This study investigated parents' backgrounds and their beliefs about English language learning, and compared the receptive English vocabulary development of three to six year-old-Thai children before and after participating in a parent-child reading program with the dialogic reading (DR) method. Fifty-four single parents of 54 children voluntarily…
Jund, Suzanne, Ed.
This journal issue concentrates on the theme "Parents and Reading." It presents articles on sharing books with young children, using public relations in a reading program, guiding preschool learning, assessing language readiness, working with reading problems, and teaching reading readiness in Wisconsin kindergartens. Resources and a review of…
This article investigates children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. Children's believes about parental divorce is evaluated in a sample 8 through 10-year children whose parents had been separated for about 3 years. Attitudes toward environment and people between children of separated as well as intact families are compared. We also examined the relation of children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. The me...
The aim of this article is to place the focus on teachers’ beliefs about reading and reading strategies to the purpose of emphasizing the im portance of reading strategies in the reading process. The method of study is analytic analysis of teachers’ beliefs obtained through ques tionnaires delivered to 18 English language teachers of elementary, secondary and high level education in the region of Saranda in lbania. The results of the study pointed to a great concordance between teach ers’ bel...
Children's early home learning experiences are important influences on children's adjustment and achievement in the early years of school. This study explores the relationships between parental beliefs about school readiness, family engagement in home learning activities, on children's attitudes to school as reported by parents, and children's…
Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula
Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other…
Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee
The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…
Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula
Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.
Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle
Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related knowledge, print exposure, storybook reading, and general cultural knowledge. Children were tested on measures of letter-word knowledge, sound awareness, receptive vocabulary, oral expression, and mathematical skill. Parent reading-related knowledge showed significant positive links with child letter-word knowledge and sound awareness, but showed no correlations with child measures of mathematical skill or vocabulary. Furthermore, parent reading-related knowledge was not associated with parents' own print exposure or cultural knowledge, indicating that knowledge about English word structure may be separate from other cognitive skills. Implications are discussed in terms of improving parent reading-related knowledge to promote child literacy.
Smetana, Judith G.
Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…
Crouch, Julie L; Irwin, Lauren M; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J; Rutledge, Ericka; Davila, America L
The present study examined the associations between authoritarian parenting beliefs, attributions of hostile intent, negative affect, and harsh parenting practices. General population parents (N=183; 31.1% fathers) completed self-report measures of authoritarian parenting beliefs and read vignettes describing children engaging in transgressions. Following each vignette, parents indicated the extent to which they would attribute hostile intent to the child, feel negative affect, and respond with harsh parenting practices (e.g., yelling, hitting). As hypothesized, parents who subscribed to higher levels of authoritarian beliefs attributed more hostile intent to the child and expected to feel more negative affect in response to the transgressions. In turn, higher levels of hostile attributions and negative affect were associated with increased likelihood of harsh parenting practices. Results from a path analysis revealed that the association between authoritarian parenting beliefs and harsh parenting practices was fully explained by attributions of hostile intent and negative affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cashmore, Judith A.; Goodnow, Jacqueline J.
Explores extent to which parents and their adolescent children agree with respect to their attributional beliefs. First-born Australian children of Anglo and Italian backgrounds and their parents ranked talent, effort, and teaching according to relative importance in the development of six skill areas. Variations in patterns of attributions…
Feudtner, Chris; Walter, Jennifer K; Faerber, Jennifer A; Hill, Douglas L; Carroll, Karen W; Mollen, Cynthia J; Miller, Victoria A; Morrison, Wynne E; Munson, David; Kang, Tammy I; Hinds, Pamela S
Parents' beliefs about what they need to do to be a good parent when their children are seriously ill influence their medical decisions, and better understanding of these beliefs may improve decision support. To assess parents' perceptions regarding the relative importance of 12 good-parent attributes. A cross-sectional, discrete-choice experiment was conducted at a children's hospital. Participants included 200 parents of children with serious illness. Ratings of 12 good-parent attributes, with subsequent use of latent class analysis to identify groups of parents with similar ratings of attributes, and ascertainment of whether membership in a particular group was associated with demographic or clinical characteristics. The highest-ranked good-parent attribute was making sure that my child feels loved, followed by focusing on my child's health, making informed medical care decisions, and advocating for my child with medical staff. We identified 4 groups of parents with similar patterns of good-parent-attribute ratings, which we labeled as: child feels loved (n=68), child's health (n=56), advocacy and informed (n=55), and spiritual well-being (n=21). Compared with the other groups, the child's health group reported more financial difficulties, was less educated, and had a higher proportion of children with new complex, chronic conditions. Parents endorse a broad range of beliefs that represent what they perceive they should do to be a good parent for their seriously ill child. Common patterns of how parents prioritize these attributes exist, suggesting future research to better understand the origins and development of good-parent beliefs among these parents. More important, engaging parents individually regarding what they perceive to be the core duties they must fulfill to be a good parent may enable more customized and effective decision support.
Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.
This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…
Bamanger, Ebrahim M.; Gashan, Amani K.
Recent trends in teacher education have focused on exploring teachers' beliefs. Earlier studies have shown the important influence of teachers' beliefs on teaching practices. The present study was conducted to explore the beliefs of Saudi EFL teachers about the significance of teaching English reading strategies. The study aimed also to find the…
Howard, Kimberly S.
Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…
Auger, Anamarie; Reich, Stephanie M.; Penner, Emily K.
The impact of a baby book intervention on promoting positive reading beliefs and increasing reading frequency for low-income, new mothers (n = 167) was examined. The Baby Books Project randomly assigned low-income, first-time mothers to one of three study conditions, receiving educational books, non-educational books, or no books, during pregnancy and over the first year of parenthood. Home-based data collection occurred through pregnancy until 18 months post-partum. Mothers who received free baby books had higher beliefs about the importance of reading, the value of having resources to support reading, and the importance of verbal participation during reading. The results showed that providing any type of baby books to mothers positively influenced maternal reading beliefs, but did not increase infant-mother reading practices. Maternal reading beliefs across all three groups were significantly associated with self-reported reading frequency when children were at least 12 months of age. PMID:25264394
Heinze, Justin E.; Heinze, Kathryn L.; Davis, Matthew M.; Butchart, Amy T.; Singer, Dianne C.; Clark, Sarah J.
Pay-to-play fees in public schools place more support for sport participation in the hands of parents; this may disproportionately affect the ability of girls to garner the benefits of sports. Using an online survey of a national sample of parents (N = 814), we examined the relationship between parents' gender role beliefs, parents' beliefs about…
Mateos, Mar; Cuevas, Isabel; Martin, Elena; Martin, Ana; Echeita, Gerardo; Luna, Maria
The general aim of this study was to examine the relations among epistemological, reading and writing beliefs held by psychology undergraduates and the role played by these three types of belief in influencing the degree of perspectivism manifested in a written argumentation task based on reading two texts presenting conflicting perspectives on…
Reading classes in schools where English is the medium of instruction are increasingly servicing a linguistically diverse population; however, teacher-training for English teachers lacks a focus on bilingualism. Using the context of Singapore, this paper analyses beliefs on bilingualism of English teachers in an early intervention reading program.…
Developed for Idaho's original Parents in Reading program, this booklet is designed for use by parents of preschool and elementary school students. Topics are discussed in both English and Spanish and include: reading, listening, and talking to children; controlling television viewing; using numbers with children; children's muscles and movements;…
Evans, Mary Ann; Moretti, Shelley; Shaw, Deborah; Fox, Maureen
Examined parental coaching strategies during shared book reading between parents and their first-grade children. Found that parents provided more feedback clues when their child was unsuccessful in rereading a word after initial feedback, causing children's success levels to rise. Children with weaker word recognition skill were offered feedback…
Pescud, Melanie; Pettigrew, Simone; Henley, Nadine
Objective: To explore low socioeconomic parents' beliefs in relation to children's nutrition. Design: A qualitative, longitudinal study over 12 months involving 37 low socioeconomic parents. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Method: Parents' nutrition-related beliefs were explored via interviews, focus groups and…
Braswell, Gregory S.; Rosengren, Karl S.; Berenbaum, Howard
Using a questionnaire, the present study examined parents' beliefs regarding the development of children's beliefs about science, religion, and the paranormal. The study also investigated parental encouragement of children's beliefs, as well as parents' own beliefs within these domains. Results revealed that parents make distinctions between…
The reading habits of parents of preschool children are very important for development of reading literacy. The role of parents in reading is very high. It is important that parents often read for themselves and for their children regardless of age, sex and education. With reading they are giving the children an example and attach great importance to reading. An important factor is the frequency of library visits and dealing with books. On the reading habits of parents have important influenc...
PACZKOWSKI, EMILIE; BAKER, BRUCE L.
Parents of children with developmental delays consistently report higher levels of child behavior problems and also parenting stress than parents of typically developing children. This study examined how mothers' positive beliefs influence the relation between children's behavior problems and mothers' parenting stress among families of children who are developmentally delayed (DD: n = 72) or typically developing (TD: n = 95) and assessed at ages 3, 5, and 7 years. Positive beliefs had a main ...
Full Text Available Despite large-scale interventions, significant numbers of adults worldwide continue to have problems with basic literacy, in particular in the area of reading. To be effective, adult reading teachers need expert knowledge at practitioner level. However, practices in adult reading education vary widely, often reflecting the individual beliefs of each teacher about how an adult can learn to read. In this study, phenomenographic analysis was used to identify categories of approaches to teaching adult reading, used by a group of 60 teachers in Western Australia and New Zealand. Four approaches were identified: reassurance, task-based, theory-based and responsive. It is argued that for teachers to become effective and consistent in responding to learner needs, they must understand their own beliefs and the consequences of these. The identification of different approaches in adult reading education is an important step in this process.
Smetana, Judith G
For decades, parenting has been characterized in terms of broad global styles, with authoritative parenting seen as most beneficial for children's development. Concerns with greater sensitivity to cultural and contextual variations have led to greater specificity in defining parenting in terms of different parenting dimensions and greater consideration of the role of parenting beliefs in moderating links between parenting and adjustment. New research includes 'domain-specific' models that describe parents as flexibly deploying different practices depending on their goals, children's needs, and the types of behaviors towards which parenting is directed. These trends are described, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parental beliefs and practices regarding childhood fever in Turkish primary care. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... problem in pediatric age and is one of the most common reasons parents seek medical attention. ... Parents with a child with fever aged between 0 and 14 years were interviewed.
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
The No Child Left Behind program changes the federal role in education by asking America's schools to describe their success in terms of what each student accomplishes. The information in this reading guide was developed by the United States Department of Education to assist parents, caregivers, and teachers in understanding the importance of…
McConnell, Bethany M.; Kubina, Rick
Kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties were selected for participation in a parent implemented reading program. Each parent provided instruction to his or her child using the reading program "Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons" ("TYCTR"; Engelmann, Haddox, & Bruner, 1983). Parents were expected to…
McClain, Veda Pendleton; Stahl, Steven A.
A study focused on the parent-child interaction and reading issues such as the correction of children's oral miscues, comprehension, and questioning techniques as the children and parents either took turns reading or as the parent listened to the child read orally from six multicultural selections. Subjects were four African-American second…
Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Vílchez-Lara, María José
The aim of this study is to explore a possible significant relationship between parental beliefs about medication and satisfaction with the medical care their children receive in two different healthcare settings. The study included a total of 1,517 parents whose children were being treated either in pediatric primary care or pediatric emergency centers in eastern Andalusia. Of these, 489 were men and 1,028 women. The research instruments used were the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) and the Scale of Satisfaction with Health Care Services. Our results indicate that high levels of negative beliefs about medication were significantly associated with lower levels of parent satisfaction with healthcare received. Satisfaction with pediatric healthcare depends on aspects relating to the healthcare system, but certainly personal psychological and social variables like beliefs and parent’s previous expectations may play an important role too.
Harrington, John W.; Patrick, Patricia A.; Edwards, Karen S.; Brand, Donald A.
This study investigated parental beliefs about the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders. Sixty-two families of affected children completed a questionnaire asking when the parent first noticed developmental or behavioral problems, when they were told the diagnosis, how confident they were about the ability of their…
Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.
This study investigated how parental beliefs about children’s emotions and parental stress relate to children’s feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children’s feelings of security were tested. Participants were 85 African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian 4th and 5th grade children and one ...
Herren, Chantal; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia
Despite the fact that numerous developmental models have highlighted the role of parental cognitive processes in connection with anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, the role of parents' beliefs about their children and parenting remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the specific association between parental beliefs and child separation anxiety. Parents of children with a diagnosis of Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) reported on beliefs and expectations related to their child's fears and own parenting competence. To study the potential specificity of relationships, a clinical control group of mothers of children with social phobia (SoP) and a group of mothers of children without a mental disorder (healthy controls, HC) were included. Results indicated that parents of anxious children had significantly higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs than the parents in the HC group. Mothers of children with SAD showed lower levels of parenting self-efficacy than mothers of children with SoP. They also demonstrated lower parenting self-efficacy and satisfaction compared to mothers of healthy children. Parental dysfunctional beliefs about child anxiety and paternal parenting self-efficacy were significantly positively associated with child anxiety. The effects remained significant after controlling for parental anxiety and depression. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causality of the found effects cannot be inferred. Data suggest that children's anxiety and parents' beliefs about their child's anxiety, coping skills and parenting are strongly associated. Further research is needed to investigate whether addressing parental cognitions in addition to parents' anxiety may improve prevention and intervention of child anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Assadi, Seyed Mohammad; Smetana, Judith; Shahmansouri, Nazila; Mohammadi, Mohammad
Associations among parenting styles, parental authority beliefs, and adolescent-parent conflict were examined in 426 mothers of middle adolescents from 3 cities in Iran. Consistent with past research, mothers judged parental authority as less legitimate for personal than for conventional or prudential issues. Poorer, less educated mothers were…
Kupzyk, Sara S.
This dissertation examined the application of evidence-based tutoring for oral reading fluency (ORF) to a natural setting, using teachers as parent trainers. Measures used to determine the impact of parent tutoring included treatment integrity, student reading outcomes, attitudes towards involvement and reading, and social validity. Six teachers…
Adrian, Juan E; Clemente, Rosa A; Villanueva, Lidon; Rieffe, Carolien
This study focuses on parent-child book reading and its connection to the development of a theory of mind. First, parents were asked to report about frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home. Second, mothers were asked to read four picture-books to thirty-four children between 4;0 and 5;0. Both frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home, and mother's use of mental state terms in picture-books reading tasks were significantly associated with success on false belief tasks, after partialling out a number of potential mediators such as age of children, verbal IQ, paternal education, and words used by mothers in joint picture-book reading. Among the different mental state references (cognitive terms, desires, emotions and perceptions), it was found that the frequency and variety of cognitive terms, but also the frequency of emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Relationships between mental state language and theory of mind are discussed.
Eng, Sothy; Szmodis, Whitney; Mulsow, Miriam
The role of social capital (parental beliefs, social networks, and trust) as a predictor of parental involvement in Cambodian children's education was examined, controlling for human capital (family socioeconomic status). Parents of elementary students (n = 273) were interviewed face to face in Cambodia. Teacher contact scored highest, followed by…
Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Hiromori, Tomohito; Nakayama, Akira
The present study proposes a tripartite model of L2 reading strategy use, reading motivations, and general learner beliefs by examining the relationships among them in an L2 context. Reading strategy instruction was performed for 360 first-year university students enrolled in a reading-based course, in expectation of affecting their motivations…
Apetroaia, Adela; Hill, Claire; Creswell, Cathy
High levels of parental anxiety are associated with poor treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Associated parental cognitions and behaviours have been implicated as impediments to successful treatment. We examined the association between parental responsibility beliefs, maternal anxiety and parenting behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders. Anxious and non-anxious mothers of 7-12 year old children with a current anxiety disorder reported their parental responsibility beliefs using a questionnaire measure. Parental behaviours towards their child during a stressor task were measured. Parents with a current anxiety disorder reported a greater sense of responsibility for their child's actions and wellbeing than parents who scored within the normal range for anxiety. Furthermore, higher parental responsibility was associated with more intrusive and less warm behaviours in parent-child interactions and there was an indirect effect between maternal anxiety and maternal intrusive behaviours via parental responsibility beliefs. The sample was limited to a treatment-seeking, relatively high socio-economic population and only mothers were included so replication with more diverse groups is needed. The use of a range of stressor tasks may have allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of parental behaviours. The findings suggest that parental anxiety disorder is associated with an elevated sense of parental responsibility and may promote parental behaviours likely to inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes. Parental responsibility beliefs may therefore be important to target in child anxiety treatments in the context of parental anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Shana R; Miguel, Jessica
This study examined cultural beliefs about ASD and its causes among Mexican-heritage families. In focus group interviews, we asked 25 immigrant parents of children with ASD to identify words they associated with ASD and its causes. Participants free-listed, ranked, and justified their responses. Mixed methods analyses utilized saliency scores to calculate responses. Deductive interview analyses justified participants' responses. Salient responses for ASD perceptions included specific characteristics about the child (e.g., loving) and perceptions about lack of resources. Salient responses for ASD causes were vaccines, genetics, and a combination of genetics and environment. Inductive analyses revealed distinct beliefs about social stigma, child characteristics, factors supporting development, and parents' emotional stress. Interpretations linked these beliefs to promising adaptations in diagnosis and treatment.
Cottone, Elizabeth Ann
Research Findings: The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between maternal reading beliefs and children's emergent literacy outcomes in light of maternal education. Furthermore, I consider whether maternal reading beliefs may mediate the association between maternal education level and children's print knowledge and phonological…
Chan, S. M.; Bowes, J.; Wyver, S.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among parental goals, parental beliefs and parenting styles. Questionnaires were completed during interviews with 189 Hong Kong-Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years. Results indicated that these mothers embraced Chinese parental beliefs (guan) and Chinese parental goals of…
Forty families with four- to five-year-old Chinese children were chosen as experiment participants and equally divided into four groups for an eight-week parent-child reading experiment in different reading modes. (1) Groups A, B, and C read one of three kinds of Chinese-English audio bilingual picture books respectively: touch reading books,…
Previous literature has shown the importance of parental engagement for children's outcomes; a largely separate body of literature has shown that there are clear effects on children's outcomes related to parental religion. This article is a literature review of these two fields, with the aim of relating them to each other. The article suggests two…
Roehling, Patricia Vincent; Robin, Arthur L.
Evaluated the criterion-related validity of the Family Beliefs Inventory, a new self-report measure of unreasonable beliefs regarding parent-adolescent relationships. Distressed fathers displayed more unreasonable beliefs concerning ruination, obedience, perfectionism, and malicious intent than nondistressed fathers. Distressed adolescents…
Describes a collective case study of 12 high school juniors who identified themselves as avid readers of popular fiction. Finds strong reading relationships between parents and high school students. Describes the different roles that parents played in their adolescent children's reading lives. Looks at implications for secondary English classrooms…
Gonida, Eleftheria N; Cortina, Kai S
Parental involvement in homework is a home-based type of involvement in children's education. Research and theory suggest that it is beneficial for learning and achievement under certain conditions and for particular groups of individuals. The study examined whether different types of parents' involvement in homework (autonomy support, control, interference, cognitive engagement) (1) are predicted by their mastery and performance goals for their child and their beliefs of the child's academic efficacy, and (2) predict student achievement goal orientations, efficacy beliefs, and achievement. Grade-level differences were also investigated. The sample consisted of 282 elementary school (5th grade) and junior high school students (8th grade) and one of their parents. Surveys were used for data collection. Structural equation modelling was applied for data analysis. (1) Autonomy support during homework was predicted by parent mastery goal, parents' control and interference by their performance goal and perceptions of child efficacy, and cognitive engagement as supplementary to homework by parent perceptions of child efficacy. (2) Parental autonomy support, control, and interference were differentially associated with student mastery and performance goal orientations, whereas parent cognitive engagement was associated with student efficacy beliefs. (3) The structural model was the same for elementary and junior high school students but the latent means for a number of variables were different. Different types of parental involvement in homework were associated with different outcomes with parent autonomy support to be the most beneficial one. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Becoming a reader involves gaining the meaning of the activities involved which includes the purposes, values and roles that are part of the activity. At home literacy is contextualised and a child becomes aware of the uses and practises of reading in his or her culture. This home based literacy is a more natural form of literacy and must be distinguishedfrom school based literacy which is a more organised, systematic literacy. Teachers need to be aware of the important role that preliteracy experience plays in a child's ability to learn to read successfully. They can then provide experiences that will help those children who come to school without the prerequisite emergent literacy skills to become good readers. Teachers will benefit from being aware of family literacy practices and encouraging parents to become involved in their children's reading, because this will help children to make reading and general literacy activities more meaningful. Children who become successful readers associate books with enjoyment and are therefore willing to make the effort to become readers. This is more likely to happen with the support from the family. Research indicates that a key predictor of student success is family involvement in children's education (Ginsburg, 1999:3. Om 'n leser te word, hou in dat betekenis gevorm moet word van die aktiwiteite wat by lees betrokke is, nl die doel, waardes en rolle wat deel van die aktiwiteite. Geletterdheid word by die huis gekontekstualiseer en 'n kind word bewus van die gebruike van en praktyke vir lees in sy of haar kultuur. Hierdie huisgebaseerde geletterdheid is die natuurlikste vorm van geletterdheid en moet onderskei word van skoolgebaseerde geletterdheid wat 'n meer georganiseerde sistematiese soort geletterdheid is. Onderwysers moet bewus wees van die belangrike rol wat voor-geletterdheidervaring speel in In kind se vermoe om suksesvol te leer lees. Hulle kan dan geleenthede organiseer wat daardie kinders
White, Sally A; Kavussanu, Maria; Tank, Kari M; Wingate, Jason M
This study examined the relationship between perceived parental beliefs and young athletes' achievement goal orientations and personal beliefs about the causes of success in sport. Participants were 183 male and female athletes, 11-18 years old, involved in team sports. Athletes completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Beliefs about the Causes of Sport Success Questionnaire, and two modified versions of the latter inventory to assess their perceptions of their parents' beliefs. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that perceived parental beliefs were related to goal orientations and personal beliefs in a conceptually coherent fashion. Thus, the perceived parental belief that effort leads to success in sport was related to athletes' task orientation and personal belief that effort causes sport success. In contrast, the perceived parental beliefs that superior ability, external factors, and using deceptive tactics are precursors to success in sport corresponded to athletes' ego orientation and the same personal beliefs. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the socialization experiences of young athletes.
Alaçam, Nur; Olgan, Refika
This study aimed to investigate the parent involvement self-efficacy beliefs held by pre-service early childhood teachers and their self-reported skills in implementing parent involvement strategies. Another aim was to examine the impact made on parent involvement self-efficacy beliefs by taking a course on parent involvement and by self-reported…
Yore, Larry D.
Science textbooks are dominant influences behind most secondary science instruction but little is known about teachers' approach to science reading. The purpose of this naturalistic study was to develop and validate a Science and Reading Questionnaire to assess secondary science teachers' attitudes toward science reading and their beliefs or informed opinions about science reading. A survey of 428 British Columbia secondary science teachers was conducted and 215 science teachers responded. Results on a 12-item Likert attitude scale indicated that teachers place high value on reading as an important strategy to promote learning in science and that they generally accept responsibility for teaching content reading skills to science students. Results on a 13-item Likert belief scale indicated that science teachers generally reject the text-driven model of reading, but they usually do not have well-formulated alternative models to guide their teaching practices. Teachers have intuitive beliefs about science reading that partially agree with many research findings, but their beliefs are fragmented and particularly sketchy in regard to the cognitive and metacognitive skills required by readers to learn from science texts. The findings for attitude, belief, and total scales were substantiated by further questions in the Science and Reading Questionnaire regarding classroom practice and by individual interviews and classroom observations of a 15-teacher subsample of the questionnaire respondents.
Mellado, Carlos; Cumsille, Patricio; Martínez, M Loreto
The present study examined the relationship between parental support, demand, psychological control and adolescents' beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority for personal and multifaceted issues in a sample of 1342 Chilean adolescents (M = 16.38, SD = 1.24, age range 14-20). Results from multiple regression analyses separated by age indicated that demand was positively associated with adolescents' beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority for personal and multifaceted issues and that psychological control was negatively associated with adolescents' legitimacy beliefs concerning personal issues. Furthermore, parental support moderated the relationship between parental demand and adolescents' beliefs about parental legitimacy for personal and multifaceted issues: those who display high levels of demand showed stronger beliefs about parental legitimacy at high level of support. These results support the interactive effect of parental support and demand on adolescent development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sardogan, Mehmet Emin
The aim of this study is to investigate if perceived parenting styles have any influence on irrational belief in romantic relations among university students. To determine the students' irrational belief in romantic relations "Belief Inventory in Relations" by Kalkan and to determine their perception for parenting styles "Scale of…
Gibbs, Simon; Elliott, Julian
This paper reports a survey of primary school teachers' beliefs about working with poor readers. The primary research question was "does the way difficulties with reading are labelled affect the teachers' beliefs about their ability to intervene effectively?" An opportunity sample of teachers was surveyed using 2 questionnaires. One…
Mateos, Mar; Solé, Isabel; Martín, Elena; Castells, Nuria; Cuevas, Isabel; González-Lamas, Jara
Introduction: The aim of this study was to analyse the role of epistemological beliefs and reading beliefs in the comprehension of multiple texts which presented conflicting positions about a controversial topic (nuclear energy). More specifically, we investigated the influence of the multidimensional configuration of epistemological and reading…
Sood, Erica; Pinder, Wendy; Pendley, Jennifer S.; Fisher, Alicia O.; Wali, Prateek D.; del Rosario, Fernando
Objective To examine the role of provider communication about psychosocial causes of abdominal pain and recommendations for psychosocial intervention during a gastroenterology clinic visit in predicting families’ causal beliefs and perceptions of treatment acceptability. Method Participants were 57 children with a diagnosed or suspected abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) presenting for an outpatient gastroenterology follow-up visit and their accompanying parent. Children and parents completed questionnaires assessing child anxiety and abdominal pain severity, recall of provider communication about causes of abdominal pain and recommendations for intervention, their own causal beliefs about pain, and perceived acceptability of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and standard medical treatment (SMT) after reading descriptions of each treatment. Providers completed a questionnaire assessing their perceptions and communication about the causes of the child’s abdominal pain and perceived acceptability of CBT. Results Provider communication about psychosocial causes and interventions was reported infrequently by parents, children, and providers. Parents rated psychosocial causes for abdominal pain as less likely than physical causes, and children and parents rated CBT as less acceptable than SMT. Parents’ recall of provider communication about psychosocial causes was associated with their own causal beliefs about pain and their perceived acceptability of CBT. Children’s and parents’ recall of provider recommendations for psychosocial intervention was associated with their perceived acceptability of CBT. Conclusion Results highlight the importance of provider communication about psychosocial contributors to abdominal pain and psychosocial interventions for children with FGIDs. Medical and mental health providers can partner to deliver care to children with FGIDs using a biopsychosocial approach. PMID:27035693
Thompson, Darcy A; Johnson, Susan L; Schmiege, Sarah J; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Boles, Richard E; Lev, Jerusha; Tschann, Jeanne M
Objectives Parental beliefs about child television viewing may affect the way parents regulate child television viewing. Despite this, little research has focused on the development of measures of parental beliefs about child television viewing, particularly among ethnic minority parents and parents of young children. This study's objective was to develop and test a culturally-based measure of parental beliefs about television viewing in low-income Mexican American mothers of preschoolers. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, 22 items reflecting parental beliefs about influences of TV on children were developed and assessed for psychometric properties in a sample of 312 low-income Mexican American mothers of preschoolers. Results Using exploratory factor analysis, we identified four factors reflecting four domains of parental beliefs: positive general beliefs, positive sleep-related beliefs, positive functional beliefs, and negative general beliefs. Internal reliabilities were acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.70-0.89) for all factors except negative general beliefs (Cronbach's alpha = 0.61). Positive sleep-related beliefs and Positive Functional Beliefs were correlated with children's average daily hours of TV (r = 0.16, p parental beliefs regarding child TV viewing, and has good initial reliability and validity for three factors. Future use will allow investigators to conduct more in-depth evaluations on the influence of parental beliefs on the way parents shape their child's use of the TV.
Full Text Available The current study investigated early elementary school teachers’ beliefs and practices regarding the role of Executive Functions in reading and arithmetic. A new research questionnaire was developed and judged by professionals in the academia and the field. Reponses were obtained from 144 teachers from Israel. Factor analysis divided the questionnaire into three valid and reliable subscales, reflecting (1 beliefs regarding the contribution of executive functions to reading and arithmetic, (2 pedagogical practices, and (3 a connection between the cognitive mechanisms of reading and arithmetic. Findings indicate that teachers believe executive functions affect students’ performance in reading and arithmetic. These beliefs were also correlated with pedagogical practices. Additionally, special education teachers’ scored higher on the different subscales compared to general education teachers. These findings shed light on the way teachers perceive the cognitive foundations of reading and arithmetic and indicate to which extent these perceptions guide their teaching practices.
Rapoport, Shirley; Rubinsten, Orly; Katzir, Tami
The current study investigated early elementary school teachers’ beliefs and practices regarding the role of Executive Functions (EFs) in reading and arithmetic. A new research questionnaire was developed and judged by professionals in the academia and the field. Reponses were obtained from 144 teachers from Israel. Factor analysis divided the questionnaire into three valid and reliable subscales, reflecting (1) beliefs regarding the contribution of EFs to reading and arithmetic, (2) pedagogical practices, and (3) a connection between the cognitive mechanisms of reading and arithmetic. Findings indicate that teachers believe EFs affect students’ performance in reading and arithmetic. These beliefs were also correlated with pedagogical practices. Additionally, special education teachers’ scored higher on the different subscales compared to general education teachers. These findings shed light on the way teachers perceive the cognitive foundations of reading and arithmetic and indicate to which extent these perceptions guide their teaching practices. PMID:27799917
Rapoport, Shirley; Rubinsten, Orly; Katzir, Tami
The current study investigated early elementary school teachers' beliefs and practices regarding the role of Executive Functions (EFs) in reading and arithmetic. A new research questionnaire was developed and judged by professionals in the academia and the field. Reponses were obtained from 144 teachers from Israel. Factor analysis divided the questionnaire into three valid and reliable subscales, reflecting (1) beliefs regarding the contribution of EFs to reading and arithmetic, (2) pedagogical practices, and (3) a connection between the cognitive mechanisms of reading and arithmetic. Findings indicate that teachers believe EFs affect students' performance in reading and arithmetic. These beliefs were also correlated with pedagogical practices. Additionally, special education teachers' scored higher on the different subscales compared to general education teachers. These findings shed light on the way teachers perceive the cognitive foundations of reading and arithmetic and indicate to which extent these perceptions guide their teaching practices.
Laskey, B J; Cartwright-Hatton, S
Internalizing disorders of childhood are a common and disabling problem, with sufferers at increased risk of subsequent psychiatric morbidity. Several studies have found associations between parenting styles and children's internalizing, although few have considered the role of parental discipline. Parental discipline style may exert an effect on children's internalizing symptoms. Anxiety and depression are reliably found to run in families and parental anxiety has been shown to effect parenting behaviour. This study set out to examine the links between parental anxiety, parental discipline style and child internalizing symptoms. Eighty-eight parents of children aged 4-10 years were recruited through primary schools. All parents completed questionnaires including measures relating to: adult anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait version, Penn State Worry Questionnaire), parental depression (Beck Depression Inventory - Fastscreen), parental discipline (The Parenting Scale), parenting-related attributions (Parenting Attitudes, Beliefs and Cognitions Scale) and child psychological morbidity (Child Behaviour Checklist 4-18 version). Significant correlations were found between both parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with ineffective discipline and negative beliefs about parenting. Particularly strong correlations were found between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with harsh discipline. Parents of anxious/withdrawn children were more likely to hold negative beliefs about their child. The link between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms was mediated by harsh discipline. The link between parental anxiety and harsh discipline was mediated by parental beliefs about the child. Discipline style may be an important factor in the relationship between parent anxiety and child internalizing symptoms.
Ziehm, Jeanette; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias; Park, Seong-Yeon
This study contributes to a differentiated understanding of maternal sensitivity in cultural and situational context. We investigated differences and similarities in German and Korean mothers' maternal sensitivity. We interviewed 92 German and 100 Korean mothers of first graders about their preference for proactive (anticipating children's needs) or reactive sensitivity (responding to children's direct cues) in different scenarios. Related parenting beliefs were assessed by asking the mothers to explain the reasons why they would prefer specific parenting behaviors. Results revealed significant cultural differences in reactive vs. proactive sensitivity preferences. Overall, German mothers were more likely to indicate that a mother should respond reactively and less likely to report that a mother should act proactively than were Korean mothers. Korean mothers gave preference to both reactive and proactive sensitivity depending on the scenario. With regard to parenting beliefs, analyses revealed that German and Korean mothers who preferred reactive sensitivity mainly explained their choices as attempts to encourage children's development of independence. In contrast, Korean and German mothers with a preference for proactive sensitivity were more likely to report that mothers would assist their children due to their immaturity in dealing with emotional distress. Results are discussed in the framework of the different meanings and functions of maternal sensitivity for socialization in different cultural contexts. PMID:23986740
Al-Ali, Nahla Mansour; Yaghy, Hadeel Said; Shattnawi, Khulood K; Al-Shdayfat, Noha M
The current study aimed to assess Jordanian parents' knowledge and beliefs about the effects of violent media on children's aggressive behavior. A sample of 262 parents of children aged 6-11 years completed a Media Quotient questionnaire about children's media habits, media effects, and children's aggressive behavior. Parents reported that their children spend an average of 4.83 h (SD = 2.12) watching TV, 3.20 h (SD = 2.29) playing video games, 1.07 h (SD = 0.88) listening to music, and only 0.52 min (SD = 0.67) reading for pleasure per day. Parents have a moderate level of knowledge about the media effect (M = 15.49, SD = 3.439). Children of parents who have adequate knowledge about the media effect, spend less time watching TV (r = -.355, p violent content their children see in movies or on TV. Children who spend more time playing video games (r = -.201, p = .004) show aggressive relational behavior. This study suggests that increasing parents' knowledge of media of evidence-based programs may have a protective effect on children's behavior.
Frewen, A. R.; Chew, E.; Carter, M.; Chunn, J.; Jotanovic, D.
Parental involvement (PI) and child-rearing beliefs were examined amongst parents whose children attended state-run kindergartens across Singapore. A total of 244 parents completed an online survey consisting of a Child-Rearing Beliefs Scale, a PI Scale, and demographic details. Results indicated respondents were generally low-income earners with…
The BA thesis explores how parents influence the development of children's literacy, how much attention is paid to the development of children's reading development and in what way and to what extent the parents’ education impacts the children's reading development. The theoretical part of the thesis defines the concept of literacy, types of literacy and the principles and factors of promoting it. In doing so, I highlighted the role of parents, the impact of the environment and the importance...
Andersen, Merethe K; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens
Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents' frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children...... and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC)....
Andersen, Merethe K; Christensen, Bo; S?ndergaard, Jens
Background Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents? frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC). Methods A ...
Baldridge, Mary Caufield
The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a "growth mindset" intervention on the beliefs about intelligence, effort beliefs, achievement goals, and academic self-efficacy of learning disabled (LD) students with reading difficulties. The treatment group consisted of 12 high school LD students with reading difficulties. This…
Andersen, Merethe K; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens
Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents' frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC). A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire exploring parents' beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children. The questionnaires were completed by parents following their child's participation in the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE).Parental agreement upon statements concerning beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children was measured on a Likert scale. Differences in levels of agreement between parents of non-overweight children and parents of overweight children were analysed using Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test. Parents of 879 children completed and returned questionnaires. Around three fourths of the parents agreed that overweight was a health problem. A majority of parents (93%) agreed that the GP should call attention to overweight in children and offer counselling on diet and exercise. Almost half of the parents expected a follow-up programme. Parents of overweight children seemed to agree less upon some of the proposed causes of overweight, e.g. inappropriate diet and lack of exercise. These parents also had stronger beliefs about overweight disappearing by itself as the child grows up. According to parental beliefs and expectations, general practice should have an important role to play in the management of child overweight. Moreover, our findings suggest that GPs should be aware of the particular beliefs that parents of overweight children may have regarding causes of overweight in their child.
Chiocca, Ellen M
Research on American parents' beliefs about the use of corporal punishment (CP) shows widespread approval of this child-rearing practice. This review integrated 25 research articles to gain a better understanding of what American parents believe about the use of CP as a method of child-rearing, where they get their information about CP, and if American parents' beliefs about CP translate to the actual use of CP. The results showed that the main factors that influence a parent's endorsement of CP is the belief that CP is normative and expected when raising a child; is a necessary part of parenting, even for infants; and that certain stressors involving interactions between the parent, child, and environment can elicit the use of CP. Further research is needed to determine what methods are effective in changing parents' attitudes and beliefs about the use of CP. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pham, Andy V.; Carlson, John S.; Kosciulek, John F.
Objective: A survey study was conducted to explore ethnic differences in parental beliefs about the causes and treatments of ADHD and whether these beliefs predicted treatment preference. Method: Ethnically diverse parents of 5- to 12-year-old children with ADHD (n = 58) and without ADHD (n = 61) completed a questionnaire developed by the authors…
Dryer, Rachel; Kiernan, Michael J.; Tyson, Graham A.
Objective: This study examined parental and professional beliefs about the efficacy of various treatment strategies for ADHD. Method: Parents of children with and without ADHD and seven medical and nonmedical professional groups (N = 673) completed a questionnaire examining their beliefs about the efficacy of various treatment regimes. Results:…
Chan, Siu Mui
This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…
Curry, Katherine A.; Jean-Marie, Gaëtane; Adams, Curt M.
Background: Despite devotion of substantial resources and effort to increase parent/school partnerships, gaps remain between policy rhetoric and practice, especially in high-poverty communities. Current research focuses on parent involvement or effects of parent motivational beliefs on parent choice for behavior; however, it does not address the…
Bubic, Andreja; Tošic, Antonela
Parents play a very important role in all aspects of children's experiences, and parental involvement in children's school lives is associated with numerous educational outcomes. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of several parents' demographic characteristics, parental self-efficacy, as well as beliefs regarding the value of…
Marcell, Arik V; Ford, Carol A; Pleck, Joseph H; Sonenstein, Freya L
Male adolescents frequently become disconnected from health care, especially as they get older, which limits physicians' abilities to address their health needs and results in missed opportunities to connect them to the health care system as they enter adulthood. In this study we tested the ability of modifiable (beliefs about masculinity, parental communication, sex education, and health insurance) and nonmodifiable (age, race/ethnicity, and region of residence) factors to prospectively predict health care use by male adolescents. We conducted a prospective analysis of data from 1677 male participants aged 15 to 19 years who completed the National Survey of Adolescent Males, a household probability survey conducted throughout the United States in 1988 (wave 1, participation rate: 74%) and in 1990-1991 (wave 2, follow-up rate: 89%). We present percentages and adjusted relative risks of the factors that predict male adolescents' self-report of a physical examination by a regular provider in the past year measured at wave 2. On average, 1067 (66%) of 1677 male adolescents at wave 2 reported having a physical examination within the last year. Factors associated with a lower likelihood of a physical examination included living in the South, Midwest, and West; being older in age; and holding more traditional masculine beliefs. Factors associated with a higher likelihood of a physical examination included communicating about reproductive health with both parents and being insured. Male adolescents who were sexually active or engaged in > or = 2 other risk behaviors had neither a higher nor lower likelihood of a physical examination. Efforts to enhance male adolescents' health through health care should include work to modify masculine stereotypes, improve mothers' and fathers' communication about health with their sons, expand health insurance coverage, and identify interventions to connect male adolescents at increased risk for health problems with health care.
Lariviere, Janice; Rennick, Janet E
To examine the effects of a parent book reading intervention in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on parent-infant interaction and on the incidence of parents reading to their infants 3 months post-NICU discharge. A nonrandomized, participant blinded intervention study using a historical control group (CG) was conducted. The intervention group (IG: n = 59) consisted of parents of infants admitted to the NICU after the introduction of the parent reading program. The CG (n = 57) consisted of parents of infants discharged from the NICU in the 3-month period before the introduction of the reading program. Questionnaires were mailed to participants 3 months after their infant's discharge and completed verbally, over the telephone. Groups were compared on parenting activities and reading. In addition, a thematic analysis of qualitative descriptive data provided insight into the parents' experiences with reading to their infants. Sixty-nine percent of IG parents reported that reading helped them feel closer to their baby, and 86% reported it was enjoyable. Parents reported an increased sense of control and normalcy and increased intimacy with their infant. Twice as many parents in the IG reported reading 3 or more times a week to their infants (55.9% IG; 23.3% CG). Study results support the use of a parent book-reading intervention in the NICU to enhance parent-infant interactions and promote reading.
Alcilene Maria Gomes
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In the child’s first year of life, motor development is critical for the other areas of child development. Beliefs and parenting practices influence the parents’ care and encouragement of their children, reflecting in their motor development; however, the Brazilian literature on this subject is scarce. Objective: to characterize the parental practices and beliefs associated with motor development in the first year of life; and to verify if practices and beliefs are interrelated. Methods: Two questionnaires were developed and applied, one about parenting practices and the other about parental beliefs on motor development in the first year life, to 27 caregivers of children between 12 and 24 months of age, who participated in an aquatic stimulation program. The agreement between practices and beliefs was verified by a graphical method, based on the transformation of ordinal scores to an interval scale using Rasch analysis. Results: The participants had higher levels of education and economic status. They reported a variety of practices focused on the motor development of their children, such as family interaction through playing, toy offers, lap time and free movement space. Conclusion: Most of the practices were based on parental beliefs, for some activities, however, beliefs and practices diverged, demonstrating the complexity inherent to the formation of parental beliefs.
''Sometimes the teacher will say, 'Read to the bottom of the page,' and I try but I fall behind. Then she asks questions and a whole bunch of kids can answer the questions but I can't. I try to keep up with everything but it's really hard. Sarah; 6th grade social studies student''. This paper presents the results of a review of the research into…
Ganotice, Fraide A., Jr.; Downing, Kevin; Mak, Teresa; Chan, Barbara; Lee, Wai Yip
Dialogic reading (DR) has been identified as an effective strategy for enhancing children's literacy skills in Western and Asian contexts. Given that storytelling is a shared experience between adults and children, parent-child relationships is hypothesised to be enhanced by DR. Despite this possibility, there has been no systematic attempt to…
Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching
The participation of parents-shared reading with children is a topic that has generated a lot of attention among many researchers in the world. For the use of picture story books, which have caused positive impact on the child's learning process, has also been recommended as the best strategies to develop children's aesthetic ability. The purpose…
Telfer, Jo Ann
Science has become an essential part of our cultural, social and technological lives. Around the world economic policies are giving high priority to the production of new knowledge generated by scientists. Unfortunately, gender equality in science-related careers has not been achieved. Women who possess high intellectual and personal abilities are succeeding in many occupational areas previously closed to all but the most impervious women, but females are still largely underrepresented in physical science and mathematics related careers. The purpose of the current study was to examine the reasons for this underrepresentation of women in science-related careers. Participants included a subset of mothers (n = 174), fathers (n = 132) and children (n = 186) from a larger study at the University of Calgary entitled Gender Differences in Student Participation and Achievement in the Sciences: Choice or Chance ? Telephone interview and survey questionnaire data were examined for gender and achievement level differences, focusing on high achieving girls who are most likely to succeed in science-related careers. Relationships between parents' and children's responses were also examined using the theoretical construct of Eccles' Model of Achievement Related Choices. Gathered data were studied using factor analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of variance as well as categorical analysis of qualitative results. Girls and boys achieved similar grades on all academic measures except the Alberta Science Achievement Test, where boys scored significantly higher than girls. Mothers, fathers, and children indicated positive attitudes towards science, no gender stereotyping about science and science careers, and gender neutral beliefs about science achievement. Gender differences were found in expressed possibility of future career choice. Science/Professional Careers were viewed as male occupations by mothers and children, but as gender neutral occupations by fathers
Bradshaw, Catherine P; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B; Bates, Jeffrey M
Parenting is a transactional process, influenced by the child's behavior and the environmental context. The present study explores the beliefs and practices of parents of aggressive and oppositional adolescents to understand better the relation among parenting practices, context, and youth violence. Parents of juvenile offenders (N=203) completed assessments of youths' violent and oppositional behaviors, community violence exposure, and their own beliefs and parenting behaviors and perceptions of the juvenile justice system. Parents of youth with the highest levels of violent and oppositional behavior problems reported elevated feelings of hopelessness regarding the child's future, inadequacy as a parent, fear of physical harm by the child, anger toward the child, as well as difficulty monitoring the child. All parents reported relatively high levels of perceived support by the justice system. Parental stress was also examined as a possible influence on the parents' beliefs and behaviors regarding the child. Results suggest that parents' emotional and behavioral responses should be addressed when intervening with juvenile offenders. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors present evidence to suggest that parents' perceptions of hopelessness/inadequacy and their fear for their child's safety are both by-products of life with an aggressive child as well as contributing factors to that aggressive behavior. Thus, successful interventions must both target the parents as change agents in the youth's life but also include a strong parental support component, so that parents will have an opportunity to orchestrate positive impacts in high-risk environments.
Sahm, Laura; Kelly, Maria; McCarthy, Suzanne
AIM: Fever and febrile illness are some of the most common conditions managed by parents. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents around fever in children under five years of age. METHODS: Between July and August 2014, a convenience sample of parents...
van Rhijn, Tricia M.; Lero, Donna S.
Student parents (i.e. students who have their own dependent children) are a specific subpopulation of adult learners. This study investigated the impact of self-efficacy beliefs on student parents' perceived capacity to manage multiple roles and their satisfaction with family, school and life. Survey data collected from 398 student parents enroled…
Tan, Tony Xing; Kim, Eun Sook; Baggerly, Jennifer; Mahoney, E Emily; Rice, Jessica
In this study, we went beyond adoption status to examine the associations between postadoption parental involvement and children's reading and math performance from kindergarten to first grade. Secondary data on a sample of adopted children and nonadopted children were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998 to 1999 (ECLS-K). Weighted data on the children's reading performance were available for 13,900 children (181 were adopted); weighted data on the children's math performance were available for 14,128 children (184 were adopted). Descriptive data showed no group difference in reading scores at all 3 Waves but adopted children scored lower than nonadopted children in math at Wave 2 (Spring of kindergarten) and Wave 3 (Spring of first grade). However, controlling for 6 covariates, latent growth modeling showed that adoption status was unrelated to Wave 1 reading and math scores or subsequent growth rate. Rather, parents' beliefs on skills needed to succeed in kindergarten were a significant predictor of reading and math performance at Wave 1 and subsequent growth rates, and parents' educational expectation was a significant predictor of growth rate in reading and math. Our findings highlight the importance of parental involvement in adopted children's learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Chng, Grace Shiao En
Objectives: The current work formulated theoretical models for empirical testing based on three objectives: 1) to explore the associations of familial variables, specifically with regards to parental socialization, with two cognitive aspects of good thinking in children - their informal reasoning skills and their epistemological beliefs, 2) to test the relation between these two competencies as epistemological beliefs have been found to enhance or constrain reasoning, and 3) to investigate...
Shah-Wundenberg, Mihika; Wyse, Dominic; Chaplain, Roland
This paper reports research that investigated parental support for children's reading of English in an inner-city school in the developing country context of an Indian city, Ahmedabad. Children had oral proficiency in the regional language but were beginning to acquire conventional forms of literacy in English. Sociocultural mediation theory…
Yang, Fang-Ying; Huang, Rui-Ting; Tsai, I-Ju
The primary purpose of this study was to explore not only the effects of epistemic beliefs in science on science-text reading but also the gender differences in epistemic beliefs and the reading process. The interactions between gender and epistemic beliefs during reading were also explored. A total of 25 university students, 13 male and 12…
Helena Smrtnik Vitulić; Irena Lesar
The main purpose of this paper was to determine the beliefs of students, teachers and parents about the internal factors of academic achievement and to verify whether their beliefs vary. In this paper the beliefs about the internal factors of academic achievement: personality traits, intellectual ability, language competence, interest in the subject and locus of control are thematised. The sample included 516 students from grades 5, 7 and 9 of 12 different basic schools in central Slovenia, 4...
Smetana, Judith G.; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura
We examined within- and between-person variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee youth (M[subscript age] = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians, in Amman, Jordan. Latent profile analyses of 22 belief items yielded 4 profiles of youth. The "normative" profile (67% of the…
Koski, Kaisu; Holst, Johan
This project explores vaccine hesitancy through an artist-scientist collaboration. It aims to create better understanding of vaccine hesitant parents' health beliefs and how these influence their vaccine-critical decisions. The project interviews vaccine-hesitant parents in the Netherlands and Finland and develops experimental visual-narrative means to analyse the interview data. Vaccine-hesitant parents' health beliefs are, in this study, expressed through stories, and they are paralleled with so-called illness narratives. The study explores the following four main health beliefs originating from the parents' interviews: (1) perceived benefits of illness, (2) belief in the body's intelligence and self-healing capacity, (3) beliefs about the "inside-outside" flow of substances in the body, and (4) view of death as a natural part of life. These beliefs are interpreted through arts-based diagrammatic representations. These diagrams, merging multiple aspects of the parents' narratives, are subsequently used in a collaborative meaning-making dialogue between the artist and the scientist. The resulting dialogue contrasts the health beliefs behind vaccine hesitancy with scientific knowledge, as well as the authors' personal, and differing, attitudes toward these.
Roche, Kathleen M; Caughy, Margaret O; Schuster, Mark A; Bogart, Laura M; Dittus, Patricia J; Franzini, Luisa
Despite the salience of behavioral autonomy and independence to parent-child interactions during middle adolescence, little is known about parenting processes pertinent to youth autonomy development for Latino families. Among a diverse sample of 684 Latino-origin parent-adolescent dyads in Houston, Texas, this study examines how parents' cultural orientations are associated directly and indirectly, through parental beliefs, with parenting practices giving youth behavioral autonomy and independence. Informed by social domain theory, the study's parenting constructs pertain to youth behaviors in an "ambiguously personal" domain-activities that adolescents believe are up to youth to decide, but which parents might argue require parents' supervision, knowledge, and/or decision-making. Results for latent profile analyses of parents' cultural identity across various facets of acculturation indicate considerable cultural heterogeneity among Latino parents. Although 43% of parents have a Latino cultural orientation, others represent Spanish-speaking/bicultural (21%), bilingual/bicultural (15%), English-speaking/bicultural (15%), or US (6%) cultural orientations. Structural equation modeling results indicate that bilingual/bicultural, English-speaking/bicultural, and US-oriented parents report less emphasis on the legitimacy of parental authority and younger age expectations for youth to engage in independent behaviors than do Latino-oriented parents. Parental beliefs endorsing youth's behavioral independence and autonomy, in turn, are associated with less stringent parental rules (parental report), less parental supervision (parental and youth report), and more youth autonomy in decision-making (parental and youth report). Evidence thus supports the idea that the diverse cultural orientations of Latino parents in the US may result in considerable variations in parenting processes pertinent to Latino adolescents' development.
Lawton, Kathryn E; Gerdes, Alyson C; Haack, Lauren M; Schneider, Brian
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent mental health disorders of childhood. Despite the availability of several evidence-based interventions, Latino children are more likely than non-minority children to have an unmet need for services related to ADHD. Given that parental beliefs about the etiology of ADHD likely influence service utilization, research needs to focus on cultural factors that may influence parental beliefs about the etiology of child behavior problems. Thus, the goal of the current study was to investigate the role of acculturation and cultural values of familism, respect, spirituality, and traditional gender roles in explaining parental etiological beliefs about ADHD in a sample of Latino parents. Findings suggest that behavioral acculturation was not significantly correlated with biopsychosocial or sociological/spiritual etiological beliefs; however, the cultural values of familism and traditional gender roles were positively correlated with sociological/spiritual beliefs. Further, exploratory analyses suggested that after controlling for SES, familism and traditional gender roles accounted for 30.5 % of the total variance in sociological/spiritual beliefs about ADHD. Finally, post hoc analyses revealed that cultural values were associated with several individual belief categories within the sociological/spiritual domain, including beliefs about friends, spirituality, and nature disharmony. The current study supports the inclusion of etiological beliefs and cultural factors in research examining help-seeking and access to mental health services among Latino families and suggests that the incorporation of alternative etiological beliefs about child behavior may be an important factor in culturally-appropriate mental health services.
Baker, Bridget; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
This paper provides a literary review and research-based techniques for teaching reading. The paper also examines the different philosophies of reading to ascertain beneficial commonalities. Based on the literature review, a manual was produced to support administrators, teachers, and parents in securing quality reading instruction. Appendix A…
This paper examines the risk communication strategies currently being employed by seven outdoor education co-ordinators in Government schools in Victoria, Australia. Of particular interest are the beliefs and assumptions held by these co-ordinators in relation to communicating risk with parents. Current policy stipulates that parents must be…
Tazouti, Youssef; Malarde, Amelie; Michea, Aurelie
The present study examines the relationships between parental beliefs relating to development and education, parenting practices, and the intellectual and academic performances of children. Data were collected for 128 families with a child in the second or third year of primary school. Investigations of the factors affecting the children's…
Pelletier, Daniel; Collerette, Pierre; Turcotte, Gilles; Beaulieu, Alexandre
The social and academic experiences of children and adolescents in school are a major concern for parents and their characteristics as protection or risk factors for their children's adaptation has been extensively studied. However, few studies have dealt with the behaviors, attitudes and beliefs of parents about the schools their children are…
Lin, Xunyi; Li, Hui
Play is a fundamental concept in early childhood development and education. As partners in the child's learning, parents play a crucial role in how play is defined, valued, and practised. The present study explores the constructs of parents' beliefs about and engagement in young children's play in two coastal cities in China. A sample of 483…
Watts Pappas, Nicole; McAllister, Lindy; McLeod, Sharynne
Parental beliefs and experiences regarding involvement in speech intervention for their child with mild to moderate speech sound disorder (SSD) were explored using multiple, sequential interviews conducted during a course of treatment. Twenty-one interviews were conducted with seven parents of six children with SSD: (1) after their child's initial…
Hu, Bi Ying; Mak, Miranda Chi Kuan; Zhang, Chun; Fan, Xitao; Zhu, Jieling
This study aims to explore Chinese parents' understanding about the importance and feasibility of quality pre-school inclusion and how these beliefs are affected by their levels of education and the types of disabilities in the Chinese socio-cultural and policy contexts. Findings support parents are highly supportive of the philosophy of…
Chao, Ruth K.
Compared 48 immigrant Chinese and 50 European American mothers of preschool-age children on their perspectives on the role of parenting in their children's school success. Findings reveal Chinese immigrants have a high regard for education and a belief in a strong parental role, while European Americans regard social skills and self-esteem of…
Fever is a common symptom of mostly benign illness in young children, yet concerning for parents. The aim of this study was to describe parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding fever in children aged ≤5 years of age.
Gordon, Lynn Melby
Should principals enforce mandatory separation of twins in kindergarten? Do school separation beliefs of principals differ from those of teachers, parents of twins, and twins themselves? This survey questioned 131 elementary principals, 54 kindergarten teachers, 201 parents of twins, and 112 twins. A majority of principals (71%) believed that…
Schuler, Christine L; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera
The goal of this study was to determine if parents' beliefs about social norms of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for sons were associated with knowledge of HPV, intention to vaccinate sons, or beliefs about side effects. A cross-sectional, survey-based study of parents with sons was performed in 2010. Fisher's exact tests were used to examine associations between demographics and responses about social norms. Multivariate logistic regression models examined beliefs about social norms of male HPV vaccination and primary outcomes. Few parents agreed that others were vaccinating sons (n = 31/267, 12%), including 1% responding strongly agree and 11% responding agree. Most parents, 52%, disagreed that others were vaccinating (40% disagree, 11% strongly disagree), and 37% chose prefer not to answer regarding others' vaccination practices. Hispanic parents and those with a high school education or less were significantly more likely to choose prefer not to answer than their respective counterparts regarding vaccination norms. In multivariate models, parents agreeing others were vaccinating sons had greater odds of having high knowledge of HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] high vs low knowledge 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 8.77) and increased intention to vaccinate sons (n = 243, aOR = 4.41, 95% CI = 1.51, 12.89). Beliefs about side effects were not significantly associated with beliefs about social norms. Parents' beliefs about others' vaccination practices are important with regard to knowledge of HPV and intention to vaccinate sons. Studying how various public messages about HPV vaccine may influence normative beliefs could be relevant to improving vaccination coverage. © The Author(s) 2015.
Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae
The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…
Mar 12, 2016 ... Parents with a child with fever aged between 0 and 14 years were interviewed. The participants ... common reasons parents seek medical attention for their children by ..... received inaccurate doses of antipyretics. In our ...
Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E.; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S.; Kendall, Philip C.
The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child’s anxiety, parents’ perceived ability to cope with their child’s anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents’ understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child’s anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N = 192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach’s alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children’s anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n = 83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged. PMID:26970877
Ricci, Leila; Osipova, Anna
Although children with Down syndrome (DS) can learn to read, few studies have explored parental perspectives on the reading development of this group of children. This article, written by Leila Ricci and Anna Osipova, from California State University, explores visions and expectations regarding reading held by parents of children with Down…
Lee, Kyunghee; Lee, Jung-Sook
This study examines the associations between parental book reading and social-emotional outcomes for Head Start children in foster care. Despite no main Head Start impact on parental book reading, subgroup effects were found. Foster parents in Head Start provided more book reading for children with disabilities but less for children with low preacademic scores. Head Start enhanced social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care. The positive impacts of Head Start on children's social-emotional outcomes were greater when parents read books frequently. Head Start should include more foster families and provided parenting skills to enhance social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care.
Sonnenschein, Susan; Sun, Shuyan
Despite the growing body of research on parents' beliefs and practices, relatively little is known about the relations between parents' knowledge of children's development, home-based activities, and children's early reading and math skills. This study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to examine the differences in…
Nguyen, Uyen N; Rowe, Dorothy J; Barker, Judith C
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the oral health knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors of migrant Vietnamese parents of 1-5 year-olds in San Jose, California. Method: A verbally-administered survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 45 Vietnamese parents recruited at San Jose public libraries. Following preliminary screening, written informed consent was obtained from eligible individuals. A pre-tested, structured 94-item questionnaire was used to collect information regarding parent demographics, and the parent's knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors about children's oral health. Simple descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Vietnamese parents acknowledged a number of basic concepts regarding early childhood caries (ECC), such as influences of sugar consumption, oral hygiene, and bottle use. Unlike other groups, they reported some familiarity with the role of bacteria in caries etiology. Oral health knowledge and beliefs, however, were not reflected in parental oral health behaviors such as supervision of children's brushing. Knowledge about the preventive role of fluoride was limited and varied among the population. Parental knowledge and behaviors did not vary by education level or length of residence in US. Conclusion: Vietnamese parents demonstrated reasonably good oral health knowledge, but poor behavioral guidance of their children's oral health, indicating the need for continued parental education emphasizing age-appropriate oral care and the preventative role of fluoride. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
This study examines the growing trend of reading movements in Japan and their origins. There are three main movements: Animacion a la Lectura; Ten-Minutes Reading in the Morning; and Reading Aloud by Parents in schools. This paper reports on the three movements from a review of the literature, personal observations, and practice. The paper…
Rogers-Haverback, Heather; Mee, Molly
The purpose of this study was to investigate middle level preservice teacher self-efficacy beliefs in general, as well as in the domain of reading. The participants were 8 middle school preservice teachers enrolled in a state-mandated reading methods course and student teaching over the course of a year. As part of the yearlong internship, the…
Hamilton, Kyra; Kirkpatrick, Aaron; Rebar, Amanda; White, Katherine M; Hagger, Martin S
To examine the role of parental beliefs, roles, and anticipated regret toward performing childhood sun-protective behaviours. Parents (N = 230; 174 mothers, 56 fathers), recruited using a nonrandom convenience sample, of at least 1 child aged between 2 and 5 years completed an initial questionnaire assessing demographics and past behaviour as well as theory of planned behaviour global (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control) and belief-based (behavioural, normative, and control beliefs) measures, role construction, and anticipated regret regarding their intention and behaviour to protect their child from the sun. Two weeks later, participants completed a follow-up questionnaire assessing their sun protection of their child during the previous 2 weeks. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified attitude, perceived behavioural control, role construction, anticipated regret, past behaviour, and a normative belief ("current partner/other family members") as significant predictors of parents' intention to participate in sun-protective behaviour for their child. Intention and past behaviour were significant predictors of parents' follow-up sun-protective behaviour. The regression models explained 64% and 36% of the variance in intention and behaviour, respectively. The findings of this study highlight the importance of anticipated regret and role-related beliefs alongside personal, normative, and control beliefs in determining parents' intentional sun-protective behaviour for their children. Findings may inform the development of parent- and community-based sun protection intervention programs to promote parents' sun-safety behaviours for their children to prevent future skin cancer incidence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Alberts, Nicole M; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D; Sherry, Simon B; Stewart, Sherry H
The cognitive behavioural (CB) model of health anxiety proposes parental illness leads to elevated health anxiety in offspring by promoting the acquisition of specific health beliefs (e.g. overestimation of the likelihood of illness). Our study tested this central tenet of the CB model. Participants were 444 emerging adults (18-25-years-old) who completed online measures and were categorized into those with healthy parents (n = 328) or seriously ill parents (n = 116). Small (d = .21), but significant, elevations in health anxiety, and small to medium (d = .40) elevations in beliefs about the likelihood of illness were found among those with ill vs. healthy parents. Mediation analyses indicated the relationship between parental illness and health anxiety was mediated by beliefs regarding the likelihood of future illness. Our study incrementally advances knowledge by testing and supporting a central proposition of the CB model. The findings add further specificity to the CB model by highlighting the importance of a specific health belief as a central contributor to health anxiety among offspring with a history of serious parental illness.
Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Bornstein, Marc H; Haynes, O Maurice; Rossi, Germano; Venuti, Paola
Parental beliefs are relevant to child development because they shape parenting behaviors and help to determine and regulate child cognitive and socioemotional growth. Here we investigated cross-cultural variation in Italian and U.S. mothers' parental beliefs about their social and didactic interactions with their young children. To compare parental beliefs, the Parental Style Questionnaire (PSQ) was administered to samples of 273 Italian mothers and 279 U.S. mothers of 20-month-olds (55% male). To conduct substantive cross-cultural comparisons of beliefs, the measurement invariance of the PSQ was first established by hierarchical multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. The PSQ was essentially invariant across cultures. Italian mothers reported that they engaged in both social and didactic behaviors with their young children less frequently than U.S. mothers. Results of our study confirm that mothers in different cultures differentially value parental stimulation and its relevance for early child development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…
Schulze, Pamela A.
The author discusses research on Filipino mothers' socialization goals and beliefs about the role of other adults in disciplining their children. The results reveal that Filipinos have a collectivistic orientation, but that they nevertheless encourage independence in their children. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the…
LaFleur, Laura K; Zhao, Yinan; Zeringue, Megan M; Laird, Robert D
This study sought to identify conditions under which parents' monitoring behaviors are most strongly linked to adolescents' negative reactions (i.e., feelings of being controlled and invaded). 242 adolescents (49.2% male; M age = 15.4 years) residing in the United States of America reported parental monitoring and warmth, and their own feelings of being controlled and invaded and beliefs in the legitimacy of parental authority. Analyses tested whether warmth and legitimacy beliefs moderate and/or suppress the link between parents' monitoring behaviors and adolescents' negative reactions. Monitoring was associated with more negative reactions, controlling for legitimacy beliefs and warmth. More monitoring was associated with more negative reactions only at weaker levels of legitimacy beliefs, and at lower levels of warmth. The link between monitoring and negative reactions is sensitive to the context within which monitoring occurs with the strongest negative reactions found in contexts characterized by low warmth and weak legitimacy beliefs. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moss, Jennifer L; Reiter, Paul L; Brewer, Noel T
Parents and adolescents often decide together whether the child should receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, few studies have investigated the dyadic nature of beliefs that affect this process. Data came from the 2010 HPV Immunization in Sons (HIS) Study, a national sample of 412 parents and their adolescent sons. We conducted dyadic multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationships between parents' and sons' HPV vaccine beliefs and their willingness to have the son receive the vaccine. Less than half of parents and sons were willing to have the sons receive HPV vaccine (43% and 29%, respectively). Willing parents and sons anticipated greater regret if the son did not receive HPV vaccine but later contracted an HPV infection (parent odds ratio [OR]=1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.24-2.40; son OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.04-2.19) (both pCommunication campaigns may be able to target these beliefs to increase parents' and sons' willingness to seek HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Schaik, S.D.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357534689; Oudgenoeg-Paz, O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341157627; Atun-Einy, Osnat
The present study explored cultural differences in parental beliefs about motor development across 2 Western cultures: Israel and the Netherlands. Can 2 cultural models be distinguished regarding infant motor development in Israel and the Netherlands or are parental beliefs about motor development
Yeh, C H
The aim of this study was to increase understanding of religious beliefs and practices among Taiwanese parents of pediatric patients. Parents of 63 pediatric patients with cancer were interviewed to explore their related religious beliefs and practices, ie, worship at temple, drawing Chien, and divinations. Rituals were used to diminish the harmful effects of the child's disease, such as temple ceremonies, changing the child's name, and taking "Fu" water. Such practices were generally undertaken with a lack of medical guidance from oncologists largely because of poor interactions between parents and oncologists. The findings suggest that discovering a caregiver's worldview and cultural values is important to establish holistic nursing practices. Because immigrants increasingly move around the world, Taiwanese parents become a culturally diverse clientele for healthcare professionals who have to be aware of the existing cultural differences in healthcare values, patterns, and practices, particularly between Western and Eastern cultures.
Valiente, Carmen; Romero, Nuria; Hervas, Gonzalo; Espinosa, Regina
This study was aimed to explore the distinct pathways that lead to depression and paranoia. We first examined the association of dysfunctional parenting experiences and negative self-evaluations in depression and paranoia. Furthermore, we also examined whether different self-evaluative beliefs could mediate the relationships between dysfunctional parenting experiences (i.e. parental overprotection or lack of care) and the development of depression and paranoia. A sample composed of 55 paranoid patients, 38 depressed patients and 44 healthy controls completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the Evaluative Beliefs Scale (EBS) and some clinical scales. Our analyses revealed that lack of parental care and negative self-self evaluations were associated with depression symptoms. Analyses also revealed that parental overprotection and negative other-self evaluations were associated with paranoid symptoms. Furthermore, negative self-self and other-self evaluations fully mediated the relationship of parental overprotection and paranoia, whereas negative self-self evaluations partially mediated the relationship between lack of parental care and depression. These findings suggest that distinct patterns of parental practices may contribute to the development of different dysfunctional schemas which in turn may lead to either depression or paranoia. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Zvara, B.J.; Mills-Koonce, R.; Appleyard Carmody, K.; Cox, M
Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the long-term adjustment of women reporting Childhood Sexual Trauma (CST) at or before the age of 14 in terms of parenting efficacy and parenting behavior. Data for these analyses were obtained from mother reports and from observational protocols from a longitudinal study of low-income, rural families. The novel use of propensity-matched controls to create a control group matched on family of origin variables provides evidence that...
DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.
Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…
Colgate, Orla; Ginns, Paul
Currently, parental involvement research considers parents as individuals, and gives little consideration to them as a collective body, including how, as a group, they might influence each other. This study examined the influence of parent social norms on parents' home reading behaviour with their child. Two quasi-experiments conducted in two…
Parker, Alison E.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Townley, Greg; Bryant, Alfred, Jr.; Thompson, Julie A.; Beale, Karen S.
We conducted a qualitative study to explore parental beliefs about emotions in the family across three cultures (African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian), using the underutilized yet powerful methodology of focus groups. The main goal of this monograph is to understand parents' beliefs about the role of emotions in the…
van Schaik, Saskia D M; Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Atun-Einy, Osnat
The present study explored cultural differences in parental beliefs about motor development across 2 Western cultures: Israel and the Netherlands. Can 2 cultural models be distinguished regarding infant motor development in Israel and the Netherlands or are parental beliefs about motor development similar across these cultures? Using a questionnaire containing closed and open questions, beliefs of 206 Israeli and 198 Dutch parents of first-born children between 2 and 7 months old were analyzed. Based on both quantitative and qualitative analyses, distinct cultural models were found showing that the Dutch attributed a bigger role to maturation and children's own pace than to stimulation. The Israeli parents found stimulation of motor development important and discussed active stimulation more elaborately. When discussing supportive activities, the Israeli parents mentioned specific activities, whereas the Dutch parents used more general, vague expressions about support. Moreover, the Israeli parents discussed the need for expert advice and advice from relatives and other parents more than the Dutch parents, who rely on their own observations, books, or websites more often. The cultural background was the strongest predictor of parental beliefs about motor development. Parental education, age, children's birth weight, gender, and having seen a physical therapist showed weaker relations with parental beliefs. Altogether, 2 distinguishing cultural models can be found, raising the question whether infant motor development can be approached similarly across Western cultures. Besides this implication for science, practitioners should also be aware of differences between cultures and between parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This study is a two-part investigation. The first part focuses on ESL learners' attitudes and motivations for reading in the target language. The second part deals with ESL teachers' beliefs about motivating L2 learners to read. The study involved 100 ESL learners (N=100 and 30 teachers (N=30 from rural schools in Mindanao, the Philippines. All the participants were recruited through convenience sampling. In other words, participants were selected based on their convenient accessibility and proximity. The current study is a mixed-methods project. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed to collect different types of data. The instruments used were: a L2 reading attitude survey, a questionnaire dealing with motivations for L2 reading, a survey on beliefs about motivating L2 learners to read in English, a semi-structured interview and a L2-reading-lesson observation. The quantitative data were statistically analysed. Whenever appropriate, the data were presented in tables and on graphs. The qualitative data were analysed through thematic coding and used to support the quantitative data. The findings show that students have both positive and negative attitudes towards various aspects of L2 reading. They also have different levels of motivation for reading in English, with female participants having higher scores than male participants. The teachers, on the other hand, hold diverse beliefs about motivating learners to read in English. No significant correlation was found between teacher beliefs and students' motivations for reading in English. After the findings have been described, implications for teacher education and instructional practice are offered.
Anderson, Jim; Gunderson, Lee
Discusses how the differing views held by teachers and immigrant parents and their children affect early reading instruction, secondary content reading, and reading involving technology. Demonstrates that immigrant students and their parents hold different beliefs about reading and schooling than those held by many teachers. Concludes it is…
Zvara, B J; Mills-Koonce, W R; Appleyard Carmody, K; Cox, M
Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the long-term adjustment of women reporting childhood sexual trauma (CST) at or before the age of 14 in terms of parenting efficacy and parenting behavior. Data for these analyses were obtained from mother reports and from observational protocols from a longitudinal study of low-income, rural families. The novel use of propensity-matched controls to create a control group matched on family of origin variables provides evidence that when women with CST are compared with the matched comparison women, females who experienced CST show poorer functioning across multiple domains of parenting (sensitivity, harsh intrusiveness, boundary dissolution), but not in parenting efficacy. Follow-up moderation analyses suggest that the potential effects of trauma on parenting behaviors are not attenuated by protective factors such as higher income, higher education, or stable adult relationships. Implications for interventions with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuhn, Emily S.; Laird, Robert D.
Adolescents differ in the extent to which they believe that parents have legitimate authority to impose rules restricting adolescents' behavior. The purpose of the current study was to test predictors of individual differences in legitimacy beliefs during the middle school years. Annually, during the summers following Grades 5, 6, and 7, early…
Shah, R; Waller, G
This study considers the potential role of core beliefs (unconditional schema-level representations) in the relationship between recalled parenting in childhood and major depression in adulthood, comparing a group of depressed outpatients (N = 60) with a healthy community sample (N = 67). The depressed group were differentiated by poorer perceived parenting (low care and high overprotection) and by three unhealthy core beliefs (defectiveness/shame, self-sacrifice, and insufficient self-control). Among nonclinical participants, it appears that vulnerability to harm beliefs act as a partial mediator of the relationship between poor paternal care and the development of depressive features. In contrast, a broader set of core beliefs appears to mediate the relationship of maternal bonding and paternal overprotection with depressive symptoms among the depressed group. The findings suggest that clinical work with adults with major depression might need to take account of parental style. Where parents are reported to be uncaring or overprotective, cognitive-behavioral therapy might need to include a schema-focused component.
Bartau-Rojas, Isabel; Aierbe-Barandiaran, Ana; Oregui-González, Eider
The use of the Internet by children at an increasingly early age today constitutes a major challenge for families and schools, as well as affecting educational and social policy. This is a qualitative piece of research that analyzes parents' beliefs, everyday practices and the difficulties they face in teaching their children the benefits and…
Sawyer, Brook E.; Manz, Patricia H.; Martin, Kristin A.
Guided by Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological theory of human development and Moll's theory of funds of knowledge, the aim of this qualitative study was to examine the beliefs of parents and early childhood teachers on (a) the language development of Spanish-speaking preschool dual language learners (DLLs) and (b) how they can collaborate to support…
Helena Smrtnik Vitulić
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to determine the beliefs of students, teachers and parents about the internal factors of academic achievement and to verify whether their beliefs vary. In this paper the beliefs about the internal factors of academic achievement: personality traits, intellectual ability, language competence, interest in the subject and locus of control are thematised. The sample included 516 students from grades 5, 7 and 9 of 12 different basic schools in central Slovenia, 408 of their parents and 195 teachers. Amongst the broad range of personality traits in the survey questionnaire, parents selected openness and conscientiousness as the most important traits for academic success, while students selected openness and extroversion, and teachers selected agreeableness and emotional stability. In the opinion of the participants in the research, amongst other internal factors of academic success emphasised, those that have the greatest influence on academic achievement are interest in the subject and internal locus of control, while students’ intellectual ability and language competence are attributed slightly less importance. Beliefs regarding the individual factors of academic achievement vary between the groups of participants. In the future, it would be sensible to encourage students, teachers and parents to reflect on the meaning of the individual factors of academic achievement, and especially to speak with them about the factors on which each respective group can exert an influence in order to improve students’ academic achievement.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of dysfunctional relationships beliefs on both the perceptions of their relationships with the parents and conflict resolution behaviors of late adolescence. The sample was consisted of 372 Turkish university students (248 women and 124 men). Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale,…
Fischbach, Ruth L.; Harris, Mark J.; Ballan, Michelle S.; Fischbach, Gerald D.; Link, Bruce G.
There is no reported investigation comparing concordance in attitudes and beliefs about autism spectrum disorder between parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and scientists who research autism spectrum disorder. To investigate the level of concordance between these groups on causes of autism, priorities of research, perceived stigma,…
Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Sluijs, E.M.F. van
RATIONALE: Few studies have examined determinants of physical activity in patients with chronic illnesses, like asthma. The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting were associated with changes in sport participation of adolescents with
With reports of declining participation in mathematics related careers and low female participation rates, the issue of gender differences in mathematics remains relevant. This study seeks to examine the relationship between: children's sex, parents' beliefs regarding their children's education, and, the children's mathematics performance. Through…
Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers ("N" = 123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in…
Partnership for Family Involvement in Education (ED), Washington, DC.
All parents want the best school experience for their children. This booklet, presented in both English and Spanish, offers parents specific strategies to provide their children a good foundation for beginning reading. The guide first answers the question, "How Can I Help My Child Be Ready To Read and Ready To Learn?" with emergent literacy…
Wang, Feihong; Cox, Martha J.; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Snyder, Patricia
This research examined alternative mechanisms in the etiology of attachment disorganization. The authors hypothesized that negative intrusive parenting would significantly predict children's attachment disorganization at age 12 months within a diverse community sample. Of more substantial interest, the authors tested moderational mechanisms in the…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms. It causes significant worry and concern for parents. Every year there are numerous cases of over- and under-dosing with antipyretics. Caregivers seek reassurance from a variety of sources including healthcare practitioners. The aim of this study was to describe parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding management of childhood fever in children aged 5 years and under. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 parents at six ante-natal clinics in the south west of Ireland during March and April 2015. The Francis method was used to detect data saturation and thereby identify sample size. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Twenty-three parents participated in the study. Five themes emerged from the data: assessing and managing the fever; parental knowledge and beliefs regarding fever; knowledge source; pharmaceutical products; initiatives. Parents illustrated a good knowledge of fever as a symptom. However, management practices varied between participants. Parents revealed a reluctance to use medication in the form of suppositories. There was a desire for more accessible, consistent information to be made available for use by parents when their child had a fever or febrile illness. Conclusion Parents indicated that further initiatives are required to provide trustworthy information on the management of fever and febrile illness in children. Healthcare professionals should play a significant role in educating parents in how to manage fever and febrile illnesses in their children. The accessible nature and location of pharmacies could provide useful support for both parents and General Practitioners.
Kelly, Maria; Sahm, Laura J; Shiely, Frances; O'Sullivan, Ronan; McGillicuddy, Aoife; McCarthy, Suzanne
Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms. It causes significant worry and concern for parents. Every year there are numerous cases of over- and under-dosing with antipyretics. Caregivers seek reassurance from a variety of sources including healthcare practitioners. The aim of this study was to describe parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding management of childhood fever in children aged 5 years and under. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 parents at six ante-natal clinics in the south west of Ireland during March and April 2015. The Francis method was used to detect data saturation and thereby identify sample size. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Twenty-three parents participated in the study. Five themes emerged from the data: assessing and managing the fever; parental knowledge and beliefs regarding fever; knowledge source; pharmaceutical products; initiatives. Parents illustrated a good knowledge of fever as a symptom. However, management practices varied between participants. Parents revealed a reluctance to use medication in the form of suppositories. There was a desire for more accessible, consistent information to be made available for use by parents when their child had a fever or febrile illness. Parents indicated that further initiatives are required to provide trustworthy information on the management of fever and febrile illness in children. Healthcare professionals should play a significant role in educating parents in how to manage fever and febrile illnesses in their children. The accessible nature and location of pharmacies could provide useful support for both parents and General Practitioners.
Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.
This booklet for parents, in both English and Spanish, offers suggestions for helping their young children develop and improve their reading skills. The booklet first presents tips for helping infants or preschoolers be ready to read and ready to learn. Suggestions include talking to the infant or toddler, reading aloud starting at 6 months,…
Izzo, Theresa Eleanor
Sixty-four third-grade pupils who were underachieving in reading participated in a study to determine the effect of parental home instruction in reading. A four-cell experimental design was used with two treatment factors: programmed home reading instruction given by mothers trained to administer the program versus no instruction, and mother's…
Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Benoit, Cecilia; Warburton, Darren E R; Blanchard, Chris M; Rhodes, Ryan E
To examine the relationship between Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) beliefs and eating behavior, explore which beliefs have the greatest association with eating behavior, and explore differences between adults without children and first-time parents. Longitudinal evaluation via questionnaires and food records at baseline and 6 and 12 months. Couples without children (n = 72) and first-time parents (n = 100). fruit and vegetable consumption and fat consumption. TPB beliefs. Pearson correlations between TPB beliefs and eating behavior; exploratory data reduction via linear regression. Control beliefs were associated with eating behavior (r = .26-.46; P controlling for past behavior, control beliefs were associated with eating behavior for first-time parents only. Control beliefs regarding preparation and time had the strongest associations with fruit and vegetable consumption for mothers (β = .26; P control beliefs suggests room for improvement via intervention. Interventions guided by TPB should target control beliefs to enhance healthy eating among new parents. Strategies (eg, individual, environmental, policy) to enhance control beliefs regarding healthy eating despite limited time and opportunity for preparation may be particularly valuable. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitolo, Ymara Lúcia Camargo; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Goodman, Robert; Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos
To verify the prevalence and identify the risk factors related to mental health problems among schoolchildren and its possible association with the beliefs and educational attitudes of parents/caretakers. Cross-sectional study with a stratified probabilistic sample (n=454) of first to third-graders from public and private schools in Southeastern Brazil. Standardized instruments were administered to parents/caretakers by trained interviewers, including screening questionnaires for mental health problems among children and parents/caretakers; a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes; and a questionnaire for socio-economic status. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. We found 35.2% prevalence of clinical/borderline cases among students. Parents/caretakers that believed in corporal punishment as a child-rearing method used physical aggression towards their children more frequently (64.8%). Logistic regression models showed that the act of hitting the child with a belt was associated to conduct problems and to overall mental health problems among schoolchildren in the presence of other risk factors: child gender (male), parents/caretakers with mental health problems, and adverse socioeconomic conditions. The high prevalence of mental health problems among schoolchildren and its association with child-rearing methods and mental health problems among parents/caretakers indicate the need for psycho-educational interventions aimed to reduce physical abuse and mental health problems in childhood.
Durand, Tina M.
Parents' cultural beliefs about children, education, and their caregiving roles can influence both the parent-child and parent-school relationships. Given the centrality of the mother-child relationship in Mexican families, mothers were situated as experts in their children's development and education in the present investigation. Specifically,…
Yavuz, E; Yayla, E; Cebeci, S E; Kırımlı, E; Gümüştakım, R Ş; Çakır, L; Doğan, S
Fever is a very common problem in pediatric age and is one of the most common reasons parents seek medical attention. We aimed to investigate beliefs, habits, and concerns of Turkish parents regarding their children's fever. We performed a cross-sectional survey which was conducted as face-to-face interviews by family physicians from April to June 2014 in family healthcare centers in nine different cities in Turkey. Parents with a child with fever aged between 0 and 14 years were interviewed. The participants were asked questions about sociodemographic data, the definition and measurement of fever, antipyretics, and other interventions used to reduce fever before presenting to the primary care center. A total of 205 parents participated in this study. Ninety-four parents (45.8%) measured fever with a thermometer prior to presentation. Only 36 parents (38%) used the thermometer correctly. Thirty-eight parents (18.5%) knew the correct temperature definition of fever for the measured site. A mercury-in-glass thermometer was the choice for most parents (78%) and preferred site for measurement was axillary region (85%). The fever was treated prior to arrival by 171 parents (83.4%). Paracetamol was the most frequently used antipyretic. Fifty-four parents (31.5%) failed to administer the correct antipyretic dose, and 73 parents (42.6%) failed to give the antipyretics at proper intervals. One hundred and fifty-three parents (67%) believed that if not treated fever could cause convulsions. We conclude that parents share important misconceptions about definition, treatment, and consequences of childhood fever and tend to treat fever before seeking medical care with a substantial rate of wrong doses and wrong intervals.
Pagan, Stephanie; Sénéchal, Monique
In this research, parents and children participated in a comprehensive book reading intervention designed to improve children's literacy. Over eight weeks during the summer, children in the intervention condition were encouraged to read one book weekly and parents were trained to foster reading comprehension. Forty-eight Grades 3 and 5 children…
Wilson, Anne R; Brega, Angela G; Thomas, Jacob F; Henderson, William G; Lind, Kimberly E; Braun, Patricia A; Batliner, Terrence S; Albino, Judith
This aimed to validate measures of constructs included in an extended Health Belief Model (EHBM) addressing oral health beliefs among American Indian (AI) parents. Questionnaire data were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial (n = 1016) aimed at reducing childhood caries. Participants were AI parents with a preschool-age child enrolled in the Navajo Nation Head Start program. Questionnaire items addressed five EHBM constructs: perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, benefits, and parental self-efficacy. Subscales representing each construct underwent reliability and validity testing. Internal consistency reliability of each subscale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Convergent validity was assessed using linear regression to evaluate the association of each EHBM subscale with oral health-related measures. Internal consistency reliability was high for self-efficacy (α = 0.83) and perceived benefits (α = 0.83) compared to remaining EHBM subscales (α Parents with more education (p parents (ps = 0.02) and those with more education (ps oral health behavior. Female parents (p Parental knowledge was associated with all EHBM measures (ps 0.05). Parents with increased self-efficacy had greater behavioral adherence (p parents who reported higher perceived barriers (p oral health outcomes were associated with higher levels of self-efficacy (p < 0.0001) and lower levels of perceived severity (p = 0.02) and barriers (p = 0.05). Results support the value of questionnaire items addressing the EHBM subscales, which functioned in a manner consistent with the EHBM theoretical framework in AI participants.
Funk, Jeanne B; Brouwer, Jason; Curtiss, Kathleen; McBroom, Evan
Given the increase in screen media targeted at the very young, the purpose of this study was to examine preschooler parents' knowledge about expert recommendations for young children's screen media experience, their knowledge of specific screen media ratings, their beliefs about screen media effects, and actual monitoring practices. Parents of 94 children education, age and gender of child, and parents' perceptions of their child's favorite television show and favorite video or computer game. Eleven multiple-choice questions assessed the respondent's knowledge of expert recommendations for screen media for preschoolers and the meaning of television and video game content ratings. Fourteen questions addressed the typical amount of their preschooler's screen media exposure, parental rules regarding screen media use, and parents' beliefs about appropriate use of screen media for preschoolers. Preschoolers were exposed to an average of approximately 12 hours of screen media in a typical week. Parents believe that media do have either short- or long-term effects on preschoolers. Performance on factual questions was poor (mean score: 2.83 of 11). In particular, only 34% of the parents correctly identified the expert recommendation for children >2 years of age. Parents should continue to be educated about the need for preschoolers to participate in activities that promote language development, socialization, imagination, and physical activity. Although professionals should work to improve the ratings, and ultimately to implement a universal ratings system for all screen media, parents need to be encouraged to improve their understanding of current recommendations for screen media exposure and television and video game ratings.
Grandahl, Maria; Chun Paek, Seung; Grisurapong, Siriwan; Sherer, Penchan; Tydén, Tanja; Lundberg, Pranee
Thailand has one of the world's highest prevalence of cervical cancer, mainly caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infections can successfully be prevented by vaccination, which is available at a cost but not yet implemented in the national vaccination program. Parents play a critical role in deciding whether to vaccinate their child against HPV. Thus, the aim was to examine the association between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. A cross-sectional design was used among three schools in Thailand: Nakorn Phatom province (suburban) and Bangkok (urban). Parents of 9-12-year-old daughters completed the questionnaires, guided by the Health Belief Model. In total, 359 parents completed the questionnaires; of those, 301 were included in the final analyses. The ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis showed that background knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine was positively related to knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer. For beliefs, knowledge was positively associated with susceptibility (i.e., parents' perceived risk of an HPV infection/ related disease), severity, and benefit. However, knowledge was not significantly related to barriers. For acceptance, higher susceptibility and benefit were related to higher acceptance, and greater knowledge was associated with higher acceptance. Thus, we found associations between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. Parents, who reported religion as important, as opposed to those who did not, were more favorable toward the HPV vaccination. Four out of ten mothers had never undergone a cervical cancer screening, but most had accepted previous childhood vaccinations for their daughters. The overall acceptance of the vaccine was high, and we believe our results are promising for future
Full Text Available Thailand has one of the world's highest prevalence of cervical cancer, mainly caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV. HPV infections can successfully be prevented by vaccination, which is available at a cost but not yet implemented in the national vaccination program. Parents play a critical role in deciding whether to vaccinate their child against HPV. Thus, the aim was to examine the association between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. A cross-sectional design was used among three schools in Thailand: Nakorn Phatom province (suburban and Bangkok (urban. Parents of 9-12-year-old daughters completed the questionnaires, guided by the Health Belief Model. In total, 359 parents completed the questionnaires; of those, 301 were included in the final analyses. The ordinary least squares (OLS regression analysis showed that background knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine was positively related to knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer. For beliefs, knowledge was positively associated with susceptibility (i.e., parents' perceived risk of an HPV infection/ related disease, severity, and benefit. However, knowledge was not significantly related to barriers. For acceptance, higher susceptibility and benefit were related to higher acceptance, and greater knowledge was associated with higher acceptance. Thus, we found associations between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. Parents, who reported religion as important, as opposed to those who did not, were more favorable toward the HPV vaccination. Four out of ten mothers had never undergone a cervical cancer screening, but most had accepted previous childhood vaccinations for their daughters. The overall acceptance of the vaccine was high, and we believe our results are promising for
Blake, Joanna; Macdonald, Silvana; Bayrami, Lisa; Agosta, Vanessa; Milian, Andrea
Whereas many studies have investigated quantitative aspects of book reading (frequency), few have examined qualitative aspects, especially in very young children and through direct observations of shared reading. The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in book-reading styles between mothers and fathers and between mothers from single- and dual-parent families. It also related types of parental verbalizations during book reading to children's reported language measures. Dual-parent (29) and single-parent (24) families were observed in shared book reading with their toddlers (15-month-olds) or young preschoolers (27-month-olds). Parent-child dyads were videotaped while book reading. The initiator of each book-reading episode was coded. Parents' verbalizations were exhaustively coded into 10 categories. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory, and the children were given the Bayley scales. All parents differentiated their verbalizations according to the age rather than the gender of the child, but single mothers imitated female children more than males. Few differences in verbalizations were found between mothers and fathers or between mothers from single- and dual-parent families. Fathers allowed younger children to initiate book-reading episodes more than mothers. For both age groups of children, combined across families, verbalizations that related the book to the child's experience were correlated with reported language measures. Questions and imitations were related to language measures for the older age group. The important types of parental verbalizations during shared book reading for children's language acquisition are relating, questions and imitations.
Espinoza, Guadalupe; Hokoda, Audrey; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Castaneda, Donna
Teen relationship violence is a global phenomenon associated with adverse outcomes. As in other countries, teen relationship violence is of concern in Mexico. However, few studies have examined the risk and protective factors of teen relationship violence among Mexican adolescents. The current study examined whether patriarchal beliefs and exposure to authoritarian parenting among Mexican adolescents are associated with perpetration and victimization of physical and verbal-emotional teen relationship violence. Two hundred and four students (15 – 18 years old) from Monterrey, Mexico completed questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for age revealed that among girls, authoritarian parenting was associated with physical and verbal-emotional victimization and verbal-emotional violence perpetration. Among boys, higher endorsement of patriarchal beliefs was associated with lower reports of physical perpetration and physical victimization. PMID:23277734
Polenick, Courtney A.; Zarit, Steven H.; Birditt, Kira S.; Bangerter, Lauren R.; Seidel, Amber J.; Fingerman, Karen L.
Everyday support given to aging parents is a salient aspect of married life that may have implications for marital quality. Among 132 middle-aged couples drawn from Wave 1 of the Family Exchanges Study, we examined the moderating effects of each spouse’s normative and motivational beliefs about helping parents on associations between the frequency of everyday support that wives and husbands gave to their own parents and marital satisfaction. Husbands' more frequent provision of support was linked to wives' greater marital satisfaction when reports of personal rewards linked to helping parents were high for wives or low for husbands. Conversely, wives’ more frequent provision of support was linked to husbands’ lower marital satisfaction when reports of filial obligation were low for husbands or high for wives. Findings highlight the interdependence within couples, and indicate that both spouses' perceptions are important in understanding linkages between intergenerational support and marital satisfaction. PMID:28154427
Fontenot, Holly B; Domush, Vanessa; Zimet, Gregory D
The purpose of the study was to explore parents' attitudes and beliefs about the nine-valent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV9). Online focus groups were conducted in January, 2015. The U.S. national sample of parents was recruited to four groups: (1) two groups of parents of HPV unvaccinated daughters aged 9-12 years and (2) two groups of parents of vaccinated daughters aged 11-17 years. Participants were 43 parents of vaccinated daughters and 38 parents of unvaccinated daughters. Results indicated low and variable levels of knowledge about HPV, related cancers, and vaccination (e.g., parents unaware vaccine is recommended for boys). Parents were encouraged that HPV9 covered more types, and many said they want the "better" vaccine. Parents of unvaccinated girls wondered whether they should delay vaccination until HPV9 was available, whereas parents of vaccinated girls wondered whether their daughters could be revaccinated with HPV9. Concerns were related to adverse reactions and side effects, whether another new vaccine will be released after HPV9, HPV mutation (i.e., will HPV types change over time--thereby necessitating multiple vaccines?), and cost. Physician recommendation was identified as the most important facilitator of vaccination, with participants wanting providers to exhibit high levels of confidence in and knowledge about HPV vaccines. Last, parents also viewed the prospective idea of a 2-dose HPV9 vaccine as positive. HPV9 recently became available in the United States and has the potential to offer greater cancer prevention if widespread acceptance and uptake occur. Understanding parental perceptions and questions about HPV9 will be important for clinical messaging about this vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tourigny, Jocelyne; Chartrand, Julie; Massicotte, Julie
Changes in health care delivery in Canada and Europe, especially the shift to ambulatory care, have modified the care that children and parents receive and have prompted the need for a partnership alliance. The objectives of this exploratory study were to identify Canadian and Belgian health professionals' beliefs and attitudes towards parental involvement in their child's ambulatory care and to determine if these beliefs varied according to cultural background. Health professionals from both countries generally were in favor of parental involvement in their child's care, but are uncertain about its advantages and disadvantages. Facilitators and barriers mentioned by the health care providers were related to parents' abilities or their attitudes toward partnership, and they also expressed a need for more education on the subject. Results of this study indicate that health professionals working in ambulatory care are not fully ready to utilize parents as true partners in their interventions with children and families. Staff education is an important step towards the establishment and maintenance of a real partnership.
Laird, Robert D.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.
A longitudinal prospective design was used to examine antisocial behavior, two aspects of the parent–child relationship, inept parenting, and adolescents’ beliefs in the appropriateness of monitoring as predictors of parents’ monitoring and change in monitoring during the high school years. 426 adolescents provided reports of their parents’ monitoring knowledge during four yearly assessments beginning the summer before entering grade 9. Greater concurrent levels of monitoring knowledge were a...
Susan Sonnenschein; Claudia Galindo; Shari R. Metzger; Joy A. Thompson; Hui Chih Huang; Heather Lewis
This study explored associations between parents’ beliefs about children’s development and children’s reported math activities at home. Seventy-three parents were interviewed about the frequency of their children’s participation in a broad array of math activities, the importance of children doing math activities at home, how children learn math, parents’ role in their children’s math learning, and parents’ own math skills. Although the sample consisted of African Americans, Chinese, Latino, ...
Erzinger Andrea B.; Steiger Andrea E.
The finding that values, attitudes, and behaviour can be transmitted across generations is long standing. However, the role of fathers in this process has been underinvestigated. Furthermore, many researchers have not tested moderation effects. We extended the literature by investigating maternal and paternal transmission of harsh parenting beliefs to their children 23 years later. Furthermore, we examined the moderating role of interaction quality and included gender and socioeconomic status...
Verhulp, Esmée E; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Pels, Trees V M; Van Weert, Caroline M C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in lay beliefs about emotional problems and attitudes toward mental health care. Additionally, among immigrant Dutch parents, we examined the associations between acculturation orientations and lay beliefs about emotional problems as well as attitudes toward mental health care. In total, 349 pairs of parents and their adolescent children participated in our study (95 native Dutch, 85 Surinamese-Dutch, 87 Turkish-Dutch, 82 Moroccan-Dutch). A vignette was used to examine participants' lay beliefs. Immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents differed in their lay beliefs and attitudes toward mental health care, whereas hardly any differences were revealed among their children. Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch parents showed more passive and fewer active solutions to emotional problems compared to native Dutch parents. Additionally, Moroccan-Dutch and Surinamese-Dutch parents reported greater fear of mental health care compared to native Dutch parents. Furthermore, the results showed that immigrant Dutch parents who were more strongly oriented toward the Dutch culture reported less fear of mental health care. Our results showed clear differences in lay beliefs and attitudes toward mental health care between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents but not between their children. Substantial differences were also found between parents from different immigrant Dutch populations as well as within the population of immigrant Dutch parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Swanson, Vivien; Hannula, Leena; Eriksson, Linda; Wallin, Malin Häggkvist; Strutton, Joan
Many young men and women expect to co-parent their newborn infant. This may have a positive or negative impact on decisions to breastfeed, which is an important health behaviour, influenced by cultural and psycho-social norms. We investigated the relationship between shared parenting, infant feeding beliefs and intentions in male and female (non-parent) adolescents, comparing Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Finland) with high breastfeeding rates with others with low rates (Scotland, USA). We utilised cross-sectional surveys of male and female adolescents (n = 1064, age 12-18) administered directly in schools or via the internet. We assessed attitudes to breast and formula feeding and shared parenting, using a Theory of Planned Behaviour framework, assessing beliefs, attitudes, norms and control as predictors of intention. Male and female adolescents' breastfeeding intentions varied in line with national cultural norms. Young people from Nordic countries (high breastfeeding rates) were significantly more likely to intend to breastfeed than those from Scotland or the USA (low breastfeeding rates). Positive beliefs about breastfeeding, norms and 'exposure' to breastfeeding and feeding confidence were consistently stronger in Nordic countries, whereas young people in Scotland had more positive beliefs, norms and 'exposure' to formula feeding. Differences in parenting beliefs, norms and confidence were less consistent. In logistic regression, cultural group, positive breastfeeding beliefs and exposure, norms, and shared parenting beliefs were significant predictors of breastfeeding feeding intention. Positive beliefs about shared parenting and equal gender norms were related to future breastfeeding intentions for female and male adolescents. Health education programmes for young people could encourage positive breastfeeding choices by considering how this would fit with young people's ideal parenting roles, and by emphasising benefits of complementary maternal and
Chuang, Susan S; Su, Yanjie
This study explores maternal and paternal parenting practices (authoritative or authoritarian) and parental values and goals for toddlers among Chinese mothers and fathers in Canada and China. The participants included 126 families of 1-year-old toddlers (67 Chinese Canadians and 59 mainland Chinese). The findings revealed that Chinese Canadian parents were more supportive of authoritative practices, and Chinese parents were more likely to support authoritarian practices. Between mothers and fathers, gender differences were found within countries. Interparental agreement for parenting beliefs varied by infant gender and country. For parental values, parents generally endorsed self-confidence as the most important trait for their toddlers. Endorsement of other traits (collectivistic and individualistic) varied in importance. Links among parenting beliefs and desired personality traits for their children were also explored. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers (N=123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in kindergarten. Children were also tested on reading and spelling skills in Grades 1 and 2. Parenting styles and teacher interactional styles were measured using parents' and teachers' self-reports in Grade 1. First, the results indicated that both an authoritative parenting style and authoritative teacher interactional style positively predicted children's spelling skill development. Second, authoritative parenting was particularly beneficial for the spelling skill development of children who were at risk for reading disabilities. Third, authoritative teaching promoted spelling skill development particularly among children who were nonreaders in kindergarten but had no risk for reading disabilities. Finally, some evidence was found that authoritative teaching could compensate for the negative impact of nonauthoritative parenting on reading development among kindergarten nonreaders. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.
This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…
Dardennes, Roland M.; Al Anbar, Nebal N.; Prado-Netto, Arthur; Kaye, Kelley; Contejean, Yves; Al Anbar, Nesreen N.
Objectives: To explore the relationship between causal beliefs on autism (CBA) and treatment choices. Design and methods: A cross-sectional design was employed. Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were asked to complete the Lay-Beliefs about Autism Questionnaire (LBA-Q) and answer questions about treatments used. Only items…
Salari, Raziye; Filus, Ania
Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, we studied factors related to parental intention to participate in parenting programs and examined the moderating effects of parent gender on these factors. Participants were a community sample of 290 mothers and 290 fathers of 5- to 10-year-old children. Parents completed a set of questionnaires assessing child emotional and behavioral difficulties and the HBM constructs concerning perceived program benefits and barriers, percei...
Full Text Available The impact of social economic status (SES on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1 home monitoring; (2 parent-child communication; and (3 parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.
Guo, Xiaolin; Lv, Bo; Zhou, Huan; Liu, Chunhui; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Kexin; Luo, Liang
The impact of social economic status (SES) on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls) in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1) home monitoring; (2) parent-child communication; and (3) parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.
Sutin, Angelina R; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio
This research examines whether parental educational attainment and subjective childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with adult offspring well-being and self-beliefs (broadly defined). Participants from the Health and Retirement Study were included if they completed the leave-behind questionnaire in 2006 or 2008 ( N =10,827; M age =68.38; SD =9.81; range=50-101). Participants reported on their own and both parents educational attainment, subjective childhood financial situation, and financial difficulties in childhood at study entry and on well-being in 2006/2008. Linear regression was used to examine the association between offspring education, parental education, childhood SES and three aspects of well-being and self-beliefs: positive affect (e.g., positive emotions, optimism), negative affect (e.g., loneliness, hostility), and cognitive evaluation (e.g., life satisfaction). Participants with more education reported higher well-being (median β=.12). Parental educational attainment, subjective childhood SES, and a significant financial event during childhood were associated with more positive affect, less negative affect, and higher life satisfaction (median β=.05); these associations held controlling for offspring education. The educational and financial environment of childhood may hamper well-being into older adulthood; the offspring's own experiences and achievements do not completely attenuate the association with these aspects of the childhood environment.
Patel, Nimisha; Stevens, Sharon
Most studies examining influences on parent involvement focus on common demographic factors, such as social class or gender, and on elementary grades. In the present study, we investigated a more malleable influence, perceptions of ability, in the context of middle school. We examined how perceptions held by parents, teachers, and students…
Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.
Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…
Enarson, Mark C; Ali, Samina; Vandermeer, Ben; Wright, Robert B; Klassen, Terry P; Spiers, Judith A
The purpose of this survey was to study the beliefs, expectations, and satisfaction of Canadian parents regarding fever and the treatment of their febrile children. A survey was developed exploring caregiver beliefs and treatment strategies, as well as expectations and satisfaction with medical care. Some items were modeled after previous studies to allow comparison. Caregivers with febrile children were recruited from 2005 to 2007 at 3 urgent care centers and emergency departments in Edmonton, Canada: a pediatric emergency department (n = 376), an urban urgent care center (n = 227), and a suburban urgent care clinic (n = 173). High and rapidly rising temperature, as well as physical symptoms associated with fever, caused concern in most parents surveyed. Seventy-four percent of parents felt that the elevated temperature from fever was dangerous and 90.3% always try to treat it. Forty degrees Celsius was the most commonly sited threshold for danger. Identifying the cause (80.6%) and seriousness (87.4%) of fever were the most com-mon stressors identified. Caregivers expected to receive information about the child's illness and appropriate treatment. The parents most often wanted information about febrile seizures and the potential dangers of febrile illness. Only 16.7% of caregivers expected anti-biotics. Nearly 92% of subjects were usually satisfied with medical care. Fever phobia continues to be a significant issue for Canadian parents. As a result, they treat fever aggressively and often seek medical attention. Good communication is important for medical staff caring for febrile children and typically leads to satisfied parents.
Pedro Alexandre Costa
Full Text Available AimDuring the last decade, there have been political changes regarding the rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT individuals in Portugal, such as the right to marry. However, parenting by same-sex couples is not legally allowed. The purpose of this study was to assess Portuguese heterosexuals’ beliefs about same-sex parenting, and the role of religious and political conservatism in shaping these beliefs.MethodA total of 993 participants, aged between 18 and 69 years (M = 34; SD = 11, responded to one of three questionnaires that included a case vignette depicting a different-sex, a female same-sex, or a male same-sex couple wishing to adopt a child. Participants were then asked to evaluate whether the couple would be suitable to adopt a child, and whether they anticipated any social and emotional problems with the child.ResultsParticipants consistently anticipated more children’s social and emotional problems if they were adopted by a same-sex couple. Men evaluated same-sex couples less favourably than women, and even less so the male same-sex couple.ConclusionIt was found that both religious conservatism and right-wing political leaning were associated with more sexual prejudicial beliefs regarding same-sex couples.
Littlewood, Zoe; Greenfield, Sheila
Childhood is a critical period for sun protection, when the skin is particularly susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet radiation. Children are dependent upon parents to implement sun protective measures. Existing qualitative research exploring parents' attitudes and beliefs underpinning children's sun protection is from Australia, which has the highest melanoma incidence rates globally, and thus benefits from widespread sun protection awareness campaigns. Parents' sun protective behaviour may, therefore, differ between Australia and the UK. This study investigates the topic in a UK context, using qualitative methodology to gain detailed insights into a relatively under-researched area. The aim of the study was to explore parents' knowledge and understanding of sun protection in children, and factors that motivate and challenge them in this area. Finally, it aimed to determine if and how ethnicity and skin type influence these attitudes and beliefs. Twenty-two semi-structured individual interviews were carried out with parents of children aged 5 years or younger, recruited from local nurseries. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Four overarching themes emerged, each incorporating two to three sub-themes. 'Attitudes towards children's sun protection' refers to the fact that parents considered sun protection to be important for children, a finding which was consistent between different skin types. 'Sun protection practices' brings together several protective behaviours adopted in children and, to a lesser degree, in parents, and their associated disadvantages. 'Sun safety knowledge' refers to parents' awareness of the risks of sun exposure and the need for protection, and illustrates where gaps in knowledge exist, such as regarding the need for vitamin D, and the importance of vigilant sun protection even in the UK. Finally, 'motivating and facilitating factors' highlights motivations for sun protection in children, and factors that
Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.
This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…
Beck, Amy L; Hoeft, Kristin S; Takayama, John I; Barker, Judith C
Latino children are more likely to be obese than non-Hispanic white children, and feeding patterns that begin in infancy may contribute to this disparity. The objective of this study was to elucidate beliefs and practices related to the introduction of solids and solid food feeding in the first year of life among low-income Latino parents residing in Northern California. We conducted 26 semi-structured interviews that explored the timing of introduction of solids, selection of foods to serve to infants, feeding strategies, sources of information on solid food feeding and concerns about infant weight. We found that most parents relied on traditional practices in selecting first foods for infants and had a strong preference for homemade food, which was often chicken soup with vegetables. Parents generally described responsive feeding practices; however a minority used pressuring practices to encourage infants to eat more. Very few parents practiced repeated gentle introduction of unfamiliar food to increase acceptance. High calorie low nutrient foods were typically introduced at around 12 months of age and parents struggled to limit such foods once children were old enough to ask for them. Parents were concerned about the possibility of infants becoming overweight and considered health care providers to be an important source of information on infant weight status. The results of this study can be used to inform the development of interventions to prevent obesity in Latino children with similar demographics to our study population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Beyer, Alisa M.; Curtis, Jennifer
Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers' memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot and Semb, 2008). In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children's story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to “read or tell the story” as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after 1 week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore, in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers' story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children's processing of the illustrations. PMID:25101018
Nieto, Ana Maria
As Western schooling continues to expand and reach remote communities, it is imperative to understand rural parents' beliefs about formal education and the ways in which they can support their children's schooling. Sociodemographic changes in rural communities have been connected to shifts in parents' cultural values and practices (Greenfield,…
Rena, Syahidah; Abedalaziz, Nabeel; Leng, Chin Hai
The main purpose of this study was to state the relationship between the parenting style and students' attitude toward leisure reading. A total of 147 (65 male and 82 female) students from two classes (class five, 80 and class six, 67) were participated in the present study. The Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Elementary Reading…
George, Meredith; Cutner-Smith, Matthew D.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acculturation on parents' readings of and expectations for physical education. Method: Participants were 39 parents of pupils enrolled at one public middle school. Data were collected with an open-ended questionnaire and follow-up formal interviews. They were analyzed using…
Kucirkova, Natalia; Messer, David; Whitelock, Denise
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of personalized books on parents' and children's engagement during shared book reading. Seven native English parents and their children aged between 12 and 33 months were observed at home when sharing a book made specifically for the child (i.e. a personalized book), a comparable book with no…
Hong, Zuway-R; Lin, Huann-shyang
This study investigated the effects of participating in a book reading club on improving parents' positive interactions with children and positive thinking. A total of 85 parent volunteers were randomized into the experimental or comparison group. The Parent Questionnaire was used to measure positive thinking and interaction with children. Additionally interview results were used to triangulate and elucidate the findings. The findings revealed a positive impact on parents' positive thinking and interaction with children and that these were significant predictors of parents' positive thinking. Implications and recommendations are presented.
Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura
This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Barnathan Julia A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.
Barling, J; Mendelson, M B
The authors postulated a model in which children's perceptions of their parents' job insecurity indirectly affect their grade performance through the effects of beliefs in an unjust world and negative mood. A total of 127 undergraduate students (55 male, 72 female) completed questionnaires on their perceptions of their parents' job insecurity and their own beliefs in an unjust world and negative mood. The parents reported on their own job insecurity. In addition, students provided their course grades from the previous semester 3 months after completing the questionnaires. Support for the proposed model was provided using LISREL 8.
Suggestions about parenting and family relationships are presented in two booklets, one in English and one in Spanish. The Spanish booklet follows roughly the plan of the English booklet, but has been simplified. The booklet begins with a discussion of a philosophy of parenting, examining the importance of self-concept and the formation of values…
DeFauw, Danielle L.
High-quality writing instruction needs to permeate elementary students' in- and outside-of-school experiences. The aim of this research was to explore how teaching writing to parents may support home-school literacy connections. This qualitative case study explored parents' experiences in interactive writing sessions. The descriptive coding and…
Verboord, Marc; Rees, Kees van
The influence of reading socialization on the level of books read in adult life was investigated for birth cohorts who finished secondary education between 1975 and 1998. Three forms of reading socialization were taken into account: socialization in the parental home, literary socialization at
van Bergen, Elsje; Bishop, Dorothy; van Zuijen, Titia; de Jong, Peter F.
Cognitive processes underlying a behavioural outcome (like reading ability) and the impact of familial risk (e.g., for dyslexia) have been studied in isolation. We present a novel design, linking the two avenues. How do familial influences impact on children's cognitive skills, which subsequently underlie reading development? Participants from the…
Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan
This study examined elementary school students' perceived support for recreational reading from their mothers, fathers, and friends. Participants, including 130 fourth graders and 172 fifth graders, completed the researcher-developed Reading Support Survey, which assesses how often children experience and how greatly they enjoy multiple types of…
Leonard, Melinda A; Lorch, Elizabeth P; Milich, Richard; Hagans, Neomia
Children with AD/HD exhibit two disparate areas of difficulty: disrupted interactions with parents and significant problems in story comprehension. This study links these two difficulties by examining parent-child joint picture-book reading to determine whether there were diagnostic group differences in parent and child storytelling. Parents of 25 children with ADHD and 39 comparison children (mean age = 7.5 years) told their children a story based on a wordless picture-book, and children then retold the story to an examiner from memory. Parents in both groups told stories of similar length and complexity and demonstrated similar affective and responsive quality. The length of the child's retell of the parent's story did not differ across groups but children with ADHD included fewer goal-based events. RESULTS are discussed in terms of implications for enhancing the quality and frequency of parent-child storytelling among children with ADHD.
levels of education in Nigeria (Jiboku, 1991; 1998; Alegbeleye, 2004;. Idogo, 2005 .... One important factor that may bring about variations in the impact of parenting style on academic achievement in general is the sex of the child. Several ...
Strouse, Gabrielle A; Ganea, Patricia A
Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17-26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures) and three-dimensional (replica objects) formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children's animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children's learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children.
Al-Khaledi, Maram; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia; Packman, Ann; Alshatti, Tariq
An Arabic version of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes Inventory [POSHA-E; St Louis, K. O. (2005), a global instrument to measure public attitudes about stuttering. (The ASHA Leader, 22, 2-13)] was administered to 424 Arab parents of preschool and school age children in 18 government schools across all six governorates in Kuwait. The survey questions pertained to and investigated attitudes, knowledge and beliefs towards stuttering as well as comparative attitudes toward several other conditions. The aim was to identify whether potential barriers existed that might hinder the establishment and conduct of treatment programs for stuttering within Kuwait. These potential barriers might be negative stereotypes, misconceptions about stuttering, cultural beliefs as well as lack of awareness of the disorder within Kuwaiti society. The instrument successfully sampled a variety of beliefs, reactions and emotions that identified cultural beliefs, societal ignorance and confusion about the disorder. It was found that although stuttering appears to be a disorder that most people in Kuwait are aware of and familiar with, their level of knowledge about stuttering in general and about some specific aspects of the disorder was limited. This indicates a need to disseminate scientific information about stuttering in Kuwait and possibly other Arabic speaking countries. Readers will be able: (1) to evaluate the status of speech-language pathology in Kuwait and the Middle East and compare it to that in other countries, such as Australia and the United States; (2) to list similarities in the stereotypes and attitudes towards stuttering cross-culturally. Readers will also be able to: (3) discuss the differences in knowledge and attitudes according to age, gender and educational level in Kuwait; (4) discuss public awareness and knowledge of stuttering among Arabs in Kuwait specifically.
Swift Judy A
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of risk factors are associated with the development of childhood obesity which can be identified during infancy. These include infant feeding practices, parental response to infant temperament and parental perception of infant growth and appetite. Parental beliefs and understanding are crucial determinants of infant feeding behaviour; therefore any intervention would need to take account of their views. This study aimed to explore UK parents' beliefs concerning their infant's size, growth and feeding behaviour and parental receptiveness to early intervention aimed at reducing the risk of childhood obesity. Method Six focus groups were undertaken in a range of different demographic localities, with parents of infants less than one year of age. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results 38 parents (n = 36 female, n = 2 male, age range 19-45 years (mean 30.1 years, SD 6.28 participated in the focus groups. 12/38 were overweight (BMI 25-29.99 and 8/38 obese (BMI >30. Five main themes were identified. These were a parental concern about breast milk, infant contentment and growth; b the belief that the main cause of infant distress is hunger is widespread and drives inappropriate feeding; c rationalisation for infants' larger size; d parental uncertainty about identifying and managing infants at risk of obesity and e intentions and behaviour in relation to a healthy lifestyle. Conclusions There are a number of barriers to early intervention with parents of infants at risk of developing obesity. Parents are receptive to prevention prior to weaning and need better support with best practice in infant feeding. In particular, this should focus on helping them understand the physiology of breast feeding, how to differentiate between infant distress caused by hunger and other causes and the timing of weaning. Some parents also need
Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M; Sexton, Holly R
This study examined whether Head Start, the nation's main two-generation program for low-income families, benefits children in part through positive changes in parents' use of spanking and reading to children. Data were drawn from the 3-year-old cohort of the national evaluation of the Head Start program known as the Head Start Impact Study (N = 2,063). Results indicated that Head Start had small, indirect effects on children's spelling ability at Age 4 and their aggression at Age 4 through an increase in parents' reading to their children. Taken together, the results suggest that parents play a role in sustaining positive benefits of the Head Start program for children's behavior and literacy skills, one that could be enhanced with a greater emphasis on parent involvement and education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Letchumanan, Krishnanveni
Realising the clear dichotomy between schools and homes, the Malaysia government has now turned its attention to stakeholders and called for an increase involvement of parents, who are critical in transforming the education system. However, a clear line of demarcation continues to exist between the two prime educators of young children. Schools…
Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline
This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Leung, Angel N M; Wong, Natalie; Farver, JoAnn M
The present study tested how exposure to two types of responses to a hypothetical simulated Facebook setting influenced cyber-bystanders' perceived control and normative beliefs using a 4 cyberbully-victim group (pure cyberbullies, non-involved, pure cyberbullied victims, and cyberbullied-victims) × 2 condition (offend vs. defend) experimental design. 203 Hong Kong Chinese secondary school and university students (132 females, 71 males; 12 to 28; M = 16.70; SD = 3.03 years old) were randomly assigned into one of two conditions. Results showed that participants' involvement in cyberbullying significantly related to their control beliefs about bully and victim assisting behaviors, while exposure to the two different conditions (offend vs. defend comments) was related to both their control and normative beliefs. In general, the defend condition promoted higher control beliefs to help the victims and promoted higher normative beliefs to help the victims. Regardless of their past involvement in cyberbullying and exposure to offend vs. defend conditions, both cyber-bullies and cyber-victims were more inclined to demonstrate normative beliefs to help victims than to assist bullies. These results have implications for examining environmental influences in predicting bystander behaviors in cyberbullying contexts, and for creating a positive environment to motivate adolescents to become "upstanders" in educational programs to combat cyberbullying.
Leung, Angel N. M.; Wong, Natalie; Farver, JoAnn M.
The present study tested how exposure to two types of responses to a hypothetical simulated Facebook setting influenced cyber-bystanders’ perceived control and normative beliefs using a 4 cyberbully-victim group (pure cyberbullies, non-involved, pure cyberbullied victims, and cyberbullied-victims) × 2 condition (offend vs. defend) experimental design. 203 Hong Kong Chinese secondary school and university students (132 females, 71 males; 12 to 28; M = 16.70; SD = 3.03 years old) were randomly assigned into one of two conditions. Results showed that participants’ involvement in cyberbullying significantly related to their control beliefs about bully and victim assisting behaviors, while exposure to the two different conditions (offend vs. defend comments) was related to both their control and normative beliefs. In general, the defend condition promoted higher control beliefs to help the victims and promoted higher normative beliefs to help the victims. Regardless of their past involvement in cyberbullying and exposure to offend vs. defend conditions, both cyber-bullies and cyber-victims were more inclined to demonstrate normative beliefs to help victims than to assist bullies. These results have implications for examining environmental influences in predicting bystander behaviors in cyberbullying contexts, and for creating a positive environment to motivate adolescents to become “upstanders” in educational programs to combat cyberbullying. PMID:29740362
Angel N. M. Leung
Full Text Available The present study tested how exposure to two types of responses to a hypothetical simulated Facebook setting influenced cyber-bystanders’ perceived control and normative beliefs using a 4 cyberbully-victim group (pure cyberbullies, non-involved, pure cyberbullied victims, and cyberbullied-victims × 2 condition (offend vs. defend experimental design. 203 Hong Kong Chinese secondary school and university students (132 females, 71 males; 12 to 28; M = 16.70; SD = 3.03 years old were randomly assigned into one of two conditions. Results showed that participants’ involvement in cyberbullying significantly related to their control beliefs about bully and victim assisting behaviors, while exposure to the two different conditions (offend vs. defend comments was related to both their control and normative beliefs. In general, the defend condition promoted higher control beliefs to help the victims and promoted higher normative beliefs to help the victims. Regardless of their past involvement in cyberbullying and exposure to offend vs. defend conditions, both cyber-bullies and cyber-victims were more inclined to demonstrate normative beliefs to help victims than to assist bullies. These results have implications for examining environmental influences in predicting bystander behaviors in cyberbullying contexts, and for creating a positive environment to motivate adolescents to become “upstanders” in educational programs to combat cyberbullying.
Aram, Dorit; Fine, Yaara; Ziv, Margalit
The study examined the efficacy of an intervention designed to promote parents' and preschoolers' references to storybooks' plot and socio-cognitive themes during shared reading within a sample of 58 families from low-SES background. All parents were given four books, one new book weekly, and were instructed to read each book four times per week…
A Hajigholami Yazdi
Full Text Available Introduction: Each family utilizes specific methods for personal and social education of their children. These methods that are called “Parenting style” are affected by various factors such as biological, cultural, social, political, and economic factors. The present study intends to investigate the effectiveness of parental skills training on worry, anxiety and self-efficacy beliefs of single-child and multi-child parents. Methods: In this experimental study, two private girls' school located in the city of Karaj, were randomly selected as the control and experimental groups. Parents of experimental group’s students (54 couples with a voluntary assignment participated in 8 training sessions. Data were obtained by General Self-efficacy Beliefs Questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ which were then analyzed by t-test and ANOVA. Results: Results showed that there was not any significant difference in the pretest between single-child and multi-child parents. Regarding control and experimental groups, a significant difference has been detected between the pretest and posttest between two groups. Multifactor ANOVA test results also showed that the effect of parental skills training is significant on fear, anxiety and self-efficacy. But the number of children does not have any significant effect on the fear, anxiety and self-efficacy. Conclusion: Findings emphasize the necessity and importance of parental skills training to facilitate children nurture, decrease stress and worry resulting from parenting responsibility.
van Bergen, Elsje; Van Zuijen, Titia L.; Bishop, Dorothy; de Jong, Peter F.
Associations between home literacy environment and children's reading ability are often assumed to reflect a direct influence. However, heritability could account for the association between parent and child literacy-related measures. We used data from 101 mother/father/child triads to consider the
Brandon, Dorothy P.; Tsamaase, Marea; Humphrey, Ronnie; Crenshaw, Kevin
Urbanization is causing a major shift in Extension's programming throughout the United States. We present results of a nontraditional urban program (the Parent-Child Reading Enhancement Program) that is being implemented by Alabama Cooperative Extension System's Urban Affairs and New Nontraditional Programs unit. Findings suggest that this…
Moss, Katie Marie
This study examined the relationship of family characteristics (i.e., SES and race), parent-child engagement, and interactive reading behaviors on preschooler's emergent literacy scores. This study used a structural equation model to examine variables that impact emergent literacy development by evaluating data from the Early Childhood…
Hemmerechts, K.; Agirdag, O.; Kavadias, D.
In this article, we explore the relationship between parental literacy activities with the child, socio-economic status (SES) and reading literacy. We draw upon the Bourdieusian theory of habitus development to explore this relationship. Multilevel analyses of a survey of 43,870 pupils (with an
In this article, I study the long-term effects of reading socialization in the parental home, the use that is made of the extensive supply of books in the library, and the cultural encouragement that takes place in secondary school. Employing representative data for the Netherlands in 1998 (N=1762),
In this article, I study the long-term effects of reading socialization in the parental home, the use that is made of the extensive supply of books in the library, and the cultural encouragement that takes place in secondary school. Employing representative data for the Netherlands in 1998 (N=1762),
Han, Jisu; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey
Research shows that home environments play a critical role in developing children's early literacy skills. Given the importance of developing early literacy skills to bolster children's chances for subsequent academic success, this article highlights the role of parent-child shared book reading. Summarizing research on different types of…
Blumberg, Daniel M.; Griffin, Dawn A.
This article introduces a successful reading program, Family Connections, for incarcerated parents and their children. A comprehensive review of the literature supports the need to implement prison programs from an ecological perspective, in which the needs of inmates and their families are considered. More specifically, the benefits of directing…
Breit-Smith, Allison; van Kleeck, Anne; Prendeville, Jo-Anne; Pan, Wei
Twenty-three preschool-age children, 3;6 (years; months) to 4;1, were videotaped separately with their mothers and fathers while each mother and father read a different unfamiliar storybook to them. The text from the unfamiliar storybooks was parsed and coded into story grammar elements and all parental extratextual utterances were transcribed and…
Karimi, Mohammad Nabi; Dehghani, Asieh
The present study examined EFL teachers' theoretical orientations towards reading, their reading instructional practices and the correspondence between the theoretical orientations/practices. The study participants were 80 male and female Iranian EFL teachers teaching at a number of private English language institutes. Half of the teachers were…
Castro, Vanessa L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Lozada, Fantasy T.; Craig, Ashley B.
Children who are able to recognize others' emotions are successful in a variety of socioemotional domains, yet we know little about how school-aged children's abilities develop, particularly in the family context. We hypothesized that children develop emotion recognition skill as a function of parents' own emotion-related beliefs,…
Magi, Katrin; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This longitudinal study investigated the cross-lagged associations between children's academic skill development, task-avoidant behaviour in the context of homework, and parental beliefs about their child's success from kindergarten to Grade 2. The participants were 1267 children. The children's pre-skills were assessed at the end of the…
Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.
Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…
Verhulp, Esmée E.; Stevens, Gonneke W.J.M.; Van Weert, Caroline M.C.; Pels, Trees V.M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.
Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in lay
Verhulp, Esmée E.; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Pels, Trees V M; Van Weert, Caroline M C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Objective: Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in
Full Text Available Family is a crucial factor to determine the amount, the duration, and the complexity of children’s sport activities. This study aims at comparing the beliefs concerning the involvement in sport activities among parents of children with Down syndrome (DS and parents of typically developing children (TDC. A phenomenological theoretical framework was adopted to realize semistructured interviews with the parents. The participants were 35 parents: 19 with children and adolescents with DS and 16 with TDC. The main facilitation/barrier themes identified by the parents of children with DS were the family and the expert at Adapted Physical Activity (APA instructors. Conversely, the parents of TDC identified social factors related to family as the only barrier. One of the issues that emerge from this study is the lack of home-based physical activity (PA intervention programs aimed at involving families and children.
Naisseh, Matilda; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude; Hautier, Christophe
Previous studies have neglected the multivariate nature of motivation. The purpose of the current study was to first identify motivational profiles of parents' own physical activity. Second, the study examined if such profiles differ in the way in which parents perceive their children's competence in physical activity and the importance and support given to their children's physical activity. 711 physically active parents (57% mothers; M age = 39.7 yr.; children 6-11 years old) completed the Situational Motivation Scale, the Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity Importance and their Children's Ability Questionnaire, and the Parental Support for Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses indicated four motivational profiles: Highly self-determined, Moderately self-determined, Non-self-determined, and Externally motivated profiles. Parents' beliefs and support toward their children's physical activity significantly differed across these profiles. It is the first study using Self-Determination Theory that provides evidence for the interpersonal outcomes of motivation.
Karimi, Mohammad Nabi; Atai, Mohamood Reza
Given the importance associated with multiple-document literacy in the present-day knowledge societies and the dearth of research in English Language Teaching in general and English for Specific/Academic Purposes (ESAP) contexts in particular on multiple-document comprehension and the significance of reader beliefs in this type of comprehension,…
Retelsdorf, Jan; Schwartz, Katja; Asbrock, Frank
According to expectancy-value theory, the gender stereotypes of significant others such as parents, peers, or teachers affect students' competence beliefs, values, and achievement-related behavior. Stereotypically, gender beliefs about reading favor girls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers' gender stereotypes in relation to…
Cowie, Eloise; White, Katherine; Hamilton, Kyra
Despite the unequivocal benefits of regular physical activity, many parents engage in lower levels of physical activity (PA) following the birth of a child. Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and health action process approach (HAPA), an integrative model was developed to examine variables predicting PA in parents of very young children. In addition, key beliefs related to PA intentions and behaviour among parents of very young children were investigated. A prospective-correlational design with two waves of data collection, spaced one week apart, was adopted. Parents (N = 297) completed an online- or paper-based questionnaire assessing TPB global constructs and belief-based items as well as family social support and planning from the HAPA. One week later, parents self-reported their PA behaviour. Data were analysed using latent variable structural equation modelling. Findings revealed the model was a good fit to the data, accounting for 62% and 27% of the variance in PA intentions and behaviour, respectively. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. Family social support failed to predict both planning and intentions. Physical activity was predicted by planning only, with an indirect effect occurring from intentions to behaviour through planning. A number of key beliefs on intentions and behaviour were also identified. This formative research provides further understanding of the factors that influence the PA behaviour of parents of very young children. Results provide targets for future interventions to increase PA for parents in a transition phase where PA levels decline. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Despite physical activity benefits, many parents are inactive following the birth of a child Social-cognitive models have demonstrated efficacy in predicting physical activity Weaknesses are inherent in the use of single theories to explain behaviour What does this study
Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F
Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents' attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated with a positive attitude toward
Wan, Abdul Manan W M; Norazawati, A K; Lee, Y Y
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a major public health problem in Malaysia. Parents play an important role in child feeding especially among younger children. A study was conducted to evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and practices in child feeding among parents of normal weight, as well as overweight and obese primary school children in Kelantan using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 175 Malay children from three schools in Kota Bharu district in Kelantan. This study showed that 13.1% of the children were overweight and obese. Scores for perceived parent weight (p parents of overweight and obese children compared to parents of children with normal body weight. However, the score for pressure to eat among parents of overweight and obese children was significantly lower (p parents of normal weight children. The perceived child weight (r = 0.468, p parental weight (r = 0.190, p children's body mass index (BMI), whereas pressure to eat factor (r = -0.355, p children's body mass index (BMI). The findings showed that parental feeding practices were linked to children's weight status and childhood obesity. Therefore parents should be given education and guidance on appropriate child feeding practices to maintain their child's nutritional status on a healthy weight range.
Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C
To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were transcribed and common themes were identified using the constant comparative method and NVivo software. Mothers often described their parents' feeding style as authoritarian or neglectful, and their own current style as comparatively indulgent and better. Mothers described parents of overweight children as inept or neglectful, but they never described their own parenting as such. Encouraging mothers to reflect on how they were fed as children, how it may influence their current parenting, and how the relationship between mothering and child obesity is complex are important nutrition education opportunities. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parker, Alison E; Halberstadt, Amy G; Dunsmore, Julie C; Townley, Greg; Bryant, Alfred; Thompson, Julie A; Beale, Karen S
We conducted a qualitative study to explore parental beliefs about emotions in the family across three cultures (African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian), using the underutilized yet powerful methodology of focus groups. The main goal of this monograph is to understand parents’ beliefs about the role of emotions in the family and how cultural or ethnic background may influence those beliefs. Based on philosophical traditions and previous research, three dimensions of parental beliefs were predicted: Value of Emotion, Socialization of Emotion, and Controllability of Emotion. We expected new themes to emerge during the focus groups.Twelve focus groups were conducted with 87 parents from the three cultural groups mentioned above. Groups met for two sessions scheduled 2 weeks apart. Focus group discussions were led by same-ethnicity moderators. Aninductive analysis was conducted; key themes and subthemes were identified.All three theoretically derived dimensions were well represented in each focus group. Cultural similarities in themes within these dimensions included children’s appropriate expression of negative emotions, role of emotion in the home, children’s capacity for controlling emotions, and parents’ role in socialization of emotion. Cultural variations included concern about parents’ expression of negative emotion, children’s modulation of positive emotion, the role emotions play in behavior, and choice in emotional experience. Two new dimensions also emerged: Relational Nature of Emotions and Changeability of Emotions. Cultural similarities in themes within these dimensions included emphasis on emotional connections with children, emotional contagion in families, developmental change in children’s emotions, and intergenerational change in emotion socialization. Cultural variation included discussion of emotions as guides for action and children’s emotional privacy. Dimensions and the themes and subthemes within them
De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D; Thomas, Sarah A; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine
Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions-particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment-predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents' and children and adolescents' abilities to decode and identify others' emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents' and adolescents' emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54 % African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals).
Chen, Wei-Wen; Ho, Hsiu-Zu
The excellent academic performance among East-Asian students has drawn international attention from educators and psychologists. However, the process that underlies student academic achievement for this particular group has rarely been documented. The present study examines how the relation between perceived parental involvement and Taiwanese students' academic achievement is mediated by student academic beliefs (i.e., beliefs about effort, academic self-concept, and perceived control). The study further explores whether this mediating effect varies with types of filial piety. Participants were 468 first-year students from colleges and universities in Taiwan. Multiple-group mediating models were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicated that, for the Taiwanese sample, students' academic beliefs mediated the relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement. Furthermore, the mediational effect was significant for the reciprocal filial type, but not for the authoritarian filial type. The importance of the quality of the parent-child relationship and the internalization process related to children's assumptions of their parents' educational values indicate the need for a contextual view when examining predictors of student academic achievement.
Durand, Tina M.; Perez, Nicole A.
Parental involvement is an important component of children's school success. Although the literature on parental involvement among Latino families is growing and moving from deficit-based perspectives, very few studies have examined the parental involvement beliefs and practices of Latino families who vary across demographic and sociocultural…
Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M
Drawing on the belief-based framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study employs qualitative methodology involving individual and group interviews to examine the beliefs associated with regular physical activity performance among parents of young children (N = 40). The data were analysed using thematic content analysis. A range of advantages (e.g. improves parenting practices), disadvantages (e.g. interferes with commitments), barriers (e.g. time), and facilitators (e.g. social support) to performing physical activity are identified. Normative pressures are also identified as affecting parents' activity behaviour. These identified beliefs can be used to inform interventions to challenge inactivity among this at-risk group.
Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…
Yazicioglu, Iffet; Jones, Judith A; Cortés, Dharma; Rich, Sharron; Garcia, Raul
This study compared scores and psychometric properties from self-identified Hispanic parents who completed Pediatric Oral Health-related Quality of life (POQL) parent report-on-child questionnaires in Spanish or English. The study hypothesized that there were no differences in psychometric properties or POQL scores by parent reading language preference, controlling for dental needs, child's place of birth, age, insurance and use of care. POQL scores were computed, and the internal consistency, feasibility, factor structure and construct validity of the Spanish language version assessed. Hispanic parents (N = 387) of 8-14 year old children (mean age 10.2) completed the survey; 237 in Spanish and 150 in English. Internal consistency scores were higher (Cronbach α range = .86-.93) among Hispanic parents who completed the questionnaire in Spanish than in English (.66-.86). POQL scores from parents who completed questionnaires in Spanish were higher (worse) overall (6.03 vs. 3.82, P = 0.022), as were physical (11.61 vs. 6.54, P = 0.001) and role functioning domains (1.87 vs. 0.82, P = 0.029). Items for crying, pain, and eating were higher (P parent reports of dental visit in the last year (P = 0.05) and worse oral health than a year ago (P = 0.002), controlling for reading language (not significant) and visit in last year in the final multivariate linear regression. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Do, Hoai; Seng, Paularita; Talbot, Jocelyn; Acorda, Elizabeth; Coronado, Gloria D; Taylor, Victoria M
The cervical cancer incidence rate among Cambodian American women is 15.0 per 100,000, compared to 7.7 per 100,000 among non-Latina white women. HPV infection has been identified as a universal risk factor for cervical cancer. The HPV vaccine was recently approved in the United States for females aged 9-26 years. There is little information about HPV vaccination knowledge and beliefs in Southeast Asian communities. We conducted 13 key informant interviews with Cambodian community leaders, as well as four focus groups with Cambodian parents (37 participants). Two of the focus groups included fathers and two of the focus groups included mothers. Interview and focus group questions addressed HPV vaccine barriers and facilitators. Participants had limited knowledge about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine. Barriers to HPV vaccination included a lack of information about the vaccine, as well as concerns about vaccine safety, effectiveness, and financial costs. The most important facilitators were a health care provider recommendation for vaccination and believing in the importance of disease prevention. Future cervical cancer control educational programs for Cambodians should promote use of the HPV vaccine for age-eligible individuals. Health care providers who serve Cambodian communities should be encouraged to recommend HPV vaccination.
The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated…
Moore, Erin; Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bohn, Alexandria; Hawes, Starlyn; Bowe-Thompson, Carole
Parent-child sex communication has been shown to be protective against sexual risk among African American youth. The current study sought to use the theory of planned behavior as a framework for focus group discussions (N = 54 youth participants aged 12-19 years) to explore church youths' (a) sex beliefs and values (attitudes), (b) sources and evaluation of sex communication and education (subjective norms), (c) facilitator/barriers to adolescent sexual risk reduction and communication behaviors (perceived behavioral control), and (d) intentions to engage in these behaviors. Additionally, participants identified strategies for consideration in developing tailored parent-child-church sex communication education programs for use in African American churches. Themes suggested both positive and negative attitudes toward premarital sex and parents and churches as key sources of sex education and communication. Strategies to enhance parent-child-church sex communication are discussed in the context of these findings.
Toste, Jessica R.; Capin, Philip; Vaughn, Sharon
This randomized controlled trial focused on 59 struggling readers in the third and fourth grades (30 female, 29 male) and examined the efficacy of an intervention aimed at increasing students' multisyllabic word reading (MWR). The study also explored the relative effects of an embedded motivational beliefs (MB) training component. Struggling…
Lordán, Eva; Solé, Isabel; Beltran, Francesc S.
The aim of this research was to develop a new questionnaire for exploring the reading beliefs of undergraduate students, because the only currently available instrument has conceptual and methodological limitations. The paper describes the process of developing the instrument and presents a range of psychometric data obtained from a sample of 558…
Thomas, Kali S.; McIlvane, Jessica M.; Haley, William E.
We studied the impact of the diagnostic label of osteoarthritis and educational information on family members' attributions, perceptions, and willingness to help older parents with pain. Undergraduate students (N = 636) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions where they read vignettes about an older mother with chronic pain, which varied…
Hinshaw, Stephen P; Zupan, Brian A; Simmel, Cassandra; Nigg, Joel T; Melnick, Sharon
Because of the centrality of peer relationship difficulties for children with attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we investigated behavioral (overt and covert antisocial activity), internalizing (self-reports and observed social isolation), and familial (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting beliefs) predictors of peer sociometric nominations among previously unfamiliar, ethnically diverse ADHD (N=73) and comparison (N=60) boys, aged 6-12 years. Authoritative maternal parenting beliefs and negatively weighted social isolation explained significant variance in positive peer regard; aggression, covert behavior, and authoritative parenting beliefs were the independent predictors of both negative peer status and peer social preference. We extended such predictions with statistical control of (1) child cognitive variables, (2) maternal psychopathology, and (3) ADHD boys, but authoritative parenting beliefs were stronger predictors in ADHD than in comparison youth. We discuss family-peer linkages regarding peer competence.
Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Lindly, Olivia J.; Sinche, Brianna
This study aimed to assess variation in parent beliefs about causes of learning and developmental problems in U.S. children with autism spectrum disorder, using data from a nationally representative survey. Results showed that beliefs about a genetic/hereditary cause of learning/developmental problems were most common, but nearly as many parents…
Montaño, Daniel E; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Hamilton, Deven T; Gorn, Gerald; Kasprzyk, Danuta
Slow adult male circumcision uptake is one factor leading some to recommend increased priority for infant male circumcision (IMC) in sub-Saharan African countries. This research, guided by the integrated behavioral model (IBM), was carried out to identify key beliefs that best explain Zimbabwean parents' motivation to have their infant sons circumcised. A quantitative survey, designed from qualitative elicitation study results, was administered to independent representative samples of 800 expectant mothers and 795 expectant fathers in two urban and two rural areas in Zimbabwe. Multiple regression analyses found IMC motivation among fathers was explained by instrumental attitude, descriptive norm and self-efficacy; while motivation among mothers was explained by instrumental attitude, injunctive norm, descriptive norm, self-efficacy, and perceived control. Regression analyses of beliefs underlying IBM constructs found some overlap but many differences in key beliefs explaining IMC motivation among mothers and fathers. We found differences in key beliefs among urban and rural parents. Urban fathers' IMC motivation was explained best by behavioral beliefs, while rural fathers' motivation was explained by both behavioral and efficacy beliefs. Urban mothers' IMC motivation was explained primarily by behavioral and normative beliefs, while rural mothers' motivation was explained mostly by behavioral beliefs. The key beliefs we identified should serve as targets for developing messages to improve demand and maximize parent uptake as IMC programs are rolled out. These targets need to be different among urban and rural expectant mothers and fathers.
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.
This brochure (in Spanish) offers some practical tips for Spanish-speaking parents who wish to read to their young children. The brochure first provides general tips, such as "Lea a su hijo en voz alto por lo menos unos 15 minutos todos los dias" (Read to your child aloud for at least 15 minutes daily), and "Estabeleza una rotina y…
Cline, Keely D.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope
Research Findings: The objective of this study was to understand how instructional book-reading style and emotional quality of reading interact and relate to cognitive skills in a sample of at-risk infants and toddlers. Participants were 81 parents and their children participating in Early Head Start programs in the rural Midwest. Correlation and…
Andrea Follmer Greenhoot
Full Text Available Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers’ memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot & Semb, 2008. In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children’s story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to read or tell the story as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after one week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore,in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers’ story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children’s processing of the illustrations.
Kaur-Bola, Kulwinder; Randhawa, Gurch
Empirical research has shown that some South Asian families from Muslim backgrounds may use fewer additional support services for their severely impaired children compared to other non-Muslim families. Often this has been attributed to socioeconomic factors and stereotypical views such as "the family's faith prohibits the use of specific services". This paper focuses on clarifying what Islam purports to say about impairment and considers how cultural influences may inadvertently influence some South Asian parents' decisions to use services for their severely impaired children. This work aims to improve professional-parent/patient communication by enhancing better understanding of Islam on impairment, and supporting non-Muslim professionals to appreciate the differences between Islamic religion and general South Asian cultural beliefs regarding disability. Fourteen parents from ten Pakistani and Bangladeshi families took part in semi-structured open-ended interviews. Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. The emerging theory suggested most first generation Muslim families from rural villages were unable to distinguish between Islamic religious and cultural beliefs on impairment, and risked missing out on essential services due to poor professional-parent/patient communication.
Salari, Raziye; Filus, Ania
Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, we studied factors related to parental intention to participate in parenting programs and examined the moderating effects of parent gender on these factors. Participants were a community sample of 290 mothers and 290 fathers of 5- to 10-year-old children. Parents completed a set of questionnaires assessing child emotional and behavioral difficulties and the HBM constructs concerning perceived program benefits and barriers, perceived child problem susceptibility and severity, and perceived self-efficacy. The hypothesized model was evaluated using structural equation modeling. The results showed that, for both mothers and fathers, perceived program benefits were associated with higher intention to participate in parenting programs. In addition, higher intention to participate was associated with lower perceived barriers only in the sample of mothers and with higher perceived self-efficacy only in the sample of fathers. No significant relations were found between intention to participate and perceived child problem susceptibility and severity. Mediation analyses indicated that, for both mothers and fathers, child emotional and behavioral problems had an indirect effect on parents' intention to participate by increasing the level of perceived benefits of the program. As a whole, the proposed model explained about 45 % of the variance in parental intention to participate. The current study suggests that mothers and fathers may be motivated by different factors when making their decision to participate in a parenting program. This finding can inform future parent engagement strategies intended to increase both mothers' and fathers' participation rates in parenting programs.
Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Acosta, Sandra; Davis, Heather; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Saenz, Laura; Soares, Denise; Resendez, Nora; Zhu, Leina
Research Findings: This study investigated the association between Mexican American maternal education and socioeconomic status (SES) and child vocabulary as mediated by parental reading beliefs, home literacy environment (HLE), and parent-child shared reading frequency. As part of a larger study, maternal reports of education level, SES, HLE, and…
Goldstein, Alison; Cole, Thomas; Cordes, Sara
Studies have stressed the importance of counting with children to promote formal numeracy abilities; however, little work has investigated when parents begin to engage in this behavior with their young children. In the current study, we investigated whether parents elaborated on numerical information when reading a counting book to their preverbal infants and whether developmental differences in numerical input exist even in the 1st year of life. Parents and their 5-10 months old infants were asked to read, as they would at home, two books to their infants: a counting book and another book that did not have numerical content. Parents' spontaneous statements rarely focused on number and those that did consisted primarily of counting, with little emphasis on labeling the cardinality of the set. However, developmental differences were observed even in this age range, such that parents were more likely to make numerical utterances when reading to older infants. Together, results are the first to characterize naturalistic reading behaviors between parents and their preverbal infants in the context of counting books, suggesting that although counting books promote numerical language in parents, infants still receive very little in the way of numerical input before the end of the 1st year of life. While little is known regarding the impact of number talk on the cognitive development of young infants, the current results may guide future work in this area by providing the first assessment of the characteristics of parental numerical input to preverbal infants.
Otto, Wendi J.
Research on parenting styles and children's developmental outcomes have been prominent in the parenting and achievement literature for decades and research shows that parenting style is not consistent across families from diverse backgrounds (Baumrind, 1971; Chao, 1994; Grusec, Goodnow, & Kuzcynski, 2000). Building on this research, this study…
Alison Goldstein; Thomas Cole; Sara Cordes
Studies have stressed the importance of counting with children to promote formal numeracy abilities; however little work has investigated when parents begin to engage in this behavior with their young children. In the current study, we investigated whether parents elaborated on numerical information when reading a counting book to their preverbal infants and whether developmental differences in numerical input exist even in the first year of life. Parents and their 5-10 month old infants wer...
Kelley, J.; Graaf, N.D. de
How much does a nation's religious environment affect the religious beliefs of its citizens? Do religious nations differfrom secular nations in how beliefs are passed on from generation to generation? To find out, we use data from the 1991 International Social Survey Programme collected in 15
Full Text Available Studies have stressed the importance of counting with children to promote formal numeracy abilities; however little work has investigated when parents begin to engage in this behavior with their young children. In the current study, we investigated whether parents elaborated on numerical information when reading a counting book to their preverbal infants and whether developmental differences in numerical input exist even in the first year of life. Parents and their 5-10 month old infants were asked to read, as they would at home, two books to their infants: a counting book and another book that did not have numerical content. Parents’ spontaneous statements rarely focused on number and those that did consisted primarily of counting, with little emphasis on labeling the cardinality of the set. However, developmental differences were observed even in this age range, such that parents were more likely to make numerical utterances when reading to older infants. Together, results are the first to characterize naturalistic reading behaviors between parents and their preverbal infants in the context of counting books, suggesting that although counting books promote numerical language in parents, infants still receive very little in the way of numerical input before the end of the first year of life. While little is known regarding the impact of number talk on the cognitive development of young infants, the current results may guide future work in this area by providing the first assessment of the characteristics of parental numerical input to preverbal infants.
Reiff, Marian; Bugos, Eva; Giarelli, Ellen; Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Sankar, Pamela L.; Mulchandani, Surabhi
Despite increasing utilization of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), limited information exists about how results influence parents' beliefs about etiology and prognosis. We conducted in-depth interviews and surveys with 57 parents of children with ASD who received CMA results categorized as pathogenic,…
Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta
To analyse eating and physical activity preferences among adolescent school children and to compare the teenagers' lifestyle declarations with their parents' beliefs. Unfavorable behavior in eating habits and physical activity may result in serious dysfunctions and diseases, such as eating disorders and incorrect body mass. A retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in 2010-2011. The data was collated from 711 pupils and 266 parents. The survey included questions on: breakfast consumption, types of food eaten for breakfast, time of supper, the daily number of meals, the quantity of fruit and vegetables, food products purchased in the school shop, as well as the type and level of physical activity. In the population of children aged 14-15 years, 10% do not eat 1st breakfast and 15% do not eat 2nd breakfast, 50% eat dairy products for 1st breakfast, 70% have sandwiches for 2nd breakfast, 45% most frequently buy snacks in the school shop, 65% prefer physical activity in the form of team games, and 90% willingly participate in PE classes. The parents' beliefs differ from their children's declarations with regard to: breakfast consumption, the number of meals a day, the quantity of fruit, and participation in PE classes. The lifestyle of the studied adolescents is within the norms recommended for their age group, although there is a tendency to skip breakfast. A positive aspect is the adolescents' engagement in physical activity. Parents underestimate their children's level of physical activity and overestimate their daily number of meals. The study confirms the validity of conducting health education, addressed to both children and their parents, with regard to correct eating habits and physical activity, as well as prevention of eating disorders. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Steca, Patrizia; Bassi, Marta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Fave, Antonella Delle
Research has shown that parents' perceived parental self-efficacy (PSE) plays a pivotal role in promoting their children's successful adjustment. In this study, we further explored this issue by comparing psychosocial adaptation in children of parents with high and low PSE during adolescence. One hundred and thirty Italian teenagers (55 males and…
Militello, Lisa K; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Hekler, Eric; Small, Leigh; Jacobson, Diana
Significant gaps exist in the published literature regarding the treatment of overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children, especially in primary care settings. Parental influence plays an important factor in the development of healthy behaviors in children, yet there is no consensus about why some behavior change intervention strategies for parents of young children are more influential and effective than others. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to assess correlations among the study variables (healthy lifestyle beliefs, perceived difficulty, and healthy lifestyle behaviors) in parents of overweight/obese preschool children. A second aim explored if the parent's level of cognitive beliefs and perceived difficulty of engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors correlated with text messaging cognitive behavioral support. Fifteen preschool-parent dyads from primary care clinics completed a 7-week cognitive behavioral skills building intervention. Beck's Cognitive Theory guided the intervention content, and Fogg's Behavior Model guided the implementation. The intervention was delivered using a combination of face-to-face clinic visits and ecological momentary interventions using text messaging. Supported are the interconnected relationships among the study variables, that is, parental healthy lifestyle beliefs, thoughts, and behaviors. At baseline, parental healthy lifestyle belief scores significantly correlated with perceived difficulty (rs = 0.598, p behaviors (rs = 0.545, p cognitive behavioral skills building and tailored text messaging, the need for general support via text messaging lessened, warranting additional research. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ramos Arellano, Marcela
This paper sought to shed light on the beliefs, aspirations and values in relation to education that shape parental ways of involvement among Chilean urban lower-middle-class parents. Using the capability approach as the main theoretical framework and a critical epistemology, the discussion focuses on the way in which the pre-eminence of…
Full Text Available In a recent ground-breaking case the South African courts were for the first time requested to use their discretion to interfere in the parent-child relationship due to the traditional socio-cultural beliefs of the parents. In what has been described as "every parent's nightmare; the fancy of many teenagers", a 16 year-old schoolgirl from Milerton in the Western Cape asked to be "freed" from her parents to live semi-independently from them because of her unhappiness with the conservative manner in which her parents treated her. After considering the matter the judge assigned to the case granted her request to live semi-independently with a school friend and her family (called by the judge the host family until she reaches the age of 18 (her majority. Her parents were accorded permission to have limited contact with her. This case represents an example of the difficulties involved when balancing the rights of a teenager against those of the parents in matters of socio-cultural practice and belief. In a multi-cultural society such as South Africa the case raises numerous serious questions for other families. For instance, what standards will a court use to determine if parents are too conservative in bringing up their children and what factors will be taken into account? How much freedom and autonomy should children be given? How will courts prevent children from misusing the system just to get what their friends have, and - the ultimate question - are the rights of children superior to the traditional rights of parents in matters of socio-cultural practice, with specific reference to their upbringing? In this context it is the aim of this contribution to focus primarily on the questions asked above. Possible solutions for striking a balance between the rights of children and their parents are explored. The submission is made that the best interests principle is still the most important factor to be taken into account when balancing or weighing
Mitchiner, Julie Cantrell
This study investigated 17 Deaf families in North America with cochlear-implanted children about their attitudes, beliefs, and practices on bimodal bilingualism (defined as using both a visual/manual language and an aural/oral language) in American Sign Language (ASL) and English. A survey and follow-up interviews with 8 families were conducted.…
Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.
Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…
Goin-Kochel, Robin P.; Myers, Barbara J.
Recent studies have validated the phenomenon of autistic regression, but little is known about how regressive and congenital onsets of the disorder influence parents' thinking about autism and its etiology. Parents (N = 327) of children with autism spectrum disorders completed an online questionnaire about their children's development.…
Im-Bolter, Nancie; Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Ling, Daphne
Studies have demonstrated the association between parenting style and children's academic achievement, but the specific mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The development of skills that lay the foundation for academic success might be found in early parent-child interactions that foster language competence. Early negative…
Bazzano, Alicia; Zeldin, Ari; Schuster, Erica; Barrett, Christopher; Lehrer, Danise
Although the assertion of a link between vaccines and autism has been scientifically rejected, the theory continues to be popular and may influence the attitudes of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. The authors sought to assess how often parents change or discontinue their child's vaccine schedule after autism spectrum disorder…
Lee, Michael; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Barina, Alexis; Tillitski, John; Flores, Glenn
We examined parental preferences in raising Spanish/English bilingual children. We identified factors influencing their decisions, and the strategies used to promote bilingualism. Focus groups were conducted with Spanish-primary-language parents of children 3 to 7 years old. These groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Three reviewers…
Degarege, Abraham; Krupp, Karl; Fennie, Kristopher; Li, Tan; Stephens, Dionne P; Marlow, Laura A V; Srinivas, Vijaya; Arun, Anjali; Madhivanan, Purnima
The aim of this study was to compare the parental attitudes and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine between urban and rural areas, India. Cross sectional SETTING: Mysore, India PARTICIPANTS: Parents of school going adolescent girls INTERVENTION: Parents completed a self-administered questionnaire MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: : Attitudes and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine RESULTS: A total of 1609 parents from urban (n=778) and rural (n=831) areas participated in this study. Majority of the parents had never heard about HPV (73.6%), did not know that their daughters could get an HPV infection (62.7%) or cervical cancer (64.1%) in the future, and believed that HPV vaccine was not effective (67.1%). Parents living in the urban area were more likely to believe that HPV infection (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 2.69; 95%CI:1.43, 5.06) and cervical cancer (aOR 2.68; 95%CI:1.83, 3.91) could cause serious health problems than those living in the rural area. The odds of agreeing that HPV vaccination will make girls sexually active was lower among urban than rural parents (aOR 0.55; 95%CI:0.33, 0.94). There was no significant difference among parents in the urban and rural areas in their beliefs about susceptibility of their daughter to HPV infection or cervical cancer, and beliefs about the safety and ability of HPV vaccine to protect cervical cancer. Rural parents might be reluctant to recommend behaviors that can help prevent HPV infection and cervical cancer such as HPV vaccination for their daughters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi
Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents' perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by three independent coders using thematic content analysis. Seventy-six percent of the 17 participants were female. Latino parents condoned fighting only as a last resort, and taught children about consequences of fighting, emotional regulation, and non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. African-American parents endorsed teaching non-violent strategies, but expressed some doubts about their effectiveness. African-American parents also suggested corporal punishment, but acknowledged that this may not be an optimal long-term strategy. Positive role modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults were cited as having important roles in fighting prevention. Suggested interventions included teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, anger management, and alternatives to fighting. Parents recommended that violence prevention programs incorporate the experiences of former fighters and be tailored to community needs. Study findings suggest that youth violence-prevention programs may benefit from addressing parental attitudes towards fighting and parent-child communication about fighting, teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, and tailoring programs by race/ethnicity. Promoting positive modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults also may be beneficial.
Munsell, Christina R; Harris, Jennifer L; Sarda, Vishnudas; Schwartz, Marlene B
To assess potential misperceptions among parents regarding the healthfulness of sugary drinks for their children. Online survey of parents. Participants identified the categories and specific brands of sugary drinks they provided for their children. They also indicated their perceptions of sugary drink categories and brands as healthy options for children, perceived importance of on-package claims in purchase decisions and their concerns about common sugary drink ingredients. Online market research panel. Parents (n 982) of 2- to 17-year-olds, 46 % non-white or Hispanic. Ninety-six per cent of parents provided on average 2·9 different categories of sugary drinks for their children in the past month. Flavoured waters, fruit drinks and sports drinks were rated as the healthiest sugary drink categories. Across all categories and brands, parents who purchased specific products rated them as significantly healthier than those who did not (P<0·05). Over half of parents reported concern about caffeine, sugar and artificial sweeteners in sugary drinks that their children consume and approximately one-third reported that on-package ingredient claims were important in their purchase decisions. Nearly all parents provide sugary drinks for their children and many believe that some sugary drinks are healthy options for children, particularly flavoured waters, fruit drinks and sports drinks. Furthermore, many parents rely upon on-package claims in their purchase decisions. Given excessive consumption of added sugar by children in the home, there is a continuing need to address parents' misperceptions about the healthfulness of many sugary drink products.
Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Sly, David F; Lee, David J; McClure, Laura A
Family engagement has been shown to play a crucial role in youth cigarette use prevention and uptake. We examine cross-sectional and longitudinal data to determine whether changes in parental monitoring factors influence changes in smoking susceptibility. Two cross-sectional surveys of Florida youth (12-17 years) were conducted in 2009, with a follow-up survey in 2010. Multivariable analyses examined demographics, parent characteristics, family engagement, and parental monitoring on youth susceptibility to smoke. Cross-sectional data show eating together 6+ times/week and doing something for fun 5+ times/week were related to an increased likelihood of Very Low and decreased likelihood of High susceptibility, respectively. Parental monitoring factors and parents tell on a friend who smokes was significantly related to having Very Low susceptibility in both surveys. Mother's education, parent smokes, family engagement factors, and parental monitoring were significant in both survey rounds. Longitudinal analyses showed change in eating together did not significantly affect the odds of change in smoking susceptibility; however, change in the frequency of doing things for fun with a parent showed decreased odds of susceptibility (OR = .63 [.49-.82]), opposite of the hypothesized direction. Lastly, as youth aged, they were more likely to experience a greater odds of decreased susceptibility (OR14-15y = 1.47 [1.08-1.99] and OR≥16y = 1.40 [1.05-1.84], respectively) and less likely to experience an increased odds of susceptibility (OR14-15y = .65 [.49-.86] and OR≥16y = .72 [.56-.93], respectively). We found mixed results for family engagement and parental monitoring on changes in youth smoking susceptibility. Cross-sectional data showed general associations in the expected direction; however, longitudinal analyses showed family engagement variables had significance, but in the opposite hypothesized direction.
Meyer, Lori E.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Yu, SeonYeong; Favazza, Paddy C.; Mouzourou, Chryso; van Luling, Lisa; Park, Hyejin
Teachers often recommend that families engage their children in shared book reading to support literacy learning at home. When teachers purposefully provide families with home literacy activities there are benefits for everyone involved. The purpose of this article is to report the findings of a study that examined parental participation and…
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
The No Child Left Behind program changes the federal role in education by asking America's schools to describe their success in terms of what each student accomplishes. The information in this reading guide, presented in Spanish, was developed by the United States Department of Education to assist parents, caregivers, and teachers in understanding…
Mead, Erin; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Flora, June A.; Maibach, Edward W.; Leiserowitz, Anthony
Global climate change is likely to have significant impacts on public health. Effective communication is critical to informing public decision making and behavior to mitigate climate change. An effective method of audience segmentation, the risk perception attitude (RPA) framework has been previously tested with other health behaviors and classifies people into 4 groups on the basis of their perceptions of risk and beliefs about personal efficacy. The 4 groups – indifference (low risk, weak efficacy), proactive (low risk, strong efficacy), avoidance (high risk, weak efficacy), and responsive (high risk, strong efficacy) – are hypothesized to differ in their self-protective behaviors and in their motivations to seek information. In this paper, we extend the RPA framework in two ways. First, we use it at the household level to determine whether parental classifications into the 4 groups are associated with their teenage children’s classification into the same 4 groups. Second, we predict adolescent information-seeking behaviors on the basis of their and their parents’ membership in the 4 RPA groups. Results (N = 523 parent-adolescent pairs) indicated that parental membership in the 4 RPA groups was significantly associated with children’s membership in the same 4 groups. Furthermore, the RPA framework was a significant predictor of adolescent information-seeking: those in the responsive and avoidance groups sought more information on climate change than the indifference group. Family communication on global warming was positively associated with adolescents’ information-seeking. Implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:22866024
Esmaeeli, Zahra; Lundetrae, Kjersti; Kyle, Fiona E
Research has linked family risk (FR) of reading difficulties (RD) with children's difficulties in emergent literacy development. This study is the first to apply parents' self-report of RD as a proxy for FR in a large sample (n = 1171) in order to test group differences in children's emergent literacy. Emergent literacy, the home literacy environment and children's interest in literacy and letters were compared across different groups of FR children around the school entry. The FR children performed lower in emergent literacy compared with not-FR children. Furthermore, when comparing FR children with one parent reporting RD and children with both parents reporting RD, moderate group differences were found in Emergent Literacy. Finally, parents' self-report of RD was a significant contributor of emergent literacy after controlling for the home literacy environment, children's gender, their interest in literacy and letters, months in kindergarten, vocabulary and parents' education. Our findings suggest that schools should monitor the reading development of children with parents self-reporting RD closely - especially if both parents self-report RD. © 2017 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Toste, Jessica R; Capin, Philip; Williams, Kelly J; Cho, Eunsoo; Vaughn, Sharon
This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of an intervention aimed at improving multisyllabic word reading (MWR) skills among fourth- and fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 109, 48.6% male), as well as the relative effects of an embedded motivational beliefs training component. This study was a closely aligned replication of our earlier work. The intervention was replicated with a three-condition design: MWR only, MWR with a motivational beliefs component, and business-as-usual control. Students were tutored in small groups for 40 lessons (four 40-min lessons each week). When we combined performance of students in both MWR conditions, intervention students significantly outperformed controls on proximal measures of affix reading and MWR, as well as standardized measures of decoding, spelling, and text comprehension. Furthermore, there was a noted interaction between English learner status and treatment on spelling performance. There were no statistically significant main effects between the MWR groups on proximal or standardized measures of interest. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to MWR instruction for students with persistent reading difficulties and considerations for future research related to the malleability of motivation.
Over the summer, many children lose ground in the reading skills they are building at school. Weave reading into the family's summer, and children will go back to school refreshed, excited, and ready to pick up where he or she left off. Advice for parents and caregivers includes: seek out books and reading materials that tie into children's summer…
Gussy, M G; Waters, E B; Riggs, E M; Lo, S K; Kilpatrick, N M
Little is known about the oral health of children under the age of four years. The determinants of early childhood caries (ECC) in this young age group are also not well understood despite a growing recognition that early interventions may deliver the greatest benefits. The aim of this study was to examine the oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and reported behaviours of parents of children aged 12-24 months living in rural areas of Victoria, Australia. A robust theoretical model was utilized to identify oral health-related behaviours and their antecedent and reinforcing conditions within the context of this specific population group. Two hundred and ninety-four parent/child dyads were recruited through their maternal and child health nurses as part of a larger intervention trial. Parents completed a self-report questionnaire. Knowledge regarding risk and protective factors amongst parents was variable and sometimes at odds with contemporary evidence. Knowledge of the role of early infection with S. mutans was very low, with high levels of behaviours that may promote early transmission reported. Tooth cleaning was reported by most parents at least sometimes, however a large proportion lacked confidence and this was significantly related to the frequency of the cleaning. Parents were confused about the fluoride status of their water supplies. Most parents believed fluoride toothpaste reduced the risk of ECC but did not know whether it should be used with toddlers. The results of this study have implications for efforts to prevent dental decay in this very young age group. Health care professionals other than dentists need support to provide information and promote confidence with regard to optimal fluoride exposure. Attention should also be given to the contribution of early contact with particular bacteria in oral health education and promotion programmes.
Kocken, P.L.; Schönbeck, Y.; Henneman, L.; Janssens, C.J.; Detmar, S.
Background. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is highest among ethnic minority groups in Western countries. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of ethnicity and beliefs of parents about overweight preventive behaviours to their child's outdoor play and snack intake, and
Kocken, P.L.; Schonbeck, Y.; Henneman, L.; Janssens, A.; Detmar, S.B.
Background: The prevalence of obesity and overweight is highest among ethnic minority groups in Western countries. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of ethnicity and beliefs of parents about overweight preventive behaviours to their childs outdoor play and snack intake, and
Al-Dababneh, Kholoud Adeeb; Al-Zboon, Eman K.; Baibers, Haitham
This study aims to identify the beliefs of Jordanian parents of children with disabilities (CWD), including intellectual disabilities, specific learning disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder: both in terms of the causes of these disabilities, and the ability of their children to make progress. A qualitative interpretive methodology was employed.…
Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia
The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…
Consejos para los Padres Sobre la Lectura: Informacion e Ideas para Ayudar a los Ninos Desde la Infancia Hasta Octavo Grado a Tener Exito en la Lectura (Tips for Parents about Reading: Information and Ideas for Helping Children through Grade Eight Succeed with Reading).
Davis, Deborah; Lewis, Jan Patricia
Noting that all parents want the best school experience for their children, this booklet, in Spanish, gives parents some ideas about what to expect at different ages and stages of reading development, suggestions for what parents can do at home, and a list of favorite books parents can find in most libraries for parents and children to read.…
Corredera, Erica; Davis, Kara S; Simons, Jeffrey P; Jabbour, Noel
The goal of this study is to measure the quality and readability of websites related to laryngomalacia, and to compare the quality and readability scores for the sites accessed through the most popular search engines. Laryngomalacia is a common diagnosis in children but is often difficult for parents to comprehend. As information available on the internet is unregulated, the quality and readability of this information may vary. An advanced search on Google, Yahoo, and Bing was conducted using the terms "laryngomalacia" OR "soft larynx" OR "floppy voice box." The first ten websites meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated, for each search engine. Quality and readability were assessed using the DISCERN criteria and the Flesch reading ease scoring (FRES) and Flesch-Kincaid grade level (FKGL) tests, respectively. The top 10 hits on each search engine yielded 15 unique web pages. The median DISCERN score (out of a possible high-score of 80) was 48.5 (SD 12.6). The median USA grade-level estimated by the FKGL was 11.3 (SD 1.4). Only one website (6.7%), had a readability score in the optimal range of 6th to 8th grade reading level. DISCERN scores did not correlate with FKGL scores (r = 0.10). Online information discussing laryngomalacia often varies in quality and may not be easily comprehensible to the public. It is important for healthcare professionals to understand the quality of health information accessible to patients as it may influence medical decision-making by patient families. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Al-Khaledi, Maram; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia; Packman, Ann; Alshatti, Tariq
An Arabic version of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes Inventory [POSHA-E; St Louis, K. O. (2005), a global instrument to measure public attitudes about stuttering. ("The ASHA Leader," 22, 2-13)] was administered to 424 Arab parents of preschool and school age children in 18 government schools across all six governorates in…
Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Werner, Nicole E.
Research indicates that relationally aggressive media exposure is positively associated with relational aggression in children. Theories of media effects suggest that these associations may be mediated by aggressive cognitions. Although parental mediation can attenuate the effects of violent media, it is unknown whether there are similar benefits…
Kummerer, Sharon E.; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.
The "sociocultural framework" highlights the contributions of children's cultural and linguistic contexts to early language and literacy development. To collaborate with parents in early intervention programs, including speech-language therapy, there must be a sincere commitment to the development of cultural competence. Hispanics are…
Costa, Marisa; Faria, Luísa; Alessandri, Guido; Caprara, Gian Vittorio
The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Perceived Parental Self-Efficacy (PPSE) and Perceived Family Collective Efficacy (PFCE) revised scales in the Portuguese and Italian contexts. To this aim two studies were conducted: the first reported the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with Portuguese samples, whereas the second addressed the cross-cultural invariance of PPSE and PFCE (Portugal and Italy). Results of the first study showed the appropriate fit of the unifactorial model of both scales to Portuguese data. The invariance analyses performed in the second study attested to the PPSE and PFCE's configural, metric and scalar invariance in both countries. The correlations of PPSE and PFCE with communication, management of conflict and children's school achievement further attested to their construct and practical validity. Thus, PPSE and PFCE proved to be suitable to further use in research and psychological assessment fields. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Heyder, Anke; Kessels, Ursula; Steinmayr, Ricarda
Boys earn lower grades in languages than girls. The expectancy-value model by Eccles et al. (, A series of books in psychology. Achievement and achievement motives. Psychological and sociological approaches, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA, 76) is a comprehensive theoretical model for explaining gender differences in educational outcomes. In the past, most studies have focused on girls' disadvantage in math and science and on the role of the students' motivational beliefs. We aimed to explain boys' lower language grades by applying the expectancy-value model while taking into account students' motivational beliefs as well as their aptitude, prior achievement, and socializers' beliefs. In addition, we aimed at exploring the incremental contribution of each potential mediator. Five hundred and twenty German students (age M = 17 years; 58% female) and 374 parents (age M = 47 years). Student-reported ability self-concept (ASC) and task values, parents' perceptions of students' ability, students' prior achievement as reported by schools, and students' verbal intelligence test scores were all tested as mediators of the effect of gender on grades in German while controlling for parents' socioeconomic status. Single-mediator models and a multiple-mediator model were estimated using structural equation modelling. All variables proved to be relevant for explaining boys' underachievement in language grades. Whereas students' ASC, task values, prior achievement, and parents' perceptions mediated the gender effect, verbal intelligence was identified as a suppressor variable increasing the gender effect. Our results challenge the stereotypic belief that boys' lower grades are due to lower verbal aptitude. Rather, students' motivational beliefs and parents' perceptions seem critical factors. Implications for both future research and practice are discussed. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Rodrigues, Fidjy; Paneque, Milena; Reis, Cláudia; Venâncio, Margarida; Sequeiros, Jorge; Saraiva, Jorge
Recent advances in molecular genetics have allowed the determination of the genetic cause of some childhood non-syndromic deafness. In Portugal only a small proportion of families are referred to a clinical genetics service in order to clarify the etiology of the deafness and to provide genetic counseling. Consequently, there are no published studies of the prior beliefs of parents about the causes of hereditary deafness of their children and their genetic knowledge after receipt of genetic counseling. In order to evaluate the impact of genetic counseling, 44 parents of 24 children with the diagnosis of non-syndromic sensorineural prelingual deafness due to mutations in the GJB2 (connexin 26), completed surveys before and after genetic counseling. Before counseling 13.6 % of the parents knew the cause of deafness; at a post-counseling setting this percentage was significantly higher, with 84.1 % of the parents accurately identifying the etiology. No significant differences were found between the answers of mothers and fathers either before or after genetic counseling. Parents' level of education was a significant factor in pre-test knowledge. After genetic counseling 95.5 % of the parents stated that the consultation had met their expectations, 70.5 % remembered correctly the inheritance pattern, and 93.2 % correctly recalled the chance of risk of deafness. These results underline the importance of genetic counseling in demystifying parents' beliefs about the etiology of their children's deafness.
Pongracic Jacqueline A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.
Senler, Burcu; Sungur, Semra
The aim of this study was twofold: firstly, to investigate the grade level (elementary and middle school) and gender effect on students' motivation in science (perceived academic science self-concept and task value) and perceived family involvement, and secondly to examine the relationship among family environment variables (fathers' educational level, mothers' educational level, and perceived family involvement), motivation, gender and science achievement in elementary and middle schools. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed that elementary school students have more positive science self-concept and task value beliefs compared to middle school students. Moreover, elementary school students appeared to perceive more family involvement in their schooling. Path analyses also suggested that family involvement was directly linked to elementary school students' task value and achievement. Also, in elementary school level, significant relationships were found among father educational level, science self-concept, task value and science achievement. On the other hand, in middle school level, family involvement, father educational level, and mother educational level were positively related to students' task value which is directly linked to students' science achievement. Moreover, mother educational level contributed to science achievement through its effect on self-concept.
Parish-Morris, Julia; Mahajan, Neha; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Collins, Molly Fuller
Early experiences with books predict later reading success, and an interactive shared reading style called "dialogic reading" is especially beneficial to emergent literacy. Electronic console (EC) books, CD-rom books, and e-book apps are designed to teach preschoolers preliteracy skills, but research has yet to systematically explore the…
Blake, Joanna; Macdonald, Silvana; Bayrami, Lisa; Agosta, Vanessa; Milian, Andrea
Background: Whereas many studies have investigated quantitative aspects of book reading (frequency), few have examined qualitative aspects, especially in very young children and through direct observations of shared reading. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in book-reading styles between mothers and fathers and …
Sawicki, Gregory S; Kelemen, Skyler; Weitzman, Elissa R
Health care transition (HCT) from pediatric to adult-focused systems is a key milestone for youth. Developing self-care skills and HCT planning are key elements. In a survey at 4 pediatric specialty clinics to 79 youth aged 16 to 25 years and 52 parents, skill-based HCT readiness was assessed using the Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ). Multivariable logistic regression evaluated the association between TRAQ scores and self-care beliefs. In all, 70% of youth and 67% of parents believed that they/their child could manage their care. Only 38% of youth and 53% of parents reported thinking about HCT; only 18% of youth and 27% of parents reported having a HCT plan. Youth with higher TRAQ scores were more likely to believe they could manage their care, controlling for age and gender (adjusted odds ratio = 4.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.7-9.5). Transition readiness skills are associated with self-care beliefs. However, a mismatch exists between high reported self-care beliefs and low levels of transition planning. © The Author(s) 2014.
Chhabra, N; Chhabra, A
Preschool children are dependent upon their parents for their dental care. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and beliefs of parents towards oral health and dental care of their children aged 1-4 years in an Indian population. Parents of 620 preschool children, who visited Krishna Dental College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, India for dental treatment were recruited into this study and completed a self administered questionnaire. It was revealed that the lack of knowledge and awareness of importance of the primary teeth, dental fear of the parents and the myths associated with dental treatment, created barriers to early preventive dental care of preschool children. The oral hygiene and feeding practices were found to be disappointing and the knowledge about the essential role of fluoride and transmission of Streptococcus mutans bacteria was found to be limited. The elders in the family, especially grandparents, highly influenced the decisions of the parents regarding dental treatment of their children. Parents' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the importance of dental health need to be improved. Coordinated efforts by paediatricians, paediatric dentists and other health professionals are required to impart dental health education about oral hygiene, feeding practices, importance of the primary dentition and to promote preventive dental programmes.
Brug, Johannes; Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; van Stralen, Maartje M; Singh, Amika S; ChinAPaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lien, Nanna; Bere, Elling; Maes, Lea; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; te Velde, Saskia J
To explore differences in personal and home environmental factors that are regarded as determinants of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) according to parental education and ethnic background among 10-12 year old schoolchildren across Europe. A school-based survey among 10-12 year olds was conducted in eight countries across Europe. A range of personal and home environment variables relevant for soft drink consumption, daily breakfast, sport participation and TV time was assessed by means of child report. Personal factors included attitude, health beliefs, and preference/liking. Home environment factors included parental subjective norm, modeling, support, practices and home availability. Children were classified based on parental education (i.e., low vs. high) and ethnic background (i.e., native vs. non-native). Data from 6018 children originating from 83 schools were included in the analyses. Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that the majority of the factors tested -and especially home environment variables- were more favorable among children from higher educated parents and from native ethnicity. None of the personal and home environment factors was found to be more favorable among children from lower educated parents or non-native ethnicity. The present study indicates that schoolchildren from lower educated and non-native parents across Europe have EBRB-related beliefs and are exposed to home environments that are less favorable for engagement in healthy EBRBs.
Yeh, Kuang-Hui; Tsao, Wei-Chun; Chen, Wei-Wen
Empirical research has shown that parent-child conflict is positively related to poor adjustment in adolescents; however, the underlying processes have not been adequately examined. To explore the possible mediating pathways, reciprocal filial belief and perceived threat were chosen to represent two likely mechanisms accounting for how parent-child conflict harms adolescents' perceptions of their relationship with their parents and their self-perceptions within their cognitive-appraisal framework. The former operates by attenuating children's affection towards their parents and the latter by lowering their self-perceptions. This study also distinguishes internalizing from externalizing problems in order to examine whether lower reciprocal filial belief more strongly mediates the relation between conflict with parents and adolescents' externalizing problems and whether perceived threat more strongly mediates the relation between conflict with parents and adolescents' internalizing problems. Hypotheses are as follows: (1) the more parent-child conflict adolescents report, the less reciprocal filial belief they recognize, which, in turn, leads to more maladjustments, especially externalizing ones; (2) the more parent-child conflicts adolescents report, the more threat they perceive, which, in turn, leads to more maladjustments, especially internalizing ones. Participants consisted of 603 Taiwanese adolescents (226 males and 377 females) aged 15 to 19 (average age = 16.95; SD = 0.78). Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed the hypotheses. However, the three direct effects of conflict on internalizing problems, aggression, and deviant behaviour were still significant. In addition, a greater effect of the paternal than the maternal role on the link between conflict and attenuated reciprocal filial belief, and between perceived threat and internalizing problems, was identified. Implications for understanding the mediation processes responsible for all indirect
Beitra, Danette; El-Behadli, Ana F; Faith, Melissa A
The aim of this study is to conduct a multimethod psychometric reduction in the Parents' Beliefs about Children's Emotions (PBCE) questionnaire using an item response theory framework with a pediatric oncology sample. Participants were 216 pediatric oncology caregivers who completed the PBCE. The PBCE contains 105 items (11 subscales) rated on a 6-point Likert-type scale. We evaluated the PBCE subscale performance by applying a partial credit model in WINSTEPS. Sixty-six statistically weak items were removed, creating a 44-item PBCE questionnaire with 10 subscales and 3 response options per item. The refined scale displayed good psychometric properties and correlated .910 with the original PBCE. Additional analyses examined dimensionality, item-level (e.g. difficulty), and person-level (e.g. ethnicity) characteristics. The refined PBCE questionnaire provides better test information, improves instrument reliability, and reduces burden on families, providers, and researchers. With this improved measure, providers can more easily identify families who may benefit from psychosocial interventions targeting emotion socialization. The results of the multistep approach presented should be considered preliminary, given the limited sample size.
Bachman, Tori Mello
Parents can help their children prepare for reading tests in a number of ways, not only just before the test, but also with everyday activities. There are generally two types of reading tests given to students: tests given by teachers throughout the year to see what information students have retained, and more formal, often standardized, tests…
Beschorner, Beth; Hutchison, Amy
This study explored the impact of a parent education program and the contextual factors that influenced the experiences of families in the program. Seventeen parents completed a 9-week, face-to-face program and 15 parents completed a similar online program. This study was designed as a multiple case study and utilized multimethods for data…
Massarwi, Adeem Ahmad; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona
This study adopted a social-ecological perspective to exploring perpetration of serious physical violence against others among Arab-Palestinian adolescents. A total of 3178 adolescents (aged 13-18) completed anonymous, structured, self-report questionnaire, which included selected items from several instruments that measured variables relating to the constructs examined in the study. We explored the association of individual characteristics (age, gender, normative beliefs about violence, and perceived ethnic discrimination), familial characteristics (parent-adolescent communication and socioeconomic status), and contextual characteristics (exposure to community violence in the neighborhood) with perpetration of serious physical violence against others. A moderation-mediation model was tested, and 28.4% of the adolescents reported that they had perpetrated serious physical violence against others at least once during the month preceding the study. The findings also show that exposure of youth to violence in their neighborhood correlated significantly and positively with their perpetration of serious physical violence against others. A similar trend was revealed with respect to personal perceptions of ethnic discrimination. These correlations were mediated by the adolescents' normative beliefs about violence. Furthermore, the correlation of direct exposure to violence in the neighborhood and normative beliefs about violence with perpetration of serious physical violence against others was stronger among adolescents who have poor communication with their parents than among those who have strong parental communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is highest among ethnic minority groups in Western countries. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of ethnicity and beliefs of parents about overweight preventive behaviours to their child’s outdoor play and snack intake, and to the parents’ intention to monitor these behaviours. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among parents of native Dutch children and children from a large minority population (Turks) at primary schools, sampled from Youth Health Care registers. Results Native Dutch parents observed more outdoor play and lower snack intake in their child and had stronger intentions to monitor these behaviours than parents of Turkish descent. In the multivariate analyses, the parents’ attitude and social norm were the main contributing factors to the parental intention to monitor the child’s outdoor play and snack intake. Parental perceived behavioural control contributed to the child’s outdoor play and, in parents who perceived their child to be overweight, to snacking behaviour. The associations between parents’ behavioural cognitions and overweight related preventive behaviours were not modified by ethnicity, except for perceived social norm. The relationship between social norm and intention to monitor outdoor play was stronger in Dutch parents than in Turkish parents. Conclusions As the overweight related preventive behaviours of both children and parents did differ between the native and ethnic minority populations of this study, it is advised that interventions pay attention to cultural aspects of the targeted population. Further research is recommended into parental behavioural cognitions regarding overweight prevention and management for different ethnicities. PMID:23057582
Kocken Paul L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is highest among ethnic minority groups in Western countries. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of ethnicity and beliefs of parents about overweight preventive behaviours to their child’s outdoor play and snack intake, and to the parents’ intention to monitor these behaviours. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among parents of native Dutch children and children from a large minority population (Turks at primary schools, sampled from Youth Health Care registers. Results Native Dutch parents observed more outdoor play and lower snack intake in their child and had stronger intentions to monitor these behaviours than parents of Turkish descent. In the multivariate analyses, the parents’ attitude and social norm were the main contributing factors to the parental intention to monitor the child’s outdoor play and snack intake. Parental perceived behavioural control contributed to the child’s outdoor play and, in parents who perceived their child to be overweight, to snacking behaviour. The associations between parents’ behavioural cognitions and overweight related preventive behaviours were not modified by ethnicity, except for perceived social norm. The relationship between social norm and intention to monitor outdoor play was stronger in Dutch parents than in Turkish parents. Conclusions As the overweight related preventive behaviours of both children and parents did differ between the native and ethnic minority populations of this study, it is advised that interventions pay attention to cultural aspects of the targeted population. Further research is recommended into parental behavioural cognitions regarding overweight prevention and management for different ethnicities.
Kloosterman, J.G.; Notten, N.J.W.R.; Tolsma, J.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.
This study examines the extent to which parental reading socialization and early school involvement account for performance differences between low-status and high-status children in successive primary school grades. It investigates not only the direct effects of these parental practices on
Notten, N.; Tolsma, J.; Kraaykamp, G.; Kloosterman, R.
This study examines the extent to which parental reading socialization and early school involvement account for performance differences between low-status and high-status children in successive primary school grades. It investigates not only the direct effects of these parental practices on
Kloostermann, R.; Notten, N.; Tolsma, J.; Kraaykamp, G.
This study examines the extent to which parental reading socialization and early school involvement account for performance differences between low-status and high-status children in successive primary school grades. It investigates not only the direct effects of these parental practices on
Farrell, Albert D; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael E; Bettencourt, Amie; Tolan, Patrick H
This study examined the direct effects of beliefs about aggression and nonviolence on physical aggression and their role as protective factors that buffer adolescents from key risk factors in the peer, school, and parenting domains. Multilevel analyses were conducted on data from 5,581 adolescents representing two cohorts from 37 schools in four communities collected at the beginning and end of the sixth grade and at the end of the following 2 school years. Individual norms for aggression at Wave 1 moderated relations of delinquent peer associations and parental support for fighting with physical aggression. Self-efficacy for nonviolence at Wave 1 moderated relations of school risk, delinquent peer associations and parental support for fighting with physical aggression. There was clearer evidence for protective effects for self-efficacy for nonviolence for girls than for boys.
Kitabayashi, Kristyn M; Huang, Gary Y; Linskey, Katy R; Pirga, Jason; Bane-Terakubo, Teresa; Lee, Meta T
The purpose of this study was to compare reading patterns between English-speaking and English as a Second Language (ESL) families in a health care setting in Hawai'i. A cross-sectional study was performed at an underserved pediatric primary care clinic in Hawai'i. Caregivers of patients between the ages of 6 months to 5 years were asked questions regarding demographics and parent-child reading interactions. Respondents were categorized into English-speaking or ESL groups based on primary language spoken at home. Pearson chi2 tests and Fisher exact tests were performed to compare demographic differences, reading frequency, and reading attitudes between groups. One-hundred three respondents completed the survey Fifty percent were ESL. All ESL respondents were of Asian-Pacific Islander (API) or mixed Asian ethnicity. All Caucasians in the study (n = 9) were in the English-speaking group. Between the English-speaking (n = 52) and ESL (n = 51) groups, there were no significant statistical differences in age or gender of the child, reading attitudes, or parent's educational status. Parents in the ESL group read to their children significantly fewer days per week than their English-speaking counterparts, had significantly fewer books in the home, and lived significantly fewer years in the United States. The findings suggest that API immigrant families share similar attitudes about reading as English-speaking families in Hawai'i but have significantly fewer books in their household and read significantly less frequently Physicians working with API populations should be aware that immigrant children may have fewer reading interactions and should counsel parents on the importance of reading daily.
... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...
Lee, Kenneth Kong
The purpose of this survey study was to investigate the relationship between Hmong students' academic achievements and Hmong parental involvement, home environment, and acculturation adjustment as measured by the Math and English Language Arts sections of the California Standard Test in the United States from parents' perspective regarding student…
Pesu, Laura; Aunola, Kaisa; Viljaranta, Jaana; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined the development of adolescents' self-concept of ability in mathematics and literacy during secondary school, and the role that mothers' and fathers' beliefs concerning their child's abilities play in this development. Also examined was whether the role of mothers' and fathers' beliefs about their adolescent child's ability in…
Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia
The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.
Brands, Brigitte; Egan, Bernadette; Györei, Eszter; López-Robles, Juan Carlos; Gage, Heather; Campoy, Cristina; Decsi, Tamás; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique M
Nutrition is one of the many factors that influence a child's cognitive development and performance. Understanding the relationship between nutrition and mental performance in children is important in terms of their attainment and productivity both in school and later life. Since parents are seen as nutritional gatekeepers for their children's diets, their views and beliefs are of crucial importance. The present study aims to qualitatively examine parents' perceptions of the relationship between diet and mental performance of children. The study was conducted with a total of 124 parents in four European countries using a semi-structured interview schedule. Parents speak of the effects of diet at two levels; the nature of the effects of diet and the characteristics of the foods responsible for these effects. Mental outcomes are related to diet, with the effects perceived to be associated with attention and concentration, often mediated by effects on children's mood and behaviour. Parents categorise foods as 'good' or 'bad' with positive effects related generally to a healthy balanced diet while negative effects are perceived to be associated with sugary and fatty foods. Understanding parental perceptions is important for many purposes including the targeting of dietary advice and prioritising of public health issues. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thompson, Darcy A; Polk, Sarah; Cheah, Charissa S L; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Johnson, Susan L; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Tschann, Jeanne M
To explore maternal beliefs about television (TV) viewing and related parenting practices in low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Interviews were audio recorded and analyzed using a theoretically based thematic analytic approach. Mothers described strong beliefs about the positive and negative impact of TV content. Mothers emphasized the educational value of specific programming. Content restrictions were common. Time restrictions were not clearly defined; however, many mothers preferred short versus long episodes of viewing. Mothers spoke positively about family viewing and the role of TV viewing in enabling mothers to accomplish household tasks. These findings have implications for intervening in this population. Interventionists should consider the value mothers place on the educational role of TV viewing, the direct benefit to mothers of viewing time, the lack of clear time limits, and the common practice of family co-viewing. © The Author(s) 2015.
van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.; Regtvoort, Anne; Oort, Frans; van Otterloo, Sandra; van der Leij, Aryan
The study concerns reading development and its precursors in a transparent orthography. Dutch children differing in family risk for dyslexia were followed from kindergarten through fifth grade. In fifth grade, at-risk dyslexic (n = 22), at-risk non-dyslexic (n = 45), and control children (n = 12) were distinguished. In kindergarten, the at-risk…
Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle; Van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Bult, Maureen K.
This cross-sectional survey study examined the relation between mental imagery (i.e., seeing images of a story "in the mind's eye") and perceived self-competence in reading. The study was conducted with a group of seventh-grade to ninth-grade students in the prevocational educational track of secondary schools in the Netherlands and…
Hamm, Jill V.
Using interviews and focus groups, lower and middle socioeconomic status (SES) African American parents and middle SES white parents discussed their objectives regarding cross-ethnic relations and how they helped their children forge positive cross-ethnic relations. The groups relied on different methods to promote socialization. Parents' efforts…
White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, Washington, DC.
As part of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, this brochure (in English and Spanish) provides a guide to assist parents in helping their children become ready to read and to learn. The suggestions include: (1) talking to infants/toddlers to help them learn to speak and understand the meaning of words; (2)…
Bazan-Ramirez, Aldo; Castellanos-Simons, Doris; Lopez-Valenzuela, Mercedes
This paper aims at analysing the structural relationships among some latent and observed variables related to the assessment of written language performance in 139 fourth grade students of Elementary School selected from nine public schools of the northwest of Mexico. Questionnaires were also applied to the children's parents and teachers. The…
Lansford, Jennifer E; Cappa, Claudia; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bradley, Robert H
Stopping violence against children is prioritized in goal 16 of the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. All forms of child corporal punishment have been outlawed in 50 countries as of October 2016. Using data from 56,371 caregivers in eight countries that participated in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, we examined change from Time 1 (2005-6) to Time 2 (2008-13) in national rates of corporal punishment of 2- to 14-year-old children and in caregivers' beliefs regarding the necessity of using corporal punishment. One of the participating countries outlawed corporal punishment prior to Time 1 (Ukraine), one outlawed corporal punishment between Times 1 and 2 (Togo), two outlawed corporal punishment after Time 2 (Albania and Macedonia), and four have not outlawed corporal punishment as of 2016 (Central African Republic, Kazakhstan, Montenegro, and Sierra Leone). Rates of reported use of corporal punishment and belief in its necessity decreased over time in three countries; rates of reported use of severe corporal punishment decreased in four countries. Continuing use of corporal punishment and belief in the necessity of its use in some countries despite legal bans suggest that campaigns to promote awareness of legal bans and to educate parents regarding alternate forms of discipline are worthy of international attention and effort along with legal bans themselves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hoskins, Sally G.; Lopatto, David; Stevens, Leslie M.
The C.R.E.A.T.E. (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment) method uses intensive analysis of primary literature in the undergraduate classroom to demystify and humanize science. We have reported previously that the method improves students’ critical thinking and content integration abilities, while at the same time enhancing their self-reported understanding of “who does science, and why.” We report here the results of an assessment that addressed C.R.E.A.T.E. students’ attitudes about the nature of science, beliefs about learning, and confidence in their ability to read, analyze, and explain research articles. Using a Likert-style survey administered pre- and postcourse, we found significant changes in students’ confidence in their ability to read and analyze primary literature, self-assessed understanding of the nature of science, and epistemological beliefs (e.g., their sense of whether knowledge is certain and scientific talent innate). Thus, within a single semester, the inexpensive C.R.E.A.T.E. method can shift not just students’ analytical abilities and understanding of scientists as people, but can also positively affect students’ confidence with analysis of primary literature, their insight into the processes of science, and their beliefs about learning. PMID:22135371
Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Socan, Gregor
The aim of this longitudinal study, carried out on a sample of Slovenian-speaking toddlers, was to analyze developmental changes and stability in early vocabulary development; to establish relations between toddler's vocabulary and grammar; and to analyze the effects of parental education and the frequency of shared reading on toddlers' vocabulary…
Lee, Ji-yeon; Wesbecher, Kristen; Lee, Mihwa; Lee, Jeeyon
The purpose of this study was to examine the mediational effects of dysfunctional beliefs and difficulties in emotional regulation on children's perception of interparental conflict and subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems. The participants in this study were 335 fifth grade elementary school students in Korea. We hypothesized that…
Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.
Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…
van Geelen, Stefan M; Bolt, Ineke L E; van der Baan-Slootweg, Olga H; van Summeren, Marieke J H
Despite the reported limited success of conventional treatments and growing evidence of the effectiveness of adult bariatric surgery, weight loss operations for (morbidly) obese children and adolescents are still considered to be controversial by health care professionals and lay people alike. This paper describes an explorative, qualitative study involving obesity specialists, morbidly obese adolescents, and parents and identifies attitudes and normative beliefs regarding pediatric bariatric surgery. Views on the etiology of obesity-whether it should be considered primarily a medical condition or more a psychosocial problem-seem to affect the specialists' normative opinions concerning the acceptability of bariatric procedures as a treatment option, the parents' feelings regarding both being able to influence their child's health and their child being able to control their own condition, and the adolescents' sense of competence and motivation for treatment. Moreover, parents and adolescents who saw obesity as something that they could influence themselves were more in favor of non-surgical treatment and vice versa. Conflicting attitudes and normative views-e.g., with regard to concepts of disease, personal influence on health, motivation, and the possibility of a careful informed consent procedure-play an important role in the acceptability of bariatric surgery for childhood obesity.
Mattheus, Deborah J
Nurse practitioners frequently provide care to children suffering from poor oral health. Creative approaches to impacting dental disease are needed due to the current lack of traditional dental providers. This study investigated the effects of oral health promotion provided by primary care providers on parental oral health beliefs and behaviors. Participants receiving standard oral care during two well child visits and two additional enhanced oral health visits (n=44) were compared to participants receiving standard oral care during two well child visits alone (n=40). Results revealed changes in parent's perception of the importance of oral care for their children's primary teeth compared to general healthcare needs (pbrushing their children's teeth (pbrushing their teeth (pbrushing (pimportant study shows that oral health programs in primary care can produce changes that can improve oral health outcomes. Parents and children exposed to oral health programs during their frequent well child care visits in the first years of life may help decrease the rate of early childhood caries and improve their quality of life.
Pratt, M W; Danso, H A; Arnold, M L; Norris, J E; Filyer, R
Mothers, fathers, and their adolescent children participated in two studies investigating the relations between Erikson's concept of generativityin adulthood and patterns of parenting. Study 1 involved 77 mothers and 48 fathers of 1st-year university students; Study 2 was part of an investigation of socialization processes in 35 families with an adolescent, aged 14-18. Parental generative concern was assessed by the Loyola Generativity Scale (LGS) of McAdams and de St. Aubin (1992) in each study. In both studies, mothers demonstrated positive relations between scores on the LGS and an authoritative style of parenting, as well as between generativity and more positive, optimistic views of adolescent development. In Study 2, these more positive views in turn mediated some aspects of autonomy-fostering practices used with the adolescent. Variations in fathers' levels of generative concern were less consistently related to these indices of parenting, however.
Doumit, Myrna A A; Farhood, Laila F; Hamady, Carmen
The wars that Lebanon had endured led to a devastating number of deaths, injuries, and displacements. Such tragedies have detrimentally affected its civilians psychologically. To identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices of teachers and parents concerning child/adolescent mental health. Using purposeful sampling, five focus groups were conducted with teachers and parents of students from elementary, middle, and secondary levels in two private hub schools in South Lebanon. A total of 27 teachers and 18 parents participated separately in focus groups. Three themes emerged: (a) Mental health care is a priority for overall health, (b) Mental illness is a cultural taboo, and (c) There is a need for better education and cultural understanding about mental health. This is the first study in Lebanon directly targeted at parents' and teachers' mental health concerns. Such findings will add to transcultural nursing knowledge about the importance of mental health care.
Krömker, D.; Stolberg, A.; Müller, C.
BMI is negatively and weakly associated with dislike of cooking, identification with the way of eating and the perceived benefit of healthy eating (response efficacy). Half of the parents assessed their children’s overweight and obesity correctly, while the other half underestimated it. No difference was found......Parents play a crucial role in the development of childhood overweight and also in controling overweight. This study investigated a broad set of parental factors, including general attitudes towards food (price, identity, cooking, ecology, mood, dieting, convenience, functionality), social...... cognitions concerning overweight (risk perception, self-efficacy for exercising and healthy eating, response efficacy for exercising and healthy eating) and characteristics of the home environment (restriction of snacks, regular family meals, parents involved in sports) and their association...
Full Text Available The article presents the analysis carried out by Ph. D. Beth Ann Beschorner (University of Iowa, USA which concerns the training program for parents aimed at teaching them how to arrange the Dialogic reading with their childrenand and which makes it possible to conclude that due to the experience and direct contact with the written language in preschool age the idea of literacy was being formed. The article compares the empirical data obtained independently in different areas of scientific knowledge, i.e., philosophy and psychology: the study of B.A. Beschorner has a lot in common with the principles of cultural-historical psychology, formulated by L. Vygotsky, M. Lisina and other national psychologists. Although B. A. Beschorner do not stick directly to cultural-historical and activity theory, her results correspond with the basic provisions of these theories. The analysis of B.A. Beschorner’s works confirms the commonality of her findings to those obtained in terms of the cultural-historical theory. It proves that scientific thoughts even going in independent ways, may lead to similar results, which ultimately demonstrates the validity of the findings and the versatility of approaches to the problem
Page, Randy M.; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Sloan, Arielle; Kironde, Jennifer; West, Joshua
The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of Thailand adolescents regarding the prevalence of smoking, the popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society, and disapproval of smoking by friends and parents. These perceptions were analyzed in conjunction with actual smoking and smoking susceptibility rates among the…
Tekin, Ali Kemal
Today's parents are more interested in having their children acquire English language skills as early as possible because they see the demands of the globalizing world context and contemporary trends in society and wish to ensure that their children can live in a future (quite possibly) English-speaking society. These developments, particularly in…
Simpkins, Sandra D
Parents believe what they do matters. But, how does it matter? How do parents' beliefs about their children early on translate into the choices those children make as adolescents? The Eccles' expectancy–value model asserts that parents' beliefs about their children during childhood predict adolescents' achievement-related choices through a sequence of processes that operate in a cumulative, cascading fashion over time. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors that predict their children's motivational beliefs. Those beliefs predict children's subsequent choices. Using data from the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723), we tested these predictions in the activity domains of sports, instrumental music, mathematics, and reading across a 12-year period. In testing these predictions, we looked closely at the idea of reciprocal influences and at the role of child gender as a moderator. The cross-lagged models generally supported the bidirectional influences described in Eccles' expectancy-value model. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that: (a) these relations were stronger in the leisure domains than in the academic domains, (b) these relations did not consistently vary based on youth gender, (c) parents were stronger predictors of their children's beliefs than vice versa, and (d) adolescents' beliefs were stronger predictors of their behaviors than the reverse. The findings presented in this monograph extend our understanding of the complexity of families, developmental processes that unfold over time, and the extent to which these processes are universal across domains and child gender.
Riany, Yulina Eva; Cuskelly, Monica; Meredith, Pamela
Cultural beliefs about parenting have an important influence on parenting behaviours, including considerations about appropriate ways to parent children with autism. Although Indonesia has one of the largest and most ethnically diverse populations in the world, little is known about cultural beliefs regarding children with autism within Indonesian…
Mol, Suzanne Elizabeth
There is a widely held belief that reading (story)books makes us smarter and helps promote success in life. Does scientific evidence support this notion? The three meta-analyses in this thesis comprise 146 studies between 1988 and 2010 (N=10,308 participants) that addressed the role of book reading
Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others
This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…
Berg, Heleen van den
BookStart has been developed to enhance parent-child verbal interactions in early childhood by promoting book sharing. Parents receive a voucher for a baby book and free access to baby books in the library. In a large-scale research, we found that if parents complied with the BookStart suggestion to
Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari
The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia
Previous research shows that high-functioning children with autism are slow to pass "litmus" false belief tests of ToM but how this may relate to other aspects of mindreading (e.g., discerning thoughts from facial expressions) is less clear, partly for methodological reasons. Thus the joint methodological and conceptual goals of this…
Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to design an educational application of parental-mediated intervention and its effectiveness to promote reading skills in students with Down syndrome. Methods This applied semi-experimental study is a pre-test- and post-test project, follow-up with the test and control groups which was conducted on twenty slow-paced students with Down syndrome in the range of 5 to 12 years old. Patients were randomly selected and classify into two groups; test and control. Wechsler IQ test, TOLD test and peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT were performed for students in the pre-test however; TOLD test was conducted as the post-test and a half month at 15-day after follow-up stage. Results results showed α > 0.001 for reading skills between test and control groups; however the difference is remained sustainable in follow-up stage. Conclusions Education with new educational technologies that focused on software may be helpful for children with Down syndrome and should be seriously considered. Family- centered parental-mediated intervention in order to promote reading skills application can be used for teaching children, families and educators.
Bickart, Toni S.; Dodge, Diane Trister
Intended to provide concrete ways for parents to help children become readers and writers, this Spanish-language, easy-to-read, illustrated booklet uses the everyday routines that parents follow with their children--bathing and dressing, eating, shopping, doing household chores--to demonstrate how to build vocabulary, learn about conversations,…
Regtvoort, Anne G. F. M.; van der Leij, Aryan
The hereditary basis of dyslexia makes it possible to identify children at risk early on. Pre-reading children genetically at risk received during 14 weeks a home- and computer-based training in phonemic awareness and letter-sound relationships in the context of reading instruction. At posttest training effects were found for both phonemic…
Regtvoort, A.G.F.M.; van der Leij, A.
The hereditary basis of dyslexia makes it possible to identify children at risk early on. Pre-reading children genetically at risk received during 14 weeks a home- and computer-based training in phonemic awareness and letter-sound relationships in the context of reading instruction. At posttest
Simpkins, Sandra D.; Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
The Eccles' expectancy-value model posits that a cascade of mechanisms explain associations between parents' beliefs and youths' achievement-related behaviors. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors; in turn, parents' behaviors predict youths' motivational beliefs, and youths' motivational beliefs predict their behaviors. This…
Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.
Parent-Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Communication Is Very Limited and Associated with Adolescent Poor Behavioral Beliefs and Subjective Norms: Evidence from a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Eastern Ethiopia.
Full Text Available While parent-adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH communication is one potential source of SRH information for adolescents, it appears to be inadequately practiced in Ethiopia. This study was designed to investigate the factors that limit or improve parent-adolescent SRH communication in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia.A community based cross-sectional study was done on 4,559 adolescents of age 13-18. SRH communication was measured using a nine-item scale whose response ranged from "not at all" to "always." Summated composite score ranging from 0-36 was generated; higher score indicates high SRH communication. A median value of the composite score was 4 out of the possible 36 with an Interquartile Range (IQR of 7. Respondents were ranked as very poor, poor and satisfactory communicators based on 33rd and 67th percentiles values. Generalized ordered logit model was applied to investigate the factors associated with SRH communication.Results showed that the adolescents who were more likely to practice poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication were those who had poor behavioral beliefs on and poor subjective norms of communicating sexual issues with parents and those who perceived their parents' reproductive health (RH knowledge as poor. Nonetheless, the probability of poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication was less with high adolescent-parent communication quality, television co-viewing and discussions, and self-disclosure.Curtailing the adolescents' underlying poor beliefs and norms, and improving adolescent-parent communication quality, self-disclosure, and television co-viewing and discussions are essential to engage the parents in sexual and reproductive health education of the adolescents.
Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni M; White, Katherine M; Watson, Barry
The main aim of this study was to identify young drivers' underlying beliefs (i.e., behavioral, normative, and control) regarding initiating, monitoring/reading, and responding to social interactive technology (i.e., functions on a Smartphone that allow the user to communicate with other people). This qualitative study was a beliefs elicitation study in accordance with the theory of planned behavior and sought to elicit young drivers' behavioral (i.e., advantages, disadvantages), normative (i.e., who approves, who disapproves), and control beliefs (i.e., barriers, facilitators) that underpin social interactive technology use while driving. Young drivers (N = 26) aged 17 to 25 years took part in an interview or focus group discussion. Though differences emerged between the 3 behaviors of initiating, monitoring/reading, and responding for each of the behavioral, normative, and control belief categories, the strongest distinction was within the behavioral beliefs category (e.g., communicating with the person that they were on the way to meet was an advantage of initiating; being able to determine whether to respond was an advantage of monitoring/reading; and communicating with important people was an advantage of responding). Normative beliefs were similar for initiating and responding behaviors (e.g., friends and peers more likely to approve than other groups) and differences emerged for monitoring/reading (e.g., parents were more likely to approve of this behavior than initiating and responding). For control beliefs, there were differences between the beliefs regarding facilitators of these behaviors (e.g., familiar roads and conditions facilitated initiating; having audible notifications of an incoming communication facilitated monitoring/reading; and receiving a communication of immediate importance facilitated responding); however, the control beliefs that presented barriers were consistent across the 3 behaviors (e.g., difficult traffic/road conditions). The
Parents Without Partners, Inc., Washington, DC.
Recent books portraying children who are experiencing family changes due to divorce and adjusting to stepparents have become more plentiful. Reading about how others have handled similar situations can be helpful for your children, giving them perspective, awareness of some of their feelings, fears, or mistaken ideas, and suggesting ways to solve…
Lucía C. Pérez Moreno
Full Text Available RESUMEN En los agitados años sesenta, en países como Francia, Inglaterra o Japón, proliferaron equipos de arquitectos, sociólogos y urbanistas que planteaban radicales visiones del hecho arquitectónico. De entre todos ellos, Architecture Principe destacó por su repercusión en España, esencialmente debido a la estrecha relación entre Claude Parent, uno de sus fundadores, y Juan Daniel Fullaondo, director de la revista Nueva Forma. Las teorías de Claude Parent y Paul Virilio en torno a La fonction oblique y Le troisieme ordre Urbain se divulgaron en la revista madrileña de forma coetánea con su país de origen. Sin embargo, la recepción de sus propuestas visionarias se vio desvirtuada con respecto a su propaganda original. Fullaondo dio un valor sobresaliente a las posibilidades reales de su arquitectura, lo que conllevo dejar en un segundo plano la condición utópica del grupo y fijar la atención en lo verosímil de sus propuestas. A ello se sumó el interés por divulgar los primeros proyectos de Claude Parent, en la línea de colaboraciones previas con otros arquitectos como André Bloc e Ionel Schein, cuyas obras fueron igualmente objeto de publicación en Nueva Forma. Esta decisión supuso que la labor de Virilio se viese relegada y que la figura de Claude Parent fuese la realmente protagonista.
Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interest and reading motivation based on literature review. The concept of the interest portrayed as a psychological state that occurs during interaction between individual and specific topic, object or activity including process of willingness, increased attention, concentration and positive feeling to the topic, object or activity. Meanwhile reading motivation emphasized to mental readiness, willingness and refers to beliefs and perception of individual to engage in reading activity. Some researchers were identified factors that influenced reading motivation such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors, self-concept and value of reading, and interest. In general, the literature review described that have positive relationship between interest and reading motivation.
Scholastic Inc., 2015
This report presents the 5th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. The latest research touches on reading aloud to children of all ages, the impact of reading independently for fun at school and at home, the importance of frequent reading, and the books children want most to read.…
Kam, Jennifer A.; Middleton, Ashley V.
Using primary socialization theory and theory of planned behavior, this study examined how targeted parent-child communication against substance use and parents' references to the negative consequences of their own past substance use (from the youth's perspective) directly and indirectly relate to Latino and European American youth's external…
Reading is extremely important for pupils and their development. The pupil with reading habits riches his vocabulary and gaining knowledge. On the other hand the pupil through reading entry into the world of imagination and stories. Major role in motivating students to read have parents and teachers. In this graduation thesis I was interested in how third grade teachers motivate their pupils to read. In doing so, I was focused mainly to reading for required reading and The Reading Badge. ...
Day, Richard R.
"Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…
Ngidi, David P.
In this study, academic optimism as an individual teacher belief was investigated. Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs were measured using the short form of the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale. One subtest from the Omnibus T-Scale, the faculty trust in clients subtest, was used to measure teachers' trust in students and parents. One subtest from the…
Nara Liana Pereira-Silva
Full Text Available Os valores e as crenças de pais e professores permeiam as práticas de cuidados e socialização das crianças e se expressam nas atividades rotineiras em que elas se engajam com seus diversos cuidadores. Este estudo descreve os valores e as crenças de 10 famílias e 10 professoras a respeito dos seguintes aspectos do desenvolvimento de crianças com e sem síndrome de Down: desenvolvimento motor, escolarização, profissionalização, relações íntimas e expectativas quanto ao futuro. As famílias eram compostas por pai, mãe e filhos, sendo que, em cinco delas, havia uma criança com síndrome de Down e, nas outras cinco, todas as crianças tinham desenvolvimento típico. Os dados foram coletados na residência das famílias, tendo sido realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas com os genitores e aplicado um questionário de caracterização do sistema familiar. Já as professoras foram entrevistadas no próprio local de trabalho. Os resultados mostraram diferenças nos valores e crenças relatados pelos genitores de crianças com e sem síndrome de Down, especialmente no que se refere ao desenvolvimento motor do filho. As professoras relataram mudanças no desempenho acadêmico das crianças, bem como em seus relacionamentos sociais. Enquanto as professoras do ensino especial esperam progressos nos resultados acadêmicos, em longo prazo, as professoras do ensino regular esperam resultados mais imediatos de suas crianças com desenvolvimento típico. Os dados indicam algumas similaridades entre as crenças de pais e professoras, as quais acreditam que o apoio e o envolvimento da família podem propiciar à criança com síndrome de Down os avanços necessários ao seu desenvolvimento.Parental and teacher values and beliefs permeate the care and socialization practices of children and are expressed in the daily activities that children engage in with their various caretakers. This study describes the values and beliefs of 10 families and 10
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parent-of-origin effects have been found to influence the mammalian brain and cognition and have been specifically implicated in the development of human social cognition and theory of mind. The experimental design in this study was developed to detect parent-of-origin effects on theory of mind, as measured by the 'Reading the mind in the eyes' (Eyes task. Eyes scores were also entered into a principal components analysis with measures of empathy, social skills and executive function, in order to determine what aspect of theory of mind Eyes is measuring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Maternal and paternal influences on Eyes scores were compared using correlations between pairs of full (70 pairs, maternal (25 pairs and paternal siblings (15 pairs. Structural equation modelling supported a maternal influence on Eyes scores over the normal range but not low-scoring outliers, and also a sex-specific influence on males acting to decrease male Eyes scores. It was not possible to differentiate between genetic and environmental influences in this particular sample because maternal siblings tended to be raised together while paternal siblings were raised apart. The principal components analysis found Eyes was associated with measures of executive function, principally behavioural inhibition and attention, rather than empathy or social skills. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the results suggest a maternal influence on Eye scores in the normal range and a sex-specific influence acting to reduce scores in males. This influence may act via aspects of executive function such as behavioural inhibition and attention. There may be different influences acting to produce the lowest Eyes scores which implies that the heratibility and/or maternal influence on poor theory of mind skills may be qualitatively different to the influence on the normal range.
for educators. Within each of these areas there are specific explorations that examine important areas such as, the roles of beliefs in teaching and learning, the impact of beliefs on student achievement, and ways in which beliefs are connected to teacher actions in the classroom. Throughout all...... of these discussions, there is a focus on international perspectives. Those reading this book can use the research presented to consider how to confront, challenge, and cultivate beliefs during the teacher professional development process....
Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a brief overview of belief change, a research area concerned with the question of how a rational agent ought to change its mind in the face of new, possibly conflicting, information. The authors limit themselves...
Mendez, Linda M. Raffaele; Pelzmann, Catherine A.; Frank, Michael J.
In this study, we piloted a Tier 2 intervention designed to improve reading skills among struggling early readers using an intervention that included SRA Reading Mastery, listening-while-reading activities, strategies to increase motivation and engagement in reading, and parent involvement in reading homework. The study included 6 students in…
The high percentage and the steady growth of Hispanic/Latino students in Arizona demand that special attention be placed on improving academic achievement and attainment. The need to support Hispanic/Latino parents in becoming meaningful positive contributors to their children's schooling continues to surface as a critical issue in school…
Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo
Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…
Historically, political debates have broken out over how to teach reading in primary schools and infant classrooms. These debates and "reading wars" have often resulted from public concerns and media reportage of a fall in reading standards. They also reflect the importance placed on learning to read by parents, teachers, employers, and…
You have young preschool children. You think ahead to when they will begin school, and wonder what you might do to make it easy for your children to learn to read. This article offers some hints for parents and caregivers about learning to read: (1) Reading can begin at birth; (2) When reading aloud to an infant, make the experience a warm, loving…
Shaw, Donita Massengill
The purpose of this manuscript was to describe information about an animal-assisted therapy, specifically the Reading Education Assistance Dog (R.E.A.D.) program. In this manuscript I provide information about R.E.A.D. programs in general. Next, I share perspectives solicited from R.E.A.D. participants, specifically teachers, parents, students and…
Ymara Lúcia Camargo Vitolo
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência e fatores de risco para problemas de saúde mental em escolares e sua possível relação com crenças e atitudes educativas de pais/cuidadores. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal; com amostra probabilística e estratificada (n=454 de escolares das primeiras três séries do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas e particulares de Taubaté, Estado de São Paulo. Foram aplicados instrumentos padronizados a pais/cuidadores por entrevistadores treinados: questionários de rastreamento de problemas de saúde mental em crianças e pais/cuidadores; questionário de crenças e atitudes educativas; questionário de classificação econômica. As seguintes análises estatísticas foram utilizadas: testes de qui-quadrado e modelos de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: A prevalência dos casos clínicos/limítrofes entre os escolares foi de 35,2%. Pais/cuidadores que acreditavam na punição física como método educativo agrediam fisicamente seus filhos com maior freqüência (64,8%. Modelos de regressão logística revelaram que a atitude de bater com o cinto esteve associada a problemas de conduta e a problemas de saúde mental em geral nos escolares, na presença de outros fatores de risco: sexo da criança (masculino, pais/cuidadores com problemas de saúde mental e condições socioeconômicas desfavoráveis. CONCLUSÕES: A alta prevalência de problemas de saúde mental em escolares e sua associação com métodos educativos e problemas de saúde mental dos pais/cuidadores indicam a necessidade de intervenções psicoeducacionais para reduzir o abuso físico e os problemas de saúde mental na infância.OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence and identify the risk factors related to mental health problems among schoolchildren and its possible association with the beliefs and educational attitudes of parents/caretakers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a stratified probabilistic sample (n=454 of first to third
Full Text Available Abstract: The challenges of reading are indeed apparent in most teaching and learning processes in ESL classrooms. As a result, this study is conducted to resolve the issues of students who seem to find reading to be unbearable. Many of them have limited ability to read well and hence, possess insufficient reading habits to become competent readers, particularly out-of-school context. Besides, poor home literacy environments also contribute to their shortcomings in reading. The main objectives of this study are to identify the students’ reasons for reading as well as to find out their home reading environments (reading backgrounds and habits; reading attitudes and motivation; reading exposure and supports. To identify these, questionnaires were distributed to 120 secondary school students (Form 4: 16 years old from one of the urban schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. The findings indicate that the students read to gain information and knowledge though many chose reading as a hobby as their last choice in explaining their motives of reading. Besides, they preferred non-academic reading materials, mainly lighter forms reading materials such as comics, story books and magazines. Though the students acknowledged the importance of reading in their daily lives, their average reading habits, attitude, motivation, exposure and support within the home domain had suggested otherwise. They mainly read for instrumental purposes while reading for pleasure seemed not to be given priority. Besides, the respondents acknowledge that their parents and themselves did not read much at home. As an implication, it is vital for students to improve their reading perceptions, abilities and practices to achieve personal, societal and national progress. On a final note, parents’ early and continuous efforts to be involved in their children’s literacy events in an out-of-school context are believed to be vital to inculcate positive reading environments, habits and culture
Full Text Available in the presence of Vacuity. 3.2 Partial meet theory contraction The preceding construction works equally well when B is taken to be a theory K. But in this case, since the input to contraction is a theory, we should expect the output to be a theory too... that is analogous to that of a belief set K in theory change. Intuitively, E is the ?current? set of expectations of the agent, and the plausible consequences of a sentence ? are those sentences ? for which ? |?? holds. The set of expectations E is not explicitly...
Full Text Available This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.
van den Berg, Wessel; Hendricks, Lynn; Hatcher, Abigail; Peacock, Dean; Godana, Patrick; Dworkin, Shari
'One Man Can' (OMC) is a rights-based gender equality and health programme implemented by Sonke Gender Justice in South Africa. It has been featured as an example of best practice by the World Health Organization, UNAIDS, and the UN Population Fund, and translated into nearly a dozen languages and implemented all across Africa. South Africa has strong gender and HIV-related policies, but the highest documented level of men's violence against women in the world, and the largest number of people living with HIV. In this context, OMC seeks to improve men's relationships with their partners, children, and families, reduce the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS, and reduce violence against women, men, and children. To understand whether and how OMC workshops brought about changes in men's attitudes and practices related to parenting, an academic-non-government organisation partnership was carried out with the University of California at San Francisco, the University of Cape Town, and Sonke. The workshops appear to have contributed powerfully to improved parenting and more involved and responsible fathering. This article shares our findings in more detail and discusses the promises and challenges of gender-transformative work with men, underscoring the implications of this work for the health and well-being of women, children, and men.
Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani
We examined whether skeptics hold implicit supernatural beliefs or implicit cognitive underpinnings of the beliefs. In study 1 (N=57), participants read a biological or a religious story about death. The story content had no effect on skeptics' (or believers') afterlife beliefs. Study 2 examined the relationships between religious and non-religious paranormal beliefs and implicit views about whether supernatural and religious phenomena are imaginary or real (n1=33, n2=31). The less supernatural beliefs were endorsed the easier it was to connect "supernatural" with "imaginary". Study 3 (N=63) investigated whether participants' supernatural beliefs and ontological confusions differ between speeded and non-speeded response conditions. Only non-analytical skeptics' ontological confusions increased in speeded conditions. The results indicate that skeptics overall do not hold implicit supernatural beliefs, but that non-analytically thinking skeptics may, under supporting conditions, be prone to biases that predispose to supernatural beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the best ways for a member of the public to respond when someone in their social network develops a mental disorder. Controlled trials are not feasible in this area, so expert consensus may be the best guide. Methods To assess expert views, postal surveys were carried out with Australian GPs, psychiatrists and psychologists listed on professional registers and with mental health nurses who were members of a professional college. These professionals were asked to rate the helpfulness of 10 potential first aid strategies for young people with one of four disorders: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, social phobia and psychosis. Data were obtained from 470 GPs, 591 psychiatrists, 736 psychologists and 522 mental health nurses, with respective response rates of 24%, 35%, 40% and 32%. Data on public views were available from an earlier telephone survey of 3746 Australian youth aged 12–25 years and 2005 of their parents, which included questions about the same strategies. Results A clear majority across the four professions believed in the helpfulness of listening to the person, suggesting professional help-seeking, making an appointment for the person to see a GP and asking about suicidal feelings. There was also a clear majority believing in the harmfulness of ignoring the person, suggesting use of alcohol to cope, and talking to them firmly. Compared to health professionals, young people and their parents were less likely to believe that asking about suicidal feelings would be helpful and more likely to believe it would be harmful. They were also less likely to believe that talking to the person firmly would be harmful. Conclusion Several first aid strategies can be recommended to the public based on agreement of clinicians about their likely helpfulness. In particular, there needs to be greater public awareness of the helpfulness of asking a young person with a mental health problem about
Alianza Familia-Escuela: Percepciones, Creencias, Expectativas y Aspiraciones de Padres y Profesores de Enseñanza General Básica Family-School Alliance: Perceptions, Beliefs, Expectatives and Aspirations of Parents and Teachers in Primary School
Full Text Available Se refieren los resultados de un estudio cualitativo realizado en Santiago, cuyo propósito fue describir y comprender las percepciones, creencias, expectativas y aspiraciones de padres y profesores sobre la relación familia - escuela. El diseño metodológico se adscribió a los principios del paradigma interpretativo, según los principios de la Grounded Theory. Las técnicas de recolección fueron entrevistas semi-estructuradas y grupos focales a madres y profesores, constituyendo una muestra total de 48 sujetos. El estudio aporta información descriptiva y comprensiva sobre consensos y disensos de ambos respecto del sistema relacional familia-escuela, roles, normas, comunicación, conflictos, participación, alianza y educación. Finalmente emerge un modelo del sistema relacional familia - escuela, incluyendo barreras, facilitadores y parámetros que posibilitarían una alianza efectiva.Findings from a qualitative study made in Santiago, whose purpose was to describe and understand the parents and teachers perceptions, beliefs, expectatives, and aspirations about the family-school relationship. The methodological design adhered to the principles of the interpretative paradigm, according to the principles of the Grounded Theory. The gathering techniques were semi-organized interviews and focal groups to mothers and teachers, completing a total sample of 48 persons. This research contributes with descriptive and comprehensive information about consensus and disagreements of parents and teachers with regard to the family-school relational system, roles, rules, communication, conflicts, participation, alliance and education. Finally a model of the family-school relational system emerges, including barriers, helpers, and parameters that would make possible an effective alliance.
Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard
-home literacy-intervention throughout a school year. The children in the intervention group (1500 children in year 2 and 3) received reading materials and their parents were informed about how to talk about texts, language and knowledge with their children through specially developed tools such as “reading...
Hexem, Kari R; Mollen, Cynthia J; Carroll, Karen; Lanctot, Dexter A; Feudtner, Chris
How parents of children with life threatening conditions draw upon religion, spirituality, or life philosophy is not empirically well described. Participants were parents of children who had enrolled in a prospective cohort study on parental decision-making for children receiving pediatric palliative care. Sixty-four (88%) of the 73 parents interviewed were asked an open-ended question on how religion, spirituality, or life philosophy (RSLP) was helpful in difficult times. Responses were coded and thematically organized utilizing qualitative data analysis methods. Any discrepancies amongst coders regarding codes or themes were resolved through discussion that reached consensus. Most parents of children receiving palliative care felt that RSLP was important in helping them deal with tough times, and most parents reported either participation in formal religious communities, or a sense of personal spirituality. A minority of parents, however, did not wish to discuss the topic at all. For those who described their RSLP, their beliefs and practices were associated with qualities of their overall outlook on life, questions of goodness and human capacity, or that "everything happens for a reason." RSLP was also important in defining the child's value and beliefs about the child's afterlife. Prayer and reading the bible were important spiritual practices in this population, and parents felt that these practices influenced their perspectives on the medical circumstances and decision-making, and their locus of control. From religious participation and practices, parents felt they received support from both their spiritual communities and from God, peace and comfort, and moral guidance. Some parents, however, also reported questioning their faith, feelings of anger and blame towards God, and rejecting religious beliefs or communities. RSLP play a diverse and important role in the lives of most, but not all, parents whose children are receiving pediatric palliative care.
O'Leary, John Daniel
To develop good reading habits, children must be surrounded with books, stories and reading not only in the classroom but in the home and the community. Children who read and are read to outside of school do better than those who do not read and are not read to outside of school. Parents and other family members should make books and reading aloud…
Dirks, Evelien; Wauters, Loes
Interactive storybook reading is an important activity to enhance the emergent literacy skills of young deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Parents have a crucial role to play in promoting their children's literacy development. However, parents often do not read in an interactive way; therefore guidance is recommended in applying these interactive reading strategies. In the present study we examined how parent reading behavior was affected by implementing an interactive reading training program for parents of young DHH children. Parents of 18 DHH toddlers in the Netherlands participated in a series of group training sessions and their interactive reading behavior was compared to that of 10 parents who did not participate. The results showed that parents' interactive reading behavior tended to increase after they participated in the interactive reading program. After the program, they applied the interactive reading strategies more often than parents who had not participated in the program. The findings suggest that interactive reading programs should be incorporated into early intervention programs for DHH children.
Annemarie Wennekers; Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan
Original title: Lees:Tijd The amount of time that Dutch people spend reading has been declining steadily since the 1950s. This decline in reading time contrasts starkly with the positive personal and social benefits that can be derived from reading, according to lots of research. The Reading:
Tilley, Carol L.
Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…
Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander
Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions......-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....
Loughlin-Presnal, John E; Bierman, Karen L
This study explored patterns of change in the REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) Parent program (REDI-P), designed to help parents support child learning at the transition into kindergarten. Participants were 200 prekindergarten children attending Head Start (55% European-American, 26% African American, 19% Latino, 56% male, M age =4.45years, SD=0.29) and their primary caregivers, who were randomized to a 16-session home-visiting intervention (REDI-P) or a control group. Extending beyond a prior study documenting intervention effects on parenting behaviors and child kindergarten outcomes, this study assessed the impact of REDI-P on parent academic expectations, and then explored the degree to which intervention gains in three areas of parenting (parent-child interactive reading, parent-child conversations, parent academic expectations) predicted child outcomes in kindergarten (controlling for baseline values and a set of child and family characteristics). Results showed that REDI-P promoted significant gains in parent academic expectations, which in turn mediated intervention gains in child emergent literacy skills and self-directed learning. Results suggest a need to attend to the beliefs parents hold about their child's academic potential, as well as their behavioral support for child learning, when designing interventions to enhance the school success of children in low-income families. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Ives, Jessica
This article presents a case study that explored and reflected on the relationship between the stated beliefs and observed classroom practices of one second language reading teacher. The findings of this study revealed that this particular teacher holds complex beliefs about teaching reading that were evident to some extent in many of his…
Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.
A study was conducted to determine and compare the literacy beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices of early childhood educators who espouse emergent literacy and reading readiness philosophies; to explore the relationship among beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices; and to examine the degree to which beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices were…
Lin, Linda; Reid, Kathleen
This study examined the relationship between media exposure, antifat attitudes, and body dissatisfaction, as well as the mediating effect of dysfunctional appearance beliefs. A sample of 112 women completed surveys measuring media exposure, antifat attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and dysfunctional beliefs about appearance. It was found that time spent reading fashion magazines was positively correlated with antifat attitudes and that this relationship was mediated by dysfunctional beliefs about appearance. Measures of antifat attitudes and body dissatisfaction were both found to be correlated with endorsement of dysfunctional beliefs about appearance and body mass index. Results suggest that time spent reading fashion magazines may be related to antifat attitudes through dysfunctional appearance beliefs.
Bandura, Albert; And Others
Analyzed the psychosocial influences through which efficacy beliefs affect academic achievement. Found that parents' sense of academic efficacy and aspirations for their children, children's beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and academic attainments, children's perceived social efficacy and ability to manage peer pressure,…
Chalik, Lisa; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Rhodes, Marjorie
The present study investigates the processes by which essentialist beliefs about religious categories develop. Children (ages 5 and 10) and adults (n = 350) from 2 religious groups (Jewish and Christian), with a range of levels of religiosity, completed switched-at-birth tasks in which they were told that a baby had been born to parents of 1…
Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.
This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4–5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills (including numeracy skills) of these children at least up to age
Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.
Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4 to 5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills of these children at least up to age 10 or 11. Our
Dunson, Walter E.
"School Success for Kids With Dyslexia and Other Reading Difficulties" provides parents and teachers with goals that will meet the needs of students who are struggling with reading, leading them to work through their difficulties and enjoy reading. It includes information, assessments, and techniques that parents, teachers, and school…
Abram, Marie J.; Dowling, William D.
The author's style of writing has implications for the ease with which the written material can be read. Using the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, the mean readability score, the standard deviation, and range are given for 50 parenting books. Discussion suggests how the list might be used by parent educators. (Author)
Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…
Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei
The authors report a semistructured interview of 328 urban Chinese parents regarding their parenting beliefs and practices with respect to their only children. Statistical analyses of the coded parental interviews and peer nomination data from the children show none of the traditional Chinese parenting or child behaviors that have been widely reported in the literature. The parenting of only children in urban China was predominantly authoritative rather than authoritarian. The parenting strategies and beliefs were child-centered, egalitarian, and warmth-oriented rather than control-oriented. Chinese parents encouraged prosocial assertiveness and discouraged behavioral constraint and modesty. The parenting of only children was also gender egalitarian in that there were few gender differences in child social behaviors and little gender differential parenting and socialization of these only children. Together with other recent studies, these findings and conclusions challenge the traditionalist view of Chinese parenting and beliefs and behaviors about child socialization.
Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Pretorius, U.
One of the main functions of the human brain is memory, and this forms the basis of learning and is the cornerstone of IQ. One of the important aims for both parents and educators of preschool children is to improve or develop the child's self-application of intelligence in the classroom, which indirectly involves memory capability development.…
Shapiro, Gilla K; Holding, Anne; Perez, Samara; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev
Parents' vaccine attitudes influence their decision regarding child vaccination. To date, no study has evaluated the impact of vaccine conspiracy beliefs on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance. The authors assessed the validity of a Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (VCBS) and determined whether this scale was associated with parents' willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine. Canadian parents completed a 24-min online survey in 2014. Measures included socio-demographic variables, HPV knowledge, health care provider recommendation, Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), the seven-item VCBS, and parents' willingness to vaccinate their son at two price points. A total of 1427 Canadian parents completed the survey in English (61.2%) or French (38.8%). A Factor Analysis revealed the VCBS is one-dimensional and has high internal consistency (α=0.937). The construct validity of the VCBS was supported by a moderate relationship with the CMQ (r=0.44, pparents' willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine at both price points ('free' or '$300') after controlling for gender, age, household income, education level, HPV knowledge, and health care provider recommendation. The VCBS is a brief, valid scale that will be useful in further elucidating the correlates of vaccine hesitancy. Future research could use the VCBS to evaluate the impact of vaccine conspiracies beliefs on vaccine uptake and how concerns about vaccination may be challenged and reversed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
The purpose of this study was to determine effects of child gender on parental and child beliefs and evaluate competitive sport participation as a modifier of child beliefs. Two age-groups of children and parents completed measures on child athletic appearance, competence, importance of physical act...
A small change in how teachers and parents read aloud to preschoolers may provide a big boost to their reading skills later on, a new study found. That change involves making specific references to print in books while reading--such as pointing out letters and words on the pages, showing capital letters, and showing how they read from left to…
Nowak, Sarah N.; Evans, Mary Ann
This study examined parents' goals for reading ABC books with their children and their perceptions of page features. Factor analysis of a questionnaire answered by 225 parents of junior and senior kindergarten students revealed four goals for reading alphabet books. In order of importance as rated by parents the goals were: Learning to Read,…
Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei
The authors report a semistructured interview of 328 urban Chinese parents regarding their parenting beliefs and practices with respect to their only children. Statistical analyses of the coded parental interviews and peer nomination data from the children show none of the traditional Chinese parenting or child behaviors that have been widely…
Foss, Nicolai Juul
While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars.......While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects...
The Storm and Stress of Adolescents with Reading Disabilities: Implications for Teachers and Parents. ... adolescents with reading disabilities as a result of hormonal changes of adolescence and the increased ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S.
Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters’ abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter’s HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks. PMID:22677973
Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S
Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.
Background Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents’ frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC). Methods A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire exploring parents’ beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children. The questionnaires were completed by parents following their child’s participation in the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE). Parental agreement upon statements concerning beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children was measured on a Likert scale. Differences in levels of agreement between parents of non-overweight children and parents of overweight children were analysed using Chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test. Results Parents of 879 children completed and returned questionnaires. Around three fourths of the parents agreed that overweight was a health problem. A majority of parents (93%) agreed that the GP should call attention to overweight in children and offer counselling on diet and exercise. Almost half of the parents expected a follow-up programme. Parents of overweight children seemed to agree less upon some of the proposed causes of overweight, e.g. inappropriate diet and lack of exercise. These parents also had stronger beliefs about overweight disappearing by itself as the child grows up. Conclusions According to parental beliefs and expectations, general practice should have an important role to play in the management of child overweight. Moreover, our findings suggest that GPs should be aware of the particular beliefs that parents of overweight children may have regarding causes
Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.
Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking from…
Described is a home reading program for educationally disadvantaged elementary school children who need motivation to read at home. Principles of behavior change and parent role are the major motivation factors used in developing the children's reading ability. (CB)
E.J. van Niekerk
Full Text Available In this article the conceptions of knowledge and time within Christianity, secular humanism and traditional African religion are juxtaposed. In order to emphasise the vital role o f belief systems in the field of education, some educational implications are inferred from these different conceptions of knowledge and time. The need to create enough space within the South African education system so that parents will be able to send their children to schools where education is conducted according to their particular belief systems is also foregrounded.
for reading among learners from an early age, specifically through parental involvement in ... Keywords: Carroll's model of School Learning, contextual factors, prePIRLS 2011, .... children's literacy and the difference between parents of good.
Fagan, W. T.
The Canadian Institute for Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences of Calgary was awarded a contract by the Provincial Government of Alberta to assess student skills and knowledge in reading and written composition. Here evaluation is defined and the use of standardized and criterion referenced tests for evaluating reading performance are…
Richard L. ALLINGTON
Full Text Available Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.
McDowall, Philippa S; Taumoepeau, Mele; Schaughency, Elizabeth
This study described the relations of parents' and teachers' beliefs and attitudes to forms of parents' involvement in children's first two years of primary school. Parents of children in their first year of primary school (age 5) were recruited from 12 classrooms within four schools in New Zealand; 196 families participated in their child's first year, and 124 families continued to participate in their child's second school year. Parents completed the Family-Involvement Questionnaire, New Zealand, and we archivally collected parent-documented children's oral reading homework. Teachers' rated helpfulness of parents' involvement at school (level 2) and parents' rated teacher invitations to be involved and their perceived time and energy (level 1) contributed to school-based involvement in Year 1 in multilevel models, with parents' rated teacher invitations for involvement also found to predict Year 1 home-school communication in regression analyses. Contributors to Year 1 child-parent reading in multilevel models included level 1 predictors of two or more adults in the home and parents' perceived time and energy. Longitudinal analyses suggested both consistency and change in each form of involvement from Year 1 to Year 2, with increases in each form of involvement found to be associated with increases in parents' and/or teachers' views about involvement in Year 2 in cross-sectional time-series analyses. Implications for schools wanting to engage families are that parents' involvement in children's schooling may be influenced by parents' perceptions of their capacity, teachers' engagement efforts, and the school's climate for involvement. This is a special issue paper "Family Engagement in Education and Intervention". Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...
context of the academic subjects which they study at school, rather than in areas traditionally associated with learners' out-of-school interests ... the majority of the learners had not seen their parents reading a book ..... Harvard University Press.
Full Text Available ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? ...
I defend the view that we act “under the guise of the good.” More specifically, I argue that an intention to do something is a belief that one ought to do it. I show how conflicts in intention and belief, as well as more complex impairments in these states, account for the central problem cases: akrasia in belief and intention, apparently unintelligible choices, and lack of motivation or accidie.
Rationality of a player is determined by comparing her actual expected payoff to her expected payoff when her strategy is changed , while her beliefs —and...reduced strategies, and it is possible that under such conditions, beliefs about other players’ reduced strategies change as well. Thus, independence...assumptions, whether they concern observability of moves or subjective beliefs of any other kind, can be all accommodated by changing the informational
Johnston, Robyn; Hearn, Lydia; Cross, Donna; Thomas, Laura T.; Bell, Sharon
Purpose: While parents' influence on their children's smoking behaviour is widely recognised, little is known about parents of four to eight year olds' attitudes and beliefs around smoking cessation and how they communicate with their children about smoking. The purpose of this paper is to explore parents' perceptions of quitting smoking and their…
Wendi J. OTTO
Full Text Available It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian Parenting Model. Perceptions about child development and learning, the mother-child relationship, authoritarian parenting style, and specific East Asian parenting practices are patterns explored in this study. These findings may inform teachers, pre-service teachers, and others involved in the education of Korean-American students about differentiating factors (i.e., specific East Asian parental and/or teaching practices that may be influential for explaining and improving the academic achievement for the children in this group.
Wendi J. Otto
Full Text Available It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian Parenting Model. Perceptions about child development and learning, the mother-child relationship, authoritarian parenting style, and specific East Asian parenting practices are patterns explored in this study. These findings may inform teachers, pre-service teachers, and others involved in the education of Korean-American students about differentiating factors (i.e., specific East Asian parental and/or teaching practices that may be influential for explaining and improving the academic achievement for the children in this group.
Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.
Offers brief descriptions of 34 children's books that are excellent for reading aloud: some of them for inviting interaction, for laughing out loud, for prompting discussion, for living vicariously, for lingering over language, and for making curricular connections. (SR)
Full Text Available ... Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer ...
Rauff, James V.
Discusses errors made by remedial intermediate algebra students in factoring polynomials in light of student definitions of factoring. Found certain beliefs about factoring to logically imply many of the errors made. Suggests that belief-based teaching can be successful in teaching factoring. (16 references) (Author/MKR)
Page, Randy M; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Chi, Hoang Khanh; Tien, Truong Quang
Tobacco-related deaths in Vietnam are forecast to climb from 40 000 annually to 70 000 by 2030. Previous research in Western nations has found social factors to be important determinants of adolescent smoking. Because these factors remain unexplored in Vietnamese youth, the purpose of this study was to examine social normative beliefs regarding smoking in a school-based sample of North Vietnamese adolescents and the association of these factors with smoking behavior and susceptibility to smoking. Three measures of normative beliefs regarding smoking were evaluated in cross-sectional surveys of secondary students. Of the 3 measures, parent/peer disapproval was the most consistent normative belief associated with smoking behavior and susceptibility to smoking. Youth smoking prevention programs should consider assessing and taking into account normative beliefs and develop strategies that provide accurate information about the actual prevalence of smoking, the types of individuals who smoke, and approval/disapproval of smoking by parents and peers.
Full Text Available In point of principle, Christianity does not give room for any belief in fate. Astrology, horoscopes, divination, etc., are strictly rejected. Belief in fate never disappeared in Christian countries, nor did it in Scandinavia in Christian times. Especially in folklore we can find it at any period: People believed in an implacable fate. All folklore is filled up with this belief in destiny. Nobody can escape his fate. The future lies in the hands of fate, and the time to come takes its form according to inscrutable laws. The pre-Christian period in Scandinavia, dominated by pagan Norse religion, and the secularized epoch of the 20th century, however, show more distinctive and more widespread beliefs in fate than does the Christian period. The present paper makes a comparison between these forms of belief.
Manosevitz, Martin; Prentice, Norman M.
This study examined children's beliefs in Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny, and the Tooth Fairy as well as the effects of parental encouragement or support of these fantasy characters upon the children's beliefs. Subjects were 60 children aged 4, 6 and 8 years and their parents. Measures included a parental questionnaire and child interviews. Partial…
Patton, Susana R; Clements, Mark A; George, Katie; Goggin, Kathy
Many young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) do not consume a healthful diet; exactly why this occurs despite T1DM education remains poorly understood. This study describes parents' perceptions of healthful eating for T1DM in young children and identifies factors related to parents' dietary management. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods study was performed. Parents completed a questionnaire, 3-day weighed diet record, and a semi-structured interview regarding their perceptions of healthful eating for T1DM and their dietary management practices. Twenty-three families, recruited from a pediatric diabetes clinic in the midwestern United States between February 2012 and April 2013, participated. Eligible families had a child with T1DM who was 1 to 6 years old, at least 6 months from diagnosis, and was following an intensive insulin regimen. Mean scores and percentages were calculated from the diet diaries and parent questionnaires, and parents' interviews were coded to identify common themes. Results showed that while parents may believe they know what constitutes a healthful diet for T1DM, they do not always feed their child a healthful diet. Parent-identified barriers to healthful eating included limited time to prepare homemade meals, perceived higher costs of healthier foods, the influence of peers on children's food preferences, and picky eating. Parents also discussed a desire not to limit their child's diet or make their child "feel different," which many parents said often led them to give into their child's requests for less healthful food options. Parents of young children with T1DM identified several barriers to healthful eating that are common for all parents, such as time constraints, expense, and child food preferences. However, unique themes emerged, including parents' desire not to limit their child's diet or make their child "feel different." Nutrition components of T1DM education should include psychological and behavioral strategies to help
The widening gap in societal and economic development between urban and rural communities and the relaxation of migration restrictions in China since the 1980s have led large numbers of rural laborers to leave their countryside homes in search of better job opportunities in urban areas. As a result of this wave of migration, millions of children were left behind by their migrant parent in rural communities, in the care of the nonmigrant parent, the children’s grandparents or other relatives, even some are left to care for themselves. Long-term and long-distance family separation and lack of face-to-face communications characterize the interactions between migrant parent(s) and their left-behind offspring, and this relative absence of parental affection puts left-behind children at a disadvantage compared with children from nonmigrant families. Although left-behind children were reported to have a higher probability of risk for maladjustment than their peers from nonmigrant families, literatures suggest that there are considerable variations in the adaptations of left-behind children; while some children are at a high risk for delays in adaptive functioning, some do not experience adaptive problems, and still some even show positive development. A key issue with important preventive and theoretical implications in the study of left-behind children involves the identification of potentially protective processes that support positive adaptation in children from migrant families. The present study was designed to examine the moderate effects of parental cohesion and children’s cultural beliefs about adversity on the relationship between peer rejection/acceptance and adaptive functioning by comparing left-behind children with children from nonmigrant families. A total of 424 rural children were recruited from a rural area in Henan province of China, including 76 children from two-parent-migrant families, 133 children from father-migrant families, and 215 children
Walker, Joan M. T.
Grounded in Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler's parent involvement process model, the Realizing the American Dream (RAD) parent education program targets Latino parents' involvement beliefs and knowledge to enhance their involvement behaviors. Comparison of more than 2,000 parents' self-reported beliefs, knowledge, and behavior before and after RAD…
Siebert, Erin A.; Hamm, Jessica; Yun, Joonkoo
The purpose of this study was to identify parental influences on physical activity behaviours of children with disabilities. One hundred and forty-eight parents of children with disabilities responded to a survey about factors related to parent and child physical activity, parental support and belief in their child's abilities regarding physical…
Barroso, Cristina S; Peters, Ronald Joseph; Johnson, Regina Jones; Kelder, Steven H; Jefferson, Troy
Focus groups, utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior, examined the beliefs and perceived norms regarding body image in a sample of urban African-American and Latino teenagers (N = 83, 18-19 years old) from Texas. Cultural eating (behavioral belief) explained the acceptance and tolerance of overweight. Popularity of hip-hop fashion and limited income explicated peer and familial normative beliefs, respectively. Thinness equated HIV infection in African-Americans (parental normative belief). Barriers to healthy eating and active living (control beliefs) included willpower, laziness, fast food, and excessive work. Findings can guide the development and implementation of culturally appropriate obesity interventions for African-American and Latino adolescents.
Nagel, I.; Verboord, M.
In this article we study how the frequency of book-reading - a form of legitimate culture - develops in the period from adolescence to young adulthood and how it is influenced by parents' education, parental reading socialization climate, school and their interactions. In disentangling parental and
Gilla K. Shapiro
Full Text Available Background: Parents’ vaccine attitudes influence their decision regarding child vaccination. To date, no study has evaluated the impact of vaccine conspiracy beliefs on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance. The authors assessed the validity of a Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (VCBS and determined whether this scale was associated with parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine. Methods: Canadian parents completed a 24-min online survey in 2014. Measures included socio-demographic variables, HPV knowledge, health care provider recommendation, Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ, the seven-item VCBS, and parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son at two price points. Results: A total of 1427 Canadian parents completed the survey in English (61.2% or French (38.8%. A Factor Analysis revealed the VCBS is one-dimensional and has high internal consistency (α=0.937. The construct validity of the VCBS was supported by a moderate relationship with the CMQ (r=0.44, p<0.001. Hierarchical regression analyses found the VCBS is negatively related to parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine at both price points (‘free’ or ‘$300′ after controlling for gender, age, household income, education level, HPV knowledge, and health care provider recommendation. Conclusions: The VCBS is a brief, valid scale that will be useful in further elucidating the correlates of vaccine hesitancy. Future research could use the VCBS to evaluate the impact of vaccine conspiracies beliefs on vaccine uptake and how concerns about vaccination may be challenged and reversed. Keywords: Cancer prevention, Conspiracy beliefs, Human papillomavirus, Vaccine hesitancy, Vaccines, Vaccine Conspiracy Belief Scale
As college and workplace success becomes increasingly dependent on reading, parents and educators have become more interested in how to engage students in reading. Teachers at a rural Georgia high school have reported that students are reluctant to engage in academic reading. Guided by previous research on the factors that promote or discourage…
van Ours, J.C.
This paper investigates the reading of fiction books by 15-year-olds in 18 OECD countries.It appears that girls fiction books more often than boys, whereas boys read comic books more often than girls.The intensity by which children read fiction books is influenced by parental education, family
Wendi J. Otto
It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian ...
In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses...
Reading Rembrandt: Beyond the Word-Image Opposition explores the potential for an interdisciplinary methodology between visual art and literature. In a series of close analyses of works by "Rembrandt" - works as we see them today, through all the ways of seeing and commenting that precede - and
Kelesidou, Sofia; Chatzikou, Maria; Tsiamagka, Evmorfia; Koutra, Evangelia; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Tseliou, Eleftheria
This research examines specific facets of parent satisfaction with childcare centres, namely satisfaction with parent-centre communication and the educational services they provide, as well as respective parent beliefs. These were investigated in relation to centre type (private vs public) and parents' education. Parents of different educational…
Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Rieland, Gayle
School-based body mass index (BMI) screening and parent notification programs have been recommended as a childhood overweight prevention strategy. However, there are little empirical data available to guide decision making about the acceptability and safety of programs. A pilot study was conducted using a quasiexperimental research design. In fall 2004, children in 4 suburban elementary schools (kindergarten to sixth grade) in the St Paul/Minneapolis, MN, metropolitan area completed height/weight screening. The following spring, parents in 2 schools received letters containing height/weight and BMI results. A self-administered post-only survey examined parents' opinions and beliefs regarding school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs (response rate: 790/1133 = 70%). The chi2 test of significance was used to examine differences in program support by treatment condition, child's weight status, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among all parents, 78% believed it was important for schools to assess student's height/weight annually and wanted to receive height, weight, and BMI information yearly. Among parents receiving the letter, 95% read most/all of the letter. Most parents (80%) and children (83%) reported comfort with the information in the letter. Parents of overweight children were more likely to report parental discomfort as well as child discomfort with letter content. There was considerable parental support for school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs. Programs may be a useful overweight prevention tool for children. However, continued attention to how best to support parents and children affected by overweight is required.
Full Text Available Although early reading practices impact a host of child literacy, language, and school outcomes, many parents do not read to their young children. One possible explanation for this lack of early literacy practices is mothers’ feelings about their ability to successfully read to their children. A series of multiple regressions were used to explore whether new mothers’ reading self-efficacy predicted their perceived barriers to reading to their 18-month-old children. Findings suggest that self-efficacy buffers against mother-centered (e.g., too tired, child-centered (e.g., toddler fussy, and structural (e.g., environmental distractions barriers to reading. Given the importance of early literacy and that not all mothers read to their toddlers, increasing reading self-efficacy may offer a way to reduce perceived barriers to early literacy practices.
Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl
This paper describes a concept analysis carried out to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of perceived parental efficacy and to distinguish it from related concepts such as parental confidence and parental competence. Constructing parental efficacy is a crucial step for family members after the birth of their first child. For some authors, perceived parental efficacy is a motor for adequate parental practices. Confusion about the definition and measurement of this concept has hindered both psychology and nursing practice and research. Concept delineation and concept clarification are required in order to further the development of the concept of perceived parental efficacy. A literature search using a variety of online databases yielded 113 articles between the years 1980 and 2000. The final sample (n=60) consisted of 30 articles from two disciplines: nursing and psychology. A content analysis of the literature was done using Rodger's evolutionary concept analysis method. Content analysis of the literature yielded four contributors to perceived parental efficacy: positive enactive mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and an appropriate physiological and affective state. Perceived parental efficacy can thus be defined as 'beliefs or judgements a parent holds of their capabilities to organize and execute a set of tasks related to parenting a child'. This conceptual analysis has allowed perceived parental efficacy to be distinguished from parental confidence and parental competence. Both nursing and psychology research, practice and education will benefit from a more precise and delineated concept.
Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…
Huang, Ching-Ting; Yang, Shu Ching
This study examines the effects of two types of online remedial reading interventions on the reading strategy and comprehension, motivational beliefs, and self-efficacy of 36 low-achieving students (explicit teaching before reciprocal teaching [ET-RT] vs. direct instruction [DI]). We designed a 10-unit online remedial English reading program based…
El-Khechen, Wahiba; Ferdinand, Hanna D.; Steinmayr, Ricarda; McElvany, Nele
Background: Although various studies on general language performance have investigated determinants of students' reading comprehension (e.g., reading amount), they have paid insufficient attention to how students perceive parental values influence their language-related values and behaviour--and, as a consequence, their performance. This is…
Mercieca, Daniela; Mercieca, Duncan P.
This paper draws upon Deleuze and Guattari's ideas to suggest a different kind of reading of a narrative of a mother of a child with severe disability, and thus a different kind of ethical response to them. This reading gives readers the possibility of opening up experiences of parents and children with disability, rather than…
The capability of changing beliefs upon new information in a rational and efficient way is crucial for an intelligent agent. Belief change therefore is one of the central research fields in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for over two decades. In the AI literature, two different kinds of belief change operations have been intensively investigated: belief update, which deal with situations where the new information describes changes of the world; and belief revision, which assumes the world is st...
Calvin S. Kalman
Full Text Available This study was based on the hypothesis that students’ epistemological beliefs could become more expertlike with a combination of appropriate instructional activities: (i preclass reading with metacognitive reflection, and (ii in-class active learning that produces cognitive dissonance. This hypothesis was tested through a five-year study involving close to 1000 students at two institutions, in four physics courses. Using an experimental design, data from student interviews, writing product assessments, and the Discipline-Focused Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (DFEBQ we demonstrate that the beliefs of novice science learners became more expertlike on 2 of the 4 DFEBQ factors. We conclude that a combination of an activity that gets students to examine textual material metacognitively (Reflective Writing with one or more types of in-class active learning interventions can promote positive change in students’ epistemological beliefs.
Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R
The need to belong can motivate belief in God. In Study 1, 40 undergraduates read bogus astrophysics articles "proving" God's existence or not offering proof. Participants in the proof-for-God condition reported higher belief in God (compared to control) when they chronically imagined God as accepting but lower belief in God when they imagined God as rejecting. Additionally, in Study 2 (72 undergraduates), these effects did not occur when participants' belongingness need was satisfied by priming close others. Study 3 manipulated 79 Internet participants' image of God. Chronic believers in the God-is-rejecting condition reported lower religious behavioral intentions than chronic believers in the God-is-accepting condition, and this effect was mediated by lower desires for closeness with God. In Study 4 (106 Internet participants), chronic believers with an accepting image of God reported that their belief in God is motivated by belongingness needs. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to…
This book is a guide for parents who wish to raise children with more than one language and literacy. Drawing on interdisciplinary research, as well as the experiences of parents of multilingual children, this book walks parents through the multilingual reading and writing process from infancy to adolescence. It identifies essential literacy…
Freeman, Harry; Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.
Fathers' beliefs were examined as mediators between multiple risk factors and involvement practices with children age zero to five enrolled in Head Start or Early Head Start. A diverse sample of 101 fathers, living in rural Midwestern communities of the USA completed questionnaires assessing "mediators" (i.e. parenting efficacy, role beliefs, and…
Although styles of self-reliance theoretically arise from early attachments, other research suggests the influence of attachment operates indirectly through internalized but modifiable beliefs about the self and others. The present study examined the relative contribution of parental attachment, social support perceptions, control beliefs, and…
Ravindran, Neeraja; Myers, Barbara J.
Beliefs and practices regarding autism were explored in Indian families living outside India. Parents (N = 24) of children (3 to 15 years) with an autism spectrum disorder wrote open-ended answers in an online questionnaire regarding their beliefs about causes, treatments and services received, use of and preference for Indian medicine and…
Figueiredo, Luis Claudio
A case of hysteria is presented in order to create a frame of reference for the author's approach to the concepts of hope, belief and faith. A difference between hope as a 'sad passion' (which is here called regressive hope) and hope as a principle of mental functioning is established. The concept of hope will at first always be based on beliefs--either beliefs organised in the paranoid-schizoid position (called here fragmented and delusional beliefs)--or those organised from the depressive position (complex systems of beliefs, which end up being dogmatic); the latter typically occur in neurotics. It is suggested here that there is another possibility for hope, which is based on faith. The meaning of faith is considered here externally to the religious sense. The solid establishment of hope as a principle--based on faith--can be viewed as responsible for the opening up of creative potentials and as one of the main aims of analysis. Such an aim, however requires the establishment of a deep relationship, both in theory and in clinical practice, between the Kleinian question of the depressive position and the Freudian question of the Oedipus complex.
Otto, Wendi J.
It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian…
Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence
The aims of this study were: (a) to examine general perceptions of filial obligations toward sharing housing with older parents and stepparents; and (b) to assess the effects of selected contextual factors on those normative beliefs. A national sample of 579 men and 582 women (mean age = 44.6, SD = 17.2) responded to a multiple segment factorial…
Abu-Rabia, Salim; Maroun, Lateefeh
The present study examined the effect of consanguineous marriage in the Arab community on reading disabilities of offspring. It examined whether the rate of reading disabilities was higher among offspring of first-cousin parents than offspring of unrelated parents; and whether reading-disabled children of first-cousin parents were more disabled in phonological awareness and phonological decoding than reading-disabled children of unrelated parents and normally reading younger children. These questions were investigated among 814 pupils of the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades, using word recognition and reading comprehension tests. Two experimental groups were chosen from this population. These were a reading-disabled group of 22 pupils who were children of first-cousin marriages and 21 pupils who were children of unrelated parents. A control group was also selected, consisting of 21 younger normally reading pupils at the same reading level. All the groups were tested on non-words, real words, phonological, orthographic and working memory measures. The results indicated that the rate of reading disabilities among children of first-cousin parents was higher than that of with children of second-cousin parents, distantly related parents, or unrelated parents. Further, no differences were found in phonological awareness and decoding between the two reading-disabled groups. Moreover, the results indicate a significant advantage of the younger normal readers over the reading-disabled children in the measures of phonological awareness, decoding, and orthographical knowledge that requires spelling. However, in reading common words and choosing words in context, the performance of the reading-disabled groups and the normally reading group were similar. It has been suggested that further research is needed to evaluate the role of intelligence, nevertheless our results provide new evidence for a genetic basis to reading disabilities.
Wu, Echo H.; Hertberg-Davis, Holly
This paper illustrates a case study on two Chinese American families with gifted children, and the major topic focuses on the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the Chinese parents who lived in America, and research questions include the daily…
Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer
School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…
Badasu, Delali M; Abuosi, Aaron A; Adzei, Francis A; Anarfi, John K; Yawson, Alfred E; Atobrah, Deborah A
Increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been observed in Ghana as in other developing countries. Past research focused on NCDs among adults. Recent researches, however, provide evidence on NCDs among children in many countries, including Ghana. Beliefs about the cause of NCDs among children may be determined by the socioeconomic status of parents and care givers. This paper examines the relationship between educational status of parents and/or care givers of children with NCDs on admission and their beliefs regarding NCDs among children. A total of 225 parents and/or care givers of children with NCDS hospitalized in seven hospitals in three regions (Greater Accra, Ashanti and Volta) were selected for the study. Statistical techniques, including the chi-square and multinomial logistic regression, were used for the data analysis. Educational status is a predictor of care giver's belief about whether enemies can cause NCDs among children or not. This is the only belief with which all the educational categories have significant relationship. Also, post-secondary/polytechnic (p-value =0.029) and university (p-value = 0.009) levels of education are both predictors of care givers being undecided about the belief that NCDs among children can be caused by enemies, when background characteristics are controlled for. Significant relationship is found between only some educational categories regarding the other types of beliefs and NCDs among children. For example, those with Middle/Juniour Secondary School (JSS)/Juniour High School (JHS) education are significantly undecided about the belief that the sin of parents can cause NCDs among children. Education is more of a predictor of the belief that enemies can cause NCDs among children than the other types of beliefs. Some categories of ethnicity, residential status and age have significant relationship with the beliefs when background characteristics of the parents and/or care givers were controlled
McBride-Chang, C; Chang, L
This 4-phase study of Hong Kong Chinese adolescent-parent relationships (906 adolescents and 1,091 parents) revealed the following: (a) Adolescents and their parents differ in their perceptions of parenting style. (b) Autonomy is negatively associated with parents' perceived authoritative parenting style and school achievement. (c) Neither parenting style nor measures of parents' beliefs in training their children (R. Chao, 1994) are associated with self-reports of school achievement. However, (d) parents of students from the highest (Band 1) academically oriented schools in Hong Kong rated themselves as higher in authoritativeness and lower in authoritarianism than parents of adolescents from the lowest academically oriented (Band 5) schools. Findings are discussed in relation to posited differences in adolescent-parent relationships in Western and Chinese cultures.
Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken
The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…
Reading is a fundamental activity of our society and is present in all areas of a person’s life. Authors who deal with reading define reading with different definitions, some of them I also presented in my master’s degree thesis. The ways of reading, typology of readers and knowledge of different reading models are only some of the important theoretical facts that serve as a basis for the research and defining reading. Reading motivation is an important motivational factor, which encourages a...
Sefein, Naim A.
To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…
De Los Reyes, Andres; Thomas, Sarah A; Swan, Anna J; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Suarez, Liza; Dougherty, Lea R; MacPherson, Laura; Pabón, Shairy C
We examined a new structured interview of parent-child conflict that assesses parent and child perceptions of behavioral conflict about daily life topics (e.g., doing chores, homework), and whether discrepancies exist on beliefs about these topics. In a sample of 100 parents and children ages 10 to 17 years ( M =13.5 years, 52 males, 57 % African-American), informants could reliably distinguish between perceived behavioral conflicts and perceived discrepant beliefs about topics. These scores were also significantly related to questionnaire reports of parent-child conflict. Parent and child questionnaire reports did not significantly differ, yet on the structured interview, parents reported significantly greater levels of perceived conflict and discrepant beliefs relative to child reports. Additionally, structured interview reports of conflict demonstrated incremental validity by relating to child self-reports of delinquent behaviors, when accounting for questionnaire conflict reports. The findings have implications for increasing understanding of the links between parent-child conflict and psychosocial outcomes.
Kim, ChanMin; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Chiajung; Spector, J. Michael; DeMeester, Karen
The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were…
Jost, John T.
People are influenced by second-order beliefs — beliefs about the beliefs of others. New research finds that citizens in the US and China systematically underestimate popular support for taking action to curb climate change. Fortunately, they seem willing and able to correct their misperceptions.
Background. Sixty-eight per cent of women and 57% of men with mental illness are parents. There is increasing evidence of adverse psychosocial impact of parental mental illness on their children. However, among children whose parents have mental illness, the potential contribution of the children's beliefs about mental ...
Sosa, Alicia Salinas
Traditionally, school personnel have expressed concern about the relatively poor record of involving Hispanic parents in schools. The root of the problem is that many immigrant and migrant Hispanic parents cherish beliefs and expectations different from those held by schools and by the parents whom schools most frequently engage. This chapter…
Singh, Asha; Gupta, Deepa
The article explores cross-cultural notions of play in childhood among parents based on empirical investigations in two economically diverse residential areas in a metropolis in India. All parents had an unquestionable belief in an epistemic grounding of play in children's lives. However, parents begin to question play timings and children's…
Full Text Available Teachers’ beliefs about family-school relationship vary in a continuum according to the role that parents and teachers have, and the power that they hold. Pre-service teachers also have beliefs about this relationship and their own competence to develop it. Two groups of pre-service teachers (second year students participated in this study. One group received specific training on family-school relationship and its improvement (116 students attending a degree in Early Childhood Education, who constituted the experimental group, EG. The other group was not trained (92 students attending a degree in Primary Education, who made up the control group, CG. The Beliefs about family-school Questionnaire (CCR was developed and applied before and after the EG was trained. Results show that students in the EG increased their beliefs about family-school collaboration in the post-test and decreased their beliefs about parental subordination to teachers’ authority and parents’ carelessness. Students in the CG kept their beliefs unchanged, which were significantly more prone to support teachers’ authority and parental subordination and parents’ carelessness compared to the EG.. Perceived competence for family-school relationship did not change significantly in either group. However, significant correlations between beliefs and perceived competence were found, pointing out the importance of working pre-service teachers’ beliefs about family-school collaboration.
Rowe, Meredith Lee; Casillas, Allison
Myriad studies support a relation between parental beliefs and behaviours. This study adds to the literature by focusing on the specific relationship between parental goals and their communication with toddlers. Do parents with different goals talk about different topics with their children? Parents’ goals for their 30-month olds were gathered using semi-structured interviews with 47 primary caregivers, whereas the topics of conversations that took place during interactio...
Maute, Monique; Perren, Sonja
Ignoring children's bedtime crying (ICBC) is an issue that polarizes parents as well as pediatricians. While most studies have focused on the effectiveness of sleep interventions, no study has yet questioned which parents use ICBC. Parents often find children's sleep difficulties to be very challenging, but factors such as the influence of Western approaches to infant care, stress, and sensitivity have not been analyzed in terms of ICBC. A sample of 586 parents completed a questionnaire to investigate the relationships between parental factors and the method of ICBC. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Latent variables were used to measure parental stress (Parental Stress Scale; J.O. Berry & W.H. Jones, 1995), sensitivity (Situation-Reaction-Questionnaire; Y. Hänggi, K. Schweinberger, N. Gugger, & M. Perrez, 2010), Western-oriented parental beliefs (Rigidity), and children's temperament (Parenting Stress Index; H. Tröster & R.R. Abidin). ICBC was used by 32.6% (n = 191) of parents in this study. Parents' Western-oriented beliefs predicted ICBC. Attitudes such as feeding a child on a time schedule and not carrying it out to prevent dependence were associated with letting the child cry to fall asleep. Low-sensitivity parents as well as parents of children with a difficult temperament used ICBC more frequently. Path analysis shows that parental stress did not predict ICBC. The results suggest that ICBC has become part of Western childrearing tradition. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Farrell, Debi; Thomas, Amy; Johnson, Lisa; Arena, Jordan; Weiner, Stacie; Nyce, Susan; Lang, Allison; Alvazian, Casey; Szuchyt, Jamie; Cane, Susan; Gelband, Amy; Zohe, Dorothy; Chambliss, Catherine
To identify the attitudes towards maternal employment of undergraduates reared in single-parent families compared to those in dual-parent households, 717 undergraduates were surveyed. Subjects were divided into two groups based on number of household parents. Between group t-tests revealed a significant effect on the Beliefs about the Consequences…
Lam, Ching Man
With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child's life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation. A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was…
Chagas, Paula S C; Mancini, Marisa C; Tirado, Marcella G A; Megale, Luiz; Sampaio, Rosana F
To understand the opinion of the parents about the baby walker and compare the age of gait acquisition between infants that used a walker and those that did not. In this quali-quantitative study, an interview involving a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out with 26 parents, 14 of whose infants used the equipment (BWG) and 12 of whose infants did not (NBWG) prior to gait acquisition. After extensive content analysis, categories for interpreting the results emerged. For data triangulation, the age of gait acquisition was documented by weekly telephone contact. Student's t-test was used for comparison between groups with a significance level of α=0.05. The following categories were identified in the parents' reports: a) information about the baby walker; b) doubt/decision to use it vs. certainty about not using it; c) beliefs about the use of a baby-walker; and d) benefits and harm from use. The age of independent gait acquisition did not differ between groups (p=0.837): BWG initiated gait at 376.17 (SD=32.62) days and NBWG did so at 378.75 (SD=27.99) days. The beliefs and feelings that permeate the decision to use a baby walker illustrate the different rationales adopted by parents about the role of this equipment in the child's development of gait and autonomy. The use of a baby walker did not influence the age of gait acquisition. The results broaden the understanding of choices that influence child-rearing practices prior to gait acquisition.
Sridhar, M. S.
Discusses the importance and ways of inculcating reading habit in children at the right age, describes the five reading phases in children along with interest and the material to satiate the need, explains how four deterministic factors affect the reading habit of children, enlists motivations that are behind the reading process with tips to improve reading habit of children.
Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang
In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...
Heinzle, J Mark; Uggla, Claes
We consider the dynamics towards the initial singularity of Bianchi type IX vacuum and orthogonal perfect fluid models with a linear equation of state. Surprisingly few facts are known about the 'Mixmaster' dynamics of these models, while at the same time most of the commonly held beliefs are rather vague. In this paper, we use Mixmaster facts as a base to build an infrastructure that makes it possible to sharpen the main Mixmaster beliefs. We formulate explicit conjectures concerning (i) the past asymptotic states of type IX solutions and (ii) the relevance of the Mixmaster/Kasner map for generic past asymptotic dynamics. The evidence for the conjectures is based on a study of the stochastic properties of this map in conjunction with dynamical systems techniques. We use a dynamical systems formulation, since this approach has so far been the only successful path to obtain theorems, but we also make comparisons with the 'metric' and Hamiltonian 'billiard' approaches.
Wright, Kim McGee
According to Simplico (2005), critics who were led by parents have argued, "Children are spending too much time doing homework, which has no impact on their learning" (p. 138). This research study is significant for students, parents, teachers, educators, and administrators who wish to compare beliefs of families, students, and teachers regarding…
1Department of Preventive Dentistry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, ... parents interviewed believed that teething causes no .... prevalent in Nigeria but also in other parts of the world. 14 .... Ahmed I S, Elton A R, Karrar Z A. Knowledge,.
Page, Randy M; Piko, Bettina F; Balazs, Mate A; Struk, Tamara
Hungary will continue to experience a high burden of disease and death from lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease unless there is a significant reduction in youth smoking. Social factors have been found to be among the most important determinants of adolescent smoking, yet few studies have investigated social normative beliefs in Hungarian youth. The purpose of the current study was to investigate three measures of smoking normative beliefs thought to influence adolescent smoking: perceived prevalence of smoking; perceived popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society; and perceived disapproval by friends and family. A cross-sectional school-based survey of eighth grade (n = 258) and 12th grade (n = 288) students in Mako, Hungary was conducted to assess social normative beliefs about smoking, current smoking, ever smoking, and susceptibility to smoking. The association of the normative beliefs with the smoking behavior variables was examined through logistic regression analysis, and the underlying factor structure of the normative belief items in the current sample was determined through factor analysis. The percent of boys reporting current smoking was 40.5% in 12th grade and 27.0% in eighth grade. Among girls, the percent was 44.0% of 12th graders and 29.1% of eighth graders. Parent/peer disapproval was the most consistently associated normative belief with smoking behavior and susceptibility to smoking across both samples. Youth smoking prevention programs should consider assessing and taking into account normative beliefs and develop strategies that provide accurate information about the actual prevalence of smoking, the types of individuals who smoke, and approval/disapproval of smoking by parents and peers. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.
... lifetime of learning. By encouraging reading at home and in school, parents, caregivers, and educators help... what we do for our students, so all of us must strive to empower the next generation with the tools...
Tracey, Diane H
Widely adopted as an ideal introduction to the major models of reading, this text guides students to understand and facilitate children's literacy development. Coverage encompasses the full range of theories that have informed reading instruction and research, from classical thinking to cutting-edge cognitive, social learning, physiological, and affective perspectives. Readers learn how theory shapes instructional decision making and how to critically evaluate the assumptions and beliefs that underlie their own teaching. Pedagogical features include framing and discussion questions, learning a
Full Text Available The article presents results of a study on teachers’ views, beliefs, and experience on school-based informal collaboration for professional improvement. It explores the relationship of teacher beliefs in the collective efficacy of their colleagues and school’s capital and culture with their beliefs and experience in school-based collaborative learning. The key source of evidence used is a survey of 1025 primary and secondary teachers in three geographical regions of Chile. Main results show that teachers hold positive beliefs about the collective efficacy of their colleagues and students in their schools but more negative ones regarding the contribution of parents. In terms of collaboration, teachers hold positive beliefs in general about its role for professional learning but indeed engage more in the “weaker” types of collaboration such as “sharing ideas” and “talking about teaching problems” and less in the more demanding ones such as “mutual lesson observation” and “team teaching.” Differences in teachers’ views, beliefs, and experience were examined in terms of level of teaching (primary/secondary, urban/rural location, school type (public and private, and school size.
Jacobs, George M.
How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…
Abstract. The current study explores the feasibility of an extensive reading programme in the context of a low-income country (Mozambique), as well as the influence of extensive reading on academic reading. The programme took over 4 months and was conducted among 30 students majoring in Journalism at the Eduardo ...
Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.
The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...
Governatori, Guido; Rotolo, Antonino
In this paper we follow the BOID (Belief, Obligation, Intention, Desire) architecture to describe agents and agent types in Defeasible Logic. We argue, in particular, that the introduction of obligations can provide a new reading of the concepts of intention and intentionality. Then we examine the notion of social agent (i.e., an agent where obligations prevail over intentions) and discuss some computational and philosophical issues related to it. We show th...
Pereira, Ana Isabel; Muris, Peter; Mendonça, Denisa; Barros, Luisa; Goes, Ana Rita; Marques, Teresa
The present study explored the role of parents' in-session and out-session involvement in CBT for anxious children. Fifty 8- to 12-year-old children with a principal DSM-IV anxiety disorder participated in a group CBT program. Parental involvement in the therapy was assessed by the clinician and the children and parents completed a standardized anxiety scale as the main therapy outcome measure, at pre- and post-intervention. In addition, the parents completed questionnaires to evaluate a number of possible correlates of parental involvement, namely, child's anxiety symptoms intensity and interference, parental beliefs about anxiety, expectancies regarding the efficacy of the intervention, and parental anxiety. The results indicated that the parents were moderately involved in the therapy and that socio-economic status and parental beliefs about anxiety were significant correlates of parental involvement. Finally, partial support was found for the idea that parents' involvement in the therapy might have a positive impact on therapy outcome.
Wu, Echo H.
This paper explores the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development through a specific perspective of several Chinese American families with gifted children. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the parents, and research questions focused on the daily practice of parenting and parents' beliefs…