WorldWideScience

Sample records for parent star approaches

  1. The spectrophotometric investigation of 4 parent stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshchenko, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The absolute energy distribution in spectra of four parent stars was obtained. The synthetic color indexes for the investigated stars were calculated. They were used for determination of the fundamental parameters of the parent stars: effective temperatures and metallicities. (author)

  2. White dwarfs: connection with masses of the parent stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amnuel', P.R.; Guseinov, O.Kh.; Novruzova, Kh.I.; Rustamov, Yu.S.

    1988-01-01

    A relationship between the mass of a white dwarf and the mass of the parent star on the main sequence is established. The white dwarf birth-rate matches the birth-rate (death-rate) of main sequence stars

  3. Evaluation of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach by Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcinar, Zehra; Ekizoglu, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of parent involvement in children's education, research clearly shows that it is difficult to effectively involve parents. This study aims to capture parents' views of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach (BPIA) designed to secure parent involvement in education by strengthening school-parent communication. Data…

  4. The STAR project: context, objectives and approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furse, M.; Hering, D.; Moog, O.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Johnson, R.K.; Brabec, K.; Gritzalis, K.; Buffagni, A.; Pinto, P.; Friberg, N.; Murray-Bligh, J.; Kokes, J.; Alber, R.; Usseglio-Polatera, P.; Haase, P.; Sweeting, R.; Bis, B.; Szoszkiewicz, K.; Soszka, H.; Springe, G.; Sporka, F.; Krno, I.

    2006-01-01

    STAR is a European Commission Framework V project (EVK1-CT-2001-00089). The project aim is to provide practical advice and solutions with regard to many of the issues associated with the Water Framework Directive. This paper provides a context for the STAR research programme through a review of the

  5. Successful approaches. Sports stars and HEAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In western Samoa, football stars are being used in the fight against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Originally recruited by Palanitina Toelupe, chief health educator of the Health Education and Promotion Section (HEAPS), to assist with an anti-smoking campaign, the players became sensitized to issues regarding AIDS and agreed to visit high schools where they could urge young people to "Learn the Facts (about AIDS) and Pass the Word." With assistance from the SPC, HEAPS produced and broadcast radio and TV spots featuring the athletes; a poster was printed and distributed. Sports stars travel regionally and internationally; those with knowledge of AIDS and unsafe sex behavior can reinforce responsible sexual behavior among their teammates. Sports people should be targeted for AIDS and sexually transmitted disease (STD) education and prevention.

  6. Approaches to Building Teacher-Parent Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Cankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the areas of cooperation inwhich parent and teacher expectations were the same and where they differed. Data were obtained from a sample of 55 randomly selected primary schools. We analyzed school-to home communications, parentalinfluence on school decisions, and parent involvement in different school activities. At the same time, we also explored building cooperation among the teachers, students, and their parents, within the framework of the program ‘Reading and Conversation’. The findings indicated that the third- and ninth- grade lead teachers were mostly in agreement about the importance of parent involvement and as such represented a fairly homogenous group. The third-grade lead teachers were more open about actual involvement of parents in instruction than their ninth-grade colleagues, who were more cautious and restrained. In contrast to the lead teachers who represented a relatively narrow professional group, parents’ views were much more diverse. Parental education was the best predictor of their readiness to become involved in the life and work of their children’s school. Whether the area in which the families lived was urban or suburban did not make any difference. The evaluation of the one-year ‘Reading and Conversation’ programme revealed increases in parents’motivation to collaborate with the school as a consequence of the program’s approach to work, as well as improvement in mutual relationships and dialogue.

  7. Validation of Slosh Modeling Approach Using STAR-CCM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David J.; Ng, Wanyi

    2018-01-01

    Without an adequate understanding of propellant slosh, the spacecraft attitude control system may be inadequate to control the spacecraft or there may be an unexpected loss of science observation time due to higher slosh settling times. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to model propellant slosh. STAR-CCM+ is a commercially available CFD code. This paper seeks to validate the CFD modeling approach via a comparison between STAR-CCM+ liquid slosh modeling results and experimental, empirically, and analytically derived results. The geometries examined are a bare right cylinder tank and a right cylinder with a single ring baffle.

  8. Novel approach to improve the attitude update rate of a star tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Xing, Fei; Sun, Ting; You, Zheng; Wei, Minsong

    2018-03-05

    The star tracker is widely used in attitude control systems of spacecraft for attitude measurement. The attitude update rate of a star tracker is important to guarantee the attitude control performance. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to improve the attitude update rate of a star tracker. The electronic Rolling Shutter (RS) imaging mode of the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor in the star tracker is applied to acquire star images in which the star spots are exposed with row-to-row time offsets, thereby reflecting the rotation of star tracker at different times. The attitude estimation method with a single star spot is developed to realize the multiple attitude updates by a star image, so as to reach a high update rate. The simulation and experiment are performed to verify the proposed approaches. The test results demonstrate that the proposed approach is effective and the attitude update rate of a star tracker is increased significantly.

  9. A hybrid ensemble learning approach to star-galaxy classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward J.; Brunner, Robert J.; Carrasco Kind, Matias

    2015-10-01

    There exist a variety of star-galaxy classification techniques, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we present a novel meta-classification framework that combines and fully exploits different techniques to produce a more robust star-galaxy classification. To demonstrate this hybrid, ensemble approach, we combine a purely morphological classifier, a supervised machine learning method based on random forest, an unsupervised machine learning method based on self-organizing maps, and a hierarchical Bayesian template-fitting method. Using data from the CFHTLenS survey (Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey), we consider different scenarios: when a high-quality training set is available with spectroscopic labels from DEEP2 (Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Phase 2 ), SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey), VIPERS (VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey), and VVDS (VIMOS VLT Deep Survey), and when the demographics of sources in a low-quality training set do not match the demographics of objects in the test data set. We demonstrate that our Bayesian combination technique improves the overall performance over any individual classification method in these scenarios. Thus, strategies that combine the predictions of different classifiers may prove to be optimal in currently ongoing and forthcoming photometric surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  10. Thermodynamics of compact-star matter within an Ising approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, P.; Ducoin, C.; Gulminelli, F.; Hasnaoui, K.; Napolitani, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the formation and evolution of compact stars, nuclear matter explores high thermal excursions and is the site of intense neutrino emission. Neutrino transport as well as structural properties of this matter depend on the presence of inhomogeneous phases (named 'pasta' phases), which are the result of Coulomb frustration of the Liquid-Gas phase transition. We take into account charge fluctuations by employing a frustrated lattice-gas model to which we impose a neutrality constraint by the addition of an homogeneous background of charge, representing delocalized electrons. Within this schematic model we highlight a generic feature of the phase-transition phenomenology: the temperature interval where pasta phases are formed is enhanced by Coulomb-frustration effects. This result is at variance with the behaviour of frustrated ferromagnetic systems as well as hot nuclei and mean-field approaches. Moreover, the region of phase coexistence is not found to end upon a critical point, indicating that no critical opalescence can occur in compact-star matter

  11. Thermodynamics of compact-star matter within an Ising approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, P. [Ganil (DSM-CEA/IN2P3-CNRS), Blvd. H. Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen cedex 5 (France); Ducoin, C. [Ganil (DSM-CEA/IN2P3-CNRS), Blvd. H. Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen cedex 5 (France); LPC - IN2P3-CNRS/Ensicaen et Universite, F-14076 Caen cedex (France); Gulminelli, F. [LPC - IN2P3-CNRS/Ensicaen et Universite, F-14076 Caen cedex (France); Hasnaoui, K. [Ganil (DSM-CEA/IN2P3-CNRS), Blvd. H. Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen cedex 5 (France); Napolitani, P. [Ganil (DSM-CEA/IN2P3-CNRS), Blvd. H. Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen cedex 5 (France); LPC - IN2P3-CNRS/Ensicaen et Universite, F-14076 Caen cedex (France)

    2007-05-01

    In the formation and evolution of compact stars, nuclear matter explores high thermal excursions and is the site of intense neutrino emission. Neutrino transport as well as structural properties of this matter depend on the presence of inhomogeneous phases (named 'pasta' phases), which are the result of Coulomb frustration of the Liquid-Gas phase transition. We take into account charge fluctuations by employing a frustrated lattice-gas model to which we impose a neutrality constraint by the addition of an homogeneous background of charge, representing delocalized electrons. Within this schematic model we highlight a generic feature of the phase-transition phenomenology: the temperature interval where pasta phases are formed is enhanced by Coulomb-frustration effects. This result is at variance with the behaviour of frustrated ferromagnetic systems as well as hot nuclei and mean-field approaches. Moreover, the region of phase coexistence is not found to end upon a critical point, indicating that no critical opalescence can occur in compact-star matter.

  12. Thermodynamics of compact-star matter within an Ising approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomaz, P.; Ducoin, C.; Gulminelli, F.; Hasnaoui, K.; Napolitani, P.

    2007-05-01

    In the formation and evolution of compact stars, nuclear matter explores high thermal excursions and is the site of intense neutrino emission. Neutrino transport as well as structural properties of this matter depend on the presence of inhomogeneous phases (named "pasta" phases), which are the result of Coulomb frustration of the Liquid-Gas phase transition. We take into account charge fluctuations by employing a frustrated lattice-gas model to which we impose a neutrality constraint by the addition of an homogeneous background of charge, representing delocalised electrons. Within this schematic model we highlight a generaic feature of the phase-transition phenomenology: the temperature interval where pasta phases are formed is enhanced by Coulomb-frustration effects. This result is at variance with the behaviour of frustrated ferromagnetic systems as well as hot nuclei and mean-field approaches. Moreover, the region of phase coexistence is not found to end upon a critical point, indicating that no critical opalescence can occur in compact-star matter.

  13. Aboriginal parent support: A partnership approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Ailsa; Toye, Christine; Hegney, Desley; Kickett, Marion; Marriott, Rhonda; Walker, Roz

    2018-02-01

    This study was positioned within a larger action research study relating to a peer-led Aboriginal home visiting parent support program in an urban Western Australian setting. The aims for this study component were to identify program elements, exploring participants' perceptions of the program's suitability, feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness to inform program model recommendations and add to the body of knowledge on effective Aboriginal peer-led program models. The ability of Aboriginal parents to develop positive family environments is crucial, with parent support needing to be reflexive to local needs and sociocultural influences. Culturally appropriate service provision needs meaningful and acceptable strategies. This study was situated within a critical paradigm supporting Participatory Action Research methodology, using Action Learning Sets as the participant engagement and data collection setting. Within ten Action Learning Sets, focus group interviews were carried out with Aboriginal peer support workers, a non-Aboriginal parent support worker, an Aboriginal program coordinator, an Aboriginal education support officer and non-Aboriginal program managers (n = 8), and individual interviews with parents (n = 2) and community agencies (n = 4). Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Five themes were derived from peer support worker and community agency cohorts: peer support worker home visiting skills; responding to impacts of social determinants of health; client support and engagement; interagency collaboration; and issues addressing program sustainability. Parent responses augmented these themes. Participants identified five key elements relating to peer-led home visiting support for Aboriginal parents. These are uniquely placed to inform ongoing program development as there is little additional evidence in wider national and international contexts. Engagement with communities and peer support workers to develop culturally relevant

  14. Keeping all options open: Parents' approaches to advance care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, Emma; Oostendorp, Linda; Crocker, Joanna; Kelly, Paula; Dinsdale, Andrew; Hemsley, June; Russell, Jessica; Jones, Louise; Bluebond-Langner, Myra

    2017-08-01

    Early engagement in advance care planning (ACP) is seen as fundamental for ensuring the highest standard of care for children and young people with a life-limiting condition (LLC). However, most families have little knowledge or experience of ACP. To investigate how parents of children and young people with LLCs approach and experience ACP. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of 18 children; nine children who were currently receiving palliative care services, and nine children who had received palliative care and died. Verbatim transcripts of audiotaped interviews were analysed following principles of grounded theory while acknowledging the use of deductive strategies, taking account of both the child's condition, and the timing and nature of decisions made. Parents reported having discussions and making decisions about the place of care, place of death and the limitation of treatment. Most decisions were made relatively late in the illness and by parents who wished to keep their options open. Parents reported different levels of involvement in a range of decisions; many wished to be involved in decision making but did not always feel able to do so. This study highlights that parents' approaches to decision making vary by the type of decision required. Their views may change over time, and it is important to allow them to keep their options open. We recommend that clinicians have regular discussions over the course of the illness in an effort to understand parents' approaches to particular decisions rather than to drive to closure prematurely. © 2016 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Statistical approach to thermal evolution of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznogov, M V; Yakovlev, D G

    2015-01-01

    Studying thermal evolution of neutron stars (NSs) is one of a few ways to investigate the properties of superdense matter in their cores. We study the cooling of isolated NSs (INSs) and deep crustal heating of transiently accreting NSs in X-ray transients (XRTs, binary systems with low-mass companions). Currently, nearly 50 of such NSs are observed, and one can apply statistical methods to analyze the whole dataset. We propose a method for such analysis based on thermal evolution theory for individual stars and on averaging the results over NS mass distributions. We calculate the distributions of INSs and accreting NSs (ANSs) in XRTs over cooling and heating diagrams respectively. Comparing theoretical and observational distributions one can infer information on physical properties of superdense matter and on mass distributions of INSs and ANSs. (paper)

  16. Students, Parents, Educators: An Approach to Conflict of Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsino, Romulo F.

    1982-01-01

    Attempts by courts in the United States and Canada to define the rights of children, parents, and educators are described, and their shortcomings and contradictions are pointed out. The author suggests another approach based on utilitarian values and pre-suppositions presented in works by John Stuart Mill. (PP)

  17. STAR POLYMERS IN GOOD SOLVENTS FROM DILUTE TO CONCENTRATED REGIMES: CROSSOVER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B.Kiselev

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An introduction is given to the crossover theory of the conformational and thermodynamic properties of star polymers in good solvents. The crossover theory is tested against Monte Carlo simulation data for the structure and thermodynamics of model star polymers. In good solvent conditions, star polymers approach a "universal" limit as N → ∞, however, there are two types of approach towards this limit. In the dilute regime, a critical degree of polymerization N* is found to play a similar role as the Ginzburg number in the crossover theory for critical phenomena in simple fluids. A rescaled penetration function is found to control the free energy of star polymer solutions in the dilute and semidilute regions. This equation of state captures the scaling behaviour of polymer solutions in the dilute/semidilute regimes and also performs well in the concentrated regimes, where the details of the monomer-monomer interactions become important.

  18. Influence of a Parent-Child Interaction Focused Bookmaking Approach on Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Lisa K.; Seedall, Ryan B.; Innocenti, Mark S.; Roggman, Lori A.; Cook, Gina A.; Hagman, Amanda M.; Jump Norman, Vonda K.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of our parent-child interaction focused bookmaking intervention with 89 families and their toddlers receiving early intervention services. Participating early intervention providers (N = 24) were assigned to either continue providing services as usual or participate in training to implement the bookmaking approach in their…

  19. Generalized coherent state approach to star products and applications to the fuzzy sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, G.; Pinzul, A.; Stern, A.

    2001-01-01

    We construct a star product associated with an arbitrary two-dimensional Poisson structure using generalized coherent states on the complex plane. From our approach one easily recovers the star product for the fuzzy torus, and also one for the fuzzy sphere. For the latter we need to define the 'fuzzy' stereographic projection to the plane and the fuzzy sphere integration measure, which in the commutative limit reduce to the usual formulae for the sphere

  20. Parent Stars of Extrasolar Planets - XIV. Strong Evidence of Li Abundance Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of our analysis of new high resolution spectra of 30 late-F to early-G dwarf field stars for the purpose of deriving their Li abundances. They were selected from the subsample of stars in the Valenti and Fischer compilation that are lacking detected planets. These new data serve to expand our comparison sample used to test whether stars with Doppler-detected giant planets display Li abundance anomalies. Our results continue to show that Li is deficient among stars with p...

  1. System-on-a-Chip Based Nano Star Tracker and Its Real-Time Image Processing Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Minsong; Bao, Jingyu; Xing, Fei; Liu, Zengyi; Sun, Ting; You, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The star tracker is one of the most accurate components for satellite attitude determination. With the development of the nano star tracker, it is compatible for application on small satellites. However, the drawback in dynamic property of nano star tracker has limited its extensive applications. The principal objective of this study is to introduce a system-on-a-chip (SOC) based nano star tracker with enhanced dynamic property. A morphology based image processing approach was realized based ...

  2. Perceptions about parents' relationship and parenting quality, attachment styles, and young adults' intimate expectations: a cluster analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.

  3. A perturbative approach to neutron stars in f(T, T)-gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Mark; Said, Jackson Levi [University of Malta, Department of Physics, Msida (Malta); University of Malta, Institute of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Msida (Malta)

    2017-05-15

    We derive a Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation in neutron star systems within the modified f(T, T)-gravity class of models using a perturbative approach. In our approach f(T, T)-gravity is considered to be a static spherically symmetric space-time. In this instance the metric is built from a more fundamental vierbein which can be used to relate inertial and global coordinates. A linear function f = T(r) + T(r) + χh(T, T) + O(χ{sup 2}) is taken as the Lagrangian density for the gravitational action. Finally we impose the polytropic equation of state of neutron star upon the derived equations in order to derive the mass profile and mass-central density relations of the neutron star in f(T, T)-gravity. (orig.)

  4. Parental Reflective Functioning: An Approach to Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships in Pediatric Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Monica Roosa; Webb, Denise; Sadler, Lois S; Slade, Arietta

    2015-01-01

    The current state of science suggests that safe, responsive, and nurturing parent-child relationships early in children's lives promotes healthy brain and child development and protection against lifelong disease by reducing toxic stress and promoting foundational social-emotional health. Pediatric health care providers (HCPs) have a unique opportunity to foster these relationships. However, such a role requires a shift in pediatric health care from a focus only on children to one that includes families and communities, as well as the inclusion of children's social and emotional health with their physical health. To foster healthy parent-child relationships, HCPs must develop the expertise to integrate approaches that support the family's socioemotional health into pediatric primary care. This article suggests ways in which pediatric HCPs can integrate a focus on parental reflective functioning into their clinical work, helping parents to understand some of the thoughts and feelings that underlie their children's behavior. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Probing the chemical environments of early star formation: A multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Emily Elizabeth

    Chemical compositions of prestellar and protostellar environments in the dense interstellar medium are best quantified using a multidisciplinary approach. For my dissertation, I completed two projects to measure molecular abundances during the earliest phases of star formation. The first project investigates gas phase CO depletion in molecular cloud cores, the progenitors of star systems, using infrared photometry and molecular line spectroscopy at radio wavelengths. Hydrogenation of CO depleted onto dust is an important first step toward building complex organic molecules. The second project constrains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundances toward young stellar objects (YSO). Band strengths measured from laboratory spectroscopy of pyrene/water ice mixtures were applied to estimate abundances from features attributed to PAHs in observational YSO spectra. PAHs represent a distinct but important component of interstellar organic material that is widely observed but not well quantified in star-forming regions.

  6. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  7. Parental Identification by the Adolescent: A Social Power Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gerald W.

    1977-01-01

    A social power theory of parental identification is presented, in contrast to sex-role theories of identification, which argues that the more parental power each parent is perceived to have, the higher the degree of adolescent identification with that parent. (Author)

  8. Using Consumer Preference Information to Increase the Reach and Impact of Media-Based Parenting Interventions in a Public Health Approach to Parenting Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Carol W.; Sanders, Matthew R.; Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann N.

    2012-01-01

    Within a public health approach to improving parenting, the mass media offer a potentially more efficient and affordable format for directly reaching a large number of parents with evidence-based parenting information than do traditional approaches to parenting interventions that require delivery by a practitioner. Little is known, however, about…

  9. Simulating the dynamics of relativistic stars via a light-cone approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebel, Florian; Mueller, Ewald; Font, Jose A.; Papadopoulos, Philippos

    2002-01-01

    We present new numerical algorithms for the coupled Einstein-perfect-fluid system in axisymmetry. Our framework uses a foliation based on a family of light cones, emanating from a regular center, and terminating at future null infinity. This coordinate system is well adapted to the study of the dynamical spacetimes associated with isolated relativistic compact objects such as neutron stars. In particular, the approach allows the unambiguous extraction of gravitational waves at future null infinity and avoids spurious outer boundary reflections. The code can accurately maintain long-term stability of polytropic equilibrium models of relativistic stars. We demonstrate global energy conservation in a strongly perturbed neutron star spacetime, for which the total energy radiated away by gravitational waves corresponds to a significant fraction of the Bondi mass. As a first application we present results in the study of pulsations of axisymmetric relativistic stars, extracting the frequencies of the different fluid modes in fully relativistic evolutions of the Einstein-perfect-fluid system and making a first comparison between the gravitational news function and the predicted wave using the approximations of the quadrupole formula

  10. Parents' experiences of being in the Solihull Approach parenting group, 'Understanding Your Child's Behaviour': an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, L R; Butterworth, R E; Johnson, R; Law, G Urquhart

    2015-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that the Solihull Approach parenting group, 'Understanding Your Child's Behaviour' (UYCB), can improve child behaviour and parental well-being. However, little is known about parents' in-depth experience of participating in the UYCB programme. This study provides an in-depth qualitative evaluation of UYCB, focussing on possible moderating factors and mechanisms of change that may inform programme development. Ten parents (eight mothers and two fathers), recruited from seven UYCB groups across two locations, were interviewed within 7 weeks of completing the group and again 10 months later. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four themes were identified: 'Two Tiers of Satisfaction', 'Development as a Parent', 'Improved Self-belief' and 'The "Matthew Effect"'. In summary, the majority of parents were immensely satisfied at both completion and follow-up: they valued an experience of containment and social support and perceived improvement in specific child difficulties, their experience of parenting, their confidence and their coping. Most parents appeared to have developed more reflective and empathic parenting styles, with self-reported improved behaviour management. Theoretical material was well received, although some struggled with technical language. Positive outcomes appeared to be maintained, even reinforced, at follow-up, and were associated with having few initial child difficulties, perceiving improvement at completion and persevering with the recommendations. Two participants, whose children had the most severe difficulties, perceived deterioration and felt that the group was insufficient for their level of difficulties. Through in-depth analysis of parental experiences, UYCB appears to achieve its aims and communicate well its theoretical principles, although change may also occur through processes common to other group programmes (e.g. social support). Recommendations, stemming from the

  11. Maternal role satisfaction: a new approach to assessing parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, J P

    1992-01-01

    There is a need to study the maternal role beyond the child's first year of life. This investigation, using a framework of Locke's expectancy theory, describes the expectations, surprises, values, and satisfactions experienced by 102 mothers of teens. Content analysis of written narratives describing surprises encountered by these mothers is also presented. Data were collected by questionnaire. Findings offer support for Locke's theory in two ways: (1) expectation for role was less important than value attainment in predicting the level of maternal role satisfaction, and (2) encountering at least one positive surprise was associated with a higher level of maternal role satisfaction. These variables are offered as a useful nursing approach to the assessment of the parenting experience. Knowledge of the satisfactions reported may be encouraging to mothers anticipating this stage of life.

  12. User Centric Job Monitoring – a redesign and novel approach in the STAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipkin, D; Lauret, J; Zulkarneeva, Y

    2014-01-01

    User Centric Monitoring (or UCM) has been a long awaited feature in STAR, whereas programs, workflows and system 'events' could be logged, broadcast and later analyzed. UCM allows to collect and filter available job monitoring information from various resources and present it to users in a user-centric view rather than an administrative-centric point of view. The first attempt and implementation of 'a' UCM approach was made in STAR 2004 using a log4cxx plug-in back-end and then further evolved with an attempt to push toward a scalable database back-end (2006) and finally using a Web-Service approach (2010, CSW4DB SBIR). The latest showed to be incomplete and not addressing the evolving needs of the experiment where streamlined messages for online (data acquisition) purposes as well as the continuous support for the data mining needs and event analysis need to coexists and unified in a seamless approach. The code also revealed to be hardly maintainable. This paper presents the next evolutionary step of the UCM toolkit, a redesign and redirection of our latest attempt acknowledging and integrating recent technologies and a simpler, maintainable and yet scalable manner. The extended version of the job logging package is built upon three-tier approach based on Task, Job and Event, and features a Web-Service based logging API, a responsive AJAX-powered user interface, and a database back-end relying on MongoDB, which is uniquely suited for STAR needs. In addition, we present details of integration of this logging package with the STAR offline and online software frameworks. Leveraging on the reported experience and work from the ATLAS and CMS experience on using the ESPER engine, we discuss and show how such approach has been implemented in STAR for meta-data event triggering stream processing and filtering. An ESPER based solution seems to fit well into the online data acquisition system where many systems are monitored.

  13. A Synthesis of Behavioral and Communication Approaches to Child Rearing for Parenting Skills Classes. Practicum II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Marvin

    This report describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a class on effective parenting skills that combined behavioral and communication based (client-centered and Adlerian) approaches to child rearing. Seventeen parents of elementary school age children attended the class; twelve parents attended five or more sessions. The class…

  14. Parental Involvement in Elementary Children's Religious Education: A Phenomenological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Peter Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The issue of parental involvement in religious education is an important one for the family, the church, the Christian school, and society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe parents' concepts and practices of involvement in their children's religious education as evangelical Christian parents in Midwestern communities.…

  15. Communicating with parents of children with autism about vaccines and complementary and alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vidya Bhushan

    2010-05-01

    Despite incontrovertible evidence that vaccines do not cause autism, some parents continue to refuse them and many parents of children with autism seek hope in unproven and potentially harmful complementary and alternative (CAM) approaches. This commentary explores the reasons for such behaviors and proposes that pediatricians may support parents in their pursuit of hope in unproven treatments as long as these are not potentially harmful to the child or prohibitively expensive. While respecting parental autonomy and hope the pediatricians should share with parents their concerns about lack of scientific evidence about CAM and potential for harm by some approaches.

  16. Parental alienation and the Brazilian justice system: an empirical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cunha de Andrade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the judiciary's role in the conflict resolution involving parental alienation. How the judiciary faces the allegations of parental alienation or sexual abuse? What is the predominant gender of alienating parents? What acts of parental alienation are alleged by the parties? Which measures the judges take to avoid parental alienation? The answers to these questions are gathered using an empirical research. For this purpose, we performed a data collection of cases involving parental alienation in the Courts of Appeal in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, between 2009 and 2014. It is a demographic and quantitative empirical study that seeks to provide an overview of actions involving the parental alienation phenomenon.

  17. Factors Associated with Successful Mentoring of Parents Addressing Childhood Obesity: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Abigail Villanueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Parents mentoring other parents as a behavioral intervention for child obesity is novel with limited data describing the experience and dynamics of this approach. This study aimed to describe the experiences of parent mentors and the self-efficacy and attitudes of their mentees in the context of a clinical trial for childhood obesity. Methods. The context for this study was a randomized clinical trial using either parent mentors or a community health worker engaging parents of obese children in behavioral change over six months. Parent mentors were interviewed at the mid-point of the intervention using a semistructured questionnaire to elicit their perceptions and experiences during the process of mentoring. Parent mentees completed a survey assessing their self-efficacy, perception of the parent mentor, and attitudes and beliefs related to their child’s weight. Results. The qualitative analysis of parent mentor interviews indicated high commitment despite their nonprofessional status, facing challenges of engagement with fellow parents and attitudes of persistence and being nonjudgmental. The parent mentee ratings of parent mentors were overall very high and similar to the ratings of a community health worker (paraprofessional. Conclusion. The data suggest that a parent mentor model of intervention for child obesity is an acceptable mode of approaching behavior change in the Hispanic population around childhood obesity with potential for scalability if proven effective.

  18. Parenting a Child with a Learning Disability: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alcántara, Manuel; Correa-Delgado, Cayetana; Muñoz, Ángela; Salvatierra, María Teresa; Fuentes-Hélices, Tadeo; Laynez-Rubio, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes experiences associated with parenting children diagnosed with learning disabilities. Parents whose children were diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, dyslexia/language problems, and Asperger syndrome, related to poor performance at school, took part in the study. A qualitative study design was…

  19. Parenting and psychiatric rehabilitation : Can parents with severe mental illness benefit from a new approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T. van Busschbach; Dr. Lies Korevaar; J. van Weeghel; Dr. Peter van der Ende; Joanne Nicholson

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Objective: The aim of this pilot implementation study was to explore the initial experiences with and impact of Parenting with Success and Satisfaction (PARSS), a psychiatric rehabilitation and recoverybased, guided self-help intervention, for parents with severe mental illnesses. Methods:

  20. Parenting and psychiatric rehabilitation: Can parents with severe mental illness benefit from a new approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaap van Weeghel; Dr. Peter C. van der Ende; Dr. Lies Korevaar; Jooske T. van Busschbach; Joanne Nicholson

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Objective: The aim of this pilot implementation study was to explore the initial experiences with and impact of Parenting with Success and Satisfaction (PARSS), a psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery-based, guided self-help intervention, for parents with severe mental illnesses.

  1. Parenting and Psychiatric Rehabilitation : Can Parents With Severe Mental Illness Benefit From a New Approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, Peter C.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Nicholson, Joanne; Korevaar, Eliza L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    Objective: The aim of this pilot implementation study was to explore the initial experiences with and impact of Parenting with Success and Satisfaction (PARSS), a psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery-based, guided self-help intervention, for parents with severe mental illnesses. Methods: Changes

  2. Achieving Population-Level Change Through a System-Contextual Approach to Supporting Competent Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R; Burke, Kylie; Prinz, Ronald J; Morawska, Alina

    2017-03-01

    The quality of parenting children receive affects a diverse range of child and youth outcomes. Addressing the quality of parenting on a broad scale is a critical part of producing a more nurturing society. To achieve a meaningful population-level reduction in the prevalence rates of child maltreatment and social and emotional problems that are directly or indirectly influenced by parenting practices requires the adoption of a broad ecological perspective in supporting families to raise children. We make the case for adopting a multilevel, whole of population approach to enhance competent parenting and describe the essential tasks that must be accomplished for the approach to be successful and its effects measurable. We describe how a theoretically integrated system of parenting support based on social learning and cognitive behavioral principles can be further strengthened when the broader community supports parental participation. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  3. Parenting and psychiatric rehabilitation: Can parents with severe mental illness benefit from a new approach? : 1-3 October

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joanne Nicholson; dr. P.C. van der Ende; Jaap van Weeghel; Dr. Lies Korevaar; Jooske T. van Busschbach

    2015-01-01

    Can parents with severe mental illness benefit from a new approach? XIthENMESH International Conference in Málaga (Spain). 1-3 October, 2015. With these results at hand we developed a new program and evaluated it . In this presentation we will reflect on the merits of this program but also share

  4. STARS experiential group intervention: a complex trauma treatment approach for survivors of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Elizabeth K; Azar, Naomi; Bhattacharyya, Sriya; Malebranche, Dominique A; Brennan, Kelsey E

    2018-01-01

    This is the abstract that was submitted online with the paper: Despite the fact that many survivors of human trafficking have experienced complex trauma, there are no established interventions designed to specifically address these impacts. Leaders in the field of complex trauma have advocated for the need for somatic approaches to intervention. This paper presents STARS Experiential Group treatment, the first structured bodybased group intervention that has been designed to address complex trauma in survivors of human trafficking. Three pilot groups were run in residential settings with adolescent and adult survivors of sex trafficking. Two adaptations were utilized, with one focusing on application of expressive arts modalities and the other incorporating theater games. Qualitative results, using thematic analysis, identified several themes related to challenges and potential benefits of these groups. Potential benefits of the STARS groups were found in the areas of Interpersonal Relationships, Regulation, and Self/ Identity, with fourteen sub-themes further describing positive impacts. Challenges within these areas are explored, to inform the development of group interventions for trafficking survivors. The results of this paper suggest that experiential, somatically-oriented group treatment shows promise as an important element of holistic intervention with trafficking survivors.

  5. Parental Involvement in the Musical Education of Violin Students: Suzuki and "Traditional" Approaches Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates parental involvement in the musical education of violin students and the changing role of the parents' across the learning process. Two contexts were compared, one emphasising the Suzuki methodology and the other a "traditional" approach. Students learning "traditionally" are typically taught note reading from the…

  6. Rational Emotive Approaches to the Problems of Parents with Exceptional Children: A Brief Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, John F.

    Parents of exceptional children face numerous challenges in their efforts to meet the needs of their child. Reaction to the realization that a problem exists in the child's development or educational achievement may lead to emotional distress which can be self-defeating. Such parents often benefit from a direct approach to addressing these issues…

  7. Relationships among Taiwanese Children's Computer Game Use, Academic Achievement and Parental Governing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Duen-Yian; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among children's computer game use, academic achievement and parental governing approach to propose probable answers for the doubts of Taiwanese parents. 355 children (ages 11-14) were randomly sampled from 20 elementary schools in a typically urbanised county in Taiwan. Questionnaire survey (five questions)…

  8. Helping families improve: an evaluation of two primary care approaches to parenting support in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, I.M. de; Onrust, S.A.; Haverman, M.C.C.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated two primary care parenting interventions. First, we evaluated the most widely used Dutch practices for primary care parenting support. Second, we assessed the applicability of the Primary Care Triple P approach, which is now being utilized in a wide variety of primary

  9. Parent Perspectives on Rehabilitation Services for Their Children with Disabilities: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Joseph; Benger, Jennifer; Salls, Joyce; Marchetti, Gregory; Reed, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    Health care providers have adopted a family-centered care (FCC) approach. Parent satisfaction is an indicator of the effectiveness of FCC. The purpose of this project was to describe parent perceptions of the extent to which FCC behaviors occurred in an outpatient pediatric rehabilitation facility. The Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC)-20, a…

  10. A Person-Centered Approach to Studying the Linkages among Parent-Child Differences in Cultural Orientation, Supportive Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Scott R.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether supportive parenting mediates relations between parent-child differences in cultural orientation (generational dissonance) and depressive symptoms with a sample of 451 first and second generation Chinese American parents and adolescents (12-15 years old at time 1). Using a person-centered approach,…

  11. Extrasolar planets and their host stars

    CERN Document Server

    von Braun, Kaspar

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the relations between physical parameters of extrasolar planets and their respective parent stars. Planetary parameters are often directly dependent upon their stellar counterparts. In addition, the star is almost always the only visible component of the system and contains most of the system mass. Consequently, the parent star heavily influences every aspect of planetary physics and astrophysics. Drs. Kaspar von Braun and Tabetha Boyajian use direct methods to characterize exoplanet host starts that minimize the number of assumptions needed to be made in the process. The book provides a background on interferometric techniques for stellar diameter measurements, illustrates the authors' approach on using additional data to fully characterize the stars, provides a comprehensive update on the current state of the field, and examines in detail a number of historically significant and well-studied exoplanetary systems.

  12. Complementary and alternative approaches used by parents of children with epilepsy on epilepsy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işler, Ayşegül; Turan, Fatma Dilek; Gözüm, Sebahat; Oncel, Selma

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the complementary and alternative approaches used by parents of children with epilepsy on epilepsy management. This descriptive study included a total of 304 parents of children with epilepsy aged between 0 and 18years evaluated at the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Akdeniz University Hospital in Turkey between January and May 2013. Data were collected by using a questionnaire developed by the researchers. It was determined that all the parents use complementary and alternative approaches for their children with epilepsy, and the most common approaches are praying (99.3%); keeping their children away from the effects of smoking (79.8%); feeding their children walnuts (79.6%), butter (59.2%), and bone marrow (58.6%); providing their children with good quality sleep (58.6%); and enabling their children to play games (51%). The approaches commonly applied during seizures include praying (96.2%), comforting their children in their arms and showing affection (55.6%), waiting for seizures to finish at home (45.7%), and laying children on their side (41.1%). Of parents, 98% stated that alternative approaches enable them to control their child's seizures, 100% said that alternative approaches have no adverse effect, and 98.4% stated that they will continue to use these approaches. The children's approaches to cope with epilepsy included looking after pets (72.7%), listening to music (70.1%), watching television (64.5%), playing games (55.3%), praying (51%), and spending time with friends (48.7%). Most of the approaches used by parents and children with epilepsy for the management of illness are determined to consist of complementary approaches that may contribute to management of epilepsy. Knowing the approaches of parents and children with epilepsy that could adversely affect disease management is important for educating parents and children to avoid these potentially harmful interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Parents' explanatory models and hopes for outcomes of occupational therapy using a sensory integration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Ellen S; Kramer, Jessica; Schub, Jamie A; May-Benson, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE. To describe parents' concerns and hopes for their children who would be receiving occupational therapy using a sensory integration approach. METHOD. Content analysis of 275 parental responses to three open-ended questions on developmental-sensory history intake forms. FINDINGS. Parents' descriptions of why they sought for their children were categorized into four overarching concerns about their children's challenges: self-regulation, interacting with peers, participating in skilled motor activities, and self-confidence. Parents often linked these concerns together, revealing explanatory models of how they make sense of potential relationships among their children's challenges and how these challenges affect occupational performance. Parents hoped occupational therapy would help their children develop self-understanding and frustration tolerance to self-regulate their behavior in socially acceptable ways. IMPLICATIONS. Assessment and intervention should explicitly focus on links among self-regulation, social participation, skills, and perceived competence to address parents' expectations. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  14. Parent Advocacy: Two Approaches to Change, One Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Elizabeth; Griffin, Amy Tetteh

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe "top-down" and "bottom-up" models of leadership in the world of advocacy; they became parent advocates after learning that their children had special needs. They argue that change in our communities--and, eventually, in our world--demands that "all" advocates for children with disabilities work together. The authors describe…

  15. REMAINING LIFE TIME PREDICTION OF BEARINGS USING K-STAR ALGORITHM – A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SATISHKUMAR

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of bearings is significant in reducing the down time of all rotating machineries. The increasing trend of bearing failures in recent times has triggered the need and importance of deployment of condition monitoring. There are multiple factors associated to a bearing failure while it is in operation. Hence, a predictive strategy is required to evaluate the current state of the bearings in operation. In past, predictive models with regression techniques were widely used for bearing lifetime estimations. The Objective of this paper is to estimate the remaining useful life of bearings through a machine learning approach. The ultimate objective of this study is to strengthen the predictive maintenance. The present study was done using classification approach following the concepts of machine learning and a predictive model was built to calculate the residual lifetime of bearings in operation. Vibration signals were acquired on a continuous basis from an experiment wherein the bearings are made to run till it fails naturally. It should be noted that the experiment was carried out with new bearings at pre-defined load and speed conditions until the bearing fails on its own. In the present work, statistical features were deployed and feature selection process was carried out using J48 decision tree and selected features were used to develop the prognostic model. The K-Star classification algorithm, a supervised machine learning technique is made use of in building a predictive model to estimate the lifetime of bearings. The performance of classifier was cross validated with distinct data. The result shows that the K-Star classification model gives 98.56% classification accuracy with selected features.

  16. Parent disclosure of complementary health approaches used for children with autism spectrum disorder: Barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindly, Olivia; Thorburn, Sheryl; Heisler, Karen; Reyes, Nuri; Zuckerman, Katharine

    2017-12-01

    Complementary health approaches (CHA) are widely used among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). As part of shared treatment decision-making, healthcare providers are encouraged to discuss CHA with parents of children with ASD. Yet prior research suggests that parents often do not disclose CHA used for children, and their reasons for nondisclosure are poorly understood. We, therefore, aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to parent disclosure of CHA used for children with ASD. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 parents who reported that they were currently using CHA for their child's ASD in Denver, Colorado or Portland, Oregon. We used content analysis to identify six main themes indicating that the following factors play a role in disclosure: parents' drive to optimize their child's health, parent self-efficacy discussing CHA with healthcare providers, parent beliefs about the effectiveness of CHA, parent-provider relationship quality, provider attitudes and knowledge regarding CHA and ASD, and visit characteristics. Study findings suggest that family and health system factors, together, influence parent disclosure of CHA used for children with ASD. Multifaceted intervention concurrently targeting the CHA-related knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy of parents whose children have been recently diagnosed with ASD, in addition to the CHA-related attitudes and knowledge of their healthcare providers may promote disclosure and shared treatment decision-making about the use of CHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parenting approaches and digital technology use of preschool age children in a Chinese community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Fowler, Cathrine; Lam, Winsome Yuk Yin; Wong, Ho Ting; Wong, Charmaine Hei Man; Yuen Loke, Alice

    2014-05-07

    Young children are using digital technology (DT) devices anytime and anywhere, especially with the invention of smart phones and the replacement of desktop computers with digital tablets. Although research has shown that parents play an important role in fostering and supporting preschoolers' developing maturity and decisions about DT use, and in protecting them from potential risk due to excessive DT exposure, there have been limited studies conducted in Hong Kong focusing on parent-child DT use. This study had three objectives: 1) to explore parental use of DTs with their preschool children; 2) to identify the DT content that associated with child behavioral problems; and 3) to investigate the relationships between approaches adopted by parents to control children's DT use and related preschooler behavioral problems. This exploratory quantitative study was conducted in Hong Kong with 202 parents or guardians of preschool children between the ages of 3 and 6 attending kindergarten. The questionnaire was focused on four aspects, including 1) participants' demographics; 2) pattern of DT use; 3) parenting approach to manage the child's DT use; and 4) child behavioral and health problems related to DT use. Multiple regression analysis was adopted as the main data analysis method for identifying the DT or parental approach-related predictors of the preschooler behavioral problems. In the multiple linear regression model, the 'restrictive approach score' was the only predictor among the three parental approaches (B:1.66, 95% CI: [0.21, 3.11], p children also significantly increased the tendency of children to have behavioral problem (B:3.84, 95% CI: [1.66, 6.02], p children's cognitive and functional abilities are still in the developmental stage, parents play a crucial role in fostering appropriate and safe DT use. It is suggested that parents practice a combination of restrictive, instructive and co-using approaches, rather than a predominately restrictive

  18. A Novel Approach Based on MEMS-Gyro's Data Deep Coupling for Determining the Centroid of Star Spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approach of star tracker for determining the centroid of spot requires enough energy and good shape, so a relatively long exposure time and stable three-axis state become necessary conditions to maintain high accuracy, these limit its update rate and dynamic performance. In view of these issues, this paper presents an approach for determining the centroid of star spot which based on MEMS-Gyro's data deep coupling, it achieves the deep fusion of the data of star tracker and MEMS-Gyro at star map level through the introduction of EKF. The trajectory predicted by using the angular velocity of three axes can be used to set the extraction window, this enhances the dynamic performance because of the accurate extraction when the satellite has angular speed. The optimal estimations of the centroid position and the drift in the output signal of MEMS-Gyro through this approach reduce the influence of noise of the detector on accuracy of the traditional approach for determining the centroid and effectively correct the output signal of MEMS-Gyro. At the end of this paper, feasibility of this approach is verified by simulation.

  19. Parent Communication Prompt to Increase Shared Decision-Making: A New Intervention Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Hubner

    2018-03-01

    intervention group.ConclusionsParent and clinician enrollment and data collection with minimal loss suggest that this novel approach is easy to use and could be employed in future outpatient studies exploring SDM. In this clinical setting, both intervention and comparison group parents reported high levels of SDM participation and no main group effect was detected. Further study of this novel parent-directed SDM intervention approach is needed in a larger sample with greater variability in parent-reported SDM to determine its efficacy.

  20. CAF: Cluster algorithm and a-star with fuzzy approach for lifetime enhancement in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Y.; Li, C.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, Xiangliang; Li, L.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is a major factor in designing wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In particular, in the real world, battery energy is limited; thus the effective improvement of the energy becomes the key of the routing protocols. Besides, the sensor nodes are always deployed far away from the base station and the transmission energy consumption is index times increasing with the increase of distance as well. This paper proposes a new routing method for WSNs to extend the network lifetime using a combination of a clustering algorithm, a fuzzy approach, and an A-star method. The proposal is divided into two steps. Firstly, WSNs are separated into clusters using the Stable Election Protocol (SEP) method. Secondly, the combined methods of fuzzy inference and A-star algorithm are adopted, taking into account the factors such as the remaining power, the minimum hops, and the traffic numbers of nodes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method has significant effectiveness in terms of balancing energy consumption as well as maximizing the network lifetime by comparing the performance of the A-star and fuzzy (AF) approach, cluster and fuzzy (CF)method, cluster and A-star (CA)method, A-star method, and SEP algorithm under the same routing criteria. 2014 Yali Yuan et al.

  1. CAF: Cluster algorithm and a-star with fuzzy approach for lifetime enhancement in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Y.

    2014-04-28

    Energy is a major factor in designing wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In particular, in the real world, battery energy is limited; thus the effective improvement of the energy becomes the key of the routing protocols. Besides, the sensor nodes are always deployed far away from the base station and the transmission energy consumption is index times increasing with the increase of distance as well. This paper proposes a new routing method for WSNs to extend the network lifetime using a combination of a clustering algorithm, a fuzzy approach, and an A-star method. The proposal is divided into two steps. Firstly, WSNs are separated into clusters using the Stable Election Protocol (SEP) method. Secondly, the combined methods of fuzzy inference and A-star algorithm are adopted, taking into account the factors such as the remaining power, the minimum hops, and the traffic numbers of nodes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method has significant effectiveness in terms of balancing energy consumption as well as maximizing the network lifetime by comparing the performance of the A-star and fuzzy (AF) approach, cluster and fuzzy (CF)method, cluster and A-star (CA)method, A-star method, and SEP algorithm under the same routing criteria. 2014 Yali Yuan et al.

  2. The Gravitational Million-Body Problem: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Star Cluster Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremaine, Scott

    2003-01-01

    focus on N 10 6 for two main reasons: first, direct numerical integrations of N-body systems are beginning to approach this threshold, and second, globular star clusters provide remarkably accurate physical instantiations of the idealized N-body problem with N = 10 5 - 10 6 . The authors are distinguished contributors to the study of star-cluster dynamics and the gravitational N-body problem. The book contains lucid and concise descriptions of most of the important tools in the subject, with only a modest bias towards the authors' own interests. These tools include the two-body relaxation approximation, the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, regularization of close encounters, conducting fluid models, Hill's approximation, Heggie's law for binary star evolution, symplectic integration algorithms, Liapunov exponents, and so on. The book also provides an up-to-date description of the principal processes that drive the evolution of idealized N-body systems - two-body relaxation, mass segregation, escape, core collapse and core bounce, binary star hardening, gravothermal oscillations - as well as additional processes such as stellar collisions and tidal shocks that affect real star clusters but not idealized N-body systems. In a relatively short (300 pages plus appendices) book such as this, many topics have to be omitted. The reader who is hoping to learn about the phenomenology of star clusters will be disappointed, as the description of their properties is limited to only a page of text; there is also almost no discussion of other, equally interesting N-body systems such as galaxies(N ∼ 10 6 - 10 12 ), open clusters (N ≅ 10 2 - 10 4 ), planetary systems, or the star clusters surrounding black holes that are found in the centres of most galaxies. All of these omissions are defensible decisions. Less defensible is the uneven set of references in the text; for example, nowhere is the reader informed that the classic predecessor to this work was Spitzer's 1987 monograph

  3. BOOK REVIEW: The Gravitational Million-Body Problem: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Star Cluster Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, D.; Hut, P.

    2003-10-01

    focus on N = 106 for two main reasons: first, direct numerical integrations of N-body systems are beginning to approach this threshold, and second, globular star clusters provide remarkably accurate physical instantiations of the idealized N-body problem with N = 105 - 106. The authors are distinguished contributors to the study of star-cluster dynamics and the gravitational N-body problem. The book contains lucid and concise descriptions of most of the important tools in the subject, with only a modest bias towards the authors' own interests. These tools include the two-body relaxation approximation, the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, regularization of close encounters, conducting fluid models, Hill's approximation, Heggie's law for binary star evolution, symplectic integration algorithms, Liapunov exponents, and so on. The book also provides an up-to-date description of the principal processes that drive the evolution of idealized N-body systems - two-body relaxation, mass segregation, escape, core collapse and core bounce, binary star hardening, gravothermal oscillations - as well as additional processes such as stellar collisions and tidal shocks that affect real star clusters but not idealized N-body systems. In a relatively short (300 pages plus appendices) book such as this, many topics have to be omitted. The reader who is hoping to learn about the phenomenology of star clusters will be disappointed, as the description of their properties is limited to only a page of text; there is also almost no discussion of other, equally interesting N-body systems such as galaxies(N approx 106 - 1012), open clusters (N simeq 102 - 104), planetary systems, or the star clusters surrounding black holes that are found in the centres of most galaxies. All of these omissions are defensible decisions. Less defensible is the uneven set of references in the text; for example, nowhere is the reader informed that the classic predecessor to this work was Spitzer's 1987 monograph

  4. Efforts and Models of Education for Parents: the Danish Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosendal Jensen, Niels

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The report examines the relationship between day care institutions, schools and so called “parents unfamiliar to education” as well as the relationship between the institutions. With in Danish public and professional discourse concepts like parents unfamiliar to education are usually referring to environments, parents or families with either no or just very restricted experience of education except for the basic school (folkeskole. The “grand old man” of Danish educational research, Prof. Em. Erik Jørgen Hansen, defines the concept as follows: Parents who are distant from or not familiar with education, are parents without tradition of education and by that fact they are not able to contribute constructively in order to back up their own children during their education. Many teachers and pedagogues are not used to that term; they rather prefer concepts like “socially exposed” or “socially disadvantaged” parents or social classes or strata. The report does not only focus on parents who are not capable to support the school achievements of their children, since a low level of education is usually connected with social disadvantage. Such parents are often not capable of understanding and meeting the demands from side of the school when sending their children to school. They lack the competencies or the necessary competence of action. For the moment being much attention is done from side of the Ministries of Education and Social Affairs (recently renamed Ministry of Welfare in order to create equal possibilities for all children. Many kinds of expertise (directions, counsels, researchers, etc. have been more than eager to promote recommendations aiming at achieving the ambitious goal: 2015 95% of all young people should complement a full education (classes 10.-12.. Research results are pointing out the importance of increased participation of parents. In other word the agenda is set for ‘parents’ education’. It seems necessary

  5. Communicating with children and parents: recommendations for a child-parent-centred approach for paediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, R

    2008-02-01

    The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry has called for a series of evidence-based statements to inform their guidelines on the behavioural management of the child patient. Communication between dentist, parent and child based upon scientifically robust research evidence was felt to be central to this request in order to provide empathetic and child-centred care for children and their parents attending for dental health care. Shekelle and colleagues [1999] devised a series of steps to develop an evidence-based clinical guideline. This framework allows first, the identification and refinement of the subject area and secondly, the identification and assessment of the evidence-base. Four areas of communication were identified as being of central importance. These were identification of the mother-child dyad; affective communication skills; problem solving and negotiation skills. It was recommended that paediatric dentists should become knowledgeable and competent in these skills in order to provide patient-centred care for the children and parents attending their clinics for dental treatment.

  6. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  7. A Play Therapy Approach Focusing on Parent-Child Relationship: Filial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Tortamis Ozkaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Filial therapy is a structured, short-term, and evidence-based play therapy model that aims to train and supervise parents in conducting child-centered play therapy sessions with their children. Filial therapy strengthens the relationship among all family members -in particular the relationship between the parent and the child- and helps parents acquire new and effective parenting skills. Thus parents gain a powerful tool to cope with the difficulties they experience even after therapy sessions end. In this review, filial therapy is explained within the context of its theoretical background and therapy process. Several adaptations of the model and research studies on its effectiveness are also discussed briefly. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 208-220

  8. Capturing Parenting as a Multidimensional and Dynamic Construct with a Person-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Pasalich, Dave S; Oberth, Carla; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2017-04-01

    Although parenting is one of the most commonly studied predictors of child problem behavior, few studies have examined parenting as a multidimensional and dynamic construct. This study investigated different patterns of developmental trajectories of two parenting dimensions (harsh discipline [HD] and parental warmth [PW]) with a person-oriented approach and examined the associations between different parenting patterns and child externalizing problems and callous-unemotional traits. Data were drawn from the combined high-risk control and normative sample (n = 753) of the Fast Track Project. Parent-reported HD and observer-reported PW from kindergarten to grade 2 were fit to growth mixture models. Two subgroups were identified for HD (low decreasing, 83.0 %; high stable, 17.0 %) and PW (high increasing, 78.7 %; low increasing, 21.3 %). The majority of parents (67.0 %) demonstrated the low decreasing HD and high increasing PW pattern, while the prevalence of the high stable HD and low increasing PW pattern was the lowest (6.8 %). Parenting satisfaction, parental depression, family socioeconomic status, and neighborhood safety predicted group memberships jointly defined by the two dimensions. Children from the high stable HD and low increasing PW pattern showed the highest levels of externalizing problems in grades 4 and 5. Children from the low decreasing HD and low increasing PW pattern showed the highest levels of callous-unemotional traits in grade 7. These findings demonstrate the utility and significance of a person-oriented approach to measuring parenting as a multidimensional and dynamic construct and reveal the interplay between HD and PW in terms of their influences on child developmental outcomes.

  9. Helping Parents Cope with Suicide Threats: An Approach Based on Nonviolent Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Haim; Dolberger, Dan Isaac

    2015-09-01

    Parent training in nonviolent resistance was adapted to deal with situations of suicide threat by children, adolescents, and young adults. The approach aims at reducing the risk potential and the mutual distress surrounding the threat-interaction. Parent training in nonviolent resistance has been shown to help parents move from helplessness to presence, from isolation to connectedness, from submission to resistance, from escalation to self-control, and from mutual distancing and hostility to care and support. Those emphases can be crucial for the diminution of suicide risk. Parents show good ability to implement the approach and report gains on various areas over and beyond the reduction in suicide threat. A particular advantage is that the method can be used also in cases where the young person threatening suicide is not willing to cooperate. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  10. Counsellor Use of the Adlerian-Dreikurs Approach with Parents in the School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hesteren, Frank

    1979-01-01

    Involvement with parents constitutes an important dimension of the elementary school counselor's role. The Adlerian-Dreikurs approach is described in terms of its underlying theory and the means by which it can be implemented by school counselors. Certain advantages of using the approach in the schools are also discussed. (Author)

  11. Experiences of parents of children with special needs at school entry: a mixed method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqua, A; Janus, M

    2017-07-01

    The transition from pre-school to kindergarten can be complex for children who need special assistance due to mental or physical disabilities (children with 'special needs'). We used a convergent mixed method approach to explore parents' experiences with service provision as their children transitioned to school. Parents (including one grandparent) of 37 children aged 4 to 6 years completed measures assessing their perceptions of and satisfaction with services. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 10 parents to understand their experience with services. Post transition, parents reported lower perceptions of services and decreased satisfaction than pre-transition. The following themes emerged from the qualitative data: qualities of services and service providers, communication and information transfer, parent advocacy, uncertainty about services, and contrasts and contradictions in satisfaction. The qualitative findings indicate that parents were both satisfied and concerned with aspects of the post-transition service provision. While the quantitative results suggested that parents' experience with services became less positive after their children entered school, the qualitative findings illustrated the variability in parents' experiences and components of service provision that require improvements to facilitate a successful school entry. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A review of the nurtured heart approach to parenting: evaluation of its theoretical and empirical foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hektner, Joel M; Brennan, Alison L; Brotherson, Sean E

    2013-09-01

    The Nurtured Heart Approach to parenting (NHA; Glasser & Easley, 2008) is summarized and evaluated in terms of its alignment with current theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence in family studies and developmental science. Originally conceived and promoted as a behavior management approach for parents of difficult children (i.e., with behavior disorders), NHA is increasingly offered as a valuable strategy for parents of any children, despite a lack of published empirical support. Parents using NHA are trained to minimize attention to undesired behaviors, provide positive attention and praise for compliance with rules, help children be successful by scaffolding and shaping desired behavior, and establish a set of clear rules and consequences. Many elements of the approach have strong support in the theoretical and empirical literature; however, some of the assumptions are more questionable, such as that negative child behavior can always be attributed to unintentional positive reinforcement by parents responding with negative attention. On balance, NHA appears to promote effective and validated parenting practices, but its effectiveness now needs to be tested empirically. © FPI, Inc.

  13. Cultural distance between parents' and children's creativity: A within-country approach in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen-Ho; Su, Jenny C; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2015-07-01

    The present study adopted a within-country approach to investigate the relation of cultural distance to general creativity and math creativity in Taiwan. First, we conducted a pilot study of 201 young adolescents with parents from one of the 3 largest subethnic groups in Taiwan, namely Min-nan Taiwanese, Ha-kka Taiwanese, and Outside-Province Taiwanese. The results revealed that young Taiwanese adolescents perceived the cultural distance between Min-nan Taiwanese and Outside-Province Taiwanese as larger than the cultural distance between the other subethnic groups. The main study revealed that 610 young adolescents from large cultural distance families (i.e., those comprising 1 Min-nan Taiwanese parent and 1 Outside-Province Taiwanese parent) outperformed those from small cultural distance families (i.e., those comprising 2 Min-nan Taiwanese parents, and those comprising 1 Min-nan Taiwanese parent and 1 Ha-kka Taiwanese parent) on both general creativity and math creativity. This pattern remained even after controlling for family socioeconomic status, parents' education level, and adolescents' school mathematical performance. Implications and limitations are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Revisiting video game ratings: Shift from content-centric to parent-centric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiow Hee Jhee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid adoption of video gaming among children has placed tremendous strain on parents’ ability to manage their children’s consumption. While parents refer online to video games ratings (VGR information to support their mediation efforts, there are many difficulties associated with such practice. This paper explores the popular VGR sites, and highlights the inadequacies of VGRs to capture the parents’ concerns, such as time displacement, social interactions, financial spending and various video game effects, beyond the widespread panics over content issues, that is subjective, ever-changing and irrelevant. As such, this paper argues for a shift from content-centric to a parent-centric approach in VGRs, that captures the evolving nature of video gaming, and support parents, the main users of VGRs, in their management of their young video gaming children. This paper proposes a Video Games Repository for Parents to represent that shift.

  15. Association between parental guilt and oral health problems in preschool children: a hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Clementino, Marayza Alves; Pinto-Sarmento, Tassia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2014-08-16

    Dental caries and traumatic dental injury (TDI) can play an important role in the emergence of parental guilt, since parents feel responsible for their child's health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of oral health problems among preschool children on parental guilt. A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 832 preschool children between three and five years of age in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS). The item "parental guilt" was the dependent variable. Questionnaires addressing socio-demographic variables (child's sex, child's age, parent's/caregiver's age, mother's schooling, type of preschool and household income), history of toothache and health perceptions (general and oral) were also administered. Clinical exams for dental caries and TDI were performed by three dentists who had undergone a training and calibration exercise (Kappa: 0.85-0.90). Poisson hierarchical regression was used to determine the significance of associations between parental guilt and oral health problems (α = 5%). The multivariate model was carried out on three levels using a hierarchical approach from distal to proximal determinants: 1) socio-demographic aspects; 2) health perceptions; and 3) oral health problems. The frequency of parental guilt was 22.8%. The following variables were significantly associated with parental guilt: parental perception of child's oral health as poor (PR = 2.010; 95% CI: 1.502-2.688), history of toothache (PR = 2.344; 95% CI: 1.755-3.130), cavitated lesions (PR = 2.002; 95% CI: 1.388-2.887), avulsion/luxation (PR = 2.029; 95% CI: 1.141-3.610) and tooth discoloration (PR = 1.540; 95% CI: 1.169-2.028). Based on the present findings, parental guilt increases with the occurrence of oral health problems that require treatment, such as dental caries and TDI of greater severity. Parental perceptions of

  16. Neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: introduction (resume of stellar evolution, gross characteristics of neutron stars); pulsars (pulsar characteristics, pulsars as neutron stars); neutron star temperatures (neutron star cooling, superfluidity and superconductivity in neutron stars); the exterior of neutron stars (the magnetosphere, the neutron star 'atmosphere', pulses); neutron star structure; neutron star equations of state. (U.K.)

  17. Parents' obesity-related behavior and confidence to support behavioral change in their obese child: data from the STAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Lisa N; Xu, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M; Hacker, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Successful childhood obesity interventions frequently focus on behavioral modification and involve parents or family members. Parental confidence in supporting behavior change may be an element of successful family-based prevention efforts. We aimed to determine whether parents' own obesity-related behaviors were related to their confidence in supporting their child's achievement of obesity-related behavioral goals. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected at baseline of a randomized control trial testing a treatment intervention for obese children (n = 787) in primary care settings (n = 14). Five obesity-related behaviors (physical activity, screen time, sugar-sweetened beverage, sleep duration, fast food) were self-reported by parents for themselves and their child. Behaviors were dichotomized on the basis of achievement of behavioral goals. Five confidence questions asked how confident the parent was in helping their child achieve each goal. Logistic regression modeling high confidence was conducted with goal achievement and demographics as independent variables. Parents achieving physical activity or sleep duration goals were significantly more likely to be highly confident in supporting their child's achievement of those goals (physical activity, odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.60; sleep, odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.79) independent of sociodemographic variables and child's current behavior. Parental achievements of TV watching and fast food goals were also associated with confidence, but significance was attenuated after child's behavior was included in models. Parents' own obesity-related behaviors are factors that may affect their confidence to support their child's behavior change. Providers seeking to prevent childhood obesity should address parent/family behaviors as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parent-child Communication-centered Rehabilitative Approach for Pediatric Functional Somatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Maya; Barak, Sharon; Landa, Jana; Eisenstein, Etzyona

    2016-01-01

    Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) are a type of somatization phenomenon. Integrative rehabilitation approaches are the preferred treatment for pediatric FSS. Parental roles in the treatment process have not been established. to present 1) a parent-focused treatment (PFT) for pediatric FSS and 2) the approach's preliminary results. The sample included 50 children with physical disabilities due to FSS. All children received PFT including physical and psychological therapy. A detailed description of the program's course and guiding principles is provided. FSS extinction and age-appropriate functioning. Post-program, 84% of participants did not exhibit FSS and 94% returned to age-appropriate functioning. At one-year follow-up, only 5% of participants experienced symptom recurrence. No associations were found between pre-admission symptoms and intervention duration. PFT is beneficial in treating pediatric FSS. Therefore, intensive parental involvement in rehabilitation may be cardinal.

  19. An Experimental Approach to the Joint Effects of Relations with Partner, Friends and Parents on Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuns, P.; Verresen, N.; Mairesse, O.; Goossens, R.; Michiels, L.; Peeters, E.; Wastiau, M.

    2010-01-01

    Personal relations constitute an important life domain and satisfaction therein affects happiness in people. In an experimental approach with a 3x3x3 vignettes study in which 103 first year psychology students participated, the contribution of the quality of relationships with parents, friends, and a partner are studied. It is found that the…

  20. Approaches used by parents to keep their children safe at home: a qualitative study to explore the perspectives of parents with children aged under five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablewhite, Joanne; McDaid, Lisa; Hawkins, Adrian; Peel, Isabel; Goodenough, Trudy; Deave, Toity; Stewart, Jane; Watson, Michael; Kendrick, Denise

    2015-09-29

    Childhood unintentional injury represents an important global health problem. Many unintentional injuries experienced by children aged under 5 years occur within the home and are preventable. The aim of this study was to explore the approaches used by parents of children under five in order to help prevent unintentional injuries in the home and the factors which influence their use. Understanding how parents approach risk-management in the home has important implications for injury practitioners. A multi-centre qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Sixty five parents of children aged under 5 years, from four study areas were interviewed: Bristol, Newcastle, Norwich and Nottingham. Three main injury prevention strategies used by parents were: a) Environmental such as removal of hazards, and use of safety equipment; b) parental supervision; and c) teaching, for example, teaching children about safety and use of rules and routine. Strategies were often used in combination due to their individual limitations. Parental assessment of injury risk, use of strategy and perceived effectiveness were fluid processes dependent on a child's character, developmental age and the prior experiences of both parent and child. Some parents were more proactive in their approach to home safety while others only reacted if their child demonstrated an interest in a particular object or activity perceived as being an injury risk. Parents' injury prevention practices encompass a range of strategies that are fluid in line with the child's age and stage of development; however, parents report that they still find it challenging to decide which strategy to use and when.

  1. Single event and TREE latchup mitigation for a star tracker sensor: An innovative approach to system level latchup mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.; Davis, R.W.; Bruener, D.B.; Coakley, P.G.; Lutjens, S.W.; Mallon, C.E.

    1994-08-01

    Electronic packages designed for spacecraft should be fault-tolerant and operate without ground control intervention through extremes in the space radiation environment. If designed for military use, the electronics must survive and function in a nuclear radiation environment. This paper presents an innovative ''blink'' approach rather than the typical ''operate through'' approach to achieve system level latchup mitigation on a prototype star tracker camera. Included are circuit designs, flash x-ray test data, and heavy ion data demonstrating latchup mitigation protecting micro-electronics from current latchup and burnout due to Single Event Latchup (SEL) and Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics (TREE)

  2. Massive runaway stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2010-09-01

    The origin of massive field stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has long been an enigma. The recent measurements of large offsets (˜ 100 km s-1) between the heliocentric radial velocities of some very massive (O2-type) field stars and the systemic LMC velocity provides a possible explanation of this enigma and suggests that the field stars are runaway stars ejected from their birthplaces at the very beginning of their parent cluster's dynamical evolution. A straightforward way to prove this explanation is to measure the proper motions of the field stars and to show that they are moving away from one of the nearby star clusters or OB associations. This approach is, however, complicated by the long distance to the LMC, which makes accurate proper motion measurements difficult. We used an alternative approach for solving the problem (first applied for Galactic field stars), based on the search for bow shocks produced by runaway stars. The geometry of detected bow shocks would allow us to infer the direction of stellar motion, thereby determining their possible parent clusters. In this paper we present the results of a search for bow shocks around six massive field stars that have been proposed as candidate runaway stars. Using archival Spitzer Space Telescope data, we found a bow shock associated with one of our programme stars, the O2 V((f*)) star BI 237, which is the first-ever detection of bow shocks in the LMC. Orientation of the bow shock suggests that BI 237 was ejected from the OB association LH 82 (located at ≃ 120 pc in projection from the star). A by-product of our search is the detection of bow shocks generated by four OB stars in the field of the LMC and an arc-like structure attached to the candidate luminous blue variable R81 (HD 269128). The geometry of two of these bow shocks is consistent with the possibility that their associated stars were ejected from the 30 Doradus star-forming complex. We discuss implications of our findings for the

  3. The role as moderator and mediator in parent education groups--a leadership and teaching approach model from a parent perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund Frykedal, Karin; Rosander, Michael

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the didactic and social leadership in parent education groups based on a parent perspective, and to conceptualise parent experiences of the leader roles in these groups. Leadership in parent education groups has been associated with a lack of confidence in one's ability to function in that role. Research on how it can be delivered to produce a favourable outcome is scarce. It can be difficult to abandon the role of expert and let participants set their own learning agenda. To facilitate these processes requires leadership skills, knowledge of group dynamics as well as pedagogical skills. Qualitative interview study. Semi-structured interviews with parents (25 participants, 21 interviews). Transcripts were analysed using, first, thematic analysis, then comparative analysis. The study resulted in a four-field model, The Leadership - Teaching Approach model. It consists of the dimensions 'Teaching approaches' ('Knowledge is imparted' and 'Knowledge is jointly constructed'), and 'Leadership approaches' ('Instrumental approach' and 'Investigative approach'). Using an investigative approach is necessary to get a well-functioning group that can help the expectant and new parents in the transition to parenthood. Supervision can help develop an awareness of one's professional role as a nurse and leader of a parent education group. The actions and choices of nurses as leaders of parent groups have an impact on how the participants perceive and take in the content and purpose of the group, and whether they perceive it as meaningful. Getting support in reflecting about one's role as a leader in this context can help create a learning environment in which the participants can become engaged in the activities and be strengthened by the experience. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Parent insights into atypicalities of social approach behaviour in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, E; Rodgers, J; Janes, E; Little, K; Riby, D M

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome have been reported to show high levels of social interest and a desire to interact with others irrespective of their familiarity. This high social motivation, when combined with reduced intellectual capacity and a profile of atypical social behaviour, is important in terms of social vulnerability of individuals with the disorder. Therefore, social approach to unfamiliar people and the role of this behaviour within the Williams syndrome (WS) social phenotype warrant further research to inform social skills' intervention design. The current study used parent interviews (n = 21) to probe aspects of social behaviour and interactions with strangers, as well as the impact of such behaviour on the family. Using thematic analysis, it was possible to explore themes that emerged from the interviews, offering qualitatively rich insight into the variability of social approach behaviour in WS. Thematic analysis confirmed a significant desire to interact with strangers as well as a lack of awareness of appropriate social boundaries. However, parental reports about their child's social approach behaviour varied considerably. The within-syndrome variability of the sample was emphasised in parental reports of their child's personality characteristics (e.g. levels of impulsiveness), as well as the level of parental supervision employed. These in-depth parent insights can help target the needs of individuals with WS and emphasise that an individual approach to intervention will be essential because of the heterogeneity of the WS social profile. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Children's night waking among toddlers: relationships with mothers' and fathers' parenting approaches and children's behavioural difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Hall, Wendy A

    2015-07-01

    To explore associations between children's sleep problems, and behavioural difficulties and parenting approaches. Children commonly have problematic night waking; however, relationships between parenting cognitions and behaviours and children's sleep problems are rarely examined. Longitudinal children's cohort study from 5-29 months post birth. Data were taken from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (1998-2007) at three phases: 5, 17 and 29 months of age. Thousand four hundred and eighty-seven families were included in our study based on: participation from phase 1 (5-months old), both parents' reports on parenting cognitions/behaviours and child behavioural difficulties at 29 months, and mothers' reports of children's sleep at 29 months. In 2013, we conducted repeated measures anovas and manovas including children's gender. Extended night-time waking patterns (wakes of ≥20 minutes) were associated with mothers' and fathers' lower sense of parenting impact and higher overprotectiveness and mothers' lower self-efficacy and higher coerciveness for 29-month-old children. In the extended waking group, mothers consistently reported lower self-efficacy, higher overprotectiveness and lower parenting impact at 5, 17 and 29 months. For those children, fathers were only more overprotective at 5 and 29 months. Regarding 29-month-old children's behaviour, children in the extended night waking group had highest scores on externalizing and internalizing behaviours. Girls had higher scores on shyness/inhibition and boys had higher scores on aggression/hyperactivity. Mothers' and fathers' parenting cognitions and behaviours are affected by 29-month-old children's night waking patterns and night waking patterns are associated with children's behavioural problems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Rates of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    It is illustrated that a theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies depends on an understanding of star formation, and especially of the factors influencing the rate of star formation. Some of the theoretical problems of star formation in galaxies, some approaches that have been considered in models of galaxy evolution, and some possible observational tests that may help to clarify which processes or models are most relevant are reviewed. The material is presented under the following headings: power-law models for star formation, star formation processes (conditions required, ways of achieving these conditions), observational indications and tests, and measures of star formation rates in galaxies. 49 references

  7. Parenting approaches, family functionality, and internet addiction among Hong Kong adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Wong, Ho Ting; Yu, Kin Fai; Fok, Ka Wing; Yeung, Sheung Man; Lam, Cheuk Ho; Liu, Ka Man

    2016-08-18

    Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents has become a global health problem, and public awareness of it is increasing. Many IA risk factors relate to parents and the family environment. This study examined the relationship between IA and parenting approaches and family functionality. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 2021 secondary students to identify the prevalence of IA and to explore the association between adolescent IA and familial variables, including parents' marital status, family income, family conflict, family functionality, and parenting approaches. The results revealed that 25.3 % of the adolescent respondents exhibited IA, and logistic regression positively predicted the IA of adolescents from divorced families, low-income families, families in which family conflict existed, and severely dysfunctional families. Interestingly, adolescents with restricted Internet use were almost 1.9 times more likely to have IA than those whose use was not restricted. Internet addiction is common among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong, and family-based prevention strategies should be aligned with the risk factors of IA.

  8. The parent-child-therapist alliance: A case study using a strategic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Thirusha; Behari, Sheethal

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we present a single case study of a clinical approach that addresses the needs of parents and their children in psychotherapy. The approach begins by addressing the child's and parent's concerns separately at first by establishing strong therapeutic alliances with each, and then proceeds to address the concerns of the parent-child dyad. The basic premise is that the therapeutic alliance is the central element to successful outcomes in psychotherapy. The nature of alliance-building and its associated methods and techniques have been extensively considered for adult therapy. However, there is considerably less written on the therapeutic alliance with children and adolescents in the context of family interventions. We briefly examine some theoretical dimensions and applications of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy with children/adolescents and their parents. A three-phase alliance-building psychotherapy strategy, founded on the idea that each therapeutic relationship warrants an effective working alliance, is proposed. The case of a single mother and her adolescent daughter is employed to illustrate the strategy.

  9. Agreement between two different approaches to assess parent-reported sleep bruxism in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Duarte

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents' report is the most used method for the study of sleep bruxism (SB in children, especially in research with large samples. However, there is no consensus about the questions used to assess SB, what may difficult the comparisons between studies. Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the agreement between two different approaches to assess possible sleep bruxism (PSB in children using parents' report. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 parents/caregivers. Prior to the questionnaire completion, all participants received a standard explanation of SB concept. Subsequently, the parents/caregivers answered a general question (GQ and a frequency-time question (FTQ about SB, and the answers were compared. Results: The majority of the participants were the children's mothers (73% and the childrens mean age was 7.5 years (SD: 2.25. PSB frequency in children did not differ statistically through the two questions [GQ: 30.7% (CI95%: 24.2 - 37.1 and FTQ: 26.6% (CI95%: 20.4 - 32.8], and an almost perfect agreement was observed between the answers (kp=0.812. Nevertheless, the FTQ showed a more coherent relation with the factors already recognized as associated with childhood bruxism than GQ. Conclusions: Different approaches result in similar PSB frequency, however, they show different ability to identify PSB associated factors and suggest the need of questions including frequency and time in further studies.

  10. STAR Data Reconstruction at NERSC/Cori, an adaptable Docker container approach for HPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Mustafa; Balewski, Jan; Lauret, Jérôme; Porter, Jefferson; Canon, Shane; Gerhardt, Lisa; Hajdu, Levente; Lukascsyk, Mark

    2017-10-01

    As HPC facilities grow their resources, adaptation of classic HEP/NP workflows becomes a need. Linux containers may very well offer a way to lower the bar to exploiting such resources and at the time, help collaboration to reach vast elastic resources on such facilities and address their massive current and future data processing challenges. In this proceeding, we showcase STAR data reconstruction workflow at Cori HPC system at NERSC. STAR software is packaged in a Docker image and runs at Cori in Shifter containers. We highlight two of the typical end-to-end optimization challenges for such pipelines: 1) data transfer rate which was carried over ESnet after optimizing end points and 2) scalable deployment of conditions database in an HPC environment. Our tests demonstrate equally efficient data processing workflows on Cori/HPC, comparable to standard Linux clusters.

  11. An exploration of Singaporean parental experiences in managing school-aged children's postoperative pain: a descriptive qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew Hoon; Mackey, Sandra; Liam, Joanne Li Wee; He, Hong-Gu

    2012-03-01

    To enhance understanding of the experience of parents in managing their children's postoperative pain in Singapore. Parents play a significant role in their hospitalised child's postoperative pain care. Their active involvement may contribute to accurate pain assessment and effective pain management for their child. However, there is a lack of in-depth research exploring the experience of parents involved in their children's postoperative pain management. This study adopted a descriptive qualitative approach, which is situated in the interpretive paradigm. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data from 14 parents whose children were hospitalised in one of the three paediatric surgical wards in a hospital in Singapore in December 2009. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Three themes were identified: 'Actions used by parents to alleviate their child's postoperative pain', 'Factors influencing parents' management of their child's postoperative pain' and 'Parents' needs in the process of caring for their child's postoperative pain'. Parents used a range of non-pharmacological pain relief interventions for their child. Parental roles and expectations, bond between parent and child, support from nurses, family and own religious beliefs, as well as children's age and maturity level were factors which promoted parental participation, whereas parents' negative feelings, knowledge deficit and nurses' busy schedule were hindering factors. Parents expressed needs for more involvement in their child's care, adequate rest and information support from nurses. This study highlights the importance of involving parents in their child's postoperative pain management. It provides evidence for health care professionals to pay attention to factors that may influence parental participation and, therefore, guide their practice. Nurses need to provide parents with support and education to facilitate their roles and improve their child's postoperative pain

  12. The Top 30 Rising Stars Program: an inter-organizational approach to leadership succession planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Katie; Lankshear, Sara; Cava, Maureen; Aldred, Jacqueline; Hawkes, Nancy; Lefebre, Nancy; Price, Jennifer; Lawler, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    An effective leadership development program is an organizational investment that advances individual performance while strengthening organizational capabilities. The Top 30 Rising Stars Program is a leadership succession program designed to enable leadership capacity building within and across organizations. Key components of the program include formal learning, stretch opportunities, and mentorship. Evaluation results reveal high participant satisfaction and an increase in reported self-confidence in their ability to assume a formal leadership position.

  13. Coupling hydrodynamics with comoving frame radiative transfer. I. A unified approach for OB and WR stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, A. A. C.; Hamann, W.-R.; Todt, H.; Hainich, R.; Shenar, T.

    2017-07-01

    Context. For more than two decades, stellar atmosphere codes have been used to derive the stellar and wind parameters of massive stars. Although they have become a powerful tool and sufficiently reproduce the observed spectral appearance, they can hardly be used for more than measuring parameters. One major obstacle is their inconsistency between the calculated radiation field and the wind stratification due to the usage of prescribed mass-loss rates and wind-velocity fields. Aims: We present the concepts for a new generation of hydrodynamically consistent non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) stellar atmosphere models that allow for detailed studies of radiation-driven stellar winds. As a first demonstration, this new kind of model is applied to a massive O star. Methods: Based on earlier works, the PoWR code has been extended with the option to consistently solve the hydrodynamic equation together with the statistical equations and the radiative transfer in order to obtain a hydrodynamically consistent atmosphere stratification. In these models, the whole velocity field is iteratively updated together with an adjustment of the mass-loss rate. Results: The concepts for obtaining hydrodynamically consistent models using a comoving-frame radiative transfer are outlined. To provide a useful benchmark, we present a demonstration model, which was motivated to describe the well-studied O4 supergiant ζPup. The obtained stellar and wind parameters are within the current range of literature values. Conclusions: For the first time, the PoWR code has been used to obtain a hydrodynamically consistent model for a massive O star. This has been achieved by a profound revision of earlier concepts used for Wolf-Rayet stars. The velocity field is shaped by various elements contributing to the radiative acceleration, especially in the outer wind. The results further indicate that for more dense winds deviations from a standard β-law occur.

  14. Financial literacy among Turkish college students: the role of formal education, learning approaches, and parental teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akben-Selcuk, Elif; Altiok-Yilmaz, Ayse

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed financial literacy and its correlates among Turkish college students, with special emphasis on the role of formal education, learning approaches, and parental influences. Financial literacy was measured by the College Student Financial Literacy Survey, which assesses knowledge in four areas: general financial management, saving and borrowing, insurance, and investing. 853 Turkish university students were administered the survey (416 men, 437 women; M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 0.6). The mean percentage of correct responses was 45% (SD = 12.8%). Regression results showed that formal finance education in college, a deep approach to learning, and direct financial teaching by parents were significantly associated with higher financial literacy scores.

  15. The influence of parent's body mass index on peer selection: an experimental approach using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martarelli, Corinna S; Borter, Natalie; Bryjova, Jana; Mast, Fred W; Munsch, Simone

    2015-11-30

    Relatively little is known about the influence of psychosocial factors, such as familial role modeling and social network on the development and maintenance of childhood obesity. We investigated peer selection using an immersive virtual reality environment. In a virtual schoolyard, children were confronted with normal weight and overweight avatars either eating or playing. Fifty-seven children aged 7-13 participated. Interpersonal distance to the avatars, child's BMI, self-perception, eating behavior and parental BMI were assessed. Parental BMI was the strongest predictor for the children's minimal distance to the avatars. Specifically, a higher mothers' BMI was associated with greater interpersonal distance and children approached closer to overweight eating avatars. A higher father's BMI was associated with a lower interpersonal distance to the avatars. These children approached normal weight playing and overweight eating avatar peers closest. The importance of parental BMI for the child's social approach/avoidance behavior can be explained through social modeling mechanisms. Differential effects of paternal and maternal BMI might be due to gender specific beauty ideals. Interventions to promote social interaction with peer groups could foster weight stabilization or weight loss in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Different Strokes for Different Folks? Contrasting Approaches to Cultural Adaptation of Parenting Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Anilena; Leijten, Patty; Lachman, Jamie M; Parra-Cardona, José Ruben

    2017-08-01

    Relevant achievements have been accomplished in prevention science with regard to disseminating efficacious parenting interventions among underserved populations. However, widespread disparities in availability of parenting services continue to negatively impact diverse populations in high-income countries (e.g., the USA) and low- and middle-income countries. As a result, a scholarly debate on cultural adaptation has evolved over the years. Specifically, some scholars have argued that in diverse cultural contexts, existing evidence-based parenting interventions should be delivered with strict fidelity to ensure effectiveness. Others have emphasized the need for cultural adaptations of interventions when disseminated among diverse populations. In this paper, we propose that discussions on cultural adaptation should be conceptualized as a "both-and," rather than an "either-or" process. To justify this stance, we describe three distinct parenting intervention projects to illustrate how cultural adaptation and efficacy of evidence-based interventions can be achieved using contrasting approaches and frameworks, depending on cultural preferences and available resources of local contexts. Further, we suggest the need to develop guidelines for consistent reporting of cultural adaptation procedures as a critical component of future investigations. This discussion is relevant for the broader public health field and prevention science.

  17. Effortful Control and Parents' Emotion Socialization Patterns Predict Children's Positive Social Behavior: A Person-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rachel L.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Smith, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined relations of effortful control with parent emotion socialization practices and child social behavior using a person-centered approach in children ages 18 months to 5 years. A total of 76 parents (66 mothers, 10 fathers) completed questionnaires at screening and 6-month follow-up. There were no age differences in…

  18. Transport coefficients in neutron star cores in BHF approach. Comparison of different nucleon potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shternin, P. S.; Baldo, M.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal conductivity and shear viscosity of npeµ matter in non-superfluid neutron star cores are considered in the framework of Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many-body theory. We extend our previous work (Shternin et al 2013 PRC 88 065803) by analysing different nucleon-nucleon potentials and different three-body forces. We find that the use of different potentials leads up to one order of magnitude variations in the values of the nucleon contribution to transport coefficients. The nucleon contribution dominates the thermal conductivity, but for all considered models the shear viscosity is dominated by leptons.

  19. Novel approach to parental permission and child assent for research: improving comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Lonergan, Theresa A; Forster-Harwood, Jeri E

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this research was to test a multimedia permission/assent (P/A) process. The overall hypothesis was that children and their parents exposed to a multimedia P/A process would have better comprehension compared with those exposed to a text-based process. Traditional and multimedia P/A processes were created by using an innovative learning-objective approach. A total of 194 parent-child dyads (children aged 11-14 years) were enrolled: 24 dyads in a prestudy testing P/A components for preference and effect on comprehension and 170 dyads in a randomized trial of a multimedia or paper P/A process for a hypothetical study. Participants were predominantly white and were from a metropolitan area served by a tertiary care pediatric hospital and outpatient facility. Comprehension of 8 essential elements of the P/A process was assessed. The majority of prestudy subjects preferred the video version of the dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry description over the animated and paper versions combined (41 of 48 [85%]; P better overall comprehension compared with the paper P/A process (P = .0009), and there were highly significant differences in understanding of study procedures (P = .0002) and risks (P multimedia group had significantly better overall comprehension (P = .03). Multimedia approaches to the research P/A process may improve overall understanding of research participation for children and parents. Improved understanding of study-specific research components (rather than research rights) may improve overall comprehension.

  20. Symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarchuk, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    There are some arguments that the symbiotic stars are binary, where one component is a red giant and the other component is a small hot star which is exciting a nebula. The symbiotic stars belong to the old disc population. Probably, symbiotic stars are just such an evolutionary stage for double stars as planetary nebulae for single stars. (Auth.)

  1. The Need for an Ecological Approach to Parental Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Combined Role of Individual and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derguy, C.; M'Bailara, K.; Michel, G.; Roux, S.; Bouvard, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify parental stress predictors in ASD by considering individual and environmental factors in an ecological approach. Participants were 115 parents of children with ASD aged from 3 to 10 years. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the best predictors of parental stress among child-related, parent-related…

  2. Expansion in higher harmonics of boson stars using a generalized Ruffini-Bonazzola approach. Part 1. Bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eby, Joshua; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2018-04-01

    The method pioneered by Ruffini and Bonazzola (RB) to describe boson stars involves an expansion of the boson field which is linear in creation and annihilation operators. This expansion constitutes an exact solution to a non-interacting field theory, and has been used as a reasonable ansatz for an interacting one. In this work, we show how one can go beyond the RB ansatz towards an exact solution of the interacting operator Klein-Gordon equation, which can be solved iteratively to ever higher precision. Our Generalized Ruffini-Bonazzola approach takes into account contributions from nontrivial harmonic dependence of the wavefunction, using a sum of terms with energy $k\\,E_0$, where $k\\geq1$ and $E_0$ is the chemical potential of a single bound axion. The method critically depends on an expansion in a parameter $\\Delta \\equiv \\sqrt{1-E_0{}^2/m^2}<1$, where $m$ is the mass of the boson. In the case of the axion potential, we calculate corrections which are relevant for axion stars in the transition or dense branches. We find with high precision the local minimum of the mass, $M_{min}\\approx 463\\,f^2/m$, at $\\Delta\\approx0.27$, where $f$ is the axion decay constant. This point marks the crossover from transition to dense branches of solutions, and a corresponding crossover from structural instability to stability.

  3. Parent-only vs. parent-child (family-focused) approaches for weight loss in obese and overweight children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, A; Chen, R

    2013-09-01

    Families are recommended as the agents of change for weight loss in overweight and obese children; family approaches are more effective than those that focus on the child alone. However, interventions that focus on parents alone have not been summarized. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of interventions that compared a parent-only (PO) condition with a parent-child (PC) condition. Four trials using a similar between-group background approaches to overweight and obese children's weight loss met the inclusion criteria, but only one trial reported sufficient data for meta-analysis. Further information was obtained from authors. Meta-analysis showed no significant difference in z-BMI from baseline to end of treatment between the conditions (three trials) or to end of follow up (two trials). The trials were at risk of bias and no single trial was at lower risk of bias than others. There is an absence of high quality evidence regarding the effect of parent-only interventions for weight loss in children compared to parent-child interventions, but current evidence suggests the need for further investigation. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. [Adolescents suffering from anorexia nervosa: an evidence-based approach of the parent's role in 2018].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vust, Sophie; Cook-Darzens, Solange; Lier, Françoise; Ambresin, Anne-Emmanuelle

    2018-04-18

    A new paradigm in the management of adolescents with eating disorders promotes different treatment orientations aiming at increasing therapeutic effectiveness as well as offering a more integrated and coherent care for families. Particular attention is given to the process of refeeding to avoid the severe somatic sequelae of eating disorder and the risk of a chronic course for a disorder which is well known for its « addictive » power and influence. The parents and the need for a strong alliance with the healthcare team stand at the centre of this new paradigm. This type of management requires professionals who are trained in these specific approaches and in multidisciplinary work.

  5. A Multiwavelength Approach to the Star Formation Rate Estimation in Galaxies at Intermediate Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiel, N.; Elbaz, D.; Schiavon, R. P.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Koo, D. C.; Phillips, A. C.; Gallego, J.

    2003-02-01

    We use a sample of seven starburst galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z~0.4 and 0.8) with observations ranging from the observed ultraviolet to 1.4 GHz, to compare the star formation rate (SFR) estimators that are used in the different wavelength regimes. We find that extinction-corrected Hα underestimates the SFR, and the degree of this underestimation increases with the infrared luminosity of the galaxies. Galaxies with very different levels of dust extinction as measured with SFRIR/SFR(Hα, uncorrected for extinction) present a similar attenuation A[Hα], as if the Balmer lines probed a different region of the galaxy than the one responsible for the bulk of the IR luminosity for large SFRs. In addition, SFR estimates derived from [O II] λ3727 match very well those inferred from Hα after applying the metallicity correction derived from local galaxies. SFRs estimated from the UV luminosities show a dichotomic behavior, similar to that previously reported by other authors in galaxies at zfinancial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Based in part on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  6. Negative (but not Positive) Parenting Interacts with Infant Negative Affect to Predict Infant Approach: Evidence of Diathesis-Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Jacob B; Burt, Nicole M; Edwards, Erin S; Rosinski, Leanna D; Bridgett, David J

    2018-01-01

    Temperament by parenting interactions may reflect that individuals with greater risk are more likely to experience negative outcomes in adverse contexts (diathesis-stress) or that these individuals are more susceptible to contextual influences in a 'for better or for worse' pattern (differential susceptibility). Although such interactions have been identified for a variety of child outcomes, prior research has not examined approach characteristics - excitement and approach toward pleasurable activities - in the first year of life. Therefore, the current study investigated whether 6-month maternal reported infant negative affect - a phenotypic marker of risk/susceptibility - interacted with 8-month observed parenting behaviors (positive parenting, negative parenting) to predict 12-month infant behavioral approach. Based a sample of mothers and their infants ( N =150), results indicated that negative parenting was inversely associated with subsequent approach for infants with high, but not low, levels of early negative affect. Similar results did not occur regarding positive parenting. These findings better fit a diathesis-stress model rather than a differential susceptibility model. Implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.

  7. Variations in Perceived Parenting Education Preferences: A Person-Centred Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YaeBin

    2015-01-01

    Parenting education needs assessment surveys were collected from a large group of the parents or caregivers of 698 0-5-year-old children in southern Nevada. Survey questions addressed parenting education interests, family characteristics, and preferred delivery methods of parenting education. Cluster analysis was used to empirically determine if…

  8. A Strength-Based Approach to Parent Education for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman

    2011-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous nature of parent education in autism treatment, relatively few studies directly address "how" parent education should be conducted. Given that the literature on parental well-being suggests that treatments that facilitate positive parental adaptation to their child's disability may be beneficial, this study…

  9. Family systems approach to attachment relations, war trauma, and mental health among Palestinian children and parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir R.; Peltonen, Kirsi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Trauma affects the family unit as a whole; however, most existing research uses individual or, at most, dyadic approaches to analyse families with histories of trauma. Objective: This study aims to identify potentially distinct family types according to attachment, parenting, and sibling relations, to analyse how these family types differ with respect to war trauma, and to explore how children’s mental health and cognitive processing differ across these family types. Method: Participants included Palestinian mothers and fathers (N = 325) and their children (one per family; 49.4% girls; 10–13 years old; mean ± SD age = 11.35 ± 0.57 years) after the Gaza War of 2008–2009. Both parents reported their exposure to war trauma, secure attachment availability, and parenting practices, as well as the target child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Children reported their symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (on the Children’s Revised Impact Event Scale), depression (Birleson), and SDQ, as well as their post-traumatic cognitions (Children’s Post Traumatic Cognitions Inventory). Results: A cluster analysis identified four family types. The largest type reflected secure attachment and optimal relationships (security and positive family relationships, 36.2%, n = 102), and the smallest exhibited insecurity and problematic relationships (insecurity and negative family relationships, 15.6%; n = 44). Further, families with discrepant experiences (23.0%; n = 65) and moderate security and neutral relationships (25.2%; n = 71) emerged. The insecurity and negative relationships family type showed higher levels of war trauma; internalizing, externalizing, and depressive symptoms among children; and dysfunctional post-traumatic cognitions than other family types. Conclusion: The family systems approach to mental health is warranted in war conditions, and therapeutic

  10. Family systems approach to attachment relations, war trauma, and mental health among Palestinian children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir R; Peltonen, Kirsi

    2017-01-01

    Background : Trauma affects the family unit as a whole; however, most existing research uses individual or, at most, dyadic approaches to analyse families with histories of trauma. Objective : This study aims to identify potentially distinct family types according to attachment, parenting, and sibling relations, to analyse how these family types differ with respect to war trauma, and to explore how children's mental health and cognitive processing differ across these family types. Method: Participants included Palestinian mothers and fathers ( N  = 325) and their children (one per family; 49.4% girls; 10-13 years old; mean ±  SD age = 11.35 ± 0.57 years) after the Gaza War of 2008-2009. Both parents reported their exposure to war trauma, secure attachment availability, and parenting practices, as well as the target child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Children reported their symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (on the Children's Revised Impact Event Scale), depression (Birleson), and SDQ, as well as their post-traumatic cognitions (Children's Post Traumatic Cognitions Inventory). Results: A cluster analysis identified four family types. The largest type reflected secure attachment and optimal relationships (security and positive family relationships, 36.2%, n  = 102), and the smallest exhibited insecurity and problematic relationships (insecurity and negative family relationships, 15.6%; n  = 44). Further, families with discrepant experiences (23.0%; n  = 65) and moderate security and neutral relationships (25.2%; n  = 71) emerged. The insecurity and negative relationships family type showed higher levels of war trauma; internalizing, externalizing, and depressive symptoms among children; and dysfunctional post-traumatic cognitions than other family types. Conclusion: The family systems approach to mental health is warranted in war conditions, and therapeutic interventions for

  11. Two Approaches to Estimating the Effect of Parenting on the Development of Executive Function in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele; Berry, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    In the current article, we contrast 2 analytical approaches to estimate the relation of parenting to executive function development in a sample of 1,292 children assessed longitudinally between the ages of 36 and 60 months of age. Children were administered a newly developed and validated battery of 6 executive function tasks tapping inhibitory control, working memory, and attention shifting. Residualized change analysis indicated that higher quality parenting as indicated by higher scores on widely used measures of parenting at both earlier and later time points predicted more positive gain in executive function at 60 months. Latent change score models in which parenting and executive function over time were held to standards of longitudinal measurement invariance provided additional evidence of the association between change in parenting quality and change in executive function. In these models, cross-lagged paths indicated that in addition to parenting predicting change in executive function, executive function bidirectionally predicted change in parenting quality. Results were robust with the addition of covariates, including child sex, race, maternal education, and household income-to-need. Strengths and drawbacks of the 2 analytic approaches are discussed, and the findings are considered in light of emerging methodological innovations for testing the extent to which executive function is malleable and open to the influence of experience. PMID:23834294

  12. The Influence of Parents and Teachers on the Deep Learning Approach of Pupils in Norwegian Upper-Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Turmo, Are

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article was to explore the influence of parents and teachers on the deep learning approach of pupils by estimating the strength of the relationships between these factors and the motivation, volition and deep learning approach of Norwegian 16-year-olds. Method: Structural equation modeling for cross-sectional…

  13. Communicating in complex situations: a normative approach to HIV-related talk among parents who are HIV+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laura L; Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Reis, Janet S

    2014-01-01

    Parents with HIV/AIDS are confronted with unique challenges when discussing HIV-related information with their children. Strategies for navigating these challenges effectively have not been systematically examined. In this study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 76 parents with HIV/AIDS who had children ages 10-18 years. Guided by O'Keefe and Delia's definition of a complex communication situation and Goldsmith's normative approach to interpersonal communication, we examined parents' goals for discussing HIV-related information, factors that made conversations challenging, and instances where these conversational purposes conflicted with one another. Our data reveal the following parent-adolescent communication predicaments: relaying safety information about HIV while minimizing child anxiety, modeling open family communication without damaging one's parental identity, and balancing parent-child relational needs amid living with an unpredictable health condition. Parents also described a variety of strategies for mitigating challenges when discussing HIV-related topics. Strategies parents perceived as effective included reframing HIV as a chronic, manageable illness; keeping talk educational; and embedding HIV-related topics within more general conversations. The theoretical and practical applications of these findings are discussed with regard to their relevance to health communication scholars and HIV care professionals.

  14. A Typological Approach to the Study of Parenting: Associations between Maternal Parenting Patterns and Child Behaviour and Social Reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kelly A.; Selig, James P.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2010-01-01

    The present work addresses the associations between self-reported maternal parenting behaviours and aggression, personality and peer regard of children (n = 119) in early childhood (ages three-six years). A k-means cluster analysis derived types of mothers based on their relative use of autonomy support and restrictive control. Outcomes included…

  15. RADIAL STABILITY IN STRATIFIED STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jonas P.; Rueda, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    We formulate within a generalized distributional approach the treatment of the stability against radial perturbations for both neutral and charged stratified stars in Newtonian and Einstein's gravity. We obtain from this approach the boundary conditions connecting any two phases within a star and underline its relevance for realistic models of compact stars with phase transitions, owing to the modification of the star's set of eigenmodes with respect to the continuous case

  16. Divided parents, shared children
    Conflicting approaches to relocation disputes in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Glennon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Custody relocation disputes pose intractable dilemmas for courts in a highly mobile society. The custodial parent, most often a woman, seeks self-determination, freedom of movement and a continued custodial relationship with the child. The non-custodial parent seeks to preserve a geographically close relationship with the child. Courts must identify the best interests of the children amidst these multiple and conflicting interests. They make decisions that may determine the course of custodial parents’ lives, affecting remarriage, employment, education, and proximity to family. A narrow doctrinal focus on children’s best interests ignores these key aspects of relocation disputes. This article examines the varied legislative and judicial approaches to relocation disputes in the US and proposed principles for resolution of these disputes. It reviews scholarship analyzing relocation disputes from a wide range of perspectives, including: conflicting social science research; competing ideologies of the post-divorce family; alternative dispute resolution; parents’ constitutional rights; domestic violence victims; and proposals to eliminate geographic presumptions and remedy the economic effect of restraints on relocation. Relocation doctrine in the US should be realigned to address these complex perspectives. States should also assist post-divorce families to support children through the common experience of relocation.

  17. B-1 Systems Approach to Training. Simulation Technology Assessment Report (STAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    Psychology in the Air Force, 1974. Creelman , J.A., Evaluation of Approach Training Procedures, U.S. Naval School of Aviation Med., Proj. No. NM001-109-107...training. 3.2 PHYSICAL VERSUS PSYCHOLOGICAL SIMULATION In the previous section, the term "physical simulation" was used to represent the case where... psychology that there is no "step function" threshold. Rather, detection capability plotted against phys- ical parameter strength results in an ogival

  18. Science Through ARts (STAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecki, Joseph; Petersen, Ruth; Williams, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Science Through ARts (STAR) is an educational initiative designed to teach students through a multidisciplinary approach to learning. This presentation describes the STAR pilot project, which will use Mars exploration as the topic to be integrated. Schools from the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, and possibly eastern Europe are expected to participate in the pilot project.

  19. The meaning of early intervention: A parent's experience and reflection on interactions with professionals using a phenomenological ethnographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe how a parent's partnership with professionals progresses and evolves throughout the service provisioning process. Using a phenomenological ethnographic approach, the lived reality of a family is depicted as the parent walks through different stages of the Individualized Family Service Plan process over a 6-month period. Data concerning parent-professional interactions were obtained via observation notes and document reviews whereas data regarding parent perceptions were collected through multiple individual interviews. Overall, the parent conveyed her satisfaction with actual services especially regarding the professionals' knowledge and parental advocacy. However, the parent also indicated frustration with the early intervention planning process and "obligated" partnerships with providers. In particular, the providers' lack of sensitivity was noted, and greater emotional and psychological support was suggested. The overall process of developing partnerships with professionals can be excessively intrusive to the family's lives. Future research directions are offered as a contribution for the development of improved policies for early intervention programs regarding family-centered practice, utilizing the perspectives of families.

  20. Socioeconomic status, parenting, and externalizing problems in African American single-mother homes: A person-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Margaret T; Jones, Deborah J; Youngstrom, Eric A

    2015-06-01

    African American youth, particularly those from single-mother homes, are overrepresented in statistics on externalizing problems. The family is a central context in which to understand externalizing problems; however, reliance on variable-oriented approaches to the study of parenting, which originate from work with intact, middle-income, European American families, may obscure important information regarding variability in parenting styles among African American single mothers, and in turn, variability in youth outcomes as well. The current study demonstrated that within African American single-mother families: (a) a person-, rather than variable-, oriented approach to measuring parenting style may further elucidate variability; (b) socioeconomic status may provide 1 context within which to understanding variability in parenting style; and (c) 1 marker of socioeconomic status, income, and parenting style may each explain variability in youth externalizing problems; however, the interaction between income and parenting style was not significant. Findings have potential implications for better understanding the specific contexts in which externalizing problems may be most likely to occur within this at-risk and underserved group. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Externalizing Problems in African American Single-Mother Homes: A Person-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Margaret T.; Jones, Deborah J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    African American youth, particularly those from single-mother homes, are overrepresented in statistics on externalizing problems. The family is a central context in which to understand externalizing problems; however, reliance on variable-oriented approaches to the study of parenting, which originate from work with intact, middle-income, European American families, may obscure important information regarding variability in parenting styles among African American single mothers, and in turn, variability in youth outcomes as well. The current study demonstrated that within African American single-mother families: (a) a person-, rather than variable-, oriented approach to measuring parenting style may further elucidate variability; (b) socioeconomic status may provide 1 context within which to understanding variability in parenting style; and (c) 1 marker of socioeconomic status, income, and parenting style may each explain variability in youth externalizing problems; however, the interaction between income and parenting style was not significant. Findings have potential implications for better understanding the specific contexts in which externalizing problems may be most likely to occur within this at-risk and underserved group. PMID:26053349

  2. Effects of Neutron-Star Dynamic Tides on Gravitational Waveforms within the Effective-One-Body Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, Tanja; Taracchini, Andrea; Foucart, Francois; Buonanno, Alessandra; Steinhoff, Jan; Duez, Matthew; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Carpenter, Cory W

    2016-05-06

    Extracting the unique information on ultradense nuclear matter from the gravitational waves emitted by merging neutron-star binaries requires robust theoretical models of the signal. We develop a novel effective-one-body waveform model that includes, for the first time, dynamic (instead of only adiabatic) tides of the neutron star as well as the merger signal for neutron-star-black-hole binaries. We demonstrate the importance of the dynamic tides by comparing our model against new numerical-relativity simulations of nonspinning neutron-star-black-hole binaries spanning more than 24 gravitational-wave cycles, and to other existing numerical simulations for double neutron-star systems. Furthermore, we derive an effective description that makes explicit the dependence of matter effects on two key parameters: tidal deformability and fundamental oscillation frequency.

  3. Effects of Neutron-Star Dynamic Tides on Gravitational Waveforms within the Effective-One-Body Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, Tanja; Taracchini, Andrea; Foucart, Francois; Buonanno, Alessandra; Steinhoff, Jan; Duez, Matthew; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Carpenter, Cory W.

    2016-05-01

    Extracting the unique information on ultradense nuclear matter from the gravitational waves emitted by merging neutron-star binaries requires robust theoretical models of the signal. We develop a novel effective-one-body waveform model that includes, for the first time, dynamic (instead of only adiabatic) tides of the neutron star as well as the merger signal for neutron-star-black-hole binaries. We demonstrate the importance of the dynamic tides by comparing our model against new numerical-relativity simulations of nonspinning neutron-star-black-hole binaries spanning more than 24 gravitational-wave cycles, and to other existing numerical simulations for double neutron-star systems. Furthermore, we derive an effective description that makes explicit the dependence of matter effects on two key parameters: tidal deformability and fundamental oscillation frequency.

  4. Different strokes for different folks? : Contrasting approaches to cultural adaptation of parenting interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mejia, A.; Leijten, P.; Lachman, J.M.; Parra-Cardona, J.R.

    Relevant achievements have been accomplished in prevention science with regard to disseminating efficacious parenting interventions among underserved populations. However, widespread disparities in availability of parenting services continue to negatively impact diverse populations in high-income

  5. Parental social networks during childhood and offspring depression in early adulthood: a lifecourse approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allchin, Adelyn; Melchior, Maria; Fombonne, Eric; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-07-04

    Little is known on how parental social relationships may affect their children's mental health. We sought to examine the relation between parental social relationship characteristics and subsequent offspring depression in young adulthood. We used 2009 Trajectoires Épidémiologiques en Population (TEMPO) study data from 1087 French young adults ages 22 to 35 and parental data from the corresponding Gaz et Eléctricité (GAZEL) study in 1991. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine parental social networks, quality of parental relationships, and reciprocity of parental social support measured in 1991 in relation to offspring depression in young adulthood measured using the Adult Self Report in 2009. Analyses were stratified by participant sex. In adjusted models, daughters of parents who reported giving more support to others than they received had 1.72 higher odds (95% CI, 1.09-2.70) of depression in young adulthood. Daughters of parents who were unsatisfied with their social relationships had 2.14 (95% CI, 1.22-3.76) higher odds of depression. Among male participants, there was no statistically significant association between parental relationship satisfaction, reciprocity of parental exchanges, and depression. Parental relationships during mid-childhood have long-term associations with offspring depression. Results suggest that enhancing social support for parents may have positive implications for their children's mental health. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Food parenting and children's dietary behaviours: Approaching an integrated theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    We explored the differential influences of parental feeding styles and food parenting practices on children's dietary intake. Simple knowledge-based parent change interventions have generally not been shown to influence children's dietary intake. As a result, increasing attention has been given to t...

  7. Deducing hybrid performance from parental metabolic profiles of young primary roots of maize by using a multivariate diallel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Feher

    Full Text Available Heterosis, the greater vigor of hybrids compared to their parents, has been exploited in maize breeding for more than 100 years to produce ever better performing elite hybrids of increased yield. Despite extensive research, the underlying mechanisms shaping the extent of heterosis are not well understood, rendering the process of selecting an optimal set of parental lines tedious. This study is based on a dataset consisting of 112 metabolite levels in young roots of four parental maize inbred lines and their corresponding twelve hybrids, along with the roots' biomass as a heterotic trait. Because the parental biomass is a poor predictor for hybrid biomass, we established a model framework to deduce the biomass of the hybrid from metabolite profiles of its parental lines. In the proposed framework, the hybrid metabolite levels are expressed relative to the parental levels by incorporating the standard concept of additivity/dominance, which we name the Combined Relative Level (CRL. Our modeling strategy includes a feature selection step on the parental levels which are demonstrated to be predictive of CRL across many hybrid metabolites. We demonstrate that these selected parental metabolites are further predictive of hybrid biomass. Our approach directly employs the diallel structure in a multivariate fashion, whereby we attempt to not only predict macroscopic phenotype (biomass, but also molecular phenotype (metabolite profiles. Therefore, our study provides the first steps for further investigations of the genetic determinants to metabolism and, ultimately, growth. Finally, our success on the small-scale experiments implies a valid strategy for large-scale experiments, where parental metabolite profiles may be used together with profiles of selected hybrids as a training set to predict biomass of all possible hybrids.

  8. Stars and Star Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  9. The Role of Parenting for the Adjustment of Children with and without Learning Disabilities: A Person-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkauskiene, Rasa

    2009-01-01

    A person-oriented approach was used to examine the role of parenting in the associations between single learning disabilities and multiple learning disabilities and the adjustment difficulties in 8-11-year-olds. The results revealed that multiple, but not single, learning disabilities were associated with greater difficulties in emotional and…

  10. Two Approaches to Estimating the Effect of Parenting on the Development of Executive Function in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele; Berry, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    In the current article, we contrast 2 analytical approaches to estimate the relation of parenting to executive function development in a sample of 1,292 children assessed longitudinally between the ages of 36 and 60 months of age. Children were administered a newly developed and validated battery of 6 executive function tasks tapping inhibitory…

  11. The meaning of early intervention: A parent's experience and reflection on interactions with professionals using a phenomenological ethnographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon H. Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe how a parent's partnership with professionals progresses and evolves throughout the service provisioning process. Using a phenomenological ethnographic approach, the lived reality of a family is depicted as the parent walks through different stages of the Individualized Family Service Plan process over a 6-month period. Data concerning parent–professional interactions were obtained via observation notes and document reviews whereas data regarding parent perceptions were collected through multiple individual interviews. Overall, the parent conveyed her satisfaction with actual services especially regarding the professionals’ knowledge and parental advocacy. However, the parent also indicated frustration with the early intervention planning process and “obligated” partnerships with providers. In particular, the providers’ lack of sensitivity was noted, and greater emotional and psychological support was suggested. The overall process of developing partnerships with professionals can be excessively intrusive to the family's lives. Future research directions are offered as a contribution for the development of improved policies for early intervention programs regarding family-centered practice, utilizing the perspectives of families.

  12. Parent Education Programs as a Psychiatric Approach to Children with Conduct Disorder: An Evaluation through Two Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Arkan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder is a category to describe the behaviors which have an adverse affect on the individual, family or society, violate the basic rights of other people and ignore the age-appropriate social norms and rules. Parental behaviors should be shaped as well as those of the children in order for conduct disorder to be treated. The reason for this is that parental attitudes play a key role in emergence of anti-social behaviors among children. Therefore, parent programs have been undertaken for the last thirty years. It has been proved that parent programs are effective in children with conduct disorder who display highly disruptive behaviors. The two best parent programs implemented on the parents of children diagnosed with conduct disorder are Triple P and Incredible Years which cooperate with families and the society, reduce the risk factors, support the protective factors, have a multi-disciplinary approach (psychiatrist, psychologist, nurse, child development and educationalist, social service specialist, psychological consultant, teacher, etc., having high evidence standards, use randomized controlled studies and yield long-term results. For that reason, this literature review was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of these two programs, to determine the differences, what is known about the issue.

  13. Leaders' limitations and approaches to creating conditions for interaction and communication in parental groups: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykedal, Karin Forslund; Rosander, Michael; Barimani, Mia; Berlin, Anita

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and understand parental group (PG) leaders' experiences of creating conditions for interaction and communication. The data consisted of 10 interviews with 14 leaders. The transcribed interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that the leaders' ambition was to create a parent-centred learning environment by establishing conditions for interaction and communication between the parents in the PGs. However, the leaders' experience was that their professional competencies were insufficient and that they lacked pedagogical tools to create constructive group discussions. Nevertheless, they found other ways to facilitate interactive processes. Based on their experience in the PG, the leaders constructed informal socio-emotional roles for themselves (e.g. caring role and personal role) and let their more formal task roles (e.g. professional role, group leader and consulting role) recede into the background, so as to remove the imbalance of power between the leaders and the parents. They believed this would make the parents feel more confident and make it easier for them to start communicating and interacting. This personal approach places them in a vulnerable position in the PG, in which it is easy for them to feel offended by parents' criticism, questioning or silence.

  14. What prevents Chinese parents from reporting possible cases of child sexual abuse to authority? A holistic-interactionistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qian Wen; Sun, Xiaoyue; Chen, Mengtong; Qiao, Dong Ping; Chan, Ko Ling

    2017-02-01

    The reporting of suspected CSA cases to authorities in a timely manner is important in preventing continued abuse and protecting abused children at early ages. The current study seeks to explore parents' intentions of reporting their own children's CSA experiences to authorities as well as their reporting willingness when they become aware of possible CSA cases happening to children in other families. Two rounds of semi-structured interviews were conducted among a sample of 26 parents in Beijing; these parents were purposefully selected so as to be diverse in terms of gender, age, and socioeconomic status. The data were analyzed thematically. The findings showed that the reporting of suspected CSA to authorities was a choice made by only a few Chinese parents; it was often even a last resort. By using a holistic-interactionistic approach, the interaction between Chinese parents' intentions of reporting CSA and the Chinese socio-cultural context was analyzed as a dynamic and continuously ongoing process. The impacts of the definition and perceptions of CSA on reporting, the balance of children's rights and parents' power, and the double effect of informal social control are discussed. The implications, both locally and globally, are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrating Faith-based and Community-based Participatory Research Approaches to Adapt the Korean Parent Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Boutain, Doris; Kim, Sangho; Chun, Jin-Joo; Im, Hyesang

    Faith and community based inquiry approaches are rarely used to develop research interventions. The purpose of this article is to present how a research team worked with six Korean American Christian churches to revise the prototype Korean Parent Training Program (KPTP), based upon the Bright Futures Parenting Program. The collaboration was sought to better integrate and align the KPTP with Korean culture and faith. The KPTP was developed to promote positive parenting practices and decrease mental health disparities of Korean American children. Sixteen church participants completed a Delphi survey, a workshop series, Community Theaters, and focus groups. The participants suggested adding Korean traditional parenting virtues, Christian parenting principles, and revising the standardized parent training and program philosophy. Revisions made KPTP sensitive to Korean culture and faith, and promoted program acceptability. The process demonstrated the importance of working with church volunteers to develop faith-based and community-based health promotion interventions targeting Korean American faith communities. This research presents significant and meaningful implications for working with other faith communities from minority backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Schilpzand

    Full Text Available While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics.Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012. For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences.Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p < 0.001, consented to participate (71% versus 56%; p < 0.001, agreed to teacher participation (90% versus 82%; p < 0.001 and agreed to follow-up contact (91% versus 80%; p < 0.001. Fewer cohort 2 parents required reminders (52% versus 63%; p < 0.001, and cohort 2 parents responded more promptly than cohort 1 parents (mean difference: 19.4 days, 95% CI: 18.0 to 20.9, p < 0.001.These results illustrate the value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  17. Delinquency in Adolescent Girls: Using a Confluence Approach to Understand the Influences of Parents and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Angela K; Tolan, Patrick H; Hipwell, Alison E; Keenan, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Determining the interdependence of family and peer influences on the development of delinquency is critical to defining and implementing effective interventions. This study explored the longitudinal relationship among harsh punishment, positive parenting, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency using data from a sub-sample of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Participants were 622 adolescent girls (42% European American, 53% African American); families living in low-income neighborhoods were oversampled. After controlling for the effects of race, living in a single parent household, and receipt of public assistance, harsh punishment and peer delinquency in early adolescence were positively related to delinquency in mid-adolescence. No significant main effects of positive parenting or interaction effects between parenting and peer delinquency were observed. Thus, the effects of harsh parenting and peer delinquency are independent and perhaps additive, rather than interdependent. Results indicate the continued importance of targeting both parenting and peer relationships to prevent delinquency in adolescent girls.

  18. Neutron star/red giant encounters in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a simple expression for the amount by which xsub(crit) is diminished as a star evolves xsub(crit) Rsub(crit)/R*, where Rsub(crit) is the maximum distance of closest approach between two stars for which the tidal energy is sufficient to bind the system, and R* is the radius of the star on which tides are being raised. Also it is concluded that tidal capture of giants by neutron stars resulting in binary systems is unlikely in globular clusters. However, collisions between neutron stars and red giants, or an alternative process involving tidal capture of a main-sequence star into an initially detached binary system, may result either in rapidly rotating neutron stars or in white dwarf/neutron star binaries. (author)

  19. Engaging Parents Who Quit Smoking in Antismoking Socialization of Children: A Novel Approach to Relapse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kim A.; Dickinson, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Data from a randomized controlled trial designed primarily to test the effect of an antismoking socialization parenting program on child initiation of smoking were used to test the subsidiary hypothesis that providing antismoking socialization to children would lower the odds of relapse within a sub-sample of parents who had recently quit smoking. Methods: Over 13 months, 11 state Quitlines provided contact information for callers who were parents of 8- to 10-year-old children. Of 1604 parents enrolled in the trial, 689 (344 treatment; 345 control) had quit smoking cigarettes for at least 24 hours after calling a Quitline. Their data were used to test for group differences in 30-day abstinence measured using telephone interviews conducted 7 and 12 months post-baseline. Analyses of parents with complete follow-up data and intent-to-treat analyses incorporating parents lost to follow-up are presented. Results: Among 465 parents with complete follow-up data, treatment group parents had twice the odds of being abstinent 12 months post-baseline (adjusted OR = 2.01; P = .001) relative to controls. Intent-to-treat analysis with all 689 parents, in which those lost to follow-up were coded as having relapsed, showed a smaller though significant treatment effect on 30-day abstinence at 12 months (adjusted OR = 1.58; P = .017). Conclusions: This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. Additional research is needed to replicate this finding and to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying the observed effect. Implications: There is a clear the need for research to develop new relapse prevention strategies. This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. PMID:26416824

  20. Approaching the adolescent-headed family: a review of teen parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio Beers, Lee A; Hollo, Ruth E

    2009-10-01

    In the USA, as many as 1 in 6 women nationwide become adolescent mothers, making adolescent pregnancy and childbearing issues a frequently encountered occurrence by pediatricians and adolescent medicine health care providers. Both social and medical programs focus on prevention and management of adolescent pregnancies; however, caring for the adolescent-headed family is less well understood. For many teen parents, various environmental and behavioral risks contributed to early childbearing and parenting. Following delivery of the infant, many of these same psycho-social, environmental, and educational factors continue to play a role in the teen's ability to parent effectively. This review explores these factors in relation to teen parenting as well as describes the limited data available on outcomes of adolescent mothers and their infants. Despite negative social stereotypes regarding adolescent fathers, research suggesting that most fathers desire involvement with their infants and the impact of and factors influencing father involvement is explored. Understanding the dynamics of the coparenting relationship, an expanding field of study, will aid practitioners in strengthening and supporting teen parenting by both mothers and fathers. As most teen parents continue to reside with their families, teen parenting has an important impact on the multi-generational family structure. These relationships can serve both to support and at times to hinder the adolescent parents' development as an individual and as a parent. Successful interventions and programs to support the adolescent-headed family take on various forms but are usually comprehensive and multidisciplinary and consider the developmental status of both the parent and the child. To best care for adolescent-headed families, pediatricians and adolescent medicine providers should understand the psychosocial, developmental, educational, and relationship issues that influence adolescent parenting.

  1. Understand B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    When observations of B stars made from space are added to observations made from the ground and the total body of observational information is confronted with theoretical expectations about B stars, it is clear that nonthermal phenomena occur in the atmospheres of B stars. The nature of these phenomena and what they imply about the physical state of a B star and how a B star evolves are examined using knowledge of the spectrum of a B star as a key to obtaining an understanding of what a B star is like. Three approaches to modeling stellar structure (atmospheres) are considered, the characteristic properties of a mantle, and B stars and evolution are discussed.

  2. When Parents Divorce: Assisting Teens to Adjust through a Group Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Jeannine R.; Allton, Judith A.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses factors that contribute to the adjustment difficulties of children and adolescents when their parents divorce. Gender issues, custody, age, parenting style, visitation patterns, socioeconomic considerations, the support system, family size, and the reconstituted family are all discussed. Describes a model for an effective support group…

  3. Patterns of interparental conflict, parenting, and children's emotional insecurity: A person-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopystynska, Olena; Paschall, Katherine W; Barnett, Melissa A; Curran, Melissa A

    2017-10-01

    We examined the relations between interparental conflict (destructive and constructive), parenting behaviors (harshness and supportiveness) and children's emotional insecurity in early childhood when children were approximately 36 months of age. The sample consisted of low-income unmarried couples who were expectant/new parents who participated in the national Building Strong Families project. Interparental conflict was assessed through parents' reported perception of the other parent's conflict behavior. Parenting behaviors were measured through observational data, and children's emotional insecurity was based on parents' reports. Using latent profile analysis, three goals were addressed: (a) concordance or discord of mothers' and fathers' conflict behaviors, (b) the relation between couples' conflict behaviors and parenting, and (c) the association between couples' conflict behaviors and child emotional insecurity. Our findings revealed 4 profiles of couples that share similar characteristics, which in turn were differentially linked to aspects of parenting and child development. Further, results indicated that the vast majority of low-income unmarried couples engage in constructive conflict management behaviors. These findings highlight the need to consider the family unit when designing interventions or providing counseling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A Structural Approach to Unresolved Mourning in Single Parent Family Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Considers the mother's depression as a special problem in therapy of single-parent families, resulting from unresolved mourning maintained by the family system. Offers reasons why the single-parent family's structure seems inherently vulnerable to unresolved mourning. Suggests techniques of Structural Family Therapy to facilitate mourning in such…

  5. Parents Influencing Secondary Students' University Aspirations: A Multilevel Approach Using School-SES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stuart; Vernon, Lynette; Seddon, Sarah; Andrews, Yolanda; Wang, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Students' university aspirational capacity and expectancies are key factors in predicting future university participation. Aspirations and expectations to attend university are strongly influenced by parent educational socialisation and school culture. This study investigates associations between students' university discussions with parents and…

  6. Prediction of Child Performance on a Parent-Child Behavioral Approach Test with Animal Phobic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Lewis, Krystal M.; Cowart, Maria J. W.; Davis, Thompson, III

    2012-01-01

    A host of factors including genetic influences, temperament characteristics, learning experiences, information processing biases, parental psychopathology, and specific parenting practices have been hypothesized to contribute to the development and expression of children's phobias. In the present study, the authors focused on parental…

  7. [An influence of mental disorder in the child on the parents in the context of differentiated approaches to psychosocial interventions on childhood psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren E V; Kupriyanova, T A; Dubinskaya, A O; Khairetdinov, O Z

    2014-01-01

    To specify parent reaction to a mental disorder in the child and to develop differential approaches to psychosocial family interventions. Authors studied parents (mostly mothers) of 140 children with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 100 children with autistic disorders and 85 children with mental retardation. Along with psychiatric examination of the parents, it was used psychometric scales ECI and CGSQ. Authors specified emotional and behavioral characteristics of the parents' reaction as common for all diseases studied as well peculiar for separated forms of mental diseases in children. The factors (cognitive, emotional and behavioral) determining the targets of differentiated therapeutic interventions were singled out. The stress coping strategies for parents are formulated.

  8. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  9. An exploratory study of parents' approaches to health promotion in families of adolescents with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, B J; Mills, W; Steele, C; Kalnins, I; Rossen, B

    2008-03-01

    The life expectancy of children with physical disabilities now extends into adulthood and has been accompanied by the transfer of rehabilitation services from institutions to the home. Thus, families must increasingly partner with health service providers to promote their child's health and prevent the development of secondary conditions that may contribute to heart disease, stroke, respiratory diseases, low endurance and emotional difficulties. To investigate within a family context the health promotion efforts of parents on behalf of a child with a physical disability. The Long Interview Method was used to interview 15 families (11 two-parent and 4 single-parent) having a child 11-16 years of age with a physical disability including cerebral palsy (7), spina bifida (3), muscular dystrophy (3) and other conditions (2). Parents' health promotion efforts were characterized by three main themes. First, parents emphasized traditional lifestyle health behaviours including nutrition, physical activity, tobacco, alcohol and drug use, and personal hygiene. Second, parents tried to foster their adolescent's social life and friendships. They expressed particular concern about how, and if, their child would develop a sense of purpose and have a productive future. Third, parents invested a great deal of effort into observing daily routines, making arrangements for their child's social inclusion and supporting their child in a way that balanced independence with safety and energy conservation. Parents recognize that their child with a physical disability faces greater obstacles, and work hard at health promotion. Healthcare workers need to work with parents to: (1) provide information about specific lifestyle health behaviours including nutrition, physical activity and sexuality; (2) advocate for resources to foster social inclusion; and (3) discuss family strategies that balance parental involvement with their child's need for independence and energy conservation for daily

  10. Stars get dizzy after lunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Michael; Penev, Kaloyan

    2014-01-01

    Exoplanet searches have discovered a large number of h ot Jupiters — high-mass planets orbiting very close to their parent stars in nearly circular orbits. A number of these planets are sufficiently massive and close-in to be significantly affected by tidal dissipation in the parent star, to a degree parameterized by the tidal quality factor Q * . This process speeds up their star's rotation rate while reducing the planet's semimajor axis. In this paper, we investigate the tidal destruction of hot Jupiters. Because the orbital angular momenta of these planets are a significant fraction of their star's rotational angular momenta, they spin up their stars significantly while spiraling to their deaths. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, we predict that for Q * = 10 6 , 3.9 × 10 –6 of stars with the Kepler Target Catalog's mass distribution should have a rotation period shorter than 1/3 day (8 hr) due to accreting a planet. Exoplanet surveys such as SuperWASP, HATnet, HATsouth, and KELT have already produced light curves of millions of stars. These two facts suggest that it may be possible to search for tidally destroyed planets by looking for stars with extremely short rotational periods, then looking for remnant planet cores around those candidates, anomalies in the metal distribution, or other signatures of the recent accretion of the planet.

  11. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics. Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012). For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences. Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  12. Stability of boson stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiser, M.

    1988-01-01

    Boson stars are gravitationally bound, spherically symmetric equilibrium configurations of cold, free, or interacting complex scalar fields phi. As these equilibrium configurations naturally present local anisotropy, it is sensible to expect departures from the well-known stability criteria for fluid stars. With this in mind, I investigate the dynamical instability of boson stars against charge-conserving, small radial perturbations. Following the method developed by Chandrasekhar, a variational base for determining the eigenfrequencies of the perturbations is found. This approach allows one to find numerically an upper bound for the central density where dynamical instability occurs. As applications of the formalism, I study the stability of equilibrium configurations obtained both for the free and for the self-interacting [with V(phi) = (λ/4)chemical bondphichemical bond 4 ] massive scalar field phi. Instabilities are found to occur not for the critical central density as in fluid stars but for central densities considerably higher. The departure from the results for fluid stars is sensitive to the coupling λ; the higher the value of λ, the more the stability properties of boson stars approach those of a fluid star. These results are linked to the fractional anisotropy at the radius of the configuration

  13. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, Klazine; Sleddens, Ester F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Toddlers? eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. Methods An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardian...

  14. Parent-directed approaches to enrich the early language environments of children living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffel, Kristin; Suskind, Dana

    2013-11-01

    Children's early language environments are critical for their cognitive development, school readiness, and ultimate educational attainment. Significant disparities exist in these environments, with profound and lasting impacts upon children's ultimate outcomes. Children from backgrounds of low socioeconomic status experience diminished language inputs and enter school at a disadvantage, with disparities persisting throughout their educational careers. Parents are positioned as powerful agents of change in their children's lives, however, and evidence indicates that parent-directed intervention is effective in improving child outcomes. This article explores the efficacy of parent-directed interventions and their potential applicability to the wider educational achievement gap seen in typically developing populations of low socioeconomic status and then describes efforts to develop such interventions with the Thirty Million Words Project and Project ASPIRE (Achieving Superior Parental Involvement for Rehabilitative Excellence) curricula. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Parents' perspectives on a collaborative approach to the application of the Handwriting Without Tears(®) programme with children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Sandra; Hutton, Eve

    2016-08-01

    The active involvement of parents and children in goal setting and intervention is integral to contemporary occupational therapy process models. However, parental perspectives on collaborative handwriting intervention are limited. This paper presents parental perspectives on a three-way collaboration involving teachers, parents and an occupational therapist in the application of Handwriting Without Tears(®) (HWT(®) ) with children with Down syndrome. Within a larger mixed methods study, 44 parents completed purpose-designed questionnaires and six parents participated in a focus group, post 8 months of programme implementation. Both methods gathered parent's perspectives on the usefulness and limitations of applying HWT(®) . The focus group explored collaboration in depth. Analysis involved triangulation of data from descriptive analysis of numerical data with content analysis of open-ended questions and focus group data. Enablers of parent-child engagement in HWT(®) were identified as; the parent-child-friendly aspects of HWT(®) , the teacher involvement ensuring continuity which eased demands on parents, the ongoing support/guidance of the occupational therapist and the child's involvement in HWT(®) group intervention. The occupational therapists' involvement was reported as essential to encouraging teacher/parent involvement. Barriers to child-parent engagement included fluctuations in child health, mood, attention span and time limitations including the child's involvement in other therapy programmes. Parents perceived the HWT(®) and the three-way collaborative approach as enabling active parent-child engagement in handwriting intervention. This approach warrants further investigation. Findings have the potential to inform practice guidelines and pre- and post-graduation education related to collaborative handwriting intervention with children with Down syndrome and their families. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  16. Risk Assessment for Parents Who Suspect Their Child Has Autism Spectrum Disorder: Machine Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Robins, Diana L; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2018-04-24

    Parents are likely to seek Web-based communities to verify their suspicions of autism spectrum disorder markers in their child. Automated tools support human decisions in many domains and could therefore potentially support concerned parents. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of assessing autism spectrum disorder risk in parental concerns from Web-based sources, using automated text analysis tools and minimal standard questioning. Participants were 115 parents with concerns regarding their child's social-communication development. Children were 16- to 30-months old, and 57.4% (66/115) had a family history of autism spectrum disorder. Parents reported their concerns online, and completed an autism spectrum disorder-specific screener, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers-Revised, with Follow-up (M-CHAT-R/F), and a broad developmental screener, the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). An algorithm predicted autism spectrum disorder risk using a combination of the parent's text and a single screening question, selected by the algorithm to enhance prediction accuracy. Screening measures identified 58% (67/115) to 88% (101/115) of children at risk for autism spectrum disorder. Children with a family history of autism spectrum disorder were 3 times more likely to show autism spectrum disorder risk on screening measures. The prediction of a child's risk on the ASQ or M-CHAT-R was significantly more accurate when predicted from text combined with an M-CHAT-R question selected (automatically) than from the text alone. The frequently automatically selected M-CHAT-R questions that predicted risk were: following a point, make-believe play, and concern about deafness. The internet can be harnessed to prescreen for autism spectrum disorder using parental concerns by administering a few standardized screening questions to augment this process. ©Ayelet Ben-Sasson, Diana L Robins, Elad Yom-Tov. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet

  17. Integrating a family-focused approach into child obesity prevention: Rationale and design for the My Parenting SOS study randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Marci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 20% of US children ages 2-5 yrs are classified as overweight or obese. Parents greatly influence the behaviors their children adopt, including those which impact weight (e.g., diet and physical activity. Unfortunately, parents often fail to recognize the risk for excess weight gain in young children, and may not be motivated to modify behavior. Research is needed to explore intervention strategies that engage families with young children and motivate parents to adopt behaviors that will foster healthy weight development. Methods This study tests the efficacy of the 35-week My Parenting SOS intervention. The intervention consists of 12 sessions: initial sessions focus on general parenting skills (stress management, effective parenting styles, child behavior management, coparenting, and time management and later sessions apply these skills to promote healthier eating and physical activity habits. The primary outcome is change in child percent body fat. Secondary measures assess parent and child dietary intake (three 24-hr recalls and physical activity (accelerometry, general parenting style and practices, nutrition- and activity-related parenting practices, and parent motivation to adopt healthier practices. Discussion Testing of these new approaches contributes to our understanding of how general and weight-specific parenting practices influence child weight, and whether or not they can be changed to promote healthy weight trajectories. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00998348

  18. Integrating a family-focused approach into child obesity prevention: rationale and design for the My Parenting SOS study randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber E; Bangdiwala, Kant I; Campbell, Marci; Jones, Deborah J; Panter, Abigail T; Stevens, June

    2011-06-05

    More than 20% of US children ages 2-5 yrs are classified as overweight or obese. Parents greatly influence the behaviors their children adopt, including those which impact weight (e.g., diet and physical activity). Unfortunately, parents often fail to recognize the risk for excess weight gain in young children, and may not be motivated to modify behavior. Research is needed to explore intervention strategies that engage families with young children and motivate parents to adopt behaviors that will foster healthy weight development. This study tests the efficacy of the 35-week My Parenting SOS intervention. The intervention consists of 12 sessions: initial sessions focus on general parenting skills (stress management, effective parenting styles, child behavior management, coparenting, and time management) and later sessions apply these skills to promote healthier eating and physical activity habits. The primary outcome is change in child percent body fat. Secondary measures assess parent and child dietary intake (three 24-hr recalls) and physical activity (accelerometry), general parenting style and practices, nutrition- and activity-related parenting practices, and parent motivation to adopt healthier practices. Testing of these new approaches contributes to our understanding of how general and weight-specific parenting practices influence child weight, and whether or not they can be changed to promote healthy weight trajectories. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00998348.

  19. Capturing Between- and Within-Family Differences in Parental Support to Adult Children: A Typology Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Fingerman, Karen L; Birditt, Kira S; Zarit, Steven H

    2016-11-01

    Families differ widely in the support they provide to adult offspring, both with regard to the overall level as well as the extent to which support is evenly distributed across offspring. This study addressed these dynamics by creating family profiles based on the average level and differentiation of support among children. We also examined demographic and psychological factors that predict typology membership. We utilized data from 431 middle-aged parents (aged 40-60) with at least two adult children. Parents provided separate ratings of support given to each child. Latent profile analysis was applied to two indicators of within-family support: mean level and differentiation among offspring. Latent profile analysis identified four patterns of parental support: (a) high support-low differentiation (52%), (b) medium support-high differentiation (26%), (c) low support-low differentiation (17%), and (d) low support-very high differentiation (5%). These patterns reflected distinct family characteristics, such as parental resources, parental beliefs (i.e., equal treatment, obligation), and offspring characteristics. Our findings emphasize the need to capture dynamics of support exchanges among multiple offspring at the level of family. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Cultural identity and internationally adopted children: qualitative approach to parental representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Harf

    Full Text Available Approximately 30 000 children are adopted across national borders each year. A review of the literature on the cultural belonging of these internationally adopted children shows substantial differences between the literature from English-speaking countries and that from France and Europe in general. The objective of this study is to start from the discourse of French adoptive parents to explore their representations of their child's cultural belonging and their positions (their thoughts and representations concerning connections with the child's country of birth and its culture. The study includes 51 French parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on the adoption procedure and their current associations with the child's birth country. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from our analysis of the interviews made it possible to classify the parents into three different groups. The first group maintained no association with the child's country of birth and refused any multiplicity of cultural identities. The second group actively maintained regular associations with the child's country of birth and culture and affirmed that their family was multicultural. Finally, the third group adapted their associations with the child's birth country and its culture according to the child's questions and interests. Exploring parental representations of the adopted child enables professionals involved in adoption to provide better support to these families and to do preventive work at the level of family interactions.

  1. Cultural identity and internationally adopted children: qualitative approach to parental representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Sibeoni, Jordan; Pontvert, Caroline; Revah-Levy, Anne; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 000 children are adopted across national borders each year. A review of the literature on the cultural belonging of these internationally adopted children shows substantial differences between the literature from English-speaking countries and that from France and Europe in general. The objective of this study is to start from the discourse of French adoptive parents to explore their representations of their child's cultural belonging and their positions (their thoughts and representations) concerning connections with the child's country of birth and its culture. The study includes 51 French parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on the adoption procedure and their current associations with the child's birth country. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from our analysis of the interviews made it possible to classify the parents into three different groups. The first group maintained no association with the child's country of birth and refused any multiplicity of cultural identities. The second group actively maintained regular associations with the child's country of birth and culture and affirmed that their family was multicultural. Finally, the third group adapted their associations with the child's birth country and its culture according to the child's questions and interests. Exploring parental representations of the adopted child enables professionals involved in adoption to provide better support to these families and to do preventive work at the level of family interactions.

  2. Cultural Identity and Internationally Adopted Children: Qualitative Approach to Parental Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Sibeoni, Jordan; Pontvert, Caroline; Revah-Levy, Anne; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 000 children are adopted across national borders each year. A review of the literature on the cultural belonging of these internationally adopted children shows substantial differences between the literature from English-speaking countries and that from France and Europe in general. The objective of this study is to start from the discourse of French adoptive parents to explore their representations of their child's cultural belonging and their positions (their thoughts and representations) concerning connections with the child's country of birth and its culture. The study includes 51 French parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on the adoption procedure and their current associations with the child's birth country. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from our analysis of the interviews made it possible to classify the parents into three different groups. The first group maintained no association with the child's country of birth and refused any multiplicity of cultural identities. The second group actively maintained regular associations with the child's country of birth and culture and affirmed that their family was multicultural. Finally, the third group adapted their associations with the child's birth country and its culture according to the child's questions and interests. Exploring parental representations of the adopted child enables professionals involved in adoption to provide better support to these families and to do preventive work at the level of family interactions. PMID:25775255

  3. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Any discussion of the radio emission from stars should begin by emphasizing certain unique problems. First of all, one must clarify a semantic confusion introduced into radio astronomy in the late 1950's when most new radio sources were described as radio stars. All of these early 'radio stars' were eventually identified with other galactic and extra-galactic objects. The study of true radio stars, where the radio emission is produced in the atmosphere of a star, began only in the 1960's. Most of the work on the subject has, in fact, been carried out in only the last few years. Because the real information about radio stars is quite new, it is not surprising that major aspects of the subject are not at all understood. For this reason this paper is organized mainly around three questions: what is the available observational information; what physical processes seem to be involved; and what working hypotheses look potentially fruitful. (Auth.)

  4. Analytical Hierarchy Process (Ahp) Approach on Consumer Decision Making to Stay in Star Rating Hotel in Manado City

    OpenAIRE

    Lapian, S.L.H.V. Joyce; Mokodaser, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Hotel has became the new business that developing quickly in Manado. It is happened due to the Manado tourism city program established by the city government which indirectly opening up the opportunities for the growth of hospitality industry in Manado. The purpose of this study is to analyze the criteria hotel that influence consumer and analyze the most star rating hotel chosen by the people. This research held from May until June 2015 in Manado city. The respondent are 30 person with using...

  5. Effects of Coach and Parent Training on Performance Anxiety in Young Athletes: A Systemic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Smoll

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Coaches and parents play a major role in determining the consequences of sport participation in young athletes. This study focuses on the assessment of a systemic, empirically inspired intervention directed at coaches and parents. Parallel workshops derived in part from achievement goal theory were presented to the coaches and parents of 9 to 15 year old boys and girls participating in community-based basketball programs, and their effects were compared with a matched control condition. Multilevel analyses revealed significant Time x Condition interactions on all three subscales of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2 and on a total anxiety score. Athletes in the intervention condition decreased in cognitive and somatic anxiety scores on the SAS-2, whereas athletes in the control condition exhibited increases in cognitive and somatic anxiety. Results suggest the potential efficacy of brief, economical interventions in enhancing the psychosocial impact of the youth sport environment.

  6. Shooting stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.

    1985-01-01

    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is this article object; orbit gathering projects are also presented [fr

  7. Contact refusal by children following acrimonious separation: therapeutic approaches with children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejong, Margaret; Davies, Hilary

    2013-04-01

    This paper aims to build on the existing literature, by presenting some thoughts based on clinical experience with nine families of children referred for intractable contact refusal with one parent following marital separation. This particular group of high-conflict divorce cases engenders an inordinate amount of frustration both within the courts and therapeutic agencies. We outline here our assessment process and therapeutic strategies, as well as consideration of the role of the wider professional system and the courts. We conclude that whether or not direct contact with the rejected parent is achieved, useful therapeutic work can be carried out to assist children in moving on with their lives.

  8. Exploring the Impact of Parental Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation on Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions: A Transdiagnostic Approach to Improving Treatment Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliken, Ashley C.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2013-01-01

    Parenting interventions, particularly those categorized as parent management training (PMT), have a large evidence base supporting their effectiveness with most families who present for treatment of childhood behavior problems. However, data suggest that PMTs are not effective at treating all families who seek services. Parental psychopathology…

  9. Gender Differences When Parenting Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Multilevel Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leah; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Petalas, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Parenting a child with autism may differentially affect mothers and fathers. Existing studies of mother-father differences often ignore the interdependence of data within families. We investigated gender differences within-families using multilevel linear modeling. Mothers and fathers of children with autism (161 couples) reported on their own…

  10. The Effect of Four Different Approaches to Parent-Child Reading on Young Chinese Children's Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Forty families with four- to five-year-old Chinese children were chosen as experiment participants and equally divided into four groups for an eight-week parent-child reading experiment in different reading modes. (1) Groups A, B, and C read one of three kinds of Chinese-English audio bilingual picture books respectively: touch reading books,…

  11. Psychological aspects and coping of parents with a haemophilic child: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviolo-Negrin, N; Cristante, F; Zanon, E; Canclini, M; Stocco, D; Girolami, A

    1999-01-01

    Although haemophilia is a relatively rare hereditary disease, and is curable by blood products, the psychological and social problems of haemophilic patients and of their families are always serious. Anxiety for the risks of bleedings and the fear for infections transmitted by blood products cause stress and difficulty in coping with the situation. The aim of this paper is to assess resources, stress, and coping in parents with a haemophilic child. In order to measure the dimensions related to family stress and resources, social desirability, tendency to depression, and anxiety, the subjects were administered the short-form of the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress by Friedrich et al. revised by Saviolo & Cristante, along with the Social Desirability Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Ipat Anxiety Scale. The subjects of this study were 20 couples who were the parents of haemophilic sons. We analysed how the parents perceived the behavioural characteristics of their child, the differences between mothers and fathers in the questionnaire scores, and the correlation among the considered dimensions. The results show that the parents paid great attention to the problems of their sons, but mothers were more depressed and anxious about the disease of their child.

  12. Helping Parents of Young Children with Disabilities Become Consumers of Early Intervention: A Marketing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, Douglas L.; Fugate, Janet M.

    1995-01-01

    This article suggests the use of marketing techniques to disseminate information products to parents of young children with disabilities. A marketing plan might include the following steps: determination of market needs, market segmentation and target marketing, marketing goals and objectives, marketing strategy, marketing mix tactics, and control…

  13. Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Client-Centered Approach. A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bonnie C.

    This guide to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) first provides a review of the literature on defining characteristics of PDD/ASD, causes of PDD, and diagnosis of PDD. Review of intervention and treatment comprises the major portion of the paper. After briefly considering parent education, this section…

  14. Approaches to Use of Observational Methods of a Study of Parent-Child Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    The methodology discussed is used in ongoing research to contrast the effectiveness of several patterns of parental authority with the same children at different ages. The first characteristic of these methods is the use of trait and behavior ratings to assess dispositional tendencies. The construct of a dispositional trait is used to account for…

  15. Parental Involvement in Language and Literacy Acquisition: A Bilingual Journaling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar, Lena G.; Nelson, Nickola Wolf

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of a home-school partnership for improving emergent literacy skills in Spanish-speaking pre-school children of migrant farmworkers. Parents were requested to send labeled drawings of family activities to their children's classroom for supplementing bilingual language and literacy instruction. Participants…

  16. An Attachment Theory Approach to Narrating the Faith Journey of Children of Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesling, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of parental divorce on a child's faith. Drawing from attachment theory, Granqvist and Kirkpatrick proposed two probable developmental pathways to religion. For those with secure attachment, whose cumulative experiences of sensitive, religious caregivers enhance the development of a God image as loving; belief…

  17. Approaching Parental Guilt, Shame, and Blame in a Helping Relationship: Multiple Methods for Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Kia J.; Cohen-Filipic, Katherine; Cummings, Cory R.

    2016-01-01

    Social workers often feel ill-prepared to effectively engage parents in conversations about guilt, shame, and blame related to their children's mental health or substance use challenges. To address that problem, we suggest that specific content should be integrated into social work courses to teach students how to acknowledge and sensitively…

  18. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Sleddens, Ester F C

    2017-01-01

    Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles. A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The 'authoritarian' cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children's eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster. This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children's eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children's food intake, such as modelling healthy food intake, as well as

  19. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers’ eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Toddlers’ eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. Methods An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles. Results A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The ‘authoritarian’ cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children’s eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster. Conclusion This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children’s eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children’s food intake

  20. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klazine van der Horst

    Full Text Available Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices and by reported child eating styles.An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles.A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The 'authoritarian' cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children's eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster.This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children's eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children's food intake, such as modelling healthy food

  1. Fossil Hunting: Intracluster Stars in Virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, Eric; Bridge, Carrie; Desai, Vandana; Kenney, Jeffrey; Krick, Jessica; Surace, Jason; van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    In dense clusters, galaxy interactions and mergers play a significant role in galaxy evolution. During these interactions, tidal forces can lead to the ejection of stars from their parent galaxies; these stars are a fossil record of environmentally-driven galaxy evolution. We propose to map the

  2. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  3. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  4. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  5. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  6. Using Behavioral Parent Training to Treat Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Young Children: A How-to Approach Using Video Clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Burrell, T. Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the application of a behavioral parent training program, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), in the treatment of behavior disorders in young children. PCIT is unique in that it works with both the child and parent in treatment and it focuses on improving the parent-child relationship as a means to improving parent and…

  7. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.; Gibson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of stellar radio emission became an important field of research in the 1970's and have now expanded to become a major area of radio astronomy with the advent of new instruments such as the Very Large Array in New Mexico and transcontinental telescope arrays. This volume contains papers from the workshop on stellar continuum radio astronomy held in Boulder, Colorado, and is the first book on the rapidly expanding field of radio emission from stars and stellar systems. Subjects covered include the observational and theoretical aspects of stellar winds from both hot and cool stars, radio flares from active double star systems and red dwarf stars, bipolar flows from star-forming regions, and the radio emission from X-ray binaries. (orig.)

  8. Effective Approaches to the Care of the Employees on Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Kostrůnková, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis focuses on identifying the most suitable model of care for em-ployees on parental leave which would bring benefits both to the company and towards employees in European countris. Thesis is built on research within six member countries, Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, Sweden, Finland and Netherlands, and companies on those markets. The main aim is to find a recommendation for employee's care which is based on Scope planning model, along with the cost's analyses of the mod...

  9. Neutron Star/supernova Remnant Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    We propose a new approach for studying the neutron star/supernova remnant associations, based on the idea that the (diffuse) supernova remnants (SNRs) can be products of an off-centred supernova (SN) explosion in a preexisting bubble created by the wind of a moving massive star. A cavity SN explosion of a moving star results in a considerable offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the SNR. Therefore: a) the high transverse velocities inferred for a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B 1610-50, PSR B 1757-24, SGR 0525-66) through their association with SNRs can be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR. Taking into account of these two facts allow us to enlarge the circle of possible NS/SNR associations, and could significantly affect the results of previous studies of NS/SNR associations. The possibilities of our approach are illustrated with the example of the association between PSR B 1706-44 and SNR G 343.1-2.3. We show that this association could be real if both objects are the remnants of a SN exploded within a mushroom-like cavity (created by the SN progenitor wind breaking out of the parent molecular cloud and expanding into an intercloud medium of a much less density). We also show that the SN explosion sites in some middle-aged (shell-like) SNRs could be marked by (compact) nebulae of thermal X-ray emission. The possible detection of such nebulae within middle-aged SNRs could be used for the re-estimation of implied transverse velocities of known NSs or for the search of new stellar remnants possibly associated with these SNRs.

  10. Symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Among the several hundred million binary systems estimated to lie within 3000 light years of the solar system, a tiny fraction, no more than a few hundred, belong to a curious subclass whose radiation has a wavelength distribution so peculiar that it long defied explanation. Such systems radiate strongly in the visible region of the spectrum, but some of them do so even more strongly at both shorter and longer wavelengths: in the ultraviolet region and in the infrared and radio regions. This odd distribution of radiation is best explained by the pairing of a cool red giant star and an intensely hot small star that is virtually in contact with its larger companion. Such objects have become known as symbiotic stars. On photographic plate only the giant star can be discerned, but evidence for the existence of the hot companion has been supplied by satellite-born instruments capable of detecting ultraviolet radiation. The spectra of symbiotic stars indicate that the cool red giant is surrounded by a very hot ionized gas. Symbiotic stars also flared up in outbursts indicating the ejection of material in the form of a shell or a ring. Symbiotic stars may therefore represent a transitory phase in the evolution of certain types of binary systems in which there is substantial transfer of matter from the larger partner to the smaller

  11. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey. I. Presentation of the data and description of the approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chené, A.-N.; Borissova, J.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Bonatto, C.; Majaess, D. J.; Moni Bidin, C.; Sale, S. E.; Mauro, F.; Kurtev, R.; Baume, G.; Feinstein, C.; Ivanov, V. D.; Geisler, D.; Catelan, M.; Minniti, D.; Lucas, P.; de Grijs, R.; Kumar, M. S. N.

    2012-09-01

    Context. The ESO Public Survey "VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea" (VVV) provides deep multi-epoch infrared observations for unprecedented 562 sq. degrees of the Galactic bulge, and adjacent regions of the disk. Aims: The VVV observations will foster the construction of a sample of Galactic star clusters with reliable and homogeneously derived physical parameters (e.g., age, distance, and mass, etc.). In this first paper in a series, the methodology employed to establish cluster parameters for the envisioned database are elaborated upon by analysing four known young open clusters: Danks 1, Danks 2, RCW 79, and DBS 132. The analysis offers a first glimpse of the information that can be gleaned from the VVV observations for clusters in the final database. Methods: Wide-field, deep JHKs VVV observations, combined with new infrared spectroscopy, are employed to constrain fundamental parameters for a subset of clusters. Results: Results are inferred from VVV near-infrared photometry and numerous low resolution spectra (typically more than 10 per cluster). The high quality of the spectra and the deep wide-field VVV photometry enables us to precisely and independently determine the characteristics of the clusters studied, which we compare to previous determinations. An anomalous reddening law in the direction of the Danks clusters is found, specifically E(J - H)/E(H - Ks) = 2.20 ± 0.06, which exceeds published values for the inner Galaxy. The G305 star forming complex, which includes the Danks clusters, lies beyond the Sagittarius-Carina spiral arm and occupies the Centaurus arm. Finally, the first deep infrared colour-magnitude diagram of RCW 79 is presented, which reveals a sizeable pre-main sequence population. A list of candidate variable stars in G305 region is reported. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the strength of the dataset and methodology employed, and constitutes the first step of a broader study which shall include reliable parameters for a sizeable

  12. Models of symbiotic stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedjung, Michael

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important features of symbiotic stars is the coexistence of a cool spectral component that is apparently very similar to the spectrum of a cool giant, with at least one hot continuum, and emission lines from very different stages of ionization. The cool component dominates the infrared spectrum of S-type symbiotics; it tends to be veiled in this wavelength range by what appears to be excess emission in D-type symbiotics, this excess usually being attributed to circumstellar dust. The hot continuum (or continua) dominates the ultraviolet. X-rays have sometimes also been observed. Another important feature of symbiotic stars that needs to be explained is the variability. Different forms occur, some variability being periodic. This type of variability can, in a few cases, strongly suggest the presence of eclipses of a binary system. One of the most characteristic forms of variability is that characterizing the active phases. This basic form of variation is traditionally associated in the optical with the veiling of the cool spectrum and the disappearance of high-ionization emission lines, the latter progressively appearing (in classical cases, reappearing) later. Such spectral changes recall those of novae, but spectroscopic signatures of the high-ejection velocities observed for novae are not usually detected in symbiotic stars. However, the light curves of the 'symbiotic nova' subclass recall those of novae. We may also mention in this connection that radio observations (or, in a few cases, optical observations) of nebulae indicate ejection from symbiotic stars, with deviations from spherical symmetry. We shall give a historical overview of the proposed models for symbiotic stars and make a critical analysis in the light of the observations of symbiotic stars. We describe the empirical approach to models and use the observational data to diagnose the physical conditions in the symbiotics stars. Finally, we compare the results of this empirical

  13. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  14. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  15. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  16. STARS no star on Kauai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.

    1993-01-01

    The island of Kuai, home to the Pacific Missile Range Facility, is preparing for the first of a series of Star Wars rocket launches expected to begin early this year. The Strategic Defense Initiative plans 40 launches of the Stategic Target System (STARS) over a 10-year period. The focus of the tests appears to be weapons and sensors designed to combat multiple-warhead ICBMs, which will be banned under the START II Treaty that was signed in January. The focus of this article is to express the dubious value of testing the STARS at a time when their application will not be an anticipated problem

  17. Flare stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicastro, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The least massive, but possibly most numerous, stars in a galaxy are the dwarf M stars. It has been observed that some of these dwarfs are characterized by a short increase in brightness. These stars are called flare stars. These flare stars release a lot of energy in a short amount of time. The process producing the eruption must be energetic. The increase in light intensity can be explained by a small area rising to a much higher temperature. Solar flares are looked at to help understand the phenomenon of stellar flares. Dwarfs that flare are observed to have strong magnetic fields. Those dwarf without the strong magnetic field do not seem to flare. It is believed that these regions of strong magnetic fields are associated with star spots. Theories on the energy that power the flares are given. Astrophysicists theorize that the driving force of a stellar flare is the detachment and collapse of a loop of magnetic flux. The mass loss due to stellar flares is discussed. It is believed that stellar flares are a significant contributor to the mass of interstellar medium in the Milky Way

  18. Baby please stop crying: an experimental approach to infant crying, affect, and expected parenting self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cock, E.S.A.; Henrichs, J.; Rijk, C.H.A.M.; van Bakel, H.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study examines the effect of infant crying on parental affect, state anxiety and parenting self-efficacy in an experimental setting. Background: Infant crying causes distress and feelings of incompetence in many parents. These frustrating parental feelings can lead to

  19. The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C., III

    The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 degrees each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is 2 to 8 visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arc seconds. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arc seconds and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arc seconds. The purpose of this paper is to describe the LPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.

  20. CARBON NEUTRON STAR ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleimanov, V. F.; Klochkov, D.; Werner, K.; Pavlov, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars is limited in particular by uncertainties in the chemical composition of their atmospheres. For example, the atmospheres of thermally emitting neutron stars in supernova remnants might have exotic chemical compositions, and for one of them, the neutron star in Cas A, a pure carbon atmosphere has recently been suggested by Ho and Heinke. To test this composition for other similar sources, a publicly available detailed grid of the carbon model atmosphere spectra is needed. We have computed this grid using the standard local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation and assuming that the magnetic field does not exceed 10 8  G. The opacities and pressure ionization effects are calculated using the Opacity Project approach. We describe the properties of our models and investigate the impact of the adopted assumptions and approximations on the emergent spectra

  1. Symbiotic stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of symbiotic star systems are discussed, based on a review of recent observational data. A model of a symbiotic star system is presented which illustrates how a cool red-giant star is embedded in a nebula whose atoms are ionized by the energetic radiation from its hot compact companion. UV outbursts from symbiotic systems are explained by two principal models: an accretion-disk-outburst model which describes how material expelled from the tenuous envelope of the red giant forms an inwardly-spiralling disk around the hot companion, and a thermonuclear-outburst model in which the companion is specifically a white dwarf which superheats the material expelled from the red giant to the point where thermonuclear reactions occur and radiation is emitted. It is suspected that the evolutionary course of binary systems is predetermined by the initial mass and angular momentum of the gas cloud within which binary stars are born. Since red giants and Mira variables are thought to be stars with a mass of one or two solar mass, it is believed that the original cloud from which a symbiotic system is formed can consist of no more than a few solar masses of gas.

  2. Community College Students' Health Insurance Enrollment, Maintenance, and Talking With Parents Intentions: An Application of the Reasoned Action Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhman, Marian; Quick, Brian L; Payne, Laura

    2016-05-01

    A primary objective of health care reform is to provide affordable and quality health insurance to individuals. Currently, promotional efforts have been moderately successful in registering older, more mature adults yet comparatively less successful in registering younger adults. With this challenge in mind, we conducted extensive formative research to better understand the attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of community college students. More specifically, we examined how each relates to their intentions to enroll in a health insurance plan, maintain their current health insurance plan, and talk with their parents about their parents having health insurance. In doing so, we relied on the revised reasoned action approach advanced by Fishbein and his associates (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010; Yzer, 2012, 2013). Results showed that the constructs predicted intentions to enroll in health insurance for those with no insurance and for those with government-sponsored insurance and intentions to maintain insurance for those currently insured. Our study demonstrates the applicability of the revised reasoned action framework within this context and is discussed with an emphasis on the practical and theoretical contributions.

  3. Dark stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maselli, Andrea; Pnigouras, Pantelis; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2017-01-01

    to the formation of compact objects predominantly made of dark matter. Considering both fermionic and bosonic (scalar φ4) equations of state, we construct the equilibrium structure of rotating dark stars, focusing on their bulk properties and comparing them with baryonic neutron stars. We also show that these dark......Theoretical models of self-interacting dark matter represent a promising answer to a series of open problems within the so-called collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. In case of asymmetric dark matter, self-interactions might facilitate gravitational collapse and potentially lead...... objects admit the I-Love-Q universal relations, which link their moments of inertia, tidal deformabilities, and quadrupole moments. Finally, we prove that stars built with a dark matter equation of state are not compact enough to mimic black holes in general relativity, thus making them distinguishable...

  4. Temperamental, Parental, and Contextual Contributors to Early-Emerging Internalizing Problems: A New Integrative Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Hastings, Paul D.; Helm, Jonathan; Serbin, Lisa A.; Etezadi, Jamshid; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Li, Hai Hong

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated a comprehensive model of factors associated with internalizing problems (IP) in early childhood, hypothesizing direct, mediated, and moderated pathways linking child temperamental inhibition, maternal overcontrol and rejection, and contextual stressors to IP. In a novel approach, three samples were integrated to form a large…

  5. Design and application of star map simulation system for star sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Shen, Weimin; Zhu, Xifang; Chen, Yuheng; Xu, Qinquan

    2013-12-01

    Modern star sensors are powerful to measure attitude automatically which assure a perfect performance of spacecrafts. They achieve very accurate attitudes by applying algorithms to process star maps obtained by the star camera mounted on them. Therefore, star maps play an important role in designing star cameras and developing procession algorithms. Furthermore, star maps supply significant supports to exam the performance of star sensors completely before their launch. However, it is not always convenient to supply abundant star maps by taking pictures of the sky. Thus, star map simulation with the aid of computer attracts a lot of interests by virtue of its low price and good convenience. A method to simulate star maps by programming and extending the function of the optical design program ZEMAX is proposed. The star map simulation system is established. Firstly, based on analyzing the working procedures of star sensors to measure attitudes and the basic method to design optical system by ZEMAX, the principle of simulating star sensor imaging is given out in detail. The theory about adding false stars and noises, and outputting maps is discussed and the corresponding approaches are proposed. Then, by external programming, the star map simulation program is designed and produced. Its user interference and operation are introduced. Applications of star map simulation method in evaluating optical system, star image extraction algorithm and star identification algorithm, and calibrating system errors are presented completely. It was proved that the proposed simulation method provides magnificent supports to the study on star sensors, and improves the performance of star sensors efficiently.

  6. I-Love relations for incompressible stars and realistic stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. K.; Chan, AtMa P. O.; Leung, P. T.

    2015-02-01

    In spite of the diversity in the equations of state of nuclear matter, the recently discovered I-Love-Q relations [Yagi and Yunes, Science 341, 365 (2013), 10.1126/science.1236462], which relate the moment of inertia, tidal Love number (deformability), and the spin-induced quadrupole moment of compact stars, hold for various kinds of realistic neutron stars and quark stars. While the physical origin of such universality is still a current issue, the observation that the I-Love-Q relations of incompressible stars can well approximate those of realistic compact stars hints at a new direction to approach the problem. In this paper, by establishing recursive post-Minkowskian expansion for the moment of inertia and the tidal deformability of incompressible stars, we analytically derive the I-Love relation for incompressible stars and show that the so-obtained formula can be used to accurately predict the behavior of realistic compact stars from the Newtonian limit to the maximum mass limit.

  7. An Observational Approach to Testing Bi-Directional Parent-Child Interactions as Influential to Child Eating and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen; Dell'Aquila, Daniela; Aksan, Nazan; McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children has been on the rise globally for the past few decades. Previous research has centred mainly on self/parent-reported measures examining only uni-directional parental feeding styles and practices. Recent discussions in the literature have raised the importance of bi-directional parent-child interactions in influencing…

  8. Autism spectrum disorder traits in typically developing emerging adults and associated parenting: A person-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Gadke, Daniel L; Malkin, Mallory L

    2018-02-15

    Research on parenting children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) indicates these children receive parenting tailored to their condition. However, little is known about ASD in adulthood, especially in emerging adults at college, and how they are parented. The current study examined how emerging adults in a non-clinical typically-developing sample differed in their current perceptions of parenting as a function of ASD traits. Participants completed questionnaires about their current perceptions of parenting and self-reported ASD traits. Parenting characteristics assessed included parenting style, discipline, parent-child relationship quality, and parental distress. Results indicated that higher levels of self-reported ASD traits were associated with increasingly ineffective parenting characteristics including lower authoritative style, harsher discipline, poorer parent-child relationship quality (e.g., lower involvement), and higher parental distress. Researchers are encouraged to extend ASD research into adulthood by validating diagnostic methods with adults and investigating processes in adulthood that have been well-established in the childhood ASD literature.

  9. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  10. Pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M?rcio

    2014-01-01

    The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory.  Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.

  11. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  12. Star Products and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  13. A developmental approach to dimensional expression of psychopathology in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón-Nozaleda, María Goretti; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Rodríguez-Toscano, Elisa; Arango, Celso; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Espliego, Ana; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Romero, Soledad; Baeza, Immaculada; Sugranyes, Gisela; Moreno, Carmen; Moreno, Dolores

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this is to describe psychopathology, functioning and symptom dimensions accounting for subthreshold manifestations and developmental status in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder ("high-risk offspring"). The study population comprised 90 high-risk offspring (HR-offspring) and 107 offspring of community control parents (CC-offspring). Direct clinical observations and parental and offspring reports based on selected standardized clinical scales were used to assess offspring threshold and subthreshold diagnoses, symptoms and functioning. All outcomes were compared between the whole HR-offspring and CC-offspring samples and then by developmental status. After controlling for potential confounders, HR-offspring showed significantly poorer adjustment for childhood (r = 0.18, p = 0.014) and adolescence (r = 0.21, p = 0.048) than CC-offspring, as well as more emotional problems (r = 0.24, p = 0.001) and higher depression scores (r = 0.16, p = 0.021). As for differences in lifetime categorical diagnoses (threshold and subthreshold) between HR-offspring and CC-offspring, the prevalence of disruptive disorders was higher in pre-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 12.78 [1.45-112.42]), while prevalence of mood disorders was higher in post-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 3.39 [1.14-10.06]). Post-pubertal HR-offspring presented more prodromal (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), negative (r = 0.38, p = 0.002), manic (r = 0.22, p = 0.035) and depressive (r = 0.23, p = 0.015) symptoms than pre-pubertal HR-offspring, as well as more peer relationship problems (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), poorer childhood adjustment (r = 0.22, p = 0.044) and worse current psychosocial functioning (r = 0.27, p = 0.04). Externalizing psychopathology is more prevalent in pre-pubertal HR-offspring, while depressive and prodromal symptoms leading to functional impairment are more prominent in post-pubertal HR-offspring. Developmental approaches and

  14. School-Based Intervention for Nutrition Promotion in Mi Yun County, Beijing, China: Does a Health-Promoting School Approach Improve Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…

  15. Invariance of Parent Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms in Australian and Malaysian, and North European Australian and Malay Malaysia Children: A Mean and Covariance Structures Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study used the mean and covariance structures analysis approach to examine the equality or invariance of ratings of the 18 ADHD symptoms. Method: 783 Australian and 928 Malaysian parents provided ratings for an ADHD rating scale. Invariance was tested across these groups (Comparison 1), and North European Australian (n = 623) and…

  16. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  17. StarLogo TNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, Eric; Scheintaub, Hal; Huang, Wendy; Wendel, Daniel

    Computational approaches to science are radically altering the nature of scientific investigatiogn. Yet these computer programs and simulations are sparsely used in science education, and when they are used, they are typically “canned” simulations which are black boxes to students. StarLogo The Next Generation (TNG) was developed to make programming of simulations more accessible for students and teachers. StarLogo TNG builds on the StarLogo tradition of agent-based modeling for students and teachers, with the added features of a graphical programming environment and a three-dimensional (3D) world. The graphical programming environment reduces the learning curve of programming, especially syntax. The 3D graphics make for a more immersive and engaging experience for students, including making it easy to design and program their own video games. Another change to StarLogo TNG is a fundamental restructuring of the virtual machine to make it more transparent. As a result of these changes, classroom use of TNG is expanding to new areas. This chapter is concluded with a description of field tests conducted in middle and high school science classes.

  18. A parent-child dyad approach to the assessment of health status and health-related quality of life in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Wendy J; Boydell, Katherine; Dell, Sharon; Feldman, Brian M; Marshall, Deborah; Willan, Andrew; Wright, James G

    2012-08-01

    Assessment of health state and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) are limited by a child's age and cognitive ability. Parent-proxy reports are known to differ from children's reports. Simultaneous assessment using a parent-child dyad is an alternative approach. Our objective was to assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of a parent-child dyad approach to utility and HR-QOL assessment of paediatric asthma health states. The setting was specialist care in a hospital-based asthma clinic. Participants were 91 girls and boys with asthma aged 8 to 17 years and 91 parents. The intervention employed was parent-child dyad administration of the Health Utilities Index (HUI) 2 and 3, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Core and Asthma modules, and the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). Questionnaires were administered by interview to children and parents separately and then together as a dyad to assess the child's health state. The dyad interview was repeated at the next clinic visit. Dyad-child agreement was measured by intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient; Spearman correlations were used to assess convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 28 children who remained clinically stable between visits with a two-way ICC coefficient. Responsiveness to change from baseline was assessed with Spearman coefficients in 30 children who demonstrated clinical change between visits. There was no significant agreement between parent and child for the HUI2 or HUI3 whereas agreement between dyad and child was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36, 0.69) for the HUI2 and 0.74 (95% CI 0.61, 0.82) for the HUI3 overall. With respect to dyad performance characteristics, both HUI2 and HUI3 overall scores demonstrated moderate convergent validity with the generic PedsQL™ Core domains (range r = 0.30-0.52; p  0.4; p < 0.05) was observed for dyad HUI2 total score change over time as correlated with dyad

  19. Heavy Metal Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    atomic mass and hence, increasing positive charge of the nuclei, the electric repulsion between the nuclei becomes stronger and stronger. In fact, the fusion process only works up to a certain mass limit, corresponding to the element Iron [2]. All elements that are heavier than Iron cannot be produced via this path. But then, how were those heavy elements we now find on the Earth produced in the first place? From where comes the Zirconium in artificial diamonds, the Barium that colours fireworks, the Tungsten in the filaments in electric bulbs? Which process made the Lead in your car battery? Beyond iron The production of elements heavier than Iron takes place by adding neutrons to the atomic nuclei . These neutral particles do not feel any electrical repulsion from the charged nuclei. They can therefore easily approach them and thereby create heavier nuclei. This is indeed the way the heaviest chemical elements are built up. There are actually two different stellar environments where this process of "neutron capture" can happen. One place where this process occurs is inside very massive stars when they explode as supernovae . In such a dramatic event, the build-up proceeds very rapidly, via the so-called "r-process" ( "r" for rapid ). The AGB stars But not all heavy elements are created in such an explosive way. A second possibility follows a more "peaceful" road. It takes place in rather normal stars, when they burn their Helium towards the end of their lives. In the so-called "s-process" ( "s" for slow ), heavier elements are then produced by a rather gentle addition of neutral neutrons to atomic nuclei. In fact, roughly half of all the elements heavier than Iron are believed to be synthesized by this process during the late evolutionary phases of stars. This process takes place during a specific stage of stellar evolution, known as the "AGB" phase [3]. It occurs just before an old star expels its gaseous envelope into the surrounding interstellar space and sometime

  20. Development of an Internet-Administered Cognitive Behavior Therapy Program (ENGAGE) for Parents of Children Previously Treated for Cancer: Participatory Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman, Anna; Kukkola, Laura; Börjesson, Helene; Cernvall, Martin; Woodford, Joanne; Grönqvist, Helena; von Essen, Louise

    2018-04-18

    Parenting a child through cancer is a distressing experience, and a subgroup of parents report negative long-term psychological consequences years after treatment completion. However, there is a lack of evidence-based psychological interventions for parents who experience distress in relation to a child's cancer disease after end of treatment. One aim of this study was to develop an internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) for parents of children previously treated for cancer. Another aim was to identify acceptable procedures for future feasibility and efficacy studies testing and evaluating the intervention. Participatory action research methodology was used. The study included face-to-face workshops and related Web-based exercises. A total of 6 parents (4 mothers, 2 fathers) of children previously treated for cancer were involved as parent research partners. Moreover, 2 clinical psychologists were involved as expert research partners. Research partners and research group members worked collaboratively throughout the study. Data were analyzed iteratively using written summaries of the workshops and Web-based exercises parallel to data collection. A 10-week, internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) was developed in collaboration with parent research partners and expert research partners. The content of the intervention, mode and frequency of e-therapist support, and the individualized approach for feedback were modified based on the research partner input. Shared solutions were reached regarding the type and timing of support from an e-therapist (eg, initial video or telephone call, multiple methods of e-therapist contact), duration and timing of intervention (eg, 10 weeks, 30-min assessments), and the removal of unnecessary support functions (eg, removal of chat and forum functions). Preferences for study procedures in

  1. Evaluation of the Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) Project Using the Multiattribute Utility (MAU) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Julia B.; Meadan, Hedda; Angell, Maureen E.; Daczewitz, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a multiattribute utility (MAU) evaluation to assess the Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) project which was funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES). In the PiCS project parents of young children with developmental disabilities are trained and coached in their homes on naturalistic and visual teaching…

  2. Diverse Approaches to Parent Advocacy during Special Education Home-School Interactions: Identification and Use of Cultural and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Audrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Home-school partnerships in special education often include parent advocacy that at times requires specific and specialized knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Parent participation is shaped by access to cultural and social capital resources and is critical to assessment and service delivery. This study explores the types of capital resources…

  3. Parenting Practices of Anxious and Non-Anxious Mothers: A Multi-method Multi-informant Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2012-01-01

    Anxious and non-anxious mothers were compared on theoretically derived parenting and family environment variables (i.e., over-control, warmth, criticism, anxious modeling) using multiple informants and methods. Mother-child dyads completed questionnaires about parenting and were observed during an interactional task. Findings revealed that, after controlling for race and child anxiety, maternal anxiety was associated with less warmth and more anxious modeling based on maternal-report. However, maternal anxiety was not related to any parenting domain based on child-report or independent observer (IO) ratings. Findings are discussed in the context of the impact of maternal anxiety on parenting and suggest that child, rather than maternal, anxiety may have a greater influence on parental behavior. PMID:22639487

  4. The Mediating Effect of Self-Control on Parenting and Delinquency: A Gendered Approach With a Multinational Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftić, Lisa R; Updegrove, Alexander H

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to clarify the relationships between parenting techniques, low self-control, and juvenile delinquency in Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime while controlling for alternative explanations of delinquency. We relied on a sample of 35,511 adolescent students from 31 countries from the International Self-Report Delinquency 2 Study. Results indicate that parenting exhibits a direct effect on adolescents' violence perpetration and property offending, and that while self-control weakens the strength of this relationship, it fails to fully mediate it. Males reported lower levels of self-control, exposure to poorer parenting techniques, and higher rates of violence perpetration and property offending. The relationship between parenting, self-control, and juvenile delinquency was similar for females and males. These results provide evidence that parenting has important implications for adolescents' involvement in delinquency above and beyond its influence on their level of self-control.

  5. Financial stress, parent functioning and adolescent problem behavior: an actor-partner interdependence approach to family stress processes in low-, middle-, and high-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen

    2014-10-01

    The family stress model proposes that financial stress experienced by parents is associated with problem behavior in adolescents. The present study applied an actor-partner interdependence approach to the family stress model and focused on low-, middle-, and high-income families to broaden our understanding of the pathways by which the financial stress of mothers and fathers are related to adolescent outcomes. The study uses dyadic data (N = 798 heterosexual couples) from the Relationship between Mothers, Fathers and Children study in which two-parent families with an adolescent between 11 and 17 years of age participated. Path-analytic results indicated that in each of the families the association between parents' financial stress and problem behavior in adolescents is mediated through parents' depressive symptoms, interparental conflict, and positive parenting. Family stress processes also appear to operate in different ways for low-, middle-, and high-income families. In addition to a higher absolute level of financial stress in low-income families, financial stress experienced by mothers and fathers in these families had significant direct and indirect effects on problem behavior in adolescents, while in middle- and high-income families only significant indirect effects were found. The financial stress of a low-income mother also had a more detrimental impact on her level of depressive feelings than it had on mothers in middle-income families. Furthermore, the study revealed gender differences in the pathways of mothers and fathers. Implications for research, clinical practice, and policy are also discussed.

  6. The STAR experiment at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    STAR (Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC) will be one of two large, sophisticated experiments ready to take data when the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) comes on-line in 1999. The design of STAR, its construction and commissioning and the physics program using the detector are the responsibility of a collaboration of over 250 members from 30 institutions, world-wide. The overall approach of the STAR Collaboration to the physics challenge of studying collisions of highly relativistic nuclei is to focus on measurements of the properties of the many hadrons produced in the collisions. The STAR detector is optimized to detect and identify hadrons over a large solid angle so that individual events can be characterized, in detail, based on their hadronic content. The broad capabilities of the STAR detector will permit an examination of a wide variety of proposed signatures for the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), using the sample of events which, on an event-by-event basis, appear to come from collisions resulting in a large energy density over a nuclear volume. In order to achieve this goal, the STAR experiment is based on a solenoid geometry with tracking detectors using the time projection chamber approach and covering a large range of pseudo-rapidity so that individual tracks can be seen within the very high track density expected in central collisions at RHIC. STAR also uses particle identification by the dE/dx technique and by time-of-flight. Electromagnetic energy is detected in a large, solid-angle calorimeter. The construction of STAR, which will be located in the Wide Angle Hall at the 6 o'clock position at RHIC, formally began in early 1993

  7. Barriers to Lose Weight from the Perspective of Children with Overweight/Obesity and Their Parents: A Sociocultural Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lilia Rodríguez-Ventura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There are not enough studies about the barriers to lose weight from the perspective of children and their parents. Methods. Children and adolescents diagnosed with overweight/obesity in the Department of Endocrinology and their parents were invited to participate in a series of focus group discussions (FGD. Twenty-nine children 10–16 years old and 22 parents participated in 7 focus groups; 2 mothers and 2 adolescents participated in depth interviews. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through grounded theory. Results. Parents went to the hospital only when their children presented any obesity complication; for them, overweight was not a health problem. Parents referred to lack of time to supervise about a healthy diet and exercise; besides, the same parents, relatives, friends, and the mass media encourage the consumption of junk food. Children accepted eating a lot, not doing exercise, skipping meals, and not understanding overweight consequences. Both, parents and children, demanded support to do the time recommended for exercise inside the schools. They also suggested getting information from schools and mass media (TV about overweight consequences, exercise, and healthy food by health workers; they recommended prohibiting announcements about junk food and its sale. Conclusions. The barriers detected were lack of perception of being overweight, its identification as a disease and its consequences, lack of time to supervise a healthy lifestyle, and a big social influence to eat junk food.

  8. Barriers to lose weight from the perspective of children with overweight/obesity and their parents: a sociocultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ventura, Ana Lilia; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris; Sámano-Sámano, Reyna; Jimenez-Gutierrez, Carlos; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    There are not enough studies about the barriers to lose weight from the perspective of children and their parents. Children and adolescents diagnosed with overweight/obesity in the Department of Endocrinology and their parents were invited to participate in a series of focus group discussions (FGD). Twenty-nine children 10-16 years old and 22 parents participated in 7 focus groups; 2 mothers and 2 adolescents participated in depth interviews. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through grounded theory. Parents went to the hospital only when their children presented any obesity complication; for them, overweight was not a health problem. Parents referred to lack of time to supervise about a healthy diet and exercise; besides, the same parents, relatives, friends, and the mass media encourage the consumption of junk food. Children accepted eating a lot, not doing exercise, skipping meals, and not understanding overweight consequences. Both, parents and children, demanded support to do the time recommended for exercise inside the schools. They also suggested getting information from schools and mass media (TV) about overweight consequences, exercise, and healthy food by health workers; they recommended prohibiting announcements about junk food and its sale. The barriers detected were lack of perception of being overweight, its identification as a disease and its consequences, lack of time to supervise a healthy lifestyle, and a big social influence to eat junk food.

  9. Life of a star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henbest, Nigel.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the theory of stellar evolution. A description is given of:- how a star is born, main sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, supernovae, neutron stars and black holes. A brief explanation is given of how the death of a star as a supernova can trigger off the birth of a new generation of stars. Classification of stars and the fate of our sun, are also described. (U.K.)

  10. Are happiness and productivity lower among university students with newly-divorced parents? : an experimental approach \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Proto, Eugenio; Sgroi, Daniel; Oswald, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    We live in a high-divorce age. Parents worry about the possibility of negative effects upon their children. This paper tests whether recent parental-divorce has deleterious consequences for grown children. Under controlled conditions, it measures students’ happiness with life, and their productivity in a standardized laboratory task. No negative effects from divorce can be detected. If anything, happiness and productivity are greater, particularly among males, if they have experienced parenta...

  11. Spheroidal Populated Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Lucio; Giannone, Pietro

    2008-10-01

    Globular clusters and low-ellipticity early-type galaxies can be treated as systems populated by a large number of stars and whose structures can be schematized as spherically symmetric. Their studies profit from the synthesis of stellar populations. The computation of synthetic models makes use of various contributions from star evolution and stellar dynamics. In the first sections of the paper we present a short review of our results on the occurrence of galactic winds in star systems ranging from globular clusters to elliptical galaxies, and the dynamical evolution of a typical massive globular cluster. In the subsequent sections we describe our approach to the problem of the stellar populations in elliptical galaxies. The projected radial behaviours of spectro-photometric indices for a sample of eleven galaxies are compared with preliminary model results. The best agreement between observation and theory shows that our galaxies share a certain degree of heterogeneity. The gas energy dissipation varies from moderate to large, the metal yield ranges from solar to significantly oversolar, the dispersion of velocities is isotropic in most of the cases and anisotropic in the remaining instances.

  12. Oscillations in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine

    1999-01-01

    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l → 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II l+1 from II l and II l-1 to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n c , while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  13. Oscillations in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine

    1999-07-01

    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  14. Nuclear processing during star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary survey was conducted of the thermonuclear energy release expected during star formation. The destruction of primordial deuterium provides substantial amounts of energy at surprisingly low temperatures, and must be considered in any meaningful treatment of star formation carried to stages in which the internal temperature exceeds a few hundred thousand degrees. Significant energy generation from consumption of initial lithium requires higher temperatures, of the order of a few million degrees. Depletion of primordial beryllium and boron may never provide an important energy source. The approach to equilibrium of the carbon--nitrogen cycle is dominant at temperatures approaching those characteristic of the central regions of main sequence stars. The present calculation should serve as a useful guide in choosing those nuclear processes to be included in a more detailed study. 8 figures, 2 tables

  15. APPROACHING THE BIOLOGY OF HUMAN PARENTAL ATTACHMENT: BRAIN IMAGING, OXYTOCIN AND COORDINATED ASSESSMENTS OF MOTHERS AND FATHERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, JE; Kim, P; Spicer, J; Ho, SS; Dayton, CJ; Elmadih, A; Abel, KM

    2014-01-01

    Brain networks that govern parental response to infant signals have been studied with imaging techniques over the last 15 years. The complex interaction of thoughts and behaviors required for sensitive parenting of offspring enable formation of each individual’s first social bonds and critically shape infants’ behavior. This review concentrates on magnetic resonance imaging experiments which directly examine the brain systems involved in parental responses to infant cues. First, we introduce themes in the literature on parental brain circuits studied to date. Next, we present a thorough chronological review of state-of-the-art fMRI studies that probe the parental brain with a range of baby audio and visual stimuli. We also highlight the putative role of oxytocin and effects of psychopathology, as well as the most recent work on the paternal brain. Taken together, a new model emerges in which we propose that cortico-limbic networks interact to support parental brain responses to infants for arousal/salience/motivation/reward, reflexive/instrumental caring, emotion response/regulation and integrative/complex cognitive processing. Maternal sensitivity and the quality of caregiving behavior are likely determined by the responsiveness of these circuits toward long-term influence of early-life experiences on offspring. The function of these circuits is modifiable by current and early-life experiences, hormonal and other factors. Known deviation from the range of normal function in these systems is particularly associated with (maternal) mental illnesses – commonly, depression and anxiety, but also schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Finally, we discuss the limits and extent to which brain imaging may broaden our understanding of the parental brain, and consider a current model and future directions that may have profound implications for intervention long term outcomes in families across risk and resilience profiles. PMID:24637261

  16. Synthesis of Well-Defined Three-Arm Star-Branched Polystyrene through Arm-First Coupling Approach by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahabuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a simple route to synthesize three-arm star-branched polystyrene. Atom transfer radical polymerization technique has been utilized to yield branched polystyrene involving Williamson coupling strategy. Initially a linear polymeric chain of predetermined molecular weight has been synthesized which is further end-functionalized into a primary alkyl bromide moiety, a prime requisition for Williamson reaction. The end-functionalized polymer is then coupled using 1,1,1-tris(4-hydroxyphenylethane, a trifunctional core molecule, to give well-defined triple-arm star-branched polystyrene.

  17. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Underhill, A.B.; Jordan, S.; Thomas, R.

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented

  18. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Peter S.; Underhill, Anne B.; Jordan, Stuart (Editor); Thomas, Richard (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented.

  19. Hot Jupiters and cool stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaver, Eva; Mustill, Alexander J.; Livio, Mario; Siess, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Close-in planets are in jeopardy, as their host stars evolve off the main sequence (MS) to the subgiant and red giant phases. In this paper, we explore the influences of the stellar mass (in the range 1.5-2 M ☉ ), mass-loss prescription, planet mass (from Neptune up to 10 Jupiter masses), and eccentricity on the orbital evolution of planets as their parent stars evolve to become subgiants and red giants. We find that planet engulfment along the red giant branch is not very sensitive to the stellar mass or mass-loss rates adopted in the calculations, but quite sensitive to the planetary mass. The range of initial separations for planet engulfment increases with decreasing mass-loss rates or stellar masses and increasing planetary masses. Regarding the planet's orbital eccentricity, we find that as the star evolves into the red giant phase, stellar tides start to dominate over planetary tides. As a consequence, a transient population of moderately eccentric close-in Jovian planets is created that otherwise would have been expected to be absent from MS stars. We find that very eccentric and distant planets do not experience much eccentricity decay, and that planet engulfment is primarily determined by the pericenter distance and the maximum stellar radius.

  20. STARDUST FROM ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gail, H.-P.; Zhukovska, S. V.; Hoppe, P.; Trieloff, M.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of dust in the outflows of low- and intermediate-mass stars on the first giant branch and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is studied and the relative contributions of stars of different initial masses and metallicities to the interstellar medium (ISM) at the instant of solar system formation are derived. These predictions are compared with the characteristics of the parent stars of presolar dust grains found in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) inferred from their isotopic compositions. For this purpose, model calculations for dust condensation in stellar outflows are combined with synthetic models of stellar evolution on the first giant branch and AGB and an evolution model of the Milky Way for the solar neighborhood. The dust components considered are olivine, pyroxene, carbon, SiC, and iron. The corresponding dust production rates are derived for the solar vicinity. From these rates and taking into account dust destruction by supernova shocks in the ISM, the contributions to the inventory of presolar dust grains in the solar system are derived for stars of different initial masses and metallicities. It is shown that stars on the first giant branch and the early AGB are not expected to form dust, in accord with astronomical observations. Dust formation is concentrated in the last phase of evolution, the thermally pulsing AGB. Due to the limited lifetime of dust grains in the ISM only parent stars from a narrow range of metallicities are expected to contribute to the population of presolar dust grains. Silicate and silicon carbide dust grains are predicted to come from parent stars with metallicities not less than about Z ∼ 0.008 (0.6 x solar). This metallicity limit is higher than that inferred from presolar SiC grain isotope data. The population of presolar carbon dust grains is predicted to originate from a wider range of metallicities, down to Z ∼ 0.004. Masses of AGB stars that produce C-rich dust are in the range

  1. A community led approach to delivery of the Parents Plus Children's Programme for the parents of children aged 6-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailish Hand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos interiorizados o exteriorizados durante la niñez tienden a persistir cuando no se tratan y conllevan mayor riesgo de consecuencias negativas. El costo social incluye deserción escolar, desempleo, desintegración familiar y abuso de drogas. Las intervenciones preventivas efectivas requieren un enfoque de salud pública. El objetivo de este estudio experimental fue evaluar la eficacia del Programa Infantil Parents Plus (PPCP, por sus siglas en inglés que se aplicó en contextos comunitarios y escolares por profesionales de servicios básicosde ayuda. A los padres con niños de 6-11 años se les asignó aleatoriamente al Grupo de Tratamiento (n = 44 o Grupo Control (n = 31. La eficacia del tratamiento se evaluó mediante autoinformes. Después del tratamiento se registraron mejoras significativas, con efectos medianos a grandes, en el nivel de estrés relacionado con la crianza de los hijos, los problemas de comportamiento infantil y en la satisfacción de los padres. Los resultados se mantuvieron en un seguimiento a seis meses. Se avala la eficacia del PPCP como intervención comunitaria con potencialpara prevenir problemas de conducta infantiles mediante apoyo ofrecido a los padres en la práctica de la crianza antes de que se arraiguen los problemas y se vuelvan críticos.

  2. Successful Approaches to Helping Students--Including English Learners--Succeed in Elementary School. Parent Guide = Enfoques exitosos para ayudar a los estudiantes--incluyendo a los que aprenden ingles--a triunfar en la escuela primaria. Guia de padres

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This guide informs parents about some instructional practices that work well for all elementary school students, in particular English learners. It includes questions parents can ask teachers and principals to help them understand how their children's school approaches teaching and learning. Both English and Spanish versions of the document are…

  3. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  4. MAGNETIC FIELDS OF STARS

    OpenAIRE

    Bychkov, V. D.; Bychkova, L. V.; Madej, J.

    2008-01-01

    Now it is known about 1212 stars of the main sequence and giants (from them 610 stars - it is chemically peculiarity (CP) stars) for which direct measurements of magnetic fields were spent (Bychkov et al.,2008). Let's consider, what representations were generated about magnetic fields (MT) of stars on the basis of available observations data.

  5. Observational Constraints on Quark Matter in Neutron Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We study the observational constraints of mass and redshift on the properties of the equation of state (EOS) for quark matter in compact stars based on the quasi-particle description. We discuss two scenarios: strange stars and hybrid stars. We construct the equations of state utilizing an extended MIT bag model taking the medium effect into account for quark matter and the relativistic mean field theory for hadron matter. We show that quark matter may exist in strange stars and in the interior of neutron stars. The bag constant is a key parameter that affects strongly the mass of strange stars. The medium effect can lead to the stiffer hybrid-star EOS approaching the pure hadronic EOS, due to the reduction of quark matter, and hence the existence of heavy hybrid stars. We find that a middle range coupling constant may be the best choice for the hybrid stars being compatible with the observational constraints.

  6. A Versatile Approach to Unimolecular Water-Soluble Carriers: ATRP of PEGMA with Hydrophobic Star-Shaped Polymeric Core Molecules as an Alternative for PEGylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schramm, O.G.; Pavlov, G.M.; Erp, van H.H.P; Meier, M.A.R.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    New amphiphilic star-shaped architectures with dense hydrophilic shells were synthesized by a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of e-caprolactone (CL) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of different poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylates (PEGMAs). The PCL hydrophobic cores

  7. ["Nicht von schlechten Eltern - NischE": A Family Orientated Collaborative Care Approach to Support Children in Families with Mentally Ill Parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabnitz, Pascal; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas; Wieskus-Friedemann, Erwin; Kliem, Sabine; Hoppmann, Johannes; Burek, Monika; Löhr, Michael; Kemper, Ulrich; Nienaber, André

    2016-11-01

    "Nicht von schlechten Eltern - NischE": A Family Orientated Collaborative Care Approach to Support Children in Families with Mentally Ill Parents The present work describes the setting- and multi-professional offer "NischE" in Gütersloh, a systemic approach for the care of children and their mentally ill parents. Children of mentally ill parents are a special risk group for developing their own mental illness. The aim of the collaborative care model between child and adolescent psychiatry, youth services and adult psychiatry is to enable affected families in terms of family-focused practice a low threshold access to different services. For this purpose, two positions have been created to advise the affected families and support access to the help system in the sense of a systemic case management in a project. The article describes the background and the need for the development of the offer, the current scientific knowledge base on the subject and illustrates the procedure using a case study from practice.

  8. Compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez-Delgado, Gabino; Estevez-Delgado, Joaquin

    2018-05-01

    An analysis and construction is presented for a stellar model characterized by two parameters (w, n) associated with the compactness ratio and anisotropy, respectively. The reliability range for the parameter w ≤ 1.97981225149 corresponds with a compactness ratio u ≤ 0.2644959374, the density and pressures are positive, regular and monotonic decrescent functions, the radial and tangential speed of sound are lower than the light speed, moreover, than the plausible stability. The behavior of the speeds of sound are determinate for the anisotropy parameter n, admitting a subinterval where the speeds are monotonic crescent functions and other where we have monotonic decrescent functions for the same speeds, both cases describing a compact object that is also potentially stable. In the bigger value for the observational mass M = 2.05 M⊙ and radii R = 12.957 Km for the star PSR J0348+0432, the model indicates that the maximum central density ρc = 1.283820319 × 1018 Kg/m3 corresponds to the maximum value of the anisotropy parameter and the radial and tangential speed of the sound are monotonic decrescent functions.

  9. Motion-blurred star acquisition method of the star tracker under high dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wei, Minsong

    2013-08-26

    The star tracker is one of the most promising attitude measurement devices used in spacecraft due to its extremely high accuracy. However, high dynamic performance is still one of its constraints. Smearing appears, making it more difficult to distinguish the energy dispersive star point from the noise. An effective star acquisition approach for motion-blurred star image is proposed in this work. The correlation filter and mathematical morphology algorithm is combined to enhance the signal energy and evaluate slowly varying background noise. The star point can be separated from most types of noise in this manner, making extraction and recognition easier. Partial image differentiation is then utilized to obtain the motion parameters from only one image of the star tracker based on the above process. Considering the motion model, the reference window is adopted to perform centroid determination. Star acquisition results of real on-orbit star images and laboratory validation experiments demonstrate that the method described in this work is effective and the dynamic performance of the star tracker could be improved along with more identified stars and guaranteed position accuracy of the star point.

  10. Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalerao, Varun

    2012-05-01

    My thesis centers around the study of neutron stars, especially those in massive binary systems. To this end, it has two distinct components: the observational study of neutron stars in massive binaries with a goal of measuring neutron star masses and participation in NuSTAR, the first imaging hard X-ray mission, one that is extremely well suited to the study of massive binaries and compact objects in our Galaxy. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing high energy X-ray telescope to orbit. NuSTAR has an order-of-magnitude better angular resolution and has two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than any currently orbiting hard X-ray telescope. I worked to develop, calibrate, and test CdZnTe detectors for NuSTAR. I describe the CdZnTe detectors in comprehensive detail here - from readout procedures to data analysis. Detailed calibration of detectors is necessary for analyzing astrophysical source data obtained by the NuSTAR. I discuss the design and implementation of an automated setup for calibrating flight detectors, followed by calibration procedures and results. Neutron stars are an excellent probe of fundamental physics. The maximum mass of a neutron star can put stringent constraints on the equation of state of matter at extreme pressures and densities. From an astrophysical perspective, there are several open questions in our understanding of neutron stars. What are the birth masses of neutron stars? How do they change in binary evolution? Are there multiple mechanisms for the formation of neutron stars? Measuring masses of neutron stars helps answer these questions. Neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries have masses close to their birth mass, providing an opportunity to disentangle the role of "nature" and "nurture" in the observed mass distributions. In 2006, masses had been measured for only six such objects, but this small sample showed the greatest diversity in masses

  11. Orphan Stars Found in Long Galaxy Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Astronomers have found evidence that stars have been forming in a long tail of gas that extends well outside its parent galaxy. This discovery suggests that such "orphan" stars may be much more prevalent than previously thought. The comet-like tail was observed in X-ray light with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and in optical light with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope in Chile. The feature extends for more than 200,000 light years and was created as gas was stripped from a galaxy called ESO 137-001 that is plunging toward the center of Abell 3627, a giant cluster of galaxies. "This is one of the longest tails like this we have ever seen," said Ming Sun of Michigan State University, who led the study. "And, it turns out that this is a giant wake of creation, not of destruction." Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 The observations indicate that the gas in the tail has formed millions of stars. Because the large amounts of gas and dust needed to form stars are typically found only within galaxies, astronomers have previously thought it unlikely that large numbers of stars would form outside a galaxy. "This isn't the first time that stars have been seen to form between galaxies," said team member Megan Donahue, also of MSU. "But the number of stars forming here is unprecedented." The evidence for star formation in this tail includes 29 regions of ionized hydrogen glowing in optical light, thought to be from newly formed stars. These regions are all downstream of the galaxy, located in or near the tail. Two Chandra X-ray sources are near these regions, another indication of star formation activity. The researchers believe the orphan stars formed within the last 10 million years or so. The stars in the tail of this fast-moving galaxy, which is some 220 million light years away, would be much more isolated than the vast majority of stars in galaxies. H-alpha Image of

  12. An Emic, Mixed-Methods Approach to Defining and Measuring Positive Parenting among Low-Income Black Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWayne, Christine M.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Green Wright, Linnie E.; Limlingan, Maria Cristina; Harris, Elise

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This within-group exploratory sequential mixed-methods investigation sought to identify how ethnically diverse, urban-residing, low-income Black families conceptualize positive parenting. During the item development phase 119 primary caregivers from Head Start programs participated in focus groups and interviews. These…

  13. Exploring the Influence of Parental Involvement and Socioeconomic Status on Teen Digital Citizenship: A Path Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhui; Xing, Wanli

    2018-01-01

    One important aspect of digital citizenship, defined as "the norms of appropriate, responsible behavior with regard to technology use," is to reinforce ethical online behavior and discourage risky conduct. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of parental involvement and socioeconomic status on teens digital citizenship,…

  14. Heartbeat stars and the ringing of tidal pulsations

    OpenAIRE

    García, RA; Hambleton, K; Kurtz, DW; Prsa, A; Fuller, J; Thompson (SU), S; Ballot, J

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of high precision photometry from satellites such as Kepler and CoRoT, a whole new layer of interesting and astounding astronomical objects has been revealed: heartbeat stars are an example of such objects. Heartbeat stars are eccen- tric ellipsoidal variables that undergo strong tidal interactions when the stars are almost in contact at the time of closest approach. These interactions deform of the stars and cause a notable light curve variation in the form of a tidal pulse. ...

  15. Heartbeat Stars and the Ringing of Tidally Induced Pulsations

    OpenAIRE

    Hambleton, K.; Kurtz, D.; Prša, A.; Fuller, J.; Thompson, S.

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of high precision photometry from satellites such as Kepler and CoRoT, a whole new layer of interesting and astounding astronomical objects has been revealed: heartbeat stars are a prime example of such objects. Heartbeat stars are eccentric ellipsoidal variables that undergo strong tidal interactions at the time of closest approach, when the stars are almost in contact. These interactions cause a significant variation in the surface areas of the stars and are observed in the ...

  16. Field O stars: formed in situ or as runaways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Weidner, C.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2012-08-01

    A significant fraction of massive stars in the Milky Way and other galaxies are located far from star clusters and star-forming regions. It is known that some of these stars are runaways, i.e. possess high space velocities (determined through the proper motion and/or radial velocity measurements), and therefore most likely were formed in embedded clusters and then ejected into the field because of dynamical few-body interactions or binary-supernova explosions. However, there exists a group of field O stars whose runaway status is difficult to prove via direct proper motion measurements (e.g. in the Magellanic Clouds) or whose (measured) low space velocities and/or young ages appear to be incompatible with their large separation from known star clusters. The existence of this group led some authors to believe that field O stars can form in situ. Since the question of whether or not O stars can form in isolation is of crucial importance for star formation theory, it is important to thoroughly test candidates of such stars in order to improve the theory. In this paper, we examine the runaway status of the best candidates for isolated formation of massive stars in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds by searching for bow shocks around them, by using the new reduction of the Hipparcos data, and by searching for stellar systems from which they could originate within their lifetimes. We show that most of the known O stars thought to have formed in isolation are instead very likely runaways. We show also that the field must contain a population of O stars whose low space velocities and/or young ages are in apparent contradiction to the large separation of these stars from their parent clusters and/or the ages of these clusters. These stars (the descendants of runaway massive binaries) cannot be traced back to their parent clusters and therefore can be mistakenly considered as having formed in situ. We argue also that some field O stars could be detected in optical

  17. Hyperon-mixed neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Hyperon mixing in neutron star matter is investigated by the G-matrix-based effective interaction approach under the attention to use the YN and the YY potentials compatible with hypernuclear data and is shown to occur at densities relevant to neutron star cores, together with discussions to clarify the mechanism of hyperon contamination. It is remarked that developed Y-mixed phase causes a dramatic softening of the neutron star equation of state and leads to the serious problem that the resulting maximum mass M max for neutron star model contradicts the observed neutron star mass (M max obs = 1.44 M Θ ), suggesting the necessity of some extra repulsion'' in hypernuclear system. It is shown that the introduction of three-body repulsion similar to that in nuclear system can resolve the serious situation and under the consistency with observation (M max > M obs ) the threshold densities for Λ and Σ - are pushed to higher density side, from 2ρ 0 to ∼ 4ρ 0 (ρ 0 being the nuclear density). On the basis of a realistic Y-mixed neutron star model, occurrence of Y-superfluidity essential for ''hyperon cooling'' scenario is studied and both of Λ- and Σ - -superfluids are shown to be realized with their critical temperatures 10 8-9 K, meaning that the hyperon cooling'' is a promising candidate for a fast non-standard cooling demanded for some neutron stars with low surface temperature. A comment is given as to the consequence of less attractive ΛΛ interaction suggested by the ''NAGARA event'' ΛΛ 6 He. (author)

  18. Star Formation in Merging Galaxies Using FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adrianna; Hung, Chao-Ling; Naiman, Jill; Moreno, Jorge; Hopkins, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy interactions and mergers are efficient mechanisms to birth stars at rates that are significantly higher than found in our Milky Way galaxy. The Kennicut-Schmidt (KS) relation is an empirical relationship between the star-forming rate and gas surface densities of galaxies (Schmidt 1959; Kennicutt 1998). Although most galaxies follow the KS relation, the high levels of star formation in galaxy mergers places them outside of this otherwise tight relationship. The goal of this research is to analyze the gas content and star formation of simulated merging galaxies. Our work utilizes the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high-resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star-forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. In this work, we have noticed a significant increase in the star formation rate at first and second passage, when the two black holes of each galaxy approach one other. Next, we will analyze spatially resolved star-forming regions over the course of the interacting system. Then, we can study when and how the rates that gas converts into stars deviate from the standard KS. These analyses will provide important insights into the physical mechanisms that regulate star formation of normal and merging galaxies and valuable theoretical predictions that can be used to compare with current and future observations from ALMA or the James Webb Space Telescope.

  19. "Mommy Blogs" and the Vaccination Exemption Narrative: Results From A Machine-Learning Approach for Story Aggregation on Parenting Social Media Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangherlini, Timothy R; Roychowdhury, Vwani; Glenn, Beth; Crespi, Catherine M; Bandari, Roja; Wadia, Akshay; Falahi, Misagh; Ebrahimzadeh, Ehsan; Bastani, Roshan

    2016-11-22

    graph. In our model, stories were represented as network graphs with actants as nodes and their various relationships as edges. We estimated the latent stories circulating on these sites by modeling the posts as a sampling of the hidden narrative framework graph. Temporal trends were examined based on monthly user-poststatistics. We discovered that discussions of exemption from vaccination requirements are highly represented. We found a strong narrative framework related to exemption seeking and a culture of distrust of government and medical institutions. Various posts reinforced part of the narrative framework graph in which parents, medical professionals, and religious institutions emerged as key nodes, and exemption seeking emerged as an important edge. In the aggregate story, parents used religion or belief to acquire exemptions to protect their children from vaccines that are required by schools or government institutions, but (allegedly) cause adverse reactions such as autism, pain, compromised immunity, and even death. Although parents joined and left the discussion forums over time, discussions and stories about exemptions were persistent and robust to these membership changes. Analyzing parent forums about health care using an automated analytic approach, such as the one presented here, allows the detection of widespread narrative frameworks that structure and inform discussions. In most vaccination stories from the sites we analyzed, it is taken for granted that vaccines and not vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) pose a threat to children. Because vaccines are seen as a threat, parents focus on sharing successful strategies for avoiding them, with exemption being the foremost among these strategies. When new parents join such sites, they may be exposed to this endemic narrative framework in the threads they read and to which they contribute, which may influence their health care decision making. ©Timothy R Tangherlini, Vwani Roychowdhury, Beth Glenn

  20. Giant CP stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loden, L.O.; Sundman, A.

    1989-01-01

    This study is part of an investigation of the possibility of using chemically peculiar (CP) stars to map local galactic structure. Correct luminosities of these stars are therefore crucial. CP stars are generally regarded as main-sequence or near-main-sequence objects. However, some CP stars have been classified as giants. A selection of stars, classified in literature as CP giants, are compared to normal stars in the same effective temperature interval and to ordinary 'non giant' CP stars. There is no clear confirmation of a higher luminosity for 'CP giants', than for CP stars in general. In addition, CP characteristics seem to be individual properties not repeated in a component star or other cluster members. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  1. StarGuides Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.

    StarGuides Plus represents the most comprehensive and accurately validated collection of practical data on organizations involved in astronomy, related space sciences and other related fields. This invaluable reference source (and its companion volume, StarBriefs Plus) should be on the reference shelf of every library, organization or individual with any interest in these areas. The coverage includes relevant universities, scientific committees, institutions, associations, societies, agencies, companies, bibliographic services, data centers, museums, dealers, distributors, funding organizations, journals, manufacturers, meteorological services, national norms & standard institutes, parent associations & societies, publishers, software producers & distributors, and so on. Besides astronomy and associated space sciences, related fields such as aeronautics, aeronomy, astronautics, atmospheric sciences, chemistry, communications, computer sciences, data processing, education, electronics, engineering, energetics, environment, geodesy, geophysics, information handling, management, mathematics, meteorology, optics, physics, remote sensing, and so on, are also covered where appropriate. After some thirty years in continuous compilation, verification and updating, StarGuides Plus currently gathers together some 6,000 entries from 100 countries. The information is presented in a clear, uncluttered manner for direct and easy use. For each entry, all practical data are listed: city, postal and electronic-mail addresses, telephone and fax numbers, URLs for WWW access, foundation years, numbers of members and/or numbers of staff, main activities, publications titles (with frequencies, ISS-Numbers and circulations), names and geographical coordinates of observing sites, names of planetariums, awards (prizes and/or distinctions) granted, etc. The entries are listed alphabetically in each country. An exhaustive index gives a breakdown not only by different designations and

  2. Parenting Coordinators' Practices Recommendations: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Barbara Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to understand the experiences of seven parenting coordinators in using parenting coordination practices that they have found to be effective and would recommend to other parenting coordinators to achieve the following goals: educating parents, increasing the quality of parenting and co-parenting, managing conflict, and involving children and other family members in the process of parenting coordination. Data were collected with semi-str...

  3. Unsupervised classification of variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Lucas; Pichara, Karim

    2018-03-01

    During the past 10 years, a considerable amount of effort has been made to develop algorithms for automatic classification of variable stars. That has been primarily achieved by applying machine learning methods to photometric data sets where objects are represented as light curves. Classifiers require training sets to learn the underlying patterns that allow the separation among classes. Unfortunately, building training sets is an expensive process that demands a lot of human efforts. Every time data come from new surveys; the only available training instances are the ones that have a cross-match with previously labelled objects, consequently generating insufficient training sets compared with the large amounts of unlabelled sources. In this work, we present an algorithm that performs unsupervised classification of variable stars, relying only on the similarity among light curves. We tackle the unsupervised classification problem by proposing an untraditional approach. Instead of trying to match classes of stars with clusters found by a clustering algorithm, we propose a query-based method where astronomers can find groups of variable stars ranked by similarity. We also develop a fast similarity function specific for light curves, based on a novel data structure that allows scaling the search over the entire data set of unlabelled objects. Experiments show that our unsupervised model achieves high accuracy in the classification of different types of variable stars and that the proposed algorithm scales up to massive amounts of light curves.

  4. Synthesis of Well-Defined Three-Arm Star-Branched Polystyrene through Arm-First Coupling Approach by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabuddin, Syed; Hamime Ismail, Fatem; Mohamad, Sharifah; Muhamad Sarih, Norazilawati

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a simple route to synthesize three-arm star-branched polystyrene. Atom transfer radical polymerization technique has been utilized to yield branched polystyrene involving Williamson coupling strategy. Initially a linear polymeric chain of predetermined molecular weight has been synthesized which is further end-functionalized into a primary alkyl bromide moiety, a prime requisition for Williamson reaction. The end-functionalized polymer is then coupled using 1,1,1-tris(4-hydro...

  5. Energy production in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, Hans.

    1977-01-01

    Energy in stars is released partly by gravitation, partly by nuclear reactions. For ordinary stars like our sun, nuclear reactions predominate. However, at the end of the life of a star very large amounts of energy are released by gravitational collapse; this can amount to as much as 10 times the total energy released nuclear reactions. The rotational energy of pulsars is a small remnant of the energy of gravitation. The end stage of small stars is generally a white dwarf, of heavy stars a neutron star of possibly a black hole

  6. Raising Children in a Violent Context: An intersectionality approach to understanding parents' experiences in Ciudad Juárez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineski, Sara E; Hernández, Alma A; Ramos, Vicky

    2013-01-01

    Children and parents' daily lives are rarely highlighted in coverage of drug wars. Using 16 interviews with parents in the Mexican border city of Juárez in 2010, we examine how drug violence impacts families with a focus on intersections of gender and social class. Related to mobility (the first emergent theme), fathers had increased mobility as compared to mothers, which caused different stresses. Material hardships heightened mothers' isolation within the home, and mothers more often had to enforce children's mobility restrictions, which children resisted. Related to employment (the second emergent theme), fathers took on dangerous jobs to provide for the family while mothers had fewer options for informal employment due to violence. In sum, men and women faced different challenges, which were intensified due to class-based material disadvantages. Conformity with traditional gender expectations for behavior was common for men and women, illustrating the normalization of gender inequality within this context.

  7. Are happiness and productivity lower among young people with newly-divorced parents? : an experimental and econometric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Proto, Eugenio; Sgroi, Daniel; Oswald, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    High rates of divorce in western society have prompted much research on the repercussions for well-being and the economy. Yet little is known about the important topic of whether parental divorce has deleterious consequences upon adult children. By combining experimental and econometric survey-based evidence, this study attempts to provide an answer. Under controlled conditions, it measures university students’ subjective well-being and productivity (in a standardized laboratory task). It fin...

  8. Novel approach identifies SNPs in SLC2A10 and KCNK9 with evidence for parent-of-origin effect on body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive J Hoggart

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic effect of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs depends on their parental origin. We present a novel approach to detect parent-of-origin effects (POEs in genome-wide genotype data of unrelated individuals. The method exploits increased phenotypic variance in the heterozygous genotype group relative to the homozygous groups. We applied the method to >56,000 unrelated individuals to search for POEs influencing body mass index (BMI. Six lead SNPs were carried forward for replication in five family-based studies (of ∼4,000 trios. Two SNPs replicated: the paternal rs2471083-C allele (located near the imprinted KCNK9 gene and the paternal rs3091869-T allele (located near the SLC2A10 gene increased BMI equally (beta = 0.11 (SD, P<0.0027 compared to the respective maternal alleles. Real-time PCR experiments of lymphoblastoid cell lines from the CEPH families showed that expression of both genes was dependent on parental origin of the SNPs alleles (P<0.01. Our scheme opens new opportunities to exploit GWAS data of unrelated individuals to identify POEs and demonstrates that they play an important role in adult obesity.

  9. Regular Generalized Star Star closed sets in Bitopological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kannan; D. Narasimhan; K. Chandrasekhara Rao; R. Ravikumar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of τ1τ2-regular generalized star star closed sets , τ1τ2-regular generalized star star open sets and study their basic properties in bitopological spaces.

  10. Campaign Preparation for Complex Initiatives: A Person-Centered Approach to Audience Segmentation of Parents' Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; MacGeorge, Erina L; Hackman, Nicole M; M'ikanatha, Nkuchia M

    2017-10-25

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance is outpacing the speed at which new antibiotics will reach the marketplace. To slow the rate of resistance, people need to engage in antibiotic stewardship, which includes acts to prevent the spread of bacteria and judicious use of antibiotics to treat infections. This study identified the patterns and predictors of antibiotic stewardship behaviors of parents (N = 516) related to their children. The latent class analysis revealed three profiles of parental stewardship, labeled Stewards, Requesters, and Non-Stewards. The findings implied different campaign goals: to encourage Stewards to follow through on their intentions, to encourage Requesters to stop asking providers for antibiotics when their children have ear infections, and to influence Non-Stewards to accept medical advice when an antibiotic is not indicated and to dispose of leftover antibiotics. The covariate analysis provided theoretical insight into the strategies to pursue in campaigns targeting these three groups. For example, parents who perceived antibiotic-resistant infections as less serious health conditions, felt less worry when thinking about their child getting an antibiotic-resistant infection, and had stronger misattributions of antibiotics' efficacy to treat multiple symptoms were more likely to be Requesters and Non-Stewards, instead of Stewards.

  11. New York: Les ecoles entre SURR et STAR (New York: Schools between SURR and STAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberschlag, Roger

    1994-01-01

    Three problems of New York City (New York) schools--overpopulation, low academic standards, violence--are examined, and an effort led by parent and teacher organizations to improve conditions is described. Threatened closings (schools under registration review, SURR) and a program of violence reduction (Straight Talk about Risks, STAR) are noted.…

  12. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  13. INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH AND THE PROBLEMS OF THE PARENTS AND CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES IN SLOVENIA’S PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidija NOVLJAN

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation between experts, parents and children, based on the respect and with wish for giving the best opportunities for the child's development. The child with developmental difficulties didn't has "transients condition", some of them will be dependent of the adult's help and very often they have to live surrounded by enviromnent which will knew how to look after them. Relation between experts, parents and children is dynamics interaction in whom every activity from one side has influence to the activity of the another side. So, if the expert has influence to child and also to its family, than they will have specific effect to the child. The success depends of the qualities of those relations. These relations have to be linked to eacnothe, and all have to lead to the final target. The child needs help and understanding but: when, how and who will give that help depends of the level and kind of the disabilities and the age of the child.The expert has to keep balance between the active and passive relation with child and its parents. It's very clear that the active relation is the most important condition for successful cooperation, but active and passive relations have to work together. It didn't exist but very easy should happened that the expert could lead the child to longleaf (invalid stick, as well as family.We will be wrong if we put the active relation only in the family. The family is very good partner in developmental and educational process, but the family couldn't be the Institution for education.If the child with developmental disabilities is include in primary school, we have to keep in mind that every parents didn't work with the children on the same way. Many of them couldn't learn how to work with child. The parents are present when the main decision for child have been brought, and they have opportunity to decide where, when and how they are going to cooperate with as.

  14. Quark core stars, quark stars and strange stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, F.

    1988-01-01

    A recent one flavor quark matter equation of state is generalized to several flavors. It is shown that quarks undergo a first order phase transition. In addition, this equation of state depends on just one parameter in the two flavor case, two parameters in the three flavor case, and these parameters are constrained by phenomenology. This equation of state is then applied to the hadron-quark transition in neutron stars and the determination of quark star stability, the investigation of strange matter stability and possible strange star existence. 43 refs., 6 figs

  15. Terminal velocities for a large sample of O stars, B supergiants, and Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinja, R.K.; Barlow, M.J.; Howarth, I.D.

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that easily measured, reliable estimates of terminal velocities for early-type stars are provided by the central velocity asymptotically approached by narrow absorption features and by the violet limit of zero residual intensity in saturated P Cygni profiles. These estimators are used to determine terminal velocities, v(infinity), for 181 O stars, 70 early B supergiants, and 35 Wolf-Rayet stars. For OB stars, the values are typically 15-20 percent smaller than the extreme violet edge velocities, v(edge), while for WR stars v(infinity) = 0.76 v(edge) on average. New mass-loss rates for WR stars which are thermal radio emitters are given, taking into account the new terminal velocities and recent revisions to estimates of distances and to the mean nuclear mass per electron. The relationships between v(infinity), the surface escape velocities, and effective temperatures are examined. 67 refs

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of July 1, 2016....

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Televisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions that are effective as of October 30,...

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Dehumidifiers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers that are effective as of October...

  20. Observations of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Difficulties occurring in the observation of central stars of planetary nebulae are reviewed with emphasis on spectral classifications and population types, and temperature determination. Binary and peculiar central stars are discussed. (U.M.G.)

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Telephones

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Telephony (cordless telephones and VoIP...

  2. Wolf-Rayet stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahade, J

    1981-12-01

    Aspects of the problems of the Wolf-Rayet stars related to their chemical composition, their evolutionary status, and their apparent dichotomy in two spectral sequences are discussed. Dogmas concerning WR stars are critically discussed, including the belief that WR stars lack hydrogen, that they are helium stars evolved from massive close binaries, and the existence of a second WR stage in which the star is a short-period single-lined binary. The relationship of WR stars with planetary nebulae is addressed, as is the membership of these stars in clusters and associations. The division of WR stars into WN and WC sequences is considered, questioning the reasonability of accounting for WR line formation in terms of abundance differences.

  3. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  4. The Stars of Heaven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    2004-05-01

    Do a little armchair space travel, rub elbows with alien life forms, and stretch your mind to the furthest corners of our uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, you don't have to be an astronomer to explore the mysteries of stars and their profound meaning for human existence. Clifford A. Pickover tackles a range of topics from stellar evolution to the fundamental reasons why the universe permits life to flourish. He alternates sections that explain the mysteries of the cosmos with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialog between futuristic humans and their alien peers (who embark on a journey beyond the reader's wildest imagination). This highly accessible and entertaining approach turns an intimidating subject into a scientific game open to all dreamers. Told in Pickover's inimitable blend of fascinating state-of-the-art science and whimsical science fiction, and packed with numerous diagrams and illustrations, The Stars of Heaven unfolds a world of paradox and mystery, one that will intrigue anyone who has ever pondered the night sky with wonder.

  5. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  6. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  7. America's Star Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  8. Bringing parenting interventions back to the future: How randomized microtrials may benefit parenting intervention efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Dishion, T.J.; Thomaes, S.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Matthys, W.

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach is needed to promote the efficacy of parenting interventions designed to improve children's mental health. The proposed approach bridges developmental and intervention science to test which intervention elements contribute to parenting intervention program efficacy. The approach

  9. Parental Approach to the Prevention and Management of Fever and Pain Following Childhood Immunizations: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ezzeldin; Swamy, Geeta K; Moody, M Anthony; Walter, Emmanuel B

    2017-05-01

    Antipyretic analgesics are commonly used to prevent and treat adverse events following immunizations. Current practice discourages routine use due to possible blunting of vaccine immune responses. We surveyed 150 parents/caregivers of recently vaccinated 6- and 15-month-old children to determine the prevalence of and beliefs regarding antipyretic analgesics use around vaccinations. 11% used them prophylactically, before vaccination. Use in the first 48 hours after vaccination was 64%, primarily to prevent and/or treat fever and pain. Acetaminophen was administered 2.6 times more frequently than ibuprofen. Ibuprofen was used more in the 15-month compared with the 6-month-old children (28% vs 7.4%, respectively, P = .001). The majority of caregivers disagreed with their use for fever (53%) or pain (59%). Antipyretic analgesic use, including prophylaxis, around vaccinations was common in our study population. Effective interventions are needed to target parents/caregivers to eliminate unnecessary antipyretic analgesic use around vaccination time and foster nonmedication alternatives.

  10. The multi-messenger approach to particle acceleration by massive stars: a science case for optical, radio and X-ray observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, Michaël

    2018-04-01

    Massive stars are extreme stellar objects whose properties allow for the study of some interesting physical processes, including particle acceleration up to relativistic velocities. In particular, the collisions of massive star winds in binary systems lead notably to acceleration of electrons involved in synchrotron emission, hence their identification as non-thermal radio emitters. This has been demonstrated for about 40 objects so far. The relativistic electrons are also expected to produce non-thermal high-energy radiation through inverse Compton scattering. This class of objects permits thus to investigate non-thermal physics through observations in the radio and high energy spectral domains. However, the binary nature of these sources introduces some stringent requirements to adequately interpret their behavior and model non-thermal processes. In particular, these objects are well-established variable stellar sources on the orbital time-scale. The stellar and orbital parameters need to be determined, and this is notably achieved through studies in the optical domain. The combination of observations in the visible domain (including e.g. 3.6-m DOT) with radio measurements using notably GMRT and X-ray observations constitutes thus a promising strategy to investigate particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries in the forthcoming decade.

  11. A new approach of the Star Excursion Balance Test to assess dynamic postural control in people complaining from chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pionnier, Raphaël; Découfour, Nicolas; Barbier, Franck; Popineau, Christophe; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively assess dynamic balance with accuracy in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). To this aim, a motion capture system was used while participants performed the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Reached distances for the 8 points of the star were automatically computed, thereby excluding any dependence to the experimenter. In addition, new relevant variables were also computed, such as absolute time needed to reach each distance, lower limb ranges of motion during unipodal stance, as well as absolute error of pointing. Velocity of the center of pressure and range of variation of ground reaction forces have also been assessed during the unipodal phase of the SEBT thanks to force plates. CAI group exhibited smaller reached distances and greater absolute error of pointing than the control group (p<0.05). Moreover, the ranges of motion of lower limbs joints, the velocity of the center of pressure and the range of variation of the ground reaction forces were all significantly smaller in the CAI group (p<0.05). These reduced quantitative and qualitative performances highlighted a lower dynamic postural control. The limited body movements and accelerations during the unipodal stance in the CAI group could highlight a protective strategy. The present findings could help clinicians to better understand the motor strategies used by CAI patients during dynamic balance and may guide the rehabilitation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler, S. O.; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Ourique, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    White dwarf stars are the final stage of most stars, born single or in multiple systems. We discuss the identification, magnetic fields, and mass distribution for white dwarfs detected from spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 13 in 2016, which lead to the increase in the number of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars from 5000 to 39000. This number includes only white dwarf stars with log g >= 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dw...

  13. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  14. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book

  15. Phosphorus Chemistry in Oxygen Rich Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Jacob; Schmidt, Deborah; Anderson, Julie; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2017-06-01

    Observations of PO and PN have been carried out at the Arizona Radio Observatory at 1, 2, and 3 mm. Multiple transitions of PO and PN have been detected towards the O-rich AGB stars TX Cam and RCas. Data obtained toward supergiant stars VY Canis Majoris and NML Cyg have also been analyzed. Abundances were obtained for these molecules in all four objects using the radiative transfer code ESCAPADE, which is suitable for symmetric and asymmetric stellar outflows. The abundances of PN and PO were found to be in the range 10^{-8} - 10^{-7} relative to H_{2}. While PN appears to be a parent molecule formed by LTE chemistry near the stellar photosphere, PO appears to be created further out from the star at r > 400 R_*.

  16. Cyclotron Lines in Accreting Neutron Star Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Jörn; Schönherr, Gabriele; Schmid, Julia; Dauser, Thomas; Kreykenbohm, Ingo

    2009-05-01

    Cyclotron lines are formed through transitions of electrons between discrete Landau levels in the accretion columns of accreting neutron stars with strong (1012 G) magnetic fields. We summarize recent results on the formation of the spectral continuum of such systems, describe recent advances in the modeling of the lines based on a modification of the commonly used Monte Carlo approach, and discuss new results on the dependence of the measured cyclotron line energy from the luminosity of transient neutron star systems. Finally, we show that Simbol-X will be ideally suited to build and improve the observational database of accreting and strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  17. Evolution of variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1986-08-01

    Throughout the domain of the H R diagram lie groupings of stars whose luminosity varies with time. These variable stars can be classified based on their observed properties into distinct types such as β Cephei stars, δ Cephei stars, and Miras, as well as many other categories. The underlying mechanism for the variability is generally felt to be due to four different causes: geometric effects, rotation, eruptive processes, and pulsation. In this review the focus will be on pulsation variables and how the theory of stellar evolution can be used to explain how the various regions of variability on the H R diagram are populated. To this end a generalized discussion of the evolutionary behavior of a massive star, an intermediate mass star, and a low mass star will be presented. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Promoting positive parenting: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmann, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Positive parenting is built on respect for children and helps develop self-esteem, inner discipline, self-confidence, responsibility, and resourcefulness. Positive parenting is also good for parents: parents feel good about parenting well. It builds a sense of dignity. Positive parenting can be learned. Understanding normal development is a first step, so that parents can distinguish common behaviors in a stage of development from "problems." Central to positive parenting is developing thoughtful approaches to child guidance that can be used in place of anger, manipulation, punishment, and rewards. Support for developing creative and loving approaches to meet special parenting challenges, such as temperament, disabilities, separation and loss, and adoption, is sometimes necessary as well. This annotated bibliography offers resources to professionals helping parents and to parents wishing to develop positive parenting skills.

  19. The Effect of Incentive Return-to-Work Policies on Single-Parent Families: a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Amine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of their struggle against inequality and social exclusion, many countries are trying to reform their redistributive system and low-income support measures to encourage return to work, and reduce inactivity traps. The purpose of this article is to propose a reflection on the social and fiscal policies. The analysis focuses on three measures in three different countries: the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC in the United States, the Working Tax Credit (WTC in the UK and the Active Solidarity Income (RSA in France. The emphasis is placed on the effects of such policies on the situation of single parents, in particular as part of their transition from welfare (social assistance to the labor market.

  20. Exotic phases in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, A.; Burgio, G.F.; Lombardo, U.; Peng, G.X.

    2008-01-01

    The appearance of exotic phases in neutron stars is studied. The possible transition from hadron to quark phase is studied within the density dependent mass quark model, and the kaon condensation within the Nelson and Kaplan model. In both cases a microscopic approach is adopted for dense hadron matter. From the study of the possible coexistence between the two phases it is found that the hybrid phase may strongly hinder the onset of kaon condensation. (author)

  1. Constraining neutron star matter with Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount --- or even presence --- of quark matter inside the stars.

  2. "Wonderful" Star Reveals its Hot Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    For the first time an X-ray image of a pair of interacting stars has been made by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The ability to distinguish between the interacting stars - one a highly evolved giant star and the other likely a white dwarf - allowed a team of scientists to observe an X-ray outburst from the giant star and find evidence that a bridge of hot matter is streaming between the two stars. "Before this observation it was assumed that all the X-rays came from a hot disk surrounding a white dwarf, so the detection of an X-ray outburst from the giant star came as a surprise," said Margarita Karovska of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and lead author article in the latest Astrophysical Journal Letters describing this work. An ultraviolet image made by the Hubble Space Telescope was a key to identifying the location of the X-ray outburst with the giant star. X-ray studies of this system, called Mira AB, may also provide better understanding of interactions between other binary systems consisting of a "normal" star and a collapsed star such as a white dwarf, black hole or a neutron star, where the stellar objects and gas flow cannot be distinguished in an image. HST Ultraviolet Image of Mira HST Ultraviolet Image of Mira The separation of the X-rays from the giant star and the white dwarf was made possible by the superb angular resolution of Chandra, and the relative proximity of the star system at about 420 light years from Earth. The stars in Mira AB are about 6.5 billion miles apart, or almost twice the distance of Pluto from the Sun. Mira A (Mira) was named "The Wonderful" star in the 17th century because its brightness was observed to wax and wane over a period of about 330 days. Because it is in the advanced, red giant phase of a star's life, it has swollen to about 600 times that of the Sun and it is pulsating. Mira A is now approaching the stage where its nuclear fuel supply will be exhausted, and it will collapse

  3. Star pattern recognition algorithm aided by inertial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao; Wang, Ke-dong; Zhang, Chao

    2011-08-01

    Star pattern recognition is one of the key problems of the celestial navigation. The traditional star pattern recognition approaches, such as the triangle algorithm and the star angular distance algorithm, are a kind of all-sky matching method whose recognition speed is slow and recognition success rate is not high. Therefore, the real time and reliability of CNS (Celestial Navigation System) is reduced to some extent, especially for the maneuvering spacecraft. However, if the direction of the camera optical axis can be estimated by other navigation systems such as INS (Inertial Navigation System), the star pattern recognition can be fulfilled in the vicinity of the estimated direction of the optical axis. The benefits of the INS-aided star pattern recognition algorithm include at least the improved matching speed and the improved success rate. In this paper, the direction of the camera optical axis, the local matching sky, and the projection of stars on the image plane are estimated by the aiding of INS firstly. Then, the local star catalog for the star pattern recognition is established in real time dynamically. The star images extracted in the camera plane are matched in the local sky. Compared to the traditional all-sky star pattern recognition algorithms, the memory of storing the star catalog is reduced significantly. Finally, the INS-aided star pattern recognition algorithm is validated by simulations. The results of simulations show that the algorithm's computation time is reduced sharply and its matching success rate is improved greatly.

  4. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira; Hayashi, Mayumi; Ito, Shotaro; Goseki, Raita; Higashihara, Tomoya; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic

  5. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  6. Ultrabass Sounds of the Giant Star xi Hya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    times larger. The new observations demonstrate that xi Hya oscillates with several periods of around 3 hours. xi Hya is now approaching the end of its life - it is about to expand its outer envelope and to become a "red giant star" . It is quite different from stars like the Sun, which are only halfway through their active life. xi Hya is considerably more massive than any other star in which solar-like oscillations have so far been detected. This observational feat allows to study for the first time with seismic techniques the interior of such a highly evolved star. It paves the way for similar studies of different types of stars. A new chapter of stellar astrophysics is now opening as asteroseismology establishes itself as an ingenious method that is able to revolutionise our detailed understanding of stellar interiors and the overall evolution of stars . PR Photo 13a/02 : Oscillation frequencies in the Giant Star xi Hya PR Photo 13b/02 : Non-radial oscillations of xi Hya (computer graphics) PR Audio Clip 01/02 : Listen to the sound of xi Hya (RealMedia and MP3) The difficult art of asteroseismology Helioseismology (seismology of the Sun) is based on measurements of the changing radial velocity of the solar upper atmospheric layers (the "surface") by means of the well-known Doppler effect, as this surface moves up and down during acoustic oscillations. The corresponding amplitudes are very small, with velocities of up to 15 - 20 cm/sec, and the typical period is around 5 minutes. Therefore the phenomenon was first known as the "five-minute oscillations". Intensity measurements have also been tried, but the noise level is larger than for velocity data due to the presence of "granulation" (moving cells of hot gas) on the solar surface. In the case of larger and brighter stars like the giant stars, the corresponding amplitudes and periods increase. For instance, theoretical predictions for the giant star xi Hya have indicated that velocity amplitudes of about 7 m/sec and

  7. An open trial of bedtime fading for sleep disturbances in preschool children: a parent group education approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Michele R; Short, Michelle A; Gradisar, Michael

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of bedtime fading to reduce sleep disturbances in preschool aged children by using a group parent education format. A repeated-measures design (pretreatment, treatment, post-treatment and two year follow-up). Flinders University Child and Adolescent Sleep Clinic, Adelaide, South Australia. Participants comprised 21 children (M age = 3.0 ± 0.80 years, range = 1.5-4.0 years; 60% girls) identified as having difficulty initiating sleep, night waking, or a combination of both, and their mothers (M age = 36.1 ± 4.2 years). Mothers attended two group sessions that included basic sleep education (sleep needs, sleep architecture, and sleep homeostasis) and bedtime fading instruction. Primary outcome variables were sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and bedtime tantrums, and these variables were measured using two week maternal report sleep diaries. Immediate improvements were observed over pretreatment to treatment in average SOL per night (M = 23.2 ± 11.3 min vs. M = 13.0 ± 7.3 min, d = 0.91), average WASO per night (M = 32.4 ± 23.1 min vs. M = 24.0 ± 18.3 min, d = 0.41), and number of bedtime tantrums per week (M = 1.7 ± 3.0 vs. M = 0.4 ± 0.7, d = 0.43). Treatment gains were maintained at two year follow-up. Mothers rated bedtime fading high in terms of usefulness and satisfaction, and they reported that could successfully reimplement the treatment when needed. Bedtime fading is a brief and promising intervention for pre-schoolers' sleep difficulties. This simple intervention can be easily implemented by parents at home with little instructions, resulting in improvements in sleep and bedtime tantrums. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DRIVING TURBULENCE AND TRIGGERING STAR FORMATION BY IONIZING RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Burkert, Andreas; Heitsch, Fabian

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution simulations on the impact of ionizing radiation of massive O stars on the surrounding turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). The simulations are performed with the newly developed software iVINE which combines ionization with smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and gravitational forces. We show that radiation from hot stars penetrates the ISM, efficiently heats cold low-density gas and amplifies overdensities seeded by the initial turbulence. The formation of observed pillar-like structures in star-forming regions (e.g. in M16) can be explained by this scenario. At the tip of the pillars gravitational collapse can be induced, eventually leading to the formation of low-mass stars. Detailed analysis of the evolution of the turbulence spectra shows that UV radiation of O stars indeed provides an excellent mechanism to sustain and even drive turbulence in the parental molecular cloud.

  9. The Rose-red Glow of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The vivid red cloud in this new image from ESO's Very Large Telescope is a region of glowing hydrogen surrounding the star cluster NGC 371. This stellar nursery lies in our neighbouring galaxy, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The object dominating this image may resemble a pool of spilled blood, but rather than being associated with death, such regions of ionised hydrogen - known as HII regions - are sites of creation with high rates of recent star birth. NGC 371 is an example of this; it is an open cluster surrounded by a nebula. The stars in open clusters all originate from the same diffuse HII region, and over time the majority of the hydrogen is used up by star formation, leaving behind a shell of hydrogen such as the one in this image, along with a cluster of hot young stars. The host galaxy to NGC 371, the Small Magellanic Cloud, is a dwarf galaxy a mere 200 000 light-years away, which makes it one of the closest galaxies to the Milky Way. In addition, the Small Magellanic Cloud contains stars at all stages of their evolution; from the highly luminous young stars found in NGC 371 to supernova remnants of dead stars. These energetic youngsters emit copious amounts of ultraviolet radiation causing surrounding gas, such as leftover hydrogen from their parent nebula, to light up with a colourful glow that extends for hundreds of light-years in every direction. The phenomenon is depicted beautifully in this image, taken using the FORS1 instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). Open clusters are by no means rare; there are numerous fine examples in our own Milky Way. However, NGC 371 is of particular interest due to the unexpectedly large number of variable stars it contains. These are stars that change in brightness over time. A particularly interesting type of variable star, known as slowly pulsating B stars, can also be used to study the interior of stars through asteroseismology [1], and several of these have been confirmed in this cluster. Variable stars

  10. Massive stars in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between the morphologic type of a galaxy and the evolution of its massive stars is explored, reviewing observational results for nearby galaxies. The data are presented in diagrams, and it is found that the massive-star populations of most Sc spiral galaxies and irregular galaxies are similar, while those of Sb spirals such as M 31 and M 81 may be affected by morphology (via differences in the initial mass function or star-formation rate). Consideration is also given to the stability-related upper luminosity limit in the H-R diagram of hypergiant stars (attributed to radiation pressure in hot stars and turbulence in cool stars) and the goals of future observation campaigns. 88 references

  11. Bulk yields of nucleosynthesis from massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary estimates are made of the absolute yields of abundant nuclei synthesized in observed stars. The compositions of nine helium stars of mass 3 or =10M/sub sun/ is estimated. A variety of choices for the initial mass function (IMF) are used to calculate the yield per stellar generation. For standard choices of the (IMF) the absolute and relative yields of 12 C, 16 O, 20 Ne, 24 Mg, the Si to Ca group, and the iron group agree with solar system values, to the accuracy of the calculations. The relative yields are surprisingly insensitive to the slope of the IMF. In a second approach, using standard estimates (Ostriker, Richstone, and Thuan) for the current rate of stellar death, I find the present rate of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood to be about 10%of the average rate over galactic history. This result is consistent with many standard models of galactic evolution (for example, the Schmidt model in which star formation goes as gas density squared). It appears that if the star formation rate is high enough to produce the stars we see around us, then the nucleosynthesis rate is large enough to produce the processed nuclei (except 4 He) seen in those stars. The typical nucleosynthesis source is massive (Mapprox. =30 M/sub sun/); the death rate of such stars is a small fraction (3-10%) of recent estimates of the total rate of supernovae

  12. A new approach to study of seabird-fishery overlap: Connecting chick feeding with parental foraging and overlap with fishing vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Sugishita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Incidental fisheries bycatch is recognised as a major threat to albatross populations worldwide. However, fishery discards and offal produced in large quantities might benefit some scavenging seabirds. Here, we demonstrate an integrated approach to better understand the ecological ramifications of fine-scale overlap between seabirds and fisheries. As a case study, we examined whether foraging in association with a fishing vessel is advantageous for chick provisioning in terms of quantity of food delivered to chicks, in northern royal albatross (Diomedea sanfordi at Taiaroa Head, New Zealand. Fine-scale overlap between albatrosses and vessels was quantified by integrating GPS tracking and Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS. Meal size delivered to chicks was measured using custom-designed nest balances, and monitoring of attendance of adults fitted with radio transmitters was used in conjunction with time-lapse photography at the nest allowed us to allocate each feeding event to a specific parent. The combination of these techniques enabled comparison of meal sizes delivered to chicks with parental foraging trip durations with or without fishing vessels association. A total of 45 foraging trips and associated chick feeding events were monitored during the chick-rearing period in 2012. Differences in the meal size and foraging trip duration relative to foraging overlap with fisheries were examined using a linear mixed-effect model, adjusted for chick age. Our results, based on three birds, suggest that foraging in association with vessels does not confer an advantage for chick feeding for this population that demonstrated low rates of overlap while foraging. The integrated research design presented can be applied to other seabird species that are susceptible to bycatch, and offers a valuable approach to evaluate habitat quality by linking habitat use and foraging success in terms of total amount of food delivered to offspring.

  13. Evolution of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of stars with masses larger than 15 sun masses is reviewed. These stars have large convective cores and lose a substantial fraction of their matter by stellar wind. The treatment of convection and the parameterisation of the stellar wind mass loss are analysed within the context of existing disagreements between theory and observation. The evolution of massive close binaries and the origin of Wolf-Rayet Stars and X-ray binaries is also sketched. (author)

  14. MASSIVE INFANT STARS ROCK THEIR CRADLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Extremely intense radiation from newly born, ultra-bright stars has blown a glowing spherical bubble in the nebula N83B, also known as NGC 1748. A new NASA Hubble Space Telescope image has helped to decipher the complex interplay of gas and radiation of a star-forming region in a nearby galaxy. The image graphically illustrates just how these massive stars sculpt their environment by generating powerful winds that alter the shape of the parent gaseous nebula. These processes are also seen in our Milky Way in regions like the Orion Nebula. The Hubble telescope is famous for its contribution to our knowledge about star formation in very distant galaxies. Although most of the stars in the Universe were born several billions of years ago, when the Universe was young, star formation still continues today. This new Hubble image shows a very compact star-forming region in a small part of one of our neighboring galaxies - the Large Magellanic Cloud. This galaxy lies only 165,000 light-years from our Milky Way and can easily be seen with the naked eye from the Southern Hemisphere. Young, massive, ultra-bright stars are seen here just as they are born and emerge from the shelter of their pre-natal molecular cloud. Catching these hefty stars at their birthplace is not as easy as it may seem. Their high mass means that the young stars evolve very rapidly and are hard to find at this critical stage. Furthermore, they spend a good fraction of their youth hidden from view, shrouded by large quantities of dust in a molecular cloud. The only chance is to observe them just as they start to emerge from their cocoon - and then only with very high-resolution telescopes. Astronomers from France, the U.S., and Germany have used Hubble to study the fascinating interplay between gas, dust, and radiation from the newly born stars in this nebula. Its peculiar and turbulent structure has been revealed for the first time. This high-resolution study has also uncovered several individual stars

  15. Fast pulsars, strange stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1990-02-01

    The initial motivation for this work was the reported discovery in January 1989 of a 1/2 millisecond pulsar in the remnant of the spectacular supernova, 1987A. The status of this discovery has come into grave doubt as of data taken by the same group in February, 1990. At this time we must consider that the millisecond signal does not belong to the pulsar. The existence of a neutron star in remnant of the supernova is suspected because of recent observations on the light curve of the remnant, and of course by the neutrino burst that announced the supernova. However its frequency is unknown. I can make a strong case that a pulsar rotation period of about 1 ms divides those that can be understood quite comfortably as neutron stars, and those that cannot. What we will soon learn is whether there is an invisible boundary below which pulsar periods do not fall, in which case, all are presumable neutron stars, or whether there exist sub- millisecond pulsars, which almost certainly cannot be neutron stars. Their most plausible structure is that of a self-bound star, a strange-quark-matter star. The existence of such stars would imply that the ground state of the strong interaction is not, as we usually assume, hadronic matter, but rather strange quark matter. Let us look respectively at stars that are bound only by gravity, and hypothetical stars that are self-bound, for which gravity is so to speak, icing on the cake

  16. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  17. Introduction to neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattimer, James M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2015-02-24

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts can set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.

  18. Strangeon and Strangeon Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu, Lai; Renxin, Xu

    2017-06-01

    The nature of pulsar-like compact stars is essentially a central question of the fundamental strong interaction (explained in quantum chromo-dynamics) at low energy scale, the solution of which still remains a challenge though tremendous efforts have been tried. This kind of compact objects could actually be strange quark stars if strange quark matter in bulk may constitute the true ground state of the strong-interaction matter rather than 56Fe (the so-called Witten’s conjecture). From astrophysical points of view, however, it is proposed that strange cluster matter could be absolutely stable and thus those compact stars could be strange cluster stars in fact. This proposal could be regarded as a general Witten’s conjecture: strange matter in bulk could be absolutely stable, in which quarks are either free (for strange quark matter) or localized (for strange cluster matter). Strange cluster with three-light-flavor symmetry is renamed strangeon, being coined by combining “strange nucleon” for the sake of simplicity. A strangeon star can then be thought as a 3-flavored gigantic nucleus, and strangeons are its constituent as an analogy of nucleons which are the constituent of a normal (micro) nucleus. The observational consequences of strangeon stars show that different manifestations of pulsarlike compact stars could be understood in the regime of strangeon stars, and we are expecting more evidence for strangeon star by advanced facilities (e.g., FAST, SKA, and eXTP).

  19. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  20. Polarization of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Linear polarization of starlight may be produced by electron scattering in the extended atmospheres of early type stars. Techniques are investigated for the measurement and interpretation of this polarization. Polarimetric observations were made of twelve visual double star systems in which at least one member was a B type star as a means of separating the intrinsic stellar polarization from the polarization produced in the interstellar medium. Four of the double stars contained a Be star. Evidence for intrinsic polarization was found in five systems including two of the Be systems, one double star with a short period eclipsing binary, and two systems containing only normal early type stars for which emission lines have not been previously reported. The interpretation of these observations in terms of individual stellar polarizations and their wavelength dependence is discussed. The theoretical basis for the intrinsic polarization of early type stars is explored with a model for the disk-like extended atmospheres of Be stars. Details of a polarimeter for the measurement of the linear polarization of astronomical point sources are also presented with narrow band (Δ lambda = 100A) measurements of the polarization of γ Cas from lambda 4000 to lambda 5800

  1. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  2. Social Influences and the Physical Activity Intentions of Parents of Young-Children Families: An Extended Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence within Australia and internationally suggests parenthood as a risk factor for inactivity; however, research into understanding parental physical activity is scarce. Given that active parents can create active families and social factors are important for parents' decision making, the authors investigated a range of social influences on…

  3. The discrimination between star-forming and AGN galaxies in the absence of Hαand [NII]: A machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimoorinia, H.; Keown, J.

    2018-05-01

    In the absence of the two emission lines Hαand [NII] (6584Å) in a BPT diagram, we show that other spectral information is sufficiently informative to distinguish AGN galaxies from star-forming galaxies. We use pattern recognition methods and a sample of galaxy spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to show that, in this survey, the flux and equivalent width of [OIII] (5007Å) and Hβ, along with the 4000Å break, can be used to classify galaxies in a BPT diagram. This method provides a higher accuracy of predictions than those which use stellar mass and [OIII]/Hβ. First, we use BPT diagrams and various physical parameters to re-classify the galaxies. Next, using confusion matrices, we determine the `correctly' predicted classes as well as confused cases. In this way, we investigate the effect of each parameter in the confusion matrices and rank the physical parameters used in the discrimination of the different classes. We show that in this survey, for example, {g - r} colour can provide the same accuracy as galaxy stellar mass to predict whether or not a galaxy hosts an AGN. Finally, with the same information, we also rank the parameters involved in the discrimination of Seyfert and LINER galaxies.

  4. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...... on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection...

  5. How neutron stars constrain the nuclear equation of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hell Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent neutron star observations set new constraints for the equation of state of baryonic matter. A chiral effective field theory approach is used for the description of neutron-dominated nuclear matter present in the outer core of neutron stars. Possible hybrid stars with quark matter in the inner core are discussed using a three-flavor Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model.

  6. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  7. European Stars and Stripes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    The European Stars and Stripes (ES&S) organization publishes a daily newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, for DoD personnel stationed in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and other DoD activities in the U.S. European Command...

  8. Nebraska STARS: Achieving Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschewski, Pat; Isernhagen, Jody; Dappen, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, the state of Nebraska passed legislation requiring the assessment of student performance on content standards, but its requirements were very different from those of any other state. Nebraska created what has come to be known as STARS (School-based Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System). Under STARS, each of Nebraska's nearly 500…

  9. Convective overshooting in stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrássy, R.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous observations provide evidence that the standard picture, in which convective mixing is limited to the unstable layers of a star, is incomplete. The mixing layers in real stars are significantly more extended than what the standard models predict. Some of the observations require changing

  10. By Draconis Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Bernard W.

    An optical spectroscopic survey of dK-M stars has resulted in the discovery of several new H-alpha emission objects. Available optical data suggest these stars have a level of chromospheric activity midway between active BY Dra stars and quiet dM's. These "marginal" BY Dra stars are single objects that have rotation velocities slightly higher than that of quiet field stars but below that of active flare/BY Dra objects. The marginal BY Dra stars provide us with a class of objects rotating very near a "trigger velocity" (believed to be 5 km/s) which appears to divide active flare/BY Dra stars from quiet dM's. UV data on Mg II emission fluxes and strength of transition region features such as C IV will serve to fix activity levels in the marginal objects and determine chromosphere and transition-region heating rates. Simultaneous optical magnetic field measures will be used to explore the connection between fieldstrength/filling-factor and atmospheric heating. Comparison of these data with published information on active and quiet dM stars will yield information on the character of the stellar dynamo as it makes a transition from "low" to "high" activity.

  11. Observing Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  12. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  13. Spectrophotometry of carbon stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganesyan, R.K.; Karapetyan, M.S.; Nersisyan, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    The results are given of the spectrophotometric investigation of 56 carbon stars in the spectral range from 4000 to 6800 A with resolution 3 A. The observed energy distributions of these stars are determined relative to the flux at the wavelength /sub 0/ = 5556; they are presented in the form of graphs. The energy distributions have been obtained for the first time for 35 stars. Variation in the line Ba II 4554 A has been found in the spectra of St Cam, UU Aur, and RV Mon. Large changes have taken place in the spectra of RT UMa and SS Vir. It is noted that the spectra of carbon stars have a depression, this being situated in different spectral regions for individual groups of stars.

  14. Rotating stars in relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  15. Very massive runaway stars from three-body encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Gualandris, Alessia

    2011-01-01

    Very massive stars preferentially reside in the cores of their parent clusters and form binary or multiple systems. We study the role of tight very massive binaries in the origin of the field population of very massive stars. We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between single (massive) stars and a very massive binary with parameters similar to those of the most massive known Galactic binaries, WR 20a and NGC 3603-A1. We found that these three-body encounters could be responsible for the origin of high peculiar velocities (≥70 km s-1) observed for some very massive (≥60-70 M⊙) runaway stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (e.g. λ Cep, BD+43°3654, Sk -67°22, BI 237, 30 Dor 016), which can hardly be explained within the framework of the binary-supernova scenario. The production of high-velocity massive stars via three-body encounters is accompanied by the recoil of the binary in the opposite direction to the ejected star. We show that the relative position of the very massive binary R145 and the runaway early B-type star Sk-69°206 on the sky is consistent with the possibility that both objects were ejected from the central cluster, R136, of the star-forming region 30 Doradus via the same dynamical event - a three-body encounter.

  16. Massive runaway stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.; Kroupa, P.

    2011-01-01

    Using archival Spitzer Space Telescope data, we identified for the first time a dozen runaway OB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) through the detection of their bow shocks. The geometry of detected bow shocks allows us to infer the direction of motion of the associated stars and to determine their possible parent clusters and associations. One of the identified runaway stars, AzV 471, was already known as a high-velocity star on the basis of its high peculiar radial velocity, which is offset by ≃ 40 km s-1 from the local systemic velocity. We discuss implications of our findings for the problem of the origin of field OB stars. Several of the bow shock-producing stars are found in the confines of associations, suggesting that these may be “alien” stars contributing to the age spread observed for some young stellar systems. We also report the discovery of a kidney-shaped nebula attached to the early WN-type star SMC-WR3 (AzV 60a). We interpreted this nebula as an interstellar structure created owing to the interaction between the stellar wind and the ambient interstellar medium.

  17. Noether's stars in f (R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    2018-05-01

    The Noether Symmetry Approach can be used to construct spherically symmetric solutions in f (R) gravity. Specifically, the Noether conserved quantity is related to the gravitational mass and a gravitational radius that reduces to the Schwarzschild radius in the limit f (R) → R. We show that it is possible to construct the M- R relation for neutron stars depending on the Noether conserved quantity and the associated gravitational radius. This approach enables the recovery of extreme massive stars that could not be stable in the standard Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff based on General Relativity. Examples are given for some power law f (R) gravity models.

  18. On the evolution of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippenhahn, R.

    1989-01-01

    A popular survey is given of the present knowledge on evolution and ageing of stars. Main sequence stars, white dwarf stars, and red giant stars are classified in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR)-diagram by measurable quantities: surface temperature and luminosity. From the HR-diagram it can be concluded to star mass and age. Star-forming processes in interstellar clouds as well as stellar burning processes are illustrated. The changes occurring in a star due to the depletion of the nuclear energy reserve are described. In this frame the phenomena of planetary nebulae, supernovae, pulsars, neutron stars as well as of black holes are explained

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, P E [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Avgeropoulos, A [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kosmas, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vlahos, C [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-11-21

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakis, P. E.; Avgeropoulos, A.; Freire, J. J.; Kosmas, M.; Vlahos, C.

    2007-11-01

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakis, P E; Avgeropoulos, A; Freire, J J; Kosmas, M; Vlahos, C

    2007-01-01

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results

  2. Conceptualizing the Step-Down for Foster Youth Approaching Adulthood: Perceptions of Service Providers, Caseworkers, and Foster Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Judy; McMillen, J. Curtis; Fedoravicius, Nicole; McNelly, David; Robinson, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Studies find considerable movement between residential treatment and less restrictive foster home settings, with approximately half of foster youth who are stepped down eventually returning to a higher level of care. Very little is known about the step down for foster youth who are approaching adulthood in locked residential facilities. A qualitative study of stepping down a small sample of foster youth, as perceived by team members delivering a model of treatment foster care, is presented. These findings reveal the dimensions of stepping down foster youth at the onset of adulthood, and highlight the importance of providing foster youth with developmental opportunities to engage in the social roles and tasks of late adolescence and/or early adulthood. Implications for further refining the concept of stepping down from a developmental perspective are discussed. PMID:23878410

  3. Understanding and Improving Health Education Among First-time Parents of Infants With Sickle Cell Anemia in Alabama: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensburger, Jeffrey D.; Grosse, Scott D.; Altice, Jessica L.; Thierry, JoAnn M.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary With the increase in access to medical information, parents can acquire health information from multiple sources. An understanding of parents' reactions to a newborn infant's diagnosis of sickle cell anemia and how they acquire knowledge can identify parent beliefs and preferences about the process of sickle cell education. This study utilized a sequential exploratory mixed methods design. First, qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 parents of infants with sickle cell anemia to understand the process of health education. Second, quantitative surveys were conducted with 22 other parents to test qualitative findings. Parents of infants with sickle cell anemia expressed a high level of fear at the time of notification of a positive screen. Parents desired an understanding of how to identify acute complications of disease and how sickle cell will alter their child's life. Parents actively sought information at the time they were told their child had sickle cell disease. Sickle cell education should begin at time of notification of positive newborn screening results and address identified parent concerns. Health care providers should build trust with parents and provide them with immediate access to educational materials. Hematologists should work with primary care providers to develop complementary educational programs and resources. PMID:25072367

  4. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  5. Star Cluster Structure from Hierarchical Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudic, Michael; Hopkins, Philip; Murray, Norman; Lamberts, Astrid; Guszejnov, David; Schmitz, Denise; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Young massive star clusters (YMCs) spanning 104-108 M⊙ in mass generally have similar radial surface density profiles, with an outer power-law index typically between -2 and -3. This similarity suggests that they are shaped by scale-free physics at formation. Recent multi-physics MHD simulations of YMC formation have also produced populations of YMCs with this type of surface density profile, allowing us to narrow down the physics necessary to form a YMC with properties as observed. We show that the shallow density profiles of YMCs are a natural result of phase-space mixing that occurs as they assemble from the clumpy, hierarchically-clustered configuration imprinted by the star formation process. We develop physical intuition for this process via analytic arguments and collisionless N-body experiments, elucidating the connection between star formation physics and star cluster structure. This has implications for the early-time structure and evolution of proto-globular clusters, and prospects for simulating their formation in the FIRE cosmological zoom-in simulations.

  6. Strange matter in compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klähn, Thomas; Blaschke, David B.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss possible scenarios for the existence of strange matter in compact stars. The appearance of hyperons leads to a hyperon puzzle in ab-initio approaches based on effective baryon-baryon potentials but is not a severe problem in relativistic mean field models. In general, the puzzle can be resolved in a natural way if hadronic matter gets stiffened at supersaturation densities, an effect based on the quark Pauli quenching between hadrons. We explain the conflict between the necessity to implement dynamical chiral symmetry breaking into a model description and the conditions for the appearance of absolutely stable strange quark matter that require both, approximately masslessness of quarks and a mechanism of confinement. The role of strangeness in compact stars (hadronic or quark matter realizations) remains unsettled. It is not excluded that strangeness plays no role in compact stars at all. To answer the question whether the case of absolutely stable strange quark matter can be excluded on theoretical grounds requires an understanding of dense matter that we have not yet reached.

  7. Strange matter in compact stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klähn Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss possible scenarios for the existence of strange matter in compact stars. The appearance of hyperons leads to a hyperon puzzle in ab-initio approaches based on effective baryon-baryon potentials but is not a severe problem in relativistic mean field models. In general, the puzzle can be resolved in a natural way if hadronic matter gets stiffened at supersaturation densities, an effect based on the quark Pauli quenching between hadrons. We explain the conflict between the necessity to implement dynamical chiral symmetry breaking into a model description and the conditions for the appearance of absolutely stable strange quark matter that require both, approximately masslessness of quarks and a mechanism of confinement. The role of strangeness in compact stars (hadronic or quark matter realizations remains unsettled. It is not excluded that strangeness plays no role in compact stars at all. To answer the question whether the case of absolutely stable strange quark matter can be excluded on theoretical grounds requires an understanding of dense matter that we have not yet reached.

  8. Making star teams out of star players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, Michael; Bird, Alan; Root, James

    2013-01-01

    Top talent is an invaluable asset: In highly specialized or creative work, for instance, "A" players are likely to be six times as productive as "B" players. So when your company has a crucial strategic project, why not multiply all that firepower and have a team of your best performers tackle it? Yet many companies hesitate to do this, believing that all-star teams don't work: Big egos will get in the way. The stars won't be able to work with one another. They'll drive the team Leader crazy. Mankins, Bird, and Root of Bain & Company believe it's time to set aside that thinking. They have seen all-star teams do extraordinary work. But there is a right way and a wrong way to organize them. Before you can even begin to assemble such a team, you need to have the right talent management practices, so you hire and develop the best people and know what they're capable of. You have to give the team appropriate incentives and leaders and support staffers who are stars in their own right. And projects that are ill-defined or small scale are not for all-star teams. Use them only for critical missions, and make sure their objectives are clear. Even with the right setup, things can still go wrong. The wise executive will take steps to manage egos, prune non-team-players, and prevent average coworkers from feeling completely undervalued. She will also invest a lot of time in choosing the right team Leader and will ask members for lots of feedback to monitor how that leader is doing.

  9. Discovery of a New Wolf-Rayet Star Using SAGE-LMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Chené, A.-N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Schnurr, O.

    2012-12-01

    We report the first-ever discovery of an extragalactic Wolf-Rayet (WR) star with Spitzer. A new WR star in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) was revealed via detection of its circumstellar shell using 24 μm images obtained in the framework of the Spitzer Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-LMC). Subsequent spectroscopic observations with the Gemini South resolved the central star in two components, one of which is a WN3b+abs star, while the second one is a B0 V star. We consider the lopsided brightness distribution over the circumstellar shell as an indication that the WR star is a runaway and use this interpretation to identify a possible parent cluster of the star.

  10. A weight limit emerges for neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Adrian

    2018-02-01

    Astrophysicists have long wondered how massive a neutron star—the corpse of certain exploding stars—could be without collapsing under its own gravity to form a black hole. Now, four teams have independently deduced a mass limit for neutron stars of about 2.2 times the mass of the sun. To do so, all four groups analyzed last year's blockbuster observations of the merger of two neutron stars, spied on 17 September 2017 by dozens of observatories. That approach may seem unpromising, as it might appear that the merging neutron stars would have immediately produced a black hole. However, the researchers argue that the merger first produced a spinning, overweight neutron star momentarily propped up by centrifugal force. They deduce that just before it collapsed, the short-lived neutron star had to be near the maximum mass for one spinning as a solid body. That inference allowed them to use a scaling relationship to estimate the maximum mass of a nonrotating, stable neutron star, starting from the total mass of the original pair and the amount of matter spewed into space.

  11. Interstellar clouds and the formation of stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H; Carlqvist, P [Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden). Institutionen foer Plasmafysik

    1978-05-01

    Part I gives a survey of the drastic revision of cosmic plasma physics which is precipitated by the exploration of the magnetosphere through in situ measurements. The 'pseudo-plasma formalism', which until now has almost completely dominated theoretical astrophysics, must be replaced by an experimentally based approach involving the introduction of a number of neglected plasma phenomena, such as electric double layers, critical velocity, and pinch effect. The general belief that star light is the main ionizer is shown to be doubtful; hydromagnetic conversion of gravitational and kinetic energy may often be much more important. In Part II the revised plasma physics is applied to dark clouds and star formation. Magnetic fields do not necessarily counteract the contraction of a cloud; they may just as well 'pinch' the cloud. Magnetic compression may be the main mechanism for forming interstellar clouds and keeping them together. Part III treats the formation of stars in a dusty cosmic plasma cloud. Star formation is due to an instability, but it is very unlikely that it has anything to do with the Jeans instability. A reasonable mechanism is that the sedimentation of 'dust' (including solid bodies of different size) is triggering off a gravitationally assisted accretion. A 'stellesimal' accretion analogous to the planetesimal accretion leads to the formation of a star surrounded by a very low density hollow in the cloud. Matter falling in from the cloud towards the star is the raw material for the formation of planets and satellites.

  12. Five-Star Schools: Defining Quality in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…

  13. The Globular Cluster NGC 6402 (M14). II. Variable Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contreras Peña, C.; Catelan, M.; Grundahl, F.

    2018-01-01

    approaches for the calibration of the absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars. The possible presence of second-overtone RR Lyrae in M14 is critically addressed, with our results arguing against this possibility. By considering all of the RR Lyrae stars as members of the cluster, we derive =0.589 {{d...

  14. Star marketer’s impact on the market strategy choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlašić Goran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on understanding the role of star marketers in pursuing a market-driven vs. a market-driving strategy. Results indicate that market-driving and market-driven strategies are two approaches that can be pursued by market-oriented firms. A star marketer has a robust positive influence on market-driving strategy. In contrast, a star marketer has no meaningful influence on market-driven strategy. In short, while star marketers are very important for market-driving strategy and long term success, they represent an unnecessary cost and provide no added value to companies focusing on market-driven strategies and short term results.

  15. Star marketer’s impact on the market strategy choice

    OpenAIRE

    Goran, Vlašić; Hair, Joe F.; Krupka, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    We focus on understanding the role of star marketers in pursuing a market-driven vs. a market-driving strategy. Results indicate that market-driving and market-driven strategies are two approaches that can be pursued by market-oriented firms. A star marketer has a robust positive influence on market-driving strategy. In contrast, a star marketer has no meaningful influence on market-driven strategy. In short, while star marketers are very important for market-driving strategy and long term su...

  16. From clouds to stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    At the present time, the theory of star formation must be limited to what we know about the lowest density gas, or about the pre-main sequence stars themselves. We would like to understand two basic processes: 1) how star-forming clouds are created from the ambient interstellar gas in the first place, and 2) how small parts of these clouds condense to form individual stars. We are interested also in knowing what pre-main sequence stars are like, and how they can interact with their environment. These topics are reviewed in what follows. In this series of lectures, what we know about the formation of stars is tentatively described. The lectures begin with a description of the interstellar medium, and then they proceed along the same direction that a young star would follow during its creation, namely from clouds through the collapse phase and onto the proto-stellar phase. The evolution of viscous disks and two models for the formation of the solar system are described in the last lectures. The longest lectures, and the topics that are covered in most detail, are not necessarily the ones for which we have the most information. Physically intuitive explanations for the various processes are emphasized, rather then mathematical explanations. In some cases, the mathematical aspects are developed as well, but only when the equations can be used to give important numerical values for comparison with the observations

  17. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    of the stars, as they move along their orbits and periodically approach and recede from the observer. Such spectroscopic observations therefore allow to measure the orbital velocities of the stars. It is exactly the same technique that is used to study and weigh extra-solar planets orbiting other stars [3]. However, this method has an important limitation. From the spectroscopical observations alone, it is only possible to deduce limits on the masses, as the inclination of orbits to the line-of-sight is usually unknown. The masses derived in this way (for stars as well as for exoplanets) are therefore only lower limits on the actual masses. Eclipsing Binaries However, fortunate observational circumstances sometimes allow to obtain all information about the stellar orbits. If a binary system is viewed (almost exactly) edge-on, the stars may pass in front of each other from time to time. Astronomers refer to this phenomenon as an "eclipse" and speak about an "eclipsing binary". The effect is similar to a "solar" eclipse as seen on the Earth, whenever the Moon passes in front of the Sun. Like the Moon blocks the sunlight, less light is received from the eclipsed star and thus the combined light from the binary system decreases during the eclipse. The way this happens (astronomers speak about the system's "lightcurve") then provides the additional information about the inclination of the orbit that is needed to determine exactly the stellar masses in a "spectroscopic" binary system. Very accurate values for the stellar diameters and the surface temperatures of the two stars can also be deduced. In short, when a full set of observations is available, it is possible to give a comprehensive description of an eclipsing binary system and its components. Eclipsing, spectroscopic binaries thus represent true cornerstones for the determination of stellar masses , and as such they are fundamental for our understanding of stellar evolution . Rather few such systems are known, but

  18. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactions in stars is a major topic in the field of nuclear astrophysics, and deals with the topics of how precisely stars generate their energy through nuclear reactions, and how these nuclear reactions create the elements the stars, planets and - ultimately - we humans consist of. The present book treats these topics in detail. It also presents the nuclear reaction and structure theory, thermonuclear reaction rate formalism and stellar nucleosynthesis. The topics are discussed in a coherent way, enabling the reader to grasp their interconnections intuitively. The book serves bo

  19. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  20. Topological magnon bands in ferromagnetic star lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owerre, S A

    2017-01-01

    The experimental observation of topological magnon bands and thermal Hall effect in a kagomé lattice ferromagnet Cu(1–3, bdc) has inspired the search for topological magnon effects in various insulating ferromagnets that lack an inversion center allowing a Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) spin–orbit interaction. The star lattice (also known as the decorated honeycomb lattice) ferromagnet is an ideal candidate for this purpose because it is a variant of the kagomé lattice with additional links that connect the up-pointing and down-pointing triangles. This gives rise to twice the unit cell of the kagomé lattice, and hence more interesting topological magnon effects. In particular, the triangular bridges on the star lattice can be coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically which is not possible on the kagomé lattice ferromagnets. Here, we study DM-induced topological magnon bands, chiral edge modes, and thermal magnon Hall effect on the star lattice ferromagnet in different parameter regimes. The star lattice can also be visualized as the parent material from which topological magnon bands can be realized for the kagomé and honeycomb lattices in some limiting cases. (paper)

  1. Topological magnon bands in ferromagnetic star lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2017-05-10

    The experimental observation of topological magnon bands and thermal Hall effect in a kagomé lattice ferromagnet Cu(1-3, bdc) has inspired the search for topological magnon effects in various insulating ferromagnets that lack an inversion center allowing a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction. The star lattice (also known as the decorated honeycomb lattice) ferromagnet is an ideal candidate for this purpose because it is a variant of the kagomé lattice with additional links that connect the up-pointing and down-pointing triangles. This gives rise to twice the unit cell of the kagomé lattice, and hence more interesting topological magnon effects. In particular, the triangular bridges on the star lattice can be coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically which is not possible on the kagomé lattice ferromagnets. Here, we study DM-induced topological magnon bands, chiral edge modes, and thermal magnon Hall effect on the star lattice ferromagnet in different parameter regimes. The star lattice can also be visualized as the parent material from which topological magnon bands can be realized for the kagomé and honeycomb lattices in some limiting cases.

  2. Fluidic Manufacture of Star-Shaped Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Alessandro; Lay, Luigi; Psaro, Rinaldo; Polito, Laura; Evangelisti, Claudio

    2017-07-21

    Star-shaped gold nanoparticles (StarAuNPs) are extremely attractive nanomaterials, characterized by localized surface plasmon resonance which could be potentially employed in a large number of applications. However, the lack of a reliable and reproducible synthetic protocols for the production of StarAuNPs is the major limitation to their spreading. For the first time, here we present a robust protocol to manufacture reproducible StarAuNPs by exploiting a fluidic approach. Star-shaped AuNPs have been synthesized by means of a seed-less protocol, employing ascorbic acid as reducing agent at room temperature. Moreover, the versatility of the bench-top microfluidic protocol has been exploited to afford hydrophilic, hydrophobic and solid-supported engineered StarAuNPs, by avoiding intermediate NP purifications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Authoritative parenting and parental stress in parents of pre-school and older children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, L; Grant, E

    2006-03-01

    Rearing a child with a developmental disability is associated with increased parental stress. Theories of stress and adjustment and bi-directional theories of child development suggest that parenting could influence these negative outcomes. Relationships between parenting approaches and stress in parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) (N = 53) were examined across two age groups, 3-5 years and 9-11 years and compared with a contrast group of typically developing children (TD) (N = 60). Measures used were the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and Rickel and Biasatti's modification of Block's Child Rearing Practices Report, classified into Baumrind's parenting styles using Reitman and Gross's method. Parents in the older DD group used Authoritative parenting less than parents in the younger DD group, while the opposite developmental pattern was seen in the TD group. Multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant group x parenting style interaction for Parental Distress, Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction and Difficult Child. Stress measures were higher for the DD group and seemed to be associated with Authoritative parenting approaches, an effect that was not observed in the TD group. Findings suggest that the well-established effect of group on stress may be moderated by parenting style. Authoritative parenting may be highly stressful for parents of children with DD to implement, resulting in a decrease in its use across the two age groups.

  4. Patterns of Parental Authority and Adolescent Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    2005-01-01

    In proposing connections among the paradigms represented by domain theory, parental control theory, and Baumrind's configural approach to parental authority, the worldview of each paradigm must be respected and ambiguities in core concepts must be resolved.

  5. Carbon Stars T. Lloyd Evans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the features used in estimating luminosities of ordinary giant stars are just those whose abundance ... This difference between the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of CH stars and the. J stars, which belong to .... that the first group was binaries, as for the CH stars of the solar vicinity, while those of the second group ...

  6. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  7. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. General and Specific Approaches to Media Parenting: A Systematic Review of Current Measures, Associations with Screen-Viewing, and Measurement Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark J.; Urbanski, Carly R.; Sebire, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Parent-focused interventions may help to reduce youth screen-viewing (SV). This review synthesized current information on the links between parenting styles, parenting practices, and youth SV with a focus on measurement. Methods A systematic review of electronic databases was conducted. Results In all, 29 of 1189 studies met the inclusion criteria. Parenting practices were divided into rule and nonrule-based practices. Seven rules: (1) Limits on total time (n studies=23); (2) limits on time of day (n=7); (3) content restriction (n=11); (4) mealtime rules (n=2); (5) parental supervision (n=3); (6) contingent screentime (n=3); and (7) no-TV policy (n=1) were reported. Two nonrule-based practices were reported: Co-viewing (n=6) and encouragement to view (n=2). Three studies (10.3%) provided information on parenting styles. Only 12 studies (41.4%) provided information on the reliability/validity of the outcome measure, 15 (51.7%) studies provided information on the reliability/validity of the parenting measure, and 6 (20.7%) provided information on the reliability/validity of both outcome and exposure measures. Conclusions There is mixed evidence that parenting styles and media-related parenting practices are associated with youth SV. The assessment of parental influence of youth media use is hampered by the diversity of measures that have been used. There is a need for new measures that assess a range of media parenting practices that are relevant to multiple forms of SV. PMID:23944925

  9. Neutrino Processes in Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomeitsev E.E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of these lectures is to introduce basic processes responsible for cooling of neutron stars and to show how to calculate the neutrino production rate in dense strongly interacting nuclear medium. The formalism is presented that treats on equal footing one-nucleon and multiple-nucleon processes and reactions with virtual bosonic modes and condensates. We demonstrate that neutrino emission from dense hadronic component in neutron stars is subject of strong modifications due to collective effects in the nuclear matter. With the most important in-medium processes incorporated in the cooling code an overall agreement with available soft X ray data can be easily achieved. With these findings the so-called “standard” and “non-standard” cooling scenarios are replaced by one general “nuclear medium cooling scenario” which relates slow and rapid neutron star coolings to the star masses (interior densities. The lectures are split in four parts. Part I: After short introduction to the neutron star cooling problem we show how to calculate neutrino reaction rates of the most efficient one-nucleon and two-nucleon processes. No medium effects are taken into account in this instance. The effects of a possible nucleon pairing are discussed. We demonstrate that the data on neutron star cooling cannot be described without inclusion of medium effects. It motivates an assumption that masses of the neutron stars are different and that neutrino reaction rates should be strongly density dependent. Part II: We introduce the Green’s function diagram technique for systems in and out of equilibrium and the optical theorem formalism. The latter allows to perform calculations of production rates with full Green’s functions including all off-mass-shell effects. We demonstrate how this formalism works within the quasiparticle approximation. Part III: The basic concepts of the nuclear Fermi liquid approach are introduced. We show how strong

  10. AgSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    AgSTAR promotes biogas recovery projects, which generate renewable energy and other beneficial products from the anaerobic digestion of livestock manure and organic wastes while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture sector.

  11. Orbiting radiation stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Dean P; Langford, John; Perez-Giz, Gabe

    2016-01-01

    We study a spherically symmetric solution to the Einstein equations in which the source, which we call an orbiting radiation star (OR-star), is a compact object consisting of freely falling null particles. The solution avoids quantum scale regimes and hence neither relies upon nor ignores the interaction of quantum mechanics and gravitation. The OR-star spacetime exhibits a deep gravitational well yet remains singularity free. In fact, it is geometrically flat in the vicinity of the origin, with the flat region being of any desirable scale. The solution is observationally distinct from a black hole because a photon from infinity aimed at an OR-star escapes to infinity with a time delay. (paper)

  12. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  13. SX Phoenicis stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Mateo, M.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the basic observational information concerning SX Phe stars, including recent findings such as the discovery of about 40 low-luminosity variable stars in the Carina dwarf galaxy and identification of at least one SX Phe star in the metal-rich globular cluster M71. Direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that at least some BSs are binary systems comes from the discovery of two contact binaries and a semidetached binary among the 50 BSs in the globular cluster NGC 5466. Since these systems will coalesce on a time scale 500 Myr, it stands to reason that many (if not most) BSs are coalesced binaries. The merger hypothesis also explains the relatively-large masses (1.0-1.2 solar masses) that have been derived for SX Phe stars and halo BSs, and may also account for the nonvariable BSs in the 'SX Phe instability strip'. 132 refs

  14. Authoritative Parenting, Parenting Stress, and Self-Care in Pre-Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning. PMID:22350495

  15. Authoritative parenting, parenting stress, and self-care in pre-adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R; Streisand, Randi

    2012-09-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning.

  16. Sounds of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  17. Spectrophotometry of carbon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of over one hundred carbon stars have been made with the Indiana rapid spectral scanner in the red and, when possible, in the visual and blue regions of the spectrum. Five distinct subtypes of carbon stars (Barium, CH, R, N, and hydrogen deficient) are represented in the list of observed stars, although the emphasis was placed on the N stars when the observations were made. The rapid scanner was operated in the continuous sweep mode with the exit slit set at twenty angstroms, however, seeing fluctuations and guiding errors smear the spectrum to an effective resolution of approximately thirty angstroms. Nightly observations of Hayes standard stars yielded corrections for atmospheric extinction and instrumental response. The reduction scheme rests on two assumptions, that thin clouds are gray absorbers and the wavelength dependence of the sky transparency does not change during the course of the night. Several stars have been observed in the blue region of the spectrum with the Indiana SIT vidicon spectrometer at two angstroms resolution. It is possible to derive a color temperature for the yellow--red spectral region by fitting a black-body curve through two chosen continuum points. Photometric indices were calculated relative to the blackbody curve to measure the C 2 Swan band strength, the shape of the CN red (6,1) band to provide a measure of the 12 C/ 13 C isotope ratio, and in the hot carbon stars (Barium, CH, and R stars) the strength of an unidentified feature centered at 400 angstroms. An extensive abundance grid of model atmospheres was calculated using a modified version of the computer code ATLAS

  18. Young Stars with SALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Adric R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Astrophysics, The American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Henry, Todd J., E-mail: arr@caltech.edu [RECONS Institute, Chambersburg, PA (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups.

  19. STAR facility tritium accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawelko, R. J.; Sharpe, J. P.; Denny, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has been established to provide a laboratory infrastructure for the fusion community to study tritium science associated with the development of safe fusion energy and other technologies. STAR is a radiological facility with an administrative total tritium inventory limit of 1.5 g (14,429 Ci) [1]. Research studies with moderate tritium quantities and various radionuclides are performed in STAR. Successful operation of the STAR facility requires the ability to receive, inventory, store, dispense tritium to experiments, and to dispose of tritiated waste while accurately monitoring the tritium inventory in the facility. This paper describes tritium accountancy in the STAR facility. A primary accountancy instrument is the tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS): a system designed to receive, assay, store, and dispense tritium to experiments. Presented are the methods used to calibrate and operate the SAS. Accountancy processes utilizing the Tritium Cleanup System (TCS), and the Stack Tritium Monitoring System (STMS) are also discussed. Also presented are the equations used to quantify the amount of tritium being received into the facility, transferred to experiments, and removed from the facility. Finally, the STAR tritium accountability database is discussed. (authors)

  20. Asteroseismology of white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Córsico, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Most of low- and intermediate-mass stars that populate the Universe will end their lives as white dwarf stars. These ancient stellar remnants have encrypted inside a precious record of the evolutionary history of the progenitor stars, providing a wealth of information about the evolution of stars, star formation, and the age of a variety of stellar populations, such as our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. While some information like surface chemical composition, temperature and gravity ...

  1. Star Masses and Star-Planet Distances for Earth-like Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents statistical estimates for the location and duration of habitable zones (HZs) around stars of different mass. The approach is based upon the assumption that Earth's location, and the Sun's mass, should not be highly atypical of inhabited planets. The results support climate-model-based estimates for the location of the Sun's HZ except models giving a present-day outer-edge beyond 1.64 AU. The statistical approach also demonstrates that there is a habitability issue for stars smaller than 0.65 solar masses since, otherwise, Earth would be an extremely atypical inhabited world. It is difficult to remove this anomaly using the assumption that poor habitability of planets orbiting low-mass stars results from unfavorable radiation regimes either before, or after, their stars enter the main sequence. However, the anomaly is well explained if poor habitability results from tidal locking of planets in the HZs of small stars. The expected host-star mass for planets with intelligent life then has a 95% confidence range of 0.78 M ⊙ planets with at least simple life is 0.57 M ⊙  < M < 1.64 M ⊙ . Key Words: Habitability-Habitable zone-Anthropic-Red dwarfs-Initial mass function. Astrobiology 17, 61-77.

  2. Observational constraints on neutron star masses and radii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman Miller, M. [University of Maryland, Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, College Park, MD (United States); Lamb, Frederick K. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Astronomy, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Precise and reliable measurements of the masses and radii of neutron stars with a variety of masses would provide valuable guidance for improving models of the properties of cold matter with densities above the saturation density of nuclear matter. Several different approaches for measuring the masses and radii of neutron stars have been tried or proposed, including analyzing the X-ray fluxes and spectra of the emission from neutron stars in quiescent low-mass X-ray binary systems and thermonuclear burst sources; fitting the energy-dependent X-ray waveforms of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, burst oscillations with millisecond periods, and accretion-powered millisecond pulsars; and modeling the gravitational radiation waveforms of coalescing double neutron star and neutron star - black hole binary systems. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches, most of which currently have substantial systematic errors, and discuss the prospects for decreasing the systematic errors in each method. (orig.)

  3. Counseling parents of difficult adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph-DiCaprio, Julia

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between parent and child changes during adolescence. During that transition time, some youths may be challenging rules, engaging in risky behaviors, or failing to disclose their activities to their parents. Physicians and other health care providers are in a position to counsel not only youths about problem behaviors but also parents about how to more effectively deal with their children. One of the things they can recommend is an approach known as authoritative parenting. This approach has been shown to promote higher school achievement and self-esteem, and result in less depression and anxiety and more self-reliance among youths. This article describes the approach and offers physicians tips about what they can say to parents.

  4. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  5. A robust star identification algorithm with star shortlisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Deval Samirbhai; Chen, Shoushun; Low, Kay Soon

    2018-05-01

    A star tracker provides the most accurate attitude solution in terms of arc seconds compared to the other existing attitude sensors. When no prior attitude information is available, it operates in "Lost-In-Space (LIS)" mode. Star pattern recognition, also known as star identification algorithm, forms the most crucial part of a star tracker in the LIS mode. Recognition reliability and speed are the two most important parameters of a star pattern recognition technique. In this paper, a novel star identification algorithm with star ID shortlisting is proposed. Firstly, the star IDs are shortlisted based on worst-case patch mismatch, and later stars are identified in the image by an initial match confirmed with a running sequential angular match technique. The proposed idea is tested on 16,200 simulated star images having magnitude uncertainty, noise stars, positional deviation, and varying size of the field of view. The proposed idea is also benchmarked with the state-of-the-art star pattern recognition techniques. Finally, the real-time performance of the proposed technique is tested on the 3104 real star images captured by a star tracker SST-20S currently mounted on a satellite. The proposed technique can achieve an identification accuracy of 98% and takes only 8.2 ms for identification on real images. Simulation and real-time results depict that the proposed technique is highly robust and achieves a high speed of identification suitable for actual space applications.

  6. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...

  7. Young star clusters in nearby molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, K. V.; Kuhn, M. A.; Feigelson, E. D.; Broos, P. S.; Bate, M. R.; Garmire, G. P.

    2018-06-01

    The SFiNCs (Star Formation in Nearby Clouds) project is an X-ray/infrared study of the young stellar populations in 22 star-forming regions with distances ≲ 1 kpc designed to extend our earlier MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray) survey of more distant clusters. Our central goal is to give empirical constraints on cluster formation mechanisms. Using parametric mixture models applied homogeneously to the catalogue of SFiNCs young stars, we identify 52 SFiNCs clusters and 19 unclustered stellar structures. The procedure gives cluster properties including location, population, morphology, association with molecular clouds, absorption, age (AgeJX), and infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) slope. Absorption, SED slope, and AgeJX are age indicators. SFiNCs clusters are examined individually, and collectively with MYStIX clusters, to give the following results. (1) SFiNCs is dominated by smaller, younger, and more heavily obscured clusters than MYStIX. (2) SFiNCs cloud-associated clusters have the high ellipticities aligned with their host molecular filaments indicating morphology inherited from their parental clouds. (3) The effect of cluster expansion is evident from the radius-age, radius-absorption, and radius-SED correlations. Core radii increase dramatically from ˜0.08 to ˜0.9 pc over the age range 1-3.5 Myr. Inferred gas removal time-scales are longer than 1 Myr. (4) Rich, spatially distributed stellar populations are present in SFiNCs clouds representing early generations of star formation. An appendix compares the performance of the mixture models and non-parametric minimum spanning tree to identify clusters. This work is a foundation for future SFiNCs/MYStIX studies including disc longevity, age gradients, and dynamical modelling.

  8. Wolf-Rayet Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Sander, Andreas; Todt, Helge

    Nearly 150 years ago, the French astronomers Charles Wolf and Georges Rayet described stars with very conspicuous spectra that are dominated by bright and broad emission lines. Meanwhile termed Wolf-Rayet Stars after their discoverers, those objects turned out to represent important stages in the life of massive stars. As the first conference in a long time that was specifically dedicated to Wolf-Rayet stars, an international workshop was held in Potsdam, Germany, from 1.-5. June 2015. About 100 participants, comprising most of the leading experts in the field as well as as many young scientists, gathered for one week of extensive scientific exchange and discussions. Considerable progress has been reported throughout, e.g. on finding such stars, modeling and analyzing their spectra, understanding their evolutionary context, and studying their circumstellar nebulae. While some major questions regarding Wolf-Rayet stars still remain open 150 years after their discovery, it is clear today that these objects are not just interesting stars as such, but also keystones in the evolution of galaxies. These proceedings summarize the talks and posters presented at the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet workshop. Moreover, they also include the questions, comments, and discussions emerging after each talk, thereby giving a rare overview not only about the research, but also about the current debates and unknowns in the field. The Scientific Organizing Committee (SOC) included Alceste Bonanos (Athens), Paul Crowther (Sheffield), John Eldridge (Auckland), Wolf-Rainer Hamann (Potsdam, Chair), John Hillier (Pittsburgh), Claus Leitherer (Baltimore), Philip Massey (Flagstaff), George Meynet (Geneva), Tony Moffat (Montreal), Nicole St-Louis (Montreal), and Dany Vanbeveren (Brussels).

  9. Star cluster formation in a turbulent molecular cloud self-regulated by photoionization feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavagnin, Elena; Bleuler, Andreas; Rosdahl, Joakim; Teyssier, Romain

    2017-12-01

    Most stars in the Galaxy are believed to be formed within star clusters from collapsing molecular clouds. However, the complete process of star formation, from the parent cloud to a gas-free star cluster, is still poorly understood. We perform radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the collapse of a turbulent molecular cloud using the RAMSES-RT code. Stars are modelled using sink particles, from which we self-consistently follow the propagation of the ionizing radiation. We study how different feedback models affect the gas expulsion from the cloud and how they shape the final properties of the emerging star cluster. We find that the star formation efficiency is lower for stronger feedback models. Feedback also changes the high-mass end of the stellar mass function. Stronger feedback also allows the establishment of a lower density star cluster, which can maintain a virial or sub-virial state. In the absence of feedback, the star formation efficiency is very high, as well as the final stellar density. As a result, high-energy close encounters make the cluster evaporate quickly. Other indicators, such as mass segregation, statistics of multiple systems and escaping stars confirm this picture. Observations of young star clusters are in best agreement with our strong feedback simulation.

  10. Visualization and spectral synthesis of rotationally distorted stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, T H; Sbordone, L

    2011-01-01

    Simple spherical, non-rotating stellar models are inadequate when describing real stars in the limit of very fast rotation: Both the observable spectrum and the geometrical shape of the star deviate strongly from simple models. We attempt to approach the problem of modeling geometrically distorted, rapidly rotating stars from a new angle: By constructing distorted geometrical models and integrating standard stellar models with varying temperature, gravity, and abundances, over the entire surface, we attempt a semi-empirical approach to modeling. Here we present our methodology, and present simple examples of applications.

  11. SOVCAN STAR: An international satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatchkov, Valery A.

    SOVCAN STAR is a Russian-Canadian cooperative venture company formed to manufacture, test, launch and operate a Ku-band satellite system. Drawing on the more than twenty years communications satellite experience of the founding companies, the SOVCAN STAR satellites are being designed to be competitive and cost effective. They will be equipped with 24 transponders and four steerable antennas. The design allows the operators to switch individual transponders between the various antenna coverage beams. These satellites will offer a high degree of operational flexibility and performance. The SOVCAN STAR strategy is to develop a network of satellites in parallel with the growth and evolution of the traffic requirements. Such an approach minimizes the technical, schedule and program risks while at the same time significantly reduces the financial exposure. The first SOVCAN STAR satellite will be commissioned in 1996 and operated at 14 deg W. The beams will be aligned to North America and Europe offering International service between Canada, the Eastern U.S.A., Europe, Russia and the Western C.I.S. Republics. The second SOVCAN STAR satellite will be commissioned a year later and operated at 145 deg E. This satellite will cover the Western Pacific Ocean, Eastern Asia and Australasia.

  12. Circulation of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  13. Parents' employment and children's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Carolyn J

    2014-01-01

    Since modern welfare reform began in the 1980s, we have seen low-income parents leave the welfare rolls and join the workforce in large numbers. At the same time, the Earned Income Tax Credit has offered a monetary incentive for low-income parents to work. Thus, unlike some of the other two-generation mechanisms discussed in this issue of Future of Children, policies that encourage low-income parents to work are both widespread and well-entrenched in the United States. But parents' (and especially mothers') work, writes Carolyn Heinrich, is not unambiguously beneficial for their children. On the one hand, working parents can be positive role models for their children, and, of course, the income they earn can improve their children's lives in many ways. On the other hand, work can impair the developing bond between parents and young children, especially when the parents work long hours or evening and night shifts. The stress that parents bring home from their jobs can detract from their parenting skills, undermine the atmosphere in the home, and thereby introduce stress into children's lives. Unfortunately, it is low-income parents who are most likely to work in stressful, low-quality jobs that feature low pay, little autonomy, inflexible hours, and few or no benefits. And low-income children whose parents are working are more likely to be placed in inadequate child care or to go unsupervised. Two-generation approaches, Heinrich writes, could maximize the benefits and minimize the detriments of parents' work by expanding workplace flexibility, and especially by mandating enough paid leave so that mothers can breastfeed and form close bonds with their infants; by helping parents place their children in high-quality child care; and by helping low-income parents train for, find, and keep a well-paying job with benefits.

  14. Parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress: a cross-illness comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Ryan, Jamie L; Fedele, David A; Rambo, Philip L; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2010-12-01

    The current study sought to investigate differences in parenting capacity variables across four disease groups. Parents (N = 425), the majority of whom were mothers, of children with either cancer, asthma, Type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis, completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress. After controlling for significant demographic variables, parents of children with cystic fibrosis and asthma reported higher perceived child vulnerability than parents of children with either diabetes or cancer, while parents of children with asthma and diabetes reported higher parenting stress than parents of children with cancer or cystic fibrosis. No differences between disease groups were found for parental overprotection. The current study provides support for an illness-specific approach to understanding parenting capacity variables in the context of childhood chronic illnesses.

  15. Can parental monitoring and peer management reduce the selection or influence of delinquent peers? Testing the question using a dynamic social network approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilton-Weaver, L.C.; Burk, W.J.; Kerr, M.; Stattin, H.

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether parents can reduce affiliation with delinquent peers through 3 forms of peer management: soliciting information, monitoring rules, and communicating disapproval of peers. We examined whether peer management interrupted 2 peer processes: selection and influence of delinquent peers.

  16. Authoritative Parenting, Parenting Stress, and Self-Care in Pre-Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting st...

  17. Parenting and Child Development in Adoptive Families: Does Parental Sexual Orientation Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Rachel H.; Forssell, Stephen L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2010-01-01

    This study, funded by Williams Institute, investigated child development and parenting in 106 families headed by 27 lesbian, 29 gay, and 50 heterosexual couples with young adopted children. Parents and teachers reported that, on average, children were developing in typical ways. Measures of children’s adjustment, parenting approaches, parenting stress, and couple relationship adjustment were not significantly associated with parental sexual orientation. However, several family process variabl...

  18. Four new Delta Scuti stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Four new Delta Scuti stars are reported. Power, modified into amplitude, spectra, and light curves are used to determine periodicities. A complete frequency analysis is not performed due to the lack of a sufficient time base in the data. These new variables help verify the many predictions that Delta Scuti stars probably exist in prolific numbers as small amplitude variables. Two of these stars, HR 4344 and HD 107513, are possibly Am stars. If so, they are among the minority of variable stars which are also Am stars.

  19. Testing specificity among parents' depressive symptoms, parenting, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Dynamics of H II regions around exiled O stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Langer, Norbert; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.

    2013-11-01

    At least 25 per cent of massive stars are ejected from their parent cluster, becoming runaways or exiles, travelling with often-supersonic space velocities through the interstellar medium (ISM). Their overpressurized H II regions impart kinetic energy and momentum to the ISM, compress and/or evaporate dense clouds, and can constrain properties of both the star and the ISM. Here, we present one-, two- and (the first) three-dimensional simulations of the H II region around a massive star moving supersonically through a uniform, magnetized ISM, with properties appropriate for the nearby O star ζ Oph. The H II region leaves an expanding overdense shell behind the star and, inside this, an underdense wake that should be filled with hot gas from the shocked stellar wind. The gas column density in the shell is strongly influenced by the ISM magnetic field strength and orientation. Hα emission maps show that H II region remains roughly circular, although the star is displaced somewhat from the centre of emission. For our model parameters, the kinetic energy feedback from the H II region is comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the stellar wind, and the momentum feedback rate is >100 times larger than that from the wind and ≈10 times larger than the total momentum input rate available from radiation pressure. Compared to the star's eventual supernova explosion, the kinetic energy feedback from the H II region over the star's main-sequence lifetime is >100 times less, but the momentum feedback is up to 4 times larger. H II region dynamics are found to have only a small effect on the ISM conditions that a bow shock close to the star would encounter.

  1. Parental Involvement In Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, E. Lamonte

    1976-01-01

    Play therapy acts as a medium of expression for children. The purpose of this article is to outline a methodological approach as well as to emphasize the necessity of including the parent in the play therapy situation. (Author)

  2. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  3. Dynamical Boson Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Liebling

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.

  4. GRACE star camera noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Nate

    2016-08-01

    Extending results from previous work by Bandikova et al. (2012) and Inacio et al. (2015), this paper analyzes Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) star camera attitude measurement noise by processing inter-camera quaternions from 2003 to 2015. We describe a correction to star camera data, which will eliminate a several-arcsec twice-per-rev error with daily modulation, currently visible in the auto-covariance function of the inter-camera quaternion, from future GRACE Level-1B product releases. We also present evidence supporting the argument that thermal conditions/settings affect long-term inter-camera attitude biases by at least tens-of-arcsecs, and that several-to-tens-of-arcsecs per-rev star camera errors depend largely on field-of-view.

  5. Molecules in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, T.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, research related to molecules in stars has rapidly expanded because of progress in related fields. For this reason, it is almost impossible to cover all the topics related to molecules in stars. Thus, here the authors focus their attention on molecules in the atmospheres of cool stars and do not cover in any detail topics related to circumstellar molecules originating from expanding envelopes located far from the stellar surface. However, the authors do discuss molecules in quasi-static circumstellar envelopes (a recently discovered new component of circumstellar envelopes) located near the stellar surface, since molecular lines originating from such envelopes show little velocity shift relative to photospheric lines, and hence they directly affect the interpretation and analysis of stellar spectra

  6. Instability and star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    The observational data are discussed which testify that the phenomena of dynamical instability of stars and stellar systems are definite manifestations of their evolution. The study of these phenomena has shown that the instability is a regular phase of stellar evolution. It has resulted in the recognition of the most important regularities of the process of star formation concerning its nature. This became possible due to the discovery in 1947 of stellar associations in our Galaxy. The results of the study of the dynamical instability of stellar associations contradict the predictions of classical hypothesis of stellar condensation. These data supplied a basis for a new hypothesis on the formation of stars and nebulae by the decay of superdense protostars [ru

  7. The twinkling of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakeman, E.; Parry, G.; Pike, E.R.; Pusey, P.N.

    1978-01-01

    This article collects together some of the main ideas and experimental results on the twinkling of stars. Statistical methods are used to characterise the features of the scintillation and to investigate the ways in which these depend on the zenith angle of the star, the bandwidth of the light and various other parameters. Some new results are included which demonstrate the advantages of using photon counting methods in experiments on stellar scintillation. Since the twinkling of stars is a consequence of the turbulence in the Earth's magnetic atmosphere then measurements can be used to deduce some features of the structure of the turbulence. Some of the experiments designed to do this are discussed and the results reported. (author)

  8. Weighing the Smallest Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    VLT Finds Young, Very Low Mass Objects Are Twice As Heavy As Predicted Summary Thanks to the powerful new high-contrast camera installed at the Very Large Telescope, photos have been obtained of a low-mass companion very close to a star. This has allowed astronomers to measure directly the mass of a young, very low mass object for the first time. The object, more than 100 times fainter than its host star, is still 93 times as massive as Jupiter. And it appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be. This discovery therefore suggests that, due to errors in the models, astronomers may have overestimated the number of young "brown dwarfs" and "free floating" extrasolar planets. PR Photo 03/05: Near-infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion (NACO SDI/VLT) A winning combination A star can be characterised by many parameters. But one is of uttermost importance: its mass. It is the mass of a star that will decide its fate. It is thus no surprise that astronomers are keen to obtain a precise measure of this parameter. This is however not an easy task, especially for the least massive ones, those at the border between stars and brown dwarf objects. Brown dwarfs, or "failed stars", are objects which are up to 75 times more massive than Jupiter, too small for major nuclear fusion processes to have ignited in its interior. To determine the mass of a star, astronomers generally look at the motion of stars in a binary system. And then apply the same method that allows determining the mass of the Earth, knowing the distance of the Moon and the time it takes for its satellite to complete one full orbit (the so-called "Kepler's Third Law"). In the same way, they have also measured the mass of the Sun by knowing the Earth-Sun distance and the time - one year - it takes our planet to make a tour around the Sun. The problem with low-mass objects is that they are very faint and will often be hidden in the glare of the brighter star they orbit, also when viewed

  9. General Relativity and Compact Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    2005-01-01

    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10 14 times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed

  10. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federrath, Christoph [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Schrön, Martin [Department of Computational Hydrosystems, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Banerjee, Robi [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: christoph.federrath@monash.edu [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ∼1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ∼1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ∼ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  11. Atmospheres of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummer, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents a brief summary of atmospheric models that are of possible relevance to the central stars of planetary nebulae, and then discusses the extent to which these models accord with the observations of both nebulae and central stars. Particular attention is given to the significance of the very high Zanstra temperature implied by the nebulae He II lambda 4686 A line, and to the discrepancy between the Zanstra He II temperature and the considerably lower temperatures suggested by the appearance of the visual spectrum for some of these objects. (Auth.)

  12. The Drifting Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its

  13. The star of Bethlehem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the cause and form of the star are still uncertain. The astrologically significant triple conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in the constellation of Pisces appears to be the most likely explanation, although the two comets of March 5 BC and April 4 BC cannot be dismissed, nor can the possibility that the 'star' was simply legendary. The conjunction occurred in 7 BC and there are indications that Jesus Christ was probably born in the Autumn of that year, around October 7 BC. (U.K.)

  14. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  15. Chaplygin dark star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.

    2005-01-01

    We study the general properties of a spherically symmetric body described through the generalized Chaplygin equation of state. We conclude that such an object, dubbed generalized Chaplygin dark star, should exist within the context of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model of unification of dark energy and dark matter, and derive expressions for its size and expansion velocity. A criteria for the survival of the perturbations in the GCG background that give origin to the dark star are developed, and its main features are analyzed

  16. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  17. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of...

  20. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  2. Photometry of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Hill, P.W.; Brown, A.

    1977-01-01

    Photometry on the uvby system is given for 61 faint blue stars. The stars are classified by means of the Stromgren indices, using criteria described in a previous paper (Kilkenny and Hill (1975)). (author)

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Griddles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles that are effective as of May...

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Smart Thermostats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Connected Thermostats that are effective as of...

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Roof Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Roof Products that are effective as of July 1,...

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Coolers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Coolers that are effective as of February...

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Fryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers that are effective as of...

  15. Lithium in the barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M.H.; Sneden, C.

    1984-01-01

    New high-resolution spectra of the lithium resonance doublet have provided lithium abundances or upper limits for 26 classical and mild barium stars. The lithium lines always are present in the classical barium stars. Lithium abundances in these stars obey a trend with stellar masses consistent with that previously derived for ordinary K giants. This supports the notion that classical barium stars are post-core-He-flash or core-He-burning stars. Lithium contents in the mild barium stars, however, often are much smaller than those of the classical barium stars sometimes only upper limits may be determined. The cause for this difference is not easily understood, but may be related to more extensive mass loss by the mild barium stars. 45 references

  16. Which of Kepler's Stars Flare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    The habitability of distant exoplanets is dependent upon many factors one of which is the activity of their host stars. To learn about which stars are most likely to flare, a recent study examines tens of thousands of stellar flares observed by Kepler.Need for a Broader SampleArtists rendering of a flaring dwarf star. [NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center/S. Wiessinger]Most of our understanding of what causes a star to flare is based on observations of the only star near enough to examine in detail the Sun. But in learning from a sample size of one, a challenge arises: we must determine which conclusions are unique to the Sun (or Sun-like stars), and which apply to other stellar types as well.Based on observations and modeling, astronomers think that stellar flares result from the reconnection of magnetic field lines in a stars outer atmosphere, the corona. The magnetic activity is thought to be driven by a dynamo caused by motions in the stars convective zone.HR diagram of the Kepler stars, with flaring main-sequence (yellow), giant (red) and A-star (green) stars in the authors sample indicated. [Van Doorsselaere et al. 2017]To test whether these ideas are true generally, we need to understand what types of stars exhibit flares, and what stellar properties correlate with flaring activity. A team of scientists led by Tom Van Doorsselaere (KU Leuven, Belgium) has now used an enormous sample of flares observed by Kepler to explore these statistics.Intriguing TrendsVan Doorsselaere and collaborators used a new automated flare detection and characterization algorithm to search through the raw light curves from Quarter 15 of the Kepler mission, building a sample of 16,850 flares on 6,662 stars. They then used these to study the dependence of the flare occurrence rate, duration, energy, and amplitude on the stellar spectral type and rotation period.This large statistical study led the authors to several interesting conclusions, including:Flare star incidence rate as a a

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Refrigerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  19. Unveiling hidden properties of young star clusters: differential reddening, star-formation spread, and binary fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, C.; Lima, E. F.; Bica, E.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Usually, important parameters of young, low-mass star clusters are very difficult to obtain by means of photometry, especially when differential reddening and/or binaries occur in large amounts. Aims: We present a semi-analytical approach (ASAmin) that, when applied to the Hess diagram of a young star cluster, is able to retrieve the values of mass, age, star-formation spread, distance modulus, foreground and differential reddening, and binary fraction. Methods: The global optimisation method known as adaptive simulated annealing (ASA) is used to minimise the residuals between the observed and simulated Hess diagrams of a star cluster. The simulations are realistic and take the most relevant parameters of young clusters into account. Important features of the simulations are a normal (Gaussian) differential reddening distribution, a time-decreasing star-formation rate, the unresolved binaries, and the smearing effect produced by photometric uncertainties on Hess diagrams. Free parameters are cluster mass, age, distance modulus, star-formation spread, foreground and differential reddening, and binary fraction. Results: Tests with model clusters built with parameters spanning a broad range of values show that ASAmin retrieves the input values with a high precision for cluster mass, distance modulus, and foreground reddening, but they are somewhat lower for the remaining parameters. Given the statistical nature of the simulations, several runs should be performed to obtain significant convergence patterns. Specifically, we find that the retrieved (absolute minimum) parameters converge to mean values with a low dispersion as the Hess residuals decrease. When applied to actual young clusters, the retrieved parameters follow convergence patterns similar to the models. We show how the stochasticity associated with the early phases may affect the results, especially in low-mass clusters. This effect can be minimised by averaging out several twin clusters in the

  20. Distances of Dwarf Carbon Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Subasavage, John P.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Canzian, Blaise J.; Levine, Stephen E.; Monet, Alice B.; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Stone, Ronald C.; Tilleman, Trudy M.; Hartkopf, William I.

    2018-06-01

    Parallaxes are presented for a sample of 20 nearby dwarf carbon stars. The inferred luminosities cover almost two orders of magnitude. Their absolute magnitudes and tangential velocities confirm prior expectations that some originate in the Galactic disk, although more than half of this sample are halo stars. Three stars are found to be astrometric binaries, and orbital elements are determined; their semimajor axes are 1–3 au, consistent with the size of an AGB mass-transfer donor star.

  1. New stars for old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henbest, N.

    1980-01-01

    Observations of novas made through the ages, the identity of the close double stars which make up these cataclysmic variables and the physics of nova explosions, are discussed. A picture is outlined which explains novas, dwarf novas and recurrent novas and provides a basis for interpreting the latest so called x-ray novas. (U.K.)

  2. Hadrons in compact stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At normal nuclear matter density, neutron star matter mainly consists of neutrons, protons and electrons. The particle population is so arranged as to attain a min- imum energy configuration maintaining electrical charge neutrality and chemical equilibrium. At higher baryon density, hyperon formation becomes energetically.

  3. Millet's Shooting Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, M.

    1988-12-01

    In this essay two paintings by the French artist Jean-Francois Millet are described. These paintings, Les Etoiles Filantes and Nuit Etoilée are particularly interesting since they demonstrate the rare artistic employment of the shooting-star image and metaphor.

  4. Asteroseismology of Scuti Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We briefly outline the state-of-the-art seismology of Scuti stars from a theoretical point of view: why is it so difficult a task? The recent theoretical advances in the field that these difficulties have influenced are also discussed.

  5. The STAR trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.S.; Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Greiner, L.C.; Judd, E.G.; Klein, S.R.; Meissner, F.; Minor, R.; Milosevich, Z.; Mutchler, G.; Nelson, J.M.; Schambach, J.; VanderMolen, A.S.; Ward, H.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the trigger system that we designed and implemented for the STAR detector at RHIC. This is a 10 MHz pipelined system based on fast detector output that controls the event selection for the much slower tracking detectors. Results from the first run are presented and new detectors for the 2001 run are discussed

  6. Sleeping under the stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Jack

    Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson went on a camping trip. As they lay down for the night, Holmes said, “Watson, look up at the sky and tell me what you see.”Watson:“! see millions and millions of stars.”

  7. Insight into star death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talcott, R.

    1988-01-01

    Nineteen neutrinos, formed in the center of a supernova, became a theorist's dream. They came straight from the heart of supernova 1987A and landed in two big underground tanks of water. Suddenly a new chapter in observational astronomy opened as these two neutrino telescopes gave astronomers their first look ever into the core of a supernova explosion. But the theorists' dream almost turned into a nightmare. Observations of the presupernova star showed conclusively that the star was a blue supergiant, but theorists have long believed only red supergiant stars could explode as supernovae. Do astronomers understand supernovae better now than when supernova 1987A exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) one year ago? Yes. The observations of neutrinos spectacularly confirmed a vital aspect of supernova theory. But the observed differences between 1987A and other supernovae have illuminated and advanced our perception of how supernovae form. By working together, observers and theorists are continuing to hone their ideas about how massive stars die and how the subsequent supernovae behave

  8. THE STAR OFFLINE FRAMEWORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FINE, V.; FISYAK, Y.; PEREVOZTCHIKOV, V.; WENAUS, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) is a-large acceptance collider detector, commissioned at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1999. STAR has developed a software framework supporting simulation, reconstruction and analysis in offline production, interactive physics analysis and online monitoring environments that is well matched both to STAR's present status of transition between Fortran and C++ based software and to STAR's evolution to a fully OO software base. This paper presents the results of two years effort developing a modular C++ framework based on the ROOT package that encompasses both wrapped Fortran components (legacy simulation and reconstruction code) served by IDL-defined data structures, and fully OO components (all physics analysis code) served by a recently developed object model for event data. The framework supports chained components, which can themselves be composite subchains, with components (''makers'') managing ''data sets'' they have created and are responsible for. An St-DataSet class from which data sets and makers inherit allows the construction of hierarchical organizations of components and data, and centralizes almost all system tasks such as data set navigation, I/O, database access, and inter-component communication. This paper will present an overview of this system, now deployed and well exercised in production environments with real and simulated data, and in an active physics analysis development program

  9. Triggered star formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Ehlerová, Soňa

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2002), s. 35-36 ISSN 1405-2059 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003705; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : interstellar medium * star formation * HI shells Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  10. Highlights from STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweda, Kai

    2004-01-01

    Selected results from the STAR collaboration are presented. We focus on recent results on jet-like correlations, nuclear modification factors of identified hadrons, elliptic flow of multi-strange baryons Ξ and Ω, and resonance yields. First measurements of open charm production at RHIC are presented

  11. Supernovae from massive AGB stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, A.J.T.; Izzard, R.G.; Herwig, F.; Langer, N.; Heger, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present new computations of the final fate of massive AGB-stars. These stars form ONeMg cores after a phase of carbon burning and are called Super AGB stars (SAGB). Detailed stellar evolutionary models until the thermally pulsing AGB were computed using three di erent stellar evolution codes. The

  12. Do All O Stars Form in Star Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, C.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    The question whether or not massive stars can form in isolation or only in star clusters is of great importance for the theory of (massive) star formation as well as for the stellar initial mass function of whole galaxies (IGIMF-theory). While a seemingly easy question it is rather difficult to answer. Several physical processes (e.g. star-loss due to stellar dynamics or gas expulsion) and observational limitations (e.g. dust obscuration of young clusters, resolution) pose severe challenges to answer this question. In this contribution we will present the current arguments in favour and against the idea that all O stars form in clusters.

  13. The great escape - II. Exoplanet ejection from dying multiple-star systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri; Tout, Christopher A.

    2012-05-01

    Extrasolar planets and belts of debris orbiting post-main-sequence single stars may become unbound as the evolving star loses mass. In multiple-star systems, the presence or co-evolution of the additional stars can significantly complicate the prospects for orbital excitation and escape. Here, we investigate the dynamical consequences of multi-phasic, non-linear mass loss and establish a criterion for a system of any stellar multiplicity to retain a planet whose orbit surrounds all of the parent stars. For single stars which become white dwarfs, this criterion can be combined with the Chandrasekhar Limit to establish the maximum allowable mass-loss rate for planet retention. We then apply the criterion to circumbinary planets in evolving binary systems over the entire stellar mass phase space. Through about 105 stellar evolutionary track realizations, we characterize planetary ejection prospects as a function of binary separation, stellar mass and metallicity. This investigation reveals that planets residing at just a few tens of au from a central concentration of stars are susceptible to escape in a wide variety of multiple systems. Further, planets are significantly more susceptible to ejection from multiple-star systems than from single-star systems for a given system mass. For system masses greater than about 2 M⊙, multiple-star systems represent the greater source of free-floating planets.

  14. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  15. Kinematic and spatial distributions of barium stars - are the barium stars and Am stars related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, J.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of an evolutionary link between Am stars and barium stars is considered, and an examination of previous data suggests that barium star precursors are main-sequence stars of intermediate mass, are most likely A and/or F dwarfs, and are intermediate-mass binaries with close to intermediate orbital separations. The possible role of mass transfer in the later development of Am systems is explored. Mass transfer and loss from systems with a range of masses and orbital separations may explain such statistical peculiarities of barium stars as the large dispersion in absolute magnitude, the large range of elemental abundances from star to star, and the small number of stars with large peculiar velocities. 93 refs

  16. ['NischE - Nicht von schlechten Eltern' - Evaluation of a Multidisciplinary Teamwork Approach to Support Children in Families with Mentally Ill Parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber, A; Wieskus-Friedemann, E; Kliem, S; Hoppmann, J; Kemper, U; Löhr, M; Kronmüller, K-T; Wabnitz, P

    2017-02-01

    Objective: Evaluation of a project offering low-threshold anonymous counseling services jointly by mental health services and child and youth services to support children in families with mentally ill parents Methods: Evaluating performance data and completed questionnaires returned by parents included in the project. Results: Between 2011-2014, 150 families received up to 10 sessions of family-oriented counseling. The survey results indicate a high level of satisfaction with the services of the cooperation project. The vast majority of respondents said that they would recommend this service to others or would themselves take advantage of the services again. Conclusion: A collaboration of service providers from psychiatry and child and youth welfare department resulting in continuous availability of counseling with a common family medical perspective represents a forward-looking model for families with a mentally ill parent. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Relaxation near Supermassive Black Holes Driven by Nuclear Spiral Arms: Anisotropic Hypervelocity Stars, S-stars, and Tidal Disruption Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, Adrian S. [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: hamers@ias.edu [Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2017-09-10

    Nuclear spiral arms are small-scale transient spiral structures found in the centers of galaxies. Similarly to their galactic-scale counterparts, nuclear spiral arms can perturb the orbits of stars. In the case of the Galactic center (GC), these perturbations can affect the orbits of stars and binaries in a region extending to several hundred parsecs around the supermassive black hole (SMBH), causing diffusion in orbital energy and angular momentum. This diffusion process can drive stars and binaries to close approaches with the SMBH, disrupting single stars in tidal disruption events (TDEs), or disrupting binaries, leaving a star tightly bound to the SMBH and an unbound star escaping the galaxy, i.e., a hypervelocity star (HVS). Here, we consider diffusion by nuclear spiral arms in galactic nuclei, specifically the Milky Way GC. We determine nuclear-spiral-arm-driven diffusion rates using test-particle integrations and compute disruption rates. Our TDE rates are up to 20% higher compared to relaxation by single stars. For binaries, the enhancement is up to a factor of ∼100, and our rates are comparable to the observed numbers of HVSs and S-stars. Our scenario is complementary to relaxation driven by massive perturbers. In addition, our rates depend on the inclination of the binary with respect to the Galactic plane. Therefore, our scenario provides a novel potential source for the observed anisotropic distribution of HVSs. Nuclear spiral arms may also be important for accelerating the coalescence of binary SMBHs and for supplying nuclear star clusters with stars and gas.

  18. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  19. The experience of parents implementing authoritarian parenting for their school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga Olla, Marice; Catharina Daulima, Novy Helena; Eka Putri, Yossie Susanti

    2018-02-01

    To explore families' experiences who use an authoritarian parenting style in caring for school-age children. This was a qualitative study employing a phenomenological approach. The sampling method was to interview parents of school-age children living in the Central Maluku district in Indonesia. The findings of this study generated the following themes: (1) parents strictly controlled their children to achieve the parental values and expectations, (2) children failed to meet the parental values and expectations, and (3) problems experienced by the children were the results of the parenting style. This study suggested nursing professionals provide adequate information for parents with respect to parenting styles that may facilitate the optimal growth and development of the children. Future studies pertinent to cultural factors associated with authoritarian parenting were also suggested to better understand the cultural context of this parenting style. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Star identification methods, techniques and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the research advances in star identification that the author’s team has made over the past 10 years, systematically introducing the principles of star identification, general methods, key techniques and practicable algorithms. It also offers examples of hardware implementation and performance evaluation for the star identification algorithms. Star identification is the key step for celestial navigation and greatly improves the performance of star sensors, and as such the book include the fundamentals of star sensors and celestial navigation, the processing of the star catalog and star images, star identification using modified triangle algorithms, star identification using star patterns and using neural networks, rapid star tracking using star matching between adjacent frames, as well as implementation hardware and using performance tests for star identification. It is not only valuable as a reference book for star sensor designers and researchers working in pattern recognition and othe...

  1. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  2. What Determines Star Formation Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neal John

    2017-06-01

    The relations between star formation and gas have received renewed attention. We combine studies on scales ranging from local (within 0.5 kpc) to distant galaxies to assess what factors contribute to star formation. These include studies of star forming regions in the Milky Way, the LMC, nearby galaxies with spatially resolved star formation, and integrated galaxy studies. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of star formation rate. The star formation ``efficiency," defined as star formation rate divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers to molecular gas; the standard deviation of the log of the efficiency decreases by a factor of three when the mass of relatively dense molecular gas is used rather than the mass of all the molecular gas. We suggest ways to further develop the concept of "dense gas" to incorporate other factors, such as turbulence.

  3. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionizes the nebula, producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  4. Mass loss from S stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.

    1988-01-01

    The mass-loss process in S stars is studied using 65 S stars from the listing of Wing and Yorka (1977). The role of pulsations in the mass-loss process is examined. It is detected that stars with larger mass-loss rates have a greater amplitude of pulsations. The dust-to-gas ratio for the S stars is estimated as 0.002 and the average mass-loss rate is about 6 x 10 to the -8th solar masses/yr. Some of the properties of the S stars, such as scale height, surface density, and lifetime, are measured. It is determined that scale height is 200 pc; the total duration of the S star phase is greater than or equal to 30,000 yr; and the stars inject 3 x 10 to the -6th solar masses/sq kpc yr into the interstellar medium. 46 references

  5. OUTCOMES AND DURATION OF TIDAL EVOLUTION IN A STAR-PLANET-MOON SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Barnes, Jason W.; O'Brien, David P.

    2012-01-01

    We formulated tidal decay lifetimes for hypothetical moons orbiting extrasolar planets with both lunar and stellar tides. Previous works neglected the effect of lunar tides on planet rotation, and are therefore applicable only to systems in which the moon's mass is much less than that of the planet. This work, in contrast, can be applied to the relatively large moons that might be detected around newly discovered Neptune-mass and super-Earth planets. We conclude that moons are more stable when the planet/moon systems are further from the parent star, the planets are heavier, or the parent stars are lighter. Inclusion of lunar tides allows for significantly longer lifetimes for a massive moon relative to prior formulations. We expect that the semimajor axis of the planet hosting the first detected exomoon around a G-type star is 0.4-0.6 AU and is 0.2-0.4 AU for an M-type star.

  6. Can Parental Monitoring and Peer Management Reduce the Selection or Influence of Delinquent Peers? Testing the Question Using a Dynamic Social Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree C.; Burk, William J.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether parents can reduce affiliation with delinquent peers through 3 forms of peer management: soliciting information, monitoring rules, and communicating disapproval of peers. We examined whether peer management interrupted 2 peer processes: selection and influence of delinquent peers. Adolescents' feelings of being overcontrolled by…

  7. Active Star Architectures For Fiber Optics Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Yoseph L.

    1988-12-01

    Ethernet, and the closely related IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD standard (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection), is probably the widest used method for high speed Local Area Networks (LANs). The original Ethernet medium was baseband coax but the wide acceptance of the system necessitated the ability to use Ethernet on a variety of media. So far the use of Ethernet on Thin Coax (CheaperNet), Twisted Pair (StarLan) and Broadband Coax has been standardized. Recently, an increased interest in Fiber Optic based LANs resulted in a formation of an IEEE group whose charter is to recommend approaches for Active and Passive Fiber Optic Ethernet systems. The various approaches which are being considered are described in this paper with an emphasis on Active Star based systems.

  8. A dynamical description of neutron star crusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, V de la; S, F; Eudes, Ph

    2013-01-01

    Neutron Stars are natural laboratories where fundamental properties of matter under extreme conditions can be explored. Modern nuclear physics input as well as many-body theories are valuable tools which may allow us to improve our understanding of the physics of those compact objects. In this work the occurrence of exotic structures in the outermost layers of neutron stars is investigated within the framework of a microscopic model. In this approach the nucleonic dynamics is described by a time-dependent mean field approach at around zero temperature. Starting from an initial crystalline lattice of nuclei at subnuclear densities the system evolves toward a manifold of self-organized structures with different shapes and similar energies. These structures are studied in terms of a phase diagram in density and the corresponding sensitivity to the isospin-dependent part of the equation of state and to the isotopic composition is investigated.

  9. A Step Forward in the Conceptualization and Measurement of Parental Burnout: The Parental Burnout Assessment (PBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Brianda, Maria-Elena; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2018-01-01

    So far, the conceptualization and measurement of parental burnout have been deduced from those of job burnout. As a result, it is unclear whether current measures of parental burnout constitute the best representation of the parental burnout construct/syndrome: the possibility cannot be excluded that some dimensions ought to be added, which would change the structure and definition of parental burnout. In this study, the conceptualization and measurement of parental burnout were approached using an inductive method, in which the parental burnout phenomenon was (re)constructed based solely on the testimonies of burned-out parents. Items extracted from their testimonies were presented to a sample of French-speaking and English-speaking parents ( N = 901) and submitted to factor analyses. An identifiable parental burnout syndrome including four dimensions was found (exhaustion in one's parental role, contrast with previous parental self, feelings of being fed up with one's parental role and emotional distancing from one's children). The resulting instrument, the Parental Burnout Assessment (PBA) presents good validity. Factorial invariance across gender and languages was also found. Finally, the results of this study replicate previous findings that psychological traits of the parents, parenting factors, and family functioning account for more variance in parental burnout than sociodemographic factors.

  10. [The role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and psychological distress among sexual-minority youths (SMY): a moderated mediation approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine

    Introduction Sexual-minority youths (SMY) report high rates of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, Sucato et Friedman, 2013; Williams & Chapman, 2011). Several studies confirm that the poor mental health outcomes are partly related to their high likelihood of experiencing homophobic victimization (Blais, Gervais, Boucher, Hébert & Lavoie, 2013; Taylor & Peter, 2011; Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West & Boyd, 2010; Chamberland, Richard & Bernier, 2013). Whereas the development of a positive sexual minority identity is crucial for the mental health of SMY (Chamberland, Richard & Chevrier, 2011; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011; Luhtanen, 2002), the victimization they experience put them at risk of internalizing societal homophobia and heterosexism (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, 2009). It is important to identify variables that may influence the impact of distal and proximal factors that impact SMY's mental health.Objectives The objectives of this paper are 1) to document different forms of homophobic victimization experienced by SMY, according to gender and age, and 2) to test the potential moderating effect of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization, internalized homophobia and psychological distress.Method Data come from 228 SMY aged 14 to 22 years old recruited through online means as part of the Quebec Youth's Romantic Relationships Survey. The impact of homophobic victimization, parental support, and internalized homophobia on psychological distress is explored by a linear regression model including moderated mediation effects.Results Results show the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress as well as indirect significant relationship through internalized homophobia. The moderated mediation analysis also confirms the moderating role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress. Thus

  11. Parental Power and Adolescents' Parental Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acock, Alan C.; Yang, Wen Shan

    1984-01-01

    Combines McDonald's social power of parental identification with sex-linked models of parental identification to account for the identification of daughters (N=199) and sons (N=147) with their parents. Found that because of a halo effect, a gain in identification with one parent is not at the other parent's expense. (JAC)

  12. Neutron Star Science with the NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), launched in June 2012, helped scientists obtain for the first time a sensitive high-­energy X-­ray map of the sky with extraordinary resolution. This pioneering telescope has aided in the understanding of how stars explode and neutron stars are born. LLNL is a founding member of the NuSTAR project, with key personnel on its optics and science team. We used NuSTAR to observe and analyze the observations of different neutron star classes identified in the last decade that are still poorly understood. These studies not only help to comprehend newly discovered astrophysical phenomena and emission processes for members of the neutron star family, but also expand the utility of such observations for addressing broader questions in astrophysics and other physics disciplines. For example, neutron stars provide an excellent laboratory to study exotic and extreme phenomena, such as the equation of state of the densest matter known, the behavior of matter in extreme magnetic fields, and the effects of general relativity. At the same time, knowing their accurate populations has profound implications for understanding the life cycle of massive stars, star collapse, and overall galactic evolution.

  13. Parents as the start of the solution: a social marketing approach to understanding triggers and barriers to entering a childhood weight management service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, J; Midmore, C; Hoeflich, J; Ness, C; Ballard, P; Stewart, L

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a sensitive subject and barriers exist with respect to accessing weight management programmes. Social marketing insight gathering provides an opportunity to understand behaviours and address these challenges. This project gained insight into the views of parents/carers on triggers and barriers to entering a childhood weight management service. Participants were identified from the public using marketing recruitment. Four focus groups were conducted with parents of school aged children (n = 27) by an experienced interviewer. Twenty two mothers, three fathers and two grandmothers participated, with half describing their child as overweight. Groups discussed health behaviours; attitudes to health messages and weight issues; and motivations, benefits and barriers with respect to accessing weight management services. Discussions were taped and transcribed. Themes were identified using framework analysis of content matrix data analysis. Participants were aware of healthy lifestyle messages, although the ability to implement these was variable. Triggers to seeking help included bullying, health concerns and inability to participate in school activities. Barriers included feeling a lack of control, desire to avoid conflict and no proven case that weight was a problem. Parents wished to be given information regarding their child's weight by a trusted person. The Internet and word of mouth were identified as methods of recruitment into a weight management service, with a focus on fitness, fun and friendliness and being free-of-charge. Insight gathering can be used to establish parental/carer opinion regarding engaging in childhood weight management services. A fun, friendly programme that is free of charge appealed to parents. Local community involvement around normalising child weight issues may boost referrals into child healthy weight interventions. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Observations of CO and OI in stars in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallerstein, G.; Pilachowski, C.

    1978-01-01

    Since studies at classification dispersion and early analyses of high dispersion spectra have yielded little quantitative data on the abundances of C, N, and O in globular clusters the authors have been endeavoring to establish their abundances in stars in several clusters. The problem has been approached in two ways, by observing the 2.3 micron CO bands and the 6300 A [OI] line in individual stars in globular clusters. (Auth.)

  15. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old. The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within

  16. Alchemy of stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parashar, D [A.R.S.D. Coll., New Delhi (India); Bhatia, V B [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1976-05-01

    Developments in studies on stellar evolution during this century are reviewed. Recent considerations indicate that almost all elements between helium and zinc (a range which comprises more than 99 percent by mass of elements heavier than helium) can be synthesised in nuclear processes occurring during the late violent stages of an exploding star or supernova and a vigorous study in the new field of explosive nucleosynthesis is in progress. The process of nucleosynthesis has been classified into 8 sets of nuclear reactions, namely, (1) hydrogen burning, (2) helium burning, (3) ..cap alpha..-process, (4) e-process, (5) s-process, (6) r-process, (7) p-process and (8) x-process. The abundance of helium and heavier elements are explained and the formation of various elements during supernova explosions is discussed. The questions regarding the appropriate astrophysical conditions for the formation of massive stars (3 to 8 times solar mass) is still unanswered.

  17. Very low mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, J.; Probst, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses several theoretical and observational topics involved in discovering and analyzing very low mass stellar objects below about 0.3 M circle, as well as their likely extension into the substellar range. The authors hereafter refer to these two classes of objects as VLM stars and brown dwarfs, respectively; collectively, they are called VLM objects. The authors outline recent theoretical work on low-mass stellar interiors and atmospheres, the determination of the hydrogen-burning mass limit, important dynamical evidence bearing on the expected numbers of such objects, and the expectations for such objects from star-formation theory. They focus on the properties of substellar objects near the stellar mass limit. Observational techniques used to discover and analyze VLM objects are summarized

  18. Pulsating stars harbouring planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Why bother with asteroseismology while studying exoplanets? There are several answers to this question. Asteroseismology and exoplanetary sciences have much in common and the synergy between the two opens up new aspects in both fields. These fields and stellar activity, when taken together, allow maximum extraction of information from exoplanet space missions. Asteroseismology of the host star has already proved its value in a number of exoplanet systems by its unprecedented precision in determining stellar parameters. In addition, asteroseismology allows the possibility of discovering new exoplanets through time delay studies. The study of the interaction between exoplanets and their host stars opens new windows on various physical processes. In this review I will summarize past and current research in exoplanet asteroseismology and explore some guidelines for the future.

  19. Shells around stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olnon, F.M.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis deals with optically visible stars surrounded by gas and dust and hot enough to ionize the hydrogen atoms in their envelopes. The ionized gas emits radio continuum radiation by the thermal Bremsstrahlung mechanism. Cool giant stars that show radio line emission from molecules in their circumstellar envelopes are discussed. Under favourable conditions the so-called maser effect gives rise to very intense emission lines. Up till now seven different maser transitions have been found in the envelopes of cool giants. Four of these lines from OH, H 2 O and SiO are studied here. Each of them originates in a different layer so that these lines can be used to probe the envelope. The profile of a maser line gives information about the velocity structure of the region where it is formed

  20. Structure of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, C.K.

    1974-01-01

    Structure of neutron stars consisting of a cold and catalyzed superdense matter were investigated by integrating the equations for hydrostatic equilibrium based on the General Relativity theory. The equations of state were obtained with the help of semiempirical nuclear mass formulae. A large phase transition was found between the nuclear and subnuclear density regions. The density phase transition points were calculated as 6.2 x 10 11 and 3.8 x 10 13 g/cm 3 . Due to such a large phase transition, the equation of state practically consists of two parts: The nuclear and subnuclear phases wich are in contact under the thermodynamical equilibrium at the corresponding pressure. Some macroscopic properties of neutron stars are discussed. (Author) [pt

  1. Universal size properties of a star-ring polymer structure in disordered environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydukivska, K.; Blavatska, V.

    2018-03-01

    We consider the complex polymer system, consisting of a ring polymer connected to the f1-branched starlike structure, in a good solvent in the presence of structural inhomogeneities. In particular cases f1=1 and f1=2 , such a system restores the synthesized tadpole-shaped polystyrenes [Doi et al., Macromolecules 46, 1075 (2013), 10.1021/ma302511j]. We assume that structural defects are correlated at large distances x according to a power law x-a. Applying the direct polymer renormalization approach, we evaluate the universal size characteristics such as the ratio of the radii of gyration of star-ring and star topologies, and compare the effective sizes of single arms in complex structures and isolated polymers of the same total molecular weight. The nontrivial impact of disorder on these quantities is analyzed.

  2. Spacecraft angular velocity estimation algorithm for star tracker based on optical flow techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yujie; Li, Jian; Wang, Gangyi

    2018-02-01

    An integrated navigation system often uses the traditional gyro and star tracker for high precision navigation with the shortcomings of large volume, heavy weight and high-cost. With the development of autonomous navigation for deep space and small spacecraft, star tracker has been gradually used for attitude calculation and angular velocity measurement directly. At the same time, with the dynamic imaging requirements of remote sensing satellites and other imaging satellites, how to measure the angular velocity in the dynamic situation to improve the accuracy of the star tracker is the hotspot of future research. We propose the approach to measure angular rate with a nongyro and improve the dynamic performance of the star tracker. First, the star extraction algorithm based on morphology is used to extract the star region, and the stars in the two images are matched according to the method of angular distance voting. The calculation of the displacement of the star image is measured by the improved optical flow method. Finally, the triaxial angular velocity of the star tracker is calculated by the star vector using the least squares method. The method has the advantages of fast matching speed, strong antinoise ability, and good dynamic performance. The triaxial angular velocity of star tracker can be obtained accurately with these methods. So, the star tracker can achieve better tracking performance and dynamic attitude positioning accuracy to lay a good foundation for the wide application of various satellites and complex space missions.

  3. Parenting Skillls in two Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    In modern welfare states it is becoming more and more common to work with parents in different set-tings with different goals and means (Miller, Skov & Larsen 2013) to improve their skills as parents. How do professionels work with parenting skills? What are their thoughts about methods...... are inspired by the American Early Intervention-tradition (Vik 2014, p.2). The programs are characterized by behavioristic theory, where the underlying assumption is that parents will develop better parenting skills if they just follow a program with very detailed and prefabricated manuals. To do that......, they need support from professionals to stick to the program and encourage the work. The empirical studies are investigating how an approach inspired by principles from ICDP in two different settings meets the challenges in practice? This program is not evident based in the same way as the others mentioned...

  4. What stars become supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    A variety of empirical lines of evidence is assembled on the masses and stellar population types of stars that trigger supernova (SN) explosions. The main theoretical motivations are to determine whether type I supernovae (SN I) can have massive precursors, and whether there is an interval of stellar mass, between the masses of precursors of pulsars and white dwarfs, that is disrupted by carbon detonation. Statistical and other uncertainties in the empirical arguments are given particular attention, and are found to be more important than generally realized. Relatively secure conclusions include the following. Statistics of stellar birthrates, SN, pulsars, and SN remnants in the Galaxy show that SN II (or all SN) could arise from stars with masses greater than M/sub s/ where M/sub s/ approximately 49 to 12 M solar mass; the precursor mass range cannot be more closely defined from present data; nor can it be said whether all SN leave pulsars and/or extended radio remnants. Several methods of estimating the masses of stars that become white dwarfs are consistent with a lower limit, M/sub s/ greater than or equal to 5 M solar mass, so carbon detonation may indeed be avoided, although this conclusion is not secure. Studies of the properties of galaxies in which SN occur, and their distributions within galaxies, support the usual views that SN I have low-mass precursors (less than or equal to 5 M solar mass and typically less than or equal to 1 M solar mass) and SN II have massive precursors (greater than or equal to 5 M solar mass); the restriction of known SN II to Sc and Sb galaxies, to date, is shown to be consistent, statistically, with massive stars in other galaxies also dying as SN II. Possible implications of the peculiarities of some SN-producing galaxies are discussed. Suggestions are made for observational and theoretical studies that would help answer important remaining questions on the nature of SN precursors

  5. Detector limitations, STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, D. G.

    1998-07-13

    Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

  6. Evolution of massive stars in very young clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stothers, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The stellar content of very young galactic clusters and associations with well-determined ages has been analyzed statistically to derive information about stellar evolution at high masses. The adopted approach is semiempirical and uses natural spectroscopic groups of stars on the H-R diagram, together with the stars' apparent magnitudes. Cluster distance moduli are not used. Only the most basic elements of stellar evolution theory are required as input. For stellar aggregates with main-sequence turnups at spectral types between O9 and B2, the following conclusions have emerged: (1) O-type main-sequence stars evolve to a spectral type of B1 during core hydrogen burning; (2) most of the O-type blue stragglers are newly formed massive stars, burning core hydrogen; (3) supergiants lying redward of the turnup, as well as most, or all, of the Wolf-Rayet stars, are burning core helium; (4) Wolf-Rayet stars originally had masses greater than 30--40 M/sub sun/, while known M-type supergiants evolved from star less massive than approx.30 M/sub sun/; (5) phases of evolution following core helium burning are unobservably rapid, presumably on account of copious neutrino emission; and (6) formation of stars of high mass continues vigorously in most young clusters and association for approx.8 x 10 6 yr. The important result concerning the evolutionary status of the supergiants depends only on the total number of these stars and not on how they are distributed between blue and red types; the result, however, may be sensitive to the assumed amount of convective core overshooting. Conclusions in the present work refer chiefly to luminous stars in the mass range 10--40 M/sub sun/, belonging to aggregates in the age range (6--25) x 10 6 yr

  7. On the Maximum Mass of Accreting Primordial Supermassive Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T. E.; Heger, Alexander [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Whalen, Daniel J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Haemmerlé, Lionel; Klessen, Ralf S. [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische. Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-06-10

    Supermassive primordial stars are suspected to be the progenitors of the most massive quasars at z ∼ 6. Previous studies of such stars were either unable to resolve hydrodynamical timescales or considered stars in isolation, not in the extreme accretion flows in which they actually form. Therefore, they could not self-consistently predict their final masses at collapse, or those of the resulting supermassive black hole seeds, but rather invoked comparison to simple polytropic models. Here, we systematically examine the birth, evolution, and collapse of accreting, non-rotating supermassive stars under accretion rates of 0.01–10 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} using the stellar evolution code Kepler . Our approach includes post-Newtonian corrections to the stellar structure and an adaptive nuclear network and can transition to following the hydrodynamic evolution of supermassive stars after they encounter the general relativistic instability. We find that this instability triggers the collapse of the star at masses of 150,000–330,000 M {sub ⊙} for accretion rates of 0.1–10 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, and that the final mass of the star scales roughly logarithmically with the rate. The structure of the star, and thus its stability against collapse, is sensitive to the treatment of convection and the heat content of the outer accreted envelope. Comparison with other codes suggests differences here may lead to small deviations in the evolutionary state of the star as a function of time, that worsen with accretion rate. Since the general relativistic instability leads to the immediate death of these stars, our models place an upper limit on the masses of the first quasars at birth.

  8. Parental Engagement: Beyond Parental Involvement in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kathleen

    This study critically analyzes parents' complex stories of engagement in school and science education. The purpose is not to essentialize parental involvement, but rather to understand the processes of parental involvement and push forward the current discourse on the engagement of low-income minority and immigrant parents in schools and specifically science education. Employing critical grounded theory methods over a four-year span, this study had three areas of focus. First, voices of marginalized parents in the context of various spaces within the school system are examined. Using a qualitative approach, informal, formal, and research spaces were explored along with how minority parents express voice in these various spaces. Findings indicate parents drew on capital to express voice differently in different spaces, essentially authoring new spaces or the type of engagement in existing spaces. Second, the values and beliefs of traditionally marginalized people, the Discourse of mainstream society, and how they can inform a third, more transformative space for parental engagement in science are considered. The voices of low-income, marginalized parents around science and parental engagement (i.e., first space) are contrasted with the tenets of major national science policy documents (i.e., second space). Findings indicate a disparity between the pathways of engagement for low-income parents and policymakers who shape science education. Third, methodological questions of responsibility and assumption in qualitative research are explored. The author's complex struggle to make sense of her positionality, responsibilities, and assumptions as a researcher is chronicled. Findings focused on insider/outsider issues and implications for culturally sensitive research are discussed. Finally, the implications for policy, teaching, and research are discussed.

  9. Parents' qualitative perspectives on child asking for fruit and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children can influence the foods available at home, but some ways of approaching a parent may be better than others; and the best way may vary by type of parent. This study explored how parents with different parenting styles would best receive their 10 to 14 year old child asking for fruit and vege...

  10. Star clouds of Magellan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Magellanic Clouds are two irregular galaxies belonging to the local group which the Milky Way belongs to. By studying the Clouds, astronomers hope to gain insight into the origin and composition of the Milky Way. The overall structure and dynamics of the Clouds are clearest when studied in radio region of the spectrum. One benefit of directly observing stellar luminosities in the Clouds has been the discovery of the period-luminosity relation. Also, the Clouds are a splendid laboratory for studying stellar evolution. It is believed that both Clouds may be in the very early stage in the development of a regular, symmetric galaxy. This raises a paradox because some of the stars in the star clusters of the Clouds are as old as the oldest stars in our galaxy. An explanation for this is given. The low velocity of the Clouds with respect to the center of the Milky Way shows they must be bound to it by gravity. Theories are given on how the Magellanic Clouds became associated with the galaxy. According to current ideas the Clouds orbits will decay and they will spiral into the Galaxy

  11. Stars of strange matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Brown, G.E.; Cooperstein, J.

    1987-01-01

    We investigate suggestions that quark matter with strangeness per baryon of order unity may be stable. We model this matter at nuclear matter densities as a gas of close packed Λ-particles. From the known mass of the Λ-particle we obtain an estimate of the energy and chemical potential of strange matter at nuclear densities. These are sufficiently high to preclude any phase transition from neutron matter to strange matter in the region near nucleon matter density. Including effects from gluon exchange phenomenologically, we investigate higher densities, consistently making approximations which underestimate the density of transition. In this way we find a transition density ρ tr > or approx.7ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is nuclear matter density. This is not far from the maximum density in the center of the most massive neutron stars that can be constructed. Since we have underestimated ρ tr and still find it to be ∝7ρ 0 , we do not believe that the transition from neutron to quark matter is likely in neutron stars. Moreover, measured masses of observed neutron stars are ≅1.4 M sun , where M sun is the solar mass. For such masses, the central (maximum) density is ρ c 0 . Transition to quark matter is certainly excluded for these densities. (orig.)

  12. Stable dark energy stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Francisco S N

    2006-01-01

    The gravastar picture is an alternative model to the concept of a black hole, where there is an effective phase transition at or near where the event horizon is expected to form, and the interior is replaced by a de Sitter condensate. In this work a generalization of the gravastar picture is explored by considering matching of an interior solution governed by the dark energy equation of state, ω ≡ p/ρ < -1/3, to an exterior Schwarzschild vacuum solution at a junction interface. The motivation for implementing this generalization arises from the fact that recent observations have confirmed an accelerated cosmic expansion, for which dark energy is a possible candidate. Several relativistic dark energy stellar configurations are analysed by imposing specific choices for the mass function. The first case considered is that of a constant energy density, and the second choice that of a monotonic decreasing energy density in the star's interior. The dynamical stability of the transition layer of these dark energy stars to linearized spherically symmetric radial perturbations about static equilibrium solutions is also explored. It is found that large stability regions exist that are sufficiently close to where the event horizon is expected to form, so that it would be difficult to distinguish the exterior geometry of the dark energy stars, analysed in this work, from an astrophysical black hole

  13. What are the stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, Ganesan

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding question in astronomy at the turn of the twentieth century was: What are the stars and why are they as they are? In this volume, the story of how the answer to this fundamental question was unravelled is narrated in an informal style, with emphasis on the underlying physics. Although the foundations of astrophysics were laid down by 1870, and the edifice was sufficiently built up by 1920, the definitive proof of many of the prescient conjectures made in the 1920s and 1930s came to be established less than ten years ago. This book discusses these recent developments in the context of discussing the nature of the stars, their stability and the source of the energy they radiate.  Reading this book will get young students excited about the presently unfolding revolution in astronomy and the challenges that await them in the world of physics, engineering and technology. General readers will also find the book appealing for its highly accessible narrative of the physics of stars.  “... The reade...

  14. Polarimetry of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirola, V.

    1983-01-01

    Five symbiotic stars have been observed for linear polarization (UBVRI) in September 1981. Three systems, CH Cyg, CI Cyg and AG Peg show intrinsic polarization while in the case of Z And and AX Per the observed polarization seems to be mostly of interstellar origin. The position angle of polarization of CI Cyg and AG Peg rotates strongly vs. wavelength, as observed also for CH Cyg in 1977-80. The polarization of CH Cyg has decreased since May 1980, especially in the I, R and U bands, so that the maximum polarization is now in the blue (Psub(B) approx. 0.3%). Probably one is monitoring the formation, growth and disappearance of dust particles in the atmosphere of this star. Two related systems, PU Vul (Nova Vul 1979) and R Aql (Mira) have polarization behaviour rather similar to that of symbiotic stars which suggests that the M type giant present in these systems is responsible for most of the intrinsic polarization. (Auth.)

  15. Child Physical Punishment, Parenting, and School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegar, Kelly; Guérin-Marion, Camille; Fréchette, Sabrina; Romano, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    This study explored how physical punishment (PP) and other parenting approaches may predict school readiness outcomes. By using the Canada-wide representative data, 5,513 children were followed over a 2-year period. Caregivers reported on their use of PP and other parenting approaches (i.e., literacy and learning activities and other disciplinary…

  16. Improved autonomous star identification algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Li-Yan; Xu Lu-Ping; Zhang Hua; Sun Jing-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The log–polar transform (LPT) is introduced into the star identification because of its rotation invariance. An improved autonomous star identification algorithm is proposed in this paper to avoid the circular shift of the feature vector and to reduce the time consumed in the star identification algorithm using LPT. In the proposed algorithm, the star pattern of the same navigation star remains unchanged when the stellar image is rotated, which makes it able to reduce the star identification time. The logarithmic values of the plane distances between the navigation and its neighbor stars are adopted to structure the feature vector of the navigation star, which enhances the robustness of star identification. In addition, some efforts are made to make it able to find the identification result with fewer comparisons, instead of searching the whole feature database. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition rate and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the LPT algorithm and the modified grid algorithm. (paper)

  17. Making the Difference with Active Parenting; Forming Educational Partnerships between Parents and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostdam, Ron; Hooge, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Although parental involvement is often a priority on the quality agenda of schools for primary and secondary education, it is still not usual to involve parents as an educational partner in the actual learning process of their child. Rather than adopting an open approach, teachers tend to tell parents what they should do or keep them at a safe…

  18. One or more bound planets per Milky Way star from microlensing observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassan, A; Kubas, D; Beaulieu, J-P; Dominik, M; Horne, K; Greenhill, J; Wambsganss, J; Menzies, J; Williams, A; Jørgensen, U G; Udalski, A; Bennett, D P; Albrow, M D; Batista, V; Brillant, S; Caldwell, J A R; Cole, A; Coutures, Ch; Cook, K H; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Fouqué, P; Hill, K; Kains, N; Kane, S; Marquette, J-B; Martin, R; Pollard, K R; Sahu, K C; Vinter, C; Warren, D; Watson, B; Zub, M; Sumi, T; Szymański, M K; Kubiak, M; Poleski, R; Soszynski, I; Ulaczyk, K; Pietrzyński, G; Wyrzykowski, L

    2012-01-11

    Most known extrasolar planets (exoplanets) have been discovered using the radial velocity or transit methods. Both are biased towards planets that are relatively close to their parent stars, and studies find that around 17-30% (refs 4, 5) of solar-like stars host a planet. Gravitational microlensing, on the other hand, probes planets that are further away from their stars. Recently, a population of planets that are unbound or very far from their stars was discovered by microlensing. These planets are at least as numerous as the stars in the Milky Way. Here we report a statistical analysis of microlensing data (gathered in 2002-07) that reveals the fraction of bound planets 0.5-10 AU (Sun-Earth distance) from their stars. We find that 17(+6)(-9)% of stars host Jupiter-mass planets (0.3-10 M(J), where M(J) = 318 M(⊕) and M(⊕) is Earth's mass). Cool Neptunes (10-30 M(⊕)) and super-Earths (5-10 M(⊕)) are even more common: their respective abundances per star are 52(+22)(-29)% and 62(+35)(-37)%. We conclude that stars are orbited by planets as a rule, rather than the exception.

  19. First stars X. The nature of three unevolved carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivarani, T.; Beers, T.C.; Bonifacio, P.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov.......Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov....

  20. Developmental Etiologies of Alcohol Use and Their Relations to Parent and Peer Influences Over Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Genetically Informed Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Wood, Phillip K; Slutske, Wendy S

    2017-12-01

    Distinct changes in alcohol use etiologies occur during adolescence and young adulthood. Additionally, measured environments known to influence alcohol use such as peers and parenting practice can interact or be associated with this genetic influence. However, change in genetic and environmental influences over age, as well as how associations with measured environments change over age, is understudied. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) sibling subsample was used to examine data-driven biometric models of alcohol use over ages 13 to 27. Associations between friends' drinking, parental autonomy granting, and maternal closeness were also examined. The best-fitting model included a 5-factor model consisting of early (ages 13 to 20) and overall (ages 13 to 27) additive genetic and unique environmental factors, as well as 1 overall common environment factor. The overall additive genetic factor and the early unique environment factor explained the preponderance of mean differences in the alcohol use over this portion of the life span. The most important factors explaining variance attributed to alcohol use changed over age. Additionally, friend use had the strongest associations with genetic and environmental factors at all ages, while parenting practices had almost no associations at any age. These results supplement previous studies indicating changes in genetic and environmental influences in alcohol use over adolescence and adulthood. However, prior research suggesting that constraining exogenous predictors of genetic and environmental factors to have effects of the same magnitude across age overlooks the differential role of factors associated with alcohol use during adolescence. Consonant with previous research, friend use appears to have a more pervasive influence on alcohol use than parental influence during this age. Interventions and prevention programs geared toward reducing alcohol use in younger populations may benefit from