Sample records for parent-friendly language written

  1. Reconsidering Written Language

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    Gopal P. Sarma


    Full Text Available A number of elite thinkers in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries pursued an agenda which historian Paolo Rossi calls the “quest for a universal language,” a quest which was deeply interwoven with the emergence of the scientific method. From a modern perspective, one of the many surprising aspects of these efforts is that they relied on a diverse array of memorization techniques as foundational elements. In the case of Leibniz’s universal calculus, the ultimate vision was to create a pictorial language that could be learned by anyone in a matter of weeks and which would contain within it a symbolic representation of all domains of contemporary thought, ranging from the natural sciences, to theology, to law. In this brief article, I explore why this agenda might have been appealing to thinkers of this era by examining ancient and modern memory feats. As a thought experiment, I suggest that a society built entirely upon memorization might be less limited than we might otherwise imagine, and furthermore, that cultural norms discouraging the use of written language might have had implications for the development of scientific methodology. Viewed in this light, the efforts of Leibniz and others seem significantly less surprising. I close with some general observations about cross-cultural origins of scientific thought.

  2. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

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    Kamil ÖZERK


    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.


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    Dua'a Abu Elhij'a


    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years, in every Arabic-speaking country, young Arabic speakers have begun to write their spoken language in electronic media, such as Facebook, MSN Messenger, and so on.  The new way of writing in social media is a radical deviation from the traditional norm of writing the classical language—as well as what is commonly referred to as Modern Standard Arabic.  This study is presenting this phenomenon in the Levant— Jordan, Lebanon, and Israel/Palestine.

  4. Short message service (SMS) language and written language skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the ...

  5. The Influence of Process Drama on Elementary Students' Written Language (United States)

    Anderson, Alida


    This article describes the influence of process drama on fourth grade students' written language productivity and specificity. Participants included 16 students with learning and/or behavioral challenges at an urban public charter school. The influence of process drama on students' written language was compared across contextualized and…

  6. Written cohesion in children with and without language learning disabilities. (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D; Petersen, Victoria


    Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing (TD) peers on measures of cohesion in spoken language and on written transcription measures; however, there is far less research comparing groups on cohesion as a measure of written language across genres. The current study addresses this gap through the following two aims. First, to describe and compare cohesion in narrative and expository writing samples of children with and without language learning disabilities. Second, to relate measures of cohesion to written transcription and translation measures, oral language, and writing quality. Fifty intermediate-grade children produced one narrative and one expository writing sample from which measures of written cohesion were obtained. These included the frequency, adequacy and complexity of referential and conjunctive ties. Expository samples resulted in more complex cohesive ties and children with TD used more complex ties than peers with LLD. Different relationships among cohesion measures and writing were observed for narrative verse expository samples. Findings from this study demonstrate cohesion as a discourse-level measure of written transcription and how the use of cohesion can vary by genre and group (LLD, TD). Clinical implications for assessment, intervention, and future research are provided. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  7. Speech language therapy bilingual clinic, a written language therapeutical proposal to deaf people: case report. (United States)

    Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Berberian, Ana Paula; Tonocchi, Rita; Lustosa, Sandra Silva


    This study aimed to analyze the written production of a deaf person who is in the process of written language acquisition. One person with hearing disability, called R., participated in this study together with his Speech Language Pathologist. The therapist, proficient in sign language, acted as an interlocutor and interpreter, prioritizing the interactive nature of language and interfering in the written production only when it was requested. During the 3 years of work with R., a change in stance toward written language was observed. In addition, he began to reflect on his texts and utilize written Portuguese in a way that allowed his texts to be more coherent. Writing became an opportunity to show his singularity and to begin reconstructing his relationship with language. Speech language pathology and audiology therapy, at a bilingual clinic, can allow people with hearing disability early access to sign language and, consequently, enable the development of the written form of Portuguese.

  8. Short Message Service (SMS) Language and Written Language Skills: Educators' Perspectives (United States)

    Geertsema, Salomé; Hyman, Charene; van Deventer, Chantelle


    SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on…

  9. A Large-Scale Analysis of Variance in Written Language. (United States)

    Johns, Brendan T; Jamieson, Randall K


    The collection of very large text sources has revolutionized the study of natural language, leading to the development of several models of language learning and distributional semantics that extract sophisticated semantic representations of words based on the statistical redundancies contained within natural language (e.g., Griffiths, Steyvers, & Tenenbaum, ; Jones & Mewhort, ; Landauer & Dumais, ; Mikolov, Sutskever, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, ). The models treat knowledge as an interaction of processing mechanisms and the structure of language experience. But language experience is often treated agnostically. We report a distributional semantic analysis that shows written language in fiction books varies appreciably between books from the different genres, books from the same genre, and even books written by the same author. Given that current theories assume that word knowledge reflects an interaction between processing mechanisms and the language environment, the analysis shows the need for the field to engage in a more deliberate consideration and curation of the corpora used in computational studies of natural language processing. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Language Parameters in Written Compositions of Nine Year Old Children. (United States)

    Rubin, Rosalyn; Buium, Nissan

    The purpose of this study was to develop a foundation for reliable and effective measurement of significant parameters in the development of written language skills in school age children. The subjects for the study were 25 nine-year-old children, 12 boys and 13 girls, who were randomly selected from among 1,559 participants. The findings…

  11. Integrating Technology Tools for Students Struggling with Written Language (United States)

    Fedora, Pledger


    This exploratory study was designed to assess the experience of preservice teachers when integrating written language technology and their likelihood of applying that technology in their future classrooms. Results suggest that after experiencing technology integration, preservice teachers are more likely to use it in their future teaching.

  12. Improving Written Language Performance of Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome (United States)

    Delano, Monica E


    The effects of a multicomponent intervention involving self-regulated strategy development delivered via video self-modeling on the written language performance of 3 students with Asperger syndrome were examined. During intervention sessions, each student watched a video of himself performing strategies for increasing the number of words written and the number of functional essay elements. He then wrote a persuasive essay. The number of words written and number of functional essay elements included in each essay were measured. Each student demonstrated gains in the number of words written and number of functional essay elements. Maintenance of treatment effects at follow-up varied across targets and participants. Implications for future research are suggested. PMID:17624076

  13. Language and Ageing--Exploring Propositional Density in Written Language--Stability over Time (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth; Craig, Hugh; Ferguson, Alison; Colyvas, Kim


    This study investigated the stability of propositional density (PD) in written texts, as this aspect of language shows promise as an indicator and as a predictor of language decline with ageing. This descriptive longitudinal study analysed written texts obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health in which participants were…

  14. Prosodic Parallelism – comparing spoken and written language

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    Richard Wiese


    Full Text Available The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015, this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed.

  15. Pathways to the Oral and Written Language Competence Among Young Vietnamese English Language Learners


    Duong, Thao Michelle


    This case study, drawing upon the ecological perspectives (Kramsch, 2002; van Lier, 2004) as a theoretical framework, described the learning experiences of two second generation and first grade Vietnamese English Language Learners navigating between home and school to develop oral and written L1 Vietnamese and L2 English competence for one school year. In the second school year, the focal students' oral and written language samples were collected without classroom observations or interviews....

  16. Short message service (SMS language and written language skills: educators' perspectives

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    Salomé Geertsema


    Full Text Available SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on certain aspects of learners' written language skills. If an influence was perceived by the educators, their perceptions regarding the degree and nature of the influence were also explored. A quantitative research design, utilising a questionnaire, was employed. The sample of participants comprised 22 educators employed at independent secondaryschools within Gauteng, South Africa. The results indicated that the majority of educators viewed SMS language as having a negative influence on the written language skills of Grade 8 and 9 learners. The influence was perceived as occurring in the learners' spelling, punctuation, and sentence length. A further finding was that the majority of educators address the negative influences of SMS language when encountered in written tasks.

  17. Developmental perspectives in written language and literacy: In honor of Ludo Verhoeven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P.C.J.; Broek, P.W. van den


    Research on the development on written language and literacy is inherently multidisciplinary. In this book, leading researchers studying brain, cognition and behavior, come together in revealing how children develop written language and literacy, why they may experience difficulties, and which

  18. Oral and written language in late adulthood: findings from the Nun Study. (United States)

    Mitzner, Tracy L; Kemper, Susan


    As a part of the Nun Study, a longitudinal investigation of aging and Alzheimer's disease, oral and written autobiographies from 118 older women were analyzed to examine the relationship between spoken and written language. The written language samples were more complex than the oral samples, both conceptually and grammatically. The relationship between the linguistic measures and participant characteristics was also examined. The results suggest that the grammatical and conceptual characteristics of oral and written language are affected by participant differences in education, cognitive status, and physical function and that written language samples have greater power than oral language samples to differentiate between high- and low-ability older adults.

  19. Problems of an Emergent Written Language of the Global System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    written language of the GSM' via the lexemes, morphemes, syntax, and mechanics of ... Most important, is the overall chaotic effect of this language on formal teaching and learning in English in an ESL (English as a Second Language) situation.

  20. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: The South African context

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    Danel Erasmus


    Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-two currently practising speech-language therapists who are registered members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association (SASLHA participated in the study. Results: The respondents indicated that they are aware of their role regarding adolescents with written-language difficulties. However, they feel that South-African speech-language therapists are not fulfilling this role. Existing assessment tools and interventions for written-language difficulties are described as inadequate, and culturally and age inappropriate. Yet, the majority of the respondents feel that they are adequately equipped to work with adolescents with written-language difficulties, based on their own experience, self-study and secondary training. The respondents feel that training regarding effective collaboration with teachers is necessary to establish specific roles, and to promote speech-language therapy for adolescents among teachers. Conclusion: Further research is needed in developing appropriate assessment and intervention tools as well as improvement of training at an undergraduate level.

  1. Fundaments for the study of orality in written language

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    José Gaston Hilgert


    Full Text Available In this paper, we put forth some reflections upon the production of effects of orality in written texts in light of the fundaments of enunciation. In this theoretical context, we show that the study of orality in written language should not depart from the random identification of lexical and syntactic, figurative and thematic, stylistic or rhetoric resources. What matters is the identification of the interactive scenario in which these linguistic resources are manifested. The interactive scenario is configured by the relationship between narrator/narratee revealed in the text. If this relation takes place by means of the interaction between an I (narrator and a you (narratee, either explicit or implicit, then it is instituted, in this scenario, the basic principle of dialog, of conversation, which defines the proximity condition of the interlocutors and, therefore, the interactive scenario favorable to the use of orality resources. When this relation, however, takes place in the form of a third person narrator who addresses him/herself to an implicit reader, the scenario of distancing is installed, in which orality resources may be unfit or, if they occur, they may have specific functions. This text addresses special attention to the interactive scenario set by the interaction between I/you, showing, in different examples, traits of orality determined by such interaction, and also the various degrees of proximity that this interaction may reveal in its various manifestations.

  2. Speech Language Group Therapy in the Context of Written Language for Deaf Subjects in Southern Brazil (United States)

    Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Berberian, Ana Paula; Tonocchi, Rita; Valentin, Silvana Mendonça Lopes


    This article aims to investigate deaf people's reasons to participate in a therapeutic group and to analyze some of their reflections on the use of written Portuguese language produced inside this group within a sociocultural perspective. It was carried out at a School for the deaf located in Curitiba, Paraná State/Brazil in a partnership with…

  3. Morphosyntactic correctness of written language production in adults with moderate to severe congenital hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, Elke; de Jong, Jan; Festen, Joost M.; Coene, Martine M.R.; Goverts, S. Theo


    Objective To examine whether moderate to severe congenital hearing loss (MSCHL) leads to persistent morphosyntactic problems in the written language production of adults, as it does in their spoken language production. Design Samples of written language in Dutch were analysed for morphosyntactic

  4. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay


    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  5. The "SignOn"-Model for Teaching Written Language to Deaf People

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    Marlene Hilzensauer


    Full Text Available This paper shows a method of teaching written language to deaf people using sign language as the language of instruction. Written texts in the target language are combined with sign language videos which provide the users with various modes of translation (words/phrases/sentences. As examples, two EU projects for English for the Deaf are presented which feature English texts and translations into the national sign languages of all the partner countries plus signed grammar explanations and interactive exercises. Both courses are web-based; the programs may be accessed free of charge via the respective homepages (without any download or log-in.

  6. Oral and Written Language Development of Children Adopted from China (United States)

    Scott, Kathleen A.; Roberts, Jenny A.; Krakow, Rena


    Purpose: The sharp increase in the number of international adoptions in the United States has prompted a heightened interest in the language development of internationally adopted children. Although recent studies have investigated the early language development of adoptees, little is known about the school-age language and literacy skills of…

  7. The Impact of Electronic Communication Technology on Written Language (United States)

    Hamzah, Mohd. Sahandri Gani B.; Ghorbani, Mohd. Reza; Abdullah, Saifuddin Kumar B.


    Communication technology is changing things. Language is no exception. Some language researchers argue that language is deteriorating due to increased use in electronic communication. The present paper investigated 100 randomly selected electronic mails (e-mails) and 50 short messaging system (SMS) messages of a representative sample of…

  8. 28 CFR 55.12 - Language used for written material. (United States)


    ... Attorney General will consider whether the particular version of the language that is used for election.... A jurisdiction required to provide election materials in the language of such a group need not provide materials in more than one language other than English. The Attorney General will consider whether...

  9. The interface between spoken and written language: developmental disorders. (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J


    We review current knowledge about reading development and the origins of difficulties in learning to read. We distinguish between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading for meaning (reading comprehension). At a cognitive level, difficulties in learning to read appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. The development of decoding skills appears to depend critically upon phonological language skills, and variations in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming each appear to be causally related to problems in learning to read. Reading comprehension difficulties in contrast appear to be critically dependent on a range of oral language comprehension skills (including vocabulary knowledge and grammatical, morphological and pragmatic skills).

  10. The Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Theory to the Written Error Correction Debate (United States)

    Polio, Charlene


    The controversies surrounding written error correction can be traced to Truscott (1996) in his polemic against written error correction. He claimed that empirical studies showed that error correction was ineffective and that this was to be expected "given the nature of the correction process and "the nature of language learning" (p. 328, emphasis…



    Fernanda Lima Jardim Miara; Izete Lehmkuhl Coelho


    This research aims to investigate the variation in the regular and irregular past participle forms, in active sentences and in passive sentences, based on a synchronic analysis of four verbs: salvar (to save), pegar (to take), abrir (to open) and chegar (to arrive). The sample is formed by a corpus, extracted from the online newspaper Diário Catarinense online. The results of this work show that irregular participles are best evaluated forms and they are the most frequent forms in written dat...


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    Fernanda Lima Jardim Miara


    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the variation in the regular and irregular past participle forms, in active sentences and in passive sentences, based on a synchronic analysis of four verbs: salvar (to save, pegar (to take, abrir (to open and chegar (to arrive. The sample is formed by a corpus, extracted from the online newspaper Diário Catarinense online. The results of this work show that irregular participles are best evaluated forms and they are the most frequent forms in written data in PB (cf. MIARA, 2013.

  13. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents (United States)

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain


    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  14. Providing written language services in the schools: the time is now. (United States)

    Fallon, Karen A; Katz, Lauren A


    The current study was conducted to investigate the provision of written language services by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Specifically, the study examined SLPs' knowledge, attitudes, and collaborative practices in the area of written language services as well as the variables that impact provision of these services. Public school-based SLPs from across the country were solicited for participation in an online, Web-based survey. Data from 645 full-time SLPs from 49 states were evaluated using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Many school-based SLPs reported not providing any services in the area of written language to students with written language weaknesses. Knowledge, attitudes, and collaborative practices were mixed. A logistic regression revealed three variables likely to predict high levels of service provision in the area of written language. Data from the current study revealed that many struggling readers and writers on school-based SLPs' caseloads are not receiving services from their SLPs. Implications for SLPs' preservice preparation, continuing education, and doctoral preparation are discussed.

  15. On Verification of PLC-Programs Written in the LD-Language

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    E. V. Kuzmin


    Full Text Available We discuss some questions connected with the construction of a technology of analysing correctness of Programmable Logic Controller programs. We consider an example of modeling and automated verification of PLC-programs written in the Ladder Diagram language (including timed function blocks of the IEC 61131-3 standard. We use the Cadence SMV for symbolic model checking. Program properties are written in the linear-time temporal logic LTL.

  16. Grammatical Deviations in the Spoken and Written Language of Hebrew-Speaking Children With Hearing Impairments. (United States)

    Tur-Kaspa, Hana; Dromi, Esther


    The present study reports a detailed analysis of written and spoken language samples of Hebrew-speaking children aged 11-13 years who are deaf. It focuses on the description of various grammatical deviations in the two modalities. Participants were 13 students with hearing impairments (HI) attending special classrooms integrated into two elementary schools in Tel Aviv, Israel, and 9 students with normal hearing (NH) in regular classes in these same schools. Spoken and written language samples were collected from all participants using the same five preplanned elicitation probes. Students with HI were found to display significantly more grammatical deviations than their NH peers in both their spoken and written language samples. Most importantly, between-modality differences were noted. The participants with HI exhibited significantly more grammatical deviations in their written language samples than in their spoken samples. However, the distribution of grammatical deviations across categories was similar in the two modalities. The most common grammatical deviations in order of their frequency were failure to supply obligatory morphological markers, failure to mark grammatical agreement, and the omission of a major syntactic constituent in a sentence. Word order violations were rarely recorded in the Hebrew samples. Performance differences in the two modalities encourage clinicians and teachers to facilitate target linguistic forms in diverse communication contexts. Furthermore, the identification of linguistic targets for intervention must be based on the unique grammatical structure of the target language.

  17. Second Language Writing Research and Written Corrective Feedback in SLA: Intersections and Practical Applications (United States)

    Ferris, Dana R.


    For more than a decade now, a great deal of research has been done on the topic of written corrective feedback (CF) in SLA and second language (L2) writing. Nonetheless, what those research efforts really have shown as well as the possible implications for practice remain in dispute. Although L2 writing and SLA researchers often examine similar…

  18. The Linguistic Development of Students of English as a Second Language in Two Written Genres (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-Jo; Polio, Charlene


    This study examined narrative and argumentative essays written over the course of a 4-month semester by 37 students of English as a second language (ESL). The essays were analyzed for development over time and for genre differences. The goal of the study was to conceptually replicate previous studies on genre differences (e.g., Lu, 2011) and on…

  19. Introduction to the Atari Computer. A Program Written in the Pilot Programming Language. (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Designed to be an introduction to the Atari microcomputers for beginners, the interactive computer program listed in this document is written in the Pilot programing language. Instructions are given for entering and storing the program in the computer memory for use by students. (MES)

  20. What Comes First, What Comes Next: Information Packaging in Written and Spoken Language

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    Vladislav Smolka


    Full Text Available The paper explores similarities and differences in the strategies of structuring information at sentence level in spoken and written language, respectively. In particular, it is concerned with the position of the rheme in the sentence in the two different modalities of language, and with the application and correlation of the end-focus and the end-weight principles. The assumption is that while there is a general tendency in both written and spoken language to place the focus in or close to the final position, owing to the limitations imposed by short-term memory capacity (and possibly by other factors, for the sake of easy processibility, it may occasionally be more felicitous in spoken language to place the rhematic element in the initial position or at least close to the beginning of the sentence. The paper aims to identify differences in the function of selected grammatical structures in written and spoken language, respectively, and to point out circumstances under which initial focus is a convenient alternative to the usual end-focus principle.

  1. Aspects of Oral Language, Speech, and Written Language in Subjects with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy of Difficult Control

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    Berberian, Ana Paula


    Full Text Available Introduction About 50 million people have epilepsy and 30% of them have epilepsy that does not respond to properly conducted drug treatment. Objective Verify the incidence of language disorders in oral language, speech, and written language of subjects with difficult to control temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE and compare the occurrence of these disorders in subjects before and after surgery. Methods Cross-sectional study with quantitative analysis, exploratory type. A questionnaire for data collection was administered covering the following aspects: oral language, speech complaints, and writing production and comprehension. Criteria for inclusion of subjects were a diagnosis of TLE refractory to drug treatment and at least 4 years of schooling. Results The sample of 63 patients with TLE was divided into two groups: presurgical (n = 31 and postsurgical (n = 32. In the postsurgical group, there was a higher frequency of left lobectomy (75% than right (25%. Conclusion Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-square test (significance level of 0.05. Complaints related to speech-language attention were more predominant in postsurgical subjects. Analysis of oral language, speech, and written language in subjects with epilepsy who underwent temporal lobectomy or not showed findings consistent with symptoms related to transient aphasia, with the presence of paraphasias, as well as changes in speech prosody and melody. These symptoms appeared more associated with recurrence after having a temporal lobectomy.

  2. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language? (United States)

    Spiroski, Mirko


    The aim of this study was to show how to verify plagiarism of the paper written in Macedonian and translated in foreign language. Original article "Ethics in Medical Research Involving Human Subjects", written in Macedonian, was submitted as an assay-2 for the subject Ethics and published by Ilina Stefanovska, PhD candidate from the Iustinianus Primus Faculty of Law, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (UKIM), Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in Fabruary, 2013. Suspected article for plagiarism was published by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova from the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University Goce Delchev, Shtip, Republic of Macedonia in English with the identical title and identical content in International scientific on-line journal "SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES", Publisher "Union of Scientists - Stara Zagora". Original document (written in Macedonian) was translated with Google Translator; suspected article (published in English pdf file) was converted into Word document, and compared both documents with several programs for plagiarism detection. It was found that both documents are identical in 71%, 78% and 82%, respectively, depending on the computer program used for plagiarism detection. It was obvious that original paper was entirely plagiarised by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova, including six references from the original paper. Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection.

  3. The written language of signals as a means of natural literacy of deaf children

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    Giovana Fracari Hautrive


    Full Text Available Taking the theme literacy of deaf children is currently directing the eye to the practice teaching course that demands beyond the school. Questions moving to daily practice, became a challenge, requiring an investigative attitude. The article aims to problematize the process of literacy of deaf children. Reflection proposal emerges from daily practice. This structure is from yarns that include theoretical studies of Vigotskii (1989, 1994, 1996, 1998; Stumpf (2005, Quadros (1997; Bolzan (1998, 2002; Skliar (1997a, 1997b, 1998 . From which, problematizes the processes involved in the construction of written language. It is as a result, the importance of the instrumentalization of sign language as first language in education of deaf and learning of sign language writing. Important aspects for the deaf student is observed in the condition to be literate in their mother tongue. It points out the need for a redirect in the literacy of deaf children, so that important aspects of language and its role in the structuring of thought and its communicative aspect, are respected and considered in this process. Thus, it emphasizes the learning of the writing of sign language as fundamental, it should occupy a central role in the proposed teaching the class, encouraging the contradictions that put the student in a situation of cognitive conflict, while respecting the diversity inherent to each humans. It is considered that the production of sign language writing is an appropriate tool for the deaf students record their visual language.

  4. The missing foundation in teacher education: Knowledge of the structure of spoken and written language. (United States)

    Moats, L C


    Reading research supports the necessity for directly teaching concepts about linguistic structure to beginning readers and to students with reading and spelling difficulties. In this study, experienced teachers of reading, language arts, and special education were tested to determine if they have the requisite awareness of language elements (e.g., phonemes, morphemes) and of how these elements are represented in writing (e.g., knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences). The results were surprisingly poor, indicating that even motivated and experienced teachers typically understand too little about spoken and written language structure to be able to provide sufficient instruction in these areas. The utility of language structure knowledge for instructional planning, for assessment of student progress, and for remediation of literacy problems is discussed.The teachers participating in the study subsequently took a course focusing on phonemic awareness training, spoken-written language relationships, and careful analysis of spelling and reading behavior in children. At the end of the course, the teachers judged this information to be essential for teaching and advised that it become a prerequisite for certification. Recommendations for requirements and content of teacher education programs are presented.

  5. The effect of written text on comprehension of spoken English as a foreign language. (United States)

    Diao, Yali; Chandler, Paul; Sweller, John


    Based on cognitive load theory, this study investigated the effect of simultaneous written presentations on comprehension of spoken English as a foreign language. Learners' language comprehension was compared while they used 3 instructional formats: listening with auditory materials only, listening with a full, written script, and listening with simultaneous subtitled text. Listening with the presence of a script and subtitles led to better understanding of the scripted and subtitled passage but poorer performance on a subsequent auditory passage than listening with the auditory materials only. These findings indicated that where the intention was learning to listen, the use of a full script or subtitles had detrimental effects on the construction and automation of listening comprehension schemas.

  6. Do Questions Written in the Target Language Make Foreign Language Listening Comprehension Tests More Difficult? (United States)

    Filipi, Anna


    The Assessment of Language Competence (ALC) certificates is an annual, international testing program developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research to test the listening and reading comprehension skills of lower to middle year levels of secondary school. The tests are developed for three levels in French, German, Italian and…

  7. Moyamoya disease: impact on the performance of oral and written language. (United States)

    Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin; Ribeiro, Camila da Costa; Ferraz, Plínio Marcos Duarte Pinto; Tabaquim, Maria de Lourdes Merighi

    Moyamoya disease is an unusual form of occlusive, cerebrovascular disorder that affects the arteries of the central nervous system, causing acquired language alterations and learning difficulties. The study aim was to describe the oral/written language and cognitive skills in a seven-year-and-seven-month-old girl diagnosed with Moyamoya disease. The assessment consisted of interviews with her parents and application of the following instruments: Observation of Communicative Behavior, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Academic Performance Test, Profile of Phonological Awareness, Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, Special Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Two episodes of stroke in the left and right temporal-parietal and left frontal areas occurred until the age of six years and five months. Revascularization surgery and medication treatment were conducted. The audiologic and ophthalmologic assessments indicated normality. At the time of the study, the girl was attending the second grade of elementary school. She presented changes in oral and written language (syllabic-alphabetic), non-naming of all graphemes, low arithmetic and writing means, reading skill below first grade level and psycholinguistic delay, and pre-school level phonological processing skills. The psychological evaluation indicated satisfactory intellectual level; however, it also showed cognitive performance impairment in verbal and execution tasks and limitations on graphic-perceptual-motor skills and sequential logic organization. The stroke episodes influenced the performance of learning processes, affecting the analysis, integration, and interpretation of relevant visual and auditory information.

  8. Some Effects of Explicit Grammar Instruction and Syntactic Priming on Students’ Written Language Production

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    Rahman Muhammad Asfah


    Full Text Available Structural or syntactic priming is a phenomenon in which prior exposure to specific language structures either facilitates or interferes with a learner’s subsequent language production [1]. Exposure to English structures through explicit instruction is reported to have inconclusive results. [2] reported that explicit and implicit grammar instruction ends up with automatization. This study reexamines the effect of syntactic priming and explicit grammar instruction on students’ writing. Specific grammatical features frequently appeared on TOEFL (Written Expression Section test were intensively practiced and then the students took a test whose items were specifically collected from TOEFL practice tests. Finally, the students were assigned to write a short essay. Sentences with similar structures which the students had been exposed to were extracted from the students’ essays. Out of 40 test items, only 59.86% in average could be answered correctly, and all of the grammatical features to which the students were previously exposed were contained in their essays. However, in average only eight out of 18 sentences were grammatically constructed. It can be concluded that although priming method with explicit instruction leads the students to use similar syntactic features in their writing, it seems to have little impact on students’ grammatical knowledge for immediate use in written language production.

  9. APL MITRA extensions to graphics. Call programs written in another language with APL MITRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouanes, Mohamed Kamel


    This study concerns: - A new way of using APL to deal with graphics problems. For this, the extensions to the APL-MITRA interpreter are: - the definition of graphic variables, - the creation of a graphic environment using new graphic system variables (□AX, □CA, □MΦ), - dealing with a set of primitive graphic system functions (□GΦ, □GI, □GR, □GF, □GC) which handle graphic input/output operations on a Tektronix console (4000 series, especially the 4013 and 4015). A new system function (□CI) which permits APL programs to call programs written in other languages. (author) [fr

  10. Written Language Ability in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants. (United States)

    Wu, Che-Ming; Ko, Hui-Chen; Chen, Yen-An; Tsou, Yung-Ting; Chao, Wei-Chieh


    Objectives. To examine narrative writing in cochlear implant (CI) children and understand the factors associated with unfavorable outcomes. Materials and Methods. Forty-five CI children in grades 2-6 participated in this study. They received CIs at 4.1 ± 2.1 years of age and had used them for 6.5 ± 2.7 years. A story-writing test was conducted and scored on 4 subscales: Total Number of Words, Words per Sentence, Morphosyntax, and Semantics. Scores more than 1.5 SD lower than the mean of the normal-hearing normative sample were considered problematic. Language and speech skills were examined. Results. Significantly more implanted students were problematic on "Total Number of Words" (p < 0.001), "Words per Sentence" (p = 0.049), and "Semantics" (p < 0.001). Poorer receptive language and auditory performance were independently associated with problematic "Total Number of Words" (R (2) = 0.489) and "Semantics" (R (2) = 0.213), respectively. "Semantics" problem was more common in lower graders (grades 2-4) than in higher graders (grades 5-6; p = 0.016). Conclusion. Implanted children tend to write stories that are shorter, worse-organized, and without a plot, while formulating morphosyntactically correct sentences. Special attention is required on their auditory and language performances, which could lead to written language problems.

  11. Speech recognition training for enhancing written language generation by a traumatic brain injury survivor. (United States)

    Manasse, N J; Hux, K; Rankin-Erickson, J L


    Impairments in motor functioning, language processing, and cognitive status may impact the written language performance of traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. One strategy to minimize the impact of these impairments is to use a speech recognition system. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of mild dysarthria and mild cognitive-communication deficits secondary to TBI on a 19-year-old survivor's mastery and use of such a system-specifically, Dragon Naturally Speaking. Data included the % of the participant's words accurately perceived by the system over time, the participant's accuracy over time in using commands for navigation and error correction, and quantitative and qualitative changes in the participant's written texts generated with and without the use of the speech recognition system. Results showed that Dragon NaturallySpeaking was approximately 80% accurate in perceiving words spoken by the participant, and the participant quickly and easily mastered all navigation and error correction commands presented. Quantitatively, the participant produced a greater amount of text using traditional word processing and a standard keyboard than using the speech recognition system. Minimal qualitative differences appeared between writing samples. Discussion of factors that may have contributed to the obtained results and that may affect the generalization of the findings to other TBI survivors is provided.

  12. Contribution of Oral Language Skills, Linguistic Skills, and Transcription Skills to Chinese Written Composition among Fourth-Grade Students (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa


    The present study aimed to investigate the contribution of oral language skills, linguistic skills, and transcription skills to Chinese written composition among Grade 4 students in Hong Kong. Measures assessing verbal working memory, oral language skills, linguistic skills (i.e., syntactic skills and discourse skills), transcription skills (i.e.,…

  13. Teaching Literature Written in English in Undergraduate Language Teacher Education Programs: A Dialogic-Pragmatic Approach

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    Orison Marden Bandeira de Melo Júnior


    Full Text Available This article aims to be part of the ongoing discussion on the teaching of literature written in English (LWE in literature classes in undergraduate language programs. In order to do that, it shows the challenges posed by the Letras DCN (National Curriculum Guidelines for the undergraduate Language Teacher Education programs as well as the reality literature teachers face due to the reduced number of hours of literature classes assigned in course curricula and to students' limited knowledge of English. Based on the dialogical concept of language and on the possibility of cooperation between scientific trends, we present a cooperative work between DDA (Dialogical Discourse Analysis and Pragmatics, showing how consonant and dissonant they are. Besides, we present part of the analysis of Alice Walker's short story Her Sweet Jerome done by students, which, in this context of teaching LWE to students with limited knowledge of English, pointed to the possibility of Pragmatics being the first step towards a dialogical analysis of literary texts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchaib Benzehaf


    Full Text Available The present study aims to longitudinally depict the dynamic and interactive development of Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency (CAF in multilingual learners’ L2 and L3 writing. The data sources include free writing tasks written in L2 French and L3 English by 45 high school participants over a period of four semesters. CAF dimensions are measured using a variation of Hunt’s T-units (1964. Analysis of the quantitative data obtained suggests that CAF measures develop differently for learners’ L2 French and L3 English. They increase more persistently in L3 English, and they display the characteristics of a dynamic, non-linear system characterized by ups and downs particularly in L2 French. In light of the results, we suggest more and denser longitudinal data to explore the nature of interactions between these dimensions in foreign language development, particularly at the individual level.

  15. How Do Surgery Students Use Written Language to Say What They See? A Framework to Understand Medical Students' Written Evaluations of Their Teachers. (United States)

    Lim, David W; White, Jonathan S


    There remains debate regarding the value of the written comments that medical students are traditionally asked to provide to evaluate the teaching they receive. The purpose of this study was to examine written teaching evaluations to understand how medical students conceptualize teachers' behaviors and performance. All written comments collected from medical students about teachers in the two surgery clerkships at the University of Alberta in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 were collated and anonymized. A grounded theory approach was used for analysis, with iterative reading and open coding to identify recurring themes. A framework capturing variations observed in the data was generated until data saturation was achieved. Domains and subdomains were named using an in situ coding approach. The conceptual framework contained three main domains: "Physician as Teacher," "Physician as Person," and "Physician as Physician." Under "Physician as Teacher," students commented on specific acts of teaching and subjective perceptions of an educator's teaching values. Under the "Physician as Physician" domain, students commented on elements of their educator's physicianship, including communication and collaborative skills, medical expertise, professionalism, and role modeling. Under "Physician as Person," students commented on how both positive and negative personality traits impacted their learning. This framework describes how medical students perceive their teachers and how they use written language to attach meaning to the behaviors they observe. Such a framework can be used to help students provide more constructive feedback to teachers and to assist in faculty development efforts aimed at improving teaching performance.

  16. Written production of learners of Portuguese as an additional foreign language: referentiation as a sociocognitive processing resource

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    Lucia Rottava


    Full Text Available This article discusses referentiation in texts written by learners of Portuguese as an additional foreign language. Referentiation consists of construction and reconstruction of discourse objects, a product that results from cognitive and interactive activity. Among forms of interaction, written production is an interactive process as meanings derive from the interaction between writer/reader and text in complex and multifaceted experiences that involve prior experiences and/or knowledge, besides the interlocutor’s discursive purpose. Therefore, the text is the result of an action ‘under construction’ made possible through the use of language. Data for this article come from written production developed in classes of Portuguese as a foreign language. The findings reveal learners’ textual processing and its peculiarities resulting from the learners’ proficiency levels and the requirements of the type and theme of the specified task.

  17. Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners: Enmeshment in Deviant Networks and Adolescent Delinquency Involvement (United States)

    Lonardo, Robert A.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.


    Adolescent networks include parents, friends, and romantic partners, but research on the social learning mechanisms related to delinquency has not typically examined the characteristics of all three domains simultaneously. Analyses draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 957), and our analytic sample contains 51% male and…

  18. Direct and interactive effects of parent, friend and schoolmate drinking on alcohol use trajectories. (United States)

    Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Sims, Jacqueline; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Mahalik, James R


    This study considered the unique and interactive roles of social norms from parents, friends and schools in predicting developmental trajectories of adolescent drinking and intoxication. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which followed adolescents (N = 18,921) for 13 years, we used discrete mixture modelling to identify unique developmental trajectories of drinking and of intoxication. Next, multilevel multinomial regression models examined the role of alcohol-related social norms from parents, friends and schoolmates in the prediction of youths' trajectory group membership. Results demonstrated that social norms from parents, friends and schoolmates that were favourable towards alcohol use uniquely predicted drinking and intoxication trajectory group membership. Interactions between social norms revealed that schoolmate drinking played an important moderating role, frequently augmenting social norms from parents and friends. The current findings suggest that social norms from multiple sources (parents, friends and schools) work both independently and interactively to predict longitudinal trajectories of adolescent alcohol use. Results highlight the need to identify and understand social messages from multiple developmental contexts in efforts to reduce adolescent alcohol consumption and alcohol-related risk-taking.

  19. The Process Of Transforming The Mahabharata Literary Work Written In The Old Javanese Into Geguritan Sarpayajnya And Geguritan Kicaka Written In The Balinese Language

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    I Made Suastika


    Full Text Available The story of the Pandawas and their wife in Wirata was used as the plot of the geguritan Kicakawhich was initially transformed from Wirataparwa in the form of Parwa. The only episode which was transformed into geguritan written in the Balinese language is the one narrating when the Pandawas were in disguise for one year. In this episode the love story of their wife, Drupadi, who was disguised as Sairindriis also narrated. In this episode it is also narrated that the Chief Minister, Kicaka, would like to have her as his wife. However, the Chief Minister, Kicaka, was killed by Bima, who was disguised as Ballawa, meaning that the love story came to an end. From the language point of view, the episode telling that the Pandawas were in Wirata was transformed into Geguritan Kicaka written in the Balinese language. In addition, although the text was dynamically translated, many Old Javanese words are still used in the Balinese version.Similarly, geguritan Sarpayajaya adopted the episode of Sarpayajnya of Adiparwa; however, the plot was modified again using thestrophes pangkur, dangdanggula, sinom and durma and was introduced using the Balinese language. It is narrated that King Parikesit was bitten and killed by a snake named Taksaka. Consequently, his son, Janamejaya, performed a ritual known as Sarpayajaya, causing all the snakes to die. From the cultural point of view, the text is recited as part of the performing art and the art of music ‘magegitan’ in Bali. The text Sarpayajayaisrecited as part of the cremation ceremony ‘ngaben’ known as mamutru.

  20. Linguagem oral e escrita em adolescentes infratores institucionalizados Oral and written language in institutionalized juvenile offenders

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    Carla Maria Ariano Destro


    / or written language disturbances in a group of institutionalized juvenile offenders, checking how possible language and communication difficulties impact on these subjects' social life. METHOD: exploratory and descriptive study, with 40 interns of Fundação Casa / IU 25 unit - Rio Negro/ Franco da Rocha city complex - SP, between 15 and 18 year old. For collecting the data we applied the Mini-Mental State Examination - MMSE test, to detect individuals who may have cognitive impairment; the Montreal test, to examine simple oral and written language abilities and a semi-structured an interview, whose script was related to General Health, School Path, Vocational Path and perceptions of criminal behavior. RESULTS: the results showed that the majority of the population was literate and there was no occurrence of cognitive impairment. There was a high rate of school dropouts due from difficulties in following school curriculum and adapting to school rules and dynamics, indicating the impacts referring to language difficulties, especially written language, on condition that, in combination with other factors favored the conduct infractions. CONCLUSION: the young offenders had problems to develop and to engage in socio-cultural patterns and values, including school rules, which impose limits on their discursive access and movement, by restricting the uses of language, as a path to the development of personal social practice and citizenship. The findings provide evidence, among other factors, on the social impact that poor schooling and socialization of young people may come to cause. The study demonstrates that language should be designed as a social practice, mostly in the expression and communication forms of these subjects.

  1. Readability of written medicine information materials in Arabic language: expert and consumer evaluation. (United States)

    Al Aqeel, Sinaa; Abanmy, Norah; Aldayel, Abeer; Al-Khalifa, Hend; Al-Yahya, Maha; Diab, Mona


    Written Medicine Information (WMI) is one of the sources that patients use to obtain information concerning medicine. This paper aims to assess the readability of two types of WMIs in Arabic language based on vocabulary use and sentence structure using a panel of experts and consumers. This is a descriptive study. Two different types of materials, including the online text from King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Arabic Health Encyclopaedia (KAAHE) and medication leaflets submitted by the manufacturers to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) were evaluated. We selected a group of sentences from each WMI. The readability was assessed by experts (n = 5) and consumers (n = 5). The sentence readability of each measured using a specific criteria and rated as 1 = easy, 2 = intermediate, or 3 = difficult. A total of 4476 sentences (SFDA 2231; KAHEE 2245) extracted from websites or patient information leaflets on 50 medications and evaluated. The majority of the vocabulary and sentence structure was considered easy by both expert (SFDA: 68%; KAAHE: 76%) and consumer (SFDA: 76%; KAAHE: 84%) groups. The sentences with difficult or intermediate vocabulary and sentence structure are derived primarily from the precautions and side effects sections. The SFDA and KAAHE WMIs are easy to read and understand as judged by our study sample. However; there is room for improvement, especially in sections related to the side effects and precautions.

  2. Dimensions of Discourse Level Oral Language Skills and Their Relation to Reading Comprehension and Written Composition: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Cheahyung; Park, Younghee


    We examined the relations of discourse-level oral language skills [i.e., listening comprehension, and oral retell and production of narrative texts (oral retell and production hereafter)] to reading comprehension and written composition. Korean-speaking first grade students (N = 97) were assessed on listening comprehension, oral retell and…

  3. Effects of Dictation, Speech to Text, and Handwriting on the Written Composition of Elementary School English Language Learners (United States)

    Arcon, Nina; Klein, Perry D.; Dombroski, Jill D.


    Previous research has shown that both dictation and speech-to-text (STT) software can increase the quality of writing for native English speakers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of these modalities on the written composition and cognitive load of elementary school English language learners (ELLs). In a within-subjects…

  4. The Past Is Present: Representations of Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners Predict Subsequent Romantic Representations. (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene


    This study examined how representations of parent-child relationships, friendships, and past romantic relationships are related to subsequent romantic representations. Two-hundred 10th graders (100 female; M age  = 15.87 years) from diverse neighborhoods in a Western U.S. city were administered questionnaires and were interviewed to assess avoidant and anxious representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Participants then completed similar questionnaires and interviews about their romantic representations six more times over the next 7.5 years. Growth curve analyses revealed that representations of relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners each uniquely predicted subsequent romantic representations across development. Consistent with attachment and behavioral systems theory, representations of romantic relationships are revised by representations and experiences in other relationships. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Development of a CD-ROM on written language for the continuing education of elementary school teachers

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    Thaís dos Santos Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Distance education has emerged to minimize the anxiety of many professionals who need to update their knowledge, but do not have the time and opportunity to travel to educational centers. Objectives: To describe the development of a CD-ROM to provide distance continuing education to basic school teachers that addresses issues related to written language. Material and Methods: Previously, a script was developed with themes related to the acquisition and development of written language. Subsequently, a technical team transformed the texts in multimedia language. Results: The titles of each content area addressed are available on buttons and links. The files can be viewed in a linear sequence, allowing the teacher to start learning at the desired moment and go straight to the file that he or she wants to access. Videos that show practical applications of the concepts available in text are included. Conclusions: Brazil is a developing country. The use of technologies for education reduces cultural isolation among education professionals. It is necessary to focus on making teaching materials for distance education. In order to provide an effective learning environment, the learners reality should be considered. A multidisciplinary team should prepare the materials. The development of educational material for distance education on the acquisition and development of written language seems not only appropriate, but also warranted to provide professional growth opportunity for teachers who need time flexibility and/or live far away from academic centers.

  6. The Effect of Language Specific Factors on Early Written Composition: The Role of Spelling, Oral Language and Text Generation Skills in a Shallow Orthography (United States)

    Arfé, Barbara; Dockrell, Julie E.; De Bernardi, Bianca


    Spelling skills have been identified as one of the major barriers to written text production in young English writers. By contrast oral language skills and text generation have been found to be less influential in the texts produced by beginning writers. To date, our understanding of the role of spelling skills in transparent orthographies is…

  7. Investigating the impact of SMS speak on the written work of English first language and English second language high school learners

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    Winzker, Kristy


    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of SMS speak on the written work of English first language (L1 and English second language (L2 grade 8s and 11s. The aim was to establish whether these learners make use of features of SMS speak in their English written work. The participants, 88 learners from an English-Afrikaans dual medium school, completed questionnaires from which the frequency and volume of their SMS use were determined, as well as the features of SMS speak they reportedly use while SMSing. In addition, samples of their English essays were examined for the following features of SMS speak: (deliberate spelling errors; lack of punctuation; over-punctuation; omission of function words; and use of abbreviation, acronyms, emoticons and rebus writing. The questionnaires indicated that these learners are avid users of the SMS. All participants reported using features of SMS speak in their SMSes, and more than 40% reported using SMS speak in their written school work. Despite this, features of SMS speak infrequently occurred in the written work of the learners, which could indicate that the learners are able to assess when it is and is not appropriate to use a certain variety of language. That said, a number of SMS speak features were indeed present in the samples, which indicates that SMS speak had some impact on the written work of these learners. Not all of the nonstandard features of their written English could, however, necessarily be attributed to the influence of SMS speak; specifically some of the spelling and punctuation errors could have occurred in the written English of high school learners from before the advent of cell phones.

  8. Comic Books: A Learning Tool for Meaningful Acquisition of Written Sign Language (United States)

    Guimarães, Cayley; Oliveira Machado, Milton César; Fernandes, Sueli F.


    Deaf people use Sign Language (SL) for intellectual development, communications and other human activities that are mediated by language--such as the expression of complex and abstract thoughts and feelings; and for literature, culture and knowledge. The Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) is a complete linguistic system of visual-spatial manner,…

  9. A methodology for improving the SIS-RT in analyzing the traceability of the documents written in Korean language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeong Jae; Kim, Man Cheol; Seong, Poong Hyun


    Inspection is widely believed to be an effective software verification and validation (V and V) method. However, software inspection is labor-intensive. This labor-intensive nature is compounded by a view that since software inspection uses little technology, they do not fit in well with a more technology-oriented development environment. Nevertheless, software inspection is gaining in popularity. The researchers of KAIST I and C laboratory developed the software tool managing and supporting inspection tasks, named SIS-RT. SIS-RT is designed to partially automate the software inspection processes. SIS-RT supports the analyses of traceability between the spec documents. To make SIS-RT prepared for the spec document written in Korean language, certain techniques in natural language processing have been reviewed. Among those, the case grammar is most suitable for the analyses of Korean language. In this paper, the methodology for analyzing the traceability between spec documents written in Korean language will be proposed based on the case grammar

  10. How does language change as a lexical network? An investigation based on written Chinese word co-occurrence networks (United States)

    Chen, Heng; Chen, Xinying


    Language is a complex adaptive system, but how does it change? For investigating this process, four diachronic Chinese word co-occurrence networks have been built based on texts that were written during the last 2,000 years. By comparing the network indicators that are associated with the hierarchical features in language networks, we learn that the hierarchy of Chinese lexical networks has indeed evolved over time at three different levels. The connections of words at the micro level are continually weakening; the number of words in the meso-level communities has increased significantly; and the network is expanding at the macro level. This means that more and more words tend to be connected to medium-central words and form different communities. Meanwhile, fewer high-central words link these communities into a highly efficient small-world network. Understanding this process may be crucial for understanding the increasing structural complexity of the language system. PMID:29489837

  11. The Influence of Group Formation on Learner Participation, Language Complexity, and Corrective Behaviour in Synchronous Written Chat as Part of Academic German Studies (United States)

    Fredriksson, Christine


    Synchronous written chat and instant messaging are tools which have been used and explored in online language learning settings for at least two decades. Research literature has shown that such tools give second language (L2) learners opportunities for language learning, e.g. , the interaction in real time with peers and native speakers, the…

  12. Propositional Density in Spoken and Written Language of Czech-Speaking Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (United States)

    Smolík, Filip; Stepankova, Hana; Vyhnálek, Martin; Nikolai, Tomáš; Horáková, Karolína; Matejka, Štepán


    Purpose Propositional density (PD) is a measure of content richness in language production that declines in normal aging and more profoundly in dementia. The present study aimed to develop a PD scoring system for Czech and use it to compare PD in language productions of older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and control…

  13. Computer-Assisted Learning for the Hearing Impaired: An Interactive Written Language Enviroment. (United States)

    Ward, R. D.; Rostron, A. B.


    To help hearing-impaired children develop their linguistic competence, a computer system that can process sentences and give feedback about their acceptability was developed. Suggestions are made of ways to use the system as an environment for interactive written communication. (Author/CL)

  14. From Oral Ceremony to Written Document: The Transitional Language of Anglo-Saxon Wills. (United States)

    Danet, Brenda; Bogoch, Bryna


    Presents theoretical discussion of the emergence of linguistic features of documents that indicate society is moving toward a view of writing as a form of constitutive social action and of written documents as autonomous material objects having a life of their own. Linguistic features of Anglo-Saxon wills are shown to differ from those of modern…

  15. Language Learners' Writing Task Representation and Its Effect on Written Performance in an EFL Context. (United States)

    Zarei, Gholam Reza; Pourghasemian, Hossein; Jalali, Hassan


    The present study attempts to give an account of how students represent writing task in an EAP course. Further, the study is intended to discover if learners' mental representation of writing would contribute to their written performance. During a 16-week term, students were instructed to practice writing as a problem solving activity. At almost the end of the term, they were prompted to write on what they thought writing task was like and also an essay on an argumentative topic. The results revealed that students could conceptualize the instructed recursive model of writing as a process-based, multi-dimensional and integrated activity inducing self-direction and organization while holding in low regard the product view of writing. The findings also demonstrated that task representation was related to the students' writing performance, with process oriented students significantly outperforming the product-oriented ones. Also, it was found that task representation components (ideational, linguistic, textual, interpersonal) had a significant relationship with the written performance ([Formula: see text]; Sig.: 0.006). The study can have both theoretical and practical implications with regard to the factors involving the students' writing internal processes and their effects on written performance.

  16. Attitudes of second language students towards self-editing their own written texts

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    Daniel Kasule


    Full Text Available Recognizing students’ deliberate e!orts to minimize errors in their written texts is valuable in seeing them as responsible active agents in text creation. This paper reports on a brief survey of the attitudes towards self-editing of seventy university students using a questionnaire and class discussion. The context of the study is characterized by its emphasis on evaluating the finished written product. Findings show that students appreciate the role of self-editing in minimizing errors in their texts and that it helps in eventually producing well-written texts. Conceptualizing writing as discourse and therefore as social practice leads to an understanding of writers as socially-situated actors; repositions the student writer as an active agent in text creation; and is central to student-centred pedagogy. We recommend the recognition of self-editing as a vital element in the writing process and that additional error detection mechanisms namely peers, the lecturer, and the computer, increase student autonomy.

  17. Effects of Written and Auditory Language-Processing Skills on Written Passage Comprehension in Middle and High School Students (United States)

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Bertram, Julia; Ostrowski, Adam; Michaud, Jennifer


    The authors assessed 4,865 middle and high school students for the ability to recognize and understand written and spoken morphologically simple words, morphologically complex words, and the syntactic structure of sentences and for the ability to answer questions about facts presented in a written passage and to make inferences based on those…

  18. Cross-Sensory Correspondences and Symbolism in Spoken and Written Language (United States)

    Walker, Peter


    Lexical sound symbolism in language appears to exploit the feature associations embedded in cross-sensory correspondences. For example, words incorporating relatively high acoustic frequencies (i.e., front/close rather than back/open vowels) are deemed more appropriate as names for concepts associated with brightness, lightness in weight,…

  19. Reading in Asian Languages: Making Sense of Written Texts in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth S., Ed.; Wang, Shaomei, Ed.; Iventosch, Mieko, Ed.; Goodman, Yetta M., Ed.


    "Reading in Asian Languages" is rich with information about how literacy works in the non-alphabetic writing systems (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) used by hundreds of millions of people and refutes the common Western belief that such systems are hard to learn or to use. The contributors share a comprehensive view of reading as construction…

  20. Quality assessment of structure and language elements of written responses given by seven Scandinavian drug information centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reppe, Linda Amundstuen; Spigset, Olav; Kampmann, Jens Peter


    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify structure and language elements affecting the quality of responses from Scandinavian drug information centres (DICs). METHODS: Six different fictitious drug-related queries were sent to each of seven Scandinavian DICs. The centres were blinded for wh...... on drug-related queries with respect to language and text structure. Giving specific advice and precise conclusions and avoiding too compressed language and non-standard abbreviations may aid to reach this goal....... of responses was generally judged as satisfactory to good. Presenting specific advice and conclusions were considered to improve the quality of the responses. However, small nuances in language formulations could affect the individual judgments of the experts, e.g. on whether or not advice was given. Some...... and explaining pharmacological terms to ensure that enquirers understand the response as intended. In addition, more use of active voice and less compressed text structure would be desirable. CONCLUSIONS: This evaluation of responses to DIC queries may give some indications on how to improve written responses...

  1. Development of a traceability analysis method based on case grammar for NPP requirement documents written in Korean language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeong Jae; Seong, Poong Hyun; Kim, Man Cheol


    Software inspection is widely believed to be an effective method for software verification and validation (V and V). However, software inspection is labor-intensive and, since it uses little technology, software inspection is viewed upon as unsuitable for a more technology-oriented development environment. Nevertheless, software inspection is gaining in popularity. KAIST Nuclear I and C and Information Engineering Laboratory (NICIEL) has developed software management and inspection support tools, collectively named 'SIS-RT.' SIS-RT is designed to partially automate the software inspection processes. SIS-RT supports the analyses of traceability between a given set of specification documents. To make SIS-RT compatible for documents written in Korean, certain techniques in natural language processing have been studied. Among the techniques considered, case grammar is most suitable for analyses of the Korean language. In this paper, we propose a methodology that uses a case grammar approach to analyze the traceability between documents written in Korean. A discussion regarding some examples of such an analysis will follow

  2. The history of research on the filled pause as evidence of the written language bias in linguistics (Linell, 1982). (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine


    Erard's (2004) publication in the New York Times of a journalistic history of the filled pause serves as the occasion for this critical review of the past half-century of research on the filled pause. Historically, the various phonetic realizations or instantiations of the filled pause have been presented with an odd recurrent admixture of the interjection ah. In addition, the filled pause has been consistently associated with both hesitation and disfluency. The present authors hold that such a mandatory association of the filled pause with disfluency is the product of The written language bias in linguistics [Linell, 1982] and disregards much cogent evidence to the contrary. The implicit prescriptivism of well formedness--a demand derived from literacy--must be rejected; literate well formedness is not a necessary or even typical property of spontaneous spoken discourse; its structures and functions--including those of the filled pause--are very different from those of written language The recent work of Clark and Fox Tree (2002) holds promise for moving the status of the filled pause not only toward that of a conventional word, but also toward its status as an interjection. This latter development is also being fostered by lexicographers. Nonetheless, in view of ongoing research regarding the disparate privileges of occurrence and functions of filled pauses in comparison with interjections, the present authors are reluctant to categorize the filled pause as an interjection.

  3. Computerized Writing and Reading Instruction for Students in Grades 4 to 9 With Specific Learning Disabilities Affecting Written Language (United States)

    Tanimoto, Steven; Thompson, Rob; Berninger, Virginia W.; Nagy, William; Abbott, Robert D.


    Computer scientists and educational researchers evaluated effectiveness of computerized instruction tailored to evidence-based impairments in specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in students in grades 4 to 9 with persisting SLDs despite prior extra help. Following comprehensive, evidence-based differential diagnosis for dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired word reading and spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD), students completed 18 sessions of computerized instruction over about 3 months. The 11 students taught letter formation with sequential, numbered, colored arrow cues with full contours who wrote letters on lines added to iPAD screen showed more and stronger treatment effects than the 21 students taught using only visual motion cues for letter formation who wrote on an unlined computer monitor. Teaching to all levels of language in multiple functional language systems (by ear, eye, mouth, and hand) close in time resulted in significant gains in reading and writing skills for the group and in diagnosed SLD hallmark impairments for individuals; also, performance on computerized learning activities correlated with treatment gains. Results are discussed in reference to need for both accommodations and explicit instruction for persisting SLDs and the potential for computers to teach handwriting, morphophonemic orthographies, comprehension, and composition. PMID:26858470

  4. Similarities Between Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Hearing Students' Awareness of Affective Words' Valence in Written Language. (United States)

    Li, Degao; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Xihong


    An affective priming task was used with two cohorts of college students, one deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH), the other hearing, in two experiments. The same set of affective-word targets, preceded by "※※" in Experiment 1 but by affective-word primes of the same valence as the targets in Experiment 2, were presented vertically above or below the screen center. Stimuli that preceded the targets were shown at the screen center. D/HH participants generally performed more poorly than hearing participants, but both groups performed similarly in that both did better on the positive targets than on the negative in both experiments, and on supporting metaphorical associations between valence and vertical positions (Meier & Robinson, 2004), as indicated by reaction times, in Experiment 2. The researchers concluded that D/HH and hearing college students perform similarly in developing cognition-grounded representations of affective words in written language.

  5. Analysis of the structure and operation of the level F PL/1 compiler: problems raised by the coupling of programmes written in different languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambou Sek, Jiri


    As the PL/1 programming language allows the treatment of a large range of commercial and scientific problems, it also raises specific problems for the development of a compiler on the one hand, and for the implementation of a management system within an installation comprising software written in different programming languages. The author reports the analysis of the level F PL/1 compiler developed by IBM, discusses issues related to the management of a PL/1 software within the framework of the OS/360 operating system. He reports the study of the linking conditions between PL/1 and the main existing programming languages under OS/360. He presents an interface system which allows a common exploitation of software written in different programming languages. He describes the syntax of the DECLARE statement, and its analysis by the interface system. The last part reports the generation of different data description vectors which are necessary for argument transmission [fr

  6. Adolescents' working models and styles for relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Simon, Valerie A; Shaffer, Laura; Bouchey, Heather A


    This study examined the links among adolescents' representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed three times to assess their working models for each of these types of relationships. Working models of friendships were related to working models of relationships with parents and romantic partners. Working models of relationships with parents and romantic partners were inconsistently related. A similar pattern of results was obtained for self-report measures of relational styles for the three types of relationships. Perceived experiences were also related. Specifically, support in relationships with parents tended to be related to support in romantic relationships and friendships, but the latter two were unrelated. On the other hand, self and other controlling behaviors in friendships were related to corresponding behaviors in romantic relationships. Negative interactions in the three types of relationships also tended to be related. Taken together, the findings indicate that the representations of the three types of relationships are distinct, yet related. Discussion focuses on the nature of the links among the three.

  7. [Examination of relationship between level of hearing and written language skills in 10-14-year-old hearing impaired children]. (United States)

    Turğut, Nedim; Karlıdağ, Turgut; Başar, Figen; Yalçın, Şinasi; Kaygusuz, İrfan; Keleş, Erol; Birkent, Ömer Faruk


    This study aims to review the relationship between written language skills and factors which are thought to affect this skill such as mean hearing loss, duration of auditory deprivation, speech discrimination score, and pre-school education attendance and socioeconomic status of hearing impaired children who attend 4th-7th grades in primary school in inclusive environment. The study included 25 hearing impaired children (14 males, 11 females; mean age 11.4±1.4 years; range 10 to 14 years) (study group) and 20 children (9 males, 11 females; mean age 11.5±1.3 years; range 10 to 14 years) (control group) with normal hearing in the same age group and studying in the same class. Study group was separated into two subgroups as group 1a and group 1b since some of the children with hearing disability used hearing aid while some used cochlear implant. Intragroup comparisons and relational screening were performed for those who use hearing aids and cochlear implants. Intergroup comparisons were performed to evaluate the effect of the parameters on written language skills. Written expression skill level of children with hearing disability was significantly lower than their normal hearing peers (p=0.001). A significant relationship was detected between written language skills and mean hearing loss (p=0.048), duration of auditory deprivation (p=0.021), speech discrimination score (p=0.014), and preschool attendance (p=0.005), when it comes to socioeconomic status we were not able to find any significant relationship (p=0.636). It can be said that hearing loss affects written language skills negatively and hearing impaired individuals develop low-level written language skills compared to their normal hearing peers.

  8. From Student to Entry-Level Professional: Examining the Role of Language and Written Communications in the Reacculturation of Aerospace Engineering Students. (United States)

    Pinelli, T. E.; And Others


    Argues that language and written communication play a critical role in the reacculturation process that enables individuals to make a successful transition from the academic world to a professional environment. Reports results of a mail survey examining the technical communications abilities of aerospace engineering students and the technical…

  9. A Psycholinguistic Description of the Oral and Written Language of a Selected Group of Middle School Children. (United States)

    Martellock, Helen Anna

    Six highly skilled middle school readers read aloud a story from a basal reader, then orally retold the story in their own words, wrote a version of the story, and finally read their own version aloud. Typescripts made from audio tape were compared with typescripts of the written compositions. The oral and written retellings were analyzed for…

  10. Exploring Collaborative Reverse Subtitling for the Enhancement of Written Production Activities in English as a Second Language (United States)

    Talaván, Noa; Ibáñez, Ana; Bárcena, Elena


    This article explores the effects of collaborative reverse subtitling as an activity for the promotion of writing skills in English as a second language. An initial analysis is undertaken of the pros and cons of the role of translation in second language learning historically and the role of information and communication technology in this…

  11. Translanguaging in the Borderlands: Language Function in Theatre for Young Audiences Written in Spanish and English in the United States (United States)

    Schildkret, Elizabeth


    In the United States, we tend to understand linguistic systems as separate and autonomous, and by this understanding, bilinguals are people who speak two different languages and switch between them. This understanding of bilingualism, however, does not reflect the reality of the way many bilinguals use language. Rather than "code-switch"…

  12. The structure and features of the SMS language used in the written work of Communication English I students at a university in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaka Chaka


    Full Text Available Employing an explanatory design, this study set out to investigate the morphosyntactic structures of the SMS language of Communication English I students, and the types of SMS language features used in their written work at a university of technology in South Africa. The study randomly sampled 90 undergraduate students (M = 40; F = 50 enrolled for a national diploma programme during the first academic semester in 2013. Their ages ranged from 19–22 years; they all spoke English as a second language, whilst having one of the five black South African languages as their home language. The study had two types of data: participants’ mobile phone text messages (in two sets, and their writing samples. Two of the findings of the study are: the morphological structure of the textisms used in the participants’ text messages deviated from that applicable to formal, standard English, whereas much of their syntactic structure did not; and, the frequency and proportion of textisms in participants’ writing samples were lower than that reported in studies by Freudenberg (2009 and Rosen et al. (2010.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Kaan YALÇIN (M.A.H.


    Full Text Available Language is an object realized in two ways; spokenlanguage and written language. Each language can havethe characteristics of a spoken language, however, everylanguage can not have the characteristics of a writtenlanguage since there are some requirements for alanguage to be deemed as a written language. Theserequirements are selection, coding, standardization andbecoming widespread. It is necessary for a language tomeet these requirements in either natural or artificial wayso to be deemed as a written language (standardlanguage.Turkish language, which developed as a singlewritten language till 13th century, was divided intolanguages as West Turkish and North-East Turkish bymeeting the requirements of a written language in anatural way. Following this separation and through anatural process, it showed some differences in itself;however, the policy of converting the spoken language ofeach Turkish clan into their written language -the policypursued by Russia in a planned way- turned Turkish,which came to 20th century as a few written languagesinto20 different written languages. Implementation ofdiscriminatory language policies suggested by missionerssuch as Slinky and Ostramov to Russian Government,imposing of Cyrillic alphabet full of different andunnecessary signs on each Turkish clan by force andothering activities of Soviet boarding schools opened hadconsiderable effects on the said process.This study aims at explaining that the conversionof spoken languages of Turkish societies in Russia intotheir written languages did not result from a naturalprocess; the historical development of Turkish languagewhich is shaped as 20 separate written languages onlybecause of the pressure exerted by political will; and how the Russian subjected language concept -which is thememory of a nation- to an artificial process.

  14. Speaking out on Behalf of the Voiceless Learners: Written Corrective Feedback for English Language Learners in Iran (United States)

    Nemati, Majid; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Hassan; Masjedlou, Ali Panahi


    To date, L2 researchers have studied the effect of feedback on improving L2 learners' writing from different perspectives. However, there are a lot of aspects which are not comprehensively researched yet, such as L2 learners' and teachers' perceptions and practices about feedback. To close the gap, this study investigates language learners'…

  15. Using Google as a Super Corpus to Drive Written Language Learning: A Comparison with the British National Corpus (United States)

    Sha, Guoquan


    Data-driven learning (DDL), or corpus-based language learning, involves the learner in an exploratory task to discover appropriate expressions or collocates regarding his writing. However, the problematic units of meaning in each learner's writing are so diverse that conventional corpora often prove futile. The search engine Google with the…

  16. Social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers in children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 years: who is perceived as most supportive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, C.L.; Sumter, S.R.; Westenberg, P.M.


    Age and gender differences in perceived social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers were investigated in 304 boys and 351 girls aged 9-18 years. The social support scale for children and adolescents was used for this purpose. Analyses showed that the level of perceived social

  17. Social Support from Parents, Friends, Classmates, and Teachers in Children and Adolescents Aged 9 to 18 Years: Who Is Perceived as Most Supportive? (United States)

    Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Sumter, Sindy R.; Westenberg, P. Michiel


    Age and gender differences in perceived social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers were investigated in 304 boys and 351 girls aged 9-18 years. The social support scale for children and adolescents was used for this purpose. Analyses showed that the level of perceived social support from parents and friends was similar across…

  18. The rehabilitative effects on written language of a combined language and parietal dual-tDCS treatment in a stroke case. (United States)

    De Tommaso, Barbara; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Caglio, Marcella M; D'Agata, Federico; Campagnoli, Marcello; Orsi, Laura; Raimondo, Simona; Vighetti, Sergio; Mortara, Paolo; Massazza, Giuseppe; Pinessi, Lorenzo


    In this paper we report the effect of a combined transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and speech language therapy on linguistic deficits following left brain damage in a stroke case. We show that simultaneous electrical excitatory stimulation to the left and inhibitory stimulation to the right parietal regions (dual-tDCS) affected writing and reading rehabilitation, enhancing speech therapy outcomes. The results of a comparison with healthy controls showed that application of dual-tDCS could improve, in particular, sub-lexical transcoding and, specifically, the reading of non-words with increasing length and complexity. Positive repercussions on patient's quality of functional communication were also ascertained. Significant changes were also found in other language and cognitive tasks not directly treated (comprehension and constructive apraxia).

  19. Automatic classification of written descriptions by healthy adults: An overview of the application of natural language processing and machine learning techniques to clinical discourse analysis. (United States)

    Toledo, Cíntia Matsuda; Cunha, Andre; Scarton, Carolina; Aluísio, Sandra


    Discourse production is an important aspect in the evaluation of brain-injured individuals. We believe that studies comparing the performance of brain-injured subjects with that of healthy controls must use groups with compatible education. A pioneering application of machine learning methods using Brazilian Portuguese for clinical purposes is described, highlighting education as an important variable in the Brazilian scenario. The aims were to describe how to:(i) develop machine learning classifiers using features generated by natural language processing tools to distinguish descriptions produced by healthy individuals into classes based on their years of education; and(ii) automatically identify the features that best distinguish the groups. The approach proposed here extracts linguistic features automatically from the written descriptions with the aid of two Natural Language Processing tools: Coh-Metrix-Port and AIC. It also includes nine task-specific features (three new ones, two extracted manually, besides description time; type of scene described - simple or complex; presentation order - which type of picture was described first; and age). In this study, the descriptions by 144 of the subjects studied in Toledo 18 were used,which included 200 healthy Brazilians of both genders. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a radial basis function (RBF) kernel is the most recommended approach for the binary classification of our data, classifying three of the four initial classes. CfsSubsetEval (CFS) is a strong candidate to replace manual feature selection methods.

  20. Automatic classification of written descriptions by healthy adults: An overview of the application of natural language processing and machine learning techniques to clinical discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Matsuda Toledo

    Full Text Available Discourse production is an important aspect in the evaluation of brain-injured individuals. We believe that studies comparing the performance of brain-injured subjects with that of healthy controls must use groups with compatible education. A pioneering application of machine learning methods using Brazilian Portuguese for clinical purposes is described, highlighting education as an important variable in the Brazilian scenario.OBJECTIVE: The aims were to describe how to: (i develop machine learning classifiers using features generated by natural language processing tools to distinguish descriptions produced by healthy individuals into classes based on their years of education; and (ii automatically identify the features that best distinguish the groups.METHODS: The approach proposed here extracts linguistic features automatically from the written descriptions with the aid of two Natural Language Processing tools: Coh-Metrix-Port and AIC. It also includes nine task-specific features (three new ones, two extracted manually, besides description time; type of scene described - simple or complex; presentation order - which type of picture was described first; and age. In this study, the descriptions by 144 of the subjects studied in Toledo18 were used, which included 200 healthy Brazilians of both genders.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:A Support Vector Machine (SVM with a radial basis function (RBF kernel is the most recommended approach for the binary classification of our data, classifying three of the four initial classes. CfsSubsetEval (CFS is a strong candidate to replace manual feature selection methods.

  1. Repetitive deep transcranial magnetic stimulation improves verbal fluency and written language in a patient with primary progressive aphasia-logopenic variant (LPPA). (United States)

    Trebbastoni, Alessandro; Raccah, Ruggero; de Lena, Carlo; Zangen, Abraham; Inghilleri, Maurizio


    To date, no therapies are available for the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (LPPA). Even though deep repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may improve cognitive functions in some neurodegenerative disorders, no previous studies investigated its effects in patients with LPPA. Our aim was to investigate the effects on cognitive function of high frequency rTMS (hf-rTMS) delivered over the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) through a coil designed for deep rTMS, compared to a SHAM stimulation, in a right-handed patient with LPPA. The patient presented a progressive language impairment (phonological errors in speech and naming, impaired single word retrieval and sentences repetition) and predominant left perisylvian atrophy and hypoperfusion. He received four stimulation cycles (two REAL and two SHAM) each of whom lasted 20 min for 5 consecutive days. Patient's performances in frontal, visuo-spatial and linguistic tasks were evaluated before and after each stimulation session. Test scores after REAL were compared with those obtained at baseline and after SHAM. We found a temporary and highly significant improvement in the linguistic skills (both oral and written tasks) but not in the other cognitive domains tested, after REAL, but not SHAM stimulations. Hf-rTMS delivered over the DLPFC could improve language in LPPA by enhancing long-term potentiation and synaptic plasticity within the stimulated and interconnected areas involved in language network. Our findings might prompt future researches into the feasibility and efficacy of deep hf-rTMS as a therapeutic tool in progressive aphasia syndromes and other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Digital-flight-control-system software written in automated-engineering-design language: A user's guide of verification and validation tools (United States)

    Saito, Jim


    The user guide of verification and validation (V&V) tools for the Automated Engineering Design (AED) language is specifically written to update the information found in several documents pertaining to the automated verification of flight software tools. The intent is to provide, in one document, all the information necessary to adequately prepare a run to use the AED V&V tools. No attempt is made to discuss the FORTRAN V&V tools since they were not updated and are not currently active. Additionally, the current descriptions of the AED V&V tools are contained and provides information to augment the NASA TM 84276. The AED V&V tools are accessed from the digital flight control systems verification laboratory (DFCSVL) via a PDP-11/60 digital computer. The AED V&V tool interface handlers on the PDP-11/60 generate a Univac run stream which is transmitted to the Univac via a Remote Job Entry (RJE) link. Job execution takes place on the Univac 1100 and the job output is transmitted back to the DFCSVL and stored as a PDP-11/60 printfile.

  3. Dipendenza-Indipendenza dal Campo e Linguaggio Scritto: Uno Studio su Gruppi di Studenti di Scuola Media Superiore (Field Dependence-Field Independence and the Written Language: A Study of Groups of Senior High School Students). (United States)

    Cappelletto, Anna Maria


    This article describes research carried out with 389 Italian senior high school students to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between one's written language and cognitive style. This study takes previous research in the area of field dependence and field independence in a new direction. (CFM)

  4. Social support for youth physical activity: Importance of siblings, parents, friends and school support across a segmented school day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolt Gregory S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst evidence exists for the influence of encouragement on physical activity participation, the diversity of support sources and the type of physical activity examined previously is limited. This study examined the importance of perceived encouragement from parents, siblings/cousins, friends, and schools on participation levels across three time-specific activity opportunities that are available during a school day (after-school physical activities, lunchtime activity, and active transportation to and from school. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 12–18 year old high school students (n = 3,471 were recruited from low SES schools within South Auckland, New Zealand and categorised as either Junior (Years 9–11 or Senior (Years 12 & 13 students. Participants reported their physical activity levels and quantity of encouragement received from their parent(s, friend(s, sibling(s/cousin(s, and school to be active. For each physical activity variable participants were dichotomized as being either "active" or "less active". For each social support source, participants were grouped into either receiving "high" or "low" levels of support. Binary logistic regression analyzes were conducted to calculate odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Low parental support (Juniors, OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.38–0.58; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.60 and low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.51–0.74; Seniors, OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.35–0.69 were associated with reduced odds of being regularly active after school. For lunchtime activity, low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.32–0.48; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.57 was associated with reduced odds of being categorized as active. While no variables were significantly related to active transportation among senior students, low peer support was associated with reduced odds of actively commuting for Junior students (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66–0.92. Irrespective of the activity examined, no significant difference was noted for students receiving high support from two parents than students reporting high support from their sole parent in a single parent family. Conclusion The importance of encouragement from parents, siblings, friends, and schools on physical activity is dependant on the time-specific activity examined. It is clear that proximal social networks need to be considered during the development of physical activity promotion strategies.

  5. Consciência fonológica e linguagem escrita em pré-escolares Phonological awareness and written language among preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Maluf


    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo estudar a relação entre consciência fonológica e aquisição da linguagem escrita, a partir de uma perspectiva psicogenética. Um grupo de 55 pré-escolares de 4 a 6 anos foi analisado através da aplicação individual de um instrumento elaborado pelas pesquisadoras. Os resultados mostraram uma correlação positiva bastante significativa entre os níveis de consciência fonológica e de aquisição da linguagem escrita, sobretudo no que se refere às crianças de 5 e 6 anos. Esses níveis mostraram-se correlacionados positivamente à idade e independentes do sexo dos sujeitos. Alguns níveis de consciência fonológica parecem preceder a aquisição da linguagem escrita, o que sugere a importância da realização de atividades pedagógicas voltadas para o desenvolvimento dessa capacidade em pré-escolares.This research aimed to study the relationship between phonological awareness and written language acquisition through a psychogenetic perspective. Participants were 55 preschool children of both sexes, between 4 and 6 years old. They were assessed with an instrument developed by the researcher. The results showed a positive and significant correlation between phonological awareness and literacy levels, especially for 5 and 6 years-old children. These levels were correlated positively with age and independent of the sex of the subjects. The results also pointed to the existence of different levels of phonological awareness, involving different degrees of complexity, which suggests the importance of pedagogic activities that aim to develop phonological awareness in preschool children.

  6. Relações entre processamento fonológico e linguagem escrita nos sujeitos com distúrbio específico de linguagem Relations between phonological processing and written language in subjects with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Nicolielo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar a ocorrência de alterações nas habilidades da linguagem escrita e nas habilidades do PF em criança com DEL; comparar o desempenho entre crianças com DEL e com DTL quanto às diferentes habilidades do PF; verificar se há associação entre as habilidades do Processamento Fonológico e as de linguagem escrita em crianças com DEL. MÉTODO: 40 sujeitos, sendo 20 com diagnóstico de DEL (GE e 20 com DTL (GC com idades entre 7 e 10 anos de ambos os sexos. Para avaliação das habilidades do PF foram aplicados os seguintes procedimentos: prova de repetição de não palavras para avaliação da Memória de Trabalho Fonológica, Teste de Nomeação Automatizada Rápida para avaliação do Acesso Lexical e Perfil de Habilidades Fonológicas para avaliação da Consciência Fonológica. A escrita e a leitura foram avaliadas por meio dos subtestes presentes no Teste de Análise de Leitura e Escrita (ditado e escrita espontânea; leitura de texto e de compreensão de texto, respectivamente. Para analise estatística foi utilizado o teste Qui Quadrado, sendo adotado nível de significância estatística PURPOSE: to check the occurrence of alterations in language skills and writing skills of Phonological Processing (PP in children with SLI, compare the performance between children with SLI and Typical Language Development on the different abilities of PP; check for association between PP and skills of written language in children with SLI. METHOD: 40 subjects, 20 with SLI (EG and 20 with TLD (CG aged between 7 and 10 year old for both genders. To assess the abilities of PP we applied the following tests: proof of non word repetitions to assess phonological working memory (PWM, Rapid Automated Naming test (RAN for evaluating Lexical Access (LA and Phonological Abilities Profile for assessing phonological awareness (PA. Writing and reading were evaluated using the subtests present in Test for Análising Reading and Writing Skills

  7. “Materials for the Dictionary of the Old Russian Language in the Written Records” by I.I. Sreznevskiy As the Source of Diachronic Research of the Substantive Word-Formation

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    Anastasiya Yuryevna Vekolova


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the historical research in historical aspect on word-formation based on «Materials for the dictionary of the old Russian language in the written records» by I.I. Sreznevskiy that is characterized as the most important source of lexicographical material for the diachronic research. The dictionary is the only completed lexicographical source that reflects the language in the XI-XVII cent. It includes samples of the old Slavic and the old Russian written monuments, thus demonstrating lexis from the variety of sources. Its entries represent data on lexical, in particular word building system of the Old Russian language. The significance of the «Materials for the dictionary of the old Russian language in the written records» by I.I. Sreznevskiy for the diachronic research of the substantive wordformation is proved with the system of the old Russian substantive derivatives with evaluative suffixes that was allocated in the research. Productive modification formants are revealed, their morphological characteristics are considered. Special attention is concentrated on the analysis of the suffixal frequency. On the basis of the dictionary data connotation of affixes is characterized, options of suffixes are given. It is noted that these morphemes have a positive or negative assessment. The compiler of this dictionary pays attention to the connotation. The suggested indication of the word allows defining the boundaries of suffixes. Examples of the derivatives with evaluative affixes in context are given. It is emphasized that the presence of the usage helps to systematic comprehension of the material.

  8. Subjective health complaints in adolescent victims of cyber harassment: moderation through support from parents/friends - a Swedish population-based study. (United States)

    Fridh, Maria; Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria


    Victimization in cyberspace has emerged as a new public health issue among the young. The main purpose of this study was to analyze associations between cyber victimization defined as cyber harassment (CH) (a somewhat broader concept than cyberbullying) and subjective health complaints (SHC), to study whether these associations were modified by parental/friend support (measured as communication), and to explore the influence of traditional bullying victimization (TBV) on the association between CH and SHC. The study population consisted of 8544 students in 9th grade (around 15 years old) who participated in the 2012 Scania public health survey of children and adolescents. The survey was a cross-sectional total-population study conducted in school, with a response rate of 83 %. Main and interaction (stress-buffering) effects of social support on the relationship between CH and SCH were investigated by hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, including TBV. The past-year prevalence of CH (once or several times) was 14 % among boys and 20 % among girls. Having been cyber harassed once or several times during the past year was associated with higher levels of SHC, controlling for age, parental occupation, parental origin, daily smoking, intense alcohol consumption, and disability. Among both boys and girls, the associations were stronger for CH occurring several times than for CH occurring only once. Main effects of parental/friend support were seen for both boys and girls, while stress-buffering effects were indicated for boys only. Additional analysis further adjusting for TBV did not change the associations substantially, indicating that CH has an effect of its own on SHC. Intervention programs aimed at improving the quality of peer and family relationships among children and adolescents might reduce the incidence of both cyber harassment and traditional bullying and lower the prevalence of psychosomatic complaints.

  9. Effects of transcription ability and transcription mode on translation: Evidence from written compositions, language bursts and pauses when students in grades 4 to 9, with and without persisting dyslexia or dysgraphia, compose by pen or by keyboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F. Beers


    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of transcription on translation products and processes of adolescent students in grades 4 to 9 with and without persisting specific language disabilities in written language (SLDs—WL. To operationalize transcription ability (handwriting and spelling and transcription mode (by pen on digital tablet or by standard US keyboard, diagnostic groups contrasting in patterns of transcription ability were compared while composing autobiographical (personal narratives by handwriting or by keyboarding: Typically developing students (n=15, students with dyslexia (impaired word reading and spelling, n=20, and students with dysgraphia (impaired handwriting, n=19. They were compared on seven outcomes: total words composed, total composing time, words per minute, percent of spelling errors, average length of pauses, average number of pauses per minute, and average length of language bursts. They were also compared on automaticity of transcription modes—writing the alphabet from memory by handwriting or keyboarding (they could look at keys. Mixed ANOVAs yielded main effects for diagnostic group on percent of spelling errors, words per minute, and length of language burst. Main effects for transcription modes were found for automaticity of writing modes, total words composed, words per minute, and length of language bursts; there were no significant interactions. Regardless of mode, the dyslexia group had more spelling errors, showed a slower rate of composing, and produced shorter language bursts than the typical group. The total number of words, total time composing, words composed per minute, and pauses per minute were greater for keyboarding than handwriting, but length of language bursts was greater for handwriting. Implications of these results for conceptual models of composing and educational assessment practices are discussed.

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 50: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the role of language and written communications in the reacculturation of aerospace engineering students (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.; Hecht, Laura F.


    When students graduate and enter the world of work, they must make the transition from an academic to a professional knowledge community. Kenneth Bruffee's model of the social construction of knowledge suggests that language and written communication play a critical role in the reacculturation process that enables successful movement from one knowledge community to another. We present the results of a national (mail) survey that examined the technical communications abilities, skills, and competencies of 1,673 aerospace engineering students, who represent an academic knowledge community. These results are examined within the context of the technical communications behaviors and practices reported by 2,355 aerospace engineers and scientists employed in government and industry, who represent a professional knowledge community that the students expect to join. Bruffee's claim of the importance of language and written communication in the successful transition from an academic to a professional knowledge community is supported by the responses from the two communities we surveyed. Implications are offered for facilitating the reacculturation process of students to entry-level engineering professionals.

  11. Análise do conhecimento de professores atuantes no ensino fundamental acerca da linguagem escrita na perspectiva do letramento Knowledge analysis of teachers working in elementary school on the written language from the perspective of literacy proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Berberian


    language and literacy proficiency. METHOD: data were collected through a questionnaire covering training and knowledge of written language and the concept of literacy proficiency. After signing an informed consent, people answered questionnaires individually. The statistical analysis was performed from Fisher's test at significance level of 0.05 and the Chi-squared test significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: there was no significant difference between teachers' knowledge about the concept of written language, literacy, literacy proficiency, the reasons that led to the concept of literacy incorporation in the educational system and the period of teacher training. It was predominant among teachers a conception of language as code / instrument and representation of speech (80%. Although 80% of the teachers have read texts about literacy proficiency and 84.8% identify differences between this concept and that of literacy, only 12% adequately established that differentiation. CONCLUSION: there are restrictions on teachers' knowledge about written language and therefore, limitations for the establishment of effective theory-practice associations in order to encourage meaningful reading and writing practices concerning Portuguese teaching / learning in the early grades of elementary school. The study provides evidence for the design of proposals in the field of Speech Language and Hearing Sciences focusing on education that aim the socialization of knowledge and the promotion of literacy proficiency.

  12. How Does Dissociation between Written and Oral Forms Affect Reading: Evidence from Auxiliary Verbs in Arabic (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raphiq


    In Arabic, auxiliary verbs are necessary in the written language, but absent from the oral language. This is contrary to languages such as English and French in which auxiliary verbs are mandatory in both written and oral languages. This fact was exploited to examine if dissociation between written and oral forms affects reading measures like…

  13. A dramatização como estratégia de aprendizagem da linguagem escrita para o deficiente auditivo Dramatization as a strategy in learning written language for the deaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kele Jaqueline Pinotti


    Full Text Available O deficiente auditivo tem como conseqüência de sua privação auditiva um atraso de aquisição e desenvolvimento de fala e linguagem oral. A linguagem determina o desenvolvimento lingüístico-cognitivo do indivíduo e desempenha papel imprescindível na aprendizagem, ou seja, a aprendizagem é um produto da exposição sistemática da linguagem. A aprendizagem da linguagem escrita se dá através da linguagem oral, especificamente o deficiente auditivo, terá como conseqüência um atraso tanto da leitura como da escrita, pois são produções consideradas abstratas para ele. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de verificar a possibilidade da arte de dramatizar ser um instrumento terapêutico que facilite o desenvolvimento da interpretação e compreensão de textos pelos deficientes auditivos. O trabalho foi desenvolvido com quatro deficientes auditivos, com idades de 9 a 15 anos, pacientes da Clínica do Curso de Fonoaudiologia - UNIARA. Os indivíduos foram trabalhados em três etapas: leitura do texto e resolução de um questionário individualmente, dramatização e nova resolução do questionário individualmente. Os participantes melhoraram a compreensão do texto em 100%, demonstrando ser capazes de compreender e expressar essa compreensão mesmo que com dificuldades gramaticais e sintáticas. A dramatização possibilitou ao deficiente auditivo experienciar de maneira concreta o texto, tornando-o capaz de compreender e interpretar o que não compreenderia apenas com a leitura.As a consequence of hearing loss, the deaf present delayed speech and oral language development. Language determines an individual's linguistic and cognitive development and plays an essential role in learning, that is, learning is produced through systematic exposure to language. Learning of written language is tied to verbal language, so deafness will likely result in delayed reading as well as writing, since such productions will be seen as abstract. The aim

  14. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum


    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  15. ORCODE.77: a computer routine to control a nuclear physics experiment by a PDP-15 + CAMAC system, written in assembler language and including many new routines of general interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.; McConnell, J.W.


    ORCODE.77 is a versatile data-handling computer routine written in MACRO (assembler) language for a PDP-15 computer with EAE (extended arithmetic capability) connected to a CAMAC interface. The Interrupt feature of the computer is utilized. Although the code is oriented for a specific experimental problem, there are many routines of general interest, including a CAMAC Scaler handler, an executive routine to interpret and act upon three-character teletype commands, concise routines to type out double-precision integers (both octal and decimal) and floating-point numbers and to read in integers and floating-point numbers, a routine to convert to and from PDP-15 FORTRAN-IV floating-point format, a routine to handle clock interrupts, and our own DECTAPE handling routine. Routines having specific applications which are applicable to other very similar applications include a display routine using CAMAC instructions, control of external mechanical equipment using CAMAC instructions, storage of data from an Analog-to-digital Converter, analysis of stored data into time-dependent pulse-height spectra, and a routine to read the contents of a Nuclear Data 5050 Analyzer and to prepare DECTAPE output of these data for subsequent analysis by a code written in PDP-15-compiled FORTRAN-IV



    Oana COSMAN


    The article examines the work of researchers primarily interested in the investigation of written communication in business settings. The author regards 'business discourse' as a field of study with distinct features in the domain of discourse analysis. Thus, the paper overviews the most important contributions to the development of written business discourse with a number of landmark studies. To gain a greater understanding of the written business discourse, the author also investigates some...

  17. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom (United States)

    Rockwell, Elsie


    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  18. On written expression of primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena


    Full Text Available Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. Linguistic analysis of spontaneously created written text was performed, in the conditions where it was not explicitly demanded form the pupil to write correctly. The results indicate that the majority of pupils make spelling and grammatical errors, meeting the condition for the basic level of mastering the knowledge in Serbian language according to the standards specified for the end of compulsory education. In addition to this, a considerable majority of pupils has a satisfactory level of culture of written expression. Pupils more often make spelling than grammatical errors. Seventh grade pupils are better than sixth grade pupils with respect to adhering to grammar rules and according to culture of written expression, while the mark in Serbian language and general school achievement of pupils correlate only with the degree of adhering to the orthographic rules. It was concluded that not only individual programs of support for pupils who make more errors are necessary, but also launching national projects for the development of linguistic competence of the young in Serbia.

  19. Consciência fonológica e linguagem escrita: efeitos de um programa de intervenção Phonological awareness and written language: effects of an intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José dos Santos


    Full Text Available A consciência fonológica, entendida como habilidade de reflexão e manipulação dos sons da fala, está relacionada ao êxito na aquisição da linguagem escrita. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a eficácia de um programa de intervenção para desenvolver habilidades metafonológicas e facilitar a aprendizagem da escrita em crianças falantes do português do Brasil. Participaram 90 crianças de 5 a 6 anos que frequentavam classes de alfabetização. Foi utilizado delineamento quase experimental em três fases: pré-teste, intervenção e pós-teste, com aplicação de provas às crianças. Os resultados mostraram que as habilidades metafonológicas têm papel facilitador no início do processo de aquisição da linguagem escrita e podem ser desenvolvidas por meio de programas de intervenção em diferentes condições de aplicação.The phonological awareness, understood as the ability of reflection and manipulation of speech sounds, is related to succeeding in the written language acquisition process. This research aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention program to develop metaphonological skills and aid the learning of writing for Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children. A total of 90 children between 5 and 6 years old who attended the literacy classes participated in this research. A quasi-experimental design was used in three steps: pre-test, intervention and post-test, with the application of exams to the children. The results showed that the metaphonological skills have an aiding role at the beginning of the written language acquisition process, and that they can be developed through intervention programs in different application conditions.

  20. Written Fluency Improvement in a Foreign Language (United States)

    Nguyen, Le Thi Cam


    This article reports on a study which examined the effectiveness of a 7-minute writing technique whereby students regularly wrote as much as they could in 7 minutes three times a week for a period of 10 weeks. The study was conducted with four classes of first-year and third-year students at a university in Vietnam. The study looked at the…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Figueroa Patricia


    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente ensayo surge como respuesta a una serie de reflexiones sobre el quehacer de los editores académicos que laboran en el programa de Producción de Material Didáctico Escrito (Promade de la Dirección de Producción de Materiales de Didácticos de la Universidad Estatal a Distancia (UNED. Se pretende un acercamiento al material escrito a través del lenguaje y los diferentes elementos que confluyen en su producción, como la situación comunicativa y la mediación pedagógica. Finalmente, se concluye con una serie de recomendaciones acerca de la relevancia de la adecuación del lenguaje como parte del proceso pedagógico en la producción del material didáctico.Abstract: This essay reflects on the work of the production editor of the program “Producción de Materiales Didácticos (Promade de la Universidad Estatal a Distancia (UNED”. We present, therefore, some aspects related to the production area: written materials, mainly printed and main elements, like style, that come together in its development; and other like the communicative situation and pedagogical mediation. We conclude with a series of recommendations about the relevance of an adequate language an style as part of the educational process in the production of materials.

  2. Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production (United States)

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma


    Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

  3. Next Generation Systems Languages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrisett, Greg


    The goal of this work is to explore techniques for making today's software, which is largely written in type-unsafe, low-level languages such as C, as reliable and trustworthy as code written in type...

  4. Concreteness and Imagery Effects in the Written Composition of Definitions. (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; Kealy, William A.; Goetz, Ernest T.; Paivio, Allan


    In two experiments, undergraduates (n=48 and n=50) composed written definitions of concrete and abstract nouns that were matched for frequency of use and meaningfulness. Results support previous research suggesting that common cognitive mechanisms underlie production of spoken and written language as explained by dual coding theory. (SLD)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misspellings have been a common error in the written English of non-native speakers. ... The study was done with a view to investigating whether the phonology of Kikuyu as a learner's first language and pronunciation of words in English as the second language, based on the influence of the phonology of Kikuyu affects ...

  6. Word frequencies in written and spoken English based on the British National Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey; Wilson, Andrew (All Of Lancaster University)


    Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English is a landmark volume in the development of vocabulary frequency studies. Whereas previous books have in general given frequency information about the written language only, this book provides information on both speech and writing. It not only gives information about the language as a whole, but also about the differences between spoken and written English, and between different spoken and written varieties of the language. The frequencies are derived from a wide ranging and up-to-date corpus of English: the British Na

  7. Particle Physics and Programming Languages


    Watts, Gordon


    A SeaLang meetup - a presentation discussing various programming languages used in particle physics, from pushing common modern languages a bit past where they should be pushed, to an embedded DSL, to some full blown ones written.

  8. A Comparison between Written and Spoken Narratives in Aphasia (United States)

    Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena


    The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia…

  9. Dynamic Written Corrective Feedback in Developmental Multilingual Writing Classes (United States)

    Kurzer, Kendon


    This study investigated the role of dynamic written corrective feedback (DWCF; Evans, Hartshorn, McCollum, & Wolfersberger, 2010; Hartshorn & Evans, 2015; Hartshorn et al., 2010), a mode of providing specific, targeted, and individualized grammar feedback in developmental English as a second language (ESL) writing classes (pre-first year…

  10. Shortcomings of the written survey questionnaire for discovering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I describe my reflections on using a written survey questionnaire to investigate, on a large-scale, students' perceptions of studying Xhosa as a first language in high schools. I describe the aims of the project, how the questionnaire was designed, and the problems I encountered with the analysis of the data.

  11. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry


    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  12. A written language intervention for at-risk second grade students: a randomized controlled trial of the process assessment of the learner lesson plans in a tier 2 response-to-intervention (RtI) model. (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R; Costa, Lara-Jeane C; McBee, Matthew; Anderson, Kathleen L; Yerby, Donna Carlson; Childress, Amy; Knuth, Sean B


    In a randomized controlled trial, 205 students were followed from grades 1 to 3 with a focus on changes in their writing trajectories following an evidence-based intervention during the spring of second grade. Students were identified as being at-risk (n=138), and then randomized into treatment (n=68) versus business-as-usual conditions (n=70). A typical group also was included (n=67). The writing intervention comprised Lesson Sets 4 and 7 from the Process Assessment of the Learner (PAL), and was conducted via small groups (three to six students) twice a week for 12 weeks in accordance with a response-to-intervention Tier 2 model. The primary outcome was the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II Written Expression Scale. Results indicated modest support for the PAL lesson plans, with an accelerated rate of growth in writing skills following treatment. There were no significant moderator effects, although there was evidence that the most globally impaired students demonstrated a more rapid rate of growth following treatment. These findings suggest the need for ongoing examination of evidence-based treatments in writing for young elementary students.

  13. Language to Language: Nurturing Writing Development in Multilingual Classrooms (United States)

    Shagoury, Ruth


    The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…

  14. For whom were Gospels written?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bauckham


    Full Text Available This arlcie challenges the current consensus in Gospels scholarship that each Gospel was written for a specific church or group of churches. It argues that, since all our evidence about the early Christian movement shows it to have been a network of communities in constant, close communication, since all our evidence about early Christian leaders, such as might have written Gospels, shows them to have been typically people who travelled widely around the churches, and since, moreover, the evidence we have about early Christian literature shows that it did in fact circulate rapidily and widely, the strong probability is that the Gospels were written for general circulation around all the churches.

  15. System programming languages


    Šmit, Matej


    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  16. Myanmar Language Search Engine


    Pann Yu Mon; Yoshiki Mikami


    With the enormous growth of the World Wide Web, search engines play a critical role in retrieving information from the borderless Web. Although many search engines are available for the major languages, but they are not much proficient for the less computerized languages including Myanmar. The main reason is that those search engines are not considering the specific features of those languages. A search engine which capable of searching the Web documents written in those languages is highly n...

  17. Modeling statistical properties of written text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Angeles Serrano

    Full Text Available Written text is one of the fundamental manifestations of human language, and the study of its universal regularities can give clues about how our brains process information and how we, as a society, organize and share it. Among these regularities, only Zipf's law has been explored in depth. Other basic properties, such as the existence of bursts of rare words in specific documents, have only been studied independently of each other and mainly by descriptive models. As a consequence, there is a lack of understanding of linguistic processes as complex emergent phenomena. Beyond Zipf's law for word frequencies, here we focus on burstiness, Heaps' law describing the sublinear growth of vocabulary size with the length of a document, and the topicality of document collections, which encode correlations within and across documents absent in random null models. We introduce and validate a generative model that explains the simultaneous emergence of all these patterns from simple rules. As a result, we find a connection between the bursty nature of rare words and the topical organization of texts and identify dynamic word ranking and memory across documents as key mechanisms explaining the non trivial organization of written text. Our research can have broad implications and practical applications in computer science, cognitive science and linguistics.

  18. Failure to Follow Written Procedures (United States)


    Most tasks in aviation have a mandated written procedure to be followed specifically under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 14, Section 43.13(a). However, the incidence of Failure to Follow Procedure (FFP) events continues to be a major iss...

  19. Minimal Poems Written in 1979 Minimal Poems Written in 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sirangelo Maggio


    Full Text Available The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism. The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism.

  20. Bilinguals' Existing Languages Benefit Vocabulary Learning in a Third Language. (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica


    Learning a new language involves substantial vocabulary acquisition. Learners can accelerate this process by relying on words with native-language overlap, such as cognates. For bilingual third language learners, it is necessary to determine how their two existing languages interact during novel language learning. A scaffolding account predicts transfer from either language for individual words, whereas an accumulation account predicts cumulative transfer from both languages. To compare these accounts, twenty English-German bilingual adults were taught an artificial language containing 48 novel written words that varied orthogonally in English and German wordlikeness (neighborhood size and orthotactic probability). Wordlikeness in each language improved word production accuracy, and similarity to one language provided the same benefit as dual-language overlap. In addition, participants' memory for novel words was affected by the statistical distributions of letters in the novel language. Results indicate that bilinguals utilize both languages during third language acquisition, supporting a scaffolding learning model.

  1. A precompiler written in SPITBOL applied to programs to analyze nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, K.; Croome, D.


    For an interactive data acquisition and analysis system for nuclear physics experiments a precompiler is provided to expand system specific macros in user written analysis programs. It is written with help of the string processing language SPITBOL and generates PL/I or PL-11 code. It is shown that SPITBOL is a suitable precompiler language for this kind of medium size precompile problems. (orig.)

  2. Discourse Features of Written Mexican Spanish: Current Research in Contrastive Rhetoric and Its Implications. (United States)

    Montano-Harmon, Maria Rosario


    Analyzes discourse features of compositions written in Spanish by secondary school students in Mexico, draws comparisons with those written in English by Anglo-American students in the United States, and discusses the implications of the results for teaching and evaluating composition skills in Spanish language programs. (29 references) (GLR)

  3. Papa Pig Just Left for Pigtown: Children's Oral and Written Picture Descriptions under Varying Instructions. (United States)

    De Temple, Jeanne M.; And Others


    Investigates the extent of variation in children's language performance in a picture description task arising from mode (oral or written) versus degree of demand for decontextualization. Finds that children manipulated the wide range of the oral form of the contextualized/decontextualized continuum more skillfully than the written form. Finds no…

  4. Problems of culture of written expression in primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatić Marina V.


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the issue of the culture of written expression in primary school students. Starting from the fact that teaching practices increasingly points to the fact that knowledge of rules of writing in primary school students presents the weakest link in teaching Serbian language, we sought to describe the problem, point to the possible causes, propose measures and illustrate all this on concrete examples of students' essays. Our microinvestigation showed that primary school students display considerably poorer mastery of rules of writing than previously thought, to the extent that it presents a serious obstacle in language teaching as well as in other areas of educational process.

  5. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  6. Language in America. (United States)

    Postman, Neil, Ed.; And Others

    The essays published in this collection were written in response to the basic question, "To what extent is the language of politics/advertising/psychotherapy/education/bureaucracy/etc. facilitating or impeding our chances of survival?" The general topic here is the contemporary use of language and the semantic environment in America, especially in…

  7. Sports metaphors in Polish written commentaries on politics


    Jarosław Wiliński


    This paper seeks to investigate what sports metaphors are used in Polish written commentaries on politics and what special purpose they serve. In particular, the paper examines structural metaphors that come from the lexicon of popular sports, such as boxing, racing, track and field athletics, sailing, etc. The language data, derived from English Internet websites, has been grouped and discussed according to source domains. Applying George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s approach to metaphor, the p...

  8. Language Development: Understanding Language Diversity in the Classroom (United States)

    Levey, Sandra; Polirstok, Susan


    Language Development: Understanding Language Diversity in the Classroom offers comprehensive coverage of the language development process for pre- and in-service teachers while emphasizing the factors that further academic success in the classroom, including literacy skills, phonological awareness, and narrative. With chapters written by respected…

  9. Implications of Hegel's Theories of Language on Second Language Teaching (United States)

    Wu, Manfred


    This article explores the implications of Hegel's theories of language on second language (L2) teaching. Three among the various concepts in Hegel's theories of language are selected. They are the crucial role of intersubjectivity; the primacy of the spoken over the written form; and the importance of the training of form or grammar. Applying…

  10. Talking to Texts and Sketches: The Function of Written and Graphic Mediation in Engineering Design. (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara


    Describes the author's research that explores the role of language, particularly texts, in the engineering design process. Notes that results of this case study support a new "mediated" model of engineering design as an inventional activity in which designers use talk, written language, and other symbolic representations as tools to think about…

  11. Writing in the air: A visualization tool for written languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Itaguchi

    Full Text Available The present study investigated interactions between cognitive processes and finger actions called "kusho," meaning "air-writing" in Japanese. Kanji-culture individuals often employ kusho behavior in which they move their fingers as a substitute for a pen to write mostly done when they are trying to recall the shape of a Kanji character or the spelling of an English word. To further examine the visualization role of kusho behavior on cognitive processing, we conducted a Kanji construction task in which a stimulus (i.e., sub-parts to be constructed was simultaneously presented. In addition, we conducted a Kanji vocabulary test to reveal the relation between the kusho benefit and vocabulary size. The experiment provided two sets of novel findings. First, executing kusho behavior improved task performance (correct responses as long as the participants watched their finger movements while solving the task. This result supports the idea that visual feedback of kusho behavior helps cognitive processing for the task. Second, task performance was positively correlated with the vocabulary score when stimuli were presented for a relatively long time, whereas the kusho benefits and vocabulary score were not correlated regardless of stimulus-presentation time. These results imply that a longer stimulus-presentation could allow participants to utilize their lexical resources for solving the task. The current findings together support the visualization role of kusho behavior, adding experimental evidence supporting the view that there are interactions between cognition and motor behavior.

  12. Analyse des potentialités d'un dispositif médiatisé pour les régulations pédagogiques dans la production écrite en FLE An analysis of the potential of a computer-mediated learning course for pedagogical regulation in French as a Foreign Language written productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous nous intéressons aux potentialités des outils de la communication médiatisée par ordinateur (CMO – forum et clavardage – pour les régulations pédagogiques dans la réalisation d'une macro-tâche écrite en français langue étrangère (FLE. Nous abordons la notion de tâche, les difficultés de la production écrite en FLE et les outils forum et clavardage. Nous présentons ensuite notre étude des traces de l'accompagnement de 21 tuteurs, étudiants en master FLE à l'université Blaise Pascal (Clermont 2, qui ont encadré à distance 13 apprenants chypriotes de niveau A2, dans leur écriture d'un guide de voyage à Chypre. Pour cela, nous analysons les liens entre les interactions synchrones et asynchrones des participants et le contenu de la production écrite finale. L'analyse révèle que les régulations pédagogiques efficaces des tuteurs dans le forum et le clavardage ont surtout consisté en consignes dans la phase de révision du texte, les rétroactions correctives étant presque totalement absentes de leurs interventions. Elle montre aussi que l'accompagnement articulant le mode synchrone et asynchrone a été efficace en tant qu'aide à la vérification de l'adéquation entre la production de l'apprenant et la production attendue.This paper focuses on the potential of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC tools (forum and text chat for pedagogical regulation during a written macro-task in French as a Foreign Language (FFL. In the first part, we describe the notion of a task and provide a discussion on learner difficulties concerning writing tasks in a foreign language, namely French. We also describe some characteristics of forum and text chat tools. In the second part we analyze the activity of 21 students (FFL Master's at Université Blaise Pascal who had the role of tutoring 13 French-learning Cypriot students at A2/B1 level. The latter had the task of producing a written travel guide to Cyprus

  13. 47 CFR 76.936 - Written decision. (United States)


    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.936 Written decision. (a) A franchising authority... of interested parties. A franchising authority is not required to issue a written decision that...

  14. A CDL written intercom editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, D.S.; Shirikov, V.P.


    This report contains the formalized description of the program EDITOR which is the most important part of the teleprocessing system INTERCOM driving terminals for CDC series 6000 and CYBER computers. CDL (Compiler Description language) is used for this description. EDITOR is a tool for the text file acquisition and modifications. It also gives the possibility to execute some commands to the computer software. The EDITOR independent description may be used for the implementation of EDITOR-like programmes for different types of computers (is particular, small computers)

  15. Intervenções em linguagem escrita: uma revisão da literatura com vistas à redução dos transtornos funcionais de aprendizagem Intervention in written language: a review of the literature focusing on reducing functional learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira


    writing are widely used, Brazil still faces severe problems with literacy, as revealed in literacy statistics and in the large number of students with learning disabilities. Thus, our text aims to present a survey of the research that focuses on intervention programs highlighting the needs of this group, with special attention on the use of narrative or storytelling. Specific criteria were established, the main one being the period of the publications (2000 to 2010. The results of the analysis of 15 texts showed that intervention is the most neglected area. International literature presents concerns related to scientific rigor or greater control of variables related to ongoing programs, as well as measures for generalizing the effective use of these programs, within verbal communities, with special focus on schools. Our revision enabled us to conclude that, even though production on written language is large, international literature is much more expressive with reference to intervention programs. Furthermore, in both national and international literature, production concerning the understanding of written language processes of acquisition and development prevails.

  16. Kırgız Türkçesiyle Yazılmış Olan Seyyid Battal Gazi Destanı Üzerine Bir İnceleme A Review Of Seyyid Battal Gazi Epic Written In Turkic Kyrgyz Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nurullah CİCİOĞLU


    Full Text Available Seyyid Battal Gazi became the Muslim hero of Umayyad-Byzantine wars in the process of spreading Islam. Epics about this herowere quite spread among the Turks in the process of Turkish-Byzantinestruggle which began with the conquest of Anatolia by the Turks andcontinued by their turning towards Europe. The works calledBattalnâme which contain epics about Battal Gazi were first written inAnatolia starting from XIII-XIV centuries and many copies of them inverse and prose reached to our times. It was understood that theseworks formed according to Turkish epical epic tradition were spread notonly in Anatolian area but also among the Turkish communities outsideAnatolia.In this study, a review was presented on the manuscript copies ofthe so-called "Seyitbatal Comogu" (Epic of Seyyid Battal which is in thearchives of the Kyrgyz National Academy of Sciences of Manuscripts.This copy includes the poetic text of Seyyid Battal Gazi epic written inTurkic Kyrgyz. The work is important in terms of being an example thatBattalnâme copies written in Anatolia reached the Central Asiangeography and some new texts were composed in different Turkishdialects.The names of the place and the people, the episode and motifstructure in this text, transferred to writing by Mamatkul Murataliyev,largely overlap with the existing copies in the Anatolian area. This textwas presented under the influence of Battalnâme copies written inAnatolia, and it was adapted from a Battalnâme text written in TurkicKazakh, but it was re-created to match the characteristics of the Kyrgyzepic tradition. In this way, a new text emerged with the common namesof place and people and topics and events, but the language, form, styleand elements of folklore were shaped according to the terms of thearea’s features. Seyyid Battal Gazi, İslâmiyet’in yayılma sürecinde Emevî-Bizans savaşlarının Müslüman kahramanı olarak sembolleşmiştir. Türklerin Anadolu’yu fethi ile başlayan ve

  17. An IBM 370 assembly language program verifier (United States)

    Maurer, W. D.


    The paper describes a program written in SNOBOL which verifies the correctness of programs written in assembly language for the IBM 360 and 370 series of computers. The motivation for using assembly language as a source language for a program verifier was the realization that many errors in programs are caused by misunderstanding or ignorance of the characteristics of specific computers. The proof of correctness of a program written in assembly language must take these characteristics into account. The program has been compiled and is currently running at the Center for Academic and Administrative Computing of The George Washington University.

  18. Effect of written presentation on performance in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Ballard


    Full Text Available This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students’ solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided into subfeatures. The total number of features alone explained more than 30% of the variance in exam scores and from 9% to 15% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. If all features and subfeatures are used, between 44% and 49% of the variance in exam scores is explained and between 22% and 28% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. The use of language is consistently positively correlated with both exam performance and conceptual understanding.

  19. The security analyzer: A security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.


    The Security Analyzer is a software tool capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a facility's security system. It is written in the Prolog logic programming computer language, using entity-relationship data modeling techniques. The program performs the following functions: (1) provides descriptive, locational and operational status information about intrusion detectors and assessment devices (i.e., ''sensors'' and ''cameras'') upon request; (2) provides for storage and retrieval of maintenance history information for various components of the security system (including intrusion detectors), and allows for changing that information as desired; (3) provides a ''search'' mode, wherein all paths are found from any specified physical location to another specified location which satisfy user chosen ''intruder detection'' probability and elapsed time criteria (i.e., the program finds the ''weakest paths'' from a security point of view). The first two of these functions can be provided fairly easily with a conventional database program; the third function could be provided using Fortran or some similar language, though with substantial difficulty. In the Security Analyzer program, all these functions are provided in a simple and straight-forward manner. This simplicity is possible because the program is written in the symbolic (as opposed to numeric) processing language Prolog, and because the knowledge base is structured according to entity-relationship modeling principles. Also, the use of Prolog and the entity-relationship modeling technique allows the capabilities of the Security analyzer program, both for knowledge base interrogation and for searching-type operations, to be easily expanded in ways that would be very difficult for a numeric and more algorithmically deterministic language such as Fortran to duplicate. 4 refs

  20. Feedforward: helping students interpret written feedback


    Hurford, Donna; Read, Andrew


    "Assessment for Learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners... "(Assessment Reform Group, 2002, p.2): for the Higher Education tutor, written feedback forms an integral part of this. This short article reports on teaching methods to engage students in feedback and assessment of their written work.

  1. QAL: a language for nuclear physics data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.G.


    QAL is a data-acquisition language designed to facilitate the experimental interface to the LAMPF-designed Q data-acquisition system. The language constructs available are reviewed. The language is designed around the CAMAC standard and provides experimenters a language interface to the hardware which is easy to understand. Software written in the QAL language is modular and simple to modify

  2. Hedging to save face: a linguistic analysis of written comments on in-training evaluation reports. (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shiphra; van der Vleuten, Cees; Eva, Kevin W; Lingard, Lorelei


    Written comments on residents' evaluations can be useful, yet the literature suggests that the language used by assessors is often vague and indirect. The branch of linguistics called pragmatics argues that much of our day to day language is not meant to be interpreted literally. Within pragmatics, the theory of 'politeness' suggests that non-literal language and other strategies are employed in order to 'save face'. We conducted a rigorous, in-depth analysis of a set of written in-training evaluation report (ITER) comments using Brown and Levinson's influential theory of 'politeness' to shed light on the phenomenon of vague language use in assessment. We coded text from 637 comment boxes from first year residents in internal medicine at one institution according to politeness theory. Non-literal language use was common and 'hedging', a key politeness strategy, was pervasive in comments about both high and low rated residents, suggesting that faculty may be working to 'save face' for themselves and their residents. Hedging and other politeness strategies are considered essential to smooth social functioning; their prevalence in our ITERs may reflect the difficult social context in which written assessments occur. This research raises questions regarding the 'optimal' construction of written comments by faculty.

  3. The Ruby programming language

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David


    This book begins with a quick-start tutorial to the language, and then explains the language in detail from the bottom up: from lexical and syntactic structure to datatypes to expressions and statements and on through methods, blocks, lambdas, closures, classes and modules. The book also includes a long and thorough introduction to the rich API of the Ruby platform, demonstrating -- with heavily-commented example code -- Ruby's facilities for text processing, numeric manipulation, collections, input/output, networking, and concurrency. An entire chapter is devoted to Ruby's metaprogramming capabilities. The Ruby Programming Language documents the Ruby language definitively but without the formality of a language specification. It is written for experienced programmers who are new to Ruby, and for current Ruby programmers who want to challenge their understanding and increase their mastery of the language.

  4. Sports metaphors in Polish written commentaries on politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wiliński


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate what sports metaphors are used in Polish written commentaries on politics and what special purpose they serve. In particular, the paper examines structural metaphors that come from the lexicon of popular sports, such as boxing, racing, track and field athletics, sailing, etc. The language data, derived from English Internet websites, has been grouped and discussed according to source domains. Applying George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s approach to metaphor, the paper attempts to determine both the kind of source domains from which common metaphors are drawn and to what degree structural metaphors are used. The data suggests that many structural metaphors can be found in the language of politics. They are drawn from a wide variety of sports source domains, although the domains of boxing, racing, sailing, and soccer are of particular prominence. It seems that the primary function of structural metaphors in written commentaries is to facilitate the interpretation of facts in a way that is enormously appealing to the reader.

  5. Clarity Versus Accuracy and Objectivity in Written Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė


    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyse the most important grammatical and, specifically, syntactic features and to point out some prominent lexical ones, which aim at accuracy and objectivity of a written legal document, and to discuss how these features influence clarity and transparency of the legal documents. The study covers the analysis of some EU, UK, US legislative acts alongside with some extracts from contract samples. The analysis reveals that written legal English is distinguished by long compound sentences, often with inverted word order and numerous embeddings, passive constructions and nominalisations, specific use of personal pronouns and collocations of synonyms (doublets and triplets, etc. These means allow to achieve the most possible accuracy and objectivity in legal texts but make them complicated and difficult to comprehend at once. Formality, achieved by the mentioned means, makes legal English distant from everyday language and often becomes a reason for criticism. Plain English supporters encourage simplifying legal language; however, long traditions of legal English make changes slow and difficult. Therefore, comprehension and usage of legal English still requires special knowledge of its lexical and grammatical features.

  6. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.


    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research

  7. Sign Languages of the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This handbook provides information on some 38 sign languages, including basic facts about each of the languages, structural aspects, history and culture of the Deaf communities, and history of research. The papers are all original, and each has been specifically written for the volume by an expert...

  8. Marginalia as the beginning of written culture: The Glosas Emilianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šabec


    Full Text Available The Glosas emilianenses are notes in Latin and in a Romance language dating from the eleventh century, written by an anonymous monk between the lines and in the margins of a Latin manuscript known as Codex Aemilianensis 60 to explicate syntactic, morphological, and semantic difficulties in understanding the original. The document was named after its place of origin, a monastery in the village of San Millán de la Cogolla, known as “the cradle of Castilian.” The non-Latin Romance glosses are believed to be the first written accounts of the language that later evolved into present-day Castilian or Spanish; they are therefore invaluable historical, linguistic, literary, and cultural material. The place and time of the origin of the glosses are not a coincidence, but a consequence of particular historical circumstances in the Iberian Peninsula. The Moorish invasion in 711 AD destroyed the Visigothic Kingdom and constrained the development of Christian culture, confining it to two independent cores in the north. The ninth century therefore saw the establishment of the County of Castile emerging from the two cores as the predecessor of the Kingdom of Castile (1065. Due to turbulent historical events, the place was populated by people from various adjacent and rather distant countries, thus making the spoken language a mixture of several varieties of Vulgar Latin, Mozarabic, and Navarrian (Basque elements. All of these features are reflected in the glosses in the San Millán manuscript. Therefore, it is difficult for linguists to name the variant of the Romance language the glosses were written in: “the Riojan dialect,” “a vernacular Castilian-Riojan dialect of the second half of the eleventh century displaying tendencies towards learned Latin,” or “a Riojan dialect with elements more common to neighboring dialects (Aragon, Navarrian, Léon, and Mozarabic than to Castilian.” However, because the San Millán glosses also include elements




  10. 10 CFR 2.813 - Written communications. (United States)


    ... other written communications under the regulations of this chapter is requested but not required to cite whenever practical, in the upper right corner of the first page of the submission, the specific regulation...

  11. Accurate modeling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  12. Accurate modelling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  13. Evanescent fields of laser written waveguides (United States)

    Jukić, Dario; Pohl, Thomas; Götte, Jörg B.


    We investigate the evanescent field at the surface of laser written waveguides. The waveguides are written by a direct femtosecond laser writing process into fused silica, which is then sanded down to expose the guiding layer. These waveguides support eigenmodes which have an evanescent field reaching into the vacuum above the waveguide. We study the governing wave equations and present solution for the fundamental eigenmodes of the modified waveguides.

  14. Multilingual Competences and Family Language Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Joana; Gogolin, Ingrid; Klinger, Thorsten; Schnoor, Birger


    In this paper we examine the role of family-induced linguistic input as a predictor for proficiencies in written language production of multilingual children aged 11. Our study considers their proficiencies in majority language (German) as well as in their family languages. Given that in most cases

  15. Culture and Language Teaching through Media (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Belgin; Apak, Ozlem


    The topic of teaching and learning culture has been a matter of considerable interest to language educators and much has been written about the role of culture in foreign language instruction over the past two decades. ESL students whose success in a new environment is conditioned not only by their mastery of the new language, but also, and…

  16. The Written Corrective Feedback Debate: Next Steps for Classroom Teachers and Practitioners (United States)

    Brown, Dan


    Language teachers spend much of their time providing corrective feedback on students' writing in hope of helping them improve grammatical accuracy. Turning to research for guidance, however, can leave practitioners with few concrete answers as to the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (CF). Debate in the literature continues, reflecting…

  17. An Analysis of Written Feedback on a PhD Thesis (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Stracke, Elke


    This paper offers an interim analysis of written feedback on a first draft of a PhD thesis. It first looks at two sources of data: in-text feedback and overall feedback. Looking at how language is used in its situational context, we then coded the feedback and developed a model for analysis based on three fundamental functions of speech:…

  18. South Asian Students' Needs for Cantonese and Written Chinese in Hong Kong: A Linguistic Study (United States)

    Li, David C. S.; Chuk, Joanne Y. P.


    Based on qualitative data obtained from 15 South Asian (SA) B.Ed. (EL) (Bachelor of Education in English Language) students, this study reports on SA students' difficulty in mastering Mandarin-based written Chinese and the vernacular Cantonese in Hong Kong. For convenience, SA here also refers to students whose homeland is the Philippines. Since…

  19. Webster's word power better English grammar improve your written and spoken English

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Betty


    With questions and answer sections throughout, this book helps you to improve your written and spoken English through understanding the structure of the English language. This is a thorough and useful book with all parts of speech and grammar explained. Used by ELT self-study students.

  20. The emotional importance of key: do Beatles songs written in different keys convey different emotional tones? (United States)

    Whissel, R; Whissel, C


    Lyrics from 155 songs written by the Lennon-McCartney team were scored using the Dictionary of Affect in Language. Resultant scores (pleasantness, activation, and imagery of words) were compared across key signatures using one way analyses of variance. Words from songs written in minor keys were less pleasant and less active than those from songs written in major keys. Words from songs written in the key of F scored extremely low on all three measures. Lyrics from the keys of C, D, and G were relatively active in tone. Results from Dictionary scoring were compared with assignments of character to keys made more than one century ago and with current musicians' opinions.

  1. Language Contact. (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans


    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  2. Written but not oral verbal production is preserved in young schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Salomé, Franck; Boyer, Patrice; Fayol, Michel


    The aim of this study is to discover whether the language capabilities of young schizophrenic patients are more affected in speaking than in writing or whether the disorders are equivalent in the two modes. To do this, we compared spoken and written descriptions of pictures obtained from 10 schizophrenic patients with those produced by 10 control subjects. These productions were analysed on the basis of objective indices. The syntax and coherence of the productions were evaluated by judges. The comparison of the performances of the controls and schizophrenic patients supports the hypothesis that the latter suffer from a language disorder affecting the oral mode but impacting less frequently and less severely on the written mode. These results are discussed in the light of the cognitive mechanisms which may provide an explanation of these language disorders.

  3. Interpretation of Written Contracts in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Andrews


    Full Text Available This article examines the leading principles governing interpretation of written contracts under English law. This is a comprehensive and incisive analysis of the current law and of the relevant doctrines, including the equitable principles of rectification, as well as the powers of appeal courts or of the High Court when hearing an appeal from an arbitral award. The topic of interpretation of written contracts is fast-moving. It is of fundamental importance because this is the most significant commercial focus for dispute and because of the number of cross-border transactions to which English law is expressly applied by businesses.

  4. Poling of UV-written Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Hübner, Jörg


    We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months......We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months...

  5. Oral vs. written evaluation of students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred


    In this short paper we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of oral and written evaluation of students. First in more general terms and then followed by details of what we did in our course and our experience. Finally, we outline some topics for further study and discussions......In this short paper we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of oral and written evaluation of students. First in more general terms and then followed by details of what we did in our course and our experience. Finally, we outline some topics for further study and discussions...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ÇETİNKAYA


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the errors made in written expression by the students learning Turkish as a foreign language at B2 level. The importance of the study come into focus in terms of providing a holistic description with three different standpoint by analysing students’ errors according to their linguistic, cognitive processing and communicative characteristics. This research was conducted by using content analysis method among qualitative research methods. Research group of the study is composed of 50 students who studied at B2 level at the Turkish Learning Center of Gaziantep University during 2014-2015 academic year. All of the participants’ mother tongue is Arabic and their age range is 18-26. Data were obtained by 250-300 word text that created by students. Errors in students’ texts were analyzed by 3 people, two of which are experts, according to their linguistic, cognitive processing and communicative properties. As a result of the analysis, a total of 337 errors were determined in students’ written texts. According to the linguistic properties, it was found that in total errors %15,73 were orthographic, %15,43 were lexical-semantic, %16,91 were syntactic and %51,93 were morphological errors. According to the cognitive processing properties, it was seen that of the total errors, 13,35 were omission, %14,84 were addition, %54,90 were substitution and %16,91 were permutation errors. And finally, according to the communicative properties of the total errors, %81,31 were local and %14,84 were global errors. In foreign language teaching process, teachers’ identification in terms of linguistic, cognitive processing and communication features in accordance with the principles of error analysisis can provide detailed data on the error source. The teachers’ identification of error features is important to give qualitative feedback to students’ errors. Because teacher can decide whether he should correct the

  7. Gestalt Imagery: A Critical Factor in Language Comprehension. (United States)

    Bell, Nanci


    Lack of gestalt imagery (the ability to create imaged wholes) can contribute to language comprehension disorder characterized by weak reading comprehension, weak oral language comprehension, weak oral language expression, weak written language expression, difficulty following directions, and a weak sense of humor. Sequential stimulation using an…

  8. The Effects of Selected Language Stimulation Upon the Language Skills of Hard of Hearing School Children. (United States)

    Spangenberg, Cynthia Pont

    Results of a study involving 20 hard of hearing school aged students indicated that Ss in two experimental conditions (language stimulation by Big Brothers or Big Sisters and special training in oral and written language skills with a hearing specialist) increased in the complexity of their oral language more than control Ss did. (CL)

  9. Gender Issues and Language Articulation; a Brief Look at Pros of Gender Neutral Language Articulation (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Pouria


    As with the language articulated by learners--in both oral and written form--the supremacy of a masculine language use is witnessed. This brings to light the fact that gender has been excessively an unobserved factor in the process of language teaching. Although learners are apparently used to forming masculine-centered articulation, non-sexist…

  10. 77 FR 13571 - Board of Visitors, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (United States)


    ... matters, ACCJC interactions, and a review of previous BoV recommendations. Agenda: Summary--March 21--The... Visitors, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. Date: March 21, 2012. Time of Meeting... Institute Foreign Language Center in response to the agenda. All written statements shall be submitted to...

  11. Classifying Written Texts Through Rhythmic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, Mihaela; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan


    Rhythm analysis of written texts focuses on literary analysis and it mainly considers poetry. In this paper we investigate the relevance of rhythmic features for categorizing texts in prosaic form pertaining to different genres. Our contribution is threefold. First, we define a set of rhythmic

  12. 37 CFR 251.43 - Written cases. (United States)


    ... and redirect) must be referenced. (d) In the case of a royalty fee distribution proceeding, each party... ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.43 Written cases. (a) All parties who have filed a notice of...

  13. Comparisons between written and computerised patient histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaak, Martien; Westerman, R. Frans; van Bemmel, Jan H.


    Patient histories were obtained from 99 patients in three different ways: by a computerised patient interview (patient record), by the usual written interview (medical record), and by the transcribed record, which was a computerised version of the medical record. Patient complaints, diagnostic

  14. Learners' right to freedom of written expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Learners' right to freedom of written expression. W.J. van Vollenhoven. Department of Education Management and Policy Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 South Africa Charles I. Glenn. Training and Policy Studies of the University Professors' Program, University of Boston. Although ...

  15. 34 CFR 32.9 - Written decision. (United States)


    ... the employee has submitted the financial statement and written explanation required under § 32.4(c... stating the facts supporting the nature and origin of the debt and the hearing official's analysis... determination of the existence and the amount of the overpayment or the extreme financial hardship caused by the...

  16. Increasing advertising power via written scent references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Breulmann, Svenja; Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana


    Olfactory cues in advertisements can evoke positive consumer emotions and product attitudes, yet including real scent in advertising is not always feasible. This study aimed at investigating whether written scent references could produce effects similar to real scents. Participants in online

  17. Written mathematical traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens


    Writing, as well as various mathematical techniques, were created in proto-literate Uruk in order to serve accounting, and Mesopotamian mathematics as we know it was always expressed in writing. In so far, mathematics generically regarded was always part of the generic written tradition....

  18. Evaluation of written patient educational materials in the field of diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhaenen, A.M.; Johansson, K.; Virtanen, H.; Salo, S.; Salanterae, S.; Leino-Kilpi, H.


    Aim: To evaluate the quality of written educational materials for diagnostic imaging (radiological and nuclear medicine) patients. Materials and methods: Written educational materials (n = 70) for diagnostic imaging patients were analysed. The materials were evaluated based on their external appearance (9 criteria), instructiveness (7), content (7), language and structure (8) and readability (1). Deductive content analysis was used. Quantified parts of the analyses were analysed by SAS for Windows. Dependence between criteria (32) was tested by Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: The external appearance fulfilled almost completely the criteria of good written education materials. The instructiveness was addressed clearly, except for the purpose of the material. The contents of materials dealt with bio-physiological, functional and cognitive dimensions of knowledge, while financial dimensions of knowledge were hardly dealt with at all. The language and the structure were reasonably good, but the language was partly in passive voice and the text contained strange words. Most of the education material was moderately easy to read. Conclusions: The results show that the quality of material was quite good in all dimensions. Only a small number of criteria were unsatisfactory. The results can be used to further improve written patient education materials and patient education in the imaging unit.

  19. Structured Design Language for Computer Programs (United States)

    Pace, Walter H., Jr.


    Box language used at all stages of program development. Developed to provide improved productivity in designing, coding, and maintaining computer programs. BOX system written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution.

  20. Reflecting on Language. (Reflexionando Sobre el Idioma.) (United States)

    Mazas, Jose Garcia


    Covering a 500-year span, this article traces the changes in and evolution of the Spanish language from its earliest written accounts in the eleventh century to the Spanish that was brought by the Conquistadores to the New World. (DS)

  1. Modelling SDL, Modelling Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Piefel


    Full Text Available Today's software systems are too complex to implement them and model them using only one language. As a result, modern software engineering uses different languages for different levels of abstraction and different system aspects. Thus to handle an increasing number of related or integrated languages is the most challenging task in the development of tools. We use object oriented metamodelling to describe languages. Object orientation allows us to derive abstract reusable concept definitions (concept classes from existing languages. This language definition technique concentrates on semantic abstractions rather than syntactical peculiarities. We present a set of common concept classes that describe structure, behaviour, and data aspects of high-level modelling languages. Our models contain syntax modelling using the OMG MOF as well as static semantic constraints written in OMG OCL. We derive metamodels for subsets of SDL and UML from these common concepts, and we show for parts of these languages that they can be modelled and related to each other through the same abstract concepts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utesheva Altynay Pazylovna


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the features of written Russian speech of labor migrants from different countries considering the norms of written speech. The empirical basis of the research is represented by the handwritten CVs of unemployed migrants from Vietnam and Uzbekistan, that were presented to the departments of the Federal Migration Service of the Russian Federation in the city of Volgograd. Written speech violations are classified according to the age groups which migrants belong to. The following sociolinguistic characteristics of the migrants are also taken into account: nationality, period of school education, higher education, document writing competence. Group 1 combined informants aged from 20 to 30, without higher education, who studied the Russian language at school in the new period of the collapse of the Soviet Union procedures or on their own. It is an educational institution with no experience compiling official documents and communication skills in Russian. Group 2 combined informants aged from 30 to 50, without higher education, who studied Russian at school by Soviet methods with experience of drawing up official documents and possessing basic communication skills to communicate in Russian. Group 3 combined informants aged 50 and older with secondary special education, who studied Russian at school by Soviet methods and actively developed communicative competence at the expense of everyday communication, reading books, listening to the radio and watching programs in Russian, with experience in drafting official documents. The features of migrants' written speech are manifested in specific language and speech mistakes, particularly in graphic, phonetic and genre rules violations. The general patterns of mistakes are registered. The mistakes are caused not only by language transfer and the Russian language competence, but also by sociolinguistic factors. The particular cross-language differences of migrants writing are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Đorđev


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research conducted with the primary objective to determine in which areas secondary school students usually make orthographic mistakes when writing (official written assignments. Starting from the hypothesis that the punctuation writing of whole and split words are areas in which secondary school students (regardless of age and school orientation achieved the weakest achievements an (exploratory research was conducted on a corpus of 3,135 written assignments written in the school year of 2010/11. The research sample was intentional, descriptive and analytical methods were used for the description and the analysis of the results. The results showed the following (1 secondary school students usually make mistakes in punctuation of written assignments - we recorded 4,487 errors in the use of signs to denote intonation and meaning of a text (errors of this type make 53.93% of the total number of spelling errors reported in the corpus of research; by frequency of errors the second are errors related to writing whole and split words (11.02%, the third error is in the use of the capital letter (9.34%; (2 most problems in orthography have second grade students, quantum of mistakes is almost the same with first graders and seniors, but in all grades the most frequent errors are in punctuation, writing of whole and split words and the use of capital letters; (3 Although school orientation affects the spelling skills of pupils, the weakest orthographic achievements are also recorded in punctuation, writing of whole and split words and capitalization, so those are areas that need to be thoroughly addressed in teaching and methodology literature. The results are, on the one hand, a picture of the current status of teaching orthography and grammar knowledge of secondary school students. On the other hand, the research results can be applied in all phases of methodical practical work in teaching orthography, the upgrading the

  4. Language Revitalization. (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne


    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fitze


    Full Text Available This study was a comparative investigation of face-to-face and written electronic conferences. The participants were advanced English as a second language (hereafter: ESL students. The two types of conferences were compared in terms of textual features and participation. There was no statistically significant difference in the total number of words that students produced in an equivalent amount of time in the two types of conferences. The discourse in written electronic conferences displayed greater lexical range, and students in these conferences produced more discourse demonstrating interactive competence. The statistically significant finding of increased lexical range in written electronic conferences persisted even when the interactive discourse was eliminated from the conference transcripts and the transcripts were reanalyzed. This finding suggests that, during written electronic conferences, students were better able to use and practice a wider range of vocabulary related to the topics. For one of the groups, participation in written electronic conferences was more balanced among students, while for the other group participation was about equally balanced regardless of the conference setting. This last finding came as a surprise and points to a need for further research into variables that might mediate balanced participation in face-to-face and written electronic conferences.

  6. Written narrative practices in elementary school students. (United States)

    Romano-Soares, Soraia; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia


    Promotion of a written narratives production program in the third grade of an Elementary School. To analyze two written narrative practice proposals in order to verify which resources are more efficient in benefitting the textual productions of third grade Elementary School students. Sixty students were selected from two third grade groups of a public Elementary School in São Paulo (Brazil). For the analysis, students were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Fourteen children's storybooks were used. In Group A, the story was orally told by the researchers in a colloquial manner, keeping the narrator role and the original structure proposed by the author. In Group B, the story was fully read. The book was projected onto a screen and read aloud so the students could follow the reading and observe the corresponding illustrations. Voice changing resources in the characters' dialogues were used. In the overall comparison, statistically significant results were found for moment (initial and final assessments) and for interaction between groups. It was observed that both groups presented substantial development from initial to final assessment. The Written Narratives Promotion Program based on the shared reading of children's storybooks constituted a more effective strategy than telling the stories using a single reader.

  7. Language Planning and Planned Languages: How Can Planned Languages Inform Language Planning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Tonkin


    Full Text Available The field of language planning (LP has largely ignored planned languages. Of classic descriptions of LP processes, only Tauli (preceded by Wüster suggests that planned languages (what Wüster calls Plansprache might bear on LP theory and practice. If LP aims "to modify the linguistic behaviour of some community for some reason," as Kaplan and Baldauf put it, creating a language de novo is little different. Language policy and planning are increasingly seen as more local and less official, and occasionally more international and cosmopolitan. Zamenhof's work on Esperanto provides extensive material, little studied, documenting the formation of the language and linking it particularly to issues of supranational LP. Defining LP decision-making, Kaplan & Baldauf begin with context and target population. Zamenhof's Esperanto came shortly before Ben-Yehuda's revived Hebrew. His target community was (mostly the world's educated elite; Ben-Yehuda's was worldwide Jewry. Both planners were driven not by linguistic interest but by sociopolitical ideology rooted in reaction to anti-Semitism and imbued with the idea of progress. Their territories had no boundaries, but were not imaginary. Function mattered as much as form (Haugen's terms, status as much as corpus. For Zamenhof, status planning involved emphasis on Esperanto's ownership by its community - a collective planning process embracing all speakers (cf. Hebrew. Corpus planning included a standardized European semantics, lexical selectivity based not simply on standardization but on representation, and the development of written, and literary, style. Esperanto was successful as linguistic system and community language, less as generally accepted lingua franca. Its terminology development and language cultivation offers a model for language revival, but Zamenhof's somewhat limited analysis of language economy left him unprepared to deal with language as power.

  8. Home language shift and its implications for Chinese language teaching in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li


    Full Text Available In a bilingual society like Singapore, home language environment (HLE of Singaporean children is becoming increasingly concerned, especially for those who are yet to have formal education in schools. The reported rapid shift of family language has increased the tensions among families, schools and communities. This study examined some of the many facets of Singaporean Chinese preschoolers’ HLE, and further discussed how these facets are related to children’s Chinese language proficiency in oral and written forms. Three hundred and seventy-six Singaporean Chinese six-year olds completed Chinese oral and written language proficiency screening. Their parents completed a HLE survey. The findings revealed the possible trend of home language shift from Mandarin Chinese to English in the younger generation. Aside from home language use factors, the importance of other facets that form a rich language environment is also highlighted for children's language development.

  9. The Structure and Contents of the English Written Entry Examination as a Major Subject at the Department of Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Евгеньевна Боброва


    Full Text Available The author of the article has been writing English entry examinations for PFUR for over a decade. In this article she analyses the structure and contents of the English language entry examination for prospective students of Linguistics at the Faculty of Philology. The requirements for the entry written test are set by the State standards of complete secondary education for foreign languages at the level of a major subject. The PFUR entry examination has always been written in accordance with recommendations of the Education and Science Ministry and the Federal Institute of Pedagogical Assessment.

  10. Into the Curriculum. Interdisciplinary: Celebrating Our Animal Friends: An Across-the-Curriculum Unit for Middle Level Students [and] Music: Program Notes [and] Reading-Language Arts: Letters: Written, Licked, and Stamped [and] Science: Plants in Families [and] Science: Physics and Holiday Toys (Gravity) [and] Social Studies: Learning about Geography through Children's Literature. (United States)

    Gillen, Rose; And Others


    Presents six curriculum guides for elementary and secondary education. Subjects include interdisciplinary instruction, music, reading/language arts, science, and social studies. Each guide provides library media skills objectives, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedures for completion, a…

  11. Communication Strategies in the Written Medium (United States)

    Xhaferi, Brikena


    The field of second language acquisition has distinguished between two types of strategies: learning strategies and communication strategies. Learning strategies deal with the receptive domain of intake, memory, storage, and recall. Communication strategies pertain to the employment of verbal and nonverbal mechanisms for the productive…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rochmawati


    Full Text Available Understanding verbal jokes in English is problematic for English as Foreign Language (EFL readers since understanding the jokes requires understanding their linguistic, cultural and social elements. Since a joke constitutes a complex and paradoxical phenomenon, it needs multiple approaches of analyses—such as pragmatic and rhetorical analyses—in order to investigate the multiple layers of meanings it carries. Recently there has been a shift in humor studies, emphasizing linguistic humors and involving the field of rhetoric. These studies, however, have mostly addressed the connection between rhetoric and spoken jokes in persuasion. The present study therefore applied Austin’s Speech Act Theory (1975 and Grice’s Cooperative Principles (1957, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques (1993 to crack the funniness of the written jokes. Specifically, the study aims at describing: how the (1 rhetorical and (2 pragmatic strategies are used in the jokes, and (3 how the pragmatic and rhetorical strategies complement to create humor. The study employed a qualitative research method. Some jokes were purposively selected from the Reader’s Digest and two online sources:, and Document studies were the means of data collection. The collected data were then analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. The results showed that that there was a relationship between the two pragmatic theories, i.e., Speech Act Theory and Cooperative Principles, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques. The results offered an alternative reading and richer understanding of how written jokes employed pragmatic and rhetorical strategies to advance their rhetorical objectives and humor functions.

  13. Basic Color Terms in Estonian Sign Language (United States)

    Hollman, Liivi; Sutrop, Urmas


    The article is written in the tradition of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's theory of basic color terms. According to this theory there is a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms of any given language are always drawn. The number of basic color terms varies from 2 to 11 and in a language having a fully…

  14. Answer Markup Algorithms for Southeast Asian Languages. (United States)

    Henry, George M.


    Typical markup methods for providing feedback to foreign language learners are not applicable to languages not written in a strictly linear fashion. A modification of Hart's edit markup software is described, along with a second variation based on a simple edit distance algorithm adapted to a general Southeast Asian font system. (10 references)…

  15. Focus: Composition and Language Study, K-6. (United States)

    Stewart, Donald, Ed.


    This issue of "Kansas English" focus on composition and language study, kindergarten through grade six. The articles and authors are "Evaluating Process and Product in Children's Writing" by Robert L. Hillerich, "Written Language Development and Instruction of Elementary School Children" by Lester S. Golub, "From a Reading Desk" by Myrline…

  16. Multimedia: How to Combine Language and Visuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Horz


    Full Text Available In the last decade, advanced computer technology has allowed for development of information systems and learning environments that combine language with other forms of human communication in innovative ways. Language in the form of written texts, for example, can be combined not only with static pictures or graphs as in printed material, but also with animation or video.

  17. PILOT: A Programming Language for Beginners. (United States)

    Schnorr, Janice M.

    The presentation describes PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching), a special programing language easy for beginners to learn and available for several brands of microcomputers. PILOT is explained to contain substantially fewer commands than most other languages and to be written in an easy to understand manner. Edit commands and their…

  18. Is handwriting constrained by phonology? Evidence from Stroop tasks with written responses and Chinese characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eDamian


    Full Text Available To what extent is handwritten word production based on phonological codes? A few studies conducted in Western languages have recently provided evidence showing that phonology contributes to the retrieval of graphemic properties in written output tasks. Less is known about how orthographic production works in languages with non-alphabetic scripts such as written Chinese. We report a Stroop study in which Chinese participants wrote the colour of characters on a digital graphic tablet; characters were either neutral, or homophonic to the target (congruent, or homophonic to an alternative (incongruent. Facilitation was found from congruent homophonic distractors, but only when the homophone shared the same tone with the target. This finding suggests a contribution of phonology to written word production. A second experiment served as a control experiment to exclude the possibility that the effect in Experiment 1 had an exclusively semantic locus. Overall, the findings offer new insight into the relative contribution of phonology to handwriting, particularly in non-Western languages.

  19. Politeness strategies in written communications: the issue of Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimkhanlooei Giti


    Full Text Available The approximation of the pragmatic knowledge of English language learners to native speakers has been a realm of concern for the scholars and researchers in applied linguistics. Thus, this research was an endeavor to figure out the association between the proficiency level and politeness strategies and external/internal modifications in written communication skills in the speech act of requests in Iranian English language learners. To this end, a written Discourse Completion Test (DCT, adapted from Rose (1994, including 8 situations was administered to elicit data from Iran Language Institute120 female and male EFL learners, 60 upper-intermediate and 60 intermediate. The data were sorted out using Brown and Levinson’s politeness strategies taxonomy (Brown and Levinson 1987 and external/internal modifications developed by Faerch and Kasper (1989. The written request utterances provided by each participant were analyzed in terms of frequency and types of politeness strategies, namely, positive, negative, bald on record, and off-record as well as external/internal modifications utilized in requests. The Pearson Chi-Square test results revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between upper-intermediate and intermediate learners’ type of politeness strategies and external/internal modifications.

  20. Written argument underlying the Brokdorf verdict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In December 1979, the Schleswig administrative court delivered its judgment (AZ.: 10 A 512/76) against the plaintiffs (four neighbouring communities and nine individuals), who had brought in an action against the first part-construction permit for the Brokdorf nuclear power plant, issued on October 25, 1976. In mid-march 1980, the written argument underlying this court ruling (58 pages) has been sent out. The written argument conscientiously explains the reasoning of the court which delivered its verdict after several days of oral proceedings in October and November 1979, and clearly states the position of the court with regard to the limits of control by administrative jurisdiction as well as to the controversial legal problem of whether there is a lawful connection between the licensing in accordance with section 7, sub-section 2 of the AtG (Atomic Energy Act) and sufficient nuclear waste management provisions according to section 9a AtG. The court ruling declared the action to be substantially admissible but hot well-founded. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Written culture: reading pratices and printed book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Eugenia Cavalcante


    Full Text Available The history of the written culture and the reading practices is the subject argued in this article. It aims at to understand the trajectory of the printed book in its materiality, as well as the processes delineated from the undisputed cultural presence and politics of this support for the modern society. Search to evidence the reading practices, the phenomena and the mutations that fortify such support per centuries, approaching the “book crisis”, its causes and effects. Therefore, it deals with the particularitities of the written culture, that if they had accomplished in the Siècle des Lumières and if they had consecrated in “acting” of the spirit of the authors and the readers of that time, whose propagation influenced the western person. It analyzes the sociological and historical conditions of the place of the modern reader between Science, Philosophy and Romance, continuously transformed for the renewal of the thought and the culture.

  2. Designing Surveys for Language Programs. (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    A discussion of survey methodology for investigating second language programs and instruction examines two methods: oral interviews and written questionnaires. Each method is defined, and variations are explored. For interviews, this includes individual, group, and telephone interviews. For questionnaires, this includes self-administered and…

  3. Aphasia, an acquired language disorder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 11, 2009 ... In this article we will review the types of aphasia, an approach to its diagnosis, aphasia subtypes, rehabilitation and prognosis. ... language processing in both the written and spoken forms.6 ... The angular gyrus (Brodman area 39) is located at the .... of his or her quality of life, emotional state, sense of well-.

  4. Moving conceptualizations of language and literacy in SLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    in various technological environments, we see an increase in scholarship that highlights the mixing and chaining of spoken, written and visual modalities and how written and visual often precede or overrule spoken language. There seems to be a mismatch between current day language practices......, in language education and in language practices. As a consequence of this and in the light of the increasing mobility and linguistic diversity in Europe, in this colloquium, we address the need for a (re)conceptualization of the relation between language and literacy. Drawing on data from different settings...

  5. Language Editing at Astronomy & Astrophysics (United States)

    Adams, J.


    In 2002, the A&A Board of Directors voted that all articles must be written in English and decided to improve the overall quality of the language in the articles with the help of a team of language editors. This article reviews the general advantages of editing the English expression and describes both the aims of this effort and its place in the full publication process. This is followed by the Guide to language editing that has been available on the Journal's website for several years now.

  6. Automatically Detecting Authors’ Native Language (United States)


    exploring stylistic idiosyncrasies in the author’s writing [15]. Kop- pel used the data from International Corpus of Learner English version 1, which is... stylistic feature sets such as function words, letter n-grams, and er- rors and idiosyncrasies [15]. 1. Function words: 400 specific function words were...language on the choice of written second language words. Proceedings of the Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computation Language Acquisition, pp. 9–16

  7. Unsupervised Language Acquisition (United States)

    de Marcken, Carl


    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  8. Analysis of children's narrative written by women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Sánchez-Pinilla


    Full Text Available Our work tries to approach the study of a corpus of children’s literature published in the adults’ Spanish press during the period from 1920 to 1939 and whose authorship is feminine. It’s fundamental aims, are therefore, to make this production visible; to analyze the different aesthetic and ideological propacals formalised in this writing and reintegrate this artistic production into the literary system which it took place, since it is born inside of this and they are the subsequent historical circumstances that isolate it and turn it into a minor writing. The work is constituted in three phases: women authors who publish in the last third of the nineteenth century; authors who published between 1900 and 1920, and authors writing between 1920 and 1939. The areas for which these women produced are are the school, the family, the woman’s associacions, the editorial, the wold of drawing, and the written press.

  9. 47 CFR 1.355 - Documents in foreign language. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documents in foreign language. 1.355 Section 1... Proceedings Evidence § 1.355 Documents in foreign language. Every document, exhibit, or other paper written in a language other than English, which shall be filed in any proceeding, or in response to any order...

  10. Oracle Bones and Mandarin Tones: Demystifying the Chinese Language. (United States)

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Project on East Asian Studies in Education.

    This publication will provide secondary level students with a basic understanding of the development and structure of Chinese (guo yu) language characters. The authors believe that demystifying the language helps break many cultural barriers. The written language is a good place to begin because its pictographic nature is appealing and inspires…

  11. The Relationship between Oral and Written Narratives: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study of Narrative Cohesion, Coherence, and Structure (United States)

    Pinto, Giuliana; Tarchi, Christian; Bigozzi, Lucia


    Background: The relationship between oral language and the writing process at early acquisition stages and the ways the former can enhance or limit the latter has not been researched extensively. Aims: The predictive relationship between kindergarten oral narrative competence and the first- and second-grade written narrative competence was…

  12. Written Corrective Feedback in L2 Writing: Connors & Lunsford (1988); Lunsford & Lunsford (2008); Lalande (1982) Dana Ferris (United States)

    Ferris, Dana


    Written corrective feedback (CF) has been the most heavily researched topic in second language (L2) writing over the past 20 years. As a recent research timeline article in this journal (Ferris 2012; see also Bitchener & Ferris 2012) shows, studies of error correction in student writing have crossed disciplines (composition and rhetoric,…

  13. Effectiveness of a Heritage Educational Program for the Acquisition of Oral and Written French and Tahitian in French Polynesia (United States)

    Nocus, Isabelle; Guimard, Philippe; Vernaudon, Jacques; Paia, Mirose; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Florin, Agnes


    The research examines the effects of a bilingual pedagogical program (French/Tahitian) on the acquisition of oral and written French as well as the Tahitian language itself in primary schools in French Polynesia. 125 children divided into an experimental group (partially schooled in Tahitian for 300 min per week) and a control group (schooled in…

  14. Syllable frequency and word frequency effects in spoken and written word production in a non-alphabetic script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfang eZhang


    Full Text Available The effects of word frequency and syllable frequency are well-established phenomena in domain such as spoken production in alphabetic languages. Chinese, as a non-alphabetic language, presents unique lexical and phonological properties in speech production. For example, the proximate unit of phonological encoding is syllable in Chinese but segments in Dutch, French or English. The present study investigated the effects of word frequency and syllable frequency, and their interaction in Chinese written and spoken production. Significant facilitatory word frequency and syllable frequency effects were observed in spoken as well as in written production. The syllable frequency effect in writing indicated that phonological properties (i.e., syllabic frequency constrain orthographic output via a lexical route, at least, in Chinese written production. However, the syllable frequency effect over repetitions was divergent in both modalities: it was significant in the former two repetitions in spoken whereas it was significant in the second repetition only in written. Due to the fragility of the syllable frequency effect in writing, we suggest that the phonological influence in handwritten production is not mandatory and universal, and it is modulated by experimental manipulations. This provides evidence for the orthographic autonomy hypothesis, rather than the phonological mediation hypothesis. The absence of an interaction between word frequency and syllable frequency showed that the syllable frequency effect is independent of the word frequency effect in spoken and written output modalities. The implications of these results on written production models are discussed.

  15. 29 CFR 100.610 - Written demand for payment. (United States)


    ... Procedures § 100.610 Written demand for payment. (a) The NLRB will promptly make written demand upon the debtor for payment of money or the return of specific property. The written demand for payment will be... late charges will be 60 days from the date that the demand letter is mailed or hand-delivered. (b) The...

  16. Oral and Literate Strategies in Spoken and Written Narratives. (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah


    Discusses comparative analysis of spoken and written versions of a narrative to demonstrate that features which have been identified as characterizing oral discourse are also found in written discourse and that the written short story combines syntactic complexity expected in writing with features which create involvement expected in speaking.…

  17. Use of spoken and written Japanese did not protect Japanese-American men from cognitive decline in late life. (United States)

    Crane, Paul K; Gruhl, Jonathan C; Erosheva, Elena A; Gibbons, Laura E; McCurry, Susan M; Rhoads, Kristoffer; Nguyen, Viet; Arani, Keerthi; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon


    Spoken bilingualism may be associated with cognitive reserve. Mastering a complicated written language may be associated with additional reserve. We sought to determine if midlife use of spoken and written Japanese was associated with lower rates of late life cognitive decline. Participants were second-generation Japanese-American men from the Hawaiian island of Oahu, born 1900-1919, free of dementia in 1991, and categorized based on midlife self-reported use of spoken and written Japanese (total n included in primary analysis = 2,520). Cognitive functioning was measured with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scored using item response theory. We used mixed effects models, controlling for age, income, education, smoking status, apolipoprotein E e4 alleles, and number of study visits. Rates of cognitive decline were not related to use of spoken or written Japanese. This finding was consistent across numerous sensitivity analyses. We did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that multilingualism is associated with cognitive reserve.

  18. Alaska Native Languages: Past, Present, and Future. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers No. 4. (United States)

    Krauss, Michael E.

    Three papers (1978-80) written for the non-linguistic public about Alaska Native languages are combined here. The first is an introduction to the prehistory, history, present status, and future prospects of all Alaska Native languages, both Eskimo-Aleut and Athabaskan Indian. The second and third, presented as appendixes to the first, deal in…

  19. Juggling Languages: A Case Study of Preschool Teachers' Language Choices and Practices in Mauritius (United States)

    Auleear Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah


    Mauritius is a linguistically diverse island: most people on the island are native speakers of Mauritian Creole, a French-lexified Creole; English is the written medium of instruction in primary schools and French is taught as a compulsory subject. The discontinuity between the home language and the school languages is viewed as problematic by…

  20. An Investigation of Chinese Students’ Acquisition of Oral and Written English through the Measurement of Processability Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang


    Full Text Available Processability Theory (PT believes that L2 learner can not understand and produce those linguistic forms which are beyond the current stage of the language processor (Pienemann, 2007. Based on the understanding of the architecture of the language processor and how L2 is acquired under it, teachers can not only better predict the learners’ L2 developmental stages, explain the learners’ acquiring variations, but also indicate some constructive and objective guidelines for L2 teaching. So this study adopts the hierarchy of processing procedures applied to English (Pienemann, 1998 as the instrument to explore the two aspects of the English language acquisition. The final results support that Chinese college students’ written English is better than their oral English. Besides, there is indeed a positive relationship between Chinese college students’ written and oral English.

  1. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.


    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  2. Dynamical Languages (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  3. Brain correlates of constituent structure in sign language comprehension. (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio; Limousin, Fanny; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pallier, Christophe


    During sentence processing, areas of the left superior temporal sulcus, inferior frontal gyrus and left basal ganglia exhibit a systematic increase in brain activity as a function of constituent size, suggesting their involvement in the computation of syntactic and semantic structures. Here, we asked whether these areas play a universal role in language and therefore contribute to the processing of non-spoken sign language. Congenitally deaf adults who acquired French sign language as a first language and written French as a second language were scanned while watching sequences of signs in which the size of syntactic constituents was manipulated. An effect of constituent size was found in the basal ganglia, including the head of the caudate and the putamen. A smaller effect was also detected in temporal and frontal regions previously shown to be sensitive to constituent size in written language in hearing French subjects (Pallier et al., 2011). When the deaf participants read sentences versus word lists, the same network of language areas was observed. While reading and sign language processing yielded identical effects of linguistic structure in the basal ganglia, the effect of structure was stronger in all cortical language areas for written language relative to sign language. Furthermore, cortical activity was partially modulated by age of acquisition and reading proficiency. Our results stress the important role of the basal ganglia, within the language network, in the representation of the constituent structure of language, regardless of the input modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of Written Expression Skills of University Students in Terms of Text Completion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir KIRBAŞ


    Full Text Available Writing is to transfer the visualised ideas on the paper. Writing, one of the language skills, is a significant tool of communication which provides the permanency of information conveying emotions and thoughts. Since writing has both cognitive and physical aspects, it makes writing the hardest and the latest language skill to improve. The studies show that writing activity is the most difficult skill students have difficulty. In higher education, in order to improve writing skills of students and give basic information and skills about writing skills written expression, composition and writing education lessons are taught both in the department of Turkish Language and Literature and in the departments of Turkish Language in the Faculties of Education. One of the aims of these lessons is to teach students written expression techniques together with the purposes and practices. One of the written expression techniques is text completion skill that improves student’s creativity and enhances her/his imaginary world. The purpose of this study is to assess students’ skills of using text completion technique with reference to the writing studies of students in higher education. the sample of the study consists of 85 college students studying in the department of Turkish Language and Literature in Gümüşhane University in 2016-2017 academic year. The data of the study were obtained from the written expression studies of the students. The introduction part of the article ‘On Reading’ by F. Bacon was given to the students and they were required to complete the text. ‘Text Completion Rating Scale in Writing Expression’ was developed to assess the data of the study by taking opinions of lecturers and Turkish education experts. The data of the study were presented with percentage and frequency rates. At the end of the study, it was concluded that students had weakness in some skills such as writing an effective body part about the topic given

  5. The Use of Direct Spelling Instruction for Children with Language Impairment (United States)

    Good, Joy E.; Lance, Dee M.; Rainey, Jacquie


    Children with language impairment frequently struggle with written language skills such as spelling. With their expertise in language, speech-language pathologists are in the position to promote the development of such skills. One way to do this is through the use of direct spelling instruction which has been shown to facilitate growth in a number…

  6. Cascaded processing in written compound word production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eBertram


    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  7. Cascaded processing in written compound word production. (United States)

    Bertram, Raymond; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Strömqvist, Sven; Hyönä, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka


    In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun) Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  8. Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Joseph P; McCary, John


    This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation. The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro

  9. Text Comprehension Mediates Morphological Awareness, Syntactic Processing, and Working Memory in Predicting Chinese Written Composition Performance (United States)

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Wagner, Richard K.; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan


    The goal of the present study was to test opposing views about four issues concerning predictors of individual differences in Chinese written composition: (a) Whether morphological awareness, syntactic processing, and working memory represent distinct and measureable constructs in Chinese or are just manifestations of general language ability; (b) whether they are important predictors of Chinese written composition, and if so, the relative magnitudes and independence of their predictive relations; (c) whether observed predictive relations are mediated by text comprehension; and (d) whether these relations vary or are developmentally invariant across three years of writing development. Based on analyses of the performance of students in grades 4 (n = 246), 5 (n = 242) and 6 (n = 261), the results supported morphological awareness, syntactic processing, and working memory as distinct yet correlated abilities that made independent contributions to predicting Chinese written composition, with working memory as the strongest predictor. However, predictive relations were mediated by text comprehension. The final model accounted for approximately 75 percent of the variance in Chinese written composition. The results were largely developmentally invariant across the three grades from which participants were drawn. PMID:25530630

  10. The necessity of cultural knowledge during the foreign language studies


    Kroteva, Marijana; Mirascieva, Snezana


    The aim of this paper is to present the significance and introduction of cultural studies in the curricula for foreign language studies. Although the main focus in the paper is pointed to English as the most dominant language in the world today, the paper is primarily intended and refers to all the languages. Section two consists of the aspects and reasons for the necessity of introducing the cultural studies in the foreign language curricula. Section three is written upon the research result...

  11. Testing knowledge of whole English collocations available for use in written production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revier, Robert Lee


    Testing knowledge of whole English collocations available for use in written production: Developing tests for use with intermediate and advanced Danish learners (dansk resume nedenfor) The present foreign language acquisition research derives its impetus from four assumptions regarding knowledge...... of English collocations. These are: (a) collocation knowledge can be conceptualized as an independent knowledge construct, (b) collocations are lexical items in their own right, (c) testing of collocation knowledge should also target knowledge of whole collocations, and (d) the learning burden of a whole...... the development of Danish EFL learners’ productive knowledge of whole English collocations. Five empirical studies were designed to generate information that would shed light on the reliability and validity of the CONTRIX as a measure of collocation knowledge available for use in written production. Study 1...

  12. Font size matters--emotion and attention in cortical responses to written words. (United States)

    Bayer, Mareike; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin


    For emotional pictures with fear-, disgust-, or sex-related contents, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in attention-related event-related potentials (ERPs), presumably reflecting the enhanced biological impact of larger emotion-inducing pictures. If this is true, size should not enhance emotion effects for written words with symbolic and acquired meaning. Here, we investigated ERP effects of font size for emotional and neutral words. While P1 and N1 amplitudes were not affected by emotion, the early posterior negativity started earlier and lasted longer for large relative to small words. These results suggest that emotion-driven facilitation of attention is not necessarily based on biological relevance, but might generalize to stimuli with arbitrary perceptual features. This finding points to the high relevance of written language in today's society as an important source of emotional meaning.

  13. Walter Pater and the Language of Sculpture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    Walter Pater and the Language of Sculpture is the first monograph to discuss the Victorian critic Walter Pater's attitude to sculpture. It brings together Pater's aesthetic theories with his theories on language and writing, to demonstrate how his ideas of the visual and written language...... the idea of rivalry (paragone) more broadly, examining Pater's concern with positioning himself as an art critic in the late Victorian art world. Situating Pater within centuries of European aesthetic theories as never before done, Walter Pater and the Language of Sculpture throws new light...

  14. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane


    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  15. The challenge of giving written thesis feedback to nursing students. (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Borglin, Gunilla


    Providing effective written feedback on nursing student's assignments can be a challenging task for any assessor. Additionally, as the student groups tend to become larger, written feedback is likely to gain an overall more prominent position than verbal feedback. Lack of formal training or regular discussion in the teaching faculty about the skill set needed to provide written feedback could negatively affect the students' learning abilities. In this brief paper, we discuss written feedback practices, whilst using the Bachelor of Science in Nursing thesis as an example. Our aim is to highlight the importance of an informed understanding of the impact written feedback can have on students. Creating awareness about this can facilitate the development of more strategic and successful written feedback strategies. We end by offering examples of some relatively simple strategies for improving this practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aptitude-treatment interactions revisited: effect of metacognitive intervention on subtypes of written expression in elementary school students. (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R; Wakely, Melissa B; de Kruif, Renee E L; Swartz, Carl W


    We examined the effectiveness of a metacognitive intervention for written language performance, based on the Hayes model of written expression, for 73 fourth-grade (n = 38) and fifth-grade (n = 35) students. The intervention consisted of twenty 45-min writing lessons designed to improve their awareness of writing as a problem-solving process. Each of the lessons addressed some aspect of planning, translating, and reflecting on written products; their self-regulation of these processes; and actual writing practice. All instruction was conducted in intact classrooms. Prior to the intervention, all students received a battery of neurocognitive tests measuring executive functions, attention, and language. In addition, preintervention writing samples were obtained and analyzed holistically and for errors in syntax, semantics, and spelling. Following the intervention, the writing tasks were readministered and cluster analysis of the neurocognitive data was conducted. Cluster analytic procedures yielded 7 reliable clusters: 4 normal variants, 1 Problem Solving weakness, 1 Problem Solving Language weaknesses, and 1 Problem Solving strength. The response to the single treatment by these various subtypes revealed positive but modest findings. Significant group differences were noted for improvement in syntax errors and spelling, with only spelling showing differential improvement for the Problem Solving Language subtype. In addition, there was a marginally significant group effect for holistic ratings. These findings provide initial evidence that Writing Aptitude (subtype) x Single Treatment interactions exist in writing, but further research is needed with other classification schemes and interventions.

  17. Effects of Task Complexity, Task Conditions, and Task Difficulty on the Grammatical Accuracy of EFL Learners in Written Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari


    Full Text Available Different methods of language teaching have tried to help EFL learners to develop good language skills based on their various perspectives. Research findings have underscored the effect of using task types in promoting language skills in terms of accuracy in written discourse. Therefore, this study set out to investigate whether there is an evidence of correct use of simple past tense (Accuracy based on Task Complexity (Task type :Here-and now & There-and-then,Task Conditions (Gender: Male & Female, and Task Difficulty (Proficiency: Lower-intermediate & Intermediate. Sixty Iranian English learners in a language institute participated in the study and were assigned to four groups of lower-intermediate male, lower-intermediate female, intermediate male and intermediate female. Initial homogeneity of the groups was verified using two general proficiency tests; KET for lower-intermediate and PET for intermediate. All groups in here-and-now task type were asked to write a story using simple past based on a picture strip while for there-and-then task type the participants were supposed to write about their last birthday. The results from paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test and two-way ANOVA analysis of the written data revealed significant differences in performing task types, at different proficiency levels and interaction between them. The findings have significant pedagogical implications for EFL learners to understand the relationship among Task Complexity,Task Conditions, Task Difficulty and L2 written production leading to various degrees of Accuracy.

  18. Written Teacher Feedback: Aspects of Quality, Benefits and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmeier, Monika; Grob, Regula; Nielsen, Jan Alexis


    was provided based on rubrics and templates for open comments. For this purpose, written teacher feedback itself, student artefacts and data from questionnaires were analysed. Furthermore, the benefits and challenges that teachers noticed in using written feedback will be examined. Finally......, it will be discussed which means of support for teachers seem necessary in order to foster the implementation of written teacher feedback as part of formative assessment in inquiry-based science education....

  19. Age of acquisition and word frequency in written picture naming. (United States)

    Bonin, P; Fayol, M; Chalard, M


    This study investigates age of acquisition (AoA) and word frequency effects in both spoken and written picture naming. In the first two experiments, reliable AoA effects on object naming speed, with objective word frequency controlled for, were found in both spoken (Experiment 1) and written picture naming (Experiment 2). In contrast, no reliable objective word frequency effects were observed on naming speed, with AoA controlled for, in either spoken (Experiment 3) or written (Experiment 4) picture naming. The implications of the findings for written picture naming are briefly discussed.

  20. Socio-Pragmatic Problems in Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail ÇAKIR


    Full Text Available It is a fact that language is a means of communication for human beings. People who needto have social interaction should share the same language, beliefs, values etc., in a given society.It can be stated that when learning a foreign language, mastering only linguistic features of FLprobably does not ensure true spoken and written communication. This study aims to deal withsocio-pragmatic problems which the learners may be confront with while learning and using theforeign language. Particularly cultural and cultural values of the target language such as idioms,proverbs and metaphors and their role in foreign language teaching have been focused on.

  1. Endangered Languages. (United States)

    Hale, Ken; And Others


    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  2. Examining the central and peripheral processes of written word production through meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy ePurcell


    Full Text Available Producing written words requires central cognitive processes (such as orthographic long-term and working memory as well as more peripheral processes responsible for generating the motor actions needed for producing written words in a variety of formats (handwriting, typing, etc.. In recent years, various functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates underlying the central and peripheral processes of written word production. This study provides the first quantitative meta-analysis of these studies by applying Activation Likelihood Estimation methods (Turkeltaub et al., 2002. For alphabet languages, we identified 11 studies (with a total of 17 experimental contrasts that had been designed to isolate central and/or peripheral processes of word spelling (total number of participants = 146. Three ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the complete set of 17 contrasts; two others were applied to subsets of contrasts to distinguish the neural substrates of central from peripheral processes. These analyses identified a network of brain regions reliably associated with the central and peripheral processes of word spelling. Among the many significant results, is the finding that the regions with the greatest correspondence across studies were in the left inferior temporal/fusiform gyri and left inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, although the angular gyrus has traditionally been identified as a key site within the written word production network, none of the meta-analyses found it to be a consistent site of activation, identifying instead a region just superior/medial to the left angular gyrus in the left posterior intraparietal sulcus. In general these meta-analyses and the discussion of results provide a valuable foundation upon which future studies that examine the neural basis of written word production can build.

  3. Maximal Repetitions in Written Texts: Finite Energy Hypothesis vs. Strong Hilberg Conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dębowski


    Full Text Available The article discusses two mutually-incompatible hypotheses about the stochastic mechanism of the generation of texts in natural language, which could be related to entropy. The first hypothesis, the finite energy hypothesis, assumes that texts are generated by a process with exponentially-decaying probabilities. This hypothesis implies a logarithmic upper bound for maximal repetition, as a function of the text length. The second hypothesis, the strong Hilberg conjecture, assumes that the topological entropy grows as a power law. This hypothesis leads to a hyperlogarithmic lower bound for maximal repetition. By a study of 35 written texts in German, English and French, it is found that the hyperlogarithmic growth of maximal repetition holds for natural language. In this way, the finite energy hypothesis is rejected, and the strong Hilberg conjecture is partly corroborated.

  4. First Year University Students' Use of Formulaic Sequences in Oral and Written Descriptions (El uso de secuencias formulaicas de estudiantes de primer año en descripciones orales y escritas) (United States)

    Gómez Burgos, Eric


    The present article investigates the use of first year university students' formulaic sequences in written and oral texts in an English as a foreign language context. The corpus of the study consists of eight descriptive texts--four written and four oral--which were composed of four students of English Pedagogy at a university in Santiago, Chile.…

  5. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the $1...

  6. 12 CFR 704.16 - Contracts/written agreements. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contracts/written agreements. 704.16 Section 704.16 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.16 Contracts/written agreements. Services, facilities, personnel, or equipment...

  7. 45 CFR 99.26 - Unsponsored written material. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unsponsored written material. 99.26 Section 99.26 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS FOR THE CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Hearing Procedures § 99.26 Unsponsored written material. Letters...

  8. 42 CFR 2.16 - Security for written records. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security for written records. 2.16 Section 2.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.16 Security for written records...

  9. The Written Communication Skills That Matter Most for Accountants (United States)

    Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.


    Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…

  10. Towards a Theory of Vernacularisation: Insights from Written Chinese Vernaculars (United States)

    Snow, Don


    This paper examines the history of four Chinese vernaculars which have developed written forms, and argues that five of the patterns Hanan identifies in the early development of Bai Hua can also be found in the early development of written Wu, Cantonese, and Minnan. In each of the cases studied, there is a clear pattern of early use of the…

  11. 49 CFR 1018.20 - Written demand for payment. (United States)


    ... Collection of Claims § 1018.20 Written demand for payment. (a) The Board shall make appropriate written demand upon the debtor for payment of money in terms which specify: (1) The basis for the indebtedness... the debtor has explicitly refused to pay, or that sending a further demand is futile. Depending upon...

  12. Quantity and quality of written feedback, action plans, and student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) assessment forms that have been modified with the addition of specific spaces on separate sheets are expected to improve the quantity and quality of written feedback and the action plan for further learning which is agreed upon, and to encourage written reflection.

  13. 5 CFR 179.306 - Written agreement for repayment. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written agreement for repayment. 179.306 Section 179.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.306 Written agreement for repayment. A debtor who admits...

  14. Teaching Computation in Primary School without Traditional Written Algorithms (United States)

    Hartnett, Judy


    Concerns regarding the dominance of the traditional written algorithms in schools have been raised by many mathematics educators, yet the teaching of these procedures remains a dominant focus in in primary schools. This paper reports on a project in one school where the staff agreed to put the teaching of the traditional written algorithm aside,…

  15. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko


    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  16. CPL: A Core Language for Cloud Computing


    Bračevac, Oliver; Erdweg, S.T.; Salvaneschi, Guido; Mezini, Mira


    Running distributed applications in the cloud involves deployment. That is, distribution and configuration of application services and middleware infrastructure. The considerable complexity of these tasks resulted in the emergence of declarative JSON-based domain-specific deployment languages to develop deployment programs. However, existing deployment programs unsafely compose artifacts written in different languages, leading to bugs that are hard to detect before run time. Furthermore, depl...

  17. ''NICRO'' microprogramming language for sectional microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Yu.A.; Chudakov, V.N.


    ''MICRO'' microprogramming input language developed for sectional microprocessors is described. The structure of micromanual, purpose of particular fields, the corresponding mne-- mocodes and requirements they have to meet are considered. Program for integer division with a sign written in the ''MICRO'' language is given as an example. The possibilities of modif ying the translator for its adaptation to different types of processor and microprocessor sets are analyzed

  18. Cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing in written word production. (United States)

    Buchwald, Adam; Falconer, Carolyn


    Descriptions of language production have identified processes involved in producing language and the presence and type of interaction among those processes. In the case of spoken language production, consensus has emerged that there is interaction among lexical selection processes and phoneme-level processing. This issue has received less attention in written language production. In this paper, we present a novel analysis of the writing-to-dictation performance of an individual with acquired dysgraphia revealing cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing. The individual produced frequent lexical-semantic errors (e.g., chipmunk → SQUIRREL) as well as letter errors (e.g., inhibit → INBHITI) and had a profile consistent with impairment affecting both lexical processing and letter-level processing. The presence of cascading activation is suggested by lower letter accuracy on words that are more weakly activated during lexical selection than on those that are more strongly activated. We operationalize weakly activated lexemes as those lexemes that are produced as lexical-semantic errors (e.g., lethal in deadly → LETAHL) compared to strongly activated lexemes where the intended target word (e.g., lethal) is the lexeme selected for production.

  19. A Contrastive Study of Persian and English Written Discourse: Ellipsis in Realistic Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Faghih


    Full Text Available This study aspires to examine the concept of ellipsis by comparing and contrasting English and Persian written texts. For this purpose, three Persian novels and three English ones were selected. These novels were analyzed carefully; they were compared and contrasted for types and amount of ellipsis used, through a Chi-square analysis.  The results of the data analysis revealed that various types of ellipsis were used differently in these two languages. In other words, in the English corpus, nominal ellipsis was used more frequently than verbal ellipsis but in the Persian one, the use of verbal ellipsis was more frequent than nominal. Moreover, the results of this study lend some support to the idea of the universality of ellipsis, in that, all subtypes of ellipsis were used in these two languages although they  were used more frequently in English than in Persian. This study might have implications for teachers, material developers, and researchers in the field of teaching English as a foreign language. In other words, teaching ellipsis directly to foreign language learners will improve the quality of their writing. Moreover,  the results of the present study have obvious importance in increasing students' awareness of the way native speakers of English organize their writing.

  20. The representation of women in Japanese written media The representation of women in Japanese written media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiko Yasumoto


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the representation of women in Japanese society in relation to men with respect to the use of language. One selected section of the published media has been used to determine if the Japanese language still propagates the traditional role of women as being different to and beneath that of men or if there has been some change. The traditional relationship of women to men is called in Japanese dan-son jo-hi and dates back to before the Meiji era. dan-son jo-hi involves the idea that men should be respected and not women, that women have lower status than men in society. As a case study, the magazine AERA that purports to be the “Time magazine of Japan” was selected. Thirty articles published between 2000 and 2002 from “Josei” the women’s section of AERA, were examined by using three analytical techniques: Content analysis; Foregrounding analysis; Gender control and Gender image analysis. These three analyses show that the messages about a woman’s role vary from one of promoting historical traditional attitudes through to more current “Western attitudes” with respect to equal status for women. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the representation of women in Japanese society in relation to men with respect to the use of language. One selected section of the published media has been used to determine if the Japanese language still propagates the traditional role of women as being different to and beneath that of men or if there has been some change. The traditional relationship of women to men is called in Japanese dan-son jo-hi and dates back to before the Meiji era. dan-son jo-hi involves the idea that men should be respected and not women, that women have lower status than men in society. As a case study, the magazine AERA that purports to be the “Time magazine of Japan” was selected. Thirty articles published between 2000 and 2002 from “Josei” the women’s section


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lvov


    Full Text Available The article describes requirements to educational programming languages and considers the use of Python as the first programming language. The issues of introduction of this programming language into teaching and replacing Pascal by Python are examined. The advantages of such approach are regarded. The comparison of popular programming languages is represented from the point of view of their convenience of use for teaching algorithmization and programming. Python supports lots of programming paradigms: structural, object-oriented, functional, imperative and aspect-oriented, and learning can be started without any preparation. There is one more advantage of the language: all algorithms are written easily and structurally in Python. Therefore, due to all mentioned above, it is possible to affirm that Python pretends to become a decent replacement for educational programming language PASCAL both at schools and on the first courses of higher education establishments.

  2. The students’ use of written and internet sources and electronic media for assessment in slovene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hromin


    Full Text Available The article presents the frequency of using written and online sources as well as of electronic media during preparation of secondary school students for in-class examinations in Slovene language and literature. Within the scope of the above mentioned aspects we have controlled the of age and type of secondary school programmes. In the first part of the article the concept of information and communication technology/multimedia, the concept of e-learning and the concept of student activity are defined. In the second half of the article I present the results of the research, which show the frequency of use of written and web sources as well as of electronic media. These results have shown that with the oral examination of knowledge of grammar and literature the use of the notebook is prevalent, while with the written examination of knowledge of grammar and literature the use of the course book is predominant. The frequency of use of World Wide Web sources and electronic media increases with age and according to the level of difficultness of education programme. Thus the use of the notebook is the most prevalent in vocational schools whereas the use of the course book is predominant at the level of technical gimnazija and general gimnazija programmes.

  3. OCR- The 3 Layered Approach for Decision Making State and Identification of Telugu Hand Written and Printed Consonants and Conjunct Consonants by Using Advanced Fuzzy Logic Controller


    B.Rama; Santosh Kumar Henge


    Optical Character recognition is the method of digitalization of hand and type written or printed text into machine-encoded form and is superfluity of the various applications of envision of human’s life. In present human life OCR has been successfully using in finance, legal, banking, health care and home need appliances. India is a multi cultural, literature and traditional scripted country. Telugu is the southern Indian language, it is a syllabic language, symbol script represe...

  4. Japanese Non Resident Language Refresher Course; 210 Hour Course. (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This military intelligence unit refresher course in Japanese is designed for 210 hours of audiolingual instruction. The materials, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, are intended for students with considerable intensive training in spoken and written Japanese who are preparing for a military language assignment. [Not available in hard…

  5. A Shared Platform for Studying Second Language Acquisition (United States)

    MacWhinney, Brian


    The study of second language acquisition (SLA) can benefit from the same process of datasharing that has proven effective in areas such as first language acquisition and aphasiology. Researchers can work together to construct a shared platform that combines data from spoken and written corpora, online tutors, and Web-based experimentation. Many of…

  6. "What Language Are You?" A Glimpse into Multilingual Childhoods (United States)

    Cox, Robyn


    The first paper in this collection refers to recent theorising about Globalisation and the resultant outcomes for educational contexts specifically in relation to English language learning in Australia. Much has been written about the importance of the global economy, its influence on education and mounting commentary that the English language is…

  7. SYNCOM: A general syntax conversion language and computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, D.C.


    The problems of syntax conversion are discussed and the reasons given for the choice of the Interpretive method. A full description is given of the SYNCON language and computer program together with brief details of some programs written in the language. (author)

  8. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise


    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  9. The Differences Between Men And Women Language Styles In Writing Twitter Updates




    Fatin, Marshelina. 2013. The Differences between Men and Women LanguageStyles in Writing Twitter Updates. Study Program of English, UniversitasBrawijaya. Supervisor: Isti Purwaningtyas; Co-supervisor: Muhammad Rozin.Keywords: Twitter, Twitter updates, Language style, Men language, Womenlanguage. The language which is used by people has so many differences. The differences itself are associated with men and women which belong to gender. If there are differences in spoken language, written lang...

  10. Applying Transition Action Detail Strategy on Written Text of EFL Young Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeasy Agustina Sari


    Full Text Available Mastering English, as foreign language need a lot of time since it is a continuing process. English foreign language of young learners, however, can’t be mastered by memorizing. The young learners should have strategy, which can be used as the direction of the classroom activites to help the students enhancing of language skill, specially in writting. There were the problem to be solved in this study, namely the students have difficult to construct the written text. The strategies which were used in the learning process were boring. Hence, the researcher tried to solve students’ difficulty in written text through Transition Action Detail Strategy. This study focused on two variables. The independent variable was Transition Action Detail Strategy, meanwhile dependent variable was written text. The researcher used true experimental design which consist of control group and experimental group. The subject of this research was students of young learner at the eight grade of English Course at Payakumbuh. The result revealed that Transition Action Detail Strategy was a good strategy that can influence the students’ narrative text. By using df.70, the writer not found it in the table. Because 70 was higher than 60 and smaller than 120. Then, the results from interpolation by using df.70, it could be known that the critical value of   t-table for the 5% level was 1.990, the critical value of t-table for the 1% level was 2.638. From these all the data analysis, it can be seen that t-observed (4.763 was higher than t-table (5% =1.990, 1% = 2.638. The data confirm that t-observed  is higher than t-table, therefore it can be inferred that Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected. It means that there is significant influence of applying Transition Action Detail Strategy on Wwritten Text of Young learners.   Key words: Transition Action Detail Strategy, Young Learners, English Foreign Language, English  Course.

  11. The Relationship between American Sign Language Vocabulary and the Development of Language-Based Reasoning Skills in Deaf Children (United States)

    Henner, Jonathan


    The language-based analogical reasoning abilities of Deaf children are a controversial topic. Researchers lack agreement about whether Deaf children possess the ability to reason using language-based analogies, or whether this ability is limited by a lack of access to vocabulary, both written and signed. This dissertation examines factors that…

  12. Fuzzy Languages (United States)

    Rahonis, George

    The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ℓ-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.

  13. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.


    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  14. Sentence Writing and Perception of Written Sentences in Hearing-Impaired and Normal-Hearing Primary School Students in Hamadan, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Yaghobi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Learning language is acquired in early childhood and gradually developed by new words and new structures. Hearing sense is the most important acquisition for learning this skill. Hearing disorders are barriers for natural language learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between writing sentences and perception of written sentences in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among thirty hearing-impaired students with hearing loss of 70-90 dB and thirty normal hearing students. They were selected from 3rd grade primary school students in Hamadan, a large city in Western Iran. The language skills and non language information was assessed by questionnaire, Action Picture Test, and Sentence Perception Test.Results: Results showed that there was a significant relation between writing sentences and perception of written sentences in hearing impaired students (p<0.001, (r=0.8. This significant relation was seen in normal-hearing students as well (p<0.001, (r=0.7.Conclusion: Disability of hearing-impaired students in verbal communication is not only related to articulation and voice disorders but also is related to their disability to explore and use of language rules. They suffer lack of perception of written sentences, and they are not skilled to convey their feelings and thoughts in order to presenting themselves by using language structures.




  16. Second-Language Learning through Imaginative Theory (United States)

    Broom, Catherine


    This article explores how Egan's (1997) work on imagination can enrich our understanding of teaching English as a second language (ESL). Much has been written on ESL teaching techniques; however, some of this work has been expounded in a standard educational framework, which is what Egan calls an assembly-line model. This model can easily underlie…

  17. Danish - a Language with a Future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip


    A project on the use of English for academic purposes in Denmark has revealed that the academic article written in Danish may be a dying genre. Based on this finding and on observations on the use of English in Danish texts (or contexts), the future of the Danish language and of translation and i...

  18. OKBL: A language for representing object oriented knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Sugiyai, I.; Ishikawa, K.


    Industrial system is operated by using numerous ''operator's knowledge'' about the system. Each knowledge can be regarded as an object and is represented and maintained as an 'ACTOR' and written in a language based on the actor concept. OKBL (Object Oriented Operational KnowledgeBase Management Language) is the language proposed here for this purpose and used in OKBS (a system based on OKBL). The OKBS inference mechanism on the knowledgebase written in OKBL is implemented by message passings among ACTORs. OKBS has been applied to the guidance system for the operators of electric power dispatch control stations

  19. Teaching Written Communication Strategies: A Training to Improve Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Benali Taouis


    Full Text Available This research can be described as an experimental quantitative one including: a strategy training; two homogenous experimental groups with different levels of proficiency; and two homogenous control groups. The subjects are 60 Spanish high school students, who have been selected after taking the Oxford Quick Placement-Test. The study aims at investigating the possible relationship between the effect of the strategy training and the subjects' level of proficiency. It is also designed to analyze the effect of the training on the use of communication strategies in the written medium. It is meant to study the effect of the strategy training on the subjects' writing skill in English. The results show that the students' level of proficiency exerts a strong effect on the subjects' use of written communication strategies (CSs and on their strategy preference in written production. They also demonstrate how strategy training improves the subjects' written communication ability.

  20. 42 CFR 456.180 - Individual written plan of care. (United States)


    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Plan of Care § 456.180 Individual written plan of care. (a) Before admission to a mental hospital or...

  1. A Theory of Developing Competence with Written Mathematical Symbols. (United States)

    Hiebert, James


    Presented is a theory of how competence with written mathematical symbols develops, tracing a succession of cognitive processes that cumulate to yield competence. Arguments supporting the theory are drawn from the history, philosophy, and psychology of mathematics. (MNS)

  2. The relationship between oral and written narratives: A three-year longitudinal study of narrative cohesion, coherence, and structure. (United States)

    Pinto, Giuliana; Tarchi, Christian; Bigozzi, Lucia


    The relationship between oral language and the writing process at early acquisition stages and the ways the former can enhance or limit the latter has not been researched extensively. The predictive relationship between kindergarten oral narrative competence and the first- and second-grade written narrative competence was explored in a 3-year longitudinal study. Among the first and second graders, the relationship between orthographic competence and narrative competence in written productions was also analysed. One hundred and nine Italian children participated in this study. Kindergarteners produced an oral narrative, whereas the first and second graders produced a written narrative. The oral and written narratives were analysed in terms of cohesion, coherence, and structure. The first-grade orthographic competence was assessed via a dictation task. Multiple linear regression and mediational analyses were performed. Kindergarten oral narrative competence affected the first- and second-grade written narrative competence via a mediational effect of orthographic competence. The results suggest the importance of practicing oral narrative competence in kindergarten and first grade and the value of composition quality independent of orthographic text accuracy. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Native language predictors of foreign language proficiency and foreign language aptitude. (United States)

    Sparks, Richard L; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy; Javorsky, James


    Fifty-four students were tested at specific time intervals over 10 years to determine best native language (NL) predictors of oral and written foreign language (FL) proficiency and FL aptitude. All participants completed two years of Spanish, French, or German. Each was administered measures of NL literacy, oral language, and cognitive ability in elementary school. A measure of FL aptitude was administered at the beginning of ninth grade and FL proficiency was evaluated at the end of the 10th grade. Among the variables, NL literacy measures were the best predictors of FL proficiency, and NL achievement and general (verbal) intelligence were strong predictors of FL aptitude. Results suggest that indices of NL literacy as early as first grade are related to FL proficiency and FL aptitude nine and 10 years later. Findings provide strong support for connections between L1 and L2 skills, and for speculation that "lower level" skills in phonological processing are important for written language development and oral proficiency in a FL.

  4. Enhancing the Benefits of Written Emotional Disclosure through Response Training


    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.


    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condit...

  5. Overcoming pitfalls: Results from a mandatory peer review process for written examinations. (United States)

    Wilby, Kyle John; El Hajj, Maguy S; El-Bashir, Marwa; Mraiche, Fatima


    Written assessments are essential components of higher education practices. However, faculty members encounter common pitfalls when designing questions intended to evaluate student-learning outcomes. The objective of this project was to determine the impact of a mandatory examination peer review process on question accuracy, alignment with learning objectives, use of best practices in question design, and language/grammar. A mandatory peer review process was implemented for all midterm (before phase) and final (after phase) examinations. Peer review occurred by two reviewers and followed a pre-defined guidance document. Non-punitive feedback given to faculty members served as the intervention. Frequencies of flagged questions according to guidance categories were compared between phases. A total of 21 midterm and 21 final exam reviews were included in the analysis. A total of 637 questions were reviewed across all midterms and 1003 questions were reviewed across all finals. Few questions were flagged for accuracy and alignment with learning outcomes. The median total proportion of questions flagged for best practices was significantly lower for final exams versus midterm exams (15.8 vs. 6.45%, p = 0.014). The intervention did not influence language and grammar errors (9.68 vs. 10.0% of questions flagged before and after, respectively, p = 0.305). A non-punitive peer review process for written examinations can overcome pitfalls in exam creation and improve best practices in question writing. The peer-review process had a substantial effect at flagging language/grammar errors but error rate did not differ between midterm and final exams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing written information for cancer survivors from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds: Lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Wiley


    Full Text Available Australia is a multicultural nation with a large migrant population. Migrants with cancer report inferior quality of life and the need for more information in their own language. This paper describes lessons learnt from developing culturally appropriate written information resources with and for Arabic, Italian, and Vietnamese cancer survivors and carers. The information needs of survivors from these language groups as well as guidelines for the development of written resources for culturally diverse populations were identified through literature review. Community consultation was undertaken with focus groups. The content was developed and tested with health professionals who spoke the appropriate language and focus group participants, ensuring relevance and appropriateness. Resource design and dissemination were informed through community consultation. A number of key tasks for developing resources were identified as follows: (1 community engagement and consultation; (2 culturally sensitive data collection; (3 focus group facilitators (recruitment and training; (4 content development; (5 translation and review process; (6 design; and (7 sustainability. This project reinforced literature review findings on the importance of cultural sensitivity in the development of resources. Engaging with community groups and incorporating culturally appropriate recruitment strategies optimises recruitment to focus groups and facilitates content development. Stakeholders and lay persons from the intended ethnic-minority communities should be involved in the development and formative evaluation of resources to ensure appropriateness and relevance and in the dissemination strategy to optimize penetration. We believe the lessons we have learnt will be relevant to any group intending to develop health information for culturally and linguistic diverse groups.

  7. Cambridge IGCSE english as a second language

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John


    Revised edition for the 2015 syllabus offering the easiest and most cost effective way to teach both the speaking and listening components with one set of books covering two years and free digital material. This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE English as a Second Language (0510 and 0511) syllabuses, for first teaching from 2013. ? Prepares students for their exams with a focus on assessed language features, such as inference, opinion and attitude. ? Develops language abilities at an appropriate pace with extra interactive tests on a free CD-ROM. We are working with Cambr

  8. Written Cultural Heritage in the Context of Adopted Legal Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kodrič-Dačić


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: Libraries collect written cultural heritage which is not only the most valuable part of their collections but also a part of library materials which is, due to digitalization projects in the last decade, becoming more and more interesting to librarians and library users. The main goal of the study is a theoretical research of library materials acknowledged as Slovenian heritage. By defining the basic terms it highlights the attributes which are immanent to library materials, derived from the context of their origin or later destiny. Slovenian library legislation concerning protection of written cultural heritage is also critically analysed.Methodology/approach: Comparative analyses of European and Slovenian legislation concerning librarianship and written cultural heritage. Research limitation: Research was mainly limited to professional literature and resources dealing with written cultural heritage. Originality/practical implications: Results of the research serve as formal criteria for definition of library materials as written heritage and suggest how to improve legislation in the field of protection of written heritage in libraries. 

  9. A Gramatologia, uma ruptura nos estudos sobre a escrita : a Disruption on Written Language Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Sonia Borges Vieira da


    Full Text Available A filosofia clássica que, conforme Derrida, vai de Platão a Hegel, concebe a linguagem escrita como representação da fala. Isto significa que à escrita é atribuído um caráter meramente técnico e funcional. O presente artigo focaliza a desconstrução dessa concepção tomando por base a crítica de Derrida às interpretações que reduzem o pensamento de Saussure a uma filosofia da linguagem com características fonocêntricas e, portanto, metafísicas

  10. Propositional Density in Spoken and Written Language of Czech-Speaking Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Filip; Štěpánková, H.; Vyhnálek, M.; Nikolai, T.; Horáková, K.; Matějka, Š.


    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2016), s. 1461-1470 ISSN 1092-4388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-26779S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Alzheimers-disease * life-span * verbal fluency * idea density * speech errors * older adults * age * memory * nun * complexity Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.771, year: 2016

  11. English Textbooks in Parallel-Language Tertiary Education


    Pecorari, D.; Shaw, P.; Irvine, Aileen; Malmstrom, H.


    Tertiary education in many countries is increasingly bilingual, with English used in parallel with the national language, particularly as a reading language. This article describes the results of a survey of student attitudes toward, and reading practices regarding, English language textbooks. Over 1,000 students at three Swedish universities responded to a questionnaire asking about their experiences with English textbooks. Textbooks written in English were generally unpopular, and the perce...

  12. Away with Good Bantus: De-Linking African Language Literature from Culture, "Tribe" and Propriety (United States)

    Mkhize, Nomalanga


    This paper argues that the "institutionalisation" model used by universities to spearhead the intellectualisation of African languages is a non-starter for taking African languages in new creative directions. The major constraint for African language literary culture is that written output has historically been heavily bent towards…

  13. Computerized Sign Language-Based Literacy Training for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children (United States)

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary


    Strengthening the connections between sign language and written language may improve reading skills in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether computerized sign language-based literacy training improves reading skills in DHH signing children who are learning to read. Further,…

  14. The New Zealand-Born Chinese Community of Auckland: Aspects of Language Maintenance and Shift. (United States)

    Sun, Susan


    Examines the Chinese immigrant community in Auckland, New Zealand and how they address the question of first language maintenance in their largely new English-speaking environment. Shows that language maintenance, especially the written language is going to be an uphill struggle. (Author/VWL)

  15. From Home to School: Bridging the Language Gap in Mauritian Preschools (United States)

    Auleear Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah


    Most Mauritian children face a language challenge as they leave their homes and start school. While most Mauritian children speak a French-lexified Creole as home language, the Mauritian primary education programme promotes English as the main language of literacy and the only written medium of instruction. In such a context, the preschool has the…

  16. Why are some languages confused for others? Investigating data from the Great Language Game (United States)


    In this paper we explore the results of a large-scale online game called ‘the Great Language Game’, in which people listen to an audio speech sample and make a forced-choice guess about the identity of the language from 2 or more alternatives. The data include 15 million guesses from 400 audio recordings of 78 languages. We investigate which languages are confused for which in the game, and if this correlates with the similarities that linguists identify between languages. This includes shared lexical items, similar sound inventories and established historical relationships. Our findings are, as expected, that players are more likely to confuse two languages that are objectively more similar. We also investigate factors that may affect players’ ability to accurately select the target language, such as how many people speak the language, how often the language is mentioned in written materials and the economic power of the target language community. We see that non-linguistic factors affect players’ ability to accurately identify the target. For example, languages with wider ‘global reach’ are more often identified correctly. This suggests that both linguistic and cultural knowledge influence the perception and recognition of languages and their similarity. PMID:28379970

  17. Why are some languages confused for others? Investigating data from the Great Language Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedvig Skirgård

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the results of a large-scale online game called 'the Great Language Game', in which people listen to an audio speech sample and make a forced-choice guess about the identity of the language from 2 or more alternatives. The data include 15 million guesses from 400 audio recordings of 78 languages. We investigate which languages are confused for which in the game, and if this correlates with the similarities that linguists identify between languages. This includes shared lexical items, similar sound inventories and established historical relationships. Our findings are, as expected, that players are more likely to confuse two languages that are objectively more similar. We also investigate factors that may affect players' ability to accurately select the target language, such as how many people speak the language, how often the language is mentioned in written materials and the economic power of the target language community. We see that non-linguistic factors affect players' ability to accurately identify the target. For example, languages with wider 'global reach' are more often identified correctly. This suggests that both linguistic and cultural knowledge influence the perception and recognition of languages and their similarity.

  18. Why are some languages confused for others? Investigating data from the Great Language Game. (United States)

    Skirgård, Hedvig; Roberts, Seán G; Yencken, Lars


    In this paper we explore the results of a large-scale online game called 'the Great Language Game', in which people listen to an audio speech sample and make a forced-choice guess about the identity of the language from 2 or more alternatives. The data include 15 million guesses from 400 audio recordings of 78 languages. We investigate which languages are confused for which in the game, and if this correlates with the similarities that linguists identify between languages. This includes shared lexical items, similar sound inventories and established historical relationships. Our findings are, as expected, that players are more likely to confuse two languages that are objectively more similar. We also investigate factors that may affect players' ability to accurately select the target language, such as how many people speak the language, how often the language is mentioned in written materials and the economic power of the target language community. We see that non-linguistic factors affect players' ability to accurately identify the target. For example, languages with wider 'global reach' are more often identified correctly. This suggests that both linguistic and cultural knowledge influence the perception and recognition of languages and their similarity.

  19. Recursive macro generator for the TAS-86 language. First part: the macro generator language. Second part: system internal logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zraick, Samir


    A macro-generator is a translator which is able to interpret and translate a programme written in a macro-language. After a first part presenting the main notions and proposing a brief description of the TAS-86 language, the second part of this research thesis reports the development of the macro-generator language, and notably presents the additional functionalities provided by the macro generator. The development is illustrated by logical flowcharts and programming listings

  20. Applying Halstead's Metric to Oberon Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz Ahmed Masoud


    Full Text Available Oberon is a small, simple and difficult programming language. The guiding principle of Oberon was a quote from Albert Einstein: "Make it as simple as possible, but not simpler". Oberon language is based on few fundamental concepts that are easy to understand and use. It supports two programming paradigms: the procedural paradigm, and the object-oriented paradigm This paper provides the application of Halstead's software science theory to Oberon programs. Applying Halstead's metric to the Oberon language has provided the analysis and measurements for module and within module maintenance complexity of programs written in Oberon. This type of analysis provides a manager or programmer with enough information about the maintenance complexity of the Oberon programs. So they can be aware of how much effort they need to maintain a certain Oberon program. The maintenance complexity of the programs written in Oberon or any other language is based on counting the number of operators and operands within the statements of the tested program. The counting process is accomplished by a program written in C language- Results are obtained, analyzed, and discussed in detail.

  1. Creating a Danish legal language: legal terminology in the medieval Law of Scania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamm, Ditlev; Vogt, Helle


    In the decades after 1200 the kingdom of Denmark developed a corpus of provincial laws written in Danish for the three major legal provinces. With the legislation for the eastern province of Scania as a starting point, this article shows how the writing down of the law led not only to the creatio...... of a legal language but to a written vernacular language in general. It was not until the fifteenth century that written Danish was found outside of texts; charters and narrative until that point had been written in Latin....

  2. Improving the use of historical written sources in paleopathology. (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D


    The texts written by the people of past societies can provide key information that enhances our understanding of disease in the past. Written sources and art can describe cultural contexts that not only help us interpret lesions in excavated human remains, but also provide evidence for past disease events themselves. However, in recent decades many biohistorical articles have been published that claim to diagnose diseases present in past celebrities or well known individuals, often using less than scholarly methodology. This article aims to help researchers use historical written sources and artwork responsibly, thus improving our understanding of health and disease in the past. It explores a broad range of historical sources, from medical texts and histories to legal documents and tax records, and it highlights how the key to interpreting any past text is to understand who wrote it, when it was written, and why it was written. Case studies of plague epidemics, crucifixion, and the spinal deformity of King Richard III are then used to highlight how we might better integrate archaeological and historical evidence. When done well, integrating evidence from both archaeological and historical sources increases the probability of a complete and well-balanced understanding of disease in past societies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Gratitude across Context Variations: A Generic Analysis of Dissertation Acknowledgements Written by Taiwanese Authors in EFL and ESL Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhsien Yang


    Full Text Available Research on generic structures of acknowledgements in dissertations has gradually drawn attention in various contexts. However, there is relatively scant research on the ways in which acknowledgements are written by authors with mutually similar cultural backgrounds but in two different academic environments and language contexts. To fill this gap, this study compared 60 PhD dissertation acknowledgements written by Taiwanese postgraduates in Taiwan, an EFL context, with another 60 written by Taiwanese scholars who obtained their doctorates in the United States, an ESL context. The focus was on the generic structures and linguistic features of the writing styles of the two groups. The study aimed to investigate whether divergences existed in the two different academic and language settings, but with the writers sharing the same cultural and language background. If such divergences did exist, the likely causes would be explored. The results revealed that firstly, the participants in both contexts generally followed a three-tier structure when writing their dissertation acknowledgements, namely, reflecting, thanking, and announcing moves. However, academic conventions, institutional preferences and the language context, together with socio-cultural factors, affected their construction of moves/steps and their choice of linguistic elements. It was found that the rhetorical language in both corpora was relatively direct, emotional and precise.

  4. Building Languages (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  5. Text cohesion by the deaf as seen by the hearer: the use of oral cues in written texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Teobaldo Lopes de Andrade


    Full Text Available The use of sign language by the deaf, though a means of providing access to knowledge, offers some specific difficulties on reading/writing due to the impossibility on acquiring the written code of the official spoken language. Taking into account that some oral cues favor textual cohesion, the question this paper is mainly concerned with is whether the use of oral cues in writing favors comprehension as well. The aim of this research was to offer written texts produced by the deaf to the non deaf to see how the text was understood by these speakers. Some written fragments contained two or more oral cues, some with just one cue or with no cues produced by the deaf and some texts produced by the non deaf were offered to university hearing students who were asked to score the texts by means of levels of comprehension. The results showed that the answers favored the texts produced by the non deaf people followed by those with more than two oral cues produced by the deaf; the texts that offered difficulty for comprehension were those with no oral cues produced by the deaf. This paper suggests that the oral cues bring cohesion to the texts produced by the deaf thus favoring the hearer text comprehension.   Keywords: deafness; oral cues; writing; text cohesion.

  6. The determinants of spoken and written picture naming latencies. (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Chalard, Marylène; Méot, Alain; Fayol, Michel


    The influence of nine variables on the latencies to write down or to speak aloud the names of pictures taken from Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) was investigated in French adults. The major determinants of both written and spoken picture naming latencies were image variability, image agreement and age of acquisition. To a lesser extent, name agreement was also found to have an impact in both production modes. The implications of the findings for theoretical views of both spoken and written picture naming are discussed.

  7. Communicative Language Testing: Implications for Computer Based Language Testing in French for Specific Purposes (United States)

    García Laborda, Jesús; López Santiago, Mercedes; Otero de Juan, Nuria; Álvarez Álvarez, Alfredo


    Current evolutions of language testing have led to integrating computers in FSP assessments both in oral and written communicative tasks. This paper deals with two main issues: learners' expectations about the types of questions in FSP computer based assessments and the relation with their own experience. This paper describes the experience of 23…

  8. Language in Science Classrooms: An Analysis of Physics Teachers' Use of and Beliefs about Language (United States)

    Oyoo, Samuel Ouma


    The world over, secondary school science is viewed mainly as a practical subject. This may be one reason why effectiveness of teaching approaches in science education has often been judged on the kinds of practical activity with which teachers and students engage. In addition to practical work, language--often written (as in science texts) or oral…

  9. Scheduling language and algorithm development study. Volume 2: Use of the basic language and module library (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. A.; Cornick, D. E.; Flater, J. F.; Odoherty, R. J.; Peterson, F. M.; Ramsey, H. R.; Willoughby, J. K.


    The capabilities of the specified scheduling language and the program module library are outlined. The summary is written with the potential user in mind and, therefore, provides maximum insight on how the capabilities will be helpful in writing scheduling programs. Simple examples and illustrations are provided to assist the potential user in applying the capabilities of his problem.

  10. Language Planning for the 21st Century: Revisiting Bilingual Language Policy for Deaf Children (United States)

    Knoors, Harry; Marschark, Marc


    For over 25 years in some countries and more recently in others, bilingual education involving sign language and the written/spoken vernacular has been considered an essential educational intervention for deaf children. With the recent growth in universal newborn hearing screening and technological advances such as digital hearing aids and…

  11. Language Planning for the 21st Century: Revisiting Bilingual Language Policy for Deaf Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoors, H.E.T.; Marschark, M.


    For over 25 years in some countries and more recently in others, bilingual education involving sign language and the written/spoken vernacular has been considered an essential educational intervention for deaf children. With the recent growth in universal newborn hearing screening and technological

  12. The representation of language within language : A syntactico-pragmatic typology of direct speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, M.

    The recursive phenomenon of direct speech (quotation) comes in many different forms, and it is arguably an important and widely used ingredient of both spoken and written language. This article builds on (and provides indirect support for) the idea that quotations are to be defined pragmatically as

  13. Comparative implementation of Handwritten and Machine written Gurmukhi text utilizing appropriate parameters (United States)

    Kaur, Jaswinder; Jagdev, Gagandeep, Dr.


    Optical character recognition is concerned with the recognition of optically processed characters. The recognition is done offline after the writing or printing has been completed, unlike online recognition where the computer has to recognize the characters instantly as they are drawn. The performance of character recognition depends upon the quality of scanned documents. The preprocessing steps are used for removing low-frequency background noise and normalizing the intensity of individual scanned documents. Several filters are used for reducing certain image details and enabling an easier or faster evaluation. The primary aim of the research work is to recognize handwritten and machine written characters and differentiate them. The language opted for the research work is Punjabi Gurmukhi and tool utilized is Matlab.

  14. Equality marker in the language of bali (United States)

    Wajdi, Majid; Subiyanto, Paulus


    The language of Bali could be grouped into one of the most elaborate languages of the world since the existence of its speech levels, low and high speech levels, as the language of Java has. Low and high speech levels of the language of Bali are language codes that could be used to show and express social relationship between or among its speakers. This paper focuses on describing, analyzing, and interpreting the use of the low code of the language of Bali in daily communication in the speech community of Pegayaman, Bali. Observational and documentation methods were applied to provide the data for the research. Recoding and field note techniques were executed to provide the data. Recorded in spoken language and the study of novel of Balinese were transcribed into written form to ease the process of analysis. Symmetric use of low code expresses social equality between or among the participants involves in the communication. It also implies social intimacy between or among the speakers of the language of Bali. Regular and patterned use of the low code of the language of Bali is not merely communication strategy, but it is a kind of communication agreement or communication contract between the participants. By using low code during their social and communication activities, the participants shared and express their social equality and intimacy between or among the participants involve in social and communication activities.

  15. Morphosyntactic constructs in the development of spoken and written Hebrew text production. (United States)

    Ravid, Dorit; Zilberbuch, Shoshana


    This study examined the distribution of two Hebrew nominal structures-N-N compounds and denominal adjectives-in spoken and written texts of two genres produced by 90 native-speaking participants in three age groups: eleven/twelve-year-olds (6th graders), sixteen/seventeen-year-olds (11th graders), and adults. The two constructions are later linguistic acquisitions, part of the profound lexical and syntactic changes that occur in language development during the school years. They are investigated in the context of learning how modality (speech vs. writing) and genre (biographical vs. expository texts) affect the production of continuous discourse. Participants were asked to speak and write about two topics, one biographical, describing the life of a public figure or of a friend; and another, expository, discussing one of ten topics such as the cinema, cats, or higher academic studies. N-N compounding was found to be the main device of complex subcategorization in Hebrew discourse, unrelated to genre. Denominal adjectives are a secondary subcategorizing device emerging only during the late teen years, a linguistic resource untapped until very late, more restricted to specific text types than N-N compounding, and characteristic of expository writing. Written texts were found to be denser than spoken texts lexically and syntactically as measured by number of novel N-N compounds and denominal adjectives per clause, and in older age groups this difference was found to be more pronounced. The paper contributes to our understanding of how the syntax/lexicon interface changes with age, modality and genre in the context of later language acquisition.

  16. Verb-Noun Collocations in Written Discourse of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz


    Full Text Available When native speakers of English write, they employ both grammatical rules and collocations. Collocations are words that are present in the memory of native speakers as ready-made prefabricated chunks. Non-native speakers who wish to acquire native-like fluency should give appropriate attention to collocations in writing in order not to produce sentences that native speakers may consider odd. The present study tries to explore the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse of English as foreign language (EFL among Iranian EFL learners from one academic year to the next in Iran. To measure the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse, there was a 60-minute task of writing story  based on a series of six pictures whereby for each picture, three verb-noun collocations were measured, and nouns were provided to limit the choice of collocations. The results of the statistical analysis of ANOVA for the research question indicated that there was a significant difference in the use of lexical verb-noun collocations in written discourse both between and within the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests confirmed that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, between the second and the fourth, and between the third and the fourth academic year which indicate substantial development in verb-noun collocation proficiency.  The vital implication is that the learners could use verb-noun collocations in productive skill of writing.

  17. Network analysis of named entity co-occurrences in written texts (United States)

    Amancio, Diego Raphael


    The use of methods borrowed from statistics and physics to analyze written texts has allowed the discovery of unprecedent patterns of human behavior and cognition by establishing links between models features and language structure. While current models have been useful to unveil patterns via analysis of syntactical and semantical networks, only a few works have probed the relevance of investigating the structure arising from the relationship between relevant entities such as characters, locations and organizations. In this study, we represent entities appearing in the same context as a co-occurrence network, where links are established according to a null model based on random, shuffled texts. Computational simulations performed in novels revealed that the proposed model displays interesting topological features, such as the small world feature, characterized by high values of clustering coefficient. The effectiveness of our model was verified in a practical pattern recognition task in real networks. When compared with traditional word adjacency networks, our model displayed optimized results in identifying unknown references in texts. Because the proposed representation plays a complementary role in characterizing unstructured documents via topological analysis of named entities, we believe that it could be useful to improve the characterization of written texts (and related systems), specially if combined with traditional approaches based on statistical and deeper paradigms.

  18. Use of Spoken and Written Japanese Did Not Protect Japanese-American Men From Cognitive Decline in Late Life (United States)

    Gruhl, Jonathan C.; Erosheva, Elena A.; Gibbons, Laura E.; McCurry, Susan M.; Rhoads, Kristoffer; Nguyen, Viet; Arani, Keerthi; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon


    Objectives. Spoken bilingualism may be associated with cognitive reserve. Mastering a complicated written language may be associated with additional reserve. We sought to determine if midlife use of spoken and written Japanese was associated with lower rates of late life cognitive decline. Methods. Participants were second-generation Japanese-American men from the Hawaiian island of Oahu, born 1900–1919, free of dementia in 1991, and categorized based on midlife self-reported use of spoken and written Japanese (total n included in primary analysis = 2,520). Cognitive functioning was measured with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scored using item response theory. We used mixed effects models, controlling for age, income, education, smoking status, apolipoprotein E e4 alleles, and number of study visits. Results. Rates of cognitive decline were not related to use of spoken or written Japanese. This finding was consistent across numerous sensitivity analyses. Discussion. We did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that multilingualism is associated with cognitive reserve. PMID:20639282

  19. Development and Application of Assessment Standards to Advanced Written Assignments (United States)

    Miihkinen, Antti; Virtanen, Tuija


    This study describes the results of a project that focused on developing an assessment rubric to be used as the assessment criteria for the written thesis of accounting majors and the quality of the coursework during the seminar. We used descriptive analysis and the survey method to collect information for the development work and to examine the…

  20. Distribution of Articles in Written Composition among Malaysian ESL Learners (United States)

    Rahim, Mia Emily Abdul; Rahim, Emma Marini Abdul; Ning, Chia Han


    The study aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of the English grammar articles (a, an, and the) as well as the distributions of their colligation patterns in written compositions of English among Malaysian ESL learners. This paper reports the results of a corpus-based study on articles used by these learners. The method used in this…

  1. Oral and Written Picture Description in Individuals with Aphasia (United States)

    Vandenborre, Dorien; Visch-Brink, Evy; van Dun, Kim; Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter


    Background: Aphasia is characterized by difficulties in connected speech/writing. Aims: To explore the differences between the oral and written description of a picture in individuals with chronic aphasia (IWA) and healthy controls. Descriptions were controlled for productivity, efficiency, grammatical organization, substitution behaviour and…

  2. A History of Oral and Written Storytelling in Nigeria (United States)

    Edosomwan, Simeon; Peterson, Claudette M.


    Storytelling is a powerful process in adult education as a useful instructional approach in facilitating adult instruction and learning, especially during preliterate eras. What began as oral tradition has evolved to include written literature. A popular Eurocentric perspective in the early 19th century was that before the arrival of Europeans…

  3. The Written Literacy Forum: Combining Research and Practice. (United States)

    Clark, Christopher M.; Florio, Susan


    Writing teachers and researchers collaborate in the Written Literacy Forum at Michigan State University to: (1) heighten teachers' awareness of the complexity of writing; (2) stimulate discussion across grade levels; and (3) focus research on areas concerning teachers. Discussion formats and inservice activities are described, and materials…

  4. Concreteness Effects and Syntactic Modification in Written Composition. (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; Goetz, Ernest T.


    Investigates whether concreteness was related to a key characteristic of written composition--the cumulative sentence with a final modifier--which has been consistently associated with higher quality writing. Supports the conceptual-peg hypothesis of dual coding theory, with concrete verbs providing the pegs on which cumulative sentences are…

  5. Written Composition Process, Evaluation Difficulties and Modalities: An Experimental Study (United States)

    Rodriguez, Celestino; Garci, Jesus Nicasio; Gonzalez-Castro, Paloma; Alvarez, David; Cerezo, Rebeca; Bernardo, Ana


    The underlying processes used in written compositions are currently a very interesting subject. Participants in this study were 326 people between 10 and 16 years of age, divided into two groups and compared by means of a "writing log". One group was provided assistance in the writing task by means of a graphic organiser, whilst the other was not…

  6. Written Corrective Feedback: The Perception of Korean EFL Learners (United States)

    Chung, Bohyon


    This paper reports on the perception of Korean EFL learners toward feedback types on their written errors. The survey was administered using an adopted questionnaire from previous studies (Ishii 2011; Leki, 1991). This further allows a comparison of Korean EFL learners' attitudes with the responses to an identical questionnaire by Japanese EFL…

  7. Validating a Written Instrument for Assessing Students' Fractions Schemes and (United States)

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.


    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  8. 22 CFR 208.50 - How is this part written? (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is this part written? 208.50 Section 208.50 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... for the general public and business community to use. The section headings and text, often in the form...

  9. 19 CFR 210.4 - Written submissions; representations; sanctions. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written submissions; representations; sanctions. 210.4 Section 210.4 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Rules of General Applicability § 210.4...

  10. Cracking the code: residents' interpretations of written assessment comments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginsburg, S.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Eva, K.W.; Lingard, L.


    CONTEXT: Interest is growing in the use of qualitative data for assessment. Written comments on residents' in-training evaluation reports (ITERs) can be reliably rank-ordered by faculty attendings, who are adept at interpreting these narratives. However, if residents do not interpret assessment

  11. 9 CFR 202.113 - Rule 13: Written hearing. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 13: Written hearing. 202.113 Section 202.113 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION... waiver of the right to file such evidence. (g) Extension of time for depositions. If any party timely...

  12. Argumentation Schema and the Myside Bias in Written Argumentation (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R.; Britt, M. Anne; Butler, Jodie A.


    This article describes a cognitive argumentation schema for written arguments and presents three empirical studies on the "myside" bias--the tendency to ignore or exclude evidence against one's position. Study 1 examined the consequences of conceding, rebutting, and denying other-side information. Rebuttal led to higher ratings of…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruyama, K.; Nakano, Y.


    This paper proposes a recognition method for cursive Japanese words written in Latin characters. The method integrates multiple classifiers using duplicated can­ didates in multiple classifiers and orders of classifiers to improve the word recog­ nition rate combining their results. In experiments

  14. Optimizing the efficiency of femtosecond-laser-written holograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Hansen, Henrik Dueholm; Balling, Peter


    Computer-generated binary holograms are written on a polished copper surface using single 800-nm, 120-fs pulses from a 1-kHz-repetition-rate laser system. The hologram efficiency (i.e. the power in the holographic reconstructed image relative to the incoming laser power) is investigated...

  15. Written Emotional Expression as an Intervention for Asthma (United States)

    Bray, Melissa A.; Theodore, Lea A.; Patwa, Shamim S.; Margiano, Suzanne G.; Alric, Jolie M.; Peck, Heather L.


    This investigation employed a multiple baseline design across five participants to examine written emotional expression as an intervention to improve lung function in high school-aged students, college students, and adults with asthma. The predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV[subscript 1] measure of large airway functioning) and…

  16. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas


    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  17. Written Formative Assessment and Silence in the Classroom (United States)

    Lee Hang, Desmond Mene; Bell, Beverley


    In this commentary, we build on Xinying Yin and Gayle Buck's discussion by exploring the cultural practices which are integral to formative assessment, when it is viewed as a sociocultural practice. First we discuss the role of assessment and in particular oral and written formative assessments in both western and Samoan cultures, building on the…

  18. 2 CFR 182.100 - How is this part written? (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is this part written? 182.100 Section 182.100 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and...

  19. 17 CFR 230.437a - Written consents. (United States)


    ...) Are filing a registration statement containing financial statements in which Arthur Andersen LLP (or a foreign affiliate of Arthur Andersen LLP) had been acting as the independent public accountant. (b... dispense with the requirement for the registrant to file the written consent of Arthur Andersen LLP (or a...

  20. 42 CFR 456.80 - Individual written plan of care. (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Hospitals Plan of Care § 456.80 Individual written plan of care. (a) Before admission to a hospital or before authorization for... and rehabilitative services; (iv) Activities; (v) Social services; (vi) Diet; (4) Plans for continuing...

  1. Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test Guide. (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is information useful to applicants who are preparing for the Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test. The guide describes the basic aeronautical knowledge and associated requirements for certification, as well as information on source material, instructions for taking the official test, and questions that are…

  2. Different patterns and development characteristics of processing written logographic characters and alphabetic words: an ALE meta-analysis. (United States)

    Zhu, Linlin; Nie, Yaoxin; Chang, Chunqi; Gao, Jia-Hong; Niu, Zhendong


    The neural systems for phonological processing of written language have been well identified now, while models based on these neural systems are different for different language systems or age groups. Although each of such models is mostly concordant across different experiments, the results are sensitive to the experiment design and intersubject variability. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis can quantitatively synthesize the data from multiple studies and minimize the interstudy or intersubject differences. In this study, we performed two ALE meta-analysis experiments: one was to examine the neural activation patterns of the phonological processing of two different types of written languages and the other was to examine the development characteristics of such neural activation patterns based on both alphabetic language and logographic language data. The results of our first meta-analysis experiment were consistent with the meta-analysis which was based on the studies published before 2005. And there were new findings in our second meta-analysis experiment, where both adults and children groups showed great activation in the left frontal lobe, the left superior/middle temporal gyrus, and the bilateral middle/superior occipital gyrus. However, the activation of the left middle/inferior frontal gyrus was found increase with the development, and the activation was found decrease in the following areas: the right claustrum and inferior frontal gyrus, the left inferior/medial frontal gyrus, the left middle/superior temporal gyrus, the right cerebellum, and the bilateral fusiform gyrus. It seems that adults involve more phonological areas, whereas children involve more orthographic areas and semantic areas. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cambridge IGCSE English first language

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John


    Revised edition for the 2015 syllabus to help your students prepare for their examination and enhance their enjoyment of English. This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE First Language English (0500 and 0522) syllabuses, for first teaching from 2013. ? Develops the skills necessary to become a better reader and writer. ? Offers detailed advice and preparation for the examination. ? Teaches skills for successful writing of essays and coursework assignment. We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain endorsement for this title.

  4. Students’ Written Production Error Analysis in the EFL Classroom Teaching: A Study of Adult English Learners Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranauli Sihombing


    Full Text Available Errors analysis has become one of the most interesting issues in the study of Second Language Acquisition. It can not be denied that some teachers do not know a lot about error analysis and related theories of how L1, L2 or foreign language acquired. In addition, the students often feel upset since they find a gap between themselves and the teachers for the errors the students make and the teachers’ understanding about the error correction. The present research aims to investigate what errors adult English learners make in written production of English. The significances of the study is to know what errors students make in writing that the teachers can find solution to the errors the students make for a better English language teaching and learning especially in teaching English for adults. The study employed qualitative method. The research was undertaken at an airline education center in Bandung. The result showed that syntax errors are more frequently found than morphology errors, especially in terms of verb phrase errors. It is recommended that it is important for teacher to know the theory of second language acquisition in order to know how the students learn and produce theirlanguage. In addition, it will be advantages for teachers if they know what errors students frequently make in their learning, so that the teachers can give solution to the students for a better English language learning achievement.   DOI:

  5. Validation of the translation of an instrument to measure reliability of written information on treatment choices: a study on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (United States)

    Montoya, A; Llopis, N; Gilaberte, I


    DISCERN is an instrument designed to help patients assess the reliability of written information on treatment choices. Originally created in English, there is no validated Spanish version of this instrument. This study seeks to validate the Spanish translation of the DISCERN instrument used as a primary measure on a multicenter study aimed to assess the reliability of web-based information on treatment choices for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We used a modified version of a method for validating translated instruments in which the original source-language version is formally compared with the back-translated source-language version. Each item was ranked in terms of comparability of language, similarity of interpretability, and degree of understandability. Responses used Likert scales ranging from 1 to 7, where 1 indicates the best interpretability, language and understandability, and 7 indicates the worst. Assessments were performed by 20 raters fluent in the source language. The Spanish translation of DISCERN, based on ratings of comparability, interpretability and degree of understandability (mean score (SD): 1.8 (1.1), 1.4 (0.9) and 1.6 (1.1), respectively), was considered extremely comparable. All items received a score of less than three, therefore no further revision of the translation was needed. The validation process showed that the quality of DISCERN translation was high, validating the comparable language of the tool translated on assessing written information on treatment choices for ADHD.

  6. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent


    society is everywhere unproblematic. A case in point is Higher Education. I will also argue that the recently proposed solution to ‘domain loss' - Danish and English used ‘in parallel', ‘parallel languages' - because it is unrealistic as well as undesirable as a consistent principle - should be replaced......The Danish language debate is dominated by two key concepts: ‘domain loss' and its opposite, ‘parallel languages' (parallelsproglighed). The under­stood reference is to the relationship between Danish and English - i.e. the spread of English at the expense of Danish vs. the coexistence of Danish...... and English within relevant ‘domains' of Danish society. In this article I am going to argue that the concept of ‘domain loss' is not theoretically tenable - its usual depiction ranging from the vague to the nonsensical - which is not to say that the relationship between English and Danish within Danish...

  7. How Defensible Is Writing as an Objective in Short-Term Foreign Language Experiences? (United States)

    Troyanovich, John


    Advocates the abandonment of writing and written tests as the sole criteria of academic achievement in language courses in favor of programs which emphasize aural skills at all levels of competence. (RL)

  8. Language Features and Culture Features on Short Message

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Mobile phone is regarded as“the fifth media”after newspaper,radio,TV and the Internet.The mobile phone short message further highlights the importance of written signs in communication.“The thumb revolution”is eagerly anticipating one kind of trend by the hand replace of mouth,sound substitute for the quiet around us. My paper will analyze the language features and the culture features of mobile phone short messages which are written in Chinese and English.

  9. Diabetes Australia position statement. A new language for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speight, J.; Conn, J.; Dunning, T.


    can be the language used to refer to diabetes, its management and the person with diabetes. The way verbal and written language is used reflects and shapes people's thoughts, beliefs and behaviours. Language has the power to persuade, change or reinforce beliefs and stereotypes - for better or worse...... and countered. Diabetes Australia believes optimal communication increases the motivation, health and well-being of people with diabetes, and that careless or negative language can be de-motivating, is often inaccurate, and can be harmful. Diabetes Australia developed this position statement to encourage...

  10. The role of verbal and pictorial information in multimodal incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary


    Bisson, Marie-Josée; Van Heuven, Walter J.B.; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J.


    This study used eye tracking to investigate the allocation of attention to multimodal stimuli during an incidental learning situation, as well as its impact on subsequent explicit learning. Participants were exposed to foreign language (FL) auditory words on their own, in conjunction with written native language (NL) translations, or with both written NL translations and pictures. Incidental acquisition of FL words was assessed the following day through an explicit learning task where partici...

  11. Voices from Above--Voices from Below. Who Is Talking and Who Is Listening in Norwegian Language Politics? (United States)

    Linn, Andrew R.


    Einar Haugen brought Norwegian language planning to prominence in the 1960s, describing a series of language reforms ultimately intended to bring the two written standards, Bokmal and Nynorsk, together. Since Haugen's time language policy in Norway has changed direction, and developments over the past 40 years have led to increased autonomy for…

  12. Writing Process Products in Intermediate-Grade Children with and without Language-Based Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.


    Purpose: Difficulties with written expression are an important consideration in the assessment and treatment of school-age children. This study evaluated how intermediate-grade children with and without written language difficulties fared on a writing task housed within the Hayes and Berninger (2014) writing process framework. Method: Sixty-four…

  13. Simplexity, languages and human languaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus


    Building on a distributed perspective, the Special Issue develops Alain Berthoz's concept of simplexity. By so doing, neurophysiology is used to reach beyond observable and, specifically, 1st-order languaging. While simplexity clarifies how language uses perception/action, a community's ‘lexicon......’ (a linguistic 2nd order) also shapes human powers. People use global constraints to make and construe wordings and bring a social/individual duality to human living. Within a field of perception-action-language, the phenomenology of ‘words’ and ‘things’ drives people to sustain their own experience....... Simplex tricks used in building bodies co-function with action that grants humans access to en-natured culture where, together, they build human knowing....

  14. Local language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg


    Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility

  15. Body Language. (United States)

    Pollard, David E.


    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  16. Language Pathology. (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul


    Discusses the role of linguistics in the investigation of language disorders, focusing on the application of phonetics, descriptive grammatic frameworks, grammatical theory, and concepts from semantics and pragmatics to a variety of disorders and their remediation. Some trends and examples from the field of clinical linguistics are discussed. (GLR)

  17. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcárcel, Miguel; Lucena, Rafael


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical Chemistry is influenced by international written standards. •Different relationships can be established between them. •Synergies can be generated when these standards are conveniently managed. -- Abstract: This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived

  18. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, Miguel, E-mail:; Lucena, Rafael


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical Chemistry is influenced by international written standards. •Different relationships can be established between them. •Synergies can be generated when these standards are conveniently managed. -- Abstract: This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Barrot


    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the written discourse of interviewing style for the purpose of print publication. Specifically, this paper sought to describe and explain the phases of interviewing procedures, the typology of the questions, and the transitional strategies executed by Oprah Winfrey during her interviews for O Magazine. One hundred and ten (110 response-soliciting statements were subjected to discourse analytic procedure to determine the features of such utterances. The results showed that her interview procedure follows a certain pattern that contributes to her ability to maintain the intimacy, familiarity, and dynamics of conversation. Further, results revealed that the interviewer employs a variety of response-soliciting strategies and transitional strategies that unconsciously put the control and authority in the conversation to the interviewees. Finally, some pedagogical implications were also presented for classroom use. Keywords: discourse analysis, interviewing style, interview questions, written discourse


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipto Wardoyo


    Full Text Available Expressing apology is a universal activity although people have different strategies or ways to express the apology based on the culture, situation, and context. An apology has played a vital role in verbal politeness; it is certainly impolite when someone does not express an apology when he or she has commited an offence to the others. Apologies in the Pragmatic study is classified under speech act theory. An apology based on Searle (1969 is classified as expressive speech acts because it expresses speaker’s physiological attitude. An apology expresses speaker’s sorrow and regret because he/she has offended hearers or readers.  This paper tries to discuss strategies of editors in expressing written apologies in the online newspaper. The objective of this paper is to explain what the strategies of written apologies are in the online newspaper. This study uses qualitative method; the writer chooses descriptive interpretative technique for analyzing data. There are four written apologies in the online neswpapers as data sources in this paper, the data are taken from The Jakarta Post, The Daily Express, The Sun, and Brisbane Times. The writer tries to describe and analyzes utterances in the data sources based on Olshtain & Cohen theory (1986. There are five main strategies in expressing apologies according to Olshtain & Cohen (1986; they are Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID, expression responsibility, explanation/justification, offer repairs, and promise forbearance. The writer found that all of the written apologies used combination strategies, they used IFID by using performative verb: apologize and be sorry then followed by expression resposbility, explanation, offer repairs, and promise forbearance. Keywords: apologies, speech acts, politeness, pragmatics

  1. Characterization of UV written waveguides with luminescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Rosbirk, Tue


    Luminescence microscopy is used to measure the refractive index profile and molecular defect distribution of UV written waveguides with a spatial resolution of ~0.4 mm and high signal-to-noise ratio. The measurements reveal comlex waveguide formation dynamics with significant topological changes...... in the core profile. In addition, it is observed that thewaveguide formation process requires several milliseconds of UV exposure before starting....

  2. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko


    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  3. Enhancing the benefits of written emotional disclosure through response training. (United States)

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R; Vrana, Scott R


    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n=113) or a neutral writing condition (n=133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on 3 occasions and received response training (n=79), stimulus training (n=84) or no training (n=83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Enhancing the Benefits of Written Emotional Disclosure through Response Training (United States)

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.


    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condition (n = 133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on three occasions and received response training (n = 79), stimulus training (n = 84) or no training (n = 83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. PMID:24680230

  5. [Alcohol advertising in written mass media in Spain]. (United States)

    Montes-Santiago, J; Alvarez Muñiz, M L; Baz Lomba, A


    Alcohol advertising is a powerful factor of incitation to consumption. We analyzed the alcohol advertising, especially that youth-focused, in written mass media in Spain during the period 2002-2006. Annual cross-sectional study of advertisements in 41 widely difused written mass media (average readers: 10,1 millions). Media admitting alcohol publicity were 29% in the whole. (2,9 millions of readers on average, 29% of total readers). Alcohol advertising constituted the 3,8% of global publicity and the 8,6% of the publicity in media admitting alcohol publicity. In this period only 4% of the media (2,4% of total readers) inserted antidrug campaigns. In brief, three out of 10 total readers and one out of 12 people older than 15 years suffered the impact of tobacco advertising. Young people were included in 33% of alcohol advertisements and 3 out of 6 of youth-oriented magazines permitted a such publicity. Alcohol publicity remains high in written mass media in Spain. By contrast few people received informative antidrug campaigns. Advertising was preferentially directed to young people.

  6. Rapid application development using the Tcl/Tk language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Zeijts, J.


    During the last year, high level applications at CEBAF were written using the Tcl/Tk scripting language. This language is rapidly gaining in popularity, in part due to ease of constructing programs with X11 graphical user interfaces, and in part to ease of adding compiled user code for specialized purposes. Extensions to the language provide object oriented programming, which was used to develop a hierarchy of classes relevant for high level accelerator control. We describe basic language features, some 3rd party add-on packages, and local additions to the toolbox. Next we describe features of the accelerator object hierarchy, and finally describe applications written using this toolbox such as the ModelServer prototype, Slow Orbit and Energy Lock, the Linac Energy Management System, and other applications

  7. Use of an orton-gillingham approach to teach a foreign language to dyslexic/learning-disabled students: Explicit teaching of phonology in a second language. (United States)

    Sparks, R L; Ganschow, L; Kenneweg, S; Miller, K


    Recent research findings suggest that students who have difficulty learning a second language have weaknesses in oral and written native-language skills which affect their performance in the foreign-language classroom. These weaknesses involve understanding the phonological, syntactic, and semantic codes of language. Evidence suggests that dyslexic/learning-disabled and other "at risk" students who struggle in the second language classroom exhibit particular difficulty with the phonological and syntactic codes of the language. The Orton-Gillingham method, a multisensory, structured language approach which adheres to the direct and explicit teaching of phonology, is presented as an alternative to the "natural" communication approaches recently developed by foreign-language educators to teach a second language. A method for adapting this approach for teaching Spanish is described.

  8. Achieving academic control in two languages: Drawing on the psychology of language learning in considering the past, the present, and prospects for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Cohen


    Full Text Available This paper first considers what it means to become truly proficient in a language other than the native one. It then looks briefly at the evolution of dual language programs. Next, it focuses on the issue of whether the first language (L1 or the second language (L2 serves as the language of mediation. Other dual language program issues are then discussed, such as how proficient learners actually become in academic and social language in the L2, their proficiency in grammar and pronunciation, and possible administrative constraints in the design and execution of such programs. Finally, attention is given to a guidebook written directly for dual language learners and for their teachers in which learners are encouraged to take a proactive role to ensure that they make the most of their dual program language learning and use experiences.

  9. Spatial Language Learning (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling


    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  10. Language and the Law. (United States)

    Gibbons, John


    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  11. OCCULT-ORSER complete conversational user-language translator (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Young, K.


    Translator program (OCCULT) assists non-computer-oriented users in setting up and submitting jobs for complex ORSER system. ORSER is collection of image processing programs for analyzing remotely sensed data. OCCULT is designed for those who would like to use ORSER but cannot justify acquiring and maintaining necessary proficiency in Remote Job Entry Language, Job Control Language, and control-card formats. OCCULT is written in FORTRAN IV and OS Assembler for interactive execution.

  12. CPL: A Core Language for Cloud Computing -- Technical Report


    Bračevac, Oliver; Erdweg, Sebastian; Salvaneschi, Guido; Mezini, Mira


    Running distributed applications in the cloud involves deployment. That is, distribution and configuration of application services and middleware infrastructure. The considerable complexity of these tasks resulted in the emergence of declarative JSON-based domain-specific deployment languages to develop deployment programs. However, existing deployment programs unsafely compose artifacts written in different languages, leading to bugs that are hard to detect before run time. Furthermore, depl...

  13. Student Views of Technology-Mediated Written Corrective Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher


    and practices concerning the specific – and time-consuming – language-teacher activity of providing WCF and 2) potential changes in student attitudes when technology is used to mediate the feedback. At the core of the study is an eight-month intervention which was carried out with three teachers of English...

  14. Errors on Ghanaian Students' Written English: Is Speaking School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 2, 2016 ... a problem language variety as far as their academic careers are concerned. ... non-Speaking group comprised 10 female students and 5 males. ... there was not a single kind of error that was exclusively committed by ... 1 while the same thing is done with errors found in the scripts of ..... New York: Linguistic.

  15. Glimpses into the transition world: New graduate nurses' written reflections. (United States)

    Walton, Jo Ann; Lindsay, Natalie; Hales, Caz; Rook, Helen


    This study was born out of our reflections as educators responsible for helping new graduate nurses transition into their first year of professional practice through a formal education programme. Finding ourselves wondering about many of the questions the students raised with us, we set about looking more closely at what could be gleaned from the students' experience, captured in their written work over the course of a year. To identify the challenges and learning experiences revealed in reflective assignments written by new graduate nurses undertaking a postgraduate course as part of their transition to registered nurse practice. Data consisted of the written work of two cohorts of students who had completed a postgraduate university course as part of their transition to new graduate practice in New Zealand. Fifty four reflective essays completed by twenty seven participating students were collected and their contents analysed thematically. Five key themes were identified. The students' reflections noted individual attributes - personal and professional strengths and weaknesses; professional behaviour - actions such as engaging help and support, advocating for patients' needs and safety and putting their own feelings aside; situational challenges such as communication difficulties, both systemic and interpersonal, and the pressure of competing demands. Students also identified rewards - results they experienced such as achieving the nursing outcomes they desired, and commented on reflection as a useful tool. The findings shed light on the experiences of new graduates, and how they fare through this critical phase of career development. Challenges relating to the emotional labour of nursing work are particularly evident. In addition the reflective essay is shown to be a powerful tool for assisting both new graduate nurses and their lecturers to reflect on the learning opportunities inherent in current clinical practice environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  16. Understanding Extraordinary Architectural Experiences through Content Analysis of Written Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Richard Ro


    Full Text Available This study a identifies how people describe, characterize, and communicate in written form Extraordinary Architectural Experiences (EAE, and b expands the traditional qualitative approach to architectural phenomenology by demonstrating a quantitative method to analyze written narratives. Specifically, this study reports on the content analysis of 718 personal accounts of EAEs. Using a deductive, ‘theory-driven’ approach, these narratives were read, coded, and statistically analyzed to identify storyline structure, convincing power, and the relationship between subjective and objective experiential qualities used in the story-telling process. Statistical intercoder agreement tests were conducted to verify the reliability of the interpretations to approach the hard problem of “extraordinary aesthetics” in architecture empirically. The results of this study confirm the aesthetic nature of EAE narratives (and of told experiences by showing their higher dependence on external objective content (e.g., a building’s features and location rather than its internal subjective counterpart (e.g., emotions and sensations, which makes them more outwardly focused. The strong interrelationships and intercoder agreement between the thematic realms provide a unique aesthetic construct revealing EAE narratives as memorable, embodied, emotional events mapped by the externally focused content of place, social setting, time, and building features. A majority of EAE narratives were found to possess plot-structure along with significant relationships to objective-subjective content that further grounded their storylines. This study concludes that content analysis provides not only a valid method to understand written narratives about extraordinary architectural experiences quantitatively, but also a view as to how to map the unique nature of aesthetic phenomenology empirically.

  17. Language learning interventions | Kilfoil | Journal for Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results for that intervention show that the hypothesis was correct and students need more time and structure if they are to improve their language competence sufficiently. Keywords: language learning interventions, English for specific purposes, language competence, fossilization. Journal for Language Teaching Vol.

  18. The beginnings of the written culture in Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Panosa


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of writing as a system for communication, since its origins, in terms of its uses and socio-cultural context. We shall also look to review and comment on the way in which it has evolved in time and space and its primordial domains for expression. Likewise, we shall look at the current state of affairs with respect to graphic communication, which includes the alphabet, logographic systems and symbols. From a more global point of view, the relationship between the concept of writing and the concept of civilisation is studied and two dimensions are set out: the oral culture and the written culture.

  19. Participation in Written Government Consultations in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne


    Despite the proliferation of instruments of public consultation in liberal democracies, little is known of how the design and use of these instruments affect stakeholder participation in practice. The article examines participation in written government consultations in an analysis of approximately...... 5,000 responses to consultations in Denmark and the UK in the first half of 2008. It shows that participation is highly conditional upon system-and actor-level characteristics in practice. Our findings indicate that, even if liberal democracies have adopted similar procedures for actor consultation...

  20. English and Chinese languages as weighted complex networks (United States)

    Sheng, Long; Li, Chunguang


    In this paper, we analyze statistical properties of English and Chinese written human language within the framework of weighted complex networks. The two language networks are based on an English novel and a Chinese biography, respectively, and both of the networks are constructed in the same way. By comparing the intensity and density of connections between the two networks, we find that high weight connections in Chinese language networks prevail more than those in English language networks. Furthermore, some of the topological and weighted quantities are compared. The results display some differences in the structural organizations between the two language networks. These observations indicate that the two languages may have different linguistic mechanisms and different combinatorial natures.

  1. Hispanic American Literature: Preserving the Old Language, Blending with the New. (United States)

    Olvera, Joe


    Discusses the history of problems encountered by Hispanic writers, who can enrich the English language and American literature and instill pride in the written words of Spanish and its many dialects by embracing two different philosophies, two different languages, and two different cultures. (AN)

  2. Comprehending Sentences with the Body: Action Compatibility in British Sign Language? (United States)

    Vinson, David; Perniss, Pamela; Fox, Neil; Vigliocco, Gabriella


    Previous studies show that reading sentences about actions leads to specific motor activity associated with actually performing those actions. We investigate how sign language input may modulate motor activation, using British Sign Language (BSL) sentences, some of which explicitly encode direction of motion, versus written English, where motion…

  3. SymexTRON: Symbolic Execution of High-Level Transformation Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sibahi, Ahmad Salim; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Wasowski, Andrzej


    Transformations form an important part of developing domain specific languages, where they are used to provide semantics for typing and evaluation. Yet, few solutions exist for verifying transformations written in expressive high-level transformation languages. We take a step towards that goal, b...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedina Brkić-Međedović


    Full Text Available The paper is about the analysis of the use of idioms in Bosnian and Herzegovinian media language where their origin, characteristics and their meaning are being researched. The frequency of the idioms in media language is defined. The idioms are given phraseological/idiomatic meaning and some new idioms, which are still not found nor written, are being indentified.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedina Brkić-Međedović


    Full Text Available The paper is about the analysis of the use of idioms in Bosnian and Herzegovinian media language where their origin, characteristics and their meaning are being researched. The frequency of the idioms in media language is defined. The idioms are given phraseological/idiomatic meaning and some new idioms, which are still not found nor written, are being indentified.

  6. Preventing Injection Attacks with Syntax Embeddings : A Host and Guest Language Independent Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, M.; Dolstra, E.; Visser, E.


    Software written in one language often needs to construct sentences in another language, such as SQL queries, XML output, or shell command invocations. This is almost always done using unhygienic string manipulation, the concatenation of constants and client-supplied strings. A client can then

  7. How Can Comorbidity with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Aid Understanding of Language and Speech Disorders? (United States)

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Mueller, Kathyrn L.


    This article provides a background for the topic of comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and spoken and written language and speech disorders that extends through this issue of "Topics in Language Disorders." Comorbidity is common within developmental disorders and may be explained by many possible reasons. Some of these can be…

  8. Uses of the word "macula" in written English, 1400-present. (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Leffler, Christopher T


    We compiled uses of the word "macula" in written English by searching multiple databases, including the Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership, America's Historical Newspapers, the Gale Cengage Collections, and others. "Macula" has been used: as a non-medical "spot" or "stain", literal or figurative, including in astronomy and in Shakespeare; as a medical skin lesion, occasionally with a following descriptive adjective, such as a color (macula alba); as a corneal lesion, including the earliest identified use in English, circa 1400; and to describe the center of the retina. Francesco Buzzi described a yellow color in the posterior pole ("retina tinta di un color giallo") in 1782, but did not use the word "macula". "Macula lutea" was published by Samuel Thomas von Sömmering by 1799, and subsequently used in 1818 by James Wardrop, which appears to be the first known use in English. The Google n-gram database shows a marked increase in the frequencies of both "macula" and "macula lutea" following the introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. "Macula" has been used in multiple contexts in written English. Modern databases provide powerful tools to explore historical uses of this word, which may be underappreciated by contemporary ophthalmologists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [A workshop to improve written communication skills of medical students]. (United States)

    Bitran, Marcela; Zúñiga, Denisse; Flotts, Paulina; Padilla, Oslando; Moreno, Rodrigo


    Despite being among the best academically prepared of the country, many medical students have difficulties to communicate in writing. In 2005, the School of Medicine at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile introduced a writing workshop in the undergraduate curriculum, to enhance the students' writing skills. To describe the workshop and its impact on the writing skills of 3 cohorts of students. This 30-h workshop used a participative methodology with emphasis on deliberate practice and feedback. Students worked in small groups with a faculty member specially trained in writing. The qualities of the essays written before and after the workshop were compared. Essays were rated by a professional team that used an analytic rubric to measure formal aspects of text writing as well as more complex thinking processes. There was a significant improvement in the quality of the texts written after the workshop; the main changes occurred in argumentation, and in paragraph and text structure. This improvement was inversely proportional to the initial level of performance, and independent of gender. A writing workshop based on deliberate practice and personalized feedback is effective to enhance the writing proficiency of medical students. Due to its design, this workshop could be useful for students of other careers and universities.

  10. Oral and Written Expression in Children With Reading Comprehension Difficulties. (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Motta, Eleonora; Re, Anna Maria


    Several studies have highlighted that children with reading comprehension difficulties also have problems in tasks that involve telling a story, in writing or verbally. The main differences identified regard poor comprehenders' lower level of coherence in their productions by comparison with good comprehenders. Only one study has compared poor and good comprehenders' performance in both modalities (oral and written), however, to see whether these modalities differently influence poor comprehenders' performance. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the performance of good and poor comprehenders in oral and written narrative tasks with the aim of shedding light on this issue. Regression analyses were also used to explore the role of working memory and vocabulary in explaining individual differences. Our results showed that the two groups produced narratives of comparable length, with similar percentages of spelling mistakes, whereas they differed in terms of the quality of their narratives, regardless of the modality. These differences were qualified by analyzing the children's use of connective devices, and poor comprehenders were found to use a higher proportion of additive devices than good comprehenders. Regression analyses showed that working memory (particularly the intrusion errors measure) explained a modest part of the qualitative differences in narrative production. Implications for our theoretical understanding of poor comprehenders' profiles and education are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  11. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik


    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  12. Analysis of Compositions Written by a Chinese Child in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Spence


    Full Text Available This discourse analysis focuses on the Chinese and Japanese writing of a young student living in Japan who is ethnically Chinese and multilingual. A method for analyzing linguistically diverse student writing was used to explore the literary elements and heteroglossic voices in this student’s writing. Such analysis has been shown to be beneficial to teachers for understanding linguistically diverse student writers. The findings were triangulated with observational data from the student’s home and school, an interview with the student’s teacher and interviews with the mother, who is the co-author of this study. The analysis revealed evidence of writing strengths in two languages, including flexible bilingualism and agency. Implications for school curriculum that develops student languages as a resource for learning are explored.

  13. Swedish advertising language in Finland mirrored by the newspaper advertisements of the Stockmanns department store during the 20th century


    Tandefelt, Marika


    The advertising business is often said to favour a modern, innovative language use. This is a statement not easily verified. Newspaper ads are in fact the genre of written language that linguists have paid the least attention to. People writing texts for newspaper ads are individuals representing contemporary language use. Advertisements representing different periods therefore diverge not only regarding the change of style and form advertising undergoes over time, but changes in the language...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina CĂRĂBAŞ


    Full Text Available Drawing heavily on archival research, the paper analyses the formation of the discourse of socialist realism in Romanian post-war art. A questionnaire on socialist realism to which a number of artists responded in 1948 provides an intermediate phase that brought together more types of language and conceptions of art and reveals how the Soviet model was grafted onto local interwar theories.

  15. Buddha’s Life written in Spanish (1890-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Chaves


    Full Text Available In this essay, the author develops the early reception of the Buddha’s legend in the Spanish language, beginning with writers classified as “Modernistas”, from the last decade of the 19th century, to the book of José Vasconcelos Estudios indostánicos (Indostanic Studies (1920, that tried to overcome the biographic and cultural faults of his predecessors by means of a more academic work.

  16. A Categorical Instrument for Scoring Second Language Writing Skills. (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; Bailey, Kathleen M.


    Discusses a study of the reliability of a categorical instrument for evaluating compositions written by upper intermediate university English as a second language students. The instrument tests organization, logical development of ideas, grammar, mechanics, and style. Results indicate that the scoring instrument is moderately reliable. (SED)

  17. Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.


    This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

  18. Researching Language Teacher Cognition and Practice: International Case Studies (United States)

    Barnard, Roger, Ed.; Burns, Anne, Ed.


    This book presents a novel approach to discussing how to research language teacher cognition and practice. An introductory chapter by the editors and an overview of the research field by Simon Borg precede eight case studies written by new researchers, each of which focuses on one approach to collecting data. These approaches range from…

  19. Sequoyah Foreign Language Translation System - Business Case Analysis (United States)


    typescript . Can read either representations of familiar formulaic verbal exchanges or simple language containing only the highest frequency...comprehension to read simple, authentic written material in a form equivalent to usual printing or typescript on subjects within a familiar context

  20. The usage of African languages in three selected contemporary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The word 'contemporary' refers to approximately the last ten years and 'German' to novels written in the German language, i.e. novels from Switzerland (for example) are also included. The nature, quantity and function of utterances from three selected contemporary German novels will be presented, in order to show how ...

  1. Generalization of Individual Differences in Second Language Learning (United States)

    Anjum, Amber Nasreen; Al-Othmany, Dheya Shujaa; Hussain, Ahmad


    This commentary is based on the analyses of the participants' responses provided in written form while filling the questionnaires. The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze factors in individuals' experiences about second language acquisition. The study was conducted through a research questionnaire. The questions were designed for…

  2. Ewe (for Togo): Grammar Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series. (United States)

    Kozelka, Paul R.

    This handbook is composed of: (1) 20 grammar lessons; (2) an introduction to the handbook and to the Ewe language; (3) an appendix presenting the most important differences between Ewe and Mina, the lingua franca in the capital and in markets, offices, and work-sites throughout Togo; (4) answers to written summary exercises; (5) an Ewe-English…

  3. Morphological Errors in Spanish Second Language Learners and Heritage Speakers (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina


    Morphological variability and the source of these errors have been intensely debated in SLA. A recurrent finding is that postpuberty second language (L2) learners often omit or use the wrong affix for nominal and verbal inflections in oral production but less so in written tasks. According to the missing surface inflection hypothesis, L2 learners…

  4. Lol: New Language and Spelling in Instant Messaging (United States)

    Varnhagen, Connie K.; McFall, G. Peggy; Pugh, Nicole; Routledge, Lisa; Sumida-MacDonald, Heather; Kwong, Trudy E.


    Written communication in instant messaging, text messaging, chat, and other forms of electronic communication appears to have generated a "new language" of abbreviations, acronyms, word combinations, and punctuation. In this naturalistic study, adolescents collected their instant messaging conversations for a 1-week period and then completed a…

  5. Justifying Innovative Language Programs in an Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the analysis of the literature that has been written on project management and language issues in development, it attempts to show how the Communication Skills programme could benefit from this knowledge on project management and educational change management in the third millennium. The paper concludes that ...

  6. Language-agnostic processing of microblog data with text embeddings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrupala, Grzegorz


    A raw stream of posts from a microblogging platform such as Twitter contains text written in a large variety of languages and writing systems, in registers ranging from formal to internet slang. A significant amount has been expended in recent years to adapt standard NLP processing pipelines to be

  7. German Culture and Civilization, Foreign Language: 7536.14. (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This is a guide to a realization and appreciation of the German culture, gained through the use of oral and written German. Four areas of language instruction are emphasized: (1) listening, (2) speaking, (3) reading, and (4) writing. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) broad goals and performance objectives, which include a breakdown of…

  8. Language training

    CERN Multimedia


    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse any more.    You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner!   General & Professional French courses The next General & Professional French course will start on 26 January. These collective courses aim to bring participants who have at least level A1 to higher levels (up to C2). Each level consists of a combination of face-to-face sessions (40 hours) with personal work (20 hours) following a specially designed programme. A final progress test takes place at the end of the term. Please note that it is mandatory to take the placement test. Please sign up here. French courses for beginners The aim of this course is to give some basic skills to beginners in order to communicate in simple everyday situations in both social and professional life. These courses can start at any time during the year, as soon as a group of beg...

  9. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    Permanence A "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier - French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne - English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00   New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF, DALF). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link:  English courses French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144

  10. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    PermanenceA "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00 New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF and BULATS). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link: http://English courses http://French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144


    CERN Multimedia


    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...


    CERN Multimedia


    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  13. A Python Geospatial Language Toolkit (United States)

    Fillmore, D.; Pletzer, A.; Galloy, M.


    The volume and scope of geospatial data archives, such as collections of satellite remote sensing or climate model products, has been rapidly increasing and will continue to do so in the near future. The recently launched (October 2011) Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite (NPP) for instance, is the first of a new generation of Earth observation platforms that will monitor the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems, and its suite of instruments will generate several terabytes each day in the form of multi-spectral images and derived datasets. Full exploitation of such data for scientific analysis and decision support applications has become a major computational challenge. Geophysical data exploration and knowledge discovery could benefit, in particular, from intelligent mechanisms for extracting and manipulating subsets of data relevant to the problem of interest. Potential developments include enhanced support for natural language queries and directives to geospatial datasets. The translation of natural language (that is, human spoken or written phrases) into complex but unambiguous objects and actions can be based on a context, or knowledge domain, that represents the underlying geospatial concepts. This poster describes a prototype Python module that maps English phrases onto basic geospatial objects and operations. This module, along with the associated computational geometry methods, enables the resolution of natural language directives that include geographic regions of arbitrary shape and complexity.

  14. The Effect of Dynamic Written Corrective Feedback on Iranian Elementary Learners’ Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaneh Kamalian


    Full Text Available Error correction is probably the most widely used technique for responding to students’ writing. Although many studies have attempted to investigate the efficacy of providing error correction through different types of written corrective feedback (WCF, there has been relatively little research on any one new approach to writing pedagogy in foreign language learning which is called dynamic WCF. The purpose of the current research was to test the effect of WCF on the improvement of writing abilities of EFL learners. Two groups of EFL students who were learning English as a foreign language participated in this study. Both groups (A and B were given treatments. Core components of the treatment included having the students to write a composition every session (twice a week and the teacher providing the students with feedbacks (dynamic WCF or direct WCF on their writing tasks. Group A (n=24 was instructed through dynamic WCF because it was intended to improve L2 writing ability in general by raising linguistic awareness of learners through the error corrections performed by the teacher.  On the other hand, group B (n= 22 received direct WCF on their writings. Four essential characteristics were taken into consideration for the error correction, i.e. feedback needed to be manageable, meaningful, timely and constant. The data obtained for Group A and Group B was analyzed using paired sample test and the results indicated that both groups had improved on their writing abilities. Also, administrating an independent sample T-test the findings revealed that Group A which received dynamic WCF could outperform Group B.

  15. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language. (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J


    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  16. Foreign Language Teachers' Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice (United States)

    Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon


    Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling,…

  17. Technology in Language Use, Language Teaching, and Language Learning (United States)

    Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard


    This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…

  18. Sign Language Translation in State Administration in Germany: Barrier Free Web Accessibility


    Lišková, Kateřina


    The aim of this thesis is to describe Web accessibility in state administration in the Federal Republic of Germany in relation to the socio-demographic group of deaf sign language users who did not have the opportunity to gain proper knowledge of a written form of the German language. The demand of the Deaf to information in an accessible form as based on legal documents is presented in relation to the theory of translation. How translating from written texts into sign language works in pract...


    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.


  20. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.


    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  1. Let There Be Languages! (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Petur


    Examines the resilience of small languages in the face of larger ones. Highlights include the concept of one dominant language, such as Esperanto; the threat of television to small visual-language societies; the power of visual media; man's relationship to language; and the resilience of language. (LRW)

  2. Language as Pure Potential (United States)

    Park, Joseph Sung-Yul


    Language occupies a crucial position in neoliberalism, due to the reimagination of language as commodified skill. This paper studies the role of language ideology in this transformation by identifying a particular ideology that facilitates this process, namely the ideology which views language as pure potential. Neoliberalism treats language as a…

  3. Linguistics in Language Education (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva


    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  4. Language Teachers' Target Language Project: Language for Specific Purposes of Language Teaching (United States)

    Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana


    The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.

  5. Foreign Language Attrition. (United States)

    de Bot, Kees; Weltens, Bert


    Reviews recent research on language maintenance and language loss, focusing on the loss of a second language in a first language environment, the linguistic aspects of loss, and relearning a "lost" language. An annotated bibliography discusses nine important works in the field. (43 references) (MDM)

  6. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus


    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  7. The reliability of language performance measurement in language sample analysis of children aged 5-6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The language sample analysis (LSA is more common in other languages than Persian to study language development and assess language pathology. We studied some psychometric properties of language sample analysis in this research such as content validity of written story and its pictures, test-retest reliability, and inter-rater reliability.Methods: We wrote a story based on Persian culture from Schneider’s study. The validity of written story and drawn pictures was approved by experts. To study test-retest reliability, 30 children looked at the pictures and told their own story twice with 7-10 days interval. Children generated the story themselves and tester did not give any cue about the story. Their audio-taped story was transcribed and analyzed. Sentence and word structures were detected in the analysis.Results: Mean of experts' agreement with the validity of written story was 92.28 percent. Experts scored the quality of pictures high and excellent. There was correlation between variables in sentence and word structure (p<0.05 in test-retest, except complex sentences (p=0.137. The agreement rate was 97.1 percent in inter-rater reliability assessment of transcription. The results of inter-rater reliability of language analysis showed that correlation coefficients were significant.Conclusion: The results confirmed that the tool was valid for eliciting language sample. The consistency of language performance in repeated measurement varied from mild to high in language sample analysis approach.

  8. Content validation applied to job simulation and written examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, L.M.; McCutchen, M.A.; White, A.S.; Huenefeld, J.C.


    The application of content validation strategies in work settings have become increasingly popular over the last few years, perhaps spurred by an acknowledgment in the courts of content validation as a method for validating employee selection procedures (e.g., Bridgeport Guardians v. Bridgeport Police Dept., 1977). Since criterion-related validation is often difficult to conduct, content validation methods should be investigated as an alternative for determining job related selection procedures. However, there is not yet consensus among scientists and professionals concerning how content validation should be conducted. This may be because there is a lack of clear cut operations for conducting content validation for different types of selection procedures. The purpose of this paper is to discuss two content validation approaches being used for the development of a licensing examination that involves a job simulation exam and a written exam. These represent variations in methods for applying content validation. 12 references

  9. Optical Music Recognition for Scores Written in White Mensural Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardón LorenzoJ


    Full Text Available An Optical Music Recognition (OMR system especially adapted for handwritten musical scores of the XVII-th and the early XVIII-th centuries written in white mensural notation is presented. The system performs a complete sequence of analysis stages: the input is the RGB image of the score to be analyzed and, after a preprocessing that returns a black and white image with corrected rotation, the staves are processed to return a score without staff lines; then, a music symbol processing stage isolates the music symbols contained in the score and, finally, the classification process starts to obtain the transcription in a suitable electronic format so that it can be stored or played. This work will help to preserve our cultural heritage keeping the musical information of the scores in a digital format that also gives the possibility to perform and distribute the original music contained in those scores.

  10. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards. (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel; Lucena, Rafael


    This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. How diaries written for critically ill influence the relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Højager; Angel, Sanne


    BACKGROUND: Diaries written by nurses for the critically ill patient helps relatives cope and support the patient. When relatives participate in writing a diary for the critically ill, patients appreciate it. Furthermore, the diary may reduce post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression......-selected articles. Finally, 10 articles were included in this review structured by the Matrix method. INCLUSION CRITERIA: (a) Original scientific work, (b) relatives participation and experience of the diary as subject and (c) diaries studied in an intensive care unit setting. FINDINGS: Relatives were given...... instructions on how to write in the diary. They expressed strong feelings in the diary in a very different way than health care staff. The relatives used the diary themselves to gain understanding and to cope. The diary has been shown to prevent post-traumatic stress symptoms. CONCLUSION: The relatives express...

  12. How Primary Education students organize the planning of the written

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Gallego Ortega


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a study aimed at providing an insight into how students with Primary Education plan their written expression. The exploratory and qualitative investigation resorts to the “collective case study” and it is used the “cognitive interview” to obtain the items, applying the “content analysis” in the interpretation of them. This research has allowed us to identify the process in content organization, how students make these operations and the main difficulties founded in it. The results of the research show that, although these students normally make the operations of this textual organization process, they have important difficulties regarding the general planning of the ideas in a text. Finally, this article gives some guidelines for the teaching of writing structure in Primary Education students.

  13. Thermomagnetically written domains in TbFeCo thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reim, W.; Weller, D.


    Characteristic features of thermomagnetically written domains in amorphous Tb x (Fe 90 Co 10 ) 100-x alloy thin films having different magnetic properties are reported. In particular, the writing process in materials with low Tb content chi ≤ 21 dominated by the demagnetizing field is compared to the bias field dominated process in Tb rich samples 22 ≤ chi ≤ 25. Domain wall movement over lateral dimensions of the bit size is found for Tb poor materials while for chi ≥ 22 domain boundaries are primarily determined by the area heated up to the Curie-temperature. The importance of mechanical stress on domain formation and irreversible changes of the storage medium due to overheating in the writing process are reported

  14. Readability of Written Materials for CKD Patients: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Morony, Suzanne; Flynn, Michaela; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Jansen, Jesse; Webster, Angela C


    The "average" patient has a literacy level of US grade 8 (age 13-14 years), but this may be lower for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Current guidelines suggest that patient education materials should be pitched at a literacy level of around 5th grade (age 10-11 years). This study aims to evaluate the readability of written materials targeted at patients with CKD. Systematic review. Patient information materials aimed at adults with CKD and written in English. Patient education materials designed to be printed and read, sourced from practices in Australia and online at all known websites run by relevant international CKD organizations during March 2014. Quantitative analysis of readability using Lexile Analyzer and Flesch-Kincaid tools. We analyzed 80 materials. Both Lexile Analyzer and Flesch-Kincaid analyses suggested that most materials required a minimum of grade 9 (age 14-15 years) schooling to read them. Only 5% of materials were pitched at the recommended level (grade 5). Readability formulas have inherent limitations and do not account for visual information. We did not consider other media through which patients with CKD may access information. Although the study covered materials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia, all non-Internet materials were sourced locally, and it is possible that some international paper-based materials were missed. Generalizability may be limited due to exclusion of non-English materials. These findings suggest that patient information materials aimed at patients with CKD are pitched above the average patient's literacy level. This issue is compounded by cognitive decline in patients with CKD, who may have lower literacy than the average patient. It suggests that information providers need to consider their audience more carefully when preparing patient information materials, including user testing with a low-literacy patient population. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by

  15. Managing Written Directives: A Software Solution to Streamline Workflow. (United States)

    Wagner, Robert H; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Gabriel, Medhat S; Halama, James R; Bova, Davide


    A written directive is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for any use of 131 I above 1.11 MBq (30 μCi) and for patients receiving radiopharmaceutical therapy. This requirement has also been adopted and must be enforced by the agreement states. As the introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals increases therapeutic options in nuclear medicine, time spent on regulatory paperwork also increases. The pressure of managing these time-consuming regulatory requirements may heighten the potential for inaccurate or incomplete directive data and subsequent regulatory violations. To improve on the paper-trail method of directive management, we created a software tool using a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant database. This software allows for secure data-sharing among physicians, technologists, and managers while saving time, reducing errors, and eliminating the possibility of loss and duplication. Methods: The software tool was developed using Visual Basic, which is part of the Visual Studio development environment for the Windows platform. Patient data are deposited in an Access database on a local HIPAA-compliant secure server or hard disk. Once a working version had been developed, it was installed at our institution and used to manage directives. Updates and modifications of the software were released regularly until no more significant problems were found with its operation. Results: The software has been used at our institution for over 2 y and has reliably kept track of all directives. All physicians and technologists use the software daily and find it superior to paper directives. They can retrieve active directives at any stage of completion, as well as completed directives. Conclusion: We have developed a software solution for the management of written directives that streamlines and structures the departmental workflow. This solution saves time, centralizes the information for all staff to share, and decreases

  16. Young children's communication and literacy: a qualitative study of language in the inclusive preschool. (United States)

    Kliewer, C


    Interactive and literacy-based language use of young children within the context of an inclusive preschool classroom was explored. An interpretivist framework and qualitative research methods, including participant observation, were used to examine and analyze language in five preschool classes that were composed of children with and without disabilities. Children's language use included spoken, written, signed, and typed. Results showed complex communicative and literacy language use on the part of young children outside conventional adult perspectives. Also, children who used expressive methods other than speech were often left out of the contexts where spoken language was richest and most complex.

  17. About training of Kazakh students of not language specialties basis of scientific speech


    Ospanova D.


    The article discusses the process of written scientific speech training should include two components: teaching understanding and evaluating texts that make the scientific speech in all its substantive and problematic species and learning the rules of creating texts in the chosen specialty. The idea about functional languages develops in the theory vernaculars among which numerous languages of science take essentially important place; studying of these languages represents the theory and prac...



    Yee-Han Chan; Ngan-Ling Wong; Lee-Luan Ng


    Studies showed that interest in anime motivates students to learn the Japanese language and culture (Manion, 2005; Fukunaga, 2006; William, 2006). However, little has been written about the practical use of anime in a Japanese language classroom. By employing the method of classroom research, this study will try to narrow the gap between theory and practice of using anime as a teaching tool in the Japanese language classroom. This qualitative study will focus on discussing what the participan...

  19. An on-line gas control system using an artificial intelligence language: PROLOG II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, C.


    An application of Artificial Intelligence to a real physics experiment is presented. This allows comparison with classical programming techniques. The PROLOG language appears as a convenient on-line language, easily interfaced to the low level service routines, for which algorithmic languages can still be used. Steering modules have been written for a gas acquisition and analysis program, and for a control system with graphic human interface. This system includes safety rules and automatic action sequences

  20. Academic language and the challenge of reading for learning about science. (United States)

    Snow, Catherine E


    A major challenge to students learning science is the academic language in which science is written. Academic language is designed to be concise, precise, and authoritative. To achieve these goals, it uses sophisticated words and complex grammatical constructions that can disrupt reading comprehension and block learning. Students need help in learning academic vocabulary and how to process academic language if they are to become independent learners of science.

  1. The Metaphorical Language of Branding Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Hocenski Dreiseidl


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of the language of branding philosophy used in the famous book «Lovemarks – The Future Beyond Brands» written by the international branding guru Kevin Roberts, CEO Worldwide of Ideas Company Saatchi & Saatchi. His new branding approach shows how by using the universal, fundamental, timeless emotion LOVE expressed in universally (anywhere and timelessly (anytime comprehensible metaphors a new idea of a «lovemark» embodies mystery (great stories, past, present and future, taps into dreams, myths and icons, inspiration, sensuality (sound, sight, smell, touch, taste, and intimacy (commitment, empathy, passion. Lovemark that, according to Roberts, «…reaches one's heart, as well as one's mind, and creates emotional connection to the consumer…» has been created and accepted in the business culture worldwide. In view of this, the paper points out the significance of metaphorical way of expressing in the language of branding as well as the irreplaceable role of language as the main factor in branding philosophy. The language analysis focuses on the metaphors of love influencing the shift of language of branding from material (brand to intangible (lovemark. It also highlights the fact that new ideas as incentives to language enrichment generate new lexemes like trustmark and lovemark.

  2. Automatic personality assessment through social media language. (United States)

    Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P


    Language use is a psychologically rich, stable individual difference with well-established correlations to personality. We describe a method for assessing personality using an open-vocabulary analysis of language from social media. We compiled the written language from 66,732 Facebook users and their questionnaire-based self-reported Big Five personality traits, and then we built a predictive model of personality based on their language. We used this model to predict the 5 personality factors in a separate sample of 4,824 Facebook users, examining (a) convergence with self-reports of personality at the domain- and facet-level; (b) discriminant validity between predictions of distinct traits; (c) agreement with informant reports of personality; (d) patterns of correlations with external criteria (e.g., number of friends, political attitudes, impulsiveness); and (e) test-retest reliability over 6-month intervals. Results indicated that language-based assessments can constitute valid personality measures: they agreed with self-reports and informant reports of personality, added incremental validity over informant reports, adequately discriminated between traits, exhibited patterns of correlations with external criteria similar to those found with self-reported personality, and were stable over 6-month intervals. Analysis of predictive language can provide rich portraits of the mental life associated with traits. This approach can complement and extend traditional methods, providing researchers with an additional measure that can quickly and cheaply assess large groups of participants with minimal burden. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. SPICE modelling of magnetic tunnel junctions written by spin-transfer torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, W; Prenat, G; De Mestier, N; Baraduc, C; Dieny, B [SPINTEC, UMR(8191), INAC, CEA/CNRS/UJF, 17 Av. des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Javerliac, V; El Baraji, M, E-mail: guillaume.prenat@cea.f [CROCUS Technology, 5 Place Robert Schuman, 38025 Grenoble (France)


    Spintronics aims at extending the possibility of conventional electronics by using not only the charge of the electron but also its spin. The resulting spintronic devices, combining the front-end complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology of electronics with a magnetic back-end technology, employ magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) as core elements. With the intent of simulating a circuit without fabricating it first, a reliable MTJ electrical model which is applicable to the standard SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) simulator is required. Since such a model was lacking so far, we present a MTJ SPICE model whose magnetic state is written by using the spin-transfer torque effect. This model has been developed in the C language and validated on the Cadence Virtuoso Platform with a Spectre simulator. Its operation is similar to that of the standard BSIM (Berkeley Short-channel IGFET Model) SPICE model of the MOS transistor and fully compatible with the SPICE electrical simulator. The simulation results obtained using this model have been found in good accord with those theoretical macrospin calculations and results.

  4. A study of potential sources of linguistic ambiguity in written work instructions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.


    This report describes the results of a small experimental study that investigated potential sources of ambiguity in written work instructions (WIs). The English language can be highly ambiguous because words with different meanings can share the same spelling. Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous WIs can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. To study possible sources of ambiguity in WIs, we determined which of the recommended action verbs in the DOE and BWXT writer's manuals have numerous meanings to their intended audience, making them potentially ambiguous. We used cognitive psychology techniques to conduct a survey in which technicians who use WIs in their jobs indicated the first meaning that came to mind for each of the words. Although the findings of this study are limited by the small number of respondents, we identified words that had many different meanings even within this limited sample. WI writers should pay particular attention to these words and to their most frequent meanings so that they can avoid ambiguity in their writing.

  5. Health Literacy - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Health Literacy URL of this page: ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Health Literacy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Atrial Fibrillation URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Journal for Language Teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig ... SAALT was founded in 1964 for the benefit of language teaching and language teachers and ...

  9. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. Introduction to formal languages

    CERN Document Server

    Révész, György E


    Covers all areas, including operations on languages, context-sensitive languages, automata, decidability, syntax analysis, derivation languages, and more. Numerous worked examples, problem exercises, and elegant mathematical proofs. 1983 edition.

  13. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  14. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. A Natural Language Architecture


    Sodiya, Adesina Simon


    Natural languages are the latest generation of programming languages, which require processing real human natural expressions. Over the years, several groups or researchers have trying to develop widely accepted natural language languages based on artificial intelligence (AI). But no true natural language has been developed. The goal of this work is to design a natural language preprocessing architecture that identifies and accepts programming instructions or sentences in their natural forms ...

  17. Querying and Serving N-gram Language Models with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Statistical n-gram language modeling is a very important technique in Natural Language Processing (NLP and Computational Linguistics used to assess the fluency of an utterance in any given language. It is widely employed in several important NLP applications such as Machine Translation and Automatic Speech Recognition. However, the most commonly used toolkit (SRILM to build such language models on a large scale is written entirely in C++ which presents a challenge to an NLP developer or researcher whose primary language of choice is Python. This article first provides a gentle introduction to statistical language modeling. It then describes how to build a native and efficient Python interface (using SWIG to the SRILM toolkit such that language models can be queried and used directly in Python code. Finally, it also demonstrates an effective use case of this interface by showing how to leverage it to build a Python language model server. Such a server can prove to be extremely useful when the language model needs to be queried by multiple clients over a network: the language model must only be loaded into memory once by the server and can then satisfy multiple requests. This article includes only those listings of source code that are most salient. To conserve space, some are only presented in excerpted form. The complete set of full source code listings may be found in Volume 1 of The Python Papers Source Codes Journal.

  18. A New Language Design for Prototyping Numerical Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Derby


    Full Text Available To naturally and conveniently express numerical algorithms, considerable expressive power is needed in the languages in which they are implemented. The language Matlab is widely used by numerical analysts for this reason. Expressiveness or ease-of-use can also result in a loss of efficiency, as is the case with Matlab. In particular, because numerical analysts are highly interested in the performance of their algorithms, prototypes are still often implemented in languages such as Fortran. In this article we describe a language design that is intended to both provide expressiveness for numerical computation, and at the same time provide performance guarantees. In our language, EQ, we attempt to include both syntactic and semantic features that correspond closely to the programmer's model of the problem, including unordered equations, large-granularity state transitions, and matrix notation. The resulting language does not fit into standard language categories such as functional or imperative but has features of both paradigms. We also introduce the notion of language dependability, which is the idea that a language should guarantee that certain program transformations are performed by all implementations. We first describe the interesting features of EQ, and then present three examples of algorithms written using it. We also provide encouraging performance results from an initial implementation of our language.

  19. Written Expression Performance in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (United States)

    DeBono, Tony; Hosseini, Armita; Cairo, Cassandra; Ghelani, Karen; Tannock, Rosemary; Toplak, Maggie E.


    We examined written expression performance in a sample of adolescents with ADHD and subthreshold ADHD using two different strategies: examining performance on standardized measures of written expression and using other indicators of written expression developed in this study. We examined associations between standardized measures of written…

  20. Language Assessment Literacy: Implications for Language Teachers (United States)

    Giraldo, Frank


    Recently, the applied linguistics field has examined the knowledge, skills, and principles needed for assessment, defined as language assessment literacy. Two major issues in language assessment literacy have been addressed but not fully resolved--what exactly language assessment literacy is and how it differs among stakeholders (e.g., students…

  1. Discussion: Imagining the Languaged Worker's Language (United States)

    Urciuoli, Bonnie


    What people perceive as "a language"--a named entity--is abstracted from practices and notions about those practices. People take for granted that language is somehow a "thing," an objectively distinct and bounded entity. How languages come to be thus imagined indexes the conditions under which they are imagined. The articles…

  2. Language and Language Policy in Singapore. (United States)

    Baxter, William H., III


    Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)

  3. Japanese language and Japanese science (United States)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka


    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  4. Increased Stroop interference with better second-language reading skill. (United States)

    Braet, Wouter; Noppe, Nele; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans


    Skilled readers demonstrate remarkable efficiency in processing written words, unlike beginning readers for whom reading occurs more serially and places higher demands on visual attention. In the present study, we used the Stroop paradigm to investigate the relationship between reading skill and automaticity, in individuals learning a second language with a different orthographic system. Prior studies using this paradigm have presented a mixed picture, finding a positive, a negative, or no relationship between the size of Stroop interference and reading skills. Our results show that Stroop interference in the second language was positively related to reading skill (when controlled for interference in the first language). Furthermore, interference was positively related to objective but not subjective indices of the amount of exposure to the second language. We suggest that the lack of consistency in the results of earlier studies may be due, at least in part, to these studies looking at Stroop interference in isolation, rather than comparing interference between languages.

  5. Using Cell Phones to Improve Language Skills: The Hadeda Project (United States)

    Butgereit, Laurie; Botha, Adele; van Niekerk, Daniel

    Language skills are essential for education and economic development. Many countries (especially in Africa) have more than one official language and even more unofficial languages. Being able to express oneself effectively in the written word is required for tertiary education. Unfortunately, cell phones are often blamed for the degradation of language skills. There have been many studies blaming cell phone usage and instant messaging as being responsible for the the lack of language skills of children, teenagers, and young adults. Hadeda is a facility where teachers and parents can create spelling lists for pupils and children using either a cell phone or an internet based workstation. Hadeda then generates a fun and enjoyable cell phone midlet (computer program) which pupils and children can download onto their personal cell phone. Hadeda pronounces the words with electronic voices and the pupils and children can then practice their spelling on a medium they enjoy.

  6. Usage of the Python programming language in the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, R; Hegner, B; Jones, C D


    Being a highly dynamic language and allowing reliable programming with quick turnarounds, Python is a widely used programming language in CMS. Most of the tools used in workflow management and the GRID interface tools are written in this language. Also most of the tools used in the context of release management: integration builds, release building and deploying, as well as performance measurements are in Python. With an interface to the CMS data formats, rapid prototyping of analyses and debugging is an additional use case. Finally in 2008 the CMS experiment switched to using Python as its configuration language. This paper will give an overview of the general usage of Python in the CMS experiment and discuss which features of the language make it well-suited for the existing use cases.

  7. Probing Language Teacher Accountability in Utilizing Self-developed Language Teaching Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Vosoughi


    Full Text Available This study was aimed at recognizing constraints on the way of some Iranian language teachers' utilization of self-developed, localized, English language teaching resources. To this aim, three sets of teacher variables on pedagogical and personal accounts were examined including Language teachers' experience (novice/experienced, their educational level (BA/MA/PhD and their gender. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, through stratified sampling, some eighty-three volunteering, English language teachers (Male and Female, who were indulged in the Iranian Ministry of Education (MoE, university settings (public and private and language institutes were randomly selected.  Teachers’ responses to a validated researcher-made questionnaire on language teacher curriculum autonomy revealed an overall significant Multiple R with F (3, 80 =.88, (0.04 but each individual above-cited predictors could not significantly predict teacher curriculum autonomy score. In the second phase for triangulation aims, three above-cited teacher variables were mapped over the insights gained through written interview sessions with some fourteen English language teachers.  Language teachers' self-reported 'challenges' and 'opportunities' for using self-developed language teaching resources for class use were content analyzed. It became evident that teaching experience was mystified in some respects in terms of its influence over interviewed teachers since diverse intentions on the part of the language teachers in this research might have deterred them not to use their full potential over using their own materials in class. Possible reasons for this situation have been fully discussed in the end.

  8. Reading Level and Length of Written Research Consent Forms (United States)

    Foe, Gabriella; Lally, Rachel


    Abstract In 100 Institutional Review Board approved consent forms (CFs), we assessed pages, reading levels, and whether they included essential elements. CF page numbers ranged from 3 to 28 (mean, 10.3) and readability ranged from grades 5.6 to 28.9 (mean, 11.6). The CF mean score for including essential elements was 90.8% (range: 63.5–100%). There were no significant differences by specialty in number of pages (p = 0.053), but surgical specialties had the highest readability (mean, 13.1), and pediatrics the lowest (10.5), p = 0.008. While approved CFs generally included the Office for Human Research Protections recommended essential elements, they were very long, and even pediatric forms, which had the lowest reading levels, were written on average at a tenth grade level. Researchers need guidance to resolve pressure between regulatory mandates and guidelines and “keeping it simple and clear.” PMID:25580939

  9. Informed consent and the readability of the written consent form. (United States)

    Sivanadarajah, N; El-Daly, I; Mamarelis, G; Sohail, M Z; Bates, P


    Introduction The aim of this study was to objectively ascertain the level of readability of standardised consent forms for orthopaedic procedures. Methods Standardised consent forms (both in summary and detailed formats) endorsed by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) were retrieved from and assessed for readability. This involved using an online tool to calculate the validated Flesch reading ease score (FRES). This was compared with the FRES for the National Health Service (NHS) Consent Form 1. Data were analysed and interpreted according to the FRES grading table. Results The FRES for Consent Form 1 was 55.6, relating to the literacy expected of an A level student. The mean FRES for the BOA summary consent forms (n=27) was 63.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.2-66.0) while for the detailed consent forms (n=32), it was 68.9 (95% CI: 67.7-70.0). All BOA detailed forms scored >60, correlating to the literacy expected of a 13-15-year-old. The detailed forms had a higher FRES than the summary forms (p<0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that the BOA endorsed standardised consent forms are much easier to read and understand than the NHS Consent Form 1, with the detailed BOA forms being the easiest to read. Despite this, owing to varying literacy levels, a significant proportion of patients may struggle to give informed consent based on the written information provided to them.

  10. The security analyzer, a security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.; Carlson, R.L.


    A technique has been developed to characterize a nuclear facility and measure the strengths and weaknesses of the physical protection system. It utilizes the artificial intelligence capabilities available in the prolog programming language to probe a facility's defenses and find potential attack paths that meet designated search criteria. As sensors or barriers become inactive due to maintenance, failure, or inclement weather conditions, the protection system can rapidly be reanalyzed to discover weaknesses that would need to be strengthened by alternative means. Conversely, proposed upgrades and enhancements can be easily entered into the database and their effect measured against a variety of potential adversary attacks. Thus the security analyzer is a tool that aids the protection planner as well as the protection operations staff

  11. A nuclear facility Security Analyzer written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.


    The Security Analyzer project was undertaken to use the Prolog artificial intelligence programming language and Entity-Relationship database construction techniques to produce an intelligent database computer program capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a nuclear facility's security systems. The Security Analyzer program can search through a facility to find all possible surreptitious entry paths that meet various user-selected time and detection probability criteria. The program can also respond to user-formulated queries concerning the database information. The intelligent database approach allows the program to perform a more comprehensive path search than other programs that only find a single optimal path. The program also is more flexible in that the database, once constructed, can be interrogated and used for purposes independent of the searching function

  12. A nuclear facility Security Analyzer written in PROLOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.


    The Security Analyzer project was undertaken to use the Prolog ''artificial intelligence'' programming language and Entity-Relationship database construction techniques to produce an intelligent database computer program capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a nuclear facility's security systems. The Security Analyzer program can search through a facility to find all possible surreptitious entry paths that meet various user-selected time and detection probability criteria. The program can also respond to user-formulated queries concerning the database information. The intelligent database approach allows the program to perform a more comprehensive path search than other programs that only find a single ''optimal'' path. The program also is more flexible in that the database, once constructed, can be interrogated and used for purposes independent of the searching function

  13. Speech and Language Delay (United States)

    ... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...

  14. The Mixed language Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin.......A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin....

  15. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter


    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the

  16. Creativity in Language Teaching (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.


    One quality among the many that characterize effective teachers is the ability to bring a creative disposition to teaching. In second language teaching, creativity has also been linked to levels of attainment in language learning. Many of the language tasks favored by contemporary language teaching methods are believed to release creativity in…

  17. Language Policy and Planning. (United States)

    Takala, Sauli; Sajavaara, Kari


    Focuses on foreign language planning, or the planned changes in foreign language instructional systems and in uses of languages in different social contexts with special reference to the Nordic and Baltic countries. Special attention is given to the relationship between language planning and evaluation. (Author/VWL)

  18. A Contrastive Analysis of the Links of Textuality in Abstracts Written by Persian and English Writers in Clinical Psychology Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mehrabi Boshrabadi


    Full Text Available It is generally agreed today that lexical cohesion is one of the fundamental elements of the text texture achieved through lexical semantic relations dominating the arrangement of propositional units in a text. Accordingly, this study sought to compare and contrast the textual links or lexical cohesive devices enlisted in the psychological abstracts written by Persian and English writers. To this end, 40 abstracts from Persian and English articles, 20 in each language, published in clinical psychology journals were randomly selected. The framework serving as tertium comprationis for analyzing lexical cohesion markers was derived from Halliday and Hasan’s (1976 model [Halliday, M. A. K., & Hasan, R. (1976. Cohesion in English. London: Longman]. A frequency count analysis was employed to gauge the number of occurrences of cohesive links in the selected corpus. The results revealed that lexical links of synonymy and repetition were more frequent than other cohesive devices in both English and Persian abstracts.

  19. Language Literacy in Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari


    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways in which the transfer of assumptions from first language (L1 writing can help the process of writing in second language (L2. In learning second language writing skills, learners have two primary sources from which they construct a second language system: knowledge and skills from first language and input from second language. To investigate the relative impact of first language literacy skills on second language writing ability, 60 EFL students from Tabriz Islamic Azad University were chosen as participants of this study, based on their language proficiency scores. The subjects were given two topics to write about: the experimental group subjects were asked to write in Persian and then translate their writing into English. The control group wrote in English. The results obtained in this study indicate that the content and vocabulary components of the compositions were mostly affected by the use of first language.

  20. The Formation of the Crimean Tatar Literary Language in the 15th–17th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Rustemov


    Full Text Available Research objective: Linguistic analysis of the Crimean Tatar language in official documents against the backdrop of the literary and written traditions of the Golden Horde, a polity to which the Crimean ulus belonged for quite a long time. Research materials: The yarlik of the Crimean khan, Bora Gaza Girey, which we transliterated and translated into Russian, is used as an illustrative text. The language of this yarlik makes it possible to analyze the lexical and grammatical changes in the written language of the Golden Horde which occurred in Crimea under local and Ottoman dialectical influences. Being subjected to changes of this kind, the Golden Horde’s Türki can already be defined as having shifted to the Crimean mixed-Türki of the stated period. The study of the language of the Crimean khans’ yalriks and the parallel study of the language of other Crimean official documents provide an accurate picture of the language processes in the Crimea during the period of the Crimean Khanate, not only at the level of written language, but also at the level of the spoken one. Results and novelty of the research: The efforts of the author on the analysis of the Crimean variant of the Türki language were undertaken for the first time in Turkic studies. As a result, the author revealed not only the substrata of the Ottoman, but also the local Oghuz-Kypchak dialect, recorded in the Codex Cumanicus.