we conducted telephone interviews with 1105 (87% of eligible and successfully contacted) parents. Among the sample's 574 full-time-employed parents, we examined whether leave benefits predicted missing any work for child illness, missing >4 weeks for child illness, and ability to miss work whenever their child needed them. Forty-eight percent of full-time-employed parents qualified for federal Family and Medical Leave Act benefits; 30% reported employer-provided leave benefits (not including sick leave/vacation). In the previous year, their children averaged 20 missed school/child care days, 12 doctor/emergency department visits, and 1.7 hospitalizations. Although 81% of parents missed work for child illness, 41% reported not always missing work when their child needed them, and 40% of leave-takers reported returning to work too soon. In multivariate regressions, parents who were eligible for Family and Medical Leave Act benefits and aware of their eligibility had 3.0 times greater odds of missing work for child illness than ineligible parents. Parents with >4 weeks of employer-provided leave benefits had 4.7 times greater odds of missing >4 weeks than parents without benefits. Parents with paid leave benefits had 2.8 times greater odds than other parents of missing work whenever their child needed them. Full-time-employed parents of children with special health care needs experience severe work-family conflicts. Although most have leave benefits, many report unmet need for leave. Access to Family and

  5. Paid parental leave and child development: Evidence from the 2007 German parental benefit reform and administrative data

    OpenAIRE

    Huebener, Mathias; Kuehnle, Daniel; Spieß, Christa Katharina

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of a substantial change in publicly funded paid parental leave in Germany on child development and socio-economic development gaps. For children born before January 1, 2007, parental leave benefits were means-tested and paid for up to 24 months after childbirth. For children born thereafter, parental leave benefits were earnings-related and only paid for up to 14 months. Higher-income households benefited more from the reform than low-income households. We stud...

  6. Consequences of Father’s Parental Leave Use: Evidence from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Zofie Duvander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fathers parental leave use is often assumed to affect gender equality both at home and in the labour market. In the home, fathers parental leave is expected to improve father-child contact later on in the childs life. In this study the associations between fathers parental leave use and further adaption to family life and contact with children are investigated. The first research question is whether fathers who have used parental leave are more likely to have shorter working hours during their childrens first years compared to fathers who have not used the leave. The second question is whether the contact between separated fathers and their children is associated with the fathers previous parental leave use. We use a survey carried out in 2003 with a sample of approximately 4000 parents of children born in 1993 and 1999. The findings indicate that fathers parental leave is associated with both shorter working hours later in the childs life and more contact between separated fathers and their children.

  7. Infant sleep, parental sleep and parenting stress in families of mothers on maternity leave and in families of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Dana; Tikotzky, Liat

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the links between infants' sleep and their parents' sleep and to assess the links between infant/parent sleep and parenting stress. Furthermore, we explored whether the links between sleep and parenting stress are moderated by maternal leave status. Participants were 50 families with an infant between the ages of 4-5 months. Half of the mothers were on maternity leave while the others returned to work. Parents completed daily sleep logs about infants' and their own sleep for 4 consecutive nights. Each parent also completed the Parenting Stress Index. Infant sleep was associated with sleep of both mothers and fathers, but the correlations with maternal sleep were stronger. Parental perceptions of their infant's sleep as problematic were associated with higher parenting stress. Poorer infant and maternal sleep patterns were associated with parenting stress only in families with mothers on maternity leave, probably because these mothers need to provide intensive caregiving "around the clock" without sufficient opportunities to rest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Paid parental leave to immigrants: An obstacle to labor market entrance?

    OpenAIRE

    Vikman, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates how access to paid parental leave affects labor market entrance for immigrating mothers with small children. Paid parental leave together with job protection may increase labor force participation among women but if it is too generous it may create incentives to stay out of the labor force. This incentive effect may be especially true for mothers immigrating to a country where having small children automatically makes the mothers eligible for the benefit. To evaluate the ...

  9. Career effects of taking up parental leave. Evidence from a Dutch University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasblom, J.D.; Plantenga, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of parental leave on individual careers. We use individual registration data of a Dutch non-profit firm (Utrecht University). Our outcomes show that even with a short period of flexible leave there are career effects. More specifically, these effects are not

  10. Gender differences in the impact of family background on leaving the parental home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer, M.; Mulder, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    We address the question to what extent characteristics of the family of origin influence the timing of leaving the parental home and to what extent these effects differ between men and women. We use data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study to examine the effects of parental resources,

  11. Employment, family leave, and parents of newborns or seriously ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Paul J; Lui, Camillia K; Cowgill, Burton O; Hoffman, Geoffrey; Elijah, Jacinta; Schuster, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Parents of newborns and children with special health care needs (CSHCN) often experience conflict between employment and family responsibilities. Family leave benefits such as the federal Family and Medical Leave Act and California's Paid Family Leave Insurance program help employed parents miss work to bond with a newborn or care for an ill child. The use of these benefits, however, is rare among mothers of CSHCN and fathers in general and limited even among mothers of newborns. We explored barriers to and experiences with leave-taking among parents of newborns and CSHCN. We conducted semistructured qualitative interviews in 2008 with 10 mothers and 10 fathers of newborns and 10 mothers and 10 fathers of CSHCN in Los Angeles to explore their need for and experiences with family leave. Qualitative analytical techniques were used to identify themes in the transcripts. All parents reported difficulties in accessing and using benefits, including lack of knowledge by employers, complexity of rules and processes, and inadequacy of the benefits themselves. Parents of CSHCN also described being too overwhelmed to rapidly seek and process information in the setting of urgent and often unexpected health crises. Most parents expressed a clear desire for expert guidance and saw hospitals and clinics as potentially important providers. Even when parents are aware of family leave options, substantial barriers prevent many, especially parents of CSHCN, from learning about or applying for benefits. Clinics and hospitals might be opportune settings to reach vulnerable parents at times of need. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Long Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    related leave from 14 to 20 weeks. We use differences-in-differences regression discontinuity design to identify the causal effect of the leave reform and it estimated whether such a large increase in the mandated leave period has a large measurable and persistent effect on children's cognitive...... and educational outcomes. A 100% sample Danish population born in May, June, July, and August 1983, 1984, and 1985 and a dataset with Danish PISA-2000 scores are used for the estimations. Preliminary results indicate there is no positive effect on children's cognitive outcomes from increasing parents' mandated......    The length of parents' total birth related leave was increased with almost 50% in 1984 in Denmark. The previous length of the Danish maternity leave was long, especially compared to e.g. the U.S. today. This paper investigates the long term effects on children of increasing length of birth...

  13. Awareness and Use of California's Paid Family Leave Insurance Among Parents of Chronically Ill Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Mark A.; Chung, Paul J.; Elliott, Marc N.; Garfield, Craig F.; Vestal, Katherine D.; Klein, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Context In 2004, California's Paid Family Leave Insurance Program (PFLI) became the first state program to provide paid leave to care for an ill family member. Objective To assess awareness and use of the program by employed parents of children with special health care needs, a population likely to need leave. Design, Setting, and Participants Telephone interviews with successive cohorts of employed parents before (November 21, 2003-January 31, 2004; n=754) and after (November 18, 2005-January 31, 2006; n=766) PFLI began, randomly sampled from 2 children's hospitals, one in California (with PFLI) and the other in Illinois (without PFLI). Response rates were 82% before and 81% after (California), and 80% before and 74% after (Illinois). Main Outcome Measures Taking leave, length of leave, unmet need for leave, and awareness and use of PFLI. Results Similar percentages of parents at the California site reported taking at least 1 day of leave to care for their ill child before (295 [81%]) and after (327 [79%]) PFLI, taking at least 4 weeks before (64 [21%]) and after (74 [19%]) PFLI, and at least once in the past year not missing work despite believing their child's illness necessitated it before (152 [41%]) and after (156 [41%]) PFLI. Relative to Illinois, parents at the California site reported no change from before to after PFLI in taking at least 1 day of leave (difference of differences, −3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], −13% to 7%); taking at least 4 weeks of leave (1%; 95% CI, −9% to 10%); or not missing work, despite believing their child's illness necessitated it (−1%; 95% CI, −13% to 10%). Only 77 parents (18%) had heard of PFLI approximately 18 months after the program began, and only 20 (5%) had used it. Even among parents without other access to paid leave, awareness and use of PFLI were minimal. Conclusions Parents of children with special health care needs receiving care at a California hospital were generally unaware of PFLI and rarely used

  14. Awareness and use of California's Paid Family Leave Insurance among parents of chronically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Mark A; Chung, Paul J; Elliott, Marc N; Garfield, Craig F; Vestal, Katherine D; Klein, David J

    2008-09-03

    In 2004, California's Paid Family Leave Insurance Program (PFLI) became the first state program to provide paid leave to care for an ill family member. To assess awareness and use of the program by employed parents of children with special health care needs, a population likely to need leave. Telephone interviews with successive cohorts of employed parents before (November 21, 2003-January 31, 2004; n = 754) and after (November 18, 2005-January 31, 2006; n = 766) PFLI began, randomly sampled from 2 children's hospitals, one in California (with PFLI) and the other in Illinois (without PFLI). Response rates were 82% before and 81% after (California), and 80% before and 74% after (Illinois). Taking leave, length of leave, unmet need for leave, and awareness and use of PFLI. Similar percentages of parents at the California site reported taking at least 1 day of leave to care for their ill child before (295 [81%]) and after (327 [79%]) PFLI, taking at least 4 weeks before (64 [21%]) and after (74 [19%]) PFLI, and at least once in the past year not missing work despite believing their child's illness necessitated it before (152 [41%]) and after (156 [41%]) PFLI. Relative to Illinois, parents at the California site reported no change from before to after PFLI in taking at least 1 day of leave (difference of differences, -3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -13% to 7%); taking at least 4 weeks of leave (1%; 95% CI, -9% to 10%); or not missing work, despite believing their child's illness necessitated it (-1%; 95% CI, -13% to 10%). Only 77 parents (18%) had heard of PFLI approximately 18 months after the program began, and only 20 (5%) had used it. Even among parents without other access to paid leave, awareness and use of PFLI were minimal. Parents of children with special health care needs receiving care at a California hospital were generally unaware of PFLI and rarely used it. Among parents of children with special health care needs, taking leave in California did not

  15. Perceived effects of leave from work and the role of paid leave among parents of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Mark A; Chung, Paul J; Elliott, Marc N; Garfield, Craig F; Vestal, Katherine D; Klein, David J

    2009-04-01

    We examined the perceived effects of leave from work among employed parents of children with special health care needs. Telephone interviews were conducted from November 2003 to January 2004 with 585 parents who had missed 1 or more workdays for their child's illness in the previous year. Most parents reported positive effects of leave on their child's physical (81%) and emotional (85%) health; 57% reported a positive effect on their own emotional health, although 24% reported a negative effect. Most parents reported no effect (44%) or a negative effect (42%) on job performance; 73% reported leave-related financial problems. In multivariate analyses, parents receiving full pay during leave were more likely than were parents receiving no pay to report positive effects on child physical (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85) and emotional (OR = 1.68) health and parent emotional health (OR = 1.70), and were less likely to report financial problems (OR = 0.20). Employed parents believed that leave-taking benefited the health of their children with special health care needs and their own emotional health, but compromised their job performance and finances. Parents who received full pay reported better consequences across the board. Access to paid leave, particularly with full pay, may improve parent and child outcomes.

  16. Efficient Intra-Household Allocation of Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Parys, Juliane; Schwerhoff, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model of how parents resolve conflicts about sharing the negative short and long-term consequences from parenthood-related career interruptions on earnings. We introduce childcare sharing in a collective model of household behavior with public consumption as in Blundell, Chiappori, and Meghier (2005). Conceptually, the solution to the household problem can be thought of as a two-stage process: Parents first agree on public expenditures on professional childcare; then, conditional...

  17. Workplace Policies and Mental Health among Working-Class, New Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z; Wadsworth, Lauren Page; Halpern, Hillary Paul

    2017-01-01

    Little research has explored linkages between workplace policies and mental health in working-class, employed parents, creating a gap in our knowledge of work-family issues across social class levels. The current U.S. study addresses this gap by employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how workplace policies and parental leave benefits predicted parents' depressive symptoms and anxiety in a sample of 125, low-income, dual-earner couples interviewed across the transition to parenthood. Descriptive analyses revealed that, on average, parents had few workplace policies, such as schedule flexibility or child care supports, available to them. Results revealed, however, that, when available, schedule flexibility was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less anxiety for new mothers. Greater child care supports predicted fewer depressive symptoms for fathers. In terms of crossover effects, longer maternal leave predicted declines in fathers' anxiety across the first year. Results are discussed with attention to how certain workplace policies may serve to alleviate new parents' lack of time and resources (minimize scarcity of resources) and, in turn, predict better mental health during the sensitive period of new parenthood.

  18. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  19. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression.

  20. Career effects of taking up parental leave. Evidence from a Dutch University

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasblom, J.D.; Plantenga, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of parental leave on individual careers. We use individual registration data of a Dutch non-profit firm (Utrecht University). Our outcomes show that even with a short period of flexible leave there are career effects. More specifically, these effects are not unambiguously positive: slightly longer job durations are found, but also a lower probability of wage increases. It also appears that there are differences in effects between men and women: for men the ef...

  1. Parent Trigger Policies, Representation, and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ann; Saultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of representation and democratic education, this article examines the impetus of parent trigger policies in the United States and their potential effects on public good goals for public education. The article also uses theories of representation and responsible democratic governance to assess the parent trigger policies, or what are…

  2. From Conception Through Delivery: Developing a Just and Equitable Faculty Maternity Leave Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untener, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    While much has been written on the need for faculty maternity leave policies in institutions of higher learning, the development of such policies is difficult given inherent administrative complexities and multiple approval processes. As a result, many institutions have either no policy or one that is inadequate or out of compliance with…

  3. Leaving home of migrant and Dutch young adults: parent-child and peer relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinepier, T.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of parents and peer relations on home-leaving behavior among young adults of migrant and Dutch descent. Data come from the TIES survey including the Turkish (n = 493) and Moroccan (n = 486) second generation and a native Dutch comparison group (n = 506). Competing risks

  4. Leavers, planners and dwellers : the decision to leave the parental home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baanders, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    Leaving the parental home is one of the most common events in the life course of individuals. It is a normal and natural thing to happen to virtually everyone at some time. However, despite the generality of the event, the transition is not the same for all. Furthermore, the generality of

  5. Novos arranjos familiares, velhas convenções sociais de gênero: a licença-parental como política pública para lidar com essas tensões New family arrangements, old gender social conventions: parental leave as public policy to deal with these tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Pinheiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é tratar o descompasso entre as transformações percebidas nas estruturas familiares e a forma como o Estado responde a essas questões por meio de políticas públicas fundamentadas em um modelo estrito e convencional de família (nuclear, formada por casal com filhos que reafirma convenções tradicionais de gênero. Como exemplo ilustrativo desse descompasso, trabalhamos o caso das licenças para cuidado de filhos/as utilizando, para isto, as informações produzidas pela pesquisa Retrato das Desigualdades, que evidenciam o surgimento de novos modelos de arranjos familiaresThe aim of this paper is to address the gap between the actual changes in the family structure and how the State deals with these matters through public policies which only take into account a strict and conventional model of family (nuclear families, consisting of couples with children, which reaffirms traditional gender conventions. As an example of this gap, we will present the case of work leave for the care of dependents, taking into account the information produced in the research Portrait of Inequalities, that highlights the establishment of new types of family structure

  6. The Long-Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    The length of parents. birth-related leave varies across countries and has been subject of some debate. I investigate the long-term e¤ects on children of increasing the length of parents.birth-related leave using a natural experiment from 1984 in Denmark when the leave length was increased from 14...... to 20 weeks. Regression discontinuity design is used to identify the causal e¤ect of the reform. A population sample of children born in 1984 and a dataset with PISA-2000 scores are used for the analysis. Results indicate that increasing parents. access to birth-related leave has no measurable e...

  7. Knowledge and perceptions of family leave policies among female faculty in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Christine M; Freund, Karen M; Kaplan, Samantha A; Raj, Anita; Carr, Phyllis L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the knowledge and perceptions of family leave policies and practices among senior leaders including American Association of Medical College members of the Group on Women in Medicine and Science (GWIMS) to identify perceived barriers to career success and satisfaction among female faculty. In 2011 and 2012, GWIMS representatives and senior leaders at 24 medical schools were invited to participate in an interview about faculty perceptions of gender equity and overall institutional climate. An inductive, thematic analysis of the qualitative data was conducted to identify themes represented in participant responses. The research team read and reviewed institutional family leave policies for concordance with key informant descriptions. There were 22 GWIMS representatives and senior leaders in the final sample. Participants were all female; 18 (82%) were full professors with the remainder being associate professors. Compared with publicly available policies at each institution, the knowledge of nine participants was consistent with policies, was discrepant for six, with the remaining seven acknowledging a lack of knowledge of policies. Four major themes were identified from the interview data: 1) Framing family leave as a personal issue undermines its effect on female faculty success; 2) poor communication of policies impairs access and affects organizational climate; 3) discrepancies in leave implementation disadvantage certain faculty in terms of time and pay; and 4) leave policies are valued and directly related to academic productivity. Family leave policies are an important aspect of faculty satisfaction and academic success, yet policy awareness among senior leaders is lacking. Further organizational support is needed to promote equitable policy creation and implementation to support women in medical academia. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Paternity Leave: Current Status and Future Prospects. Working Paper No. 157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleck, Joseph H.

    This paper examines current patterns and trends in the availability and use of parental leave by U.S. fathers. Introductory material focuses on legal and administrative contexts of parental leave and parental leave policies available to employed mothers. The main discussion uses U.S. and Swedish data to explore (1) long-term paid leave at the time…

  9. Health policy in Denmark: leaving the decentralized welfare path?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrangbaek, Karsten; Christiansen, Terkel

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we investigate developments in Danish health care policy. After a short presentation of its historical roots, we focus on the decades after the administrative reform of 1970, which shaped the current decentralized public health care system. Theories of path dependency and institutional inertia are used to explain the relative stability in the overall structure, and theories of policy process and reform are used to discuss gradual changes within the overall framework. Although comprehensive reforms have not taken place in Denmark, many gradual changes may pave the way for more radical changes in the future. The political climate currently seems to be more favorable toward structural reform than in the past.

  10. Parenting Support: Policy and Practice in the Irish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Nuala; Devaney, Carmel

    2018-01-01

    Increasing government interest in parenting support has emerged in response to the increasingly diverse form of families, a growing emphasis on children's rights and a policy shift towards prevention and early intervention. This has contributed to a range of stakeholder activity in the area, with the notion that parenting is a set of skills that…

  11. "Don't Leave Me!": Helping the Child Whose Parents Are Separating. Between Teacher & Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodkin, Adele M.

    2005-01-01

    This article relates the story of a young girl's difficulties in accepting her parents' separation, and offers suggestions for both teachers and parents on how to help a child cope with his or her feelings and anxiety in this situation. Resources for further study are also offered.

  12. The Long-Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    The length of parents' birth-related leave varies across countries and has been subject of some debate. In this paper, I will focus on some potential benefits of leave. I investigate the long-term effects on children of increasing the length of parents' birth-related leave using a natural...... experiment from 1984 in Denmark when the leave length was increased quite suddenly by almost 50% from 14 to 20 weeks. Regression discontinuity design is used to identify the causal effect of the leave reform and to estimate whether there is a measurable, persistent effect on children's cognitive...... and educational outcomes at ages 15 and 21. A population sample of Danish children born in the months around implementation of the reform and a dataset with Danish PISA-2000 scores are used for the analysis. Results indicate that increasing parents' access to birth-related leave has no measurable effect...

  13. Are parental leaves considered as work interruptions by survey respondents? A methodological note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Le Bourdais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parental leaves and family-related work interruptions are linked to a variety of issues, such as children’s well-being or women’s work trajectories. Yet, the measurement of periods of absence from the labour market might be imprecise, especially in retrospective surveys. To evaluate the quality of the collected information, we examine whether women who reported taking a parental leave longer than six months also mentioned a corresponding work interruption, using the 2008 Living in Canada Survey (LCS – Pilot. Our analysis shows that nearly half of women failed to do so. We investigate the sources of the discrepancy and suggest possible avenues of change for future surveys.

  14. Effective Approaches to the Care of the Employees on Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Kostrůnková, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis focuses on identifying the most suitable model of care for em-ployees on parental leave which would bring benefits both to the company and towards employees in European countris. Thesis is built on research within six member countries, Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, Sweden, Finland and Netherlands, and companies on those markets. The main aim is to find a recommendation for employee's care which is based on Scope planning model, along with the cost's analyses of the mod...

  15. Working Parents' Use of Work-Life Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. den Dulk (Laura); A. Peper (Bram)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we examine working parent’s use of work-life policies in three financial sector organizations in the Netherlands. We analyse the barriers and support regarding the actual take up of work-life policies by working parents and to what extent this in turn influence their

  16. Parental Ethnotheories and Family Language Policy in Transnational Adoptive Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, Lyn Wright

    2013-01-01

    Family language policy refers to explicit and overt decisions parents make about language use and language learning as well as implicit processes that legitimize certain language and literacy practices over others in the home. Studies in family language policy have emphasized the ways in which family-internal processes are shaped by and shape…

  17. "Doing the Job as a Parent": Parenting Alone, Work, and Family Policy in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Michelle; Coen, Liam; Bradley, Ciara; Rau, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of family life in Ireland have focused on changes in "traditional" family structures, including the increase in one-parent families. This article illustrates the impact dominant conceptions in Irish society that privilege the family based on marriage have on one-parent family policy. The authors focus on two key areas of…

  18. Every Parent Matters: Reflections from England upon New Labour's Parent Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Howard; Simon, Catherine A.

    2010-01-01

    In England, until May 2010, the New Labour party had been in power for thirteen years. This paper is a reflection back upon its period in office and its strident policies on parents and families. It questions its stance on parental "voice and choice," looks at issues of trust and contract, and considers the idea of "parent…

  19. Parental leave and increased physical activity of fathers and mothers--results from the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Klara; Wennberg, Patrik; Hammarström, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Physical activity is an important public health issue. Factors shown to be associated with physical activity are parenthood and country-level gender equality, while the importance of individual gender equality (in parenthood or in general) remains to explore. In Scandinavia, where parental leave can be shared equally between mothers and fathers, parental leave is one dimension of gender equality in parenthood. The aim of this study was to investigate parental leave in relation to increased physical activity among men and women. Participants in the Northern Swedish Cohort with a child born 1993-2005 (n = 584) were investigated with questionnaires at ages 21 and 42; register data on parental leave between ages 28 and 42 were obtained from Statistics Sweden. The relationships between parental leave between ages 28 and 42 and meeting WHO guidelines for physical activity at age 42, as well as changes in physical activity between ages 21 and 42, were tested with multinomial regression, controlling for socio-economic status and birth year of the child. For women, the length of parental leave was not associated with increased physical activity or with meeting WHO guidelines at age 42. For men, parental leave was associated with increased physical activity, controlling for socio-economic status and age of the child, but not with meeting WHO guidelines for physical activity at age 42. A gender non-traditional out-take of parental leave might be associated with an increase in physical activity among men at the lower end of the physical activity spectrum, but not among women. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Forerunners and Laggards in Sweden’s Family Change. Fathers’ uptake of parental leave, 1993-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Li; Andersson, Gunnar; Duvander, Ann-Zofie; Evertsson, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Sweden is often considered a forerunner in family change and developments towards less gendered patterns of family production. In this study, we focus on recent developments towards more gender equal sharing of parental leave in Sweden. This country was the first in the world to introduce a gender-neutral parental leave scheme. The aim was to promote the combination of work and family, mainly by enabling women’s participation in the labor force. With time, the focus of polic...

  1. Leaving your mark: how policy entrepreneurs set the agenda in the IJsselmeer area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduijn, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    This book reports on Simon Verduijn’s (1985) PhD research on a variety of individuals who try to leave their mark on the IJsselmeer area, the Netherlands. These individuals are regarded as policy entrepreneurs: people that strategically employ framing and networking strategies to advocate or oppose

  2. Working Parents' use of work-life policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dulk, Laura den; Peper, Bram

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we examine working parent’s use of work-life policies in three financial sector organizations in the Netherlands. We analyse the barriers and support regarding the actual take up of work-life policies by working parents and to what extent this in turn influence their experienced work-life balance. We collected survey data in three Dutch financial sector organizations: one public sector organization and two private firms. All three differ considerably regarding their organizatio...

  3. Policies and practices of parental involvement and parent-teacher relations in Irish primary education: a critical discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Brigid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a critical discourse analysis of policies of parental involvement in Irish education from the past decade. It explores three questions: Do discourses of parental involvement and teacher professionalism construct parent-teacher relations in Irish primary education?; What implications do these constructions have for policies and practices of parent-teacher relationships, particularly parent-teacher partnerships, in Irish primary education?; How can these constructions be ch...

  4. Responses to Including Parents in Teacher Evaluation Policy: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Erica; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2018-01-01

    The intersection of development in family and school settings has been well established and education policies have begun to promote ways to bridge the two contexts (i.e. teacher evaluations). For this manuscript, authors focus on how teachers and principals used a state educator evaluation policy to position parents as authorities on education.…

  5. Maternity Leave Length and Workplace Policies' Impact on the Sustainment of Breastfeeding: Global Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    Breastfeeding is a global initiative of the World Health Organization and the U.S. domestic health agenda, Healthy People 2020; both recommend exclusive breastfeeding, defined as providing breast milk only via breast or bottle, through the first 6 months of an infant's life. Previous literature has shown the correlation between socioeconomic status and breastfeeding, with higher maternal education and income as predictors of sustained breastfeeding. This same population of women is more likely to be employed outside the home. PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using inclusion and exclusion criteria to identify the effect of maternity leave length and workplace policies on the sustainment of breastfeeding for employed mothers. Common facilitators to sustainment of breastfeeding included longer length of maternity leave as well as adequate time and space for the pumping of breast milk once the mother returned to the workplace. Barriers included inconsistency in policy and the lack of enforcement of policies in different countries. There is a lack of consistency globally on maternity leave length and workplace policy as determinants of sustained breastfeeding for employed mothers. A consistent approach is needed to achieve the goal of exclusive breastfeeding for infants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Health issues and the practicing radiologist: defining concepts and developing recommendations for leave options and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbrun, Marta E; Bender, Claire E; Truong, Hang B; Bluth, Edward I

    2013-09-01

    Radiologists today are faced with the challenges of maintaining and balancing individual and family health needs and the demands of the workplace. To provide the highest quality and safest care of our patients, a corresponding ethos of support for a healthy workforce is required. There is a paucity of targeted information describing protections for and maintenance of the health of the practicing radiologist, in both private and academic settings. However, a review of existing family and medical leave policies may be helpful to practice leaders and practicing radiologists as a platform for the development of strategic workforce plans. This writing, by members of the ACR Commission on Human Resources, addresses the following areas: (1) medical leave, (2) maternity and/or paternity leave, and (3) disability. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. FAILURES-TO-LAUNCH AND BOOMERANG KIDS: CONTEMPORARY DETERMINANTS OF LEAVING AND RETURNING TO THE PARENTAL HOME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Scott J; Lei, Lei

    2015-12-01

    The percentage of young American adults residing in their parents' home has increased markedly over recent years, but we know little about how sociodemographic, life-course, and parental characteristics facilitate or impede leaving or returning home. We use longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Transition into Adulthood survey to examine the determinants of leaving and returning home among youth who turned age 18 between 2005 and 2011. Findings from event history models show that while leaving and returning home is to some extent a function of normative life-course transitions, characteristics of the parental home (e.g., presence of co-resident siblings, mother's educational attainment) and the degree of family connectivity (e.g., emotional closeness to mother, instrumental help from family) also play important roles. Experiencing physical, including sexual, victimization drives young adults both out of, and back into, the parental home. Having parents in poor physical health encourages young adults to move back home. Overall, the results suggest that a comprehensive explanation for both home-leaving and home-returning will need to look beyond life-course transitions and standard economic accounts to encompass a broader array of push and pull factors, particularly those that bond young adults with their parents.

  8. Slow Steps towards Dual Earner/Dual Carer Family Model: Why Do Fathers Not Take Parental Leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marre Karu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/dual carer family model and focuses on fathers’ decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of ‘good parenting’ that play a role in the fathers’ intention to take parental leave. First, there is an image of an outcome-oriented ‘project manager’ affected by failure anxiety, and second, there is a much more relaxed image of a ‘good parent’ as a ‘companion’ who values everyday contact and a close relationship with the child(ren.

  9. Social policies related to parenthood and capabilities of Slovenian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrčela, Aleksandra Kanjuo; Sadar, Nevenka Černigoj

    2011-01-01

    We apply Sen's capability approach to evaluate the capabilities of Slovenian parents to reconcile paid work and family in the context of the transition to a market economy. We examine how different levels of capabilities together affect the work–life balance (WLB) of employed parents. We combine both quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches. The results of our quantitative and qualitative research show that increased precariousness of employment and intensification of work create gaps between the legal and normative possibilities for successful reconciliation strategies and actual use of such arrangements in Slovenia. The existing social policies and the acceptance of gender equality in the sphere of paid work enhance capabilities for reconciliation of paid work and parenthood, whereas the intensification of working lives, the dominance of paid work over other parts of life, and the acceptance of gender inequalities in parental and household responsibilities limit parents’ capabilities to achieve WLB.

  10. Parental leave take up and return to work of mothers in Luxembourg: An application of the model of nested dichotomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the use of parental leave after birth of a child for working mothers. Even though employment rates of women in industrialized countries are rising, women continue to assume the primary responsibility for caring for young children after they are born. Therefore it is interesting

  11. Family Policies and Children's School Achievement in Single- versus Two-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Suet-Ling; Dronkers, Jaap; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the gap in math and science achievement of third- and fourth-graders who live with a single parent versus those who live with two parents in 11 countries. Finds single parenthood to be less detrimental when family policies equalize resources between single- and two-parent families. Concludes that national family policies can offset…

  12. Could gender equality in parental leave harm off-springs' mental health? a registry study of the Swedish parental/child cohort of 1988/89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norström Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mental ill-health among children and young adults is a growing public health problem and research into causes involves consideration of family life and gender practice. This study aimed at exploring the association between parents' degree of gender equality in childcare and children's mental ill-health. Methods The population consisted of Swedish parents and their firstborn child in 1988-1989 (N = 118 595 family units and the statistical method was multiple logistic regression. Gender equality of childcare was indicated by the division of parental leave (1988-1990, and child mental ill-health was indicated by outpatient mental care (2001-2006 and drug prescription (2005-2008, for anxiety and depression. Results The overall finding was that boys with gender traditional parents (mother dominance in childcare have lower risk of depression measured by outpatient mental care than boys with gender-equal parents, while girls with gender traditional and gender untraditional parents (father dominance in childcare have lower risk of anxiety measured by drug prescription than girls with gender-equal parents. Conclusions This study suggests that unequal parenting regarding early childcare, whether traditional or untraditional, is more beneficial for offspring's mental health than equal parenting. However, further research is required to confirm our findings and to explore the pathways through which increased gender equality may influence child health.

  13. Could gender equality in parental leave harm off-springs' mental health? a registry study of the Swedish parental/child cohort of 1988/89

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mental ill-health among children and young adults is a growing public health problem and research into causes involves consideration of family life and gender practice. This study aimed at exploring the association between parents' degree of gender equality in childcare and children's mental ill-health. Methods The population consisted of Swedish parents and their firstborn child in 1988-1989 (N = 118 595 family units) and the statistical method was multiple logistic regression. Gender equality of childcare was indicated by the division of parental leave (1988-1990), and child mental ill-health was indicated by outpatient mental care (2001-2006) and drug prescription (2005-2008), for anxiety and depression. Results The overall finding was that boys with gender traditional parents (mother dominance in childcare) have lower risk of depression measured by outpatient mental care than boys with gender-equal parents, while girls with gender traditional and gender untraditional parents (father dominance in childcare) have lower risk of anxiety measured by drug prescription than girls with gender-equal parents. Conclusions This study suggests that unequal parenting regarding early childcare, whether traditional or untraditional, is more beneficial for offspring's mental health than equal parenting. However, further research is required to confirm our findings and to explore the pathways through which increased gender equality may influence child health. PMID:22463683

  14. Nurses' work environment and intent to leave in Lebanese hospitals: implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Dumit, Nuhad; Dimassi, Hani; Jamal, Diana; Maalouf, Salwa

    2011-02-01

    The dual burden of nursing shortages and poor work environments threatens quality of patient care and places additional pressures on resource-stretched health care systems, particularly in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). There is a paucity of research in the EMR examining the quality of nurses' work environment and its association to nurses' intent to leave their jobs/countries. Systematically examine the characteristics of nurses' work environment and their relation to nurses' intent to leave their jobs within the context of Lebanon. A secondary objective is to assess the utility and validity of the NWI-R within the context of the EMR. A cross-sectional survey design was utilized to survey a total of 1793 registered nurses in 69 Lebanese hospitals. The survey instrument included questions on nurses' background, hospital characteristics, intent to leave, and the Revised Nurse Working Index (NWI-R). Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic characteristics, t-test and ANOVA to assess differences in agreement scores, and a multinomial logistic regression model to predict intent to leave. Thematic analysis of open-ended questions was utilized to extract themes that fit under issues relating to nurses' work environment in Lebanese hospitals. The NWI-R subscale with the lowest mean score related to control. Younger nurses had lower scores on organizational support and career development. Regression analysis revealed that for every 1 point score decrease on career development there was a 93% increase in likelihood of reporting intent to leave country. Likewise, for every 1 point score decrease on participation there was an observed 51% and 53% increase in likelihood of reporting intent to leave country and hospital, respectively. Findings show that hospital characteristics (size, accreditation status and presence of a recruitment and retention strategy) were significantly associated with NWI-R subscales. Participation, control and career

  15. Parents of children diagnosed with cancer: work situation and sick leave, a five-year post end-of-treatment or a child's death follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman, Anna; Hovén, Emma; Cernvall, Martin; Ljungman, Gustaf; Ljungman, Lisa; von Essen, Louise

    Cancer in a child is associated with a significant impact on parental employment. We assessed the proportions of parents of survivors and bereaved parents working and reporting sick leave five years after end of successful treatment (ST)/child's death (T7) compared with one year after end of ST/child's death (T6) and the association between partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and work situation and sick leave at T7. Participants and procedure: The sample included 152 parents of survivors (77 mothers, 75 fathers) and 42 bereaved parents (22 mothers, 20 fathers) of children diagnosed with cancer in Sweden. The proportions of parents working or reporting sick leave did not differ among mothers and fathers of survivors (92% vs. 96% working, 20% vs. 18% on sick leave) or among bereaved mothers and fathers (91% vs. 90% working, 14% vs. 20% on sick leave) at T7. There was no change from T6 to T7 in the proportion of fathers working (fathers of survivors 91% vs. 96%, bereaved fathers 95% vs. 90%). Although more mothers of survivors (92% vs. 82%) and bereaved mothers (91% vs. 77%) worked at T7 than at T6, this increase was not significant. Fewer bereaved mothers reported sick leave at T7 than at T6 (14% vs. 59%, p leave at T7 than at T6 (fathers of survivors 18% vs. 8%, bereaved fathers 20% vs. 15%), this was not significant. Partial PTSD was not associated with parents' work situation or sick leave at T7. Results suggest little adverse effect on work situation and sick leave among parents of survivors and bereaved parents five years after end of ST/child's death from cancer. However, the pattern of change observed differed between parents, which could potentially indicate possible delayed consequences for fathers not captured in the present paper.

  16. Parents Ask about Parent Involvement Policies = Los padres preguntan acerca del plan de accion para la participacion de los padres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RMC Research Corp., Portsmouth, NH.

    This guide, which includes both English and Spanish versions, discusses parent involvement policies, which explain how the school district or the school itself supports the important role of parents in the education of their children. Every school district that receives money from Title I of the Improving America's Schools Act, the federal aid…

  17. Parents' Assessment of Their Preschool Children's Bilingual Development in the Context of Family Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Parents' assessment of children's development in the first and the second language is an essential part of their family language policy (FLP) and an important component of parent-child communication. This paper presents a pilot study focused on Russian-speaking immigrant parents' assessment of their children's language knowledge in Russian as a…

  18. Responding to the Needs of Young People Leaving State Care: Law, Practice, and Policy in England and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, John; Stein, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the challenge for state child welfare services when young people leave care is to prepare them to cope with pressures surrounding this transition. Reviews existing research to explore current practice in England and Northern Ireland, and considers whether recent legislative reform in the two jurisdictions will help develop policy and…

  19. Changing maternity leave policy: short-term effects on fertility rates and demographic variables in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrian, Jochen René; Fendrich, Konstanze; Lange, Anja; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Zygmunt, Marek; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    Changes in reproductive behaviour and decreasing fertility rates have recently led to policy actions that attempt to counteract these developments. Evidence on the efficacy of such policy interventions, however, is limited. The present analysis examines fertility rates and demographic variables of a population in Germany in response to new maternity leave regulations, which were introduced in January 2007. As part of a population-based survey of neonates in Pomerania (SNiP), all births in the study region from the period 23 months prior to January 1st, 2007 until 23 months afterwards were examined. Crude Birth Rates (CBR) per month, General Fertility Rates (GFR) per month, parity and sociodemographic variables were compared using bivariate techniques. Logistic regression analysis was performed. No statistically significant difference in the CBR or GFR after Jan. 1st, 2007 was found. There were statistically significant differences in other demographic variables, however. The proportion of mothers who (a) were employed full-time before pregnancy; (b) came from a higher socioeconomic status; and (c) had higher income levels all increased after January 1st, 2007. The magnitude of these effects was higher in multigravid women. Forward stepwise logistic regression found an odds ratio of 1.79 for women with a family income of more than 3000 euro to give birth after the new law was introduced. This is the first analysis of population-based data that examines fertility rates and sociodemographic variables in response to new legal regulations. No short-term effects on birth rates were detected, but there was a differential effect on the subgroup of multigravidae. The focus of this policy was to provide financial support, which is certainly important, but the complexity of having a child suggests that attitudinal and motivational aspects also need to be taken into account. Furthermore, these analyses were only able to evaluate the short-term consequences of the policy

  20. Comparative Perspectives on Work-Life Balance and Gender Equality: Fathers on Leave Alone

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Margaret; Wall, Karin

    2017-01-01

    This book portrays men’s experiences of home alone leave and how it affects their lives and family gender roles in different policy contexts and explores how this unique parental leave design is implemented in these contrasting policy regimes. The book brings together three major theoretical strands: social policy, in particular the literature on comparative leave policy developments; family and gender studies, in particular the analysis of gendered divisions of work and care and recent shi...

  1. Caring for elder parents: a comparative evaluation of family leave laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Gimm, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    As the baby boomer generation ages, the need for laws to enhance quality of life for the elderly and meet the increasing demand for family caregivers will continue to grow. This paper reviews the national family leave laws of nine major OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom) and provides a state-by-state analysis within the U.S. We find that the U.S. has the least generous family leave laws among the nine OECD countries. With the exception of two states (California and New Jersey), the U.S. federal Family Medical Leave Act of 1993 provides no right to paid family leave for eldercare. We survey the current evidence from the literature on how paid leave can impact family caregivers' employment and health outcomes, gender equality, and economic arguments for and against such laws. We argue that a generous and flexible family leave law, financed through social insurance, would not only be equitable, but also financially sustainable. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  2. Family policy instruments oriented towards single parent families in the Czech Republic and in selected European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with family policy oriented towards single parent families. This thesis tries to define reasons why single parent families are arising. It addresses the divorce rate, birth rate, and extramarital fertility. Differences between families with both parents and single parent families are defined and the subjective views of single parents in the Czech Republic are described in this thesis. Provisions from family policy, which take into account single parent families in t...

  3. Law, Economics, and Culture: Theory of Mandated Benefits and Evidence from Maternity Leave Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Yehonatan Givati; Ugo Troiano

    2012-01-01

    Why do some countries mandate a long maternity leave, while others mandate only a short one? We incorporate into a standard mandated-benefit model social tolerance of gender-based discrimination, showing that the optimal length of maternity leave depends on it. The less tolerant a society is of gender-based discrimination, the longer the maternity leave it will mandate. Relying on recent research in psychology and linguistics according to which patterns in languages offer a window into their ...

  4. Does verbal abuse leave deeper scars: a study of children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, P G

    1987-06-01

    This study investigating the effects of verbal abuse on children and their abused parents, tends to support the clinical impression that verbal abuse may have a greater impact for a longer period of time. Although there are very few pure forms of verbal abuse, there are some parents who use verbal abuse but would hit their children, neglect them, or involve them in sex. Verbal abuse may become an increasingly frequent form of controlling and disciplining children because of the increased awareness of physical abuse and because of the possible declining value of children. Verbal abuse may have a greater impact because the abused child has greater difficulty defending himself from the attack. Because children tend to identify with their parents, the verbal abuse by their parents becomes a way in which they then abuse themselves.

  5. Congratulations, You're Pregnant! Now About Your Shifts . . . : The State of Maternity Leave Attitudes and Culture in EM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVane, Casey Z; Fix, Megan L; Strout, Tania D; Zimmerman, Kate D; Bloch, Rebecca B; Hein, Christine L

    2017-08-01

    Increasing attention has been focused on parental leave, but little is known about early leave and parental experiences for male and female attending physicians. Our goal was to describe and quantify the parental leave experiences of a nationally representative sample of emergency physicians (EP). We conducted a web-based survey, distributed via emergency medicine professional organizations, discussion boards, and listservs, to address study objectives. We analyzed data from 464 respondents; 56% were women. Most experienced childbirth while employed as an EP. Fifty-three percent of women and 60% of men reported working in a setting with a formal maternity leave policy; however, 36% of women and 18% of men reported dissatisfaction with these policies. Most reported that other group members cover maternity-related shift vacancies; a minority reported that pregnant partners work extra shifts prior to leave. Leave duration and compensation varied widely, ranging from no compensated leave (18%) to 12 or more weeks at 100% salary (7%). Supportive attitudes were reported during pregnancy (53%) and, to a lesser degree (43%), during leave. Policy improvement suggestions included the development of clear, formal policies; improving leave duration and compensation; adding paternity and adoption leave; providing support for physicians working extra to cover colleagues' leave; and addressing breastfeeding issues. In this national sample of EPs, maternity leave policies varied widely. The duration and compensation during leave also had significant variation. Participants suggested formalizing policies, increasing leave duration and compensation, adding paternity leave, and changing the coverage for vacancies to relieve burden on physician colleagues.

  6. Parenting, family life, and well-being among sexual minorities: nursing policy and practice implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Scott

    2008-06-01

    Parenting and family life are fundamental social constructs in human society and in law and public policy. Family structures and support systems provide important economic and psychological advantages for parents as well as for their children. Stigma toward lesbian and gay parents often marginalize individuals in these families and restrict family members' full expression of social citizenship, humanity, and personhood. Stigma directly contributes to increased risk for substance abuse, anxiety, and depressive illness among both parents and children. This article reviews the relevant policy literature to deconstruct the impacts of stigma on the psychological health and well-being of sexual minority parents so that psychiatric/mental health nurses and other health care providers can identify and counter these effects in their practices and advocate for policy improvements.

  7. The Need to Change Army Policies Toward Single Parents and Dual Military Couples With Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify the key challenges with current Army personnel policies and to provide recommendations that would reduce the impact of single parents on Army unit readiness...

  8. Association of School Nutrition Policy and Parental Control with Childhood Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Chung Gun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools and parents may play important roles in preventing childhood obesity by affecting children's behaviors related to energy balance. This study examined how school nutrition policy and parental control over children's eating and physical activity habits are associated with the children's overweight/obesity (hereafter overweight)…

  9. Leaving Home State for College: Differences by Race/Ethnicity and Parental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Sunny X.

    2015-01-01

    Using the College Board SAT registration and questionnaire data of 2010 high school graduating seniors, we found clear patterns by race/ethnicity and parental education on two outcomes: out-of-state score-sending and out-of-state college attendance. White students had the highest rates and Hispanic students had the lowest rates, and there was a…

  10. Paid parental leave and family wellbeing in the sustainable development era

    OpenAIRE

    Heymann, Jody; Sprague, Aleta R.; Nandi, Arijit; Earle, Alison; Batra, Priya; Schickedanz, Adam; Chung, Paul J.; Raub, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Background The Sustainable development goals (SDGs) have the potential to have a significant impact on maternal and child health through their commitments both to directly addressing health services and to improving factors that form the foundation of social determinants of health. To achieve change at scale, national laws and policies have a critical role to play in implementing the SDGs’ commitments. One particular policy that could advance a range of SDGs and importantly improve maternal a...

  11. The Micro-Politics of Parental Involvement in School Education in Hong Kong: Ethnocentrism, Utilitarianism or Policy Rhetoric!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shun-wing; Yuen, Wai Kwan Gail

    2015-01-01

    The impact of parental involvement on school management has been recognized by many education professionals and policy-makers. Thus parental involvement in school education becomes one of the prime focuses in the current education reform movement in Hong Kong. Particularly, specific guidelines and policies for involving parents at various levels…

  12. Parent opinion of sexuality education in a state with mandated abstinence education: does policy match parental preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kristin E; Gizlice, Ziya; Owen-O'Dowd, Judy; Foust, Evelyn; Leone, Peter A; Miller, William C

    2006-11-01

    Despite public debate about the content of sexuality education in schools, state and federal policy has increasingly financed and legislated abstinence-only education over the past decade. Although public schools strive to meet the needs of parents who, as taxpayers, fund the educational system, little is known about parental desires regarding sexuality education in states with mandated abstinence education. The objective of this study was to assess parental opinion about sexuality education in public schools in North Carolina, a state with mandated abstinence education. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted among 1306 parents of North Carolina public school students in grades K-12. Parental support for sexuality education in public schools and 20 sexuality education topics was measured. We defined comprehensive sexuality education as education that includes a discussion of how to use and talk about contraception with partners. Parents in North Carolina overwhelmingly support sexuality education in public schools (91%). Of these respondents, the majority (89%) support comprehensive sexuality education. Less than a quarter of parents oppose teaching any specific topic, including those typically viewed as more controversial, such as discussions about sexual orientation, oral sex, and anal sex. Parents' level of education was inversely related to support for specific sexuality education topics and comprehensive education, although these differences were small in magnitude. More than 90% of respondents felt that parents and public health professionals should determine sexuality education content and opposed the involvement of politicians. Current state-mandated abstinence sexuality education does not match parental preference for comprehensive sexuality education in North Carolina public schools.

  13. Paid parental leave supports breastfeeding and mother-infant relationship: a prospective investigation of maternal postpartum employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the association between the mother-infant relationship, defined as maternal-infant emotional attachment, maternal separation anxiety and breastfeeding, and maternal employment status at 10 months following first childbirth. Samples of employed, pregnant women, over 18 years of age and with sufficient English literacy were recruited systematically from one public and one private maternity hospital in Victoria. Data were collected by structured interview and self-report questionnaire in the third trimester, and at 3 and 10 months postpartum. Socio-demographic, employment, and breastfeeding information was collected. Participants completed standardised assessments of maternal separation anxiety and mother-to-infant emotional attachment. Of 205 eligible women, 165 (81%) agreed to participate and 129 (78%) provided complete data. A reduced odds of employment participation was independently associated with continuing to breastfeed at 10 months (OR=0.22, p=0.004) and reporting higher maternal separation anxiety (OR=0.23, p=0.01) when maternal age, education, occupational status and use of paid maternity leave and occupational status were adjusted for in analyses. Employment participation in the first 10 months postpartum is associated with lower maternal separation anxiety, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Paid parental leave has public health implications for mothers and infants. These include permitting sufficient time to protect sustained breastfeeding, and the development of optimal maternal infant attachment, reflected in confidence about separation from her infant. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Pedestrian paths: why path-dependence theory leaves health policy analysis lost in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence D

    2010-08-01

    Path dependence, a model first advanced to explain puzzles in the diffusion of technology, has lately won allegiance among analysts of the politics of public policy, including health care policy. Though the central premise of the model--that past events and decisions shape options for innovation in the present and future--is indisputable (indeed path dependence is, so to speak, too shallow to be false), the approach, at least as applied to health policy, suffers from ambiguities that undercut its claims to illuminate policy projects such as managed care, on which this article focuses. Because path dependence adds little more than marginal value to familiar images of the politics of policy--incrementalism, for one--analysts might do well to put it on the back burner and pursue instead "thick descriptions" that help them to distinguish different degrees of openness to exogenous change among diverse policy arenas.

  15. Does hospital discharge policy influence sick-leave patterns in the case of female breast cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Rikard; Stenbeck, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    in 2000 were selected from the National Cancer Register and combined with data from the sick-leave database of the National Social Insurance Board and the National Hospital Discharge Register (N = 1834). A multi-factorial model was fitted to the data to investigate how differences in hospital care...

  16. Sabbatical, Personal, Maternity, and Sick Leave Policies. Collective Bargaining Perspectives, Volume 2, Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeres, Ernest R.

    While hiring and advancement considerations are of paramount importance to the faculty member as well as to the institution where collective bargaining agreements are negotiated each year, other employment conditions are accorded almost as much consideration. Allowances for leave follow closely on the heels of placement and promotion conditions in…

  17. Children without Permanent Parents: Research, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Bos, Karen; Bunkers, Kelley McCreery; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; Engle, Patrice L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Gamer, Gary N.; Goldman, Philip; Groark, Christina J.; Greenberg, Aaron; Grotevant, Harold D.; Groza, Victor K.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Johnson, Dana E.; Juffer, Femmie; Kreppner, Jana M.; Le Mare, Lucy; McCall, Robert B.; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Palacios, Jesus; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Steele, Howard; Steele, Miriam; Tieman, Wendy; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vorria, Panayiota; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph reviews literature pertaining to children without permanent parents. Chapters review (1) the development of children while institutional residents; (2) the development of postinstitutionalized children transitioned to family environments (i.e., adoption); the effects of institutionalization on (3) attachment behaviors, (4) physical…

  18. Employment Insecurity at Labour Market Entry and Its Impact on Parental Home Leaving and Family Formation : A Comparative Study among Recent Graduates in Eight European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, Maarten H.J.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores whether employment insecurity (i.e. unemployment and fl exible employment) at labour market entry has a negative impact on parental home leaving and family formation. To answer this question, data from a large-scale European graduate survey carried out in 1998 were analysed.

  19. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  20. Childminders, Parents and Policy: Testing the Triangle of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Childminders in England have historically been seen as marginal providers of childcare, fulfilling Bruner's description of the service as an "accordion pleat" in provision. This article outlines the history and current position of childminders in English early childhood policy, and then reports on the views on this role of childminders…

  1. Association between parental access to paid sick leave and children's access to and use of healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay; Colopy, Maria

    2017-03-01

    We examined the association between parental access to paid sick leave (PPSL) and children's use of preventive care and reduced likelihood of delayed medical care and emergency room (ER) visits. We used the child sample of the National Health Interview Survey data (linked to the adult and family samples) from 2011 through 2015 and logistic and negative binomial regression models. Controlling for covariates, the odds of children with PPSL receiving flu vaccination were 12.5% [95%CI: 1.06-1.19] higher and receiving annual medical checkups were 13.2% [95%CI: 1.04-1.23] higher than those of children without PPSL. With PPSL, the odds of children receiving delayed medical care because of time mismatch were 13.3% [95%CI: 0.76-0.98] lower, and being taken to ER were 53.6% [95%CI: 0.27-0.81] lower than those of children without PPSL. PPSL was associated with 11% [95%CI: 0.82-0.97] fewer ER visits per year. PPSL may improve children's access and use of healthcare services and reduce the number of ER visits. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:276-284, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Parents' perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence: implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Melanie J; Emshoff, James; Buck, Chad A; Cook, Sarah L

    2006-05-01

    This study explores perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence in a sample of 202 parents interviewed in the wake of nationally publicized school shootings. We also investigate the effects the school shootings had on children, parents' perceptions regarding firearms, and changes in parenting behavior. Parents exhibited strong support for almost all proposed causes and solutions, and we address their desire for immediate and often invasive interventions to prevent future violence. We contrast parents' perceptions with their own parenting behaviors and with literature on effective interventions. Results are discussed within the context of policy implications.Editors' Strategic Implications: Parents' perceptions and behaviors are frequently influenced by history effects. The national attention received by school shootings provided an opportunity for exploration of those perceptions and self-reported behaviors. The authors provide evidence from timely surveys that parents struggle with identifying causal factors that may contribute to school violence and consequently support a myriad of strategies for intervention including very invasive environmental preventive strategies. The findings suggest that social scientists should play a proactive role in translating research-supported preventive strategies to effective replications in the community and make research available in formats that are available and comprehensible by the lay public.

  3. Understanding the direct involvement of parents in policy development and school activities in a primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobin Bernie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that parental engagement with children’s learning and education is of vital importance. But, there is a tendency to confuse engagement with learning with engagement with the school. While all types of parents’ involvement can have a positive effect, it is actually what parents do with their child at home that has the greatest impact. However, unless parental involvement in learning is embedded in whole-school processes it is unlikely to as effective as possible. This paper documents an action research study that explores the inclusion of parents and home values in the construction of the teaching and learning environment. This was a small step towards positive parent-teacher collaboration, which allowed an exchange of knowledge, values and cultural background experiences. In acknowledging the ways in which the parents already engaged with their children’s learning, it began to enhance self-efficacy in their ability to directly affect this learning. This work has also provoked reflexive engagement of my influence and understanding of involving parents of children with additional and diverse learning needs. But, it also details the transformative journey that influenced my thinking about how we as a school could begin to develop whole-school processes to directly involve parents in policy development and school activities.

  4. Assessment Opt-Out Policies: State Responses to Parent Pushback. ECS Education Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie; Wixom, Micah Ann

    2015-01-01

    With new state assessments kicking into full swing across the country, schools are seeing more and more parents wanting to opt out their children. Determining whether states allow assessment opt-outs can be complex and is constantly evolving. In some states the answer is clear: State policies either allow or prohibit state assessment opt-outs, or…

  5. Gender, the Labour Market, the Workplace and Policy in Children's Services: Parent, Staff and Student Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Michael; Quinn, Andrea; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the attitudes of parents, staff and teacher education students towards the employment of men in the children's services "industry". The attitudinal survey questions were grouped around four distinct issues: gender roles, labour market behaviour, workplace behaviour and policy. Surprisingly, all three stakeholder groups…

  6. Young adults with very low birth weight: leaving the parental home and sexual relationships--Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajantie, Eero; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Andersson, Sture

    2008-07-01

    Although most children and adults who are born very preterm live healthy lives, they have, on average, lower cognitive scores, more internalizing behaviors, and deficits in social skills. This could well affect their transition to adulthood. We studied the tempo of first leaving the parental home and starting cohabitation with an intimate partner and sexual experience of young adults with very low birth weight (Adults, 162 very low birth weight individuals and 188 individuals who were born at term (mean age: 22.3 years [range: 18.5-27.1]) and did not have any major disability filled out a questionnaire. For analysis of their ages at events which had not occurred in all subjects, we used survival analysis (Cox regression), adjusted for gender, current height, parents' ages at the birth, maternal smoking during pregnancy, parental educational attainment, number of siblings, and parental divorce/death. During their late teens and early adulthood, these very low birth weight adults were less likely to leave the parental home and to start cohabiting with an intimate partner. In gender-stratified analyses, these hazard ratios were similar between genders, but the latter was statistically significant for women only. These very low birth weight adults were also less likely to experience sexual intercourse. This relationship was statistically significant for women but not for men; however, very low birth weight women and men both reported a smaller lifetime number of sex partners than did control subjects. Healthy young adults with very low birth weight show a delay in leaving the parental home and starting sexual activity and partnerships.

  7. Millennial children of immigrant parents: Transnationalism, disparities, policy, and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazykova, Ekaterina; McLeigh, Jill D

    2015-09-01

    At 11% of their generational cohort, second-generation millennials account for the larger number of children of immigrants than any other generation before them. Second-generation millennials belong to a cohort that comprises about 80 million people, the largest cohort of young people that the United States has ever seen. The "creators" of the millennial generation, Neil Howe and William Strauss, proposed seven core millennials' traits that are now overwhelmingly accepted as being factual: They are special, sheltered, confident, team-oriented, conventional, achieving, and pressured. In contemporary discourse, millennials have been described as tech savvy, open to change, compassionate, inclusive, and politically active, but also self-centered and lacking attachment or direction. Although it is true that many second-generation millennials fit these descriptions and are doing as well financially and educationally as their nonimmigrant peers, a significant proportion are struggling. The diverse outcomes raise questions about why some children of immigrant parents fare better than others. If these factors can be identified, efforts can be undertaken to promote the wellbeing of these young adults

  8. Werknemers as Lasgewende Ouers in Surrogasie-Aangeleenthede: Die Geboorte van nuwe Verlof-behoeftes in Suid-Afrika/Employees as Commissioning Parents in Surrogacy Matters: The Birth of New Leave Requirements in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anri Botes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Commissioning parents, in terms of a surrogacy agreement, have the same parental obligations towards their child as traditional parents. Yet, despite the legitimising of surrogacy in the Children’s Act 38 of 2005, no provision has been made for suitable parental leave to be granted to these persons so that they may fulfil their parental obligations. The only leave that is currently available to commissioning parents is three days family responsibility leave in terms of section 27 of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997 (BCEA. It is submitted that this leave is insufficient. In MIA v State Information Technology Agency 2015 36 ILJ 1905 (LC, the Labour Court indicated that amendments to labour legislation are necessary to address the lacuna in this respect. The Labour Laws Amendment Bill of 2015 has since proposed relevant amendments to such leave in terms of the BCEA. While the amendments are welcomed, the proposed period and management of the different types of leave give rise to concern and should be addressed. The latest developments in the United Kingdom in the field of parental leave make it a worthy comparator to provide guidelines for the improvement of the abovementioned Bill. In so doing, South African law can also sufficiently protect the interests of the parties to a surrogacy agreement, including the child born in terms thereof.

  9. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  10. Nuclear waste management policies in the world: deciding today while leaving manoeuvre margins for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massou, F.; Gras, A.

    2005-01-01

    The author first gives an overview of the definition of nuclear wastes, of their different types, and of their origins. He describes the waste production process by nuclear plants, and presents the case of high-level long-lived nuclear wastes. He outlines the need for a political processing of these wastes as they have been produced by public policies, and as decisions now concern and involve scientists, local interests and the civil society. Then, he describes the various technologies (storage, separation-transmutation, disposal), discusses their potential impacts, advantages and drawbacks, and how to take a political decision on them. He discusses the lessons learned from the German and Finnish examples and experiments in geological storage. He discusses the financing issue, notably from these examples

  11. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  12. Teachers’ perceptions of study leave with pay policy and its impact on teacher recruitment, motivation and retention:a case study of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Sosoo, B. (Billy)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This research work examined the perceptions’ of teachers towards the study — leave with pay policy and its impact on teacher recruitment, motivation and retention in Ghana. The main purpose of the study is to find out how the studyleave with pay policy is impacting teacher recruitment, motivation and retention in Ghana. The perennial vacant teaching post being created in the Ghana Education Service (GES) on daily b...

  13. Causes and Consequences of a Father's Child Leave: Evidence from a Reform of Leave Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    are the most progressive when it comes to family-friendly policies. An extensive reform of child leave schemes in Denmark affected couples differently depending on whether the parents where employed in the same or in different parts of the public sector. Based on a difference-in-differences strategy, I find...... that economic incentives are very important for intra-household leave-sharing. Increasing the couples' after tax income by $9 per day of leave which is transferred from the mother to the father is found to lead to a one day transfer. This corresponds to a supply elasticity close to unity....

  14. Understanding Parents' Child Care Decision-Making: A Foundation for Child Care Policy Making. Research-to-Policy, Research-to-Practice Brief. OPRE 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Policies such as those related to child care subsidies and quality rating and improvement systems are designed to increase the likelihood that child care and education arrangements meet developmental needs of children and employment needs of parents. Ultimately, parents select child care arrangements, and the quality and stability of these…

  15. GAO's Estimate of the Costs of the "Parental and Medical Leave Act of 1987" (S. 249). Testimony before the Subcommittee on Children, Families, Drugs, and Alcoholism, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, William J.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) estimates that the cost of S.249, the Parental and Medical Leave Act of 1987, will be, at most, 500 million dollars annually, a figure which reflects the cost of continuing health insurance coverage for employees on unpaid leave. S.249 is legislation which aims to provide to workers at firms with 15 or more…

  16. Congratulations, You’re Pregnant! Now About Your Shifts . . . : The State of Maternity Leave Attitudes and Culture in EM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Z. MacVane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing attention has been focused on parental leave, but little is known about early leave and parental experiences for male and female attending physicians. Our goal was to describe and quantify the parental leave experiences of a nationally representative sample of emergency physicians (EP. Methods: We conducted a web-based survey, distributed via emergency medicine professional organizations, discussion boards, and listservs, to address study objectives. Results: We analyzed data from 464 respondents; 56% were women. Most experienced childbirth while employed as an EP. Fifty-three percent of women and 60% of men reported working in a setting with a formal maternity leave policy; however, 36% of women and 18% of men reported dissatisfaction with these policies. Most reported that other group members cover maternity-related shift vacancies; a minority reported that pregnant partners work extra shifts prior to leave. Leave duration and compensation varied widely, ranging from no compensated leave (18% to 12 or more weeks at 100% salary (7%. Supportive attitudes were reported during pregnancy (53% and, to a lesser degree (43%, during leave. Policy improvement suggestions included the development of clear, formal policies; improving leave duration and compensation; adding paternity and adoption leave; providing support for physicians working extra to cover colleagues’ leave; and addressing breastfeeding issues. Conclusion: In this national sample of EPs, maternity leave policies varied widely. The duration and compensation during leave also had significant variation. Participants suggested formalizing policies, increasing leave duration and compensation, adding paternity leave, and changing the coverage for vacancies to relieve burden on physician colleagues.

  17. Congratulations, You’re Pregnant! Now About Your Shifts . . . : The State of Maternity Leave Attitudes and Culture in EM

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVane, Casey Z.; Fix, Megan L.; Strout, Tania D.; Zimmerman, Kate D.; Bloch, Rebecca B.; Hein, Christine L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Increasing attention has been focused on parental leave, but little is known about early leave and parental experiences for male and female attending physicians. Our goal was to describe and quantify the parental leave experiences of a nationally representative sample of emergency physicians (EP). Methods We conducted a web-based survey, distributed via emergency medicine professional organizations, discussion boards, and listservs, to address study objectives. Results We analyzed data from 464 respondents; 56% were women. Most experienced childbirth while employed as an EP. Fifty-three percent of women and 60% of men reported working in a setting with a formal maternity leave policy; however, 36% of women and 18% of men reported dissatisfaction with these policies. Most reported that other group members cover maternity-related shift vacancies; a minority reported that pregnant partners work extra shifts prior to leave. Leave duration and compensation varied widely, ranging from no compensated leave (18%) to 12 or more weeks at 100% salary (7%). Supportive attitudes were reported during pregnancy (53%) and, to a lesser degree (43%), during leave. Policy improvement suggestions included the development of clear, formal policies; improving leave duration and compensation; adding paternity and adoption leave; providing support for physicians working extra to cover colleagues’ leave; and addressing breastfeeding issues. Conclusion In this national sample of EPs, maternity leave policies varied widely. The duration and compensation during leave also had significant variation. Participants suggested formalizing policies, increasing leave duration and compensation, adding paternity leave, and changing the coverage for vacancies to relieve burden on physician colleagues. PMID:28874931

  18. Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting at School in Contemporary South African Contexts: Deconstructing School Narratives and Understanding Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Tamara; Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    South African national education policy is committed to promoting gender equality at school and to facilitating the successful completion of all young people's schooling, including those who may become pregnant and parent while at school. However, the experience of being pregnant and parenting while being a learner is shaped by broader social and…

  19. Government Should Subsidize, Not Tax, Marriage: Social Policies Have Influenced the Rate of Growth in Single-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Based upon reflections from the Moynihan report of 1965, this author notes that the root causes of the growth in single-parent families have yet to be well identified, making it difficult to figure out where to go next. However, from 1965 onward, social policies have influenced the rate of growth in single-parent families. What is needed is a…

  20. Reproductive health in eight navies: a comparative report on education, prevention services, and policies on pregnancy, maternity/paternity leaves, and childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjord, Lakshmi; Ames, Genevieve

    2009-03-01

    As occupational cultures, navies are remarkable for an ability to achieve far-reaching cultural and behavioral effects by both sweeping and incremental policy changes. Therefore, navy policies for reproductive health education and services, childcare, and maternity and paternity leaves have potential to be at the vanguard of gender parity efforts to successfully integrate women into once male-only occupations. This article provides summaries of reproductive health education programs, pregnancy prevention services, and policies currently in effect in eight navies where women work alongside male peers as sailors and officers. Our objective is to bring together comparative data that is hard to find by other means, which may prove useful to researchers, policy-makers, and naval personnel. Project methodology involved questionnaires sent to naval attaches stationed in embassies in Washington, DC, who referred sections to their appropriate departments. The results are quotations from completed questionnaires and policies sent from the navies of Germany, Latvia, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Policies under review include sexual conduct, pregnancy, and maternity and paternity leaves. We also report the latest available statistical data regarding women in these navies, such as numbers of women, percentages of navy women vs. total military women, and dates of women's inclusion as naval personnel.

  1. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  2. Improving anti-bullying laws and policies to protect youth from weight-based victimization: parental support for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Suh, Y; Li, X

    2017-04-01

    Weight-based bullying is a prevalent problem among youth with overweight and obesity, but remains neglected in existing policy-level strategies to address youth bullying. Parental support is an influential catalyst motivating political will for policy decisions affecting youth, but has received limited research attention. To assess levels of, and predictors of, parental support for school-based policies and state/federal legal measures to address weight-based bullying in 2014 and 2015. Identical online questionnaires were completed by two independent national samples of parents in 2014 and 2015 (N = 1804). Parental support for all policy actions was high (at least 81%) and significantly increased from 2014 to 2015 for legal measures that would a) require state anti-bullying laws to add protections against weight-based bullying, and b) enact a federal anti-bullying law that includes weight-based bullying. These findings can inform policy discourse about remedies for youth bullying, and suggest that parental support for improved legal protections against weight-based bullying is present, consistent, and strong. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Don’t Leave U.S. Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Arellano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the pace at which Federal and State legislation were implemented to provide working parents and caregivers the ability to take time off for the birth or adoption of a child, to care for the elderly, sick or disabled family members, and others in need of care. Compared with many industrialized nations, the United States ranks alongside the least generous countries in terms of providing a balanced lifestyle between work and family life. For instance, the United States does not even provide national paid family leave. This article provides the history, purpose, and scope of the Family and Medical Leave Act, and later implementations of State programs. Furthermore, this article will present a brief survey of the paternal, maternal, and parental leave policies of other countries and will provide suggestions for changing existing federal policies to provide a more conducive family and work balance for employees.

  4. Legislation affecting governmental assistance for children of parents with substance use: a policy analysis of social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Phyllis; Williams, Pamela Holtzclaw

    2012-11-01

    There is legislation that withdraws governmental assistance where parents are using drugs. Social justice is an important consideration in any policy that modifies governmental assistance that benefits vulnerable children. The purpose of this policy analysis is to analyze identified legislation that effect governmental assistance for children in response to parents' substance misuse. A selective review of data-driven studies examined findings describing actual or potential effects on children of legislation targeting parental substance misuse. Challenges in design, processes, and implementation contribute to poor child outcomes. Identifiable constructs of social justice were missing in the reviewed legislation. Social injustice is a potential outcome for children when legislative intent focuses solely on addressing parental drug behaviors. Legislative alternatives to withdrawing support can address substance abuse while maintaining health promotion for these vulnerable children.

  5. Consequences Paternity Leave on Allocation of Childcare and Domestic Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of parental leave policies aimed exclusively at fathers is to promote gender equality in the productive and reproductive spheres. The aim of this study is to examine whether the use of paternity leave fosters greater involvement of fathers in the division of tasks within the reproductive sphere, specifi cally child care and housework. Based on data from the survey, ?Social use of parental leave in Spain, 2012?, we have created multivariate models using ordinary least squares regression. The sample used in the analysis consists of 600 fathers who have had at least one child since 2007. The results suggest that paternity leave does encourage greater involvement by fathers in childcare, but the effect is limited, as it is only found for fathers after the birth of their fi rst child.

  6. Paid health and family leave: the Canadian experience in the global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S Jody; Gerecke, Megan; Chaussard, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Two thirds of Canadian adults participate in the workforce. Their health and that of their families can be markedly affected by the availability of paid sick leave, paid leave to care for family members' health and paid parental leave. We gathered data from all Canadian provinces and territories on these essential leave policies and compared Canadian policies with data collected on 186 United Nations (UN) countries. While Canada pays sickness benefits for 15 weeks for serious illnesses, globally at least 90 countries provide benefits for at least 26 weeks or until recovery. Moreover, within Canada only Saskatchewan and Quebec guarantee job protection if sick leave lasts over 12 days. The federal government guarantees Canadian workers six weeks of paid leave to provide care or support to gravely ill family members. Only 39 countries guarantee such leave with pay. Most, but not all, provinces guarantee workers' job protection during compassionate care leave. Eligibility for job protection during parental leave varies across the country from having no restrictions to requiring at least one year of service. Compared with Canada, many countries offer a longer duration of paid sick leave for employees and replace a higher percentage of wages lost. Internationally, Canada performs well in having policies that guarantee paid leave to care for dependants with serious illnesses, but it lags behind in the provision of paid leave to address the health needs of children or family members' with non-life-threatening conditions. Finally, while paid parental leave is of adequate duration, the wage replacement rate lowers its accessibility to families with limited means.

  7. Maternity and Paternity Policies Available to Academic Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Ruth Sara

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how frequently parental leave and other related childcare policies are available to academic librarians across the United States. It also looks at the relationships between policies offered and types of academic libraries that offer those policies. The author surveyed administrators at academic libraries serving baccalaureate,…

  8. Two overlooked contributors to abandonment of childhood cancer treatment in Kenya: parents' social network and experiences with hospital retention policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, S; Njuguna, F; Langat, S C; Slot, A J M; Skiles, J; Sitaresmi, M N; van de Ven, P M; Musimbi, J; Vreeman, R C; Kaspers, G J L

    2014-06-01

    The principal reason for childhood cancer treatment failure in low-income countries is treatment abandonment, the most severe form of nonadherence. Two often neglected factors that may contribute to treatment abandonment are as follows: (a) lack of information and guidance by doctors, along with the negative beliefs of family and friends advising parents, which contributes to misconceptions regarding cancer and its treatment, and (b) a widespread policy in public hospitals by which children are retained after doctor's discharge until medical bills are settled. This study explored parents' experiences with hospital retention policies in a Kenyan academic hospital and the impact of attitudes of family and friends on parents' decisions about continuing cancer treatment for their child. Home visits were conducted to interview parents of childhood cancer patients who had been diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and who had abandoned cancer treatment. Retrospective chart review revealed 98 children diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 whose parents had made the decisions to abandon treatment. During 2011-2012, 53 families (54%) could be reached, and 46 (87%) of these agreed to be interviewed. Parents reported the attitudes of community members (grandparents, relatives, friends, villagers, and church members); 61% believed that the child had been bewitched by some individual, and 74% advised parents to seek alternative treatment or advised them to stop medical treatment (54%). Parents also reported that they were influenced by discussions with other parents who had a child being treated, including that their child's life was in God's hands (87%), the trauma to the child and family of forced hospital stays (84%), the importance of completing treatment (81%), the financial burden of treatment (77%), and the incurability of cancer (74%). These discussions influenced their perceptions of cancer treatment and its usefulness (65%). Thirty-six families (78%) had no health insurance, and

  9. Relational Resilience in Māori, Pacific, and European Sole Parent Families: From Theory and Research to Social Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldegrave, Charles; King, Peter; Maniapoto, Maria; Tamasese, Taimalieutu Kiwi; Parsons, Tafaoimalo Loudeen; Sullivan, Ginny

    2016-12-01

    This study reports findings and policy recommendations from a research project that applied a relational resilience framework to a study of 60 sole parent families in New Zealand, with approximately equal numbers of Māori, Pacific, and European (White) participants. The sole parent families involved were already known to be resilient and the study focused on identifying the relationships and strategies underlying the achievement and maintenance of their resilience. The study was carried out to provide an evidence base for the development and implementation of policies and interventions to both support sole parent families who have achieved resilience and assist those who struggle to do so. The three populations shared many similarities in their pathways to becoming sole parents and the challenges they faced as sole parents. The coping strategies underlying their demonstrated resilience were also broadly similar, but the ways in which they were carried out did vary in a manner that particularly reflected cultural practices in terms of their reliance upon extended family-based support or support from outside the family. The commonalities support the appropriateness of the common conceptual framework used, whereas the differences underline the importance of developing nuanced policy responses that take into account cultural differences between the various populations to which policy initiatives are directed. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  10. Supporting Parents: Using Research to Inform Policy and Best Practice. Social Policy Report Brief. Volume 30, Issue 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgman, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Parenting is one of the most emotionally powerful, demanding, and consequential tasks of adulthood. Previously, the task of parenting was shared with extended family and community members. Today, with less extensive networks of experience and support, parents are frequently not as well prepared. Research has identified the elements of competent…

  11. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  12. Managing Motherhood in the Australian Construction Industry: Work-family Balance, Parental Leave and Part-time Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lingard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of women in the Australian construction industrywas undertaken to examine women's work experiencesin construction. Questionnaires were distributed to threehundred women in construction occupations and 109completed and usable questionnaires were returned.Women were found to be seriously under-represented insite-based roles. Site/project engineers worked longer hoursthan other occupational groups and expressed significantlygreater work-family conflict. Lack of flexibility and theinability to balance work and family were common themesin the qualitative comments made by many respondents.Even when women indicated that part time work options andmaternity entitlements were provided by their organizations,many expressed a reluctance to use them and perceivedcareer penalty associated with this usage. It is concludedthat more flexible work schedules and the implementationof family-friendly policies may encourage more women intosite-based roles in construction. The paper concludes thatthe rigid work practices presently in place act as a subtleform of discrimination. The provision of such policies willonly be effective if cultural and attitudinal change is alsoachieved.

  13. A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF PARENTAL AWARENESS AND EXPERIENCE ON DRINKING WATER POLICIES IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Sombo; Ohnuki, Maromi; Nagaoka, Hiroshi

    Recently increased number of elementary school pupils brings drinks from home for their hydration at school and this phenomenon indicates the change of the role of water supply at schools. In order to investigate the potential causes and the structure of the problem, an online survey targeting mothers of grade-schoolers was carried out, taking account of psychological factors of mothers as well as their decision making process. In the questionnaire preparation, latent variables and observable variables were assumed. The identified results include: difference exists on people's choice of drinking water; more parents in western Japan wish pupils bring drinks and some parents in eastern Japan wish the same. Covariance structure analysis identified a causalmodel; in which parents' frustration to schools associated with decreased reliability to tap water cause parents' advice to pupils take drink from home. Policy makers are expected to make the most of the result of analysis.

  14. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  15. Employer, insurance, and health system response to long-term sick leave in the public sector: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijbel, Bodil; Josephson, Malin; Jensen, Irene; Vingård, Eva

    2005-06-01

    This study has been conducted to describe the situation of long-term sick-listed persons employed in the public sector regarding the medical reasons of their sick leave, the duration of their problems, the duration of the actual sick leave, rehabilitation support, rehabilitation measures, and the persons expectations of the future. Response rate of a postal questionnaire, where 484 women and 51 men on long-term sick leave answered, was 69%. The study-group consisted of 90% women with a median age of 50 years. The most common reasons for sick listing were long-lasting musculoskeletal problems, especially neck/shoulder pain, low back pain and osteoarthritis or other joint problems and mental problems, especially depression and burn-out syndromes. Forty-seven procent of the men and 57% of the women had been on the sick list for more than a year. Only half of them had been subjected to the legally required rehabilitation investigation of the employer This half got access to rehabilitation programs and/or vocational rehabilitation to a greater extent than those who not had been subjected to rehabilitation investigation. Less than half had been in contact with the workplace-connected rehabilitation actors, the Occupational Health Service or the Trade Union. In spite of this the sick-listed persons had a positive view of their future return to work. For long-term sick-listed persons in the public sector, there is a great potential for improvements of the rehabilitation at the workplace arena, in the involvement and cooperation between the already existing rehabilitation actors, in order to promote return to work.

  16. The Need to Change Army Policies Toward Single Parents and Dual Military Couples With Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    ... and to best manage our single parent service members and dual-military couples. There is a need to address the Army regulations that are ambiguous and contradictory toward enlisting and retaining single parents...

  17. Hospital Capacity, Waiting Times and Sick Leave Duration - an Empirical Analysis of a Norwegian Health Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Aakvik, Arild; Holmås, Tor Helge; Kjerstad, Egil

    2012-01-01

    A health policy reform aiming to reduce hospital waiting times and sickness absences, the Faster Return to Work (FRW) scheme, is evaluated by creating treatment and control groups to facilitate causal interpretations of the empirical results. We use a unique dataset on individuals where we match hospital data with social security data and socio-economic characteristics. The main idea behind the reform is that long waiting times for hospital treatment lead to unnecessarily long periods of sick...

  18. Parents' employment and children's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Carolyn J

    2014-01-01

    Since modern welfare reform began in the 1980s, we have seen low-income parents leave the welfare rolls and join the workforce in large numbers. At the same time, the Earned Income Tax Credit has offered a monetary incentive for low-income parents to work. Thus, unlike some of the other two-generation mechanisms discussed in this issue of Future of Children, policies that encourage low-income parents to work are both widespread and well-entrenched in the United States. But parents' (and especially mothers') work, writes Carolyn Heinrich, is not unambiguously beneficial for their children. On the one hand, working parents can be positive role models for their children, and, of course, the income they earn can improve their children's lives in many ways. On the other hand, work can impair the developing bond between parents and young children, especially when the parents work long hours or evening and night shifts. The stress that parents bring home from their jobs can detract from their parenting skills, undermine the atmosphere in the home, and thereby introduce stress into children's lives. Unfortunately, it is low-income parents who are most likely to work in stressful, low-quality jobs that feature low pay, little autonomy, inflexible hours, and few or no benefits. And low-income children whose parents are working are more likely to be placed in inadequate child care or to go unsupervised. Two-generation approaches, Heinrich writes, could maximize the benefits and minimize the detriments of parents' work by expanding workplace flexibility, and especially by mandating enough paid leave so that mothers can breastfeed and form close bonds with their infants; by helping parents place their children in high-quality child care; and by helping low-income parents train for, find, and keep a well-paying job with benefits.

  19. Parental involvement and kangaroo care in European neonatal intensive care units: a policy survey in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice; Greisen, Gorm; Pierrat, Veronique; Warren, Inga; Haumont, Dominique; Westrup, Björn; Smit, Bert J; Sizun, Jacques; Cuttini, Marina

    2012-09-01

    To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out. Prospective multicenter survey. Neonatal intensive care units in eight European countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Patients were not involved in this study. None. A structured questionnaire was mailed to 362 units (response rate 78%); only units with ≥50 very-low-birth-weight annual admissions were considered for this study. Facilities for parents such as reclining chairs near the babies' cots, beds, and a dedicated room were common, but less so in Italy and Spain. All units in Sweden, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Belgium reported encouraging parental participation in the care of the babies, whereas policies were more restrictive in Italy (80% of units), France (73%), and Spain (41%). Holding babies in the kangaroo care position was widespread. However, in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain, many units applied restrictions regarding its frequency (sometimes or on parents request only, rather than routinely), method (conventional rather than skin-to-skin), and clinical conditions (especially mechanical ventilation and presence of umbilical lines) that would prevent its practice. In these countries, fathers were routinely offered kangaroo care less frequently than mothers (p involvement as well as the role played by mothers and fathers varied within and between countries.

  20. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  1. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Ann P.; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of paid leave legislation on fathers' leave-taking, as well as on the division of leave between mothers and fathers in dual-earner households. Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, which is the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the United States. Our results show that fathers in Califo...

  2. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  3. [Career perspectives of hospital health workers after maternity and paternity leave: survey and observational study in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, C; Grote, G; Miemietz, B; Vaske, B; Geyer, S

    2015-02-01

    A term of maternity and paternity (parental) leave becomes frequent on the career paths of medical personnel. Hospitals are highly competitive environments. The question employees universally face is how such a leave will alter their personal work situation and prospects upon return. We questioned 709 leave-takers and 88 department heads of a German university hospital (2009-12; full data sets: n = 406 and n = 63) about their experiences. This data was validated by epidemiology data extraction and expert interviews, also in a Swiss and in a Norwegian institution. Parental leave elicited high emotionality (score: 4.0 +/- 2 out of 5). Superiors' appraisal of employees' parental leave was more positive than negative (p leave takers doubled to 39 %; 51 % of leave-takers experienced significant task profile changes. 58 % of doctors thought about changing their employer and 17 % of leave-taking executives lost status after return. Employees' "power" and "influence" dropped significantly (p leave. The Swiss and Norwegian comparators appeared to have more liberal substitution and part-time schemes than the German institution. A competitive hospital environment can effectively demote leave-taking medical employees in their jobs. Despite sufficient financial arrangements high-commitment staff will only take parental leave of adequate length when an institutional framework protects their status. Data support four requirements: 1. Formal recognition of the leave taker's status pre-leave. 2. Establishment of a written ("claimable") return policy. 3. Substitution scheme for each individual, preferably by a locum. 4. Redirection of funds to facilitate part-time work schemes temporarily after return. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. From Policy to Practice: Parent Perceptions of the 2010 Federal School Lunch Mandate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiewski, Elizabeth H.; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Elchert, Daniel M.; Leicht, Erika A.; Scheidel, Carrie A.; Delger, Patti J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate parent awareness and perceptions of changes to the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) implemented as a result of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHKA) of 2010. Methods: An online survey of parents of school age (K-12) children in a Midwestern state was conducted (n = 2,189). The…

  5. Mentoring Children with Incarcerated Parents: Implications for Research, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie; Coffino, Brianna; Hanneman, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    We investigated children and families who were participating in a mentoring program targeting children with incarcerated parents. Using multiple methods and informants, we explored the development of the mentoring relationship, challenges and benefits of mentoring children with incarcerated parents, and match termination in 57 mentor-child dyads.…

  6. Language Learning as Culture Keeping: Family Language Policies of Transnational Adoptive Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how parents of international adoptees explain their decision to pursue birth-language education for their children and how they go about achieving their goals. It focuses on the perspectives of 16 White U.S. parents who have at least one adopted school-aged child (ages 5 to 18) either currently or previously enrolled in a…

  7. U.S. Citizen Children of Undocumented Parents: The Link Between State Immigration Policy and the Health of Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Edward D; Ybarra, Vickie D

    2017-08-01

    We examine Latino citizen children in mixed-status families and how their physical health status compares to their U.S. citizen, co-ethnic counterparts. We also examine Latino parents' perceptions of state immigration policy and its implications for child health status. Using the 2015 Latino National Health and Immigration Survey (n = 1493), we estimate a series of multivariate ordered logistic regression models with mixed-status family and perceptions of state immigration policy as primary predictors. We find that mixed-status families report worse physical health for their children as compared to their U.S. citizen co-ethnics. We also find that parental perceptions of their states' immigration status further exacerbate health disparities between families. These findings have implications for scholars and policy makers interested in immigrant health, family wellbeing, and health disparities in complex family structures. They contribute to the scholarship on Latino child health and on the erosion of the Latino immigrant health advantage.

  8. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  9. Parents, siblings and grandparents in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. A survey of policies in eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Mirante, Nadia; Haumont, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe policies towards family visiting in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) and compare findings with those of a survey carried out 10 years earlier. METHODS: A questionnaire on early developmental care practices was mailed to 362 units in eight European countries (Sweden...... medical rounds and procedures followed the same pattern. A composite visiting score was computed using all the variables related to family visiting. Lower median values and larger variability were obtained for the southern countries, indicating more restrictive attitudes and lack of national policy....... CONCLUSIONS: The presence of parents and other family members in European NICUs has improved over a 10-year period. Several barriers, however, are still in place, particularly in the South European countries....

  10. The Effect of Incentive Return-to-Work Policies on Single-Parent Families: a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Amine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of their struggle against inequality and social exclusion, many countries are trying to reform their redistributive system and low-income support measures to encourage return to work, and reduce inactivity traps. The purpose of this article is to propose a reflection on the social and fiscal policies. The analysis focuses on three measures in three different countries: the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC in the United States, the Working Tax Credit (WTC in the UK and the Active Solidarity Income (RSA in France. The emphasis is placed on the effects of such policies on the situation of single parents, in particular as part of their transition from welfare (social assistance to the labor market.

  11. 78 FR 8833 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... creates a new qualifying exigency leave category for parental care. In military caregiver leave, the Final... covered employers to take job- protected, unpaid leave, or to substitute appropriate accrued paid leave... CFR Part 825 The Family and Medical Leave Act; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 25...

  12. Parental use of corporal punishment in Europe: intersection between public health and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    duRivage, Nathalie; Keyes, Katherine; Leray, Emmanuelle; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    Studies have linked the use of corporal punishment of children to the development of mental health disorders. Despite the recommendation of international governing bodies for a complete ban of the practice, there is little European data available on the effects of corporal punishment on mental health and the influence of laws banning corporal punishment. Using data from the School Children Mental Health Europe survey, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence and legal status of corporal punishment across six European countries and to evaluate the association between parental use of corporal punishment and children's mental health. The study found that odds of having parents who reported using occasional to frequent corporal punishment were 1.7 times higher in countries where its use is legal, controlling for socio-demographic factors. Children with parents who reported using corporal punishment had higher rates of both externalized and internalized mental health disorders.

  13. Parental use of corporal punishment in Europe: intersection between public health and policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie duRivage

    Full Text Available Studies have linked the use of corporal punishment of children to the development of mental health disorders. Despite the recommendation of international governing bodies for a complete ban of the practice, there is little European data available on the effects of corporal punishment on mental health and the influence of laws banning corporal punishment. Using data from the School Children Mental Health Europe survey, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence and legal status of corporal punishment across six European countries and to evaluate the association between parental use of corporal punishment and children's mental health. The study found that odds of having parents who reported using occasional to frequent corporal punishment were 1.7 times higher in countries where its use is legal, controlling for socio-demographic factors. Children with parents who reported using corporal punishment had higher rates of both externalized and internalized mental health disorders.

  14. Parental Use of Corporal Punishment in Europe: Intersection between Public Health and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    duRivage, Nathalie; Keyes, Katherine; Leray, Emmanuelle; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    Studies have linked the use of corporal punishment of children to the development of mental health disorders. Despite the recommendation of international governing bodies for a complete ban of the practice, there is little European data available on the effects of corporal punishment on mental health and the influence of laws banning corporal punishment. Using data from the School Children Mental Health Europe survey, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence and legal status of corporal punishment across six European countries and to evaluate the association between parental use of corporal punishment and children’s mental health. The study found that odds of having parents who reported using occasional to frequent corporal punishment were 1.7 times higher in countries where its use is legal, controlling for socio-demographic factors. Children with parents who reported using corporal punishment had higher rates of both externalized and internalized mental health disorders. PMID:25674788

  15. Do flexible work policies improve parents' health? A natural experiment based on the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Panico, Lidia

    2018-03-01

    There is limited evidence of the impact of policies to promote work-family balance on family health. Exploiting the introduction of the UK Flexible Working Act (2003), we examined whether a policy that grants parents the right to request flexible work influences their health and well-being. Using the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we focus on 6424 mothers employed in 2001-2002, when the cohort child was 9 months old, until their child's seventh birthday. We used a difference-in-differences (DiD) approach to compare changes in outcomes before and after the policy among mothers most likely to benefit and mothers unlikely to benefit from the policy. Flexible working increased in a small group of mothers (n=548) whose employer did not offer work flexibility before the reform (treatment group). By contrast, among mothers whose employer already offered flexible work before the reform (control group, n=5810), there was little change or a slight decline in flexible working. DiD estimates suggest that the policy was associated with an increase in flexible working (37.5 percentage points, 95% CI 32.9 to 41.6), but it had no impact on self-rated health (-1.6 percentage points, 95% CI -4.4 to 1.1), long-term illness (-1.87 percentage points, 95% CI -4.3 to 0.5) or life satisfaction scores (β=0.04, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.16). The Flexible Working Act increased flexible working only among a small group of mothers who had not yet the right to request work flexibility, but it had no impact on their health and well-being. Policies promoting work flexibility may require stronger incentives for both parents and employers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Implementation of School Choice Policy: Interpretation and Response by Parents of Students with Special Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Carl; Woods, Philip A.; Woods, Glenys

    2001-01-01

    Provides empirically based insights into preferences, perceptions, and responses of parents of students with special education needs to the 1990s restructured school system in England. Uses analyses of quantitative/qualitative data generated by a large-scale research study on school choice. Reveals depth and range of problems encountered by these…

  17. "Seeing" the School Reform Elephant: Connecting Policy Makers, Parents, Practioners, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tony; Sconyers, Nancy

    This report is part of a multi-year project conducted by the Institute for Responsive Education (IRE) and Boston University components of the Center on Families, Communities, Schools and Children's Learning. The report draws on results of a series of focus groups and interviews conducted in 1994 and 1995 to explore how policymakers and parents,…

  18. Adoptees in Search of Their Past: Policy Induced Strain on Adoptive Families and Birth Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Mark; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explores the impact of Minnesota's Open Birth Record Law. Studied adoptees in search of information and contact with their birth parents. Caseworkers were relatively successful in the searches, but personal contacts were achieved for only 35 percent of the adoptees. Supports the value of the Open Birth Record law. (Author)

  19. Fathers’ Leave and Fathers’ Involvement: Evidence from Four OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Maria C.; Adema, Willem; Baxter, Jennifer; Han, Wen-Jui; Lausten, Mette; Lee, RaeHyuck; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several OECD countries have taken steps to promote policies encouraging fathers to spend more time caring for young children, thereby promoting a more gender equal division of care work. Evidence, mainly for the United States and United Kingdom, has shown fathers taking some time off work around childbirth are more likely to be involved in childcare related activities than fathers who do not take time off. This paper conducts a first cross-national analysis on the association between fathers’ leave taking and fathers’ involvement when children are young. It uses birth cohort data of children born around 2000 from four OECD countries: Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom and the United States. Results show that the majority of fathers take time off around childbirth independent of the leave policies in place. In all countries, except Denmark, important socio-economic differences between fathers who take leave and those who do not are observed. In addition, fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when children are young. This study adds to the evidence that suggests that parental leave for fathers is positively associated with subsequent paternal involvement. PMID:28479865

  20. Correlates of walking to school and implications for public policies: survey results from parents of elementary school children in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuemei; Lee, Chanam

    2009-01-01

    Walking can be a healthy, sustainable, and equitable mode of transportation, but is not widely used for children's school travel. This study identifies multi-level correlates of walking to/from school and relevant policy implications. We surveyed parents/guardians of 2,695 students from 19 elementary schools in Austin, Texas, which featured diverse sociodemographic and environmental characteristics. Among the personal and social factors, negative correlates were parents' education, car ownership, personal barriers, and school bus availability; positive correlates were parents' and children's positive attitude and regular walking behavior, and supportive peer influences. Of physical environmental factors, the strongest negative correlates were distance and safety concerns, followed by the presence of highways/freeways, convenience stores, office buildings, and bus stops en route. Our findings suggest that society should give high priority to lower socioeconomic status populations and to multi-agency policy interventions that facilitate environmental changes, safety improvements, and educational programs targeting both parents and children.

  1. Equality machineries matter: The impact of women's political pressure on European social care policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Roggeband, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of feminist pressure and European Union (EU) policies on national policy changes, such as the introduction or extension of public childcare provision, parental leave, and part-time work legislation. We compared six countries on the basis of Qualitative Comparative

  2. How do masculinity, paternity leave, and mortality associate? -A study of fathers in the Swedish parental & child cohort of 1988/89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lundin, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    One of the proposed causes for the gender gap in longevity is the attitudes and practices culturally prescribed for men, often conceptualised as 'masculinity'. It has also been suggested that paternity leave, indicating a change from breadwinning to caring, could benefit men's lifetime health. In this study, the objective was to examine associations between 'masculinity' (assessed at the age of 18-19 years), paternity leave (1988-1990), and mortality patterns (1991-2008) based on a population of Swedish men who had a child in 1988/89 (N=72,569). 'Masculinity' was measured during the compulsory military conscription process by a psychologist based on leisure and occupational interests, and paternity leave was measured in fulltime days by registry data. The main finding was that low 'masculinity' ranking increased the risk of all-cause mortality, and mortality from alcohol and violent causes, while taking paternity leave between 30 and 135 days decreased the risk of all-cause mortality. However, the weak association found between 'masculinity' and paternity leave indicates that entering a caring role as a father is not predicted by 'masculinity' assessed in late adolescence, and that the studied phenomena influence male mortality independently of each other. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. About Teen Suicide (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thoughts. Teens going through major life changes (parents' divorce, moving, a parent leaving home due to military service or parental separation, financial changes) and those who are victims of ...

  4. Comparing policies for children of parents attending hospital emergency departments after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Diderich, Hester M; Teeuw, Arianne H; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; van der Lee, Johanna H

    2016-03-01

    To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy ('Hague protocol') was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care for children. If so, these children are referred to the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN), for assessment and referrals to support services. An adapted, hospital-based version of this protocol ('Amsterdam protocol') was implemented in another region. Children are identified in the same manner, but, instead of a RCCAN referral, they are referred to the pediatric outpatient department for an assessment, including a physical examination, and referrals to services. We compared results of both protocols to assess how differences between the protocols affect the outcomes on implementation, detection of child maltreatment and referrals to services. Furthermore, we assessed social validity and results of a screening physical examination. We included 212 families from the Amsterdam protocol (cohort study with reports by pediatric staff and parents) and 565 families from the Hague protocol (study of RCCAN records and telephone interviews with parents). We found that the RCCAN identified more maltreatment than pediatric staff (98% versus at least 51%), but referrals to services were similar (82% versus 80% of the total sample) and parents were positive about both interventions. Physical examination revealed signs of maltreatment in 5%. We conclude that, despite the differences, both procedures can serve as suitable methods to identify and refer children at risk for maltreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Jump-Starting Early Childhood Education at Home: Early Learning, Parent Motivation, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A; Converse, Benjamin A; Gibbs, Chloe R; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-11-01

    By the time children begin formal schooling, their experiences at home have already contributed to large variations in their math and language development, and once school begins, academic achievement continues to depend strongly on influences outside of school. It is thus essential that educational reform strategies involve primary caregivers. Specifically, programs and policies should promote and support aspects of caregiver-child interaction that have been empirically demonstrated to boost early learning and should seek to impede "motivational sinkholes" that threaten to undermine caregivers' desires to engage their children effectively. This article draws on cognitive and behavioral science to detail simple, low-cost, and effective tools caregivers can employ to prepare their children for educational success and then describes conditions that can protect and facilitate caregivers' motivation to use those tools. Policy recommendations throughout focus on using existing infrastructure to more deeply engage caregivers in effective early childhood education at home. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Paid family leave's effect on hospital admissions for pediatric abusive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Luo, Feijun; Xu, Likang; Peterson, Cora; Latzman, Natasha E

    2016-12-01

    Paediatric abusive head trauma (AHT) is a leading cause of fatal child maltreatment among young children. Current prevention efforts have not been consistently effective. Policies such as paid parental leave could potentially prevent AHT, given its impacts on risk factors for child maltreatment. To explore associations between California's 2004 paid family leave (PFL) policy and hospital admissions for AHT, we used difference-in-difference analyses of 1995-2011 US state-level data before and after the policy in California and seven comparison states. Compared with seven states with no PFL policies, California's 2004 PFL showed a significant decrease in AHT admissions in both <1 and <2-year-olds. Analyses using additional data years and comparators could yield different results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Post-Secondary Attendance by Parental Income in the U.S. and Canada: What Role for Financial Aid Policy? NBER Working Paper No. 17218

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belley, Philippe; Frenette, Marc; Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of tuition and need-based financial aid policies for family income--post-secondary (PS) attendance relationships. We first conduct a parallel empirical analysis of the effects of parental income on PS attendance for recent high school cohorts in both the U.S. and Canada using data from the 1997 Cohort of the…

  8. Recent Changes in UC Admissions Policies. Parent/Student Guide = Unos cambios recientes en los reglamentos de ingreso de la universidad de California. Guia de padres/estudiantes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, Inc., Palo Alto, CA.

    This parent/student guide describes recent changes in admissions policies at the University of California (UC). Traditionally, UC admitted the top 12.5% of high school graduating seniors, but beginning in 2001, the top 4% of students in the graduating class of every high school are eligible if they have completed 11 specific "a-f"…

  9. Work-life policies for Canadian medical faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Aaron; Gartke, Kathleen; MacLaren, Monika

    2010-09-01

    This study aims to catalogue and examine the following work-life flexibility policies at all 17 Canadian medical schools: maternity leave, paternity leave, adoption leave, extension of the probationary period for family responsibilities, part-time faculty appointments, job sharing, and child care. The seven work-life policies of Canadian medical schools were researched using a consistent and systematic method. This method involved an initial web search for policy information, followed by e-mail and telephone contact. The flexibility of the policies was scored 0 (least flexible) to 3 (most flexible). The majority of policies were easily accessible online. Work-life policies were scored out of 3, and average policy scores ranged from 0.47 for job sharing to 2.47 for part-time/work reduction. Across schools, total scores ranged from 7 to 16 out of 21. Variation in scores was noted for parenting leave and child care, whereas minimal variation was noted for other policies. Canadian medical schools are committed to helping medical faculty achieve work-life balance, but improvements can be made in the policies offered at all schools. Improving the quality of work flexibility policies will enhance working conditions and job satisfaction for faculty. This could potentially reduce Canada's loss of talented young academicians.

  10. The Discourse of Parent Involvement in Special Education: A Critical Analysis Linking Policy Documents to the Experiences of Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yuan; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement is acknowledged as a crucial aspect of the education of students with special needs. However, the discourse of parent involvement represents parent involvement in limited ways, thereby controlling how and the extent to which parents can be involved in the education of their children. In this article, critical discourse analysis…

  11. Excluding parental grief: A critical discourse analysis of bereavement accommodation in Canadian labour standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Kennedy, Kimberly; Moll, Sandra; Pineda, Carolina; Mitchell, Lisa M; Stephenson, Peter H; Cadell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Grief following child loss is profoundly destabilizing with serious long-term repercussions for bereaved parents. Employed parents may need time away from work to deal with this loss. The purpose of this study was to reflect upon the ways labour policies and practices respond to parental bereavement. Critical discourse analysis was used to examine labour policies and practices related to employment leave for bereaved parents in Canada. Results were compared to international labour standards. Universally, employment policies provide only for the practical issues of bereavement. Commonly, leave is three days, unpaid, and meant to enable ceremonial obligations. Policies do not acknowledge the long-term suffering caused by grief or the variable intensity of different kinds of loss. Managerial, moral, normative and neoliberal values embedded in these policies efface the intensely personal experience of grief, thereby leaving employees at risk for serious health and workplace safety issues. Bereavement leave currently understands grief as a generic, time-limited state with instrumental tasks and ceremonial obligations. In contrast, research characterizes responses to child loss as intense, highly personal experiences for which healing and recovery can take years. This disconnect is especially problematic when viewed through the lens of employee wellbeing, reintegration and workplace productivity.

  12. New hospital-based policy for children whose parents present at the ER due to domestic violence, substance abuse and/or a suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; van der Lee, Johanna H; Teeuw, Arianne H

    2013-02-01

    Child maltreatment is a major social problem with many adverse consequences, and a substantial number of maltreated children are not identified by health care professionals. In 2010, in order to improve the identification of maltreated children in hospitals, a new hospital-based policy was developed in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This policy was adapted from another policy that was developed in The Hague, the Netherlands, in 2007. In the new Amsterdam policy, all adults presenting at the emergency department due to domestic violence, substance abuse, and/or a suicide attempt are asked whether they have any children in their care. If this is the case, parents are urged to visit the outpatient pediatric department together with all of their children. During this visit, problems are evaluated and voluntary referrals can be arranged to different care organizations. If parents refuse to cooperate, their children are reported to the Dutch Child Abuse Counseling and Reporting Centre. The two aims of this study are to describe (1) characteristics of the identified families and (2) the referrals made to different voluntary and involuntary care organizations during the first 2 years after implementation of the policy. Data were collected from medical records. One hundred and six children from 60 households were included, of which 68 children because their mother was a victim of domestic violence. Referrals to care organizations were arranged for 99 children, of which 67 on a voluntary basis. The Amsterdam policy seems successful in arranging voluntary support for the majority of identified children.

  13. LEAVE OF ABSENCE PRACTICES IN SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOLS--SCHOOL YEAR 1964-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Education Association, Pierre.

    IN ADDITION TO SCHOOL POLICIES RELATING TO TEACHER LEAVES OF ABSENCE IN SOUTH DAKOTA, STATE BY STATE SUMMARIES OF EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION REGARDING SICK LEAVE, MATERNITY LEAVE, AND SABBATICAL LEAVE ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. OF THE 228 RESPONDING SCHOOLS IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 215 REPORTED EXISTING SICK LEAVE POLICIES. THE MAJORITY OF RESPONDING…

  14. How the Social Construction of “Child Abuse” Affect Immigrant Parents: Policy Changes That Protect Children and Families

    OpenAIRE

    REISIG, Jennifer A.; MILLER, Monica K.

    2009-01-01

    Immigrants who move to the United States often face the challenge of interpreting new laws and social norms (e.g., parenting norms), which may vary greatly from their native culture. Acceptable parenting practices are socially constructed beliefs, rooted in cultural context. What is acceptable in one culture may be labeled as child abuse in another. Thus, immigrant parents are at risk for having their parenting practices defined as child abuse by mainstream culture. Defining child abuse in a ...

  15. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Academic Outcomes: Does Parental Work Boost Grades? Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Amber Stitziel, Lewis, Dan A.

    The 1996 welfare reform act forced many poor parents into the labor market, with little understanding of how the parents' workforce participation would affect family life in general and their children in particular. In this paper, researchers examine the relationship between parental workforce participation, welfare receipt, and children's…

  16. Konference Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2006), s. 833-835 ISSN 0038-0288. [Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : parental leave * paternity leave * fathering Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006

  17. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do family policy regimes matter for children's well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Daniel; Stensöta, Helena Olofsdotter

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the impact of different welfare state regimes, and particularly family policy regimes, on gender equality. Very little research has been conducted, however, on the association between different family policy regimes and children's well-being. This article explores how the different family policy regimes of twenty OECD countries relate to children's well-being in the areas of child poverty, child mortality, and educational attainment and achievement. We focus specifically on three family policies: family cash and tax benefits, paid parenting leaves, and public child care support. Using panel data for the years 1995, 2000, and 2005, we test the association between these policies and child well-being while holding constant for a number of structural and policy variables. Our analysis shows that the dual-earner regimes, combining high levels of support for paid parenting leaves and public child care, are strongly associated with low levels of child poverty and child mortality. We find little long-term effect of family policies on educational achievement, but a significant positive correlation between high family policy support and higher educational attainment. We conclude that family policies have a significant impact on improving children's well-being, and that dual-earner regimes represent the best practice for promoting children's health and development.

  19. Female labour force participation, fertility and public policy in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, M; Stafford, F P

    1992-01-01

    2nd only to Ireland in total fertility, Sweden has the highest total fertility (TFR) and female labor force participation rates (FLFPR) among European countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s. 1988 TFR and FLFPR were 1.96 and 80.1%, respectively. This paper considers the role of public policy in creating this unique trend, with particular focus on family leave policy. In 1974, Sweden became the 1st country to allow leave to both parents following childbirth. By 1990, leave duration had grown from an initial 6-month period to 15 months. In addition, subsidized day care, flexible working hours, and economic support to families with children is provided in the context of a family-supportive tax structure. While generous, benefits are related to work and income history. Labor income is replaced at 90% of gross earnings, while the unemployed receive only minimal taxable flat payments. Benefits overall are paid from general taxes. Given that benefits reflect job history and income, and income level tends to rise fastest in the initial stages of employment, women in Sweden postpone childbirth in order to realize wage increases and greater job standing over the short- to medium-terms. In sum, Sweden's policies stimulate both fertility and women's paid work by reducing the costs of having children while requiring parents to be employed to receive full benefits. This paper further reviews the development of parental leave and related policies and compares Swedish fertility, female labor force participation, and parental leave benefits to those of countries in the European Community.

  20. Social Policies and Families in Stress: Gender and Educational Differences in Work-Family Conflict from a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notten, Natascha; Grunow, Daniela; Verbakel, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    In modern welfare states, family policies may resolve the tension between employment and care-focused demands. However these policies sometimes have adverse consequences for distinct social groups. This study examined gender and educational differences in working parents' perceived work-family conflict and used a comparative approach to test whether family policies, in particular support for child care and leave from paid work, are capable of reducing work-family conflict as well as the gender and educational gaps in work-family conflict. We use data from the European Social Survey 2010 for 20 countries and 5296 respondents (parents), extended with information on national policies for maternity and parental leave and child care support from the OECD Family Database. Employing multilevel analysis, we find that mothers and the higher educated report most work-family conflict. Policies supporting child care reduce the level of experienced work-family conflict; family leave policy appears to have no alleviating impact on working parents' work-family conflict. Our findings indicate that family policies appear to be unable to reduce the gender gap in conflict perception and even widen the educational gap in work-family conflict.

  1. German family policy at the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Comparative studies of welfare reforms encounter two problems. First, the counterfactual problem is that in the real world schemes and their reforms do not coexist simultaneously and are hard to compare. Second, the contextual problem derives from the absence of comparable measures for change. Mi...... introduce a new concept of fairness and a focus on gender equality to German family policies........ Microsimulation helps to overcome these problems. It compares policy options - actual reforms or reform plans - simultaneously and provides a comparable measure: the disposable income of model families. This article uses a type-case approach to investigate recent reforms of the German parental leave benefit...

  2. Parent-Adolescent Separation: The Role of Parental Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, DeWayne; Hotch, Deborah F.

    1982-01-01

    Among late adolescent males, parental divorce was highly related to Emotional separation as a home-leaving indicator; for females, being a firstborn was associated with Personal Control as a home-leaving indicator. These findings supported previous research indicating that males experience more adjustment problems after parental divorce than…

  3. Neoliberalism, welfare policy and health: a qualitative meta-synthesis of single parents' experience of the transition from welfare to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay

    2012-09-01

    Following the United States' lead, the emergence of neoliberal welfare policy across the western world has resulted in employment programmes for single parents, who are predominantly single mothers. While some governments claim that employment will improve single parents' incomes and well-being, researchers dispute that single parents can unproblematically move into the workforce, with net positive effects. While researchers have quantified the socio-economic effect of these programmes, in particular on participant health, no study has yet synthesized participants' experiences of welfare-to-work. Here, I present a meta-synthesis of eight qualitative health-related studies of single parents' (and exclusively single mothers') welfare-to-work transition. I report that single mothers faced a combination of health and economic issues which made their transition from welfare to work difficult, including degrees of poor physical and mental health. For participants in the United States, these health issues were often compounded by a loss of health benefits on moving into low-wage employment. In countries where a return to employment was required before children reached school age, a lack of affordable and appropriate child care, especially for children with health problems, exacerbated these difficulties. As a result of scarce resources, single mothers in receipt of welfare benefits often relied on food banks or went without food. A return to the workforce did not alleviate this problem as additional child care and reduced government subsidies depleted the funds available for food. I conclude that welfare-to-work policies are underpinned by the neoliberal assumption that the market more efficiently distributes resources than the State. However, for the women in the studies examined here, labour market participation often depleted access to essential resources. Interventions to address the 'problem' of welfare dependency must recognize the complex interplay between work

  4. Methods University Health System Can Use to Expand Medicaid Coverage to Uninsured Poor Parents with Medicaid Eligible Children: Policy Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMahon, III, Robert T

    2006-01-01

    Bexar County, low-income, uninsured parents with Medicaid-eligible children have been negatively impacted by reductions in Medicaid eligibility standards made by the Texas State Legislature in 2003...

  5. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation,we estimate the effect of the length of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increa...

  6. The impact of labor policies on the health of young children in the context of economic globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Jody; Earle, Alison; McNeill, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has transformed the workplace at the same time that increasing numbers of children live in families in which all adults work for pay outside the home. Extensive research evidence demonstrates the importance of parental involvement in the early years of a child's life. Yet, parents caring for young children may face challenges in fulfilling both work and family responsibilities under current labor force conditions. In this article, we review the evidence on the importance of parental care for meeting young children's routine care needs, preventive health care needs, and curative medical treatment requirements. We examine the evidence regarding the impact of four policies in particular on young children's health and development: parental leave, breastfeeding breaks, early childhood care and education, and leave for children's health needs. Last, we examine the availability of these policies worldwide and discuss the potential economic implications.

  7. On the Need for Paid Maternity Leave in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    Maternity leave policies in the U.S. are among the worst in the world. The 12 weeks of un-paid family leave that the U.S. grants are only surpassed by South Korea's 8 un-paid weeks as the worst treatment to mothers and newborns in the developed world. California is the only state in the U.S. where two programs exist, the State Disability Insurance (SDI) and Paid Family Leave (PFL), which cover up to $840/week for up to 12 weeks (excluding a waiting period of 7 un-paid days combined for both SDI and PFL). Even with these State contributions, the average parent of a newborn in California receives less than the 100% paid 6 weeks of Portugal and the 100% paid 12 weeks of Mexico, with all other countries providing better treatment. For mothers and fathers, time at home during the first precious months after birth or adoption is critical to getting to know their babies. It can provide long-term benefits that improve a child's brain development, social development and overall well being. Parental leave results in better prenatal and postnatal care and more intense parental bonding over a child's life. It also improves the chance that a child will be immunized; as a result, it is associated with lower death rates for infants. But lawmakers and employers are denying those benefits to most families by refusing to provide paid parental leave. For some families, the economic burden of caring for a newborn alone results in financial hardship or ruin. Fortunately, about 12% of companies in the U.S. voluntarily choose to offer some sort of paid and/or longer maternity and family care leaves. Some companies offer on-site child care as a way to facilitate breastfeeding and bonding between new mothers and their babies. Other companies allow new parents to reduce their work schedule temporarily and to telecommute from their homes, both effective ways to guarantee work productivity without requiring the sacrifice of a newborn's right to better health through breastfeeding and bonding

  8. Helping Teachers to Help Children Living with a Mentally Ill Parent: Teachers' Perceptions on Identification and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibou-Nakou, I.

    2004-01-01

    The material presented here is based on a pilot European project (Daphne Project, 2000/EU funding, collaboration of Greece and England) regarding parental mental illness and children's welfare and needs (1).The presentation focuses upon the responses of a group of teachers working in primary education in relation to identification issues and…

  9. The Desegregation Aims and Demographic Contexts of Magnet Schools: How Parents Choose and Why Siting Policies Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Claire; Honey, Ngaire

    2015-01-01

    This paper is designed to specify a set of new opportunities for educators, school administrators, and scholars to realize the practical aims and strategic advantages envisioned in magnet schools. The paper is divided into three distinct sections. In Section I, we examine the extensive research literature on parents' choice patterns and…

  10. Creating Concussion Management Policy: How School Leaders, Coaches and Parents Can Work Together to Ensure Kids Stay Safer in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    School leaders, parents and coaches are challenged to ensure the safety of athletes participating in interscholastic programs, including concussion management. With an estimated 300,000 sport-related concussions occurring annually in the United States and a public perception that bell ringers are not concussions, many head-injured children are…

  11. Parenting and the workplace: the construction of parenting protections in United States law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Maxine

    2008-08-04

    In this paper, I discuss the shortcomings of the legal protections that exist for pregnancy, breastfeeding, and parenting for United States' workers. The two main sources of protection for pregnancy and parenting in United States employment law are the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) and the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Both, I argue, contain inadequate protections for the needs of pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers, as well as their infants. I consider what it is about the way these statutes conceptualize the needs of pregnant women, mothers, and their babies, that prevents more robust protection of their needs. I then compare the minimal protection afforded American women and families with more progressive policies in other countries to highlight the possibilities that arise when the state affirmatively supports working parents and their children.

  12. Parenting and the workplace: The construction of parenting protections in United States law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichner Maxine

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, I discuss the shortcomings of the legal protections that exist for pregnancy, breastfeeding, and parenting for United States' workers. The two main sources of protection for pregnancy and parenting in United States employment law are the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA and the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA. Both, I argue, contain inadequate protections for the needs of pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers, as well as their infants. I consider what it is about the way these statutes conceptualize the needs of pregnant women, mothers, and their babies, that prevents more robust protection of their needs. I then compare the minimal protection afforded American women and families with more progressive policies in other countries to highlight the possibilities that arise when the state affirmatively supports working parents and their children.

  13. Legalization of recreational marijuana and community sales policy in Oregon: Impact on adolescent willingness and intent to use, parent use, and adolescent use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C; Westling, Erika; Crowley, Ryann; Light, John M

    2018-02-01

    Studies investigating the impact of medical marijuana legalization have found no significant changes in adolescent use. In one of the few studies focused on recreational marijuana, we investigated how recreational marijuana legalization and community sales policy influenced factors that likely impact youth use (youth willingness and intent to use, parent use) as well as youth use. Legalization of recreational marijuana in Oregon coincided with our study on adolescent substance use. Cohort 1 transitioned from 8th to 9th grade prior to legalization and Cohort 2 made this transition during legalization (N = 444; 53% female). Communities were allowed to opt out of sales. Multivariate linear regression models estimated the impact of legalization and community sales policy on changes in attitudes and parent use (2 time points 1 year apart). Zero-inflated Poisson growth curve models estimated the effects on initial levels and rate of change from 8th through 9th grade (4 time points). In communities opting out of sales, the prior-to-legalization cohort was less likely to increase their willingness and intent to use marijuana, and the legalization cohort was more likely to increase intent to use. For youth who used marijuana, legalization was associated with increased use, and those in communities opting out of sales had greater growth in marijuana use. Community policy appears to impact youth attitudes toward, and use of, marijuana. Results suggest that legalization of recreational marijuana did not increase marijuana use for youth who did not use marijuana but did increase use in youth who were already using. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Family leave after childbirth and the mental health of new mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Pinka; Markowitz, Sara

    2012-06-01

    leave may improve the health of new mothers. Our findings suggest that longer leave after childbirth may benefit families. However, one potential drawback of using cross-sectional variation in state policies and community characteristics for identification is that these measures may be correlated with other unmeasured factors that directly influence family leave and maternal health. The mother's mental and physical health can be an important route through which infants are affected by parents' employment decisions. Our findings suggest that post-partum health services that target mothers' mental and physical health, and its effects on infants, may be useful. Our findings suggest that policies that support longer family leave may benefit maternal mental health. Future research should examine how workplace and public policies related to maternal employment can be used to improve families' health outcomes.

  15. Family medical leave as a resilience resource for family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2009-01-01

    Case managers mobilize family networks to care for patients. Family medical leave can be a resource for case managers who seek to enhance resilience among family caregivers. The Family Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, was the first U.S. policy to regulate employee leaves from work for family care purposes (29 CFR 825.102). This policy offers family caregivers increased flexibility and equality. Current and emerging policies also can reduce financial strain. The discussion examines how case managers can integrate family medical leave into best-practice models to support patients and family caregivers.

  16. The benefits of paid maternity leave for mothers' post-partum health and wellbeing: Evidence from an Australian evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Belinda; Strazdins, Lyndall; Martin, Bill

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates the health effects of the introduction of a near universal paid parental leave (PPL) scheme in Australia, representing a natural social policy experiment. Along with gender equity and workforce engagement, a goal of the scheme (18 weeks leave at the minimum wage rate) was to enhance the health and wellbeing of mothers and babies. Although there is evidence that leave, especially paid leave, can benefit mothers' health post-partum, the potential health benefits of implementing a nationwide scheme have rarely been investigated. The data come from two cross-sectional surveys of mothers (matched on their eligibility for paid parental leave), 2347 mother's surveyed pre-PPL and 3268 post-PPL. We investigated the scheme's health benefits for mothers, and the extent this varied by pre-birth employment conditions and job characteristics. Overall, we observed better mental and physical health among mothers after the introduction of PPL, although the effects were small. Post-PPL mothers on casual (insecure) contracts before birth had significantly better mental health than their pre-PPL counterparts, suggesting that the scheme delivered health benefits to mothers who were relatively disadvantaged. However, mothers on permanent contracts and in managerial or professional occupations also had significantly better mental and physical health in the post-PPL group. These mothers were more likely to combine the Government sponsored leave with additional, paid, employer benefits, enabling a longer paid leave package post-partum. Overall, the study provides evidence that introducing paid maternity leave universally delivers health benefits to mothers. However the modest 18 week PPL provision did little to redress health inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing policies for children of parents attending hospital emergency departments after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M. M.; Diderich, Hester M.; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Biezeveld, Maarten H.; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Edelenbos, Esther; Flapper, Boudien C.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Mahdi, Ulrike; Poldervaart, Jacoba D.; Sanders, Marian K.; Schoonenberg, N. Jolande; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; van Sommeren, Pauwlina G. W.; Vogt, Anne; Wilms, Janneke F.; Baeten, Paul; Fekkes, Minne; Pannebakker, Fieke D.; Sorensen, Peggy J. G.; Verkerk, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy ('Hague protocol') was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care

  18. Comparing policies for children of parents attending hospital emergency departments after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E.M.; Diderich, H.M.; Teeuw, A.H.; Klein Velderman, M.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Lee, J.H. van der

    2016-01-01

    To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy (‘Hague protocol’) was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care

  19. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...

  20. Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents: A Synthesis of Research and Input from the Listening Session Held by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjoura, G. Roger; DuBois, David L.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Haight, Konrad A.

    2013-01-01

    In September 2013, a Listening Session on Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents was held in Washington, DC. This session was organized by the U.S. Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in partnership with the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement. It continues the…

  1. The Changing Safety Net for Low-Income Parents and Their Children: Structural or Cyclical Changes in Income Support Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bradley; Smeeding, Timothy; Ziliak, James P

    2018-02-01

    Refundable tax credits and food assistance are the largest transfer programs available to able-bodied working poor and near-poor families in the United States, and simultaneous participation in these programs has more than doubled since the early 2000s. To understand this growth, we construct a series of two-year panels from the 1981-2013 waves of the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement to estimate the effect of state labor-market conditions, federal and state transfer program policy choices, and household demographics governing joint participation in food and refundable tax credit programs. Overall, changing policy drives much of the increase in the simultaneous, biennial use of food assistance and refundable tax credits. This stands in stark contrast from the factors accounting for the growth in food assistance alone, where cyclical and structural labor market factors account for at least one-half of the growth, and demographics play a more prominent role. Moreover, since 2000, the business cycle factors as the leading determinant in biennial participation decisions in food programs and refundable tax credits, suggesting a recent strengthening in the relationship between economic conditions and transfer programs.

  2. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  3. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  4. Paid maternity leave and childhood vaccination uptake: Longitudinal evidence from 20 low-and-middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Heymann, Jody; Strumpf, Erin; Harper, Sam; Nandi, Arijit

    2015-09-01

    The availability of maternity leave might remove barriers to improved vaccination coverage by increasing the likelihood that parents are available to bring a child to the clinic for immunizations. Using information from 20 low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) we estimated the effect of paid maternity leave policies on childhood vaccination uptake. We used birth history data collected via Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to assemble a multilevel panel of 258,769 live births in 20 countries from 2001 to 2008; these data were merged with longitudinal information on the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) weeks of paid maternity leave guaranteed by each country. We used Logistic regression models that included country and year fixed effects to estimate the impact of increases in FTE paid maternity leave policies in the prior year on the receipt of the following vaccines: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) commonly given at birth, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP, 3 doses) commonly given in clinic visits and Polio (3 doses) given in clinic visits or as part of campaigns. We found that extending the duration of paid maternity leave had a positive effect on immunization rates for all three doses of the DTP vaccine; each additional FTE week of paid maternity leave increased DTP1, 2 and 3 coverage by 1.38 (95% CI = 1.18, 1.57), 1.62 (CI = 1.34, 1.91) and 2.17 (CI = 1.76, 2.58) percentage points, respectively. Estimates were robust to adjustment for birth characteristics, household-level covariates, attendance of skilled health personnel at birth and time-varying country-level covariates. We found no evidence for an effect of maternity leave on the probability of receiving vaccinations for BCG or Polio after adjustment for the above-mentioned covariates. Our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that more generous paid leave policies have the potential to improve DTP immunization coverage. Further work is needed to understand the health effects of

  5. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act.

  6. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght...... of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increase in average post-birth maternity leave matters for child or maternal health outcomes and thus we...... complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effects on children's later deveopmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any beneficial effects of increasing the lenght of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families....

  7. Gender Equality a case study of Sweden : Gender Equality Gender Equity and policies of combating inequality at workplace to make the society equal.

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Tipu

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses Gender Equality, Gender Equity and policies of combating inequality at workplace to make the society equal as a case study of Sweden. The aim of paper is see the gender equality, gender equity, discrimination against women at workplace and to describe the policies combating inequality in the welfare state of Sweden. This work highlights the gender equality in terms of institutionalizing gender equality, gender equity, gender and pay gap, parental leave, gender and the pensi...

  8. Recompositions et résistances de la masculinité et de la féminité, de la paternité et de la maternité à l’épreuve du congé parental pris par les hommes en France Recombinations and Resistances of Masculinity and Feminity, of Paternity and Maternity in the Case of Fathers’ Parental Leave in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Trellu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En France, rares sont les pères qui prennent un congé parental d’éducation ; cet article porte sur ces hommes très peu nombreux au plan statistique. Nous nous demandons dans quelle mesure l’expérience du père au foyer permet de construire une paternité et une maternité singulières ? Cette contribution se base sur une recherche empirique menée auprès de pères en congé parental et de leur conjointe. Tout d’abord, il convient de décrire le profil de ces couples qui sont atypiques par rapport aux autres couples avec enfants. Notre réflexion porte ensuite sur la dimension créatrice ou le caractère novateur des pratiques parentales des pères rencontrés et, au-delà, sur les recompositions des rôles parentaux engagées à cette occasion. De nouvelles pratiques se mettent en place, des renégociations apparaissent et contribuent à une redéfinition des identités masculines et féminines.In France, rare are the fathers who take a parental leave. This article relates to these very few men. We wonder to which extent their experience makes it possible to build up a singular paternity and maternity ? This empirical survey is based on 27 interviews of some of these men together with their partners. First of all, we look at the profile of these atypical couples. We then focus on the creative dimension of the parental practices of the fathers interviewed, and beyond on the reshaping of the parental roles. New practices are set up ; renegotiations appear and contribute to a redefinition of the male and female identities.

  9. Job mobility among parents of children with chronic health conditions: Early effects of the 2010 Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Pinka; Brandon, Peter; Markowitz, Sara

    2016-07-01

    We examine the effects of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (ACA) prohibition of preexisting conditions exclusions for children on job mobility among parents. We use a difference-in-difference approach, comparing pre-post policy changes in job mobility among privately-insured parents of children with chronic health conditions vs. privately-insured parents of healthy children. Data come from the 2004 and 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Among married fathers, the policy change is associated with about a 0.7 percentage point, or 35 percent increase, in the likelihood of leaving an employer voluntarily. We find no evidence that the policy change affected job mobility among married and unmarried mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Policy Changes, Employment, and Single Parenthood in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Forssén

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The labor supply of mothers is in? uenced by womens preferences and labor market conditions, as well as by family policy packages which enable families to reconcile work and family life. This article deepens the understanding about why Finnish single mothers are facing higher unemployment risks than mothers in two-parent families. The main question is how the changes in the Finnish family policy system have affected the economic and labor market status of single mothers in the last part of the 1990s. Have the changes in family policy affected their entry / re-entry into the labor market? Or can these changes in employment rate be explained by mothers personal decisions. Single parents were more vulnerable compared to partnered mothers in parental leave reforms and in the Family reform package in 1994. Changes in the labor market have had an impact on the situation of mothers with small children. One group of mothers can enjoy the full provision of leaves, bene? ts and job security, but an increased share of mothers have become dependent on only basic bene? ts. In this respect, the inequality among mothers has increased.

  11. Parenting Culture Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ellie J.; Faircloth, Charlotte; Macvarish, Jan; Bristow, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    Why do we live at a time when the minutiae of how parents raise their children – how they feed them, talk to them, play with them or discipline them – have become routine sources of public debate and policy making? Why are there now so-called 'parenting experts', and social movements like Attachment Parenting, telling us that 'science says' what parents do is the cause of and solution to social problems? \\ud \\ud Parenting Culture Studies provides in-depth answers to these features of contempo...

  12. Influence of macrosocial policies on women's health and gender inequalities in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Muntaner, Carles; Urquía, Marcelo; Malmusi, Davide; O'Campo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Gender inequalities in health have been widely described, but few studies have examined the upstream sources of these inequalities in health. The objectives of this review are 1) to identify empirical papers that assessed the effect of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health or on women's health by using between-country (or administrative units within a country) comparisons and 2) to provide an example of published evidence on the effects of a specific policy (parental leave) on women's health. We conducted a literature search covering the period from 1970 to 2012, using several bibliographical databases. We assessed 1,238 abstracts and selected 19 papers that considered gender equality policies, compared several countries or different states in 1 country, and analyzed at least 1 health outcome among women or compared between genders. To illustrate specific policy effects, we also selected articles that assessed associations between parental leave and women's health. Our review partially supports the hypothesis that Nordic social democratic welfare regimes and dual-earner family models best promote women's health. Meanwhile, enforcement of reproductive policies, mainly studied across US states, is associated with better mental health outcomes, although less with other outcomes. Longer paid maternity leave was also generally associated with better mental health and longer duration of breastfeeding.

  13. Employer supports for parents with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, D E

    2001-01-01

    The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices.

  14. Precarity in the Brussels-Capital Region: The Issues at Stake for Public Policy in Response to the Precarization of Single-parent Families in Brussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wagener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of precarization is analysed in different manners in most literature concerning contemporary stakes of western welfare states. In comparison to other countries, Belgium has known a rather specific and delimited effect of the economic crisis from 2008, but certain groups face rather an ongoing effect of precarization on multiple and intertwined aspects. The aim of the article is to analyse the situation of precarity of single-parent families in the Brussels-Capital Region. The attention to that group is related to its higher risk of precarity and poverty. Furthermore it allows analysing the limits of public policies in the fight against poverty and precarity, that are clearly inadequate. Various options in terms of public policies and legal measures in the fight against poverty are discussed from three different angles of perspective: socioeconomic positions, social integration and the subjective experience (Dubet 1994. The tension between recognition and redistribution measures is central (Fraser 2011 in the argumentation for a balanced vision of policy measures to address single-parent poverty. La literatura científica sobre las apuestas contemporáneas de los estados de bienestar occidentales analiza de forma diferente el proceso de precarización. En comparación con otros países, Bélgica ha vivido desde 2008 un efecto de la crisis económica bastante específico y delimitado. Sin embargo, algunos grupos se enfrentan a un proceso de precarización continuo en numerosos aspectos, interrelacionados entre sí. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la situación de precariedad de las familias monoparentales de la región de Bruselas capital. La atención a ese grupo está relacionada con su mayor riesgo de precariedad y pobreza. Además, permite analizar los límites de las políticas públicas en la lucha contra la pobreza y la precariedad, que son claramente insuficientes. Se analizan desde tres puntos de vista diversas

  15. A longitudinal assessment of work situation, sick leave, and household income of mothers and fathers of children with cancer in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovén, Emma; von Essen, Louise; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2013-08-01

    The diagnosis of childhood cancer often results in an altered life situation for the parents, characterized by difficulties regarding work, family and household demands. Previous research shows that parents' work situation and income are impacted, yet, few studies have explored the issue from a longitudinal perspective. This study sought to increase the knowledge about the socio-economic conditions of parents of children with cancer in Sweden by means of a longitudinal assessment of work situation, sick leave, and household income. The sample consisted of mothers (n = 139) and fathers (n = 138) of children with cancer recruited from 2002 to 2004. Data was collected by telephone interviews at six time points, ranging from the time of diagnosis to one year after the end of treatment. Findings showed that parents' work situation was most evidently impacted during the child's treatment, when the greatest proportions of non-working and sick-listed parents were found. Compared with the time of diagnosis, fewer mothers worked up to three months after the end of treatment, and more mothers were on sick leave one year after the end of treatment. Although the extent of sick leave among fathers did not differ compared with the time of diagnosis, fewer fathers worked one year after the end of treatment. Household income was significantly reduced during the child's treatment and months thereafter, while income was at an equal level as before the diagnosis for most families one year after the end of treatment. The results offer a unique understanding of how mothers' and fathers' work situation and income are impacted in the short- and long-term, and give guidance on how to improve the comprehensive support given to parents of children with cancer. Socio-economical issues should be emphasized as these may provide targets for policy interventions aiming to reduce parental strain related to work and finances.

  16. International perspectives on work-family policies: lessons from the world's most competitive economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Mokomane, Zitha; Heymann, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The United States does not guarantee families a wide range of supportive workplace policies such as paid maternity and paternity leave or paid leave to care for sick children. Proposals to provide such benefits are invariably met with the complaint that the costs would reduce employment and undermine the international competitiveness of American businesses. In this article, Alison Earle, Zitha Mokomane, and Jody Heymann explore whether paid leave and other work-family policies that support children's development exist in countries that are economically competitive and have low unemployment rates. Their data show that the answer is yes. Using indicators of competitiveness gathered by the World Economic Forum, the authors identify fifteen countries, including the United States, that have been among the top twenty countries in competitiveness rankings for at least eight of ten years. To this group they add China and India, both rising competitors in the global economy. They find that every one of these countries, except the United States, guarantees some form of paid leave for new mothers as well as annual leave. And all but Switzerland and the United States guarantee paid leave for new fathers. The authors perform a similar exercise to identify thirteen advanced countries with consistently low unemployment rates, again including the United States. The majority of these countries provide paid leave for new mothers, paid leave for new fathers, paid leave to care for children's health care needs, breast-feeding breaks, paid vacation leave, and a weekly day of rest. Of these, the United States guarantees only breast-feeding breaks (part of the recently passed health care legislation). The authors' global examination of the most competitive economies as well as the economies with low unemployment rates makes clear that ensuring that all parents are available to care for their children's healthy development does not preclude a country from being highly competitive

  17. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  18. Parental educational level and cardiovascular disease risk factors in schoolchildren in large urban areas of Turkey: Directions for public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayran Osman

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely accepted that the development of atherosclerosis starts at an early age. However, there are very few studies evaluating the prevalence of the common clinical and behavioral cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among children, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present cross-sectional survey was to evaluate the distribution of blood lipid profile and various behavioral (i.e. dietary habits, physical activity status factors related to CVD risk and its relationships to paternal (PEL and maternal educational level (MEL among primary schoolchildren in Turkey. Methods In three major metropolises in Turkey (Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir, a random sample of 1044 children aged 12 and 13 years old was examined. ANOVA was applied to evaluate the tested hypothesis, after correcting for multiple comparisons (Tukey correction. Results After controlling for energy and fat intake, physical activity status and Body Mass Index (BMI, it was found that mostly PEL had a significant positive effect for most of the subgroups examined (Lower vs. Higher and Medium vs. Higher on TC and HDL-cholesterol and a negative effect on TC/HDL ratio for both genders. Furthermore, both boys and girls with higher PEL and MEL were found to have higher energy intake derived from fat and protein than their counterparts with Medium and Lower PEL and MEL, while the opposite was observed for the percentage of energy derived from carbohydrates. Conclusions Our study provides indications for a possible association between an adverse lipid profile, certain dietary patterns and Higher PEL and MEL among schoolchildren in Turkey. These findings underline the possible role of social status, indicated by the degree of education of both parents, in developing certain health behaviors and health indices among Turkish children and provide some guidance for Public Health Policy.

  19. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  20. Engaging Parents in Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme as Part of England's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy: Lessons for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Mairi Ann; Davis, Liz; Lindsay, Geoff; Davis, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Based on 65 interviews with professionals and parents conducted during 2007-2008, this 16-month, mainly qualitative evaluation of Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme (a preventative initiative within England's teenage pregnancy strategy) found that a community development approach and an ethos of partnership with parents and…

  1. Family Policies and Academic Achievement by Young Children in Single-Parent Families: An International Comparison. Population Research Institute Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Suet-ling; Dronkers, Jaap; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    This study investigates the differences in the degree of low academic achievement of third and fourth graders living with single-parent families from 11 industrialized countries. The United States ranks first among the countries compared in terms of the achievement gap for children in single- and two-parent families. After controlling for…

  2. Age norms, family relationships, and home leaving in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tosi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research has shown that social norms have an influence on young adults' life course transitions. However, few studies have explicitly and directly tested the idea that perceived age norms affect the decision to leave the parental home. Objective: I ask whether normative factors are correlated with the decision to leave the family nest in Italy, and whether this association depends on a system of perceived costs and benefits, parental approval of their children's decisions, and the quality of parent-child relationships. Methods: Using the panel component of Family and Social Subjects data (2003 and 2007, logit and multinomial logit models were adopted to analyze the connection between perceived norms and behavior. The Karlson, Holm, and Breen (2012 decomposition method was used to test the relevance of confounding and mediating factors. Results: The findings show that young adults who consider themselves as too young to leave the parental home are less likely to move out of the family nest in order to marry. The interaction between a 'stay' norm, the perceived benefits of leaving home, and parental approval significantly affects the transition to independence. Contribution: In Italy, decision-making about leaving home and getting married is shaped by age norms concerning extended coresidence. Young adults tend to comply with age norms when they perceive that their decision implies benefits and/or a violation will lead to penalties. Perceived parental disapproval reduces the influence of normative factors on individual actual behaviors, which suggests that young adults adhere to norms that are supported by parents.

  3. Life after Vouchers: What Happens to Students Who Leave Private Schools for the Traditional Public Sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Deven; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Few school choice evaluations consider students who leave such programs, and fewer still consider the effects of leaving these programs as policy-relevant outcomes. Using a representative sample of students from the citywide voucher program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, we analyze more than 1,000 students who leave the program during a 4-year period.…

  4. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  5. L’acceptabilité sociale de l’usage de congés légaux pour raisons parentales : le point de vue des cadres d’une grande entreprise The Social Acceptability of Availing oneself of Legal Parental Leave : the Viewpoint of Staff in a Major Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Fusulier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En Belgique, différentes mesures visant à faciliter l’articulation vie professionnelle/vie familiale ont été instituées. Elles ne sont en général contraignantes ni pour les travailleurs, ni pour les employeurs. De nombreuses variables ont un impact sur le choix des parents dans la (non-prise des congés attachés à la vie familiale. Entre les mesures institutionnelles et l’attitude des individus, il existe donc un espace pluriel de médiation. Cet article se concentre sur le rôle que joue le milieu du travail. Ainsi, nous constatons que le fait d’être père au travail fait encore l’objet d’un manque de reconnaissance et de légitimité. En général, le mode de gestion d’une entreprise suppose que les implications familiales émanent souvent d’un choix privé et renvoient à une responsabilité féminine. Aussi, la culture organisationnelle de l’entreprise est-elle importante, notamment dans la définition de la légitimité accordée à l’usage des congés attachés à la vie familiale. Cette question est ici explorée en analysant la manière dont 137 cadres d’une grande entreprise wallonne perçoivent cette légitimité.In Belgium, various measures have been enacted aimed at facilitating the combining of professional life/family life. In general, they are in no way obligatory, either for workers or for employers. A number of variables have an impact on parents' choices in taking or not taking leaves attached to family life. Between institutional measures and individual attitudes, a range of options thus exists. This article concentrates on the role played by the workplace. We thus observe that the fact of being a working father remains subject to a lack of recognition and legitimacy. In general, an enterprise's management style presupposes that familial commitments often result from private choices and are a woman's responsibility. Additionally, the enterprise's organizational culture counts, notably in defining

  6. Access to and use of paid sick leave among low-income families with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Perry, Cynthia D; Kenney, Genevieve M; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Pantell, Matthew S

    2008-08-01

    The ability of employed parents to meet the health needs of their children may depend on their access to sick leave, especially for low-income workers, who may be afforded less flexibility in their work schedules to accommodate these needs yet also more likely to have children in poor health. Our goal was to provide rates of access to paid sick leave and paid vacation leave among low-income families with children and to assess whether access to these benefits is associated with parents' leave taking to care for themselves or others. We used a sample of low-income families (paid leave and characteristics of children, families, and parents' employer. Access to paid leave was lower among children in low-income families than among those in families with higher income. Within low-income families, children without >or=1 full-time worker in the household were especially likely to lack access to this benefit, as were children whose parents work for small employers. Among children whose parents had access to paid sick leave, parents were more likely to take time away from work to care for themselves or others. This relationship is even more pronounced among families with the highest need, such as children in fair or poor health and children with all parents in full-time employment. Legislation mandating paid sick leave could dramatically increase access to this benefit among low-income families. It would likely diminish gaps in parents' leave taking to care for others between families with and without the benefit. However, until the health-related consequences are better understood, the full impact of such legislation remains unknown.

  7. "A Chance to Stand Back": Parenting Programmes for Parents of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Karen; Churchill, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Parenting interventions were an important feature of New Labour's policies to combat social exclusion. This paper critically examines parenting programmes for families with adolescents, assessing national and local policy aims against the perspectives of women who took part in a parenting course, which was the subject of a local evaluation. The…

  8. School Choice in an English Village: Living, Loyalty and Leaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Carl; Hillyard, Sam

    2015-01-01

    In late modernity, the marketisation of public services has become a global policy phenomenon. In the case of schooling, this has resulted in parents discursively positioned as consumers of education making a choice between providers of education. To date the majority of research on parental choice has focused on the urban; this paper is concerned…

  9. How orthodox protestant parents decide on the vaccination of their children: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijs Wilhelmina L M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite high vaccination coverage, there have recently been epidemics of vaccine preventable diseases in the Netherlands, largely confined to an orthodox protestant minority with religious objections to vaccination. The orthodox protestant minority consists of various denominations with either low, intermediate or high vaccination coverage. All orthodox protestant denominations leave the final decision to vaccinate or not up to their individual members. Methods To gain insight into how orthodox protestant parents decide on vaccination, what arguments they use, and the consequences of their decisions, we conducted an in-depth interview study of both vaccinating and non-vaccinating orthodox protestant parents selected via purposeful sampling. The interviews were thematically coded by two analysts using the software program Atlas.ti. The initial coding results were reviewed, discussed, and refined by the analysts until consensus was reached. Emerging concepts were assessed for consistency using the constant comparative method from grounded theory. Results After 27 interviews, data saturation was reached. Based on characteristics of the decision-making process (tradition vs. deliberation and outcome (vaccinate or not, 4 subgroups of parents could be distinguished: traditionally non-vaccinating parents, deliberately non-vaccinating parents, deliberately vaccinating parents, and traditionally vaccinating parents. Except for the traditionally vaccinating parents, all used predominantly religious arguments to justify their vaccination decisions. Also with the exception of the traditionally vaccinating parents, all reported facing fears that they had made the wrong decision. This fear was most tangible among the deliberately vaccinating parents who thought they might be punished immediately by God for vaccinating their children and interpreted any side effects as a sign to stop vaccinating. Conclusions Policy makers and health care

  10. How orthodox protestant parents decide on the vaccination of their children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; van Ijzendoorn, Giovanna; van Ansem, Wilke J C; van der Velden, Koos; Hulscher, Marlies E J L

    2012-06-06

    Despite high vaccination coverage, there have recently been epidemics of vaccine preventable diseases in the Netherlands, largely confined to an orthodox protestant minority with religious objections to vaccination. The orthodox protestant minority consists of various denominations with either low, intermediate or high vaccination coverage. All orthodox protestant denominations leave the final decision to vaccinate or not up to their individual members. To gain insight into how orthodox protestant parents decide on vaccination, what arguments they use, and the consequences of their decisions, we conducted an in-depth interview study of both vaccinating and non-vaccinating orthodox protestant parents selected via purposeful sampling. The interviews were thematically coded by two analysts using the software program Atlas.ti. The initial coding results were reviewed, discussed, and refined by the analysts until consensus was reached. Emerging concepts were assessed for consistency using the constant comparative method from grounded theory. After 27 interviews, data saturation was reached. Based on characteristics of the decision-making process (tradition vs. deliberation) and outcome (vaccinate or not), 4 subgroups of parents could be distinguished: traditionally non-vaccinating parents, deliberately non-vaccinating parents, deliberately vaccinating parents, and traditionally vaccinating parents. Except for the traditionally vaccinating parents, all used predominantly religious arguments to justify their vaccination decisions. Also with the exception of the traditionally vaccinating parents, all reported facing fears that they had made the wrong decision. This fear was most tangible among the deliberately vaccinating parents who thought they might be punished immediately by God for vaccinating their children and interpreted any side effects as a sign to stop vaccinating. Policy makers and health care professionals should stimulate orthodox protestant parents to make a

  11. Leave or Stay? Battered Women's Decision after Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…

  12. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  13. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  14. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  15. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption.

  16. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  17. Work-life balance and family friendly policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Chapman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Australian and international research on work-life interaction. We review the work-life policies and practices that are likely to have the greatest impact on work-life outcomes, specifically reducing the negative impact of work on other life domains (work-life interference, and enhancing the positive effect (work-life facilitation. The review addresses four policy areas common in work-life studies of the general workforce: employee-centered flexible work practices; working hours (e.g. access to part-time work; paid and unpaid leave (e.g. parental leave; and access to childcare. It then considers the work-life literature related to two specific industries – the Australian public sector, and health and social services – to identify work-life issues and practices specific to each industry. We then conclude with a general discussion of challenges associated with the policy-practice gap, focusing particularly on work intensification and the role of organisational culture as the catalyst for policy uptake and effectiveness.

  18. Managing Home Health Care (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Palliative Care Electronic Health Records When Your Child's in the Pediatric Intensive Care ... Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit ...

  19. Stakeholder Support for School Food Policy Expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Donovan, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which parents and school-based stakeholders (principals, teachers, canteen managers and Parents & Citizen Committee presidents) are supportive of potential expansions to a new school food policy. Eight additional policy components elicited in preliminary focus groups with parents and 19 additional…

  20. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  1. The Family and Medical Leave Act: Questions and Answers for Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euben, Donna R.; Thornton, Saranna R.

    The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) entitles many faculty members to 12 weeks of job-protected unpaid leave each year to take care of a serious health condition or a family obligation such as the birth of a child, the arrival of an adoptive or foster child, or the serious health condition of a spouse, child, or parent. This guidebook is a…

  2. The impact on breastfeeding of labour market policy and practice in Ireland, Sweden, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtry, Judith

    2003-07-01

    In recent decades there has been a marked rise in the labour market participation of women with infants in many countries. Partly in response to this trend, there are calls for greater emphasis on infant and child health in research and policy development on parental leave and other work-family balancing measures. Yet achieving high rates of breastfeeding as a health objective has thus far received relatively little attention in this context. Biomedical literature outlines the important health benefits conferred by breastfeeding, including upon infants and young children among middle class populations in developed countries. International recommendations now advise exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. However, research indicates that the timing of the mother's resumption of employment is a key factor influencing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. There would thus appear to be considerable potential for labour policy and practice, particularly maternity/parental leave provisions, to positively influence breastfeeding practice. Taking the case studies of Ireland, Sweden, and the United States, this paper explores the implications of labour market and early childhood policy for breastfeeding practice. The equity tensions posed by the breastfeeding-maternal employment intersection are also examined. The paper concludes that both socio-cultural support and labour market/health/early childhood policy are important if high rates of both breastfeeding and women's employment are to be achieved in industrialised countries.

  3. Caring: Implications for Child Care and for Family Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity in families. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant and toddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parental preferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.

  4. Security Policy Alignment: A Formal Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Dimkov, T.; Pavlovic, Dusko

    2013-01-01

    Security policy alignment concerns the matching of security policies specified at different levels in socio-technical systems, and delegated to different agents, technical and human. For example, the policy that sales data should not leave an organization is refined into policies on door locks,

  5. Implications of antisocial parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  6. Parenting influences on Latino children's social competence in the first grade: parental depression and parent involvement at home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R; Shewakramani, Vansa; Goldberg, Simon; Padilla, Brian

    2013-10-01

    Although it is widely accepted that parental depression is associated with problems with children's socioemotional adjustment, the pathways by which parental depression influences children's adjustment, particularly in low-income Latino children are not fully understood. In our investigation of 1,462 low-income Latino children in the first grade and their Spanish- and English-dominant parents, a factor analysis revealed three main pathways of possible influence of parent involvement in children's social development: emotional involvement and educational involvement at home and at school. The findings from multigroup structural equation modeling revealed that whereas the first two pathways mediated the effect of parental depression on child social competence for Spanish-dominant parents, only emotional involvement explained parental depression effects for English-dominant parents. Parent educational involvement at school did not mediate parental depression effects for either Spanish- or English-dominant Latino parents. Discussion and implications of findings with respect to research, practice, and policy with Latinos follow.

  7. An examination of the causes, consequences, and policy responses to the migration of highly trained health personnel from the Philippines: the high cost of living/leaving-a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Palaganas, Erlinda; Spitzer, Denise L; Kabamalan, Maria Midea M; Sanchez, Marian C; Caricativo, Ruel; Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2017-03-31

    Dramatic increases in the migration of human resources for health (HRH) from developing countries like the Philippines can have consequences on the sustainability of health systems. In this paper, we trace the outflows of HRH from the Philippines, map out its key causes and consequences, and identify relevant policy responses. This mixed method study employed a decentered, comparative approach that involved three phases: (a) a scoping review on health workers' migration of relevant policy documents and academic literature on health workers' migration from the Philippines; and primary data collection with (b) 37 key stakeholders and (c) household surveys with seven doctors, 329 nurses, 66 midwives, and 18 physical therapists. Filipino health worker migration is best understood within the context of macro-, meso-, and micro-level factors that are situated within the political, economic, and historical/colonial legacy of the country. Underfunding of the health system and un- or underemployment were push factors for migration, as were concerns for security in the Philippines, the ability to practice to full scope or to have opportunities for career advancement. The migration of health workers has both negative and positive consequences for the Philippine health system and its health workers. Stakeholders focused on issues such as on brain drain, gain, and circulation, and on opportunities for knowledge and technology transfer. Concomitantly, migration has resulted in the loss of investment in human capital. The gap in the supply of health workers has affected the quality of care delivered, especially in rural areas. The opening of overseas opportunities has commercialized health education, compromised its quality, and stripped the country of skilled learning facilitators. The social cost of migration has affected émigrés and their families. At the household level, migration has engendered increased consumerism and materialism and fostered dependency on overseas

  8. Part-time sick leave as a treatment method for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Daniela; Svensson, Mikael

    2012-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that staying active is an important part of a recovery process for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It has been suggested that using part-time sick-leave rather than full-time sick leave will enhance the possibility of full recovery to the workforce, and several countries actively favor this policy. The aim of this paper is to examine if it is beneficial for individuals on sick leave due to MSDs to be on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave. A sample of 1,170 employees from the RFV-LS (register) database of the Social Insurance Agency of Sweden is used. The effect of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave is estimated for the probability of returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity. A two-stage recursive bivariate probit model is used to deal with the endogeneity problem. The results indicate that employees assigned to part-time sick leave do recover to full work capacity with a higher probability than those assigned to full-time sick leave. The average treatment effect of part-time sick leave is 25 percentage points. Considering that part-time sick leave may also be less expensive than assigning individuals to full-time sick leave, this would imply efficiency improvements from assigning individuals, when possible, to part-time sick leave.

  9. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...... of salaries, better health, less crime, higher social cohesion, lower public and social costs and higher productivity. This is why ESL is a policy focal point. In these terms, lifelong guidance has a key role to play in terms of both prevention, intervention, and of compensation strategies....

  10. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  11. Part-time sick leave as a treatment method for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela; Svensson, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that staying active is an important part of a recovery process for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It has been suggested that using part-time sick-leave rather than full-time sick leave will enhance the possibility of full recovery to the workforce, and several countries actively favor this policy. However, to date only few studies have estimated the effect of using part-time sick leave in contrast to full-time sick leave. In thi...

  12. Family Ties and Leaving Home for College: Recent Findings and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen E.

    1987-01-01

    Recent research with first year college students indicated that emotional closeness to parents was associated with social and intellectual competence during the leaving home period. Secure parental attachment fostered self-confidence, willingness to explore the environment, and the development of social skills. Students describing themselves as…

  13. An Analysis of Paid Family and Sick Leave Advocacy in Louisiana: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Phyllis Hutton; Theall, Katherine P

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with other developed countries, the United States lacks national paid maternity/family and sick leave policies, negatively impacting the health and economic security of both female and male workers and their children. Employer paid family and sick leave policies cover only about half of workers, and those lacking paid leaves are more likely to be less educated and with lower incomes. Louisiana has high proportions of poor and low income workers who especially would benefit from national or state paid leave policies. In the absence of national paid leaves, several states and cities have implemented paid family and sick leaves. In this context and following the American Public Health Association's endorsement of paid family and sick leaves for health and wellbeing, the Tulane University Mary Amelia Women's Center decided to advocate for paid leave policies in Louisiana. Highlights of a Louisiana spring 2015 initiative were a talk by the President of the Institute for Women's Policy Research on the economic and health benefits of paid family and sick leaves and bills submitted by a State Senator. As has happened elsewhere, opposition from businesses and Republican legislators blocked passage. This outcome fit the Center's original expectations that communicating about the important health and other benefits of paid family and sick leaves, and developing support for state-wide policies, would be a long process-but one important to begin. The initiative in Louisiana may provide insights for paid leave advocacy elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. New hospital-based policy for children whose parents present at the ER due to domestic violence, substance abuse and/or a suicide attempt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M. M.; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Teeuw, Arianne H.

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a major social problem with many adverse consequences, and a substantial number of maltreated children are not identified by health care professionals. In 2010, in order to improve the identification of maltreated children in hospitals, a new hospital-based policy was developed

  15. Parent-School Councils in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Wayne D.; Bjork, Lars G.; Zhao, Yuru; Chi, Bin

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines how schools in Beijing have responded to a Chinese national policy mandate to establish and maintain parent councils. We surveyed principals and parent council members across schools in the Beijing municipality about the establishment and functions of their schools' parent councils. Survey results provide insights…

  16. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhlke, W

    1989-01-01

    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures.

  17. Sabbatical Leaves in New Mexico Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Rex C.

    This study investigates the present state of sabbatical leave policies and practices in 4-year colleges and universities in New Mexico. A questionnaire was mailed to the Academic Affairs Dean or Academic Vice-President of nine New Mexico institutions. Follow-up letters were sent and responses were received from eight of the nine institutions.…

  18. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  19. Parenting and Digital Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Radesky, Jenny; Collier, Kevin M; Gentile, Douglas A; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Nathanson, Amy I; Rasmussen, Eric E; Reich, Stephanie M; Rogers, Jean

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the family dynamic surrounding media use is crucial to our understanding of media effects, policy development, and the targeting of individuals and families for interventions to benefit child health and development. The Families, Parenting, and Media Workgroup reviewed the relevant research from the past few decades. We find that child characteristics, the parent-child relationship, parental mediation practices, and parents' own use of media all can influence children's media use, their attitudes regarding media, and the effects of media on children. However, gaps remain. First, more research is needed on best practices of parental mediation for both traditional and new media. Ideally, this research will involve large-scale, longitudinal studies that manage children from infancy to adulthood. Second, we need to better understand the relationship between parent media use and child media use and specifically how media may interfere with or strengthen parent-child relationships. Finally, longitudinal research on how developmental processes and individual child characteristics influence the intersection between media and family life is needed. The majority of children's media use takes place within a wider family dynamic. An understanding of this dynamic is crucial to understanding child media use as a whole. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  1. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  2. Slovenia: Generous family policy without evidence of any fertility impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivoja Šircelj

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia was not a typical socialist country; the transformation that had started at the end of the 1980s did not cause such great turbulences as in other countries in transition. However, unfavorable consequences did accompany the transition, particularly for some segments of the population. Fertility trends in Slovenia, as seen in the total fertility rate, have not surpassed the replacement level since the end of the 1970s. The lowest level of 1.21 was reached during the 1999-2003 period. Since then, the total fertility rate has been increasing slightly. Postponement in childbearing began with cohorts born after 1960. In today's Slovenian society, on average young women achieve higher education than men, and they perceive (potential motherhood as a drawback in the labor market. Almost all parents in Slovenia are employed full-time, even those with small children. Nevertheless, the traditional gender-division of roles persists in the family. Extended education, relatively high unemployment among the young, and a shortage of adequate housing prolong the stay in the parental home. Together with insecure employment, a responsible parenthood norm, and the perceived high costs of children, this results in childbearing postponement and a lower final number of children. Slovenia has a relatively well-developed family policy, particularly on parental leave and pre-school childcare. Notwithstanding, almost no impact of family policy on fertility has ever been observed.

  3. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance, health benefits, retirement coverage, and leave accrual). (e) The agency shall determine the... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (3...

  4. Parental leave and the glass ceiling in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, James; Skogman Thoursie, Peter; Vroman, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we update and extend "Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?" (Albrecht et al. 2003) by documenting the extent to which the gender log wage gap across the distribution in Sweden has changed over the period 1998-2008. We then examine the Swedish glass ceiling in 2008 in more detail by documenting how it differs for white-collar versus blue-collar workers and for private- versus public-sector workers. We also examine when in the life cycle the glass ceiling effect arises and how thi...

  5. A School Administrator's Guide to the Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosland, Carl C.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, yet practical, reference for information and guidance to comply with the requirements of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. It provides school administrators with the latest information to ensure that school policies and practices are up-to-date and it helps to manage leave and avoid costly legal violations.…

  6. Medical and Family Leave: Benefits Available to Female Workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Jewish Women, New York, NY. Center for the Child.

    This paper discusses a national survey of employee benefits designed to investigate the extent to which employers have independently implemented basic components of a comprehensive maternity plan. Components include: (1) standard policies that set the period of leave; (2) job-protected medical leave for maternity; (3) employer contributions to…

  7. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  8. What Provisions Do Orthopaedic Programs Make for Maternity, Paternity, and Adoption Leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jennifer; Teuscher, David

    2016-09-01

    The process of choosing medical specialty and residency programs is multifaceted. Today's generation of medical students may have an increased interest in work-life balance and time with their families. In considering this factor, medical students may be influenced by policy regarding maternity, paternity, and adoption leave during residency and fellowship training. Current policy among orthopaedic programs regarding maternity, paternity, and adoption leave is not well described. To understand the influence these policies may have on the choices that medical students make in choosing their specialty, the policies must first be better understood. (1) What proportion of orthopaedic programs have formal or unwritten policies regarding maternity, paternity, and adoptive leave? (2) What are the provisions for time away, allotment of time, and makeup options for trainees who take leave? (3) What proportion of orthopaedic programs report utilization of leave, and what proportions of leave are for maternity, paternity, or adoptive reasons? Accredited programs in orthopaedic surgery were identified through the Council of Orthopedic Residency Directors within the American Orthopaedic Association. Current program directors of these accredited programs were surveyed. The survey was emailed to 144 program directors, of which 141 emails were delivered. Responses were received from 45 program directors, representing 31% of programs. The survey focused on maternity, paternity, and adoptive leave, and it consisted of questions designed to explore program policies (formal, unwritten, no policy, or in development), time considerations (amount allowed, allocation of time away, and makeup requirements), and utilization (trainees who took leave and type of leave used). Most respondents have maternity leave policy (formal: 36 of 45 [80%]; unwritten: 17 of 45 [38%]). Sixteen programs (16 of 45 [36%]) reported having both a formal and an unwritten maternity leave policy. Less than half of

  9. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  10. Double Bind: Primary Caregivers of Children with Special Health Care Needs and Their Access to Leave Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Paul J.; Garfield, Craig F.; Elliott, Marc N.; Vestal, Katherine D.; Klein, David J.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Family leave benefits are a critical tool allowing parents to miss work to care for their ill children. We examined whether access to benefits varies by level of childcare responsibilities among employed parents of children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Methods We conducted telephone interviews with three successive cohorts of employed parents of CSHCN, randomly sampled from a California children’s hospital. At Wave 1 (November 2003 to January 2004) we conducted 372 parent interviews. At Wave 2 (November 2005 to January 2006) we conducted 396 parent interviews. At Wave 3 (November 2007 to December 2008) we conducted 393 parent interviews. We pooled these samples for bivariate and multivariate regression analyses, using wave indicators and sample weights. Results Parents with more childcare responsibilities (primary caregivers) reported less access to sick leave/vacation (65% vs. 82%, Ppaid leave outside of sick leave/vacation (41% vs. 51%, Pleave benefits. Even in the context of part-time employment, however, primary caregivers were just as likely as secondary caregivers both to miss work due to their child’s illness and to report being unable to miss work when they needed to. Conclusions Due in part to employment and gender differences, leave benefits among parents of CSHCN are skewed away from primary caregivers and toward secondary caregivers. Thus, primary caregivers may face particularly difficult choices between employment and childcare responsibilities. Reducing this disparity in access to benefits may improve health for CSHCN and their families. PMID:23477748

  11. Leaving school: Analysis of a case study from the angle of the ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović-Ilić Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaving school has far reaching consequences both for the individual and the society. We tackled this problem by using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory to analyse case studies of 12 children (elementary and secondary schools who quit schooling or are under risk to do so. It is an adequate frame of reference for understanding the causes of school-leaving since it considers different levels of development and their relations. The children and four parents took part in semi-structured interviews. Other data were gathered by interviewing the focus groups of school principals, school pedagogues and psychologists, teachers, Parent Councils, and pupils. The qualitative analysis shows a disturbed structure and functioning even at the level of microsystem (family, school, peers which may be linked with school-leaving. The relations between microsystems are sporadic and inadequate (mesosystem which additionally stimulates school-leaving. Higher levels of environment (exo and macro systems in which children do not participate, yet depend upon their indirect influence, stimulate school leaving, too. Many children were faced with nonnormative life events (chrono-system: divorce or death of parent/s, underage pregnancy, family moving. We view this research as the initial step which will identify the problems and lead to future directions of research which would, based on Bronfenbrenner's approach, systematically examine different levels of environment and form the basis for creating ecologically valid measures for prevention of school-leaving.

  12. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers' adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christina Hansen; Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20-25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9-33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  13. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. Aim: This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. Methods: A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Results: Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20–25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9–33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. PMID:27060594

  14. The unintended consequences of maternity leaves: How agency interventions mitigate the negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Ivona; Krstic, Anja; Trau, Raymond N C; Zarina, Tanya

    2018-06-07

    To support women in the workplace, longer legislated maternity leaves have been encouraged in Scandinavian countries and recently in Canada. Yet, past research shows that longer legislated maternity leaves (i.e., 1 year and longer) may unintentionally harm women's career progress. To address this issue, we first sought to identify one potential mechanism underlying negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves: others' lower perceptions of women's agency. Second, we utilize this knowledge to test interventions that boost others' perceptions of women's agency and thus mitigate negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves. We test our hypotheses in three studies in the context of Canadian maternity leave policies. Specifically, in Study 1, we found that others' lower perceptions of women's agency mediated the negative effects of a longer legislated maternity leave, that is, 1 year (vs. shorter, i.e., 1 month maternity leave) on job commitment. In Study 2, we found that providing information about a woman's agency mitigates the unintended negative effects of a longer legislated maternity leave on job commitment and hireability. In Study 3, we showed that use of a corporate program that enables women to stay in touch with the workplace while on maternity leave (compared to conditions in which no such program was offered; a program was offered but not used by the applicant; and the program was offered, but there was no information about its usage by the applicant) enhances agency perceptions and perceptions of job commitment and hireability. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Dangerous dads? Ecological and longitudinal analyses of paternity leave and risk for child injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Lucie; Månsdotter, Anna; Lundberg, Michael; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2012-11-01

    In 1974, Sweden became the first country to permit fathers to take paid parental leave. Other countries are currently following suit issuing similar laws. While this reform supports the principles of the United Nations convention of the right for children to be with both parents and enshrines the ethos of gender equality, there has been little systematic examination of its potential impact on child health. Instead, there is uninformed debate that fathers may expose their children to greater risks of injury than mothers. In this Swedish national study, the authors therefore assess whether fathers' parental leave can be regarded as a more serious risk factor for child injuries than that of mothers. Nationwide register-based ecological and longitudinal studies of hospitalisation due to injury (and intoxication) in early childhood, involving the Swedish population in 1973-2009 (ecological design), and children born in 1988 and 1989 (n=118 278) (longitudinal design). An increase in fathers' share of parental leave over time was parallelled by a downward trend in child injury rates (age 0-4 years). At the individual level, the crude incidence of child injury (age 0-2 years) was lower during paternity as compared with maternity leave. This association was, however, explained by parental socio-demographic characteristics (multivariate HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.2). There is no support for the notion that paternity leave increases the risk of child injury.

  16. Chitinase from phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boller, T.; Gehri, A.; Mauch, F.; Vogeli, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ethylene on chitinase activity in bean leaves. The authors have purified the enzyme in the course of their work. The purification method is detailed and the colorimetric and radiochemical assays are compared

  17. Satisfaction of women urologists with maternity leave and childbirth timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Lori B; Baltrushes, Robin J; Stolzmann, Kelly L; Garshick, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Women physicians must consider many conflicting issues when timing childbirth. We characterized maternity leave, breast-feeding practices and satisfaction associated with pregnancy timing in women urologists. A 114-item anonymous survey including questions on maternity leave duration for firstborn children, workplace policies, attitudes and satisfaction was mailed to all 365 American board certified women urologists in May and July 2007. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with greater satisfaction. A total of 243 women urologists (69%) responded, of whom 158 had at least 1 biological child. Average maternal age at first birth was 32.6 years. Of the children 10%, 32% and 52% were born before, during and after residency, respectively. Only 42% of women reported the existence of a formal maternity leave policy. Of the women 70% took 8 weeks or less of leave. Those with 9 weeks or greater were 3.8 times more likely to report satisfaction (p = 0.001). Although women in practice were 2.0 times more likely to take 9 weeks or greater compared to those in training or earlier (p = 0.046), only 30% in practice took this much time. Dissatisfaction with leave was not related to birth timing (residency vs practice) or maternal age at delivery but to work/residency related issues in 69% of respondents, financial concerns in 13% and personal/other in 18%. For breast-feeding 67% of respondents were satisfied with the duration and 22% were not. Dissatisfaction was secondary to work factors. Satisfaction with leave was related to the amount of maternity leave with women with 9 weeks or greater more likely to report satisfaction. Women in practice were more likely to take 9 weeks or greater but most did not due to strong stressors related to work, partners/peers or finances. Work factors were cited for dissatisfaction with breast-feeding.

  18. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  19. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  20. Australian internet policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Daly

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue focussing on internet policy in Australia provides a snapshot of developments on various topics (access, privacy, censorship as a means of understanding better the state of play in Australia, and also how this compares to internet policy in other parts of the world, especially Europe and North America. Given changing geopolitics, the influence of internet policy in the rest of the Asia Pacific through vehicles such as the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP may become increasingly important in Australia in the coming years. This leaves Australia, and its internet policy, at a crossroads, which may reflect broader dynamics in internet policy internationally, and makes this an interesting time in which to explore what is happening in this particular country.

  1. Gender Equality Policy in Sweden: 1970s–2010s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Nyberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to give an overview of gender equality policy in Sweden from the 1970s until today. A number of political measures and whether these measures individually, as well as combined, have promoted gender equality and the dual-earner/dual-carer model are described and analyzed. The conclusion is that the right to part-time work, publicly financed child care, parental leave, and tax deductions for domestic services make it easier for mothers to reconcile work and family, but do not challenge the distribution of family responsibilities between women and men. However, the individual right for fathers to 2 months of parental leave does challenge the gender order, to a certain extent, and fathers today participate more in care and domestic work than earlier. The dual-earner/dual-carer family is closer at hand when women have a higher education and earnings and thereby greater bargaining power. Employed work is more conditional among women with a lower education level, i.e., they may be employed but under the constraint that they are still responsible for care and domestic work in the family. Another constraint in this group where many work part-time is the lack of available full-time positions in the labor market.

  2. Parental Engagement: Beyond Parental Involvement in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kathleen

    This study critically analyzes parents' complex stories of engagement in school and science education. The purpose is not to essentialize parental involvement, but rather to understand the processes of parental involvement and push forward the current discourse on the engagement of low-income minority and immigrant parents in schools and specifically science education. Employing critical grounded theory methods over a four-year span, this study had three areas of focus. First, voices of marginalized parents in the context of various spaces within the school system are examined. Using a qualitative approach, informal, formal, and research spaces were explored along with how minority parents express voice in these various spaces. Findings indicate parents drew on capital to express voice differently in different spaces, essentially authoring new spaces or the type of engagement in existing spaces. Second, the values and beliefs of traditionally marginalized people, the Discourse of mainstream society, and how they can inform a third, more transformative space for parental engagement in science are considered. The voices of low-income, marginalized parents around science and parental engagement (i.e., first space) are contrasted with the tenets of major national science policy documents (i.e., second space). Findings indicate a disparity between the pathways of engagement for low-income parents and policymakers who shape science education. Third, methodological questions of responsibility and assumption in qualitative research are explored. The author's complex struggle to make sense of her positionality, responsibilities, and assumptions as a researcher is chronicled. Findings focused on insider/outsider issues and implications for culturally sensitive research are discussed. Finally, the implications for policy, teaching, and research are discussed.

  3. The Never Ending Fight; Court Ordered Parenting Plan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    usually maintain opposing claims to custody and parental control, the .... payment of maintenance by the father, the presumption being that the child will be .... leave telling, indelible marks on their psyche that sometimes live with them ...

  4. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  5. Paid maternity leave and breastfeeding practice before and after California's implementation of the nation's first paid family leave program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Yang, Muzhe

    2015-01-01

    California was the first state in the United States to implement a paid family leave (PFL) program in 2004. We use data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study to examine the changes in breastfeeding practices in California relative to other states before and after the implementation of PFL. We find an increase of 3-5 percentage points for exclusive breastfeeding and an increase of 10-20 percentage points for breastfeeding at several important markers of early infancy. Our study supports the recommendation of the Surgeon General to establish paid leave policies as a strategy for promoting breastfeeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Paternity leave in Sweden: costs, savings and health gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Winkvist, Anna

    2007-06-01

    The initial objective is to examine the relationship between paternity leave in 1978-1979 and male mortality during 1981-2001, and the second objective is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the 1974 parental insurance reform in Sweden. Based on a population of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (45,801 males), the risk of death for men who took paternity leave, compared with men who did not, was estimated by odds ratios. The cost-effectiveness analysis considered costs for information, administration and production losses, minus savings due to decreased sickness leave and inpatient care, compared to health gains in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). It is demonstrated that fathers who took paternity leave have a statistically significant decreased death risk of 16%. Costs minus savings (discounted values) stretch from a net cost of EUR 19 million to a net saving of EUR 11 million, and the base case cost-effectiveness is EUR 8000 per QALY. The study indicates that that the right to paternity leave is a desirable reform based on commonly stated public health, economic, and feminist goals. The critical issue in future research should be to examine impact from health-related selection.

  7. Length of maternity leave and health of mother and child--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehelin, Katharina; Bertea, Paola Coda; Stutz, Elisabeth Zemp

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of the literature on the length of maternity leaves and health of mothers and children; evaluation of the Swiss situation in view of the maternity leave policy implemented in 2005. Review of thirteen original studies identified by PubMed using topic-related terms. A positive association was shown between the length of maternity leave and mother's mental health and duration of breastfeeding. Extended maternity leaves were also associated with lower perinatal, neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates as well as lower child mortality; however, results are obtained in ecological studies. There is less evidence regarding other health outcomes. The new policy in Switzerland extends maternity leave for a considerable number of women to 14 weeks. With this prolongation, fewer depressive symptoms and longer breastfeeding duration can be expected, while benefits regarding other health outcomes would warrant longer leaves. Longer maternity leaves are likely to produce health benefits. The new policy in Switzerland will probably improve the situation of those women, who previously were granted only minimal leave and/or mothers with additional social risk factors.

  8. 41 CFR 60-20.3 - Job policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., under the employer's leave policy the female employee would qualify for leave, then childbearing must be considered by the employer to be a justification for leave of absence for female employees for a reasonable period of time. For example, if the female employee meets the equally applied minimum length of service...

  9. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  10. Parental availability for the care of sick children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S J; Earle, A; Egleston, B

    1996-08-01

    Parents have always played a critical role in the care of sick children. Although parents' roles remain crucial to children's health, parental availability has declined during the past half century. The percentage of women with preschool children who work has risen almost fivefold in 45 years from 12% in 1947 to 58% in 1992. The percentage of women in the paid work force with school-aged children has almost tripled in the same period, from 27.3% to 75.9%. Research has examined the effects of a variety of parental work conditions on children. However, past research has not examined how working conditions affect the ability of parents to care for their sick children. In this article, we examine how often the children of working parents get sick and whether parents receive enough paid leave to care for their sick children. This analysis makes use of two national surveys, which provide complementary information regarding the care of sick children. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is a longitudinal survey of a nationally representative probability sample of 12,686 men and women; the National Medical Expenditure Survey is a panel survey of 34,459 people. First, we estimated the family illness burden. Second, we looked in detail at the number of days of sick leave mothers had. Third, we examined whether mothers who had sick leave had it consistently during a 5-year period. Finally, we conducted a logistic regression to determine what factors were significant predictors of both lacking sick leave. More than one in three families faced a family illness burden of 2 weeks or more each year. Yet, 28% of mothers had sick leave none of the time they were employed between 1985 and 1990. Employed mothers of children with chronic conditions had less sick leave than other employed mothers. Thirty-six percent of mothers whose children had chronic conditions had sick leave none of the time they were employed. Although 20% of working parents who did not live in poverty lacked

  11. Why People Leave Their Jobs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Domínguez A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the results of the review of literature of relevant studies of the causal elements of intention to leave in the last five years (2009-2013. The method used to evaluate the literature was based on the seven steps for research synthesis: problem formulation, literature search, obtaining information from studies, quality assessment studies, analysis and integration of results, interpretation of evidence and presentation of results. 48 studies from 15 different countries with a sample of 35804 employees of different companies were evaluated. The findings suggest the existence of 89 different variables influencing the intention to leave of employees in an organization. The results of this study will allow researchers to better understand the variables that can be studied to verify the impact of variables such as causal elements, but also see those that have a mediating effect between them for predicting intention to leave as an element of employee turnover. This study makes three important contributions to literature of turnover. First, in this study all the parameters associated with the intention to leave were checked. Second, this study categorizes and displays in proportion relevant interests to the scientific community whom studying employee turnover across the intention to leave. And thirdly provides clues organizations to improve some of its structural and contextual features to control turnover.

  12. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  13. Leaving the grid: An ambition or a real choice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilpour, Rajab; Vassallo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The recent rapid decline in PV prices has brought grid parity, or near grid parity for PV in many countries. This, together with an expectation of a similar reduction for battery prices has prompted a new wave of social and academic discussions about the possibility of installing PV–battery systems and “leaving the grid” or “living off-grid”. This, if uncontrolled, has been termed the “death spiral” for utility companies. We have developed a decision support tool for rigorous assessment of the feasibility of leaving the grid. Numerous sensitivity analyses are carried out over critical parameters such as technology costs, system size, consumer load, and feed-in-tariff. The results show that, in most cases, leaving-the-grid is not the best economic option and it might be more beneficial to keep the connection with the grid, but minimize the electricity purchased by installation of an optimized size of PV-battery systems. The policy implication of this study is that, from an economic perspective, widespread disconnection might not be a realistic projection of the future. Rather, a notable reduction of energy demand per connection point is a more realistic option as PV–battery system prices decline further. Therefore, policies could be devised to help electricity network operators develop other sources of revenue rather than increasing energy prices, which have been assumed to be the key driver of the death spiral. -- Highlights: •There is an increasing public and academic interest in “leaving the grid” or “living off-grid”. •Grid defection is argued as a “death spiral” for transmission and distribution industries. •An optimization methodology is developed for assessing the feasibility of leaving the grid. •Leaving the grid with PV–battery is found to be infeasible due to large system requirements. •The best is to preserve connection with the grid, but minimize the electricity purchase

  14. Paid Maternity Leave in the United States: Associations with Maternal and Infant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Abraham, Jean M; Blewett, Lynn A; McGovern, Patricia M

    2018-02-01

    Objectives The United States is one of only three countries worldwide with no national policy guaranteeing paid leave to employed women who give birth. While maternity leave has been linked to improved maternal and child outcomes in international contexts, up-to-date research evidence in the U.S. context is needed to inform current policy debates on paid family leave. Methods Using data from Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18-45 who gave birth in 2011-2012, we conducted multivariate logistic regression to predict the likelihood of outcomes related to infant health, maternal physical and mental health, and maternal health behaviors by the use and duration of paid maternity leave. Results Use of paid and unpaid leave varied significantly by race/ethnicity and household income. Women who took paid maternity leave experienced a 47% decrease in the odds of re-hospitalizing their infants (95% CI 0.3, 1.0) and a 51% decrease in the odds of being re-hospitalized themselves (95% CI 0.3, 0.9) at 21 months postpartum, compared to women taking unpaid or no leave. They also had 1.8 times the odds of doing well with exercise (95% CI 1.1, 3.0) and stress management (95% CI 1.1, 2.8), compared to women taking only unpaid leave. Conclusions for Practice Paid maternity leave significantly predicts lower odds of maternal and infant re-hospitalization and higher odds of doing well with exercise and stress management. Policies aimed at expanding access to paid maternity and family leave may contribute toward reducing socio-demographic disparities in paid leave use and its associated health benefits.

  15. An Evaluation of Paid Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper analyzes a labor market program which enables workers to leave employment temporarily with a compensation financed by the taxpayers. The main aim of the program was to increase the chances of the unemployed finding a job. However, the empirical analysis reveals a clear negative...... relationship between the unemployment rate and transition rates from employment into the paid leave scheme. Program participation is low, precisely in those labor market states, where the scheme has a potential to perform as a remedy by increasing the transition rate from unemployment to employment. Several...

  16. Access to leave benefits for primary caregivers of children with special health care needs: a double bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Paul J; Garfield, Craig F; Elliott, Marc N; Vestal, Katherine D; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Family leave benefits are a key tool that allow parents to miss work to care for their ill children. We examined whether access to benefits varies by level of childcare responsibilities among employed parents of children with special health care needs (CSHCN). We conducted telephone interviews with 3 successive cohorts of employed parents of CSHCN, randomly sampled from a California children's hospital. At Wave 1 (November 2003 to January 2004), we conducted 372 parent interviews. At Wave 2 (November 2005 to January 2006), we conducted 396 parent interviews. At Wave 3 (November 2007 to January 2008), we conducted 393 parent interviews. We pooled these samples for bivariate and multivariate regression analyses by using wave indicators and sample weights. Parents with more childcare responsibilities (primary caregivers) reported less access to sick leave/vacation (65% vs 82%, P paid leave outside of sick leave/vacation (41% vs 51%, P Leave Act benefits (28% vs 44%, P leave benefits. Even in the context of part-time employment, however, primary caregivers were just as likely as secondary caregivers both to miss work due to their child's illness and to report being unable to miss work when they needed to. Due in part to employment and gender differences, leave benefits among parents of CSHCN are skewed away from primary caregivers and toward secondary caregivers. Thus, primary caregivers may face particularly difficult choices between employment and childcare responsibilities. Reducing this disparity in access to benefits may improve the circumstances of CSHCN and their families. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  18. Leaving an emissions trading scheme : Implications for the United Kingdom and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) may opt to leave the European Union (EU) emissions trading system (ETS) for greenhouse gases. This policy brief examines the implications. The UK is a large importer of emission permits. Thus, meeting its climate policy targets would be much more difficult without the EU ETS,

  19. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...

  20. A Look at the Single Parent Family: Implications for the School Psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Christine W.; Brassard, Marla R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the effects on parents and children of living in a single parent family, and suggests ways in which school psychologists can aid schools and single parent families. Presents school-based interventions for children and parents. Suggests changes in administrative policies to meet the needs of single parent families. (Author)

  1. Economic and cultural influences on the decision to leave home in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R W; DaVanzo, J

    1998-02-01

    Although the departure of children from the parental home is an important life-cycle event, few studies have investigated nest-leaving in developing countries. Using retrospective data from the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey, we estimate hazard models of nest-leaving in Peninsular Malaysia. We find that the departure of children, especially sons, responds to economic incentives, including housing costs, family businesses, education, and economic growth, and that ethnic differences in nest-leaving are important. We also find that the median age of departure from home has declined sharply over the past 40 years, a period of rapid social and economic change in Malaysia.

  2. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  3. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  4. Divergent Trends in US Maternity and Paternity Leave, 1994-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorsky, Jay L

    2017-03-01

    To determine the number and type of US workers taking maternity or paternity leave. We created a publicly available ecological long-term series for measuring parental leave from 1994 to 2015 by using the Current Population Survey, which interviews about 60 000 randomly selected households monthly. The average month from 1994 to 2015 saw 273 000 women and 13 000 men on maternity or paternity leave. Maternity leave rates per 10 000 births showed no trend over 22 years (mean = 677.6). Paternity figures increased by a factor of 3, but started from a small base (14.7-54.6). We observed no national impact on maternity or paternity leave after implementation of state laws that provided paid leave. About half (51.1%) of employees on maternity or paternity leave during 2015 received paid time off. The typical woman on maternity leave was older, more likely married, more likely non-Hispanic White, and more educated than the typical woman who gave birth. Although the US economy has expanded dramatically since 1994, this improvement does not appear to have translated into more women taking maternity leave.

  5. Who takes paternity leave? A cohort study on prior social and health characteristics among fathers in Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Fredlund, Peeter; Hallqvist, Johan; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2010-09-01

    Progress towards gender equality involves changes in the traditional parental division - female caring and male breadwinning. One aspect is increased parental leave for fathers, which may benefit the health of mothers, children, and fathers themselves. We examined how social and health characteristics (2002) were associated with paternity leave in excess of the 'father quota' of 60 days (2003-2006) in the Stockholm Public Health Cohort. Generally, fathers with stable social position, fit lifestyles, and good health had increased chances of paternity leave uptake. Our findings may contribute to identifying target groups for parental leave strategies among fathers; they indicate also that research on gender equality and public health must carefully address the problems of confounding and health-related selection.

  6. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek, or hours per workday. A reduced leave schedule is a change in the employee's schedule for a period of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 825.202...

  7. What Parents Need To Know about Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This publication, part of the Office of National Drug Control Policys Asian Language Initiative, offers facts and answers about marijuana. It educates parents about what it is, its physical and physiological effects, slang terms, and how its used. It also identifies signs that indicate marijuana use, and provides tips for parents who want to…

  8. Mental disorder sick leave in Sweden: A population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwall, Ulrik; Bill, Sofia; Palmer, Edward; Olsson Bohlin, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The inability to perform productive work due to mental disorders is a growing concern in advanced societies. To investigate medically certified mental disorder and all-cause sick leave in a working population using demographic, socioeconomic and occupational predictors. The study population was the entire Swedish work force aged 16-64 years in December 31st 2011. The outcome was sick leave exceeding 14 days in 2012 with adjustment for 13 confounders. The risk of sick leave with a mental disorder is higher among women compared to men, among persons aged 30-39 and among parents in families with underage children. Employees in welfare service occupations within health care, education and social services have an elevated risk of mental disorder sick leave and constitute a large proportion of the workforce. The results support the need for improving early detection and prevention of mental disorders in the workforce. Improvements in psychosocial work environments are essential, where the higher risk in female dominated welfare occupations particularly, have repercussions on the quality of the welfare services provided for vulnerable groups in society. Better work-life balance in families with younger children could also mitigate the effects of a high total workload in that particular phase of life.

  9. What make them leave and where do they go?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Lars; Madsen, Lene Møller; Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of a quantitative analysis of national data covering Danish students who in the period 1995-2009 completed an uppersecondary school programme and entered a higher-education science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) programme. The analysis focuses...... chance of a male or female student entering a STEM programme. The results suggest that female students are more affected by achieving a high grade-point average and by the educational background of their parents than are the male students. The relative risk of non-completion is higher for women than...... on identifying variables that change the hazard ratio for (1) entering a STEM programme and (2) leaving a STEM programme without completing it. Finally, the chapter explores (3) the destinations of students who leave a STEM higher-education programme. It is found that there has been no change in the relative...

  10. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... a single 12-month period to care for the covered servicemember. Comments received on the portion of... provider that the child's presence at daycare or at school could jeopardize the health of others because of... to now cover grandparents and grandchildren, same-sex and opposite domestic partners, step parents...

  11. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  12. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  13. The maternal health outcomes of paid maternity leave: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Garrett, Cameryn C; Hewitt, Belinda; Keogh, Louise; Hocking, Jane S; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2015-04-01

    Paid maternity leave has become a standard benefit in many countries throughout the world. Although maternal health has been central to the rationale for paid maternity leave, no review has specifically examined the effect of paid maternity leave on maternal health. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of studies that examine the association between paid maternity leave and maternal health. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts) and Google Scholar. We searched websites of relevant organisations, reference lists of key papers and journals, and citation indices for additional studies including those not in refereed journals. There were no language restrictions. Studies were included if they compared paid maternity leave versus no paid maternity leave, or different lengths of paid leave. Data were extracted and an assessment of bias was performed independently by authors. Seven studies were identified, with participants from Australia, Sweden, Norway, USA, Canada, and Lebanon. All studies used quantitative methodologies, including cohort, cross-sectional, and repeated cross-sectional designs. Outcomes included mental health and wellbeing, general health, physical wellbeing, and intimate partner violence. The four studies that examined leave at an individual level showed evidence of maternal health benefits, whereas the three studies conducting policy-level comparisons reported either no association or evidence of a negative association. The synthesis of the results suggested that paid maternity leave provided maternal health benefits, although this varied depending on the length of leave. This has important implications for public health and social policy. However, all studies were subject to confounding bias and many to reverse causation. Given the small number of studies and the methodological limitations of the evidence, longitudinal studies are

  14. Parents smoking in their cars with children present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi-Burza, Emara; Regan, Susan; Drehmer, Jeremy; Ossip, Deborah; Rigotti, Nancy; Hipple, Bethany; Dempsey, Janelle; Hall, Nicole; Friebely, Joan; Weiley, Victoria; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2012-12-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with strictly enforced smoke-free car policies among smoking parents. As part of a cluster, randomized controlled trial addressing parental smoking, exit interviews were conducted with parents whose children were seen in 10 control pediatric practices. Parents who smoked were asked about smoking behaviors in their car and receipt of smoke-free car advice at the visit. Parents were considered to have a "strictly enforced smoke-free car policy" if they reported having a smoke-free car policy and nobody had smoked in their car within the past 3 months. Of 981 smoking parents, 817 (83%) had a car; of these, 795 parents answered questions about their car smoking policy. Of these 795 parents, 29% reported having a smoke-free car policy, and 24% had a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy. Of the 562 parents without a smoke-free car policy, 48% reported that smoking occurred with children present. Few parents who smoke (12%) were advised to have a smoke-free car. Multivariable logistic regression controlling for parent age, gender, education, and race showed that having a younger child and smoking ≤10 cigarettes per day were associated with having a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy. The majority of smoking parents exposed their children to tobacco smoke in cars. Coupled with the finding of low rates of pediatricians addressing smoking in cars, this study highlights the need for improved pediatric interventions, public health campaigns, and policies regarding smoke-free car laws to protect children from tobacco smoke.

  15. Parent attitudes toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartos, Jessica; Huff, David C

    2008-01-01

    The widespread adoption of graduated driver licensing (GDL) policies has effectively reduced crash risk for young drivers; however, parents must support, reinforce, and enforce GDL for it to be effective, and research indicates that parents need better information and instruction for adhering to GDL requirements, conducting supervised practice driving, and restricting independent teenage driving. Because teenagers in most states must take driver education to enter the licensing process prior to age 18, integrating parent involvement into driver education may be an effective way to inform and instruct parents on a large scale about teen driver safety. This study assessed parent attitudes (overall and by rural status, minority status, and income level) toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education classes. In this study, 321 parents of teenagers enrolled in driver education classes across the state of Montana completed surveys about current involvement in driver education and attitudes toward required involvement. The results indicated that parents were not very involved currently in their teenagers' driver education classes, but 76% reported that parents should be required to be involved. If involvement were required, parents would prefer having written materials sent home, access to information over the Internet, or discussions in person with the instructor; far fewer would prefer to attend classes or behind-the-wheel driving instruction. There were few differences in parent attitudes by rural or minority status but many by income level. Compared to higher income parents, lower income parents were more likely to endorse required parent involvement in teenage driver education classes and to want parent information from driver education about many teen driving issues. That the majority of parents are open to required involvement in their teenagers' driver education classes is promising because doing so could better prepare parents to understand

  16. Maternity Leave in Turbulent Times: Effects on Labor Market Transitions and Fertility in Russia, 1985-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Theodore P.; Perelli-Harris, Brienna

    2012-01-01

    Maternity leave policies are designed to ease the tension between women's employment and fertility, but whether they actually play such a role remains unclear. We analyze the individual-level effects of maternity leave on employment outcomes and on second conception rates among Russian first-time mothers from 1985-2000 using retrospective job and…

  17. Parenting and the workplace: The construction of parenting protections in United States law

    OpenAIRE

    Eichner Maxine

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, I discuss the shortcomings of the legal protections that exist for pregnancy, breastfeeding, and parenting for United States' workers. The two main sources of protection for pregnancy and parenting in United States employment law are the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) and the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Both, I argue, contain inadequate protections for the needs of pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers, as well as their infants. I consider what it is ab...

  18. Examining Understandings of Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, Aimee V.; Kallemeyn, Leanne; Phillips, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The importance of parent involvement in children's development and learning is increasingly recognized in the research literature and in federal and state policies; however, no unified definition of parent involvement exists. This study examined different understandings and definitions of parent involvement in a sample of administrators of…

  19. Child Health in Elementary School Following California's Paid Family Leave Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman-Sadot, Shirlee; Bell, Neryvia Pillay

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate changes in elementary school children health outcomes following the introduction of California's Paid Family Leave (PFL) program, which provided parents with paid time off following the birth of a child. Our health outcomes--overweight, ADHD, and hearing-related problems--are characterized by diagnosis rates that only pick up during…

  20. Having a First versus a Second Child: Comparing Women's Maternity Leave Choices and Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Medora W.

    2013-01-01

    There are good reasons to suspect that the transition parents go through when having their second child may be different from when having their first, yet these differences remain understudied. This study focuses on one specific area of possible divergence by looking at how first-time versus second-time mothers decide on maternity leave length. To…

  1. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  2. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  3. The Impact of Parent Involvement in Head Start on Parents and Children. Final Report [and] Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Faith Lamb; Piotrkowski, Chaya S.; Kessler-Sklar, Susan; Baker, Amy J. L.; Peay, Lenore; Clark, Beryl

    From its inception, Head Start's legislative mandate called for "maximum feasible participation" of parents in all programmatic efforts and policy decisions. Nevertheless, there has been little research done on the benefits of Head Start to parents and on the role of parents as mediators of child and family outcomes. The Head Start…

  4. The effects of maternity leave on children's birth and infant health outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Maya

    2011-03-01

    This paper evaluates the impacts of unpaid maternity leave provisions of the 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) on children's birth and infant health outcomes in the United States. My identification strategy uses variation in pre-FMLA maternity leave policies across states and variation in which firms are covered by FMLA provisions. Using Vital Statistics data and difference-in-difference-in-difference methodology, I find that maternity leave led to small increases in birth weight, decreases in the likelihood of a premature birth, and substantial decreases in infant mortality for children of college-educated and married mothers, who were most able to take advantage of unpaid leave. My results are robust to the inclusion of numerous controls for maternal, child, and county characteristics, state, year, and month fixed effects, and state-year interactions, as well as across several different specifications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The direct impact of maternity benefits on leave taking: Evidence from complete fertility histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugiavini, Agar; Pasini, Giacomo; Trevisan, Elisabetta

    2013-03-01

    Maternity leave policies have important effects on several labour market outcomes of women, and are specifically designed to reduce gender differences in the various dimensions of working life and to contrast the negative consequence of fertility decisions. By making use of a unique data set which contains complete work and fertility histories for different European countries, combined with features of maternity leave schemes across countries and over time, we look at the effect of maternity leave benefits on job interruptions after each successive childbirth. The main result of the paper is that maternity leave legislation in Europe effectively increases job protection and female labour market attachment: a more generous paid maternity leave increases the number of weeks employed but not at work, but reduces the number of weeks spent out of the labour market. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  7. Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich

  8. Compassionate Care Leave & Benefits. CAUT Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Compassionate care leave and benefits were introduced in 2003/04 to help employees cope with this difficult work-life balance challenge. Employment Standards legislation and the Employment Insurance program (EI) were amended to provide leave without pay, with payment of EI benefits for compassionate care leave. Collective agreements have been…

  9. Leave entitlements, time off work and the household financial impacts of quarantine compliance during an H1N1 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Anne M; Mason, Kate E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Studdert, David M; McVernon, Jodie; Fielding, James E; Petrony, Sylvia; Gurrin, Lyle; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2012-11-20

    The Australian state of Victoria, with 5.2 million residents, enforced home quarantine during a H1N1 pandemic in 2009. The strategy was targeted at school children. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which parents' access to paid sick leave or paid carer's leave was associated with (a) time taken off work to care for quarantined children, (b) household finances, and (c) compliance with quarantine recommendations. We conducted an online and telephone survey of households recruited through 33 schools (85% of eligible schools), received 314 responses (27%), and analysed the subsample of 133 households in which all resident parents were employed. In 52% of households, parents took time off work to care for quarantined children. Households in which no resident parent had access to leave appeared to be less likely to take time off work (42% vs 58%, p=0.08) although this difference had only borderline significance. Among parents who did take time off work, those in households without access to leave were more likely to lose pay (73% vs 21%, pparent lost pay due to taking time off work, 42% experienced further financial consequences such as being unable to pay a bill. Access to leave did not predict compliance with quarantine recommendations. Future pandemic plans should consider the economic costs borne by households and options for compensating quarantined families for income losses.

  10. Laboring Until Labor: The Prevalence and Correlates of Antenatal Maternity Leave in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julia M

    2018-02-01

    Introduction Most women in the U.S. are employed during pregnancy and work until the month of childbirth. For many, working throughout pregnancy poses little threat to their health; however, women experiencing difficult pregnancies and/or working in strenuous or inflexible jobs may benefit from taking time from work as they approach childbirth, but almost no empirical evidence examines antenatal leave (ANL). Methods Using a national survey of English-speaking women, this paper offers the first national description of ANL and examines state policy predictors of uptake. Results Thirty-seven percent of employed women worked until the week their baby was due. After controlling for characteristics of women and their jobs, living in a state with any or multiple leave laws increased the probability of ANL by 14 and 23% points, respectively. Women living in states with multiple leave laws stopped work almost 2 weeks earlier than women in states without a policy. Discussion Paid leave policies currently being considered at the federal, state, and local levels should consider the potential impact on antenatal leave, in addition to postnatal leave, and how they influence population health.

  11. Paid Leave Benefits Among a National Sample of Working Mothers with Infants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Bell, Janice F.

    2013-01-01

    To describe a range of employment benefits, including maternity and other paid leave, afforded to working women with infants; and to examine the geographic, socio-demographic correlates of such benefits to inform the workplace policy agenda in the US. Using data from the Listening to Mothers II Survey, a national sample of English-speaking women who gave birth in 2005, we conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between socio-demographic factors and employment leave variables (paid maternity, sick and personal leave). Forty-one percent of women received paid maternity leave for an average of 3.3 weeks with 31 % wage replacement. On average women took 10 weeks of maternity leave and received 10.4 days of paid sick leave and 11.6 days of paid personal time per year. Women who were non-Hispanic Black, privately insured, working full-time, and from higher income families were more likely to receive paid maternity leave, for more time, and at higher levels of wage replacement, when controlling for the other socio-demographic characteristics. Race/ethnicity, family income and employment status were associated with the number of paid personal days. Currently, the majority of female employees with young children in the US do not receive financial compensation for maternity leave and women receive limited paid leave every year to manage health-related family issues. Further, women from disadvantaged backgrounds generally receive less generous benefits. Federal policy that supports paid leave may be one avenue to address such disparities and should be modified to reflect accepted international standards. PMID:23584928

  12. Paid leave benefits among a national sample of working mothers with infants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Bell, Janice F

    2014-01-01

    To describe a range of employment benefits, including maternity and other paid leave, afforded to working women with infants; and to examine the geographic, socio-demographic correlates of such benefits to inform the workplace policy agenda in the US. Using data from the Listening to Mothers II Survey, a national sample of English-speaking women who gave birth in 2005, we conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between socio-demographic factors and employment leave variables (paid maternity, sick and personal leave). Forty-one percent of women received paid maternity leave for an average of 3.3 weeks with 31 % wage replacement. On average women took 10 weeks of maternity leave and received 10.4 days of paid sick leave and 11.6 days of paid personal time per year. Women who were non-Hispanic Black, privately insured, working full-time, and from higher income families were more likely to receive paid maternity leave, for more time, and at higher levels of wage replacement, when controlling for the other socio-demographic characteristics. Race/ethnicity, family income and employment status were associated with the number of paid personal days. Currently, the majority of female employees with young children in the US do not receive financial compensation for maternity leave and women receive limited paid leave every year to manage health-related family issues. Further, women from disadvantaged backgrounds generally receive less generous benefits. Federal policy that supports paid leave may be one avenue to address such disparities and should be modified to reflect accepted international standards.

  13. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Local mandate improves equity of paid sick leave coverage: Seattle’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Romich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paid sick leave allows workers to take time off work for personal or family health needs, improving health and potentially limiting infectious diseases. The U.S. has no national sick leave mandate, and many American workers - particularly those at lower income levels - have no right to paid time off for their own or family members’ health needs. This article reports on outcomes of a local mandate, the City of Seattle Paid Sick and Safe Time Ordinance, which requires certain employers to provide paid sick leave to eligible workers. Methods Survey collectors contacted a stratified random sample of Seattle employers before the Ordinance went into effect and one year later. Pre- and post- analysis draws on responses to survey items by 345 employers who were subject to the paid sick leave mandate. Results Awareness of the policy and provision of paid leave grew significantly over the year after the Ordinance was enacted. More employers offered leave to full-time workers (80.8 to 93.9%, p < .001 and part-time workers (47.1 to 66.7%, p < .001 with particularly large increases in the hospitality sector, which includes food workers (coverage of any hospitality employee: 27.5 to 85.0%, p < .001. Conclusions Absent a federal policy, local paid sick time mandates can increase paid sick leave coverage, an important social determinant of health.

  15. Parental Power and Adolescents' Parental Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acock, Alan C.; Yang, Wen Shan

    1984-01-01

    Combines McDonald's social power of parental identification with sex-linked models of parental identification to account for the identification of daughters (N=199) and sons (N=147) with their parents. Found that because of a halo effect, a gain in identification with one parent is not at the other parent's expense. (JAC)

  16. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  18. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... per week, but works only 20 hours a week under a reduced leave schedule, the employee's ten hours of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced...

  19. A comparative analysis of leaving home in the United States, the Netherlands and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how leaving the parental home differs between three countries with different welfare-state and housing systems: the USA, the Netherlands and West Germany. Using longitudinal survey data, we examine the transitions of leaving home to live with and without a partner. We find that, much more than in the European countries, union formation has become separated from leaving home in the USA. We also find a different impact of level of education and employment status on leaving-home patterns in the European countries with their social-welfare state system than in the US system in which market forces prevail. The differences are not just related to welfare-state systems but also to the sizes of the countries and the geographical dispersion of jobs and educational opportunities.

  20. Parents as passengers during pediatric transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M M; Holditch-Davis, D; Brunssen, S

    1997-01-01

    The transport environment presents a unique setting in which the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of passengers accompanying a patient must be assessed carefully. The purpose of this study was to describe the current practice of including parents as passengers during pediatric interfacility transport. One-hundred-eighty-eight critical care transport programs in the United States responded to a voluntary mail survey, providing information about current policies, practices, and crew perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of carrying parents as passengers. Extra seating for passengers was available in 96% of ambulances, 86% of fixed-wing aircraft, and 54% of helicopters used for pediatric transport. Parents traveled as passengers in all types of vehicles; most frequently in ambulances and fixed-wing aircraft. Twenty percent of helicopter programs allowed parent passengers on more than half of their pediatric transports in this vehicle. Advantages of parent passengers included emotional benefit for the parent and child, availability of parents for history and consent, good public relations, and having the parent present if the child dies. Disadvantages included potential parent anxiety, crew distraction, and space limitations. This study reflects the widely diverse policies, practices, and opinions relevant to this topic and confirms a need for further study.

  1. Family practice residents' maternity leave experiences and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdingen, D K; Chaloner, K M; Vanderscoff, J A

    1995-09-01

    A growing number of residents are having babies during residency training. While many businesses are working to improve maternity conditions and benefits for their employees, residency programs are often not prepared to accommodate pregnant residents. This study was conducted to examine the maternity leave experiences of women who delivered infants during their family practice residency training. Program directors from each of the 394 family practice residency programs listed in the 1993 Directory of Family Practice Residency Programs were asked to distribute surveys to female residents who gave birth during their residency training and had returned to work by the time of the study. Of 199 known eligible residents, 171 (86%) completed surveys; these women represented 127 programs located in 36 states and Puerto Rico. Only 56.8% of women were aware of their program having a written maternity leave policy. The average length of maternity leave was 8 weeks; 76% had leaves of 10 weeks or less. For many, the maternity leave was derived from more than one source, including vacation, sick time, or a mother-child elective. Nearly all (88.3%) the women breast-fed, and the mean duration of breast-feeding was more than 19 weeks. In general, participants believed that having a baby during residency was somewhat difficult. Problems frequently encountered by women after their return to work included sleep deprivation and tiredness, difficulty arranging for child care, guilt about child care, and breast-feeding. Factors that detracted most from the childbirth experience were too little sleep, problems arranging for child care, and lack of support from the partner, residency faculty, and other residents. Having a baby during residency is somewhat difficult for the average female resident. Factors that may ease this difficulty include getting adequate sleep and receiving support from one's partner, faculty, and other residents.

  2. Working parents: what factors are involved in their ability to take time off from work when their children are sick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S J; Toomey, S; Furstenberg, F

    1999-08-01

    A series of studies has demonstrated that sick children fare better when their parents are present. To examine working conditions that determine whether parents can spend time with and become involved in the care of their children when they are sick. Survey with a multivariate analysis of factors influencing parental care of sick children. Mixed-income urban working parents aged 26 to 29 years participating in the Baltimore Parenthood Study. Only 42% of working parents in our sample cared for their young children when they became sick. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict which parents stayed at home when their children were sick. Those parents who had either paid sick or vacation leave were 5.2 times as likely to care for their children themselves when they were sick. Of parents with less than a high school education, 17% received paid leave, compared with 57% of parents with a general equivalency diploma, 76% of parents with a high school diploma, and 92% of parents with more than a high school education (Pparents were unable to care for their sick children themselves is important for pediatric care. While low-income children are more likely to face marked health problems and to be in need of parental care, they are more likely to live in households in which parents lack paid leave and cannot afford to take unpaid leave.

  3. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  4. Social Networks and Parent Motivational Beliefs: Evidence from an Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Katherine A.; Jean-Marie, Gaëtane; Adams, Curt M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite devotion of substantial resources and effort to increase parent/school partnerships, gaps remain between policy rhetoric and practice, especially in high-poverty communities. Current research focuses on parent involvement or effects of parent motivational beliefs on parent choice for behavior; however, it does not address the…

  5. Parent Involvement in Head Start and Children's Development: Indirect Effects Through Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Gershoff, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    The authors examined the extent to which parent involvement in Head Start programs predicted changes in both parent and child outcomes over time, using a nationally representative sample of 1,020 three-year-old children over 3 waves of the Family and Child Experiences Survey. Center policies that promote involvement predicted greater parent involvement, and parents who were more involved in Head Start centers demonstrated increased cognitive stimulation and decreased spanking and controlling behaviors. In turn, these changes in parenting behaviors were associated with gains in children's academic and behavioral skills. These findings suggest that Head Start programs should do even more to facilitate parent involvement because it can serve as an important means for promoting both parent and child outcomes.

  6. Parents' Lived Experiences During Their Children's Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gårdling, Jenny; Törnqvist, Erna; Edwinson Månsson, Marie; Hallström, Inger

    The aim of radiotherapy is to provide a cure and/or symptomatic relief for children with cancer. Treatment is delivered on a daily basis, 5 days per week, over the course of 5 to 35 days. Many parents find that leaving their children alone during treatment and exposing them to radiation is a challenging experience. To gain an understanding of parents' lived experiences, 10 parents were asked to keep a diary while their children underwent radiotherapy. A descriptive inductive design with a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach was chosen to analyze the diaries. The parents were asked to write down their lived experiences while their children underwent radiotherapy. Daily notes, both short and long, were desirable. The parents described radiotherapy as a balancing act involving a constant attempt to maintain a balance between coercing and protecting their children in order to improve their children's chances of survival. Meanwhile, the parents themselves were struggling with their own despair and feelings of powerlessness. While protecting their children, they experienced a sense of hope and felt that they had gained control. Parents' daily written reflections are important for clinical practice and provide vital knowledge. Parents need support when focusing on coercing and protecting their children and help with information and routines that enable them gain control.

  7. Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately.

  8. 76 FR 32991 - Request (ICR) for the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Employee and Employer Surveys; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... analysis of private sector FMLA policies allows WHD to determine how those policies affect the work-life balance of workers and the productivity and work flow of employers. The study enables DOL to shape future... Commission on Family and Medical Leave. The final report on this survey, titled ``A Workable Balance: Report...

  9. Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John C. V. Pezzey

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical, representative agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affectin...

  10. Paid Maternity Leave and Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates. We used data from the 2006-2010 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth on the most recent birth to employed women who delivered a child within the previous 5 years. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe the associations between paid leave duration (0, 1-5, 6-11, ≥ 12 weeks, maternity leave not taken) and three outcomes: 1) breastfeeding initiation, 2) 6-month duration, and 3) 6-month duration among initiators. Twenty-eight percent of prenatally employed women received no paid leave. Women who received 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding compared to women with no paid leave (87.3% vs 66.7%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.83 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.23-6.48]). Similarly, women with 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to breastfeed at 6 months, compared to women with no paid leave (24.9% vs 50.1%, aOR 2.26 [95% CI 1.20-4.26]). Among women who initiated breastfeeding, having received 12 or more weeks' paid leave increased the odds of breastfeeding for 6 or more months; however, the association was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (aOR 1.81 [95% CI 0.93-3.52]). Employed women who received 12 or more weeks of paid maternity leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and be breastfeeding their child at 6 months than those without paid leave. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. [New cerebroside from leaves of pineapple].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Hong-Ying; Du, Li-Jun; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-Ming; Wang, Wei

    2007-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of pineapple. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the leaves of pineapple and spectral methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds. Compound 1 was isolated from the leaves of pineapple. It was identified as 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 4E, 11E)-2-[(2(R)-hydroxydocosanoyl) amido]-4, 11-hexadecanediene-1, 3-diol. Compound 1 was a new compound.

  12. Tackling Complex Inequalities and Ecuador's Buen Vivir: Leaving No-one Behind and equality in diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Radcliffe, Sarah Anne

    2017-01-01

    Ecuador's postneoliberal policy of Buen Vivir seeks to reduce social inequality and tackle complex disadvantages associated with gender, location, race-ethnicity and other social differences. The paper analyses governmental Buen Vivir policy thinking and institutional arrangements to explore how Buen Vivir frameworks approach the constitutional commitment to equality in diversity, in light of the global Sustainable Development Goal of "Leaving No-one Behind" (LNOB). In many respects Ecuador ...

  13. Consequences of Parenting on Adolescent Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Hancock Hoskins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial gains have been made in our understanding of the influence of parenting behaviors and styles on adolescent emotional and behavioral outcomes. Empirical work focusing on the associations between parenting and adolescent outcomes is important because the influence of parenting during adolescence continues to affect behaviors into adulthood. Additionally, there has been considerable attention paid to the mechanisms that shape parenting that then influence adolescent outcomes. For instance, researchers have found that neighborhood conditions moderated the association between parenting and adolescent development. In this paper, several covariates and contextual effects associated with parenting and adolescent outcomes will be discussed. Also, parental behaviors, parental styles and adolescent outcomes are discussed in this literature review. This review provides an assessment of the literature on parenting and adolescent outcomes from the past decade and includes advancements in parenting research. The review concludes with a summary of major research findings, as well as a consideration of future directions and implications for practice and policy.

  14. The impact of parental migration on health status and health behaviours among left behind adolescent school children in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congdon Nathan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One out of ten of China's population are migrants, moving from rural to urban areas. Many leave their families behind resulting in millions of school children living in their rural home towns without one or both their parents. Little is known about the health status of these left behind children (LBC. This study compares the health status and health-related behaviours of left behind adolescent school children and their counterparts in a rural area in Southern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among middle school students in Fuyang Township, Guangdong, China (2007-2008. Information about health behaviours, parental migration and demographic characteristics was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Overweight/obesity and stunting were defined based on measurements of height and weight. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to estimate the differences in health outcomes between LBC and non-LBC. Results 18.1% of the schoolchildren had one or both parents working away from home. Multivariate analysis showed that male LBC were at higher risk of skipping breakfast, higher levels of physical inactivity, internet addiction, having ever smoked tobacco, suicide ideation, and being overweight. LBC girls were more likely to drink excessive amounts of sweetened beverage, to watch more TV, to have ever smoked or currently smoke tobacco, to have ever drunk alcohol and to binge drinking. They were also more likely to be unhappy, to think of planning suicide and consider leaving home. Conclusions Our findings suggest that parental migration is a risk factor for unhealthy behaviours amongst adolescent school children in rural China. Further research is required in addition to the consideration of the implications for policies and programmes to protect LBC.

  15. Nurses' leaving intentions: antecedents and mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamashita, Noriko; Oba, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to investigate how nurses' work values, perceptions of environmental characteristics, and organizational commitment are related to their leaving intentions. Nurse leaving is a serious international problem as it contributes to the nursing shortage that threatens the welfare of society. The characteristics of nurses, the work environment and nurses' feelings towards their jobs (or organizations) have an impact on their leaving intentions. A convenience sample of 849 Registered Nurses was recruited from three public hospitals in the central-west region of Japan during 2006 and 319 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 39%). Data were analysed using regression analysis. Nurses' work values and their perceptions of their workplace environment interacted to influence leaving intentions. When there was a match between the importance nurses placed on being able to challenge current clinical practices and the number of the actual opportunities to do so, leaving intentions were low. When there was a mismatch, intention to quit the job became stronger. In addition, organizational commitment intervened between nurses' perceptions of the match in clinical challenges and leaving intention. Nurses' leaving intentions, deserve extensive exploration of their causes. Such exploration should include attending to both nurses' needs and organizational characteristics, investigating how the match between them could affect nurses' leaving intention, and exploring factors that intervene between nurses' perceptions of the match and leaving intention.

  16. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  17. Engaging Parents to Promote Children's Nutrition and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Ramsay, Samantha; McBride, Brent; Srivastava, Deepa; Murriel, Ashleigh; Arcan, Chrisa; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M

    2017-03-01

    Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks as a framework, this study examined childcare providers' (Head Start [HS], Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and non-CACFP) perspectives regarding communicating with parents about nutrition to promote children's health. Qualitative. State-licensed center-based childcare programs. Full-time childcare providers (n = 18) caring for children 2 to 5 years old from varying childcare contexts (HS, CACFP funded, and non-CACFP), race, education, and years of experience. In-person interviews using semi-structured interview protocol until saturation were achieved. Thematic analysis was conducted. Two overarching themes were barriers and strategies to communicate with parents about children's nutrition. Barriers to communication included-(a) parents are too busy to talk with providers, (b) parents offer unhealthy foods, (c) parents prioritize talking about child food issues over nutrition, (d) providers are unsure of how to communicate about nutrition without offending parents, and (e) providers are concerned if parents are receptive to nutrition education materials. Strategies for communication included-(a) recognize the benefits of communicating with parents about nutrition to support child health, (b) build a partnership with parents through education, (c) leverage policy (federal and state) to communicate positively and avoid conflict, (d) implement center-level practices to reinforce policy, and (e) foster a respectful relationship between providers and parents. Policy and environmental changes were recommended for fostering a respectful relationship and building a bridge between providers and parents to improve communication about children's nutrition and health.

  18. From empty nest to Social Networking Site: What happens in cyberspace when children are launched from the parental home?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, M.; Louw, M. van der; Buijzen, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    With the present study we explore the popular assumption that parents become more active in their child-related Social Networking Site (SNS) use when the child leaves the parental home. Moreover, we aim to investigate whether parental empty nest feelings predict their child-related SNS use to stay

  19. Conceptual foundations of inclusive systems in and around schools for early school leaving prevention: An emotional-relational focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downes Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of the EU2020 headline target of reducing early school leaving to 10% across Europe, this article examines the conceptual foundations of the understanding of inclusive systems for early school leaving prevention that has emerged in EU policy documents and research reports in recent years. Traditionally, inclusive education has referred to a focus on children with special educational needs. However, this conceptual review examines how inclusion is increasingly being examined in broader terms.This review seeks to critically reconstruct foundational understandings of systems and resilience in developmental and educational psychology. A systems focus on inclusion needs to address the neglect in psychology of system blockages and power imbalances. Resilience is typically framed as the capacity of the individual to navigate their way to environmental resources. This places the onus of accessibility onto the individual’s efforts rather than a concern with responsive systems accessible to marginalised groups. A concern with inclusive systems goes beyond not only the well-established framework of individual resilience in developmental psychology, but also beyond its expansion into resilient systems, as these omit a focus on outreach and multidisciplinary teams in systems of care for integrated services. Common principles for a framework of inclusive systems include children’s voices, equality and non-discrimination, parental involvement that is integrated holistically with family support, and lifelong learning principles for schools. Illustrative examples of these principles for reforming authoritarian teaching and discriminatory bullying, for opening schools to the local community and for targeting those with highest levels of need are highlighted.

  20. Why Paid Family and Medical Leave Matters for the Future of America's Families, Businesses and Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe-Finkbeiner, Kristin; Martin, Ruth; Abrams, Brett; Zuccaro, Anna; Dardari, Yasmina

    2016-11-01

    Paid family and medical leave are vital public policies for promoting large-scale improvements in maternal and child health that can boost our national economy. That is why MomsRising-a national on-the-ground and online grassroots organization with over a million members across the United States-is thrilled by the growing momentum for paid family and medical leave. We are not the least bit surprised that support for this critical policy is growing. The United States is the only industrialized nation in the world without paid family and medical leave, and the fact that these basic workplace protections are missing hurts America's global competitiveness, businesses, economy, and, most importantly, infant and maternal mortality rates.

  1. Parents' experiences of flexible work arrangements in changing European workplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lewis (Suzan); L. den Dulk (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractVarious leaves and other forms of flexible working arrangements have been implemented in workplaces to support employees with family commitments. Some are a response to public policy, others developed voluntarily. However, research examining the effectiveness of these policies in a

  2. 76 FR 18254 - Proposed Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Employee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... WHD to determine how those policies affect the work-life balance of workers and the productivity and work flow of employers. The study enables DOL to shape future regulatory options, craft interpretive... Family and Medical Leave. The final report on this survey, titled ``A Workable Balance: Report to...

  3. Privacy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  4. Impact of Procedural Specialty on Maternity Leave and Career Satisfaction Among Female Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Rebecca E; Davids, Jennifer S; Melnitchouk, Nelya

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a large-scale, national survey of physician mothers to define the personal, professional, and financial impact of maternity leave and its relationship to career satisfaction for female physicians in procedural and nonprocedural fields. Little is known about the impact of maternity leave on early career female physicians or how childbearing affects career satisfaction. A nationwide sample of physician mothers completed a 45-question anonymous, secure, online questionnaire regarding the impact of pregnancy and childbearing. One thousand five hundred forty-one respondents were attending physicians during their most recent pregnancy and 393 (25.5%) practiced in a procedural field. Overall, 609 (52.9%) reported losing over $10,000 in income during leave with no significant difference between procedural and nonprocedural fields. Maternity leave was included in only 28.9% of female physicians' most recent contracts. Proceduralists were more likely to report negative impact on referrals by maternity leave [odds ratio (OR) 1.78, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.28-2.47, P = 0.001], a requirement to complete missed shifts (OR 3.04, 95% CI 2.12-4.36, P maternity leave and report high rates of career dissatisfaction, particularly those in procedural specialties. Given these findings, improved family leave policies may help improve career satisfaction for female physicians.

  5. Maternity Leave Access and Health: A Systematic Narrative Review and Conceptual Framework Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Ellie; Baird, Sarah; Bingenheimer, Jeffrey Bart; Markus, Anne Rossier

    2016-06-01

    Background Maternity leave is integral to postpartum maternal and child health, providing necessary time to heal and bond following birth. However, the relationship between maternity leave and health outcomes has not been formally and comprehensively assessed to guide public health research and policy in this area. This review aims to address this gap by investigating both the correlates of maternity leave utilization in the US and the related health benefits for mother and child. Methods We searched the peer-reviewed scholarly literature using six databases for the years 1990 to early 2015 and identified 37 studies to be included in the review. We extracted key data for each of the included studies and assessed study quality using the "Weight of the Evidence" approach. Results The literature generally confirms a positive, though limited correlation between maternity leave coverage and utilization. Likewise, longer maternity leaves are associated with improved breastfeeding intentions and rates of initiation, duration and predominance as well as improved maternal mental health and early childhood outcomes. However, the literature points to important disparities in access to maternity leave that carry over into health outcomes, such as breastfeeding. Synthesis We present a conceptual framework synthesizing what is known to date related to maternity leave access and health outcomes.

  6. Flexible employment and nurses' intention to leave the profession: The role of support at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Plenderleith, Jennifer Millen

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of this paper are to examine (1) the association between flexible employment and nurses' intention to leave the profession, and (2) whether or not support at work mediates the association between flexible employment and nurses' intention to leave the profession. Flexible employment is analyzed objectively using non-permanent contract, part-time employment status, casual employment status, involuntary hours and on-call work, and subjectively using job insecurity. Support at work refers to organizational, supervisor and peer support. Data come from our survey of 1396 nurses employed in three teaching hospitals in Southern Ontario. Descriptive statistics are provided. Bivariate correlations, hierarchical regression analysis and mediation tests are conducted. Compared to those in full-time employment, nurses in part-time employment do not intend to leave the profession. None of the other objective flexible employment factors are associated with intention to leave the profession. Perceived job insecurity is associated with intention to leave the profession. Low support at work contributes to intention to leave the profession and mediates the association between job insecurity and intention to leave the profession. The study provides evidence to health sector managers and policy makers that part-time employment, perceived job security and support at work are important factors to consider in efforts to retain nurses in the profession. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    DIVISION HR

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programs) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave a...

  8. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave.They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave...

  9. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity.

  10. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

  12. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  13. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  14. Back to Work: A Guide for Expectant and New Working Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary Parys

    This guide for expectant and new working parents addresses practical and emotional issues that complicate the task of balancing work and family. Chapter 1, which addresses maternity and paternity leave, and the Pregnancy Disability Act, provides information regarding preparation for maternity leave after childbirth. Included are a worksheet to aid…

  15. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  16. Incredible Parenting with "Incredible Years"?: A Foucauldian Analysis of New Zealand Government Perspectives on Parenting and Their Implications for Parents and Educators in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Shil

    2017-01-01

    This paper takes a post-structural approach, examining what and how issues are framed in the parenting policy, "Incredible Years," through Foucault's (1977, 1980, 1991, 2003, 2004) notion of "governmentality and discursive normalisation." By unpacking discourses of parenting produced by Incredible Years as an accepted parenting…

  17. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  18. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linardakis Manolis K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents, and interviewed during the 2004–2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. Results 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers. Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p Conclusion Smoking prevalence is high even among parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  19. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Balomenaki, Evaggelia; Niaounaki, Dora; Linardakis, Manolis K; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-06-14

    Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents), and interviewed during the 2004-2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers). Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  20. Parental Wellbeing, Parenting and Child Development in Ghanaian Families with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Bornheimer, Lindsay A; Dankyi, Ernestina; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2018-03-27

    Approximately one-third of early childhood pupils in Ghana are struggling with meeting basic behavioral and developmental milestones, but little is known about mechanisms or factors that contribute to poor early childhood development. With a lack of developmental research to guide intervention or education program and policy planning, this study aimed to address these research gaps by examining a developmental mechanism for early childhood development. We tested a mediational mechanism model that examined the influence of parental wellbeing on parenting and children's development. Two hundred and sixty-two Ghanaian parents whose children attended early childhood classes (nursery to 3rd grade) were recruited. Data were gathered through parent interviews and Structural Equation Modeling was utilized to examine pathways of the model. Results support the mediational model that Ghanaian parents' depression was associated with less optimal parenting, and in turn greater child externalizing behavioral problems. This study adds new evidence of cross cultural consistency in early childhood development.

  1. Proactive Parent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Sharel; Backlund, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Presents examples of teacher-parent interactions designed to help teachers communicate with parents. The scenarios involve a teacher communicating with parents about a struggling student, a teacher communicating with parents about a student's behavior problems, and a teacher attempting to communicate with a confrontational parent. Teacher prompts…

  2. Leave management for promoting organisational efficiency in the Department of Correctional Services and the Department of Home Affairs : Pretoria region / Mathews Tibane Moleki

    OpenAIRE

    Moleki, Mathews Tibane

    2014-01-01

    The framework of this study is based on the reforms of human resource leave management in the field of public administration for the South African public sector. The researcher’s interest lies in the increasing complexity of leave management development pertaining to policy-making, administrative processes and efficiency in the South African public sector. This study aimed to assess leave management at the Department of Correctional Services (DCS) and the Department of Home Affairs (DHA). The...

  3. [Modeling polarimetric BRDF of leaves surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong-Hui; Wang, Pei-Juan; Zhu, Qi-Jiang; Zhou, Hong-Min

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to model a physical polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF), which can character not only the non-Lambertian but also the polarized features in order that the pBRDF can be applied to analyze the relationship between the degree of polarization and the physiological and biochemical parameters of leaves quantitatively later. Firstly, the bidirectional polarized reflectance distributions from several leaves surfaces were measured by the polarized goniometer developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The samples of leaves include two pieces of zea mays L. leaves (young leaf and mature leaf) and a piece of E. palcherrima wild leaf. Non-Lambertian characteristics of directional reflectance from the surfaces of these three leaves are obvious. A Cook-Torrance model was modified by coupling the polarized Fresnel equations to simulate the bidirectional polarized reflectance properties of leaves surfaces. The three parameters in the modified pBRDF model, such as diffuse reflectivity, refractive index and roughness of leaf surface were inversed with genetic algorithm (GA). It was found that the pBRDF model can fit with the measured data well. In addition, these parameters in the model are related with both the physiological and biochemical properties and the polarized characteristics of leaves, therefore it is possible to build the relationships between them later.

  4. Relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women semiconductor workers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, H; Rampal, K

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women semiconductor workers. Methods: This was a cross sectional survey of production workers from 18 semiconductor factories. Those selected had to be women, direct production operators up to the level of line leader, and Malaysian citizens. Sick leave and exposure to physical and chemical hazards were determined by self reporting. Three sick leave variables were used; number of sick leave days taken in the past year was the variable of interest in logistic regression models where the effects of age, marital status, work task, work schedule, work section, and duration of work in factory and work section were also explored. Results: Marital status was strongly linked to the taking of sick leave. Age, work schedule, and duration of work in the factory were significant confounders only in certain cases. After adjusting for these confounders, chemical and physical exposures, with the exception of poor ventilation and smelling chemicals, showed no significant relation to the taking of sick leave within the past year. Work section was a good predictor for taking sick leave, as wafer polishing workers faced higher odds of taking sick leave for each of the three cut off points of seven days, three days, and not at all, while parts assembly workers also faced significantly higher odds of taking sick leave. Conclusion: In Malaysia, the wafer fabrication factories only carry out a limited portion of the work processes, in particular, wafer polishing and the processes immediately prior to and following it. This study, in showing higher illness rates for workers in wafer polishing compared to semiconductor assembly, has implications for the governmental policy of encouraging the setting up of wafer fabrication plants with the full range of work processes. PMID:12660374

  5. Leaving and Beyond: Voices of Survivors of Domestic Violence From Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Saltanat; Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Joshi, Manisha

    2017-11-01

    Despite the global nature of domestic violence against women, few studies have examined the phenomenon in Kyrgyzstan. This grounded theory study gives voice to survivors of domestic violence by examining women's experiences of various forms of violence and the complexities surrounding Kyrgyz women's decision making about leaving violent relationships. Findings revealed that survivors move through a three-stage process of leaving: (a) reaching a turning point, (b) implementing the leaving process, and (c) reclaiming self. Participants described "turning points" as critical events or sudden realizations that the violence had become uncontrollable or intolerable, and that the problem was not going to be solved without external support. The turning points fell into four major categories, including epiphanies and moments of truth, losing hope for a change in the abuser's behavior, reaching the point of saturation and giving up, and experiencing fear for the safety of children and protecting self. The main factor that led women to leave was being confronted with the pervasive fear that the abuse would lead to permanent disability or death. In the second stage, the process of leaving was characterized by an iterative cycle of leaving and returning until women were able to weigh the costs and benefits of staying and leaving in the face of cultural, institutional, and systemic constraints. The final stage of leaving involved "reclaiming self," which was the result of cognitive shifts, finding new meanings in their experiences of abuse and attempts to leave, and support received from advocates at the shelter. Results have implications for interventions with survivors and policies addressing the problem of domestic violence in Kyrgyzstan.

  6. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF among working women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Results: Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Conclusion: Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months.

  8. Extension encourages parents to take a stand against bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    As students return to classrooms and playgrounds around the commonwealth for a new school year, Virginia Cooperative Extension is urging parents to talk to their child about bullying and to understand their school's policies on this important topic.

  9. Parenting while Being Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  10. Nursemaid's Elbow (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... For Parents / Nursemaid's Elbow Print About Nursemaid's Elbow Toddlers and preschoolers are at risk for a common ...

  11. Late adolescents' conceptualizations of home-leaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D; Hotch, D F

    1981-02-01

    Separation from the family, a key developmental task, has received scant attention from developmentalists. In this study, college students' dissimilarity ratings and ratings on 22 bipolar adjective scales were obtained for a set of 20 definitions of home-leaving. Results of a cluster analysis revealed that conceptualizations of the definitions are organized in terms of eight clusters. Ratings on the 22 adjective scales provided an empirical means for interpreting the typological structure of the home-leaving definitions. Convergence the results of this inductive study of home-leaving and elements of ego development theory was noted.

  12. Laser induced fluorescence of some plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmi, M.S.; Mohamed, M.M.; Amer, R.; Elshazly, O.; Elraey, M.

    1992-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is successfully used as a technique for remote detection of spectral characteristics of some plants. A pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm is used to excite cotton, corn and rice leaves. The fluorescence spectrum is detected in the range from 340 nm to 820 nm. It is found that, these plant leaves have common fluorescence maxima at 440 nm, 685 nm and 740 nm. plant leaves are also found to be identifiable by the ratio of the fluorescence intensity at 440 nm to that at 685 nm. The present technique can be further used as a means of assessing, remotely, plant stresses. 5 fig

  13. The significance and role of local self-governments in the population policy of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Population should be in the central focus of local community institutions and the local community may constitute its population policy which will supplement state population policy measures, considering the local specific various traditions, values and models of living. The paper's basic goal is to critically perceive the characteristics, significance and role of local self-governments in the current population policy of Serbia. Social situation and social policy characteristics in Serbia are analyzed in the context of the population policy. It is pointed out that poverty, unemployment, the economic crisis, the process of privatization, the issue of system decentralization and social expectations of the population, as current expressions of transition, all have a consequence on the demographic development and population policy. A critical estimation of the activities in the field of population policies which are carried out by local and provincial self-governments in Serbia in the last decade are brought into focus, with a special review to the activities of provincial and local governments in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. As a result of the analysis it is pointed out that the population and social policy measures have been separated since the year 2000 and that they have been directed only to stimulating births and not child raising and that solutions regarding maternity leave brought improvements, however shortened maternity leave for the third child. The new conception of the population policy brought a whole series of restrictions such as: suspension of aid for newborn essentials; discontinuance of the right to maternity allowance; abolishing of compensation for preschool expenses for the third child; children’s allowance lost its population measures character along with considerable tightening of the census and decreasing of amount; the activities of preschool facilities have been reduced only to an educational function, and the

  14. Teacher Job Satisfaction and Motivation to Leave the Teaching Profession: Relations with School Context, Feeling of Belonging, and Emotional Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relations between school context variables and teachers' feeling of belonging, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. Six aspects of the school context were measured: value consonance, supervisory support, relations with colleagues, relations with parents, time pressure, and…

  15. 5 CFR 630.906 - Transfer of annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employing agency may not be sufficient to meet the needs of the leave recipient; or (3) In the judgment of... specified leave recipient. Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, annual leave may be transferred only to a leave recipient employed by the leave donor's employing agency. (b) Except as provided...

  16. Parental overprotection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1993-01-01

    Dimensions of parental overprotection are clarified in a critical review of the research and clinical literature. An indulgent style of parenting is distinguished from an overprotective parent-child relationship. Differential antecedents and outcomes are proposed for each of these forms of parent-child interaction. Measures of protection are reviewed. A new conceptual model of parental overprotection is presented which takes into account child, parent, family, socio-cultural, environmental and resiliency factors. Directions for future research are suggested.

  17. Parents, Quality, and School Choice: Why Parents in Nairobi Choose Low-Cost Private Schools over Public Schools in Kenya's Free Primary Education Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Piper, Benjamin; Ong'ele, Salome; Kiminza, Onesmus

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost private schools (LCPS) are widespread in Kenya, particularly in urban areas. This study examines the reasons that parents send children to fee-charging schools in a context of free public primary education. Drawing on parent survey and interview data, as well as interviews with national policy makers, we found that parents who chose LCPS…

  18. Child Health in Elementary School Following California’s Paid Family Leave Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman-Sadot, Shirlee; Bell, Niryvia Pillay

    We evaluate changes in elementary school children health outcomes following the introduction of California’s Paid Family Leave (PFL) program, which provided parents with paid time off following the birth of a child. Our health outcomes--overweight, ADHD, and hearing-related problems--are characterized by diagnosis rates that only pick up during early elementary school. Moreover, our health outcomes have been found to be negatively linked with many potential implications of extended maternity leave--increased breastfeeding, prompt medical checkups at infancy, reduced prenatal stress, and reduced non-parental care during infancy. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Studies (ECLS) within a difference-in-differences framework, our results suggest improvements in health outcomes among California elementary school children following PFL’s introduction. Furthermore, the improvements are driven by children from less advantaged backgrounds, which is consistent with the notion that California’s PFL had the greatest effect on leave-taking duration after childbirth mostly for less advantaged mothers who previously could not afford to take unpaid leave.

  19. Amblyopia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  20. When Parents Argue

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  1. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  2. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  3. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  4. Syphilis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  5. Chemotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  6. Yersiniosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  7. Amebiasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  8. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  9. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  10. Headaches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  11. Strep Throat (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  12. Tourette Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  13. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ...

  14. Sinusitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  15. Laryngoscopy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  16. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  17. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  18. Eczema (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  19. [The impact of parental divorce on the relationships of young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaf, A

    1996-08-01

    "The 1993 Netherlands Fertility and Family Survey shows that parental divorce has an impact on (the attitudes towards) relationships of young adults. Children of divorced parents leave home at an earlier age and have a stronger preference for cohabitation. Once a relationship (cohabitation or marriage) has started, it is more likely to end in separation or divorce." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  20. The impact of migratory separation from parents on the health of adolescents in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srneekens, Chantal; Stroebe, Margaret S.; Abakoumkin, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    In the Philippines, as in several other low and middle-income countries in the world, it is usual for parents to leave the country to work abroad in order to improve the situation of their children who remain behind. However, stressful life events such as the separation from a parent are known to

  1. Contact behaviour of children and parental employment behaviour during school closures against the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Taro; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    To identify epidemiological determinants of the contact behaviour of children and their impact on parental employment, during school closures that took place over the course of the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1-2009) in Japan. A retrospective survey was conducted in Japanese households between October 2009 and May 2010 by administration of a standardized questionnaire. Demographic and behavioural variables were explored, in association with the frequency with which children left the home and the risk of parents being absent from work during school closures. Data from 882 eligible households were analysed. A total of 181/882 (20.5%) of households reported that children left the home for nonessential reasons during school closures. No impact on parental working hours was reported by 742/882 (84.1%) of households. Univariate analyses showed that the frequency with which children left the home was dependent on age, extent of school closure and requirement for special childcare arrangements. A greater understanding of age-dependent behaviours, during school closures as a consequence of a pandemic, is required. Consideration of a public policy to permit a paid leave of absence from work for parents during school closures may be beneficial; the cost-effectiveness of such a measure should be assessed in future.

  2. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  3. Assessing Segregation under a New Generation of Controlled Choice Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Erica

    2017-01-01

    Student assignment policies (SAPs) in K-12 schools can either reproduce or help ameliorate existing inequality. Some districts are trying to maintain voluntarily adopted integration policies despite the Supreme Court's recent 2007 decision in "Parents Involved," which prohibited most race-conscious school choice policies that were…

  4. Unmarried parents in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Sorensen, Kia

    2010-01-01

    Noting that access to higher education has expanded dramatically in the past several decades, Sara Goldrick-Rab and Kia Sorensen focus on how unmarried parents fare once they enter college. Contrary to the expectation that access to college consistently promotes family stability and economic security, the authors argue that deficiencies in current policy lead college attendance to have adverse consequences for some families headed by unmarried parents. Although rates of college attendance have increased substantially among unmarried parents, their college completion rates are low. One explanation is inadequate academic preparation. Another is financial constraints, which can force unmarried students to interrupt their studies or increase their work hours, both of which compromise the quality of their educational experiences and the outcomes for their children. The authors point out that although many public programs offer support to unmarried parents attending college, the support is neither well coordinated nor easily accessed. Over the past three decades, loans have increasingly replaced grants as the most common form of federal and state financial aid. Confusion about what is available leads many low-income students to the two most "straightforward" sources of income--loans and work, both of which involve significant costs and can operate at cross-purposes with public forms of support. Too much work can lead to reductions in public benefits, and earnings do not always replace the lost income. A growing body of experimental evidence shows that providing social, financial, and academic supports to vulnerable community college students can improve achievement and attainment. Contextualized learning programs, for example, have enabled participants not only to move on from basic skills to credit-bearing coursework, but also to complete credits, earn certificates, and make gains on basic skills tests. Another successful initiative provided low-performing students with

  5. Twelve-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-Based Guided Self-Help for Parents of Children on Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernvall, Martin; Carlbring, Per; Wikman, Anna; Ljungman, Lisa; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise

    2017-07-27

    sick leave. Using the Internet to provide psychological interventions shows promise as an effective mode of delivery for parents reporting an increased level of PTSS and who consider Internet-based interventions as a viable option. Future research should corroborate these findings and also develop and evaluate interventions and policies that may help ameliorate the economic burden that parents may face during their child's treatment for cancer. ©Martin Cernvall, Per Carlbring, Anna Wikman, Lisa Ljungman, Gustaf Ljungman, Louise von Essen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 27.07.2017.

  6. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  7. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet .... dissolved in 10% of culture-grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; Sigma-. Aldrich .... In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.

  8. MMR and autism: what parents need to know

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzpatrick, Michael

    2004-01-01

    ... is misguided in a way that will reassure parents considering vaccination and also relieve the continued anxieties of parents of autistic children. At the same time the book provides healthcare professionals and health studies students with an accessible overview of a contemporary health and media issue with significant policy implications. Michael Fi...

  9. Education, Parenting and Family: The Social Geographies of Family Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Emma; Marandet, Elodie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between education, parenting and family through the prism and particularities of family learning. Family learning is an example of an educational initiative, primarily aimed at parents and linked to wider policy concerns, which can be explored through a mapping of its social geographies; family learning is…

  10. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... needs of individual emergency leave recipients, an employing agency may allow an employee to receive... annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section 630.1111 Administrative Personnel... recipient. An emergency leave recipient may receive a maximum of 240 hours of donated annual leave at any...

  11. How social policy contributes to the distribution of population health: the case of gender health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckfield, Jason; Morris, Katherine Ann; Bambra, Clare

    2018-02-01

    In this study we aimed to analyze gender health equity as a case of how social policy contributes to population health. We analyzed three sets of social-investment policies implemented in Europe and previously hypothesized to reduce gender inequity in labor market outcomes: childcare; active labor market programs; and long-term care. We use 12 indicators of social-investment policies from the OECD Social Expenditure Database, the OECD Family Database, and the Social Policy Indicators' Parental Leave Benefit Dataset. We draw outcome data from the 2015 Global Burden of Disease for years lived with disability and all-cause mortality among men and women ages 25-54 for 18 European nations over the 1995-2010 period. We estimate 12 linear regression models each for mortality and morbidity (i.e. years lived with disability), one per social-investment indicator. All models use country fixed-effects and cluster-robust standard errors. For years lived with disability, women benefit more from social investment for most indicators. The only exception is the percentage of young children in publicly funded childcare or schooling, which equally benefits men. For all-cause mortality, men benefit more or equally from social investment for most indicators, while women benefit more from government spending on direct job creation through civil employment. Social policy contributes to the distribution of population health. Social-investment advocates argue such policies in particular enhance economic gender equity. Our results show that these polices have ambiguous effects on gender health equity and even differential improvements among men for some outcomes.

  12. Family-friendly policy in Central European countries [Polityka rodzinna w krajach Europy Środkowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław ZDULSKI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The demographic changes in Central Europe which started in the 80s of the 20th century began to resemble the changes which were noticed earlier in the countries of Western Europe. Fertility gradually decreased, sometimes even below the simple reproduction rate, the number of marriages dropped and the age when they were made was changing. The model of the family underwent transformations which caused changes in family structures. What followed was a fast change from the so called traditional reproduction to modern reproduction. Demographers are looking for the causes of the above mentioned changes in the influence of economic factors and changes the world view. They also emphasised the need for a family-friendly policy. An important influence on the type of policy of a given country is tradition, the implemented socio-economic policy (e.g., conservative, liberal, the economic situation and public opinion. In a narrower sense it is defined as benefits and services for people with children and single parents. Such an approach means the readiness and constant support in the form of financial transfers made to the families, tax relief for families with children, maternity leaves, the creation and maintenance of institutions which offer child care and family law. In a broad sense, familyfriendly policy covers all areas of social policy which can potentially have an influence on the good of the family (subsidies towards children’s travel costs, education, safety, housing, etc.. The aim of this paper is to describe the changes in the field of demography which took place after 1989 and their effects on families, as well as the policies implemented in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary in order to increase reproduction and the number of marriages.

  13. On the Motion of Falling Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi, Pedram

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the motion of falling leaves through modeling using papers and the corresponding data collected from more than four thousands experiments. Two series of experiments were designed in order to study the relationship between different parameters which can affect different paths of motion in leaves. In the first series of experiments, the shapes of the potential paths that falling papers can take were investigated as a whole. A new classification scheme was derived from th...

  14. Properties of leaves particleboard for sheathing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, Arif; Rahmawaty

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing particleboard (PB) made of leaves was carried out to make non-structural building components, such as insulation, partition, wall, and sheathing. Raw materials used dry leaves originated from plantation (palm oil leaves) and forest plantation (magahony leaves). The adhesive used was interior type thermosetting commercial resins, namely 10% urea-formaldehyde (UF) based on oven dry leaves. Hardener used for UF resin was 1% and 3% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) 20% (w/w), respectively. Technically, the target density of PB was 0.8 g/cm3 with the dimension’s size of (250 x 250 x 10) mm3. The pressure, temperature, and time of pressing of the hot press were 25 kgf/cm2, 120C, and 10 minutes, respectively. After conditioning for one week, the PB then was evaluated their physical and mechanical properties according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Results of this work showed: 1) Both types of PB (palm oil and mahagony leaves) were feasible to be produced for non-structural applications; 2) Addition of hardener enhanced the physical and mechanical properties of PB; 3) It was recommended to enhance the performance of the PB by manipulation of the raw materials and the design.

  15. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  16. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  17. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  18. Educational Expectations, Parental Social Class, Gender, and Postsecondary Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesley, Andres; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Yoon, Ee-Seul

    2007-01-01

    1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence analysis, they demonstrate that graduates leave high school with educ...

  19. Daddy's Days Away. A Deployment Activity Book for Parents & Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps, Washington, DC.

    This booklet grew from an idea that the children of Marines might appreciate some special discussion of their family's separation during deployment. Information is provided for parents to help them express their feelings with their children about the deployment. Outlines of activities to do before leaving are included. Suggestions are given for…

  20. Treatments for Autism: Parental Choices and Perceptions of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Anne; D'Angelo, Nadia M.; Hicks, Robin; Wells, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Empirically conducted studies of the efficacy of various treatments for autism are limited, which leaves parents with little evidence on which to base their treatment decisions (Kasari, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," 32: 447-461, 2002). The purpose of this study was to examine the types of treatments in current use by families of…