WorldWideScience

Sample records for parent materials

  1. Material Parenting: How the Use of Goods in Parenting Fosters Materialism in the Next Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Marsha L. Richins; Lan Nguyen Chaplin

    2015-01-01

    This research introduces the concept of material parenting, in which parents use material goods to express their love or to shape children's behavior. Despite the common use of material goods for these purposes, possible long term effects of material parenting practices have not been studied. This article addresses this oversight by examining the potential effects of material parenting on the material values of children once they're grown. This research proposes and tests a material parenting...

  2. Influence of Parent Material and Topography on some Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected physical and chemical properties and nutrient ratios on three landscape positions (interfluve crest, middle slope and foot slope) were examined on soils formed on banded gneiss and quartzite schist parent materials. Parent material significantly (p<0.05) influenced gravel, coarse sand and copper contents in the ...

  3. Material resources availability, parent subject perception and school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' poor performance in the Yoruba language is being considered a serious problem by researchers and education stakeholders. Despite their efforts, no appreciable improvement is noticeable for hardly are enough researches on the extent to which school material resources availability, parental subject perception ...

  4. Stability of soil's microaggregates derived from different parental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon de Rodriguez, Clara; Elizalde Albes, Graciano

    1998-01-01

    In two polipedons derived from different parental materials, it was found that microaggregates (50 - 250 μm ) aren't affected in their stability by the time, by the physical ultrasonic forces, neither by the blockage of electrostatic bonds of water, suggesting that in these aggregates, there are stronger bonds than the ones which can be broken by these agents. On the contrary water, the chemical treatments with HCl and H 2 O 2 concentrated, disjoin the microaggregates, being possible to differentiate a polipedon from other

  5. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  6. Development of materials to support parents whose babies cry excessively: findings and health service implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jaqui; Powell, Charlotte; Bamber, Deborah; Garratt, Rosemary; Brown, Jayne; Dyson, Sue; James-Roberts, Ian St

    2018-01-10

    Aim To develop evidence-based materials which provide information and support for parents who are concerned about their baby's excessive crying. As well as meeting these parents' needs, the aim was to develop a package of materials suitable for use by the UK National Health Service (NHS). Parents report that around 20% of infants in Western countries cry excessively without an apparent reason during the first four months of age. Traditionally, research has focused on the crying and its causes. However, evidence is growing that how parents evaluate and respond to the crying needs to receive equal attention. This focus encompasses parental resources, vulnerabilities, well-being and mental health. At present, the UK NHS lacks a set of routine provisions to support parents who are concerned about their baby's excessive crying. The rationales, methods and findings from a study developing materials for this purpose are reported. Following a literature review, 20 parents whose babies previously cried excessively took part in focus groups or interviews. They provided reports on their experiences and the supports they would have liked when their baby was crying excessively. In addition, they identified their preferred delivery methods and devices for accessing information and rated four example support packages identified by the literature review. Findings During the period their baby cried excessively, most parents visited a health service professional and most considered these direct contacts to have provided helpful information and support. Websites were similarly popular. Telephones and tablets were the preferred means of accessing online information. Groups to meet other parents were considered an important additional resource by all the parents. Three package elements - a Surviving Crying website, a printed version of the website and a programme of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based support sessions delivered to parents by a qualified practitioner, were developed for

  7. Readability of Educational Materials to Support Parent Sexual Communication With Their Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballonoff Suleiman, Ahna; Lin, Jessica S; Constantine, Norman A

    2016-05-01

    Sexual communication is a principal means of transmitting sexual values, expectations, and knowledge from parents to their children and adolescents. Many parents seek information and guidance to support talking with their children about sex and sexuality. Parent education materials can deliver this guidance but must use appropriate readability levels to facilitate comprehension and motivation. This study appraised the readability of educational materials to support parent sexual communication with their children. Fifty brochures, pamphlets, and booklets were analyzed using the Flesch-Kincaid, Gunning Fog, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) index methods. Mean readability grade-level scores were 8.3 (range = 4.5-12.8), 9.7 (range = 5.5-14.9), and 10.1 (range = 6.7-13.9), respectively. Informed by National Institutes of Health-recommended 6th to 7th grade levels and American Medical Association-recommended 5th to 6th grade levels, percentages falling at or below the 7.0 grade level were calculated as 38%, 12%, and 2% and those falling at or below the 6.0 grade level were calculated as 12%, 2%, and 0% based on the Flesch-Kincaid, Gunning Fog, and SMOG methods, respectively. These analyses indicate that the majority of educational materials available online to support parents' communication with their children about sex and sexuality do not meet the needs of many or most parents. Efforts to improve the accessibility of these materials are warranted.

  8. Parental material and cultivation determine soil bacterial community structure and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Gao, Jusheng; Huang, Ting; Kendall, Joshua R A; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2015-01-01

    Microbes are the key components of the soil environment, playing important roles during soil development. Soil parent material provides the foundation elements that comprise the basic nutritional environment for the development of microbial community. After 30 years artificial maturation of cultivation, the soil developments of three different parental materials were evaluated and bacterial community compositions were investigated using the high-throughput sequencing approach. Thirty years of cultivation increased the soil fertility and soil microbial biomass, richness and diversity, greatly changed the soil bacterial communities, the proportion of phylum Actinobacteria decreased significantly, while the relative abundances of the phyla Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Armatimonadetes and Nitrospira were significantly increased. Soil bacterial communities of parental materials were separated with the cultivated ones, and comparisons of different soil types, granite soil and quaternary red clay soil were similar and different with purple sandy shale soil in both parental materials and cultivated treatments. Bacterial community variations in the three soil types were affected by different factors, and their alteration patterns in the soil development also varied with soil type. Soil properties (except total potassium) had a significant effect on the soil bacterial communities in all three soil types and a close relationship with abundant bacterial phyla. The amounts of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as the abundances of the nifH gene in all cultivated soils were higher than those in the parental materials; Burkholderia and Rhizobacte were enriched significantly with long-term cultivation. The results suggested that crop system would not deplete the nutrients of soil parental materials in early stage of soil maturation, instead it increased soil fertility and changed bacterial community, specially enriched the nitrogen-fixing bacteria to accumulate

  9. Landscape formation and soil genesis in volcanic parent materials in humid tropical lowlands of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuyse, A.

    1996-01-01


    The influence of volcanism on landscape genesis, and formation of soils on volcanic parent material was studied in the Atlantic lowland of Costs Rica. This lowland is a subduction basin of tectonic origin, in which thick alluvial and marine sediments are accumulated. At its southwestern

  10. The influence of parent material on vegetation response 15 years after the Dude Fire, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson M. Leonard; Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary; Aregai Tecle

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of two types of parent material, sandstone and limestone, on the response of vegetation growth after the 1990 Dude Fire in central Arizona. The operating hypothesis of the study was that, given the right conditions, severe wildfire can trigger vegetation type conversion. Overall, three patterns emerged: (1) oak density increased by 413%...

  11. Paradoxical differences in N-dynamics between Luxembourg soils: litter quality or parent material?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Smit, A.

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether litter quality could alter differences in N-dynamics between soil types, we compared spruce and beech growing on soils with parent material sandstone and limestone, and beech and hornbeam on acid marl and limestone. We measured pH, organic matter content, C:N ratio, soil

  12. Paradoxical differences in N-dynamics between Luxembourg soils: Litter quality or parent material?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Smit, A.

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether litter quality could alter differences in N-dynamics between soil types, we compared spruce and beech growing on soils with parent material sandstone and limestone, and beech and hornbeam on acid marl and limestone. We measured pH, organic matter content, C:N ratio, soil

  13. Adsorption and desorption of Am(III) on calcareous soil and its parent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weijuan; Zhang Fuming; Tao Zuyi

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of Am(III) on a calcareous soil (sierozem) and its parent material (loess) were studied by batch technique. The molarities of the Am(III) aqueous solutions were less than 5 x 10 -9 mol/l. High adsorbability was found of Am(III) on the calcareous soil and its parent material. In order to decrease the adsorption and, hence, to investigate the adsorption characteristics properly, stable Eu 3+ as hold back carrier and analogue was added to the aqueous solution. The relative contributions of CaCO 3 , organic matter (OM) to the Am(III) adsorption on calcareous soil and its parent material were investigated. The adsorption and desorption isotherms of Am(III) on untreated soil and loess and the three kinds of treated soils and three kinds of treated loesses to remove CaCO 3 , OM and both CaCO 3 and OM were determined, respectively. It was found that all isotherms were linear, the average distribution coefficients (K d ) for the untreated soil and for the untreated loess were almost equal, while there was an obvious difference between the values of the average distribution coefficients (K d ) for the treated soil and the treated loess to remove CaCO 3 or OM. The adsorption-desorption hysteresis on the untreated and treated soils and loesses actually occurred and there was an obvious difference between the hysteresis coefficients on both the corresponding treated soil and loess. It can be concluded that the adsorbability of Am(III) on calcareous soil is similar to that on its parent material, and that the contributions of CaCO 3 and OM to the Am(III) adsorption by the untreated soil are different from those by the untreated parent material. (author)

  14. Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rebecca E; Bartley, Mel; Pikhart, Hynek; Stafford, Mai; Cable, Noriko

    2014-03-23

    An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n=10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent-child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0-16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter's Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect=33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health.

  15. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  16. Paradoxical differences in N-dynamics between Luxembourg soils: litter quality or parent material?

    OpenAIRE

    Kooijman, A.M.; Smit, A.

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether litter quality could alter differences in N-dynamics between soil types, we compared spruce and beech growing on soils with parent material sandstone and limestone, and beech and hornbeam on acid marl and limestone. We measured pH, organic matter content, C:N ratio, soil respiration and net N-mineralization of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil in a laboratory incubation experiment and estimated gross N-mineralization and immobilization with a simulation model. Speci...

  17. Relationship of soil potassium forms with maize potassium contents in soils derived from different parent materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mehmood Butt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of soil potassium (K dynamics is essential for sustainable crop production. Bioavailability of K depends on forms and distribution within the soil profile. The objectives of this research were to determine which soil K forms control the maize (Zea mays K contents and compare the extracting capability of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB with ammonium acetate (NH4OAc method. Nine soils representing three different parent materials, i.e. loess, sandstone and shale were sampled at three surface genetic horizons. Within each parent material, three soils at varying level of development were selected. Besides basic soil parameters, K was fractioned into water soluble K, exchangeable K, non-exchangeable K, and NaTPB-extracted K. The maize was sown in pots having 2 kg soil from each genetic horizon. Crop was harvested at seven weeks and plant was analysed for K contents. Results show that NaTPB-extracted K gave best correlation as compared to NH4OAc method. This conveys that a non-exchangeable K portion that becomes available to plants can be better estimated by NaTPB method than NH4OAc extraction.

  18. Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsing Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils.

  19. Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils. PMID:24883366

  20. Moessbauer and magnetic studies of parent material from argentine pampas soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidegain, J. C.; Bartel, A. A.; Sives, F. R.; Mercader, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to establish a correlation between the different types of soils using hyperfine and magnetic parameters as climatic and environmental proxies, we have studied the differentiation of soil developed around 38.5 o south latitude, in the central Pampas of Argentina, by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy and environmental magnetism. The soils transect (climosequence) investigated stretches from the drier west (around 64 o W) to the more humid east (at around 59 o W) in the Buenos Aires Province, covering a distance of 600 km. The soils studied developed during recent Holocene geologic times in a landscape characterized by small relict plateaus, slopes and depressions, dunes and prairies. The parent material consists of eolian sandy silts overlying calcrete layers. The low mean annual precipitation in the western parts of the region gives rise to soils without B-horizons, which limits the agricultural use of land. The preliminary results show an increase of the paramagnetic Fe 3+ relative concentration from west to east in the soils investigated. Magnetite is probably mainly responsible for the observed enhancement in the susceptibility values. The magnetic response of the parent material is similar to that of the loess part of the previously investigated loess-paleosol sequences of the Argentine loess plateau.

  1. A Linkage Between Parent Materials of Soil and Potential Risk of Heavy Metals in Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X.

    2015-12-01

    A large area exceeding soil quality standards for heavy metals in South western China has been identified previously reported on a nationwide survey of soil pollution, yet the ecological risk of heavy metal in soil is unknown or uncertainty.To assess thoroughly the ecological risk in this region, seven soil profiles with a depth of 2m on the different parent materials of soil were conducted in Yunnan province, China, and the level of total concentrations and the fraction of water soluble, ion exchangeable, carbonates, humic acid, iron and manganese oxides and organic matter of As, Cd, Hg and Pb was investigated in soil profiles. The results indicate that parent materials of soil critically influenced the ecological risk of heavy metal.The fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable of Cd and Hg in alluvial material and in terrigenous clastic rocks showed 2-6 times higher than those in carbonate rock; As and Pb has almost same fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable in three parent materials of soil.The findings suggest that parent materials of soil play a critical role in ecological risk of heavy metal.Thus, more studies are needed to better understand a linkage between the parent materials of soil, different soil-forming processes and the potential risk of heavy metals under various geographic conditions, which is the key for the evaluating soil quality and food safety. Those soils with high concentration of Cd and Hg originated alluvial material and terrigenous clastic rocks need to be continuously monitored before determining a cost-effective remediation technology. Keywords: Heavy metals; Ecological risk;Parent materials of soil;China

  2. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east–west from Virginia to California, and north–south from northern Manitoba to the US–Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba–North Dakota segment of the north–south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  3. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east-west from Virginia to California, and north-south from northern Manitoba to the US-Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba-North Dakota segment of the north-south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  4. Considerations on the parent material in the soil developed on the evaporite deposits from Stana (Cluj district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horea Bedelean

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This research concerned three profiles developed on Eocene (Priabonian gypsum parent material from Stana (Cluj district in order to investigate their properties. The soil and parent material samples were collected from individual horizons in each profile. Both the mineralogical and structural-textural features of the parent material (evaporitic deposits reflect the depositional context. From a mineralogical point of view, the deposits are represented by gypsum, and anhydrite. Typical sulfate facies are present: laminitic, nodular, gypscretic, and entherolitic. Physical and mineralogical properties of the soil layers were determined in the laboratory. The field observations and the results of the analyses allowed us to classify the soil as a rendzinic regosol, according to the Romanian System of Soil Taxonomy (S.R.T.S. 2000.

  5. Development of the Intervention Materials for the HomeStyles Obesity Prevention Program for Parents of Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Martin-Biggers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Home environment is key to the development of obesity-preventing behaviors during childhood, yet few resources help preschool parents address factors at home associated with obesity risk. This paper describes creation of materials for an in-home intervention (HomeStyles with this population. An advisory group of stakeholders and target audience members determined salient factors affecting childhood obesity to address in-home and developed program materials. The Social Cognitive Theory, Faith’s Core Behavior Change Strategies to Treat Childhood Obesity, Adult Learning Theory and motivational interviewing techniques guided development of 12 guides targeting strategies parents can use to shape the home environment. Interviews were conducted to determine effectiveness of the guides. Cognitive testing of guide design (n = 251 and content (n = 261 occurred in English and Spanish in New Jersey and Arizona with parents and home visitation staff who would present the guides. Interviews investigated perceptions of content usefulness and parent comprehension. Findings were also examined in light of theoretical underpinnings. Both home visitation staff and parents felt the guides were very readable and useful. Parents appreciated use of motivational interviewing techniques and Adult Learning Theory. Current research is testing these guides through an in-home, randomized control trial.

  6. Economic Development Planning for Single Parents. Curriculum Materials for Vocational Teachers of Adolescents and Single Parents. Special Emphasis on Meeting the Needs of the Teen Parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kawanna J.; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in school-based intervention programs intended to help single parents (particularly teenagers who are expecting or already have a child) master basic money management and consumer skills. The guide is divided into sections dealing with the following topics: interpersonal relationships, value clarification,…

  7. Associations Between Croatian Adolescents' Use of Sexually Explicit Material and Sexual Behavior: Does Parental Monitoring Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Ivan; Burić, Jakov; Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2017-10-25

    The use of sexually explicit material (SEM) has become a part of adolescent sexual socialization, at least in the Western world. Adolescent and young people's SEM use has been associated with risky sexual behaviors, which has recently resulted in policy debates about restricting access to SEM. Such development seems to suggest a crisis of the preventive role of parental oversight. Based on the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model, this study assessed the role of parental monitoring in the context of adolescent vulnerability to SEM-associated risky or potentially adverse outcomes (sexual activity, sexual aggressiveness, and sexting). Using an online sample of Croatian 16-year-olds (N = 1265) and structural equation modeling approach, parental monitoring was found consistently and negatively related to the problematic behavioral outcomes, regardless of participants' gender. While SEM use was related to sexual experience and sexting, higher levels of parental monitoring were associated with less frequent SEM use and lower acceptance of sexual permissiveness. Despite parents' fears about losing the ability to monitor their adolescent children's lives in the Internet era, there is evidence that parental engagement remains an important protective factor.

  8. Dryland soil microbial communities display spatial biogeographic patterns associated with soil depth and soil parent material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to drylands worldwide. We employed replicated, spatially nested sampling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the soil microbial communities in three soils derived from different parent material (sandstone, shale, and gypsum). For each soil type, two depths (biocrusts, 0–1 cm; below-crust soils, 2–5 cm) and two horizontal spatial scales (15 cm and 5 m) were sampled. In all three soils, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria demonstrated significantly higher relative abundance in the biocrusts, while Chloroflexi and Archaea were significantly enriched in the below-crust soils. Biomass and diversity of the communities in biocrusts or below-crust soils did not differ with soil type. However, biocrusts on gypsum soil harbored significantly larger populations of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and lower populations of Cyanobacteria. Numerically dominant operational taxonomic units (OTU; 97% sequence identity) in the biocrusts were conserved across the soil types, whereas two dominant OTUs in the below-crust sand and shale soils were not identified in the gypsum soil. The uniformity with which small-scale vertical community differences are maintained across larger horizontal spatial scales and soil types is a feature of dryland ecosystems that should be considered when designing management plans and determining the response of biocrusts to environmental disturbances.

  9. Differentiating pedogenesis from diagenesis in early terrestrial paleoweathering surfaces formed on granitic composition parent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driese, S.G.; Medaris, L.G.; Ren, M.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Langford, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Unconformable surfaces separating Precambrian crystalline basement and overlying Proterozoic to Cambrian sedimentary rocks provide an exceptional opportunity to examine the role of primitive soil ecosystems in weathering and resultant formation of saprolite (weathered rock retaining rock structure) and regolith (weathered rock without rock structure), but many appear to have been affected by burial diagenesis and hydrothermal fluid flow, leading some researchers to discount their suitability for such studies. We examine one modern weathering profile (Cecil series), four Cambrian paleoweathering profiles from the North American craton (Squaw Creek, Franklin Mountains, Core SQ-8, and Core 4), one Neoproterozoic profile (Sheigra), and one late Paleoproterozoic profile (Baraboo), to test the hypothesis that these paleoweathering profiles do provide evidence of primitive terrestrial weathering despite their diagenetic and hydrothermal overprinting, especially additions of potassium. We employ an integrated approach using (1) detailed thin-section investigations to identify characteristic pedogenic features associated with saprolitization and formation of well-drained regoliths, (2) electron microprobe analysis to identify specific weathered and new mineral phases, and (3) geochemical mass balance techniques to characterize volume changes during weathering and elemental gains and losses of major and minor elements relative to the inferred parent materials. There is strong pedogenic evidence of paleoweathering, such as clay illuviation, sepic-plasmic fabrics, redoximorphic features, and dissolution and alteration of feldspars and mafic minerals to kaolinite, gibbsite, and Fe oxides, as well as geochemical evidence, such as whole-rock losses of Na, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, Fe, and Mn greater than in modern profiles. Evidence of diagenesis includes net additions of K, Ba, and Rb determined through geochemical mass balance, K-feldspar overgrowths in overlying sandstone sections, and

  10. 'Love builds brains': representations of attachment and children's brain development in parenting education material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Glenda

    2018-03-01

    A focus on early brain development has come to dominate expert child rearing advice over the past two decades. Recent scholars have noted a reinvigoration of the concept of attachment in this advice and changes in the ways that attachment is framed and understood. The extent to which the concept of attachment is drawn on, the way it is framed, and the consequences for mothers, families and parent-child relationships is examined through a discursive analysis of a current Canadian parental education campaign. Findings support the argument that attachment is receiving a great deal of attention in brain-based parenting education programmes as children's emotional development becomes increasingly prioritized. Attachment is presented as needing to be actively and continually built through expert-guided empathetic and responsive parental behaviour, and is framed as crucial for the development of brain pathways that promote emotional strength and self-regulation in children. Attachment-building is also presented as requiring highly intensive parenting that falls overwhelmingly to mothers. The parent-child relationship that is envisioned is one that is instrumental, lacking in affect and conducive to the creation of ideal self-regulating neo-liberal citizens. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  11. The Effects of Perceptions of Parents' Use of Social and Material Rewards on Prosocial Behaviors in Spanish and U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Samper, Paula; Malonda, Elisabeth; Tur-Porcar, Ana M.; Davis, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    We examined the links between perceived parental use of social and material rewards and prosocial behaviors across youth from two countries. Six hundred forty adolescents (297 girls; X-bar age = 15.32 years) from Valencia, Spain, and 552 adolescents (321 girls; X-bar age = 13.38 years) from the United States completed measures of their perceptions…

  12. Population Estimates, Health Care Characteristics, and Material Hardship Experiences of U.S. Children with Parent-Reported Speech-Language Difficulties: Evidence from Three Nationally Representative Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan A.; Parish, Susan L.; Akorbirshoev, Ilhom; Son, Esther; Rosenthal, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide estimates for the prevalence of parent-reported speech-language difficulties in U.S. children, and to describe the levels of health care access and material hardship in this population. Method: We tabulated descriptive and bivariate statistics using cross-sectional data from the 2007 and 2011/2012 iterations of the National…

  13. Schoolwide Programs: Parents' Guide & Capacity-Building Materials = Programas Schoolwide: Una Guia para Padres y Materias de Capacitacion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    The reauthorization of Title I (Improving America's Schools Act--IASA) made the Schoolwide Program (Schoolwide) a major strategy for schools with high poverty rates and stressed the importance of parent involvement. This guide was developed to provide professional development and parent education on Schoolwide implementation in California. The…

  14. The influence of maternal self-objectification, materialism and parenting style on potentially sexualized 'grown up' behaviours and appearance concerns in 5-8year old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling Water Flux at the Base of the Rooting Zone for Soils with Varying Glacial Parent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, S.; Ellett, K. M.; Ficklin, D. L.; Olyphant, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soils of varying glacial parent materials in the Great Lakes Region (USA) are characterized by thin unsaturated zones and widespread use of agricultural pesticides and nutrients that affect shallow groundwater. To better our understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants, improved models of water fluxes through the vadose zones of various hydrogeologic settings are warranted. Furthermore, calibrated unsaturated zone models can be coupled with watershed models, providing a means for predicting the impact of varying climate scenarios on agriculture in the region. To address these issues, a network of monitoring sites was developed in Indiana that provides continuous measurements of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), soil volumetric water content (VWC), and soil matric potential to parameterize and calibrate models. Flux at the base of the root zone is simulated using two models of varying complexity: 1) the HYDRUS model, which numerically solves the Richards equation, and 2) the soil-water-balance (SWB) model, which assumes vertical flow under a unit gradient with infiltration and evapotranspiration treated as separate, sequential processes. Soil hydraulic parameters are determined based on laboratory data, a pedo-transfer function (ROSETTA), field measurements (Guelph permeameter), and parameter optimization. Groundwater elevation data are available at three of six sites to establish the base of the unsaturated zone model domain. Initial modeling focused on the groundwater recharge season (Nov-Feb) when PET is limited and much of the annual vertical flux occurs. HYDRUS results indicate that base of root zone fluxes at a site underlain by glacial ice-contact parent materials are 48% of recharge season precipitation (VWC RMSE=8.2%), while SWB results indicate that fluxes are 43% (VWC RMSE=3.7%). Due in part to variations in surface boundary conditions, more variable fluxes were obtained for a site underlain by alluvium with the SWB model (68

  16. Phyllosilicate weathering pathways in chlorite-talc bearing soil parent materials, D.R. Congo: early findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumon, Mathijs; Oostermeyer, Fran; Timmermans, Els; De Meulemeester, Aschwin; Mees, Florias; Van Driessche, Isabel; Erens, Hans; Bazirake Mujinya, Basile; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The study of the formation and transformation of clay minerals is of the upmost importance to understand soil formation and to adjust land-use management to the land surface conditions. These clay minerals determine to a large extent the soil physical and chemical properties. It is commonly observed that over time the mineralogy of any parent material is transformed to a simple assemblage composed mostly of Al and Fe oxides and low-activity clays, e.g. kaolinite. This is especially obvious in the humid tropics, which have been protected from glacial erosion, allowing deep, highly weathered soils to form. Despite the abundant presence of kaolinite in these soils, its formation pathways are still under debate: either neoformation by dissolution-crystallisation reactions or solid-state transformation of 2:1 phyllosilicates. To elucidate this, weathering sequences in a unique 40 m core taken below a termite mound, reaching a talc-chlorite bearing substrate in the Lubumbashi area, Katanga, DR Congo are being investigated in detail using a.o. quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, chemical characterization, micromorphology and µXRF-scanning with the main objective to improve the understanding of the formation pathways of kaolinite subgroup minerals in humid tropical environments. Based on an initial characterization of the core, two zones of interest were selected for more detailed analysis, for which the early findings will be presented. The first zone extends from ca. 9 m to 11 m below the surface is dominated by kaolinite but shows early traces of primary talc and micas. The second zone extends from 34 to 36 m below the surface and contains large amounts of chlorite, with smaller amounts of talc, micas and kaolinite.

  17. Soil microbial biomass under pine forests in the north-western Spain: influence of stand age, site index and parent material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahia, J.; Perez-Ventura, L.; Cabaneiro, A.; Diaz-Ravina, M.

    2006-07-01

    The effects of stand age, site index and parent material on soil biochemical properties related to biomass (extractable C, microbial C and metabolic quotient) were examined in the 0-15 cm mineral soil layers of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris stand from NW Spain. Two productivity levels (low and high site index), two ages (young and old) and two parent soil materials (granite and acid schists) were considered. The data indicated that there were differences in microbial parameters in soils under different species. In general in P. pinaster forest higher values of biochemical parameters expressed on organic C basis, were observed in the stands of high site index as compared with the low ones; in contrast, in P. sylvestris no differences among stand site index were detected. In both species different results were also observed depending on parent material and a significant effect of stand age was detected for extractable C and microbial C in P. pinaster forest developed over granite. The data seem to indicate that measured parameters may have the potential to be used as indicators of the effect of forest management on soil organic matter quality. (Author) 25 refs.

  18. Soil erosion model predictions using parent material/soil texture-based parameters compared to using site-specific parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Foltz; W. J. Elliot; N. S. Wagenbrenner

    2011-01-01

    Forested areas disturbed by access roads produce large amounts of sediment. One method to predict erosion and, hence, manage forest roads is the use of physically based soil erosion models. A perceived advantage of a physically based model is that it can be parameterized at one location and applied at another location with similar soil texture or geological parent...

  19. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Preliminary study on influences of radioactivity of residential granite building materials upon parent mice and their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Minyi; Zhang Jinghong; Zhu Weiyun; Li Yinyan; Liang Yongqing; Zhang Songshuan; Zhu Daming; Li Jinlin; Lu Qingpu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of radioactivity of the residential granite building materials on the survival and fertility of mice. Methods: The radioactivities of A, B, C, and D granite building materials were measured and screened by gamma-ray spectrometer, and then these materials were placed into the mice cages. The residential radon was measured with solid state nuclear track detector's and 24-hour continuous measurement. Ninety-six healthy and ablactated mice were randomly selected and put into the four animal cages with different levels of radioactivity, and fed for 120 days. Mice mated and bred naturally. The fertilities and survivals of P, F 1 , and F 2 generation were observed and analyzed. Results: External exposures in the four mice cages were higher than those from the internal exposure. The differences of rates of pregnancy, abortion, and infertility between the P and F 1 generations had no statistical significance among all the groups after being fed for 120 days (P>0.05). There was significant difference among each group in the fertility of F 1 generation (P< 0.001), and the survival rates of the offspring were decreased with increase of radioactivity in granite building materials (P<0.001). Conclusion: Compared with the residential radon, the gamma rays released from the granite building materials had a greater influence on animals. The study suggested that different granite building materials had different influences on the survival and fertility of mice. (authors)

  1. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  2. A landscape-scale study of land use and parent material effects on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Erdogan, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    In ecosystems where intensive farming and grazing have been occurring for millennia, there is poor understanding of how present-day soil biogeochemical properties relate to factors associated with soil parent materials (e.g. texture, mineralogy), and the net effects of long-term land use practices. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TN) are important for their roles in maintaining soil structure, moisture, fertility and contributing to carbon sequestration. Our research used a state factor approach (Jenny 1981) to study effects of soil parent materials and land use practices on SOC, TN, and other properties across thirty-five sites in the Konya Basin, an arid region in south-central Turkey farmed and grazed for over 8,000 years. This project is one of the first to study land use impacts on soils at a landscape scale (500 km2) in south-central Turkey, and incorporate geospatial data (e.g. a satellite imagery-derived land cover map we developed) to aid selection of field sites. Focusing on the plough layer (0-25cm) in two depth intervals, we compared effects of agriculture, orchard cultivation and grazing land use practices and clay-loam alluvial, sandy-loam volcanic and lacustrine clay soils on soil properties using standard least squares regression analyses. SOC and TN depended strongly on parent materials, but not on land use. Averaged across both depth intervals, alluvial soil SOC and TN concentrations (19.4 ± 1.32 Mg/ha SOC, 2.86 ± 1.23 Mg/ha TN) were higher and significantly different than lacustrine (9.72 ± 3.01 Mg/ha SOC, 1.57 ± 0.69 Mg/ha TN) and volcanic soil concentrations (7.40 ± 1.72 Mg/ha SOC, 1.02 ± 0.35 Mg/ha TN). Land use significantly affected SOC and TN on alluvial soils, but not on volcanic or lacustrine soils. Our results demonstrate the potential for land use to have different effects on different soils in this region. Our data on SOC, TN and other soil properties illustrate patterns in regional SOC and TN variability not

  3. Spatial distribution of metals in soils in Baltimore, Maryland: Role of native parent material, proximity to major roads, housing age and screening guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesilonis, I.D.; Pouyat, R.V.; Neerchal, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution of heavy metal above-background (anthropic) contents of Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn in Baltimore City surface soils and related these levels to potential contaminating sources. Composite soil samples (0-10 cm depth) were digested using a nitric and hydrochloric extraction technique. Slightly more than 10% of plots exceeded United States Environmental Protection Agency screening guidelines for Pb. In a principal component analysis, the first component corresponded to Co, Cr, and Fe, which are constituents of local mafic rocks. The second component corresponded to Cu, Pb, and Zn which were significantly higher within than beyond a 100 m buffer of the major roads within the city; furthermore, Pb and Zn were higher in older residential lots. - Spatial distribution of metals in soils of an older US city (Baltimore) was affected by parent material, proximity to major roads, and housing age

  4. Corrosion rate of parent and weld materials of F82H and JPCA steels under LBE flow with active oxygen control at 450 and 500 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Kamata, Kinya; Ono, Mikinori; Kitano, Teruaki; Hayashi, Kenichi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of parent and weld materials of F82H and JPCA was studied in the circulating LBE loop under impinging flow. These are candidate materials for Japanese Accelerator Driven System (ADS) beam windows. Maximum temperatures were kept to 450 and 500 deg. C with 100 deg. C constant temperature difference. Main flow velocity was 0.4-0.6 m/s in every case. Oxygen concentration was controlled to 2-4 x 10 -5 mass% although there was one exception. Testing time durations were 500-3000 h. Round bar type specimens were put in the circular tube of the loop. An electron beam weld in the middle of specimens was also studied. Optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray element analyses and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate corrosion in these materials. Consequently corrosion depth and stability of those oxide layers were characterized based on the analyses. For a long-term behavior a linear law is recommended to predict corrosion in the ADS target design

  5. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  6. Suppression of Boride Formation in Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Pairings of Parent Superalloy Materials with Different Compositions and Grain Structures and Resulting Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Susanne; Singer, Robert F.

    2014-07-01

    Two Ni-based superalloys, columnar grained Alloy 247 and single-crystal PWA1483, are joined by transient liquid phase bonding using an amorphous brazing foil containing boron as a melting point depressant. At lower brazing temperatures, two different morphologies of borides develop in both base materials: plate-like and globular ones. Their ratio to each other is temperature dependent. With very high brazing temperatures, the deleterious boride formation in Alloy 247 can be totally avoided, probably because the three-phase-field moves to higher alloying element contents. For the superalloy PWA1483, the formation of borides cannot be completely avoided at high brazing temperatures as incipient melting occurs. During subsequent solidification of these areas, Chinese-script-like borides precipitate. The mechanical properties (tensile tests at room and elevated temperatures and short-term creep rupture tests at elevated temperatures) for brazed samples without boride precipitation are very promising. Tensile strengths and creep times to 1 pct strain are comparable, respectively, higher than the ones of the weaker parent material for all tested temperatures and creep conditions (from 90 to 100 pct rsp. 175 to 250 pct).

  7. Parent material and weldments degradation on SASOL reduction reactors due to combined effect of thermal fatigue, vibration and hydrogen attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borla, Jan Z.

    2002-01-01

    All six installed reduction reactors showed the same failure pattern, which can be attributed to inadequate original design, material degradation due to service conditions and improper maintenance activities. Service is typically low frequency fatigue load conditions with changes of pressure, temperature and batch load. All revealed defects severely affected the integrity of the pressure envelope and vessels were classified for major repair work with subsequent in situ monitoring program. The justification for such extensive and costly repair required a positive evaluation of the current condition of equipment. After complete study, a report was prepared which included the fitness for purpose evaluation, remaining life assessment and recommendation for future field inspections. All reactors were found to be suitable for repair. Within the scope of repair a number of critical elements were redesigned and replaced. The repair was successful and all reactors were put back into operation. Unique expertise was obtained regarding setting the parameters of dehydrogenation in reference to the heavy wall items. Taking replicas and surface sampling appeared to be very reliable and simple tools in monitoring the condition of pressure envelope. For the purpose of future inspection shutdowns specific inspection requirements were put in place to ensure continuous monitoring of the vessel integrity

  8. Parenting Role's Tasks as Parents of Healthy and Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the

  9. Effect of aging on the bioavailability and fractionation of arsenic in soils derived from five parent materials in a red soil region of Southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanan; Zeng, Xibai; Lu, Yahai; Su, Shiming; Bai, Lingyu; Li, Lianfang; Wu, Cuixia

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging time and soil parent materials on the bioavailability and fractionations of arsenic (As) in five red soils were studied. The results indicated that As bioavailability in all soils decreased during aging, especially with a sharp decline occurring in the first 30 days. After aging for 360 days, the highest available As concentration, which accounted for 12.3% of the total, was observed in soils derived from purple sandy shale. While 2.67% was the lowest proportion of the available As in soils derived from quaternary red clay. Furthermore, the best fit of the available As changing with aging time was obtained using the pseudo-second-order model (R"2 = 0.939–0.998, P < 0.05). Notably, Al oxides played a more crucial role (R"2 = 0.89, P<0.05) than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging. The non-specially and specially absorbed As constituted the primary forms of available As. - Highlights: • The soil derived from purple sandy shale had a relatively higher risk of As toxicity for agricultural production. • The best fit of the variations of available As during the aging time was obtained using the pseudo-second-order model. • Al oxides played a more crucial role than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging. - Al oxides played a more crucial role than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging in these red soils.

  10. Parenting stress and parent support among mothers with high and low education

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Current theorizing and evidence suggest that parenting stress might be greater among parents from both low and high socioeconomic positions (SEP) compared with those from intermediate levels because of material hardship among parents of low SEP and employment demands among parents of high SEP. However, little is known about how this socioeconomic variation in stress relates to the support that parents receive. This study explored whether variation in maternal parenting stress in a population ...

  11. Knowledge translation of the HELPinKIDS clinical practice guideline for managing childhood vaccination pain: usability and knowledge uptake of educational materials directed to new parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddio, Anna; Shah, Vibhuti; Leung, Eman; Wang, Jane; Parikh, Chaitya; Smart, Sarah; Hetherington, Ross; Ipp, Moshe; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Sgro, Michael; Jovicic, Aleksandra; Franck, Linda

    2013-02-08

    Although numerous evidence-based and feasible interventions are available to treat pain from childhood vaccine injections, evidence indicates that children are not benefitting from this knowledge. Unrelieved vaccination pain puts children at risk for significant long-term harms including the development of needle fears and subsequent health care avoidance behaviours. Parents report that while they want to mitigate vaccination pain in their children, they lack knowledge about how to do so. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for managing vaccination pain was recently developed in order to address this knowledge-to-care gap. Educational tools (pamphlet and video) for parents were included to facilitate knowledge transfer at the point of care. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usability and effectiveness in terms of knowledge acquisition from the pamphlet and video in parents of newly born infants. Mixed methods design. Following heuristic usability evaluation of the pamphlet and video, parents of newborn infants reviewed revised versions of both tools and participated in individual and group interviews and individual knowledge testing. The knowledge test comprised of 10 true/false questions about the effectiveness of various pain management interventions, and was administered at three time points: at baseline, after review of the pamphlet, and after review of the video. Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews regarding usability of these educational tools: receptivity to learning, accessibility to information, and validity of information. Parents' performance on the knowledge test improved (p≤0.001) from the baseline phase to after review of the pamphlet, and again from the pamphlet review phase to after review of the video. Using a robust testing process, we demonstrated usability and conceptual knowledge acquisition from a parent-directed educational pamphlet and video about management of vaccination pain. Future studies

  12. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  13. Child dental anxiety, parental rearing style and dental history reported by parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.B.; van Wijk, A.J.; ten Cate, J.M.; Veerkamp, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between self-reported parental rearing style, parent's assessment of their child's dental anxiety and the dental history of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parents of primary school children were asked to complete questionnaires about their parenting style, using

  14. What is good parental education? Interviews with parents who have attended parental education sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Kerstin; Petersson, Christer; Håkansson, Anders

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the study was to highlight the experiences and expectations of Swedish parents with respect to general parental education within child healthcare. Interviews were carried out with 25 parents who had attended education sessions. With a few exceptions the fathers did not take part, and those mothers who did comprised a relatively highly educated group; their views therefore predominate in this study. Socially vulnerable parents such as the unemployed and immigrants took part more sporadically in the meetings, which is why less material is available from these groups. The arrangement and analysis of the material was done using qualitative content analysis. We identified two main categories of importance: 'parental education content' and 'parental education structure'. The parents were on the whole satisfied with the content with respect to the child's physical and psychosocial development. On the other hand, first-time parents expressed a degree of uncertainty with respect to the new parent roles and parent relation and they thought that the education should place more emphasis on the interplay between the parents and between child and parents. The degree of confidence in the nurse as group leader was mainly high. The parents thought that the groups functioned well socially and were satisfied with the organization of the meetings. They did, however, demand clearer structure and framework with respect to the content. Since the aim of legally established parental education is to improve the conditions of childhood growth and to provide support to parents, it must be considered especially important to provide resources so that the socially vulnerable groups in the community may also be reached.

  15. Knowledge translation of the HELPinKIDS clinical practice guideline for managing childhood vaccination pain: usability and knowledge uptake of educational materials directed to new parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taddio Anna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although numerous evidence-based and feasible interventions are available to treat pain from childhood vaccine injections, evidence indicates that children are not benefitting from this knowledge. Unrelieved vaccination pain puts children at risk for significant long-term harms including the development of needle fears and subsequent health care avoidance behaviours. Parents report that while they want to mitigate vaccination pain in their children, they lack knowledge about how to do so. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for managing vaccination pain was recently developed in order to address this knowledge-to-care gap. Educational tools (pamphlet and video for parents were included to facilitate knowledge transfer at the point of care. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usability and effectiveness in terms of knowledge acquisition from the pamphlet and video in parents of newly born infants. Methods Mixed methods design. Following heuristic usability evaluation of the pamphlet and video, parents of newborn infants reviewed revised versions of both tools and participated in individual and group interviews and individual knowledge testing. The knowledge test comprised of 10 true/false questions about the effectiveness of various pain management interventions, and was administered at three time points: at baseline, after review of the pamphlet, and after review of the video. Results Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews regarding usability of these educational tools: receptivity to learning, accessibility to information, and validity of information. Parents’ performance on the knowledge test improved (p≤0.001 from the baseline phase to after review of the pamphlet, and again from the pamphlet review phase to after review of the video. Conclusions Using a robust testing process, we demonstrated usability and conceptual knowledge acquisition from a parent-directed educational

  16. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  17. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How Readable Are Parenting Books?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Marie J.; Dowling, William D.

    1979-01-01

    The author's style of writing has implications for the ease with which the written material can be read. Using the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, the mean readability score, the standard deviation, and range are given for 50 parenting books. Discussion suggests how the list might be used by parent educators. (Author)

  19. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  20. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  1. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...

  2. Aerogel / Polymer Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  3. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  4. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  5. Parental Power and Adolescents' Parental Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acock, Alan C.; Yang, Wen Shan

    1984-01-01

    Combines McDonald's social power of parental identification with sex-linked models of parental identification to account for the identification of daughters (N=199) and sons (N=147) with their parents. Found that because of a halo effect, a gain in identification with one parent is not at the other parent's expense. (JAC)

  6. The slag from ELCOGAS IGCC thermal power plant as raw material for the synthesis of glass-ceramic materials. Part I: Thermal behavior of the IGCC slag and synthesis of the parent glass.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aineto, M.; Acosta, A. [University of Castilla La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2005-12-01

    We report here the results of the first phase of investigation on the melting behavior of the IGCC slag, and the use of this slag as raw component to produce glass ceramics. The vitrifying mixture named ECSCP, is composed of 40% slag, 30% glass cullet and 30% precipitated calcium carbonate obtained as a by-product in a sugar refining plant. This mixture was melted at 1450{sup o}C to obtain the ECSCP parent glass, that was then characterized and its crystallization kinetics studied by thermal analysis. The ECSCP glass exhibit a surface mechanism of crystallization, and will be used to produce anorthite/wollastonite glass ceramics in the second part of the investigation.

  7. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  8. Impact of parenting practices on parent-child relationships in children with specific learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Karande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD undergo stress in coping up with their child′s condition. Aims: To document the parenting practices of parents having a child with newly diagnosed SpLD and to analyze their impact on parent-child relationships. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in our clinic. Materials and Methods: From May 2007 to January 2008, 150 parents (either mother or father of children consecutively diagnosed as having SpLD were enrolled. Parenting practices and parent-child relationships were measured by the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Parent Form (APQ-PF and the Parent Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation coefficients between subscales of APQ-PF and PCRQ were computed. Multiple regression analysis was carried out for statistical significance of the clinical and demographic variables. Results: Parents who were: (i "involved" in parenting had a good "personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (ii practicing "positive parenting" had good "warmth, personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (iii "poorly supervising" their child′s activities lacked "warmth and personal relationship," (iv practicing "inconsistent discipline′ had a higher "power assertion" and (v practicing "corporal punishment" lacked "warmth" and had a higher "power assertion and possessiveness" in their relationships with their child. Parent being poorly educated or currently ill and child having all three types of SpLD present concomitantly or a sibling or a sibling with a chronic disability or being in class standard IX to XI were variables that independently predicted a poor parenting or parent-child relationship subscale score. Conclusions: The present study has identified parenting practices that need to be encouraged or excluded for improving parent-child relationships. Initiating these measures would help in the

  9. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  10. Recruiting Parents and the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens-Brower, Teresa Jo

    1997-01-01

    An Oregon elementary teacher attributes her best teaching year ever to parents' and community members' voluntary participation. They got involved in four ways--communicating through voice mail, sharing expertise in the classroom, helping gather lesson materials, and participating in monthly learning celebrations. These activities supplemented…

  11. Proactive Parent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Sharel; Backlund, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Presents examples of teacher-parent interactions designed to help teachers communicate with parents. The scenarios involve a teacher communicating with parents about a struggling student, a teacher communicating with parents about a student's behavior problems, and a teacher attempting to communicate with a confrontational parent. Teacher prompts…

  12. Parent attitudes toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartos, Jessica; Huff, David C

    2008-01-01

    The widespread adoption of graduated driver licensing (GDL) policies has effectively reduced crash risk for young drivers; however, parents must support, reinforce, and enforce GDL for it to be effective, and research indicates that parents need better information and instruction for adhering to GDL requirements, conducting supervised practice driving, and restricting independent teenage driving. Because teenagers in most states must take driver education to enter the licensing process prior to age 18, integrating parent involvement into driver education may be an effective way to inform and instruct parents on a large scale about teen driver safety. This study assessed parent attitudes (overall and by rural status, minority status, and income level) toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education classes. In this study, 321 parents of teenagers enrolled in driver education classes across the state of Montana completed surveys about current involvement in driver education and attitudes toward required involvement. The results indicated that parents were not very involved currently in their teenagers' driver education classes, but 76% reported that parents should be required to be involved. If involvement were required, parents would prefer having written materials sent home, access to information over the Internet, or discussions in person with the instructor; far fewer would prefer to attend classes or behind-the-wheel driving instruction. There were few differences in parent attitudes by rural or minority status but many by income level. Compared to higher income parents, lower income parents were more likely to endorse required parent involvement in teenage driver education classes and to want parent information from driver education about many teen driving issues. That the majority of parents are open to required involvement in their teenagers' driver education classes is promising because doing so could better prepare parents to understand

  13. Social Variations in Perceived Parenting Styles among Norwegian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Jon Ivar; Stefansen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented the associations between parenting and parenting styles and child and adolescent outcomes. Little is known, however, about the social structuring of parenting in contemporary Nordic welfare states. A possible hypothesis is that socioeconomic variations in parenting styles in present-day Norway will be small because of material affluence, limited income inequality, and an active welfare state. This study examines social variations in parenting as perceived by Norwegian adolescents ( N  = 1362), with a focus on four parenting style dimensions: responsiveness, demandingness, neglecting, and intrusive. Responsiveness seems to capture major divisions in parenting. Adolescents in families with fewer economic resources experienced their parents as somewhat less responsive, but responsiveness was not related to parents' education. Low parental education was on the other hand associated with perceptions of parents as neglecting and intrusive. Viewing parents as demanding did neither vary with parental education nor with family economy. Substantial variations in parenting styles persist in present-day Norway, and these variations correspond moderately with the families' placement in the social structure. Indicators of parenting and parenting styles may be useful indicators of some aspects of child and adolescent well-being.

  14. Parenting while Being Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  15. Nursemaid's Elbow (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... For Parents / Nursemaid's Elbow Print About Nursemaid's Elbow Toddlers and preschoolers are at risk for a common ...

  16. Parental overprotection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1993-01-01

    Dimensions of parental overprotection are clarified in a critical review of the research and clinical literature. An indulgent style of parenting is distinguished from an overprotective parent-child relationship. Differential antecedents and outcomes are proposed for each of these forms of parent-child interaction. Measures of protection are reviewed. A new conceptual model of parental overprotection is presented which takes into account child, parent, family, socio-cultural, environmental and resiliency factors. Directions for future research are suggested.

  17. Amblyopia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  18. When Parents Argue

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  19. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  20. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  1. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  2. Syphilis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  3. Chemotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  4. Yersiniosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  5. Amebiasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  6. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  7. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  8. Headaches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  9. Strep Throat (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  10. Tourette Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  11. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ...

  12. Sinusitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  13. Laryngoscopy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  14. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  15. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  16. Eczema (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  17. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  18. The impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes toward parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    Zandiyeh, Zahra; Zare, Elaheh; Hedayati, Batool

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting style is one of the most important and effective factors in training and growth of children and adolescents and the method that parents communicate with their children is an effective factor on family contact models. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes that were admitted to Isfahan Imam Ali (AS) health care center in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study, which ...

  19. Material Resources Availability, Parent Subject Perception and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Introduction. Education is the cornerstone of economic growth and social development. It is a ... how to learn, thus there is an emphasis on the development of cognitive, affective and psychomotor ..... clinical and conselling psychology, Vol. 12.

  20. Parents and the educational process of art education

    OpenAIRE

    Bobinac, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In this Thesis I have researched the parents and the educational process of art education. I wondered how parents encourage their children in artistic creation. The research was based on 37 parents of 3rd graders. Required information was obtained via questionnaires. I have found that parents support children in artistic activities outside school hours, often providing them with art accessories and materials, with the resulting products being exhibited around their homes. Sometimes th...

  1. Parenting paradox: parenting after infant loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warland, Jane; O'Leary, Joann; McCutcheon, Helen; Williamson, Victoria

    2011-10-01

    to gain an in-depth understanding of the parenting experiences of bereaved parents in the years following an infant death. an exploratory qualitative study. semi-structured interview in the participants' homes. Data were collected over a five-month period in 2008 and analysed using thematic analysis. a purposive sample of 13 bereaved parents (10 mothers and three fathers) was used. Parents who had accessed the support services offered by two bereavement support agencies were recruited. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of raising their subsequent child. Interviews were conducted when the next born child was at least three years of age. the parents described a 'paradoxical' parenting style where they were trying to parent using two diametrically opposed unsustainable options. For example, they described trying to hold their subsequent child emotionally close but aloof at the same time. the results from this study indicate that the impact of a loss of an infant has far-reaching consequences on subsequent parenting. Support and early intervention at the time of the stillbirth and subsequent pregnancy are likely to be useful. However, further research is required to determine the extent to which early intervention can alter the tendency towards bereaved parents adopting a paradoxical parenting style. The impact of this style on mental health and the emotional health and well-being of the next born child/ren after perinatal loss should also be further examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Parent-to-Parent Program in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kae

    2018-01-01

    Parent-to-parent programs provide emotional and informational support to parents of children with special needs by matching trained and experienced parents with parents needing support. This study examined the implementation and effects of a Parent-to-Parent Program in Taiwan that supported 3 families of youngsters with special needs. Based on the…

  3. PARENTING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON CHILD BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Mary Antony

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Parenting is the process of giving care to the young and preparing them to face the challenges of life. Diana Baumrind introduced the models of parenting, authoritative, authoritarian and permissive depending on the level of demandingness and responsiveness. Defective parenting is associated with problem behaviours in children. This study was undertaken to find out which parenting style is least associated with behavioural problems and what are the problems associated with the different parenting style. MATERIALS AND METHODS 46 children who were admitted with minor illness at the institute of Child Health, Kottayam from January 2017 to Oct 2017 were enrolled after getting informed consent and IRB clearance. Purposive sampling method were used for the study. Demographic data was entered into a proforma. The PSDQ and CBCL 1½ -5 questionnaire was given to mothers to assess the parenting style and behavioural problems in their children. Data was analysed with statistical tests. The t test, one way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analyses were used for the analyses. RESULTS The parenting styles of the mothers and the behavioural problems seen in their children were studied in this research. There was no significant difference in behavioural problems between the different age group studied and there was no difference in problem behaviours between male children and female children. Authoritative parenting style was least associated with problem behaviour. Authoritarian parenting style is associated with internalizing problems and permissive parenting is associated with externalizing problems. CONCLUSION Since the behaviour problems tends to linger through adolescence and adulthood, parental education regarding the positive parenting style and interventions can be given from early childhood during routine child care and structured programs.

  4. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335

  5. Beyond Deficit-filling and Developmental Stakes: Cross-disciplinary Perspectives on Parental Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Nancy E.; Abramowitz, Stephen I.

    1982-01-01

    Proposes an interdisciplinary conceptual foundation for studying parental heritage. Defines parental heritage as the intentional transmission of valued psychological and material assets from parent to child. Suggests advances in the realm of parental heritage are dependent on clarification of the complex interactions among such sociohistorical,…

  6. Parenting and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen; Netsi, Elena; Redinger, Stephanie; Stein, Alan

    2017-06-01

    With the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission the development of HIV-negative children with HIV-positive parents has become an important focus. There is considerable evidence that children's developmental risk is heightened because a parental HIV-diagnosis is associated with a range of potential problems such as depression, stigma and financial difficulties. Up to a third of children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are cared for by an HIV-positive parent or caregiver. We review the mechanisms by which HIV affects parenting including its negative effects on parental responsiveness in the early years of parenting and parental avoidant coping styles and parenting deficits in the later years. We describe low-cost parenting interventions suited for low resourced HIV endemic settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  8. Interestratificado caulinita-esmectita em um argissolo desenvolvido a partir de rocha sedimentar do Sul do Brasil Interlayered kaolinite-smectite minerals in an acrisol developed from sandstone parent material in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Campanhola Bortoluzzi

    2007-12-01

    , indicando que ela é proveniente de herança do material de origem. A mineralogia deste solo indica estádio intermediário entre argilominerais de estrutura do tipo 2:1 e 1:1 no processo de intemperismo.Kaolinite is commonly found in fine fractions of tropical and subtropical Brazilian soils. Kaolinite can be verified by an X-ray diffractogram, made of a series of 00l peaks, at the distance of 0.715 nm. However, in some soils, major peaks can be found at about d = 0.720 nm, indicating halloysite or kaolinite-smectite (K-S interstratified minerals. The objectives of this study were to verify this hypothesis and subsequently discuss soil genesis. Parent material and soil samples from the horizons A1, A2, E and Bt were collected in a Red Yellow Acrisol, covered by native vegetation, on the Campus of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The clay fraction was separated by sedimentation, Ca2+ saturated and X-ray diffracted after the following treatments: control, air drying, (N; ethylene-glycol saturation (EG; heating to 300 and 550 °C; and, after formamide saturation. The raw X-ray diffractograms (XRD were modeled between 11 and 15 degrees 2 theta (using DecompRX. Two peaks were found in the XRD around this region. The first peak was sharp and intense at d = 0.717 nm, corresponding to kaolinite; the second, broader and less intense, was observed at d = 0.720 nm. The peak at d = 0.720 nm was sensitive to EG treatment; it varied from d = 0.720 nm to d = 0.730 nm and returned to about d = 0.720 nm after heating to 300 °C. This behaviour is typical of expansive layers. The presence of interstratified K-S minerals was inferred since halloysite clay was not identified by the formamide test. The XRD were analyzed and indicated interstratified K-S mineral at a proportion of 0.8_0.9 kaolinite layers and 0.1-0.2 smectite layers. Furthermore, the K-S covered about 90 % and kaolinite alone 10 % of the modelled peak, at d = 0.720 nm. K-S was also found in the bedrock

  9. Parenting children with down syndrome: An analysis of parenting styles, parenting dimensions, and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B Allyson; Conners, Frances; Curtner-Smith, Mary Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Effective parenting is vital for a child's development. Although much work has been conducted on parenting typically developing children, little work has examined parenting children with Down syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to compare the parenting styles and dimensions in mothers of children with DS and mothers of TD children. Thirty-five mothers of children with DS and 47 mothers of TD children completed questionnaires about parenting, parental stress, child behavior problems, and child executive function. We found that mothers of children with DS use an authoritative parenting style less and a permissive parenting style more than mothers of TD children. Additionally, we found that mothers of children with DS use reasoning/induction and verbal hostility less and ignoring misbehavior more than mothers of TD children. All of these differences, except for those of reasoning/induction, were at least partially accounted for by the higher levels of parental stress in the DS group. Parenting interventions should be focused on reducing parental stress and training mothers to parent under stress in an effort to improve parenting techniques, which would, in theory, improve long-term child outcomes for children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…

  11. Parent training support for intellectually disabled parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Hutchfield, Jemeela; Thomae, Manuela; Gustafsson, Carina

    2010-06-16

    Intellectual disability may impact on an individual's capacity to parent a child effectively. Research suggests that the number of intellectually disabled people with children is increasing. Children of parents with intellectual disabilities may be at increased risk of neglectful care which could lead to health, developmental and behavioural problems, or increased risk of intellectual disability.However, there is some indication that some parents with intellectual disabilities are able to provide adequate child care if they are given appropriate training and support to do so. To assess the effectiveness of parent training interventions to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts International, MetaRegister of Controlled Trials, and ZETOC. Randomised controlled trials comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disabilities with usual care or with a control group. Outcomes of interest were: the attainment of parenting skills specific to the intervention, safe home practices and the understanding of child health. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. Three trials met the inclusion criteria for this review but no meta-analysis was possible. One study reported improved maternal-child interaction following group parent training compared with the control group. The second study reported some improvements in parents knowledge of life threatening emergencies, ability to recognise dangers and identify precautions and smaller improvements in their ability to implement precautions, use medicines safely and recognise child illness and symptoms. The third study reported improvement in child care and safety skills following the intervention. There is some risk of bias in the

  12. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & ... Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & Things ...

  13. Parental Involvement in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tessa

    1979-01-01

    Arguments in favor of increased parental involvement, particularly in nursery education, are presented. Opposition to participation from parents and teachers is discussed and specific areas in which cooperation might be possible are suggested along with different levels of participation. (JMF)

  14. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  15. Naps (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... during a 24-hour period. For example, one toddler may sleep 13 hours at night with only ...

  16. Playground Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... designed for three different age groups: infants and toddlers under 2, 2- to 5-year-olds (preschoolers), ...

  17. Toxocariasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... with a pet dog or cat (wash a toddler's hands yourself) discourage toddlers from putting dirty hands ...

  18. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  19. New Parent Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and tactics to help keep children and families healthy, safe and strong. MilParent Power is Help for Parents May 22, 2018 @ 9: ... that’s your job — helping your kids cope in healthy ways to changing circumstances. 6 Tips to Harness Your MilParent Power March 15, 2018 @ 10:42 AM | 4 Min ...

  20. Children of Incarcerated Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Charlene Wear

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the children of incarcerated parents in California. The report estimates the number of children in California who have parents in the state's criminal justice system (jail, prison, parole, and probation) and summarizes key findings from the research literature on the impact of parental arrest and…

  1. The Parent Loan Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Marian; Supiano, Beckie; Fuller, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As the cost of college has spiraled ever upward and median family income has fallen, the loan program, called Parent PLUS, has become indispensable for increasing numbers of parents desperate to make their children's college plans work. Last year the government disbursed $10.6-billion in Parent PLUS loans to just under a million families. Even…

  2. Parenting after Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  3. Evaluation of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach by Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcinar, Zehra; Ekizoglu, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of parent involvement in children's education, research clearly shows that it is difficult to effectively involve parents. This study aims to capture parents' views of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach (BPIA) designed to secure parent involvement in education by strengthening school-parent communication. Data…

  4. Parenting Beliefs, Parental Stress, and Social Support Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee

    2012-01-01

    The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…

  5. Personality and Parenting Style in Parents of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…

  6. 5 CFR 1651.7 - Parent or parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parent or parents. 1651.7 Section 1651.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.7 Parent or parents. If the account is to be paid to the participant's parent or parents under § 1651.2(a)(4), the following...

  7. Intergenerational Transmission of Harsh Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined harsh parenting across generations by means of parents' and adolescents' reports. Found that grandparents who had engaged in aggressive parenting produced parents who used similar practices. Harsh discipline of male children was a function of socioeconomic characteristics. (BC)

  8. Comparing the Parenting Role Tasks in Parents of Children with Mental/Physical Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The role of parents during childhood is very important. Imbalances in parenting roles may cause severe emotional and physical injuries in children. The current study aimed at comparing parenting role tasks in parents of children who affected to mental/physical disabilities. Materials and Methods In the current cross sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 230 married couples with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. The parenting role tasks were compared between mothers and fathers. Independent t-test, chi square and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between fathers and mothers based on studied variables including demographic variables, types of child disabilities and history of trauma and seizure. Results Among enrolled children, 49 (21.3% had mental and 99 (43% affecting to physical disabilities. A significant difference regarding the parenting role tasks between mothers and fathers; therefore, the mean score of mothers for parenting role tasks was significantly higher than that of fathers regarding different variables such as demographic data, seizure, trauma, and the type of disabilities in the child (P

  9. Parenting Culture Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ellie J.; Faircloth, Charlotte; Macvarish, Jan; Bristow, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    Why do we live at a time when the minutiae of how parents raise their children – how they feed them, talk to them, play with them or discipline them – have become routine sources of public debate and policy making? Why are there now so-called 'parenting experts', and social movements like Attachment Parenting, telling us that 'science says' what parents do is the cause of and solution to social problems? \\ud \\ud Parenting Culture Studies provides in-depth answers to these features of contempo...

  10. Parent-child interaction: Does parental language matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2016-11-01

    Although parental language and behaviour have been widely investigated, few studies have examined their unique and interactive contribution to the parent-child relationship. The current study explores how parental behaviour (sensitivity and non-intrusiveness) and the use of parental language (exploring and control languages) correlate with parent-child dyadic mutuality. Specifically, we investigated the following questions: (1) 'Is parental language associated with parent-child dyadic mutuality above and beyond parental behaviour?' (2) 'Does parental language moderate the links between parental behaviour and the parent-child dyadic mutuality?' (3) 'Do these differences vary between mothers and fathers?' The sample included 65 children (M age  = 1.97 years, SD = 0.86) and their parents. We observed parental behaviour, parent-child dyadic mutuality, and the type of parental language used during videotaped in-home observations. The results indicated that parental language and behaviours are distinct components of the parent-child interaction. Parents who used higher levels of exploring language showed higher levels of parent-child dyadic mutuality, even when accounting for parental behaviour. Use of controlling language, however, was not found to be related to the parent-child dyadic mutuality. Different moderation models were found for mothers and fathers. These results highlight the need to distinguish parental language and behaviour when assessing their contribution to the parent-child relationship. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Parental Alienation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Torun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Children who have been programmed by one parent to be alienated from the other parent are commonly seen in the context of child-custody disputes. Its primary manifestation is the child’s campaign of denigration against a parent, a campaign that has no justification. It is said to result from a combination of a programming (brainwashing parent’s indoctrinations and the child’s own contributions to the vilification of the targeted parent. Many evaluators use the term parental alienation syndrome to refer to the disorder engendered in such children. However, there is significant controversy going on about the validity of parental alienation syndrome. The purpose of this article has been to describe and help to differentiate parental alienation syndrome and abuse for mental health professionals working in the field, and discuss the arguments about the validity of this syndrome.

  12. Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, J G

    1995-04-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 110 primarily white, middle-class sixth, eighth, and tenth graders (M = 11.98, 13.84, and 16.18 years of age) and their parents (108 mothers and 92 fathers). Parents judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated family conflict and rules regarding 24 hypothetical moral, conventional, personal, multifaceted (containing conventional and personal components), prudential, and friendship issues. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Parents' parenting styles differentiated their conceptions of parental authority, but adolescents' perceptions did not. Differences were primarily over the boundaries of adolescents' personal jurisdiction. Furthermore, conceptions of parental authority and parenting styles both contributed significantly to emotional autonomy and adolescent-parent conflict. The implications of the findings for typological models of parenting and distinct domain views of social-cognitive development are discussed.

  13. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  14. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  15. DIFFERENCE IN THE INTENSITY OF DEPRESSION BETWEEN PARENTS HAVING CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT DISORDER AND PARENTS HAVING NORMAL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu Meethale Veettil; Sheeba Damodar; Jayadevan Sreedharan; Vimal Rohan K; Jayasree Ananda Bhavan Kumaran

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Parents experience psychological trauma if they recognise that their children are having conduct disorder, which is unacceptable to the society and against the social norms. The intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder is included in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Exploratory research was used in this study as the method of study. A sample was selected from parents having children with conduct disorder reported in various psychia...

  16. Parent and Adolescent Reports of Parenting When a Parent Has a History of Depression: Associations with Observations of Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9% female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4% female...

  17. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  18. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  19. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huver, R.M.E.; Otten, R.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived

  20. Parental Involvement in Mathematics: Giving Parents a Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, S.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why parents become involved in their children's education is crucial in strengthening the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement. The present study focuses on the parental role construction and parental self-efficacy. The resulting trends suggest that parents, regardless of their self-efficacy, may assume…

  1. Parenting Training for Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Cochrane Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…

  2. Parenting Styles and Conceptions of Parental Authority during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1995-01-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 100 mostly white, middle-class, 6th, 8th, and 10th graders and their parents. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Differences were primarily over the…

  3. Parents' Perspectives on Parental Notification of College Students' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosden, Merith; Hughes, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Although many colleges and universities use "parental notification" to inform parents of students' alcohol use, the impact of this intervention on student and parent behavior is unclear. Surveys were obtained from 326 parents of university undergraduates, 56 of whom had received a notification. Parent responses to the notification were…

  4. Learning Math at Home. Making the Parent Connection! Leader Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moke, Susan, Ed.; Shermis, Michael, Ed.

    This manual is a resource book for organizers and leaders and parent groups who want to explore specific strategies to use to encourage children to view math as a "user-friendly" subject. The guide contains material necessary to conduct a 1- or 1.5-hour session to help parents see the importance of: showing their children how problem-solving math…

  5. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First ...

  6. Assessment of parental understanding of paediatric medical prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiqua Anjum, Nasir Mohiuddin M, Narayan Reddy U, Narsing Rao J, Sana Afreen, Mir S Adil, Javeedullah M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical prescriptions are bound to be misinterpreted by patients and pharmacists if not properly conveyed. Pediatric prescriptions differ from adult prescriptions having wide variation in doses and formulations. There is a need to evaluate the lacunae in the parental understanding of pediatric prescriptions. Aims and objective: To evaluate the parental understanding of pediatric prescription and to evaluate the adequacy of communication with the physician and pharmacist regarding the same. Material and methods: 550 parents were enrolled and their literacy level was noted. They were subjected to modify MUSE questionnaire. Physician’s prescription was analyzed in terms of ease of understanding by parents. These parents were followed up till the pharmacies and the pharmacist understanding of prescription was analyzed and their communication with parents regarding drug usage was noted. Finally, ease of usage of drugs by parents was noted. Results: MUSE scale was modified to suit pediatric prescription understanding by parents and also additional questions were asked to include complete parental understanding of doctor’s prescription. Majority of parents failed to completely understand the written prescription. Though around 80% of pharmacist could understand the prescription, their communication with parents was poor resulting in difficulty for parents to even enquire about medicines from them. Parental overall understanding of prescription increased with their literacy levels. Conclusion: Not all prescriptions are completely understood by parents as well as a pharmacist. This can lead to misuse of drugs. Efforts to explain the drug usage are not adequate enough from the doctor or the pharmacist. While communicating literacy levels of parents is not being considered which may further worsen the understanding ability

  7. Engaging Parents to Promote Children's Nutrition and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Ramsay, Samantha; McBride, Brent; Srivastava, Deepa; Murriel, Ashleigh; Arcan, Chrisa; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M

    2017-03-01

    Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks as a framework, this study examined childcare providers' (Head Start [HS], Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and non-CACFP) perspectives regarding communicating with parents about nutrition to promote children's health. Qualitative. State-licensed center-based childcare programs. Full-time childcare providers (n = 18) caring for children 2 to 5 years old from varying childcare contexts (HS, CACFP funded, and non-CACFP), race, education, and years of experience. In-person interviews using semi-structured interview protocol until saturation were achieved. Thematic analysis was conducted. Two overarching themes were barriers and strategies to communicate with parents about children's nutrition. Barriers to communication included-(a) parents are too busy to talk with providers, (b) parents offer unhealthy foods, (c) parents prioritize talking about child food issues over nutrition, (d) providers are unsure of how to communicate about nutrition without offending parents, and (e) providers are concerned if parents are receptive to nutrition education materials. Strategies for communication included-(a) recognize the benefits of communicating with parents about nutrition to support child health, (b) build a partnership with parents through education, (c) leverage policy (federal and state) to communicate positively and avoid conflict, (d) implement center-level practices to reinforce policy, and (e) foster a respectful relationship between providers and parents. Policy and environmental changes were recommended for fostering a respectful relationship and building a bridge between providers and parents to improve communication about children's nutrition and health.

  8. Parental Responsibilities to Children in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, in Albanian customary law, parental responsibilities were an exclusive competency of fathers. In positive law, especially with the reform of the legal system in the Republic of Kosovo, now both parents are fully equal in exercising parental responsibilities. Children are the future of any society, and therefore, their upraising, education and proper welfare of children is an objective and responsibility not only for the parents, but also of societal and state institutions. Although parent-child relations incorporate moral, biological and legal elements, the absolute power of parents must be shared between parents and proper social and educational policies, in the heart of which are always the best interests of the child. Kosovo has already adopted a complete legal framework, approximated to the standards of the European Union and international instruments which clearly provide on the rights of the child and responsibilities of parents and institutions in enjoying such rights. Within the range of this new legal framework, we make an effort of addressing parental responsibilities, which are exercised in terms of personality of children, and derive as a result of personal non-material relations. Our work is focused on a study of parental responsibilities in terms of giving a personal name, healthy development, education and upraising. We have also analysed several court rulings related to the rights of the child and responsibilities of parents in enjoying such rights, which we believe are to enrich and render the paper more interesting.

  9. What matters most - what parents model or what parents eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Martin, Chantel L; Ward, Dianne S

    2018-03-28

    Parents have a strong influence on their children's eating habits; however, researchers struggle to identify which food parenting practices to recommend. This study examined the influence of parents modeling of healthy eating ("parent role modeling") and parents' actual food intake ("parent dietary intake") on child diet quality, and explored whether these practices work together to influence children's diets. Baseline data from a larger intervention trial were used for this analysis. The sample included parents of preschool-age children from households with at least one overweight parent. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire was used to assess parent modeling of healthy eating ("healthy modeling"). Three days of dietary recalls were used to collect parents' report of their own intake and their children's intake (excluding food at child care). Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent intake of healthy and unhealthy foods were explored using Pearson correlations. Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score on child HEI score were examined with linear regression. Additionally, the interaction between parent healthy modeling and HEI score on child HEI score was tested. Parent healthy modeling was significantly correlated with parent intake of healthy foodsLinear regression showed a significant association between parent modeling and child HEI score, even after controlling for parent diet (β = 3.08, SE = 0.87, p parents had high parent healthy modeling scores had higher HEI scores (mean = 61.5 ± 10.4) regardless of parent HEI score. We did not find evidence that parent healthy modeling and diet quality interact to influence child diet quality. Parents' healthy modeling is an important practice in influencing children's diet quality, possibly more so than the quality of parents' diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Homeschooling Resources for Parents and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Patricia M.; And Others

    This brochure highlights educational materials for parents who teach their children at home. Many of the sources are available through libraries, public schools, government agencies, nonprofit institutions, and online services. The pamphlet lists 12 magazines and newsletters now available to homeschooling families, 8 electronic sources, and 17…

  11. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  12. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Ellison, Christopher G

    2012-12-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one's custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family-but not a stepparent family-is positively associated with religious disaffiliation and religious switching and negatively associated with regular religious attendance. Accounting for parental religious characteristics, however, explains sizable proportions of these relationships. Accounting for parental religious affiliation and attendance, growing up with a single parent does not significantly affect religious attendance. Parental religiosity also moderates the relationship between growing up with a single parent and religious attendance: being raised in a single-parent home has a negative effect on religious attendance among adults who had two religiously involved parents.

  13. Building Relationships with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullaj, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Communicating with parents may seem like one more task on top of an overwhelming workload, but creating a positive relationship with parents has many benefits for all involved. The author discusses the steps to creating these relationships and communicating with families.

  14. Handling "Helicopter Parents"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Once upon a time, parents would help their children move into dorm rooms and apartments, then wave good-bye for the semester. Not anymore. Baby boomers have arguably been more involved in their children's educations--and their lives in general--than any preceding generation of parents, university observers say. And boomers see no reason why that…

  15. Parenting, Pressures and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Graham W.

    2000-01-01

    In the 1990s, parenting became a difficult effort to balance work demands with children's needs. However, Canadian and U.S. government policies have not met changing family needs for child care, other services, paid parental leave, and work flexibility. Canada's long-awaited National Children's Agenda has the potential to modernize family policy…

  16. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ...

  17. Parents, Peers and Pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Marsha

    This book looks at the problem of drug abuse, particularly the use of marihuana by children ages 9 to 14, and describes one strategy parents can use to prevent drug use by their children. On the premise that nonmedical drug use is not acceptable for children, parents need to provide guidance and exercise discipline with respect to drug use among…

  18. Parent Involvement Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arna

    This handbook on parent involvement, designed to be used with preschool programs, was developed by the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado. Included are: (1) a general statement about parent involvement in an early childhood program, (2) a description of the Jefferson County Early Childhood Program, (3) a description of the…

  19. Pinterest for Parent Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, Brianna; Langworthy, Sara; Jastram, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    As more parents are using the Internet to answer their questions, Extension needs to provide practical, research-based resources in an accessible format. Pinterest is a platform that can be used by Extension educators to provide continued education and make reputable resources more discoverable for parents. Based on Knowles adult learning theory…

  20. Gay and Lesbian Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Gay and Lesbian Parents Page Content Article Body I am gay. Should I worry how this will affect my children? Millions of children have one or more gay and/or lesbian parents. For some children, having ...

  1. Sexism in Parenting Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrain, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Parental roles, as delineated in many of the popular parenting manuals on the market, are reviewed and assessed. It is concluded that the vast majority of authors of child-rearing guides implicity or explicitly endorse the traditional roles of father as the dominant breadwinner and mother as the nurturant caretaker. (Author)

  2. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  3. Parenting: An Ecological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom, Ed.; Okagaki, Lynn, Ed.

    This book examines various aspects of parenting and influences on parents, including such key contexts affecting child development as school, neighborhood, and culture. After a forward by Urie Bronfenbrenner and a preface by Tom Luster and Lynn Okagaki, which together help to introduce the topics to be discussed, the book is divided into nine…

  4. Parents on education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex Herweijer; Ria Vogels

    2004-01-01

    Original title: Ouders over opvoeding en onderwijs. The position of parents with regard to children' education has been changing in recent years: the government believes that they should have a major influence on what happens at their children's school, and also that parents and schools should

  5. Evolution and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardwick, Judith M.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the theory and research on the physiological or genetic origins of parenting behavior, noting that an ethological or evolutionary analysis of parenting behavior supports the idea that primates, including man, have evolved psychological structures which are particularly adapted to respond to cues from young children. (Author/JM)

  6. Puntos Basicos para Padres: Apoyo Padre a Padre (Basics for Parents: Parent to Parent Support).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, Betsy

    This Spanish language information brief describes the Parent to Parent Program, which provides information and one-to-one emotional support to parents of children with special needs. The program trains experienced parents in the program and matches them with similar parents new to the program. Benefits of the program include: (1) providing parents…

  7. Actividades Para Padres: A Parent Handbook (Activities for Parents: A Parent Handbook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Benjamin

    Thirty Mora, New Mexico parents attended a 13-session parent involvement workshop (The Mora Adventure) designed to help parents foster successful school experiences through non-school activities with their children. A parent involvement model was used as the basis of the workshop in which the parents developed more effective communication skills;…

  8. Foster Parents' Involvement in Authoritative Parenting and Interest in Future Parenting Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Kraemer, Linda K.; Bernard, Amy L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed 191 Southwest Ohio foster parents regarding their involvement in authoritative parenting and interest for additional parenting education. Our results showed that most respondents reported using an authoritative parenting style and were interested in receiving future training. Involvement in authoritative parenting differed…

  9. Parental Cognitions, Parental Behavior, and the Child's Understanding of the Parent-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekovic, Maja; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Studied the relationship of parental reasoning complexity to parental behavior during parent-child interactions, and the effect of this relationship on children's social cognitions. Results indicate that parental reasoning complexity is related to parental behaviors of restrictive control, authoritative control, and support, which, in turn, are…

  10. Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A. Oenema (Anke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8. years. One parent completed

  11. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...... on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection...

  12. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  13. Parenting stress and parent support among mothers with high and low education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Current theorizing and evidence suggest that parenting stress might be greater among parents from both low and high socioeconomic positions (SEP) compared with those from intermediate levels because of material hardship among parents of low SEP and employment demands among parents of high SEP. However, little is known about how this socioeconomic variation in stress relates to the support that parents receive. This study explored whether variation in maternal parenting stress in a population sample was associated with support deficits. To obtain a clearer understanding of support deficits among mothers of high and low education, we distinguished subgroups according to mothers' migrant and single-parent status. Participants were 5,865 mothers from the Growing Up in Scotland Study, who were interviewed when their children were 10 months old. Parenting stress was greater among mothers with either high or low education than among mothers with intermediate education, although it was highest for those with low education. Support deficits accounted for around 50% of higher stress among high- and low-educated groups. Less frequent grandparent contact mediated parenting stress among both high- and low-educated mothers, particularly migrants. Aside from this common feature, different aspects of support were relevant for high- compared with low-educated mothers. For high-educated mothers, reliance on formal childcare and less frequent support from friends mediated higher stress. Among low-educated mothers, smaller grandparent and friend networks and barriers to professional parent support mediated higher stress. Implications of differing support deficits are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. About Teen Suicide (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thoughts. Teens going through major life changes (parents' divorce, moving, a parent leaving home due to military service or parental separation, financial changes) and those who are victims of ...

  15. Engaging Parents in Parent Engagement Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Steven; List, John; Metcalfe, Robert; Sadoff, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, policymakers, and educators have long recognized the role of parents in shaping student achievement. A large body of observational studies documents the strong relationship between family background and educational outcomes, but to date there have been very few experimental studies in this area. In this study, the authors offer a…

  16. Parenting Education: An Exemplary Program for Rural/Migrant Youth and Adults. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rosemere; And Others

    Designed for use in a parenting education course for rural/migrant youth and adults, this parenting education learning kit consists of a coordinator's manual and bilingual instructional materials for seven course sessions. Issues addressed in the coordinator's manual include program content, program format, orientation for experienced parents,…

  17. Parental Involvement and Public Schools: Disappearing Mothers in Labor and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the material and rhetorical connection between "parental involvement" and motherhood has the effect of making two important features of parental involvement disappear. Both of these features need to be taken into account to think through the positive and negative effects of parental involvement in public…

  18. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M E; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved) from scores on the underlying dimensions of support and strict control. Regression analyses were used to determine which personality traits were associated with parenting dimensions and styles. As regards dimensions, the two aspects of personality reflecting interpersonal interactions (extraversion and agreeableness) were related to supportiveness. Emotional stability was associated with lower strict control. As regards parenting styles, extraverted, agreeable, and less emotionally stable individuals were most likely to be authoritative parents. Conscientiousness and openness did not relate to general parenting, but might be associated with more content-specific acts of parenting.

  19. DIFFERENCE IN THE INTENSITY OF DEPRESSION BETWEEN PARENTS HAVING CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT DISORDER AND PARENTS HAVING NORMAL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Meethale Veettil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Parents experience psychological trauma if they recognise that their children are having conduct disorder, which is unacceptable to the society and against the social norms. The intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder is included in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Exploratory research was used in this study as the method of study. A sample was selected from parents having children with conduct disorder reported in various psychiatric settings in Kerala, India, and also from parents having normal children. Random sampling was used for selecting the sample. All the parents of children diagnosed with conduct disorder in the age group of 6 to 12 reported in the psychiatric settings on a random day is selected as sample. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Depression in parents affect their skills in caregiving, support to their children, nurturance and it will affect proper development of children physically and mentally. Similarly, conduct disorder in children will affect their parents mental and social functioning and their life functioning and the parents maybe suffering from depression. Mothers of children with conduct disorders are reported to have exhibit more depressed and they show very poor parenting skills and negative interactions with their children compared to normal mothers. Parents having children with conduct disorder did have higher intensity of depression compared to parents having normal children. CONCLUSION The study hopes to make contributions in identifying the intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder and it’s serious and least recognised impact on their parents. The study will also help to find out the areas in which parents need intervention and to decide which type of therapy will be more helpful to the family as a whole. Identifying and understanding the relevant and feasible components of therapy can then facilitate

  20. von Willebrand Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  1. Childhood Cancer: Leukemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  2. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  3. Parenting and Digital Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Radesky, Jenny; Collier, Kevin M; Gentile, Douglas A; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Nathanson, Amy I; Rasmussen, Eric E; Reich, Stephanie M; Rogers, Jean

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the family dynamic surrounding media use is crucial to our understanding of media effects, policy development, and the targeting of individuals and families for interventions to benefit child health and development. The Families, Parenting, and Media Workgroup reviewed the relevant research from the past few decades. We find that child characteristics, the parent-child relationship, parental mediation practices, and parents' own use of media all can influence children's media use, their attitudes regarding media, and the effects of media on children. However, gaps remain. First, more research is needed on best practices of parental mediation for both traditional and new media. Ideally, this research will involve large-scale, longitudinal studies that manage children from infancy to adulthood. Second, we need to better understand the relationship between parent media use and child media use and specifically how media may interfere with or strengthen parent-child relationships. Finally, longitudinal research on how developmental processes and individual child characteristics influence the intersection between media and family life is needed. The majority of children's media use takes place within a wider family dynamic. An understanding of this dynamic is crucial to understanding child media use as a whole. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Family and relationship influences on parenting behaviors of young parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace; Murphy, Alexandrea; Lewis, Jessica; Divney, Anna; Albritton, Tashuna; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick

    2014-02-01

    Assess the influence of relationship and family factors during pregnancy on parenting behavior 6 months postpartum among low-income young parents. Some 434 young expectant couples were recruited from obstetrics clinics during pregnancy and followed 6 months postpartum. Using a series of general estimating equations to control for the correlated nature of the data, we assessed the influence of relationship factors (e.g., relationship satisfaction, attachment) and family factors (e.g., family functioning, family history) during pregnancy on parenting (e.g., parenting involvement, time spent caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence) 6 months postpartum controlling for covariates. Relationship functioning related to parenting involvement, caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence. In addition, several family factors related to parenting. Mother involvement during childhood was related to more parenting involvement, parenting positive experiences, and parenting sense of competence. History of being spanked as a child related to less time spent caregiving and less positive life change from being a parent. Further, gender significantly moderated the associations between relationship and family factors and parenting behavior. Male parenting behavior was more influenced by relationship and family factors than female parenting. This study suggests the importance of relationship and family contexts for parenting behaviors of young mothers and fathers, highlighting the potential utility of involving both young mothers and fathers in parenting programs, and developing interventions that focus on strengthening young parents' romantic relationships and that address negative parenting experienced during childhood. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parent-Child Communication and Parental Involvement in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Tatiana M.; Cardemil, Esteban V.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the associations among parent-child relationship characteristics, acculturation and enculturation, and child externalizing symptoms in a sample of 40 Latino parent-adolescent dyads. Specifically, the associations between parent-child relationship characteristics (i.e., communication and parental involvement) and adolescents'…

  6. Managing "Spoiled Identities": Parents' Experiences of Compulsory Parenting Support Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    While recent years have seen a rapid growth of research exploring the usefulness of parenting support programmes, no empirical research to date has specifically explored experiences of compulsory parenting support. The present study examines the narrative accounts of 17 parents who, through a Parenting Order, were made to participate in such…

  7. Teacher and parent experiences of parent-teacher conferences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teachers are seldom trained to interact with parents, and both parents and teachers often find such encounters stressful and ineffective. This paper investigates parent and teacher perspectives on the parent-teacher conference through a qualitative inquiry. This is framed by the contributions of ecological theorists to home- ...

  8. Who's doing the talking? Teacher and parent experiences of parent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common form of direct communication between parents and teachers in schools worldwide is the parent-teacher conference. Purposeful parent-teacher conferences afford the teacher and the parent the opportunity to address a particular topic related to the child, such as academic progress and behaviour.

  9. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  10. Oral Health Behavior of Parents as a Predictor of Oral Health Status of Their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted ques...

  11. Comparing Web, Group and Telehealth Formats of a Military Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    materials are available upon request: • Online questionnaire for baseline data collection (9 pages) • Online parent survey for time point 1 (69 pages...web-based parenting intervention for military families with school-aged children, we expect to strengthen parenting practices in families and...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0143 TITLE: Comparing Web, Group and Telehealth Formats of a Military Parenting Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  12. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  13. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth / For Parents / Obstructive Sleep Apnea What's ... How Is Sleep Apnea Treated? Print What Is Sleep Apnea? Brief pauses in breathing during sleep are ...

  14. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Physical Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Physical Therapy Print en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) ...

  15. Hernias (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look like inguinal hernias, but are not: A communicating hydrocele is similar to a hernia, except that ... reviewed: September 2016 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Medical Care and Your Newborn Undescended ...

  16. Ebola (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Ebola KidsHealth / For Parents / Ebola What's in this article? ... take precautions to avoid becoming infected. What Is Ebola? Ebola, or Ebola hemorrhagic fever ( Ebola HF) , is ...

  17. Parental Socialization of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children's emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children's emotions, (b) socializers' discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers' expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children's emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children's expression of emotion are associated with children's negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.

  18. Polio (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Polio KidsHealth / For Parents / Polio What's in this article? ... of fluids and bed rest. The Future of Polio Health groups are working toward wiping out polio ...

  19. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fire Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Fire Safety What's in ... event of a fire emergency in your home. Fire Prevention Of course, the best way to practice ...

  20. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain Tumors What's in ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  1. Mononucleosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Mononucleosis KidsHealth / For Parents / Mononucleosis What's in this article? ... and Sports Complications Prevention and Treatment Print About Mononucleosis Kids and teens with mononucleosis (mono) can have ...

  2. Sore Throat (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another illness, like a cold , the flu , or mononucleosis . They also can be caused by a strep ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Strep Throat Coughing Mononucleosis Strep Test: Rapid Strep Test: Throat Culture Flu ...

  3. ECG Electrocardiogram (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español ECG (Electrocardiogram) KidsHealth / For Parents / ECG (Electrocardiogram) Print en ... whether there is any damage. How Is an ECG Done? There is nothing painful about getting an ...

  4. Fibromyalgia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think about their condition helps improve their symptoms. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) , a therapy used by mental health professionals, ... reviewed: October 2015 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Childhood Stress Physical ...

  5. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Parents / Broken Bones What's in this ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  6. Immunotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Immunotherapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Immunotherapy What's in this article? ... Types of Immunotherapy Side Effects Outlook Print About Immunotherapy Immunotherapy, also known as targeted therapy or biotherapy, ...

  7. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Understanding Puberty KidsHealth / For Parents / Understanding Puberty What's in this ... your child through all the changes? Stages of Puberty Sure, most of us know the telltale signs ...

  8. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) KidsHealth / For Parents / Cradle Cap ( ... many babies develop called cradle cap. About Cradle Cap Cradle cap is the common term for seborrheic ...

  9. Surrogacy: the parents' story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpeter, Christine B

    2002-08-01

    This qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 parents who were involved in surrogate parenting arrangements in a California-based surrogacy program. Participants were mostly white (n = 23). married (n = 25), females (n = 24), with high levels of education and income. The mean age at the time of the first child's birth was 39 yr. (SD = 5.06). The majority of parents reported having one (n = 10) or two (n = 8) children. All subjects reported infertility as their reason to explore surrogacy as a method of building a family. 18 participants chose in vitro fertilization as heir method of conception. Telephone interviews explored their decision-making, ethod of fertilization, their relationship with their surrogate, and the support that they received during the surrogacy process. Results indicate that parents were able to nticipate some potential pitfalls prior to their experience but did not realize the imortance of other potential difficulties. A conceptual model is presented with implications for helping professionals.

  10. Pinworm (for Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Pinworm KidsHealth / For Parents / Pinworm Print en español Oxiuros (lombrices intestinales) What Is a Pinworm Infection? Pinworm is an intestinal infection caused by ...

  11. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  12. Hemophilia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hemophilia KidsHealth / For Parents / Hemophilia What's in this article? ... everyday mishaps are cause for concern. What Is Hemophilia? Hemophilia is a disease that prevents blood from ...

  13. Toxoplasmosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Toxoplasmosis KidsHealth / For Parents / Toxoplasmosis What's in this article? ... t show any signs of a toxoplasmosis infection.) Toxoplasmosis in Kids In kids, toxoplasmosis infections can be: ...

  14. Vitiligo (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vitiligo KidsHealth / For Parents / Vitiligo What's in this article? ... every bit as healthy as everyone else. About Vitiligo Vitiligo (vih-tih-LY-go) is a skin ...

  15. Testicular Torsion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Kids Teens Hernias Ultrasound: Scrotum Undescended Testicles Male Reproductive System PQ: I have a lump on one of ... to Do a Testicular Self-Exam (Slideshow) Varicocele Male Reproductive System Testicular Torsion View more About Us Contact Us ...

  16. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Stones KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidney Stones What's in ... other treatments to help remove the stones. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  17. Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Anemia What's in this article? ... Deficiency Anemia in My Kids? Print What Is Anemia? Anemia is when the level of healthy red ...

  18. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  19. Tips for Divorcing Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents and kids, and watching for signs of stress can help prevent problems developing. Getting Help Figure out how ... Move Helping Your Child Through a Divorce Childhood Stress How Can I Help My Child Cope With Divorce? How Can I ...

  20. Spider Bites (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid: Spider Bites KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: Spider Bites ... rare. Signs and Symptoms Of a brown recluse spider bite: red blister in the center with surrounding ...

  1. Sepsis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sepsis KidsHealth / For Parents / Sepsis What's in this article? ... When to Call the Doctor Print What Is Sepsis? Sepsis is when the immune system responds to ...

  2. Parent-Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Strandgaard

    2016-01-01

    of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms......In this article, I examine change and continuity in conceptions of parental agency in public debates about children’s media consumption in Scandinavia, 1945-1975. During this period, public debates about the various kinds of media products children consumed were dominated by different groups....... However, a strong continuity in the debates was the negative influence parents were seen as having on children’s media consumption due to their lack of insight and interest in the topic. Drawing upon recent works on children’s media, consumption and enculturation, I analyse why the negative description...

  3. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Allergy Shots KidsHealth / For Parents / Allergy Shots What's in ... to help a child deal with them. Why Allergy Shots Are Used An allergy occurs when the ...

  4. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... diabetes. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Diabetes Center Diabetes: Marco's Story (Video) Diabetes: Grace's ...

  5. Parental Investments in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta

    This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis...

  6. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is n...

  7. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  8. Parenting styles and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Does the economy influence the way people bring up their children? How can we determine and measure a child’s utility? How can parenting styles be categorized in an economic model? These are the questions that Professor Fabricio Zilibotti of the University of Zurich addressed in his honorary lecture ‘Parenting with Style’, which he delivered at the April International Academic Conference during the 5th LCSR international workshop ‘Social and Cultural Changes in Cross-National Perspective: Sub...

  9. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Uecker, Jeremy E.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one’s custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family—but not a stepparent family—is positively associa...

  10. Dictionary materials engineering, materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This dictionary contains about 9,500 entries in each part of the following fields: 1) Materials using and selection; 2) Mechanical engineering materials -Metallic materials - Non-metallic inorganic materials - Plastics - Composites -Materials damage and protection; 3) Electrical and electronics materials -Conductor materials - Semiconductors - magnetic materials - Dielectric materials - non-conducting materials; 4) Materials testing - Mechanical methods - Analytical methods - Structure investigation - Complex methods - Measurement of physical properties - Non-destructive testing. (orig.) [de

  11. Reflections on Parental Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela LUPŞAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The movement in the European Union territory of the family members de jure or de facto - parents married or not, on the one hand, and their children, on the other hand, the birth of litigation related to the content, exercising or limiting the parental authority in the event at least one holder of parental authority is in a Member State other than where the minor child is, and the interest of achieving a good administration of justice within the European Union, led to the development of Community instruments in the area of parental authority, which has provisions on conflicts of jurisdiction, conflict of laws, recognition and enforceability, enforcement, legal aid and cooperation between central authorities, designating the applicable law. In the first part of the study we have analyzed the rules of jurisdiction by establishing the jurisdiction of the court hearing with an application for parental responsibility, whether there are pending divorce proceeding or not. In the second part of the study, we have limited the analysis to the rules applicable to the law causes that have as object parental authority.

  12. Implications of antisocial parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  13. Parents' experiences of being in the Solihull Approach parenting group, 'Understanding Your Child's Behaviour': an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, L R; Butterworth, R E; Johnson, R; Law, G Urquhart

    2015-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that the Solihull Approach parenting group, 'Understanding Your Child's Behaviour' (UYCB), can improve child behaviour and parental well-being. However, little is known about parents' in-depth experience of participating in the UYCB programme. This study provides an in-depth qualitative evaluation of UYCB, focussing on possible moderating factors and mechanisms of change that may inform programme development. Ten parents (eight mothers and two fathers), recruited from seven UYCB groups across two locations, were interviewed within 7 weeks of completing the group and again 10 months later. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four themes were identified: 'Two Tiers of Satisfaction', 'Development as a Parent', 'Improved Self-belief' and 'The "Matthew Effect"'. In summary, the majority of parents were immensely satisfied at both completion and follow-up: they valued an experience of containment and social support and perceived improvement in specific child difficulties, their experience of parenting, their confidence and their coping. Most parents appeared to have developed more reflective and empathic parenting styles, with self-reported improved behaviour management. Theoretical material was well received, although some struggled with technical language. Positive outcomes appeared to be maintained, even reinforced, at follow-up, and were associated with having few initial child difficulties, perceiving improvement at completion and persevering with the recommendations. Two participants, whose children had the most severe difficulties, perceived deterioration and felt that the group was insufficient for their level of difficulties. Through in-depth analysis of parental experiences, UYCB appears to achieve its aims and communicate well its theoretical principles, although change may also occur through processes common to other group programmes (e.g. social support). Recommendations, stemming from the

  14. Do You Recognize This Parent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Edna

    1997-01-01

    Suggests effective ways to work with parents who may be permissive, busy, detached, overprotective, or negative. Recommends that child care professionals be sensitive and understanding, recognize other demands on parents' time and communicate competitively with them, use terms parents understand, accept various levels of parental involvement, be…

  15. Parent and adolescent reports of parenting when a parent has a history of depression: associations with observations of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E

    2014-02-01

    The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9 % female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4 % female). Parents and adolescents reported on parenting skills and depressive symptoms, and parenting was independently observed subsequently in the same session. Findings indicated adolescent report of positive, but not negative, parenting was more congruent with observations than parent report. For negative parenting, depressive symptoms qualified the relation between the parent or adolescent report and independent observations. For parents, higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with more congruence with observed parenting (supporting a depressive realism hypothesis) whereas an opposite trend emerged for adolescents (providing some supporting evidence for a depression-distortion hypothesis).

  16. Parents, Teens, and Online Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Mary; Cortesi, Sandra; Gasser, Urs; Lenhart, Amanda; Duggan, Maeve

    2012-01-01

    Most parents of teenagers are concerned about what their teenage children do online and how their behavior could be monitored by others. Some parents are taking steps to observe, discuss, and check up on their children's digital footprints. A new survey of 802 parents and their teens shows that: (1) 81% of parents of online teens say they are…

  17. Parent and Adolescent Reports of Parenting When a Parent Has a History of Depression: Associations with Observations of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9% female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4% female). Parents and adolescents reported on parenting skills and depressive symptoms, and parenting was independently observed subsequently in the same session. Findings indicated adolescent report of positive, but not negative, parenting was more congruent with observations than parent report. For negative parenting, depressive symptoms qualified the relation between the parent or adolescent report and independent observations. For parents, higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with more congruence with observed parenting (supporting a depressive realism hypothesis) whereas an opposite trend emerged for adolescents (providing some supporting evidence for a depression-distortion hypothesis). PMID:23851629

  18. Parent and Child Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Kim F.; And Others

    The Parent and Child Education Program (PACE) is a pilot program, developed in Kentucky, to provide adult, early childhood and parent education. PACE targets families that have one or both parents without a high school diploma or equivalency certificate and one child three or four years of age. Parents and children ride the bus to school together,…

  19. Parental Involvement in Norwegian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2012-01-01

    This article examines findings on key challenges of school-parent relations in Norway. The review is based on recent large-scale studies on several issues, including formalized school-parent cooperation, parental involvement in the pedagogical discourse, and teacher perspectives on the parents' role in the school community. Findings suggest a…

  20. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  1. Parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour before and after a parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Linda; Kendall, Sally

    2012-10-01

    To explore whether changes in parenting self-efficacy after attending a parenting programme are related to changes in parenting stress and child behaviour. Adverse parenting is a risk factor in the development of a range of health and behavioural problems in childhood and is predictive of poor adult outcomes. Strategies for supporting parents are recognised as an effective way to improve the health, well-being and development of children. Parenting is influenced by many factors including the behaviour and characteristics of the child, the health and psychological well-being of the parent and the contextual influences of stress and support. Parenting difficulties are a major source of stress for parents, and parenting self-efficacy has been shown to be an important buffer against parenting stress. In all, 63 parents who had a child under the age of 10 years took part in the research. Of those, 58 returned completed measures of parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour at the start of a parenting programme and 37 at three-month follow-up. Improvements in parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress were found at follow-up, but there was less evidence for improvements in child behaviour. The findings clearly suggest a relationship between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress; parents who are feeling less efficacious experience higher levels of stress, whereas greater parenting self-efficacy is related to less stress. This study adds to the evidence that parent outcomes may be a more reliable measure of programme effectiveness than child outcomes at least in the short term.

  2. Parenting stress among parents of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Francesco; Operto, Francesca Felicia; De Giacomo, Andrea; Margari, Lucia; Frolli, Alessandro; Conson, Massimiliano; Ivagnes, Sara; Monaco, Marianna; Margari, Francesco

    2016-08-30

    In recent years, studies have shown that parents of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs) experience more parenting stress than parents of typically developing children, but the relation between the type of disorders and parenting stress is far from clear. The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 239 children with Specific Learning Disorders (SpLD), Language Disorders (LD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Parents of children with NDDs experience more parenting stress than those of children who have TD. Although, parents of children with ASD or ADHD report the most high scores of parenting stress, also the parents of children with SpLD or LD report higher parental stress compared with parent of children without NDDs. Another interesting finding was that IQ level or emotional and behavioral problems are associated with the higher levels of parenting stress. This study suggest that parent, both mothers and fathers, of children with different type of NDDs should be provided with interventions and resources to empower them with the knowledge and skills to reduce their stress and to enhance their quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Developing A Food Allergy Curriculum for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Perla A.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Christie, Lynn; Keaveny, Maureen; Noone, Sally; Watkins, Debra; Carlisle, Suzanna K; Jones, Stacie M

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) is potentially severe and requires intensive education to master allergen avoidance and emergency care. There is evidence suggesting the need for a comprehensive curriculum for food allergic families. This paper describes the results of focus groups conducted to guide the development of a curriculum for parents of food allergic children. The focus groups were conducted using standard methodology with experienced parents of food allergic children. Participants were parents (n=36) with experience managing FA recruited from allergy clinics at two academic centers. Topics identified by parents as key for successful management included as expected: 1) early signs/symptoms, 2) “cross-contamination”, 3) label-reading, 4) self-injectable epinephrine; and 5) becoming a teacher and advocate. Participants also recommended developing a “one pageroad map” to the information, and to provide the information early and be timed according to developmental stages/needs. Suggested first points for curriculum dissemination were emergency rooms, obstetrician and pediatrician offices. Participants also recommended targeting pediatricians, emergency physicians, school personnel, and the community-at-large in educational efforts. Parents often sought FA information from non-medical sources such as the Internet and support groups. These resources were also accessed to find ways to cope with stress. Paradoxically, difficulties gaining access to resources and uncertainty regarding reliability of the information added to the stress experience. Based on reports from experienced parents of food allergic children, newly diagnosed parents could benefit from a comprehensive FA management curriculum. Improving access to clear and concise educational materials would likely reduce stress/anxiety and improve quality of life. PMID:21332804

  4. Digital Parenting and Changing Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl KABAKÇI YURDAKUL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies are developing rapidly. Developing technologies are integrated in many fields of life. This situation facilitated almost all fields of life. Owing to integration process, children’s technology use and adaption is easy compare to their parents. But technology use and adaption brings several disadvantages for children. Computer and the Internet have been used nearly all home in about last five years. Parents who were worried about their children when they played outside are worried about their children when they are on net at home. Due to these developments, parenting notion has gain new different dimensions and parenting roles are changed. Parents should now be digital parent, the Internet Parent or online parent. In this paper Digital Parenting is examined and described in additon to thisdigital parenting roles are determined. Based on these roles recommendations are presented for future studies and practices

  5. Values of parents: interpreting results of a survey of parents in terms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the values of parents of children in a primary school in the Western Cape provided significant although limited empirical material for the discussion ... perceived themselves to be competitive as well, had a high level of satisfaction in their working life, felt themselves to be free and were generally satisfied with life.

  6. Values of parents: interpreting results of a survey of parents in terms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    material for the discussion of contemporary social change and educational policy in South Africa. The parents ... Most of the argument presented in this article revolves around the ... business and others types of organisations) to define the values of the ... that values are latent variables underlying opinions, attitudes, beliefs.

  7. The Relations between Parents' Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents' Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether the associations between general parenting practices (i.e., support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and parental smoking on the one hand and older and younger siblings' smoking on the other were mediated by parental smoking communication (i.e., frequency and quality of parent-adolescent…

  8. The Influences of the Sixth Graders' Parents' Internet Literacy and Parenting Style on Internet Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Liu, Hung-Tzu; Guo, Yuan-Chang; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the sixth grade students' parents' Internet literacy and parenting style on Internet parenting in Kaohsiung County in Taiwan. Upon stratified cluster sampling, a total of 822 parents from 34 classes in 28 schools participated in this study. The descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used to analyze the responses…

  9. When a Parent Is Away: Promoting Strong Parent-Child Connections during Parental Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Julia; Zoll, Sally; Reschke, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    How does a parent stay connected with an infant or toddler during a prolonged separation? Research has shown how important early connections are for child development. When a parent is not present physically, there are strategies that military parents have been using to keep a parent and child connected, promoting mindfulness. Because infants and…

  10. Parenting interventions in tic disorders: an exploration of parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G; Wittkowski, A; Butler, H; Hedderly, T; Bunton, P

    2015-05-01

    Parents of children with tic disorders (e.g. Tourette syndrome) experience multiple challenges and stresses, which can impact on family functioning, children's well-being and could indirectly affect tic severity. Parenting interventions have been recommended for tic disorder populations; however, little is known about parents' views. The views of parents of children with tic disorders were sought. Using Q-methodology, 23 parents provided their opinions regarding the acceptability, effectiveness, feasibility and utility of parenting interventions. Four factors emerged, representing four groups of parents with similar opinions. Although all factors evidenced support for parenting interventions, subtle differences emerged between factors regarding the endorsed content, barriers and delivery of interventions. Results indicate a perceived clinical need for parenting interventions and provide guidance to further develop and implement such interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Material Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Kim, Heung

    1987-08-15

    This book introduces material science, which includes key of a high-tech industry, new materials of dream like new metal material and semiconductor, classification of materials, microstructure of materials and characteristic. It mentions magic new materials such as shape memory alloy, fine ceramics, engineering fine ceramics, electronic ceramics, engineering plastic, glass, silicone conductor, optical fiber mixed materials and integrated circuit, challenge for new material and development of new materials.

  12. Material Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Kim, Heung

    1987-08-01

    This book introduces material science, which includes key of a high-tech industry, new materials of dream like new metal material and semiconductor, classification of materials, microstructure of materials and characteristic. It mentions magic new materials such as shape memory alloy, fine ceramics, engineering fine ceramics, electronic ceramics, engineering plastic, glass, silicone conductor, optical fiber mixed materials and integrated circuit, challenge for new material and development of new materials.

  13. Materials and material testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergens, H.

    1978-01-01

    A review based on 105 literature quotations is given on the latest state of development in the steel sector and in the field of non-ferrous metals and plastics. The works quoted also include, preparation, working, welding including simulation methods, improvement of weldability, material mechanics (explanation of defects mechanisms by means of fracture mechanics), defect causes (corrosion, erosion, hydrogen influence), mechanical-technological and non-destructive material testing. Examples from the field of reactor building are also given within there topics. (IHOE) [de

  14. What Works for Parents: How Parents Support Their Children with Math Homework in Rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Tackie-Ofosu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS programs target families in deprived rural and urban communities with the objective of equipping them with skills to improve family well-being, education, and relationships. In recent years, the focus of FCS in Ghana has been on parental styles and education that foster parents’ involvement in their children's school work. Using a child-parent interactive model, a series of math activities were delivered to children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Group activities were also facilitated by the FCS staff. Parents used local materials, such as small empty cans, bottles, leaves, stones, sticks, old newspapers, and sand, to explain math concepts. Staff, parents, and children used fun activities and role plays to demonstrate developmental processes that enhance effective child development. The lessons identified were tied to the understanding of appropriate parenting styles that foster acquisition of skills for basic math concepts. At the end of the 12-week program, parents reported increased interest and confidence in math and were more proactive in supervising their children to complete their homework. The importance of the model lies in its simplicity in conveying fundamental knowledge that relates to the interwoven aspect of developmental domains to ensure children experience maximal success with math-related activities. The model also promotes acquisition of basic math skills in a naturalistic setting.

  15. Adolescents' aggression to parents: longitudinal links with parents' physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R

    2014-11-01

    To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA) and to investigate whether adolescents' emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1-3 on four types of parents' PPA (mother to adolescent, father to adolescent, mother to father, and father to mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents' emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression and on parents' CPA. Parents' PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.6, p controlling for adolescents' sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents' CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82-17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents' parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated the effects. Adolescents' parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents' physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Society for

  16. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  17. Parenting Role's Tasks in Parents of Children with Disability (Physical-Mental Less than 7 Years Old in the City of Arak in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Fatehi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: With regards to importance of the role of parents in children's life, imbalance in the roles of parents can lead to serious mental, emotional and physical damages of the child. The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks in parents of children with disability (physical- mental younger than 7 years in the city of Arak in 2016. Materials and Methods: In this study, the parenting role's tasks questionnaire for 120 parents of children with disability was completed. The effect of demographic characteristics on how to perform the role of parents was studied. Results: Based on data collected and analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient for the relationship between the parents and other factors, we have found no significant relationship between role of parents with the child's age. In disabled children, between parent's role and maternal age was significant difference which its correlation coefficient was -0.18, represented the inverse association between maternal age and the parent's role with disabled children. In comparison of parent's role based on child's gender, significant difference was not seen in any of cases. The impact of the seizure on performance of parenting role's tasks implied no relationship between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks. Economic situation as well as on how to do tasks was ineffective. Conclusion: Imbalance in performance of parenting role's tasks in primary care, education, leisure and cognition promotion showed that existence of a disabled child in the family had negative impact on the parenting role's tasks in different aspects, for example further focus on one of the domains lead to ignorance of other domains. Total score confirmed the negative impact of disabled children on efficient implementation of parenting role's tasks.

  18. Parental perceptions of child vulnerability, overprotection, and parental psychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M

    1998-01-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that these constructs are independent. Distinct parental psychological characteristics were hypothesized for each construct. The parents of 871 children, ages 22-72 months, completed a four-part protocol (clinical background data, Child Vulnerability Scale, Parent Protection Scale, and Brief Symptom Inventory). A distinct parent symptom profile was found for perceived child vulnerability (somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, and anxiety). Overprotection was associated with phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and paranoid ideation. These findings provide further support for the differentiation of these constructs.

  19. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Perceived parental efficacy: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes a concept analysis carried out to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of perceived parental efficacy and to distinguish it from related concepts such as parental confidence and parental competence. Constructing parental efficacy is a crucial step for family members after the birth of their first child. For some authors, perceived parental efficacy is a motor for adequate parental practices. Confusion about the definition and measurement of this concept has hindered both psychology and nursing practice and research. Concept delineation and concept clarification are required in order to further the development of the concept of perceived parental efficacy. A literature search using a variety of online databases yielded 113 articles between the years 1980 and 2000. The final sample (n=60) consisted of 30 articles from two disciplines: nursing and psychology. A content analysis of the literature was done using Rodger's evolutionary concept analysis method. Content analysis of the literature yielded four contributors to perceived parental efficacy: positive enactive mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and an appropriate physiological and affective state. Perceived parental efficacy can thus be defined as 'beliefs or judgements a parent holds of their capabilities to organize and execute a set of tasks related to parenting a child'. This conceptual analysis has allowed perceived parental efficacy to be distinguished from parental confidence and parental competence. Both nursing and psychology research, practice and education will benefit from a more precise and delineated concept.

  1. Parental representations of transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Barr, R

    1982-06-01

    The parental representations of 30 male-to-female transsexuals were rated using a measure of fundamental parental dimensions and shown to be of acceptable validity as a measure both of perceived and actual parental characteristics. Scores on that measure were compared separately against scores returned by matched male and female controls. The transsexuals did not differ from the male controls in their scoring of their mothers but did score their fathers as less caring and more overprotective. These differences were weaker for the comparisons made against the female controls. Item analyses suggested that the greater paternal "overprotection" experienced by transsexuals was due to their fathers being perceived as offering less encouragement to their sons' independence and autonomy. Several interpretations of the findings are considered.

  2. Good-parent beliefs of parents of seriously ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris; Walter, Jennifer K; Faerber, Jennifer A; Hill, Douglas L; Carroll, Karen W; Mollen, Cynthia J; Miller, Victoria A; Morrison, Wynne E; Munson, David; Kang, Tammy I; Hinds, Pamela S

    2015-01-01

    Parents' beliefs about what they need to do to be a good parent when their children are seriously ill influence their medical decisions, and better understanding of these beliefs may improve decision support. To assess parents' perceptions regarding the relative importance of 12 good-parent attributes. A cross-sectional, discrete-choice experiment was conducted at a children's hospital. Participants included 200 parents of children with serious illness. Ratings of 12 good-parent attributes, with subsequent use of latent class analysis to identify groups of parents with similar ratings of attributes, and ascertainment of whether membership in a particular group was associated with demographic or clinical characteristics. The highest-ranked good-parent attribute was making sure that my child feels loved, followed by focusing on my child's health, making informed medical care decisions, and advocating for my child with medical staff. We identified 4 groups of parents with similar patterns of good-parent-attribute ratings, which we labeled as: child feels loved (n=68), child's health (n=56), advocacy and informed (n=55), and spiritual well-being (n=21). Compared with the other groups, the child's health group reported more financial difficulties, was less educated, and had a higher proportion of children with new complex, chronic conditions. Parents endorse a broad range of beliefs that represent what they perceive they should do to be a good parent for their seriously ill child. Common patterns of how parents prioritize these attributes exist, suggesting future research to better understand the origins and development of good-parent beliefs among these parents. More important, engaging parents individually regarding what they perceive to be the core duties they must fulfill to be a good parent may enable more customized and effective decision support.

  3. Long-lived magnetism on chondrite parent bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay; Bates, Helena C.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Hezel, Dominik C.; Russell, Sara S.; Genge, Matthew J.

    2017-10-01

    We present evidence for both early- and late-stage magnetic activity on the CV and L/LL parent bodies respectively from chondrules in Vigarano and Bjurböle. Using micro-CT scans to re-orientate chondrules to their in-situ positions, we present a new micron-scale protocol for the paleomagnetic conglomerate test. The paleomagnetic conglomerate test determines at 95% confidence, whether clasts within a conglomerate were magnetized before or after agglomeration, i.e., for a chondritic meteorite whether the chondrules carry a pre- or post-accretionary remanent magnetization. We found both meteorites passed the conglomerate test, i.e., the chondrules had randomly orientated magnetizations. Vigarano's heterogeneous magnetization is likely of shock origin, due to the 10 to 20 GPa impacts that brecciated its precursor material on the parent body and transported it to re-accrete as the Vigarano breccia. The magnetization was likely acquired during the break-up of the original body, indicating a CV parent body dynamo was active ∼9 Ma after Solar System formation. Bjurböle's magnetization is due to tetrataenite, which transformed from taenite as the parent body cooled to below 320 °C, when an ambient magnetic field imparted a remanence. We argue either the high intrinsic anisotropy of tetrataenite or brecciation on the parent body manifests as a randomly orientated distribution, and a L/LL parent body dynamo must have been active at least 80 to 140 Ma after peak metamorphism. Primitive chondrites did not originate from entirely primitive, never molten and/or differentiated parent bodies. Primitive chondrite parent bodies consisted of a differentiated interior sustaining a long-lived magnetic dynamo, encrusted by a layer of incrementally accreted primitive meteoritic material. The different ages of carbonaceous and ordinary chondrite parent bodies might indicate a general difference between carbonaceous and ordinary chondrite parent bodies, and/or formation location in the

  4. Parenting adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    and the influence of different parenting styles on the adolescents’ adherence to treatment is still limited. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the types of parental support that adolescents and young adults with CF want and find helpful in terms of preparing them for adult life. Methods: Sixteen Danish...... was conducted. Results: The adolescents and young adults wanted their parents educated about the adolescent experience. They wanted their parents to learn a pedagogical parenting style, to learn to trust them, and to learn to gradually transfer responsibility for their medical treatment. Additionally......: chronic illness, parenting style, qualitative research, patient preferences, interpretive description...

  5. Knowledge and attitude of parents toward oral health maintenance and treatment modalities for their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Bodhale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Parents have an important role in making decisions about their child′s oral health. The purpose of this study was to determine parental awareness of their children′s oral health maintenance and their attitude toward dental treatment. Materials and Methods: Total 284 parents from different socioeconomic groups participated in the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge and attitude of parents toward oral health and treatment modalities. Results: Awareness among parents was significantly lower in low socioeconomic group. Their attitude toward dental treatment differed significantly in which only 53% parents from high socioeconomic group preferred going to the pediatric dentist. Conclusion: The level of awareness among parents is relatively low and there is need for the implementation of oral health awareness programs for parents to change their attitude toward dental treatment of their children.

  6. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbo Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998, and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965. The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.

  7. Parental Monitoring, Parent-Adolescent Communication, and Adolescents' Trust in Their Parents in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhua Ying

    Full Text Available Trust is an important aspect of interpersonal relationships, but little is known about adolescents' interpersonal trust. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations among parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication, and adolescents' trust in their parents in China.Data in this study were collected as part of the cross-sectional study of children in China. 3349 adolescents (female 48.6%, age range of 12-15 years were randomly selected from 35 secondary schools in April, 2009 and administered to the Adolescent Interpersonal Trust Scale, the Parental Monitoring Scale, and the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale.Adolescents' trust in their parents was positively related to parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication. Furthermore, parent-adolescent communication mediated the association between parental monitoring and adolescents' trust in their parents. The mediation model fit data of both genders and three age groups equally well.Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication play an importance role in fostering adolescents' trust in their parents.

  8. Poverty Vs Parenting: an emergent dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Dermott

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Popular and political discussions in the UK about children’s future prospects are currently dominated by an emergent dichotomy in which either ‘poverty’ or ‘parenting’ is posited as the explanatory factor. In the current period of austerity this oppositional framing has become increasingly explicit: in response to the riots which took place across England in August 2011 one set of commentators focused on a lack of personal responsibility with its origins in the absences of appropriate parental role models, while others emphasised poverty and social disadvantage as causal mechanisms. The same pattern of highlighting either poverty or parenting is evident in major policy documents, including two significant government commissioned reports 'The Foundation Years' (2010 and 'Early Intervention' (2011. This paper argues that the development of the poverty/parenting dichotomy should be resisted because it is both unconvincing and unhelpful. Notwithstanding its popular and political prevalence, this discourse is unconvincing because research evidence suggests the importance of both parental engagement 'and' financial resources for outcomes for children. Further, it is unhelpful because the creation and maintenance of this dichotomy works against developing a nuanced understanding of 'how' the practices and attitudes of parents interact with economic circumstances and access to resources. Therefore the paper argues that as social researchers we must actively challenge lazy misrepresentations of existing evidence and counter any simplistic discourse. This needs to be done in combination with conducting work which can develop better understandings of the relationships between material disadvantage and what parents do, as well as effectively communicating these findings.

  9. Anxiety in school students: Role of parenting and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar Bakhla; Prakriti Sinha; Rajiv Sharan; Yashi Binay; Vijay Verma; Suprakash Chaudhury

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children v...

  10. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Parenting Educational Program on the Anxiety, Parent-Child Conflict and Parent Self-Agency in Mothers with Oppositional Defiant Disorder Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghazanfari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Oppositional defiant disorder that occurs in pre-school or early school-age children and in pre-adolescent stage has a widespread impact on the child, family, teachers and society. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mindful parenting education program on reducing the anxiety and parent-child conflict and increasing the self-agency of parenting in mothers who have oppositional defiant disorder daughters. Materials & Methods: This semi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group was performed during 2015-2016 academic year in 34 mothers of primary school girl students of Noorabad City, Iran, who were suffering from oppositional defiant disorder. The samples were selected by purposeful clustering method and were randomly divided into 2 test and control groups (each had 17 members. The research tools were Child Behavioral Logbook and Teacher Report Form, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Conflict Strategy and Parent Self-efficacy Questionnaires. Mindfulness-based parenting educational program was conducted for the experimental group one 2-hour session a week for 2 months. Data were analyzed by SPSS 23 software using MANCOVA test. Findings: The average of total anxiety, parent-child conflict and parental self-efficacy scores were higher in the experimental group in posttest. After controlling the effect of pre-test scores, there were significant differences between the test and control groups in terms of all variables (p<0.001. Conclusion: Mindfulness-based parenting educational program reduces the anxiety and parent-child conflict and increases the parental self-efficacy in mothers with oppositional defiant disorder.

  11. Mainland Chinese Parenting Styles and Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu; Zeng, Qiang; Yu, Lidong; Cai, Beiying

    2005-01-01

    Parenting styles and mother-child interaction were examined with 97 Mainland Chinese mothers (M age = 29.64 years, SD = 3.64) and their young children (M = 24.30 months, SD = 4.57). Mothers completed questionnaires about their parenting styles, orientation to Chinese cultural values, perceived parenting stress, and sources of social support. The…

  12. Parenting Behaviour among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Boonen, Hannah; Maes, Bea; Noens, Ilse

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the extensive amount of empirical findings about parental perceptions, parenting cognitions, and coping in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research about parenting itself is very scarce. A first goal of this study was to examine the factor structure and internal consistency of two scales to measure parenting…

  13. Parental Care Aids, but Parental Overprotection Hinders, College Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B.; Pierce, John D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students who have troublesome relationships with their parents show higher risk factors for poorer college adjustment. In the present study, we focused on the balance between two key aspects of parenting style, parental care and overprotection, as they affect the transition to college life. Eighty-three undergraduate…

  14. Parenting Ideals and (Un-)Troubled Parent Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widding, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how some Swedish parents constructed meanings of parenthood. The parents had completed a state-sponsored parenting programme and were interviewed about their experiences of the programme, their everyday lives, their need for support, ideas about the societal context, and their understandings of "good" and…

  15. Child Characteristics, Parenting Stress, and Parental Involvement: Fathers versus Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brent A.; Schoppe, Sarah J.; Rane, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines variations in the relationships among child characteristics, parenting stress, and parental involvement. Analyses revealed significant, yet somewhat different, associations between child temperament and parental stress for mothers and fathers. More significant associations were found between perceptions of child temperament and…

  16. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H.C.G.; Alink, Lenneke R.A.; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J.M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of

  17. Exploring Parental Perspectives on Parent-Child Sexual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sharon M.; Gross, Kevin H.

    2009-01-01

    We examined parental perspectives about parent-child sexual communication through four focus groups conducted with 25 parents of young children. Participant comments fell into six areas: 1) personal experience with sexuality education, 2) current sexuality education efforts, 3) comfort and confidence, 4) content and timing, 5) importance of a…

  18. Vietnamese American Immigrant Parents: A Pilot Parenting Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Tran, Kimberly K.; Schwing, Alison E.; Cao, Lien H.; Ho, Phoenix Phung-Hoang; Nguyen, Quynh-Tram

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this mixed-methods study was to examine the perceived effectiveness of a brief, community-based parenting intervention for Vietnamese American immigrant parents. A key component of the intervention involved participants listening to Vietnamese American adolescents' discussions about their relationships with their parents utilizing…

  19. Modifying the 'Positive Parenting Program' for parents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazemakers, I; Deboutte, D

    2013-07-01

    Many parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) want and/or need professional guidance and support to learn skills and strategies to prevent and manage child behaviour problems. However, the available support is rarely suitable, and suitable support is rarely available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a popular mainstream parenting training programme, known as 'Group Triple P' (Positive Parenting Program), could be successfully modified for this parent group. A pilot study was undertaken to determine whether a modified version of Group Triple P would engage and retain parents with ID. A non-experimental, pre-test post-test study, involving a total of 30 parents with ID, was then undertaken to obtain preliminary efficacy data. Parent engagement and participation levels were high. No parent 'dropped out' of the programme. After completing the modified Group Triple P programme, parents reported a decrease in psychological distress, maladaptive parenting and child conduct problems. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the information and support they received. Research-informed adaptation of mainstream behavioural family interventions, such as Group Triple P, could make 'suitable support' more readily available, and more engaging for parents with ID. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  20. Parental influences on memories of parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Franca; Bonechi, Alice; Peterson, Carole; Smorti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the role parent-child relationship quality has on two types of memories, those of parents and those of friends. Participants were 198 Italian university students who recalled memories during 4 separate timed memory-fluency tasks about their preschool, elementary school, middle school, high school and university years. Half were instructed to recall memories involving parents and the remainder memories involving friends. Moreover, parent-child relationships were assessed by the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; W. Furman & D. Buhrmester, 1985) and Adolescents' Report of Parental Monitoring (D. M. Capaldi & G. R. Patterson, 1989). Results showed that men with positive parent-son relationships had more memories of parents and more affectively positive memories of friends, supporting a consistency model positing similarity between parent-child relationships and memories of friends. Women with positive parental relationship quality had more affectively positive memories of parents but for friends, positive relationship quality only predicted positive memories when young. At older ages, especially middle school-aged children, negative parent-daughter relationships predicted more positive memories of friends, supporting a compensatory model. The gender of parent also mattered, with fathers having a more influential role on affect for memories of friends.

  1. Parenting Style and Parental Involvement: Relations with Adolescent Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty ninth-grade students completed questionnaires regarding their parents' demandingness, responsiveness, school involvement, and commitment to achievement. Boys' reports of both maternal and paternal parenting significantly predicted their achievement, with parental values toward achievement significantly predicting achievement in boys above…

  2. The Investigation of Research-Based Home Parental Involvement Practices, Parental Style, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Myron Jamal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of home parental involvement practices, parental style and student achievement. Dimensions of parental involvement practices are parental instruction, parental reinforcement, parental modeling, and parental encouragement. Dimensions of parental style are authoritarian, permissive, and…

  3. Models of Parent Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindervater, Terry

    2010-01-01

    In this article a literacy lead teacher tells the story what happened when kindergarteners were taught to link certain sounds with particular hand and body gestures. Many children were so intrigued with "using the motions" that they shared these procedures with their parents. Terry Kindervater explains how this happened and describes some of the…

  4. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Transfusions KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Transfusions What's in this ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. As ...

  5. Parents and School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Vogels

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Ouders bij de les. The government is increasingly withdrawing from playing a foreground role in primary and secondary education, transferring competences to local authorities, school boards and school management. Parents are also assigned a role in this process, based on

  6. Rabies (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Rabies KidsHealth / For Parents / Rabies What's in this article? ... Treatment Prevention Print en español La rabia About Rabies Rabies infections in people are rare in the ...

  7. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Diabetes Movie KidsHealth / For Parents / Diabetes ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  8. Dehydration (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Dehydration KidsHealth / For Parents / Dehydration What's in this article? ... Be Prevented? Print en español Deshidratación What Is Dehydration? We all lose some body water every day ...

  9. TIPS Pamphlets for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algozzine, Bob, Ed.; Ysseldyke, Jim, Ed.

    This manual presents 99 one-sheet informational brochures designed to improve parenting skills for children with and without disabilities. Each brochure is in a format suitable for duplicating, folding, and distributing. Each brochure offers references to related brochures in the collection. Brochures are grouped under the following broad areas:…

  10. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sexual Orientation KidsHealth / For Parents / Sexual Orientation What's in this ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the gender ( ...

  11. Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Pneumonia KidsHealth / For Parents / Pneumonia What's in this article? ... the Doctor? Print en español Neumonía What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs . The ...

  12. Psoriasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Psoriasis KidsHealth / For Parents / Psoriasis What's in this article? ... treatment doesn't work, another probably will. About Psoriasis Psoriasis (suh-RYE-uh-sus) is a non- ...

  13. Theme: Parents and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This journal issue concentrates on the theme "Parents and Reading." It presents articles on sharing books with young children, using public relations in a reading program, guiding preschool learning, assessing language readiness, working with reading problems, and teaching reading readiness in Wisconsin kindergartens. Resources and a review of…

  14. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Alpha Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Alpha Thalassemia What's in this ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Print en español Alfa talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  15. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Beta Thalassemia What's in this ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Print en español Beta talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  16. Depression (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Depression KidsHealth / For Parents / Depression What's in this article? ... Ways to Help Print en español Depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  17. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  18. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Defects KidsHealth / For Parents / Birth Defects What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Anomalías congénitas What Are Birth Defects? While still in the womb, some babies ...

  19. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  20. Explaining "DSM" to Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") is useful for children and families for three practical reasons: (1) It provides a way to communicate about emotional and behavioral problems of youth in a common language; (2) Parents can get an Individual Education Plan (IEP) for a child if that process…

  1. Parenting NICU graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schappin, R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reflects the results of our randomized, clinical trial on the effectiveness of a generic parenting intervention named Primary Care Triple P. We investigated whether Primary Care Triple P reduced emotional and behavioral problems in preterm-born and asphyxiated term-born preschoolers. The

  2. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Lead Poisoning KidsHealth / For Parents / Lead Poisoning What's in ... Print en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  3. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Diabetes Movie KidsHealth / For Parents / Diabetes Movie Print Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from ...

  4. Parenting as a Teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobe, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Today, many government and private agencies, clinics, foundations, and schools are sponsoring programs and literature for teen-age parents. These range in scope from fetal and maternal nutrition, to family planning counseling, to informal rap sessions on parenthood, to workshops on child care. (Author)

  5. Growth Charts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Growth Charts KidsHealth / For Parents / Growth Charts What's in ... Problem? Print en español Tablas de crecimiento About Growth Charts Look at any class picture, and you' ...

  6. Rotavirus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Rotavirus KidsHealth / For Parents / Rotavirus What's in this article? ... the Doctor Print en español El rotavirus About Rotavirus Almost all kids have had a rotavirus infection ...

  7. Black parental involvement in education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The South African Schools Act of 1996 (SASA) provides formal power in education to parents as well as communities. ... Review of selected studies on parental involvement in ..... Anna, a Grade 11 teacher, summed up the feelings of the.

  8. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  9. Failure to Thrive (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... Doctors usually diagnose the condition in infants and toddlers — an important time of physical and mental development. ...

  10. Living with a Single Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kids in the United States live with one parent. Separation and divorce are the most common reasons for ... Who Are Moving Should Do What Is a Divorce? Getting Along With Parents Going to a Therapist View more About Us ...

  11. Coping with an Alcoholic Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of his parents arguing. Anthony knows that his mother has been drinking again. He starts worrying about ... drugs. Despite what happens, most children of alcoholics love their parents and worry about something bad happening ...

  12. Parenting classes: focus on discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J M

    1992-01-01

    Nurses in community settings have an opportunity to provide instruction related to health and life-style needs. An important consideration is the parental role. A particularly controversial and opinion-laden aspect of parenting is disciplining children. Discipline provides children with the security of clearly enforced rules to help them learn self-control and social standards. Parenting classes are worthwhile for people who have little formal or informal preparation. A survey of middle-class elementary school district parents' and childrens' attitudes toward discipline was conducted to develop meaningful parenting classes. Parents' feelings about being a mother or father were surprisingly negative. A parent educational program was developed to cover child growth and development and disciplinary practices. Parent evaluations led to continuation and an expansion of this program to other schools within the area.

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 30 - Criteria Relating to Use of Financial Tests and Parent Company Guarantees for Providing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria Relating to Use of Financial Tests and Parent... MATERIAL Pt. 30, App. A Appendix A to Part 30—Criteria Relating to Use of Financial Tests and Parent... on a demonstration that the parent company passes a financial test. This appendix establishes...

  14. Lost in translation: a focus group study of parents' and adolescents' interpretations of underage drinking and parental supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly; Berry, Nina

    2016-07-13

    Reductions in underage drinking will only come about from changes in the social and cultural environment. Despite decades of messages discouraging parental supply, parents perceive social norms supportive of allowing children to consume alcohol in 'safe' environments. Twelve focus groups conducted in a regional community in NSW, Australia; four with parents of teenagers (n = 27; 70 % female) and eight with adolescents (n = 47; 55 % female). Participants were recruited using local media. Groups explored knowledge and attitudes and around alcohol consumption by, and parental supply of alcohol to, underage teenagers; and discussed materials from previous campaigns targeting adolescents and parents. Parents and adolescents perceived teen drinking to be a common behaviour within the community, but applied moral judgements to these behaviours. Younger adolescents expressed more negative views of teen drinkers and parents who supply alcohol than older adolescents. Adolescents and parents perceived those who 'provide alcohol' (other families) as bad parents, and those who 'teach responsible drinking' (themselves) as good people. Both groups expressed a preference for high-fear, victim-blaming messages that targeted 'those people' whose behaviours are problematic. In developing and testing interventions to address underage drinking, it is essential to ensure the target audience perceive themselves to be the target audience. If we do not have a shared understanding of underage 'drinking' and parental 'provision', such messages will continue to be perceived by parents who are trying to do the 'right' thing as targeting a different behaviour and tacitly supporting their decision to provide their children with alcohol.

  15. The Problems of Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2017-10-01

    The United States is the only major industrialized country in the world to not require paid parental leave. Numerous studies have shown that allowing parents time with a newborn makes the child and the parents healthier, both physically and mentally. Many physicians, especially those who work in practices with five or fewer doctors, worry about how to pay for parental leave for themselves and their staff.

  16. Children's beliefs about parental divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Dovydaitienė, Miglė

    2001-01-01

    This article investigates children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. Children's believes about parental divorce is evaluated in a sample 8 through 10-year children whose parents had been separated for about 3 years. Attitudes toward environment and people between children of separated as well as intact families are compared. We also examined the relation of children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. The me...

  17. Relations among Positive Parenting, parent-child Relationship, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic......,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent-child...... parent-child relationship....

  18. Group Work with Abusive Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Lois; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Social work students conclude from an experience that parents can consider alternative means of disciplining children when they participate in a parent group that is comfortable and when attendance is promoted by provision of tangible services. Parents achieved increased sense of self-worth and learned appropriate ways of expressing anger. (Author)

  19. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  20. Parental Separation, Parental Alcoholism, and Timing of First Sexual Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Doran, Kelly A.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined timing of first voluntary sexual intercourse as a joint function of parental separation during childhood and parental history of alcoholism. Methods Data were drawn from a birth cohort of female like-sex twins (n=569 African Ancestry [AA], n=3415 European or other Ancestry [EA]). Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first sex from dummy variables coding for parental separation and parental alcoholism. Propensity score analysis was also employed comparing intact and separated families, stratified by predicted probability of separation. Results Earlier sex was reported by EA twins from separated and alcoholic families, compared to EA twins from intact nonalcoholic families, with effects most pronounced through age 14. Among AA twins, effects of parental separation and parental alcoholism were largely nonsignificant. Results of propensity score analyses confirmed unique risks from parental separation in EA families, where consistent effects of parental separation were observed across predicted probability of separation. For AA families there was poor matching on risk-factors presumed to predate separation, which limited interpretability of survival-analytic findings. Conclusions In European American families, parental separation during childhood is an important predictor of early-onset sex, beyond parental alcoholism and other correlated risk-factors. To characterize risk for African Americans associated with parental separation, additional research is needed where matching on confounders can be achieved. PMID:25907653

  1. Parenting and Children's Internalizing Symptoms: How Important are Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Cathy M; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Bögels, Susan M

    Parenting behaviors are associated with children's internalizing symptoms, however, it is not often examined which factors could possibly influence this relationship. The goals of this study were twofold. One goal was to examine whether the association between parenting and children's internalizing symptoms would increase if parenting behaviors were assessed behaviorally and in a context where the child displayed specific anxious behaviors. Another goal was to examine whether this relationship was influenced by the age and gender of the child, and by possible parenting differences between mothers and fathers. These questions were examined in a sample of 211 children aged 4-12 years; 140 community children and 71 clinically referred anxious children. Parents completed questionnaires regarding children's internalizing symptoms and parenting behaviors (positive reinforcement, punishment, force, reinforcement of dependency, and modeling/reassurance). In line with expectations, more punishment and less modeling/reassurance by parents were related to more internalizing symptoms in children. Child gender, child age, parent gender and clinical anxiety status were not found to influence the relationship between parenting and children's internalizing symptoms. Our results suggest that paternal parenting is as important as maternal parenting with respect to children's internalizing symptoms, and therefore, fathers could be included in child treatment as well.

  2. Parental separation, parental alcoholism, and timing of first sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Doran, Kelly A; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Duncan, Alexis E; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Sartor, Carolyn E; Heath, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    We examined timing of first voluntary sexual intercourse as a joint function of parental separation during childhood and parental history of alcoholism. Data were drawn from a birth cohort of female like-sex twins (n = 569 African ancestry [AA]; n = 3,415 European or other ancestry [EA]). Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first sex from dummy variables coding for parental separation and parental alcoholism. Propensity score analysis was also employed to compare intact and separated families, stratified by predicted probability of separation. Earlier sex was reported by EA twins from separated and alcoholic families, compared to EA twins from intact nonalcoholic families, with effects most pronounced through the age of 14 years. Among AA twins, effects of parental separation and parental alcoholism were largely nonsignificant. Results of propensity score analyses confirmed unique risks from parental separation in EA families, where consistent effects of parental separation were observed across predicted probability of separation. For AA families, there was poor matching on risk factors presumed to predate separation, which limited interpretability of survival-analytic findings. In European American families, parental separation during childhood is an important predictor of early-onset sex, beyond parental alcoholism and other correlated risk factors. To characterize risk for African Americans associated with parental separation, additional research is needed where matching on confounders can be achieved. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Do parents of obese children use ineffective parenting strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; West, Felicity

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown mixed findings about the relationship between parenting style and child lifestyle outcomes. This paper describes a cross-sectional study that aimed to clarify the relationship between ineffective parenting and childhood obesity by using multiple measures of child and family functioning. Sixty-two families with an obese child (aged four to 11 years) were matched with 62 families with a healthy weight child on key sociodemographic variables. Significant differences were found on several measures, including general parenting style, domain-specific parenting practices, and parenting self-efficacy (d = .53 to 1.96). Parents of obese children were more likely to use permissive and coercive discipline techniques, and to lack confidence in managing children's lifestyle behaviour. In contrast, parents of healthy weight children were more likely to implement specific strategies for promoting a healthy lifestyle.

  4. Understanding Silence: An Investigation of the Processes of Silencing in Parent-Teacher Conferences with Somali Diaspora Parents in Danish Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, Noomi Christine Linde

    2016-01-01

    This article questions the dominant understanding that immigrant and refugee parents in parent-teacher conferences are silent because they come from a culture where one does not question the authority of the teacher. Instead, it is argued that they "become" silent through certain interactional processes. Building on material from an…

  5. Optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ortiz, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on: Diamond films, Synthesis of optical materials, Structure related optical properties, Radiation effects in optical materials, Characterization of optical materials, Deposition of optical thin films, and Optical fibers and waveguides

  6. The Role of Residential Early Parenting Services in Increasing Parenting Confidence in Mothers with A History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Lynette

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Mothers with a history of infertility may experience parenting difficulties and challenges. This study was conducted to investigate the role of residential early parenting services in increasing parenting confidence in mothers with a history of infertility. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective chart review study using the quantitative data from the clients attending the Karitane Residential Units and Parenting Services (known as Karitane RUs during 2013. Parenting confidence (using Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale-KPCS, depression, demographics, reproductive and medical history, as well as child’s information were assessed from a sample of 27 mothers who had a history of infertility and who attended the Karitane RUs for support and assistance. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results More than half of the women (59.3% reported a relatively low level of parenting confidence on the day of admission. The rate of low parenting confidence, however, dropped to 22.2% after receiving 4-5 days support and training in the Karitane RUs. The mean score of the KPCS increased from 36.9 ± 5.6 before the intervention to 41.1 ± 3.4 after the intervention, indicating an improvement in the parenting confidence of the mothers after attending the Karitane RUs (P<0.0001. No statistically significant association was found between maternal low parenting confidence with parental demographics (including age, country of birth, and employment status, a history of help-seeking, symptoms of depression, as well as child’s information [including gender, age, siblings, diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD and use of medication]. Conclusion Having a child after a period of infertility can be a stressful experience for some mothers. This can result in low parenting confidence and affect parent-child attachment. Our findings emphasized on the role of the residential early parenting services in promoting the level of

  7. Mindful Parenting Training in Child Psychiatric Settings : Heightened Parental Mindfulness Reduces Parents' and Children's Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Renee; de Bruin, Esther I.; Wanders-Mulder, Femy H.; Vennik, Corinne J.; Bogels, Susan M.

    Mindful parenting training is an application of mindfulness-based interventions that allows parents to perceive their children with unbiased and open attention without prejudgment and become more attentive and less reactive in their parenting. This study examined the effectiveness of mindful

  8. The Impact of Parental Religiosity on Parenting Goals and Parenting Style: A Dutch Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Several studies, conducted mainly in the United States, have revealed that parental religiosity influences the way parents raise their children. Against this background, the current study explores if such an effect is also discernible in the Netherlands. Data were gathered as part of a longitudinal study, in which 356 Dutch parents answered…

  9. Strategic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buhler, Carl; Burke, Adrian; Davis, Kirk; Gerhard, Michelle; Heil, Valerie; Hulse, Richard; Kwong, Ralph; Mahoney, Michael; Moran, Scott; Peek, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Some materials possess greater value than others. Materials that provide essential support for the nation's economic viability or enable critical military capabilities warrant special attention in security studies...

  10. Relationship between Test Anxiety and Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thergaonkar, Neerja R.; Wadkar, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between test anxiety and parenting style. Method: Democratic attitude of parents, acceptance of parents by the child, parental attitude regarding academics, parental expectations and gender stereotyped perceptions of parents regarding academics were evaluated in the domain…

  11. Concepts in modern parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of my dissertation represents changes in parenthood, which are a consequence of a wider specter of social changes. Besides, I am interested in modern trends of educational strategies and how parents deal with the demands of society and those of professional public for nothing less than a perfect parenthood. Theoretical cognitions are divided into three parts: in the first one, new forms of family and social changes which affected the development of the modern family are describ...

  12. Diagnosing autism: Contemporaneous surveys of parent needs and paediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennel, Sabine; Coates, Cathy; Symeonides, Christos; Gulenc, Alisha; Smith, Libby; Price, Anna Mh; Hiscock, Harriet

    2016-05-01

    Concurrence between parents' information needs and clinicians' practice when diagnosing autism is unknown but may influence families' uptake of management and adjustment. We aimed to compare parents' experience and preferences with paediatrician report of (i) diagnosis delivery and (ii) information given at diagnosis and identify types and usefulness of resources accessed by families post-diagnosis. The design used for the study are parent and paediatrician surveys. Participants are parents of children aged 1.5-18 years, diagnosed with autism between 01 January 2010 and 30 September 2012 and their paediatricians who are members of the Australian Paediatric Research Network. Study-designed quantitative and qualitative questions about diagnosis delivery and information given at diagnosis (written and spoken vs. neither) and parent perceived importance and harms of information accessed post-diagnosis. Paediatricians (53/198 (27%)) identified 1127 eligible families, of whom 404 (36%) participated. Parents were more likely to report receiving adequate time to discuss diagnosis than paediatricians (71 vs. 51%). Parents (98%) rated information about accessing allied health professionals and the meaning of diagnosis as most important, yet paediatricians offered written or spoken information about each infrequently (allied health: 22%; diagnosis: 42%). Post-diagnosis, allied health was the most important source of information (83%). Harmful resources conveyed helplessness or non-evidenced-based therapies, but few parents (14%) reported this. Parents want more information than can be conveyed in a single diagnostic consultation. Developing a tailored 'autism action plan' with written materials could improve parents' understanding of and satisfaction with children's autism diagnoses. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Parents' employment and children's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Carolyn J

    2014-01-01

    Since modern welfare reform began in the 1980s, we have seen low-income parents leave the welfare rolls and join the workforce in large numbers. At the same time, the Earned Income Tax Credit has offered a monetary incentive for low-income parents to work. Thus, unlike some of the other two-generation mechanisms discussed in this issue of Future of Children, policies that encourage low-income parents to work are both widespread and well-entrenched in the United States. But parents' (and especially mothers') work, writes Carolyn Heinrich, is not unambiguously beneficial for their children. On the one hand, working parents can be positive role models for their children, and, of course, the income they earn can improve their children's lives in many ways. On the other hand, work can impair the developing bond between parents and young children, especially when the parents work long hours or evening and night shifts. The stress that parents bring home from their jobs can detract from their parenting skills, undermine the atmosphere in the home, and thereby introduce stress into children's lives. Unfortunately, it is low-income parents who are most likely to work in stressful, low-quality jobs that feature low pay, little autonomy, inflexible hours, and few or no benefits. And low-income children whose parents are working are more likely to be placed in inadequate child care or to go unsupervised. Two-generation approaches, Heinrich writes, could maximize the benefits and minimize the detriments of parents' work by expanding workplace flexibility, and especially by mandating enough paid leave so that mothers can breastfeed and form close bonds with their infants; by helping parents place their children in high-quality child care; and by helping low-income parents train for, find, and keep a well-paying job with benefits.

  14. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.

  15. Parental adjustment and attitudes to parenting after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, F L; Ungerer, J A; Tennant, C C; Saunders, D M

    2000-03-01

    To examine the psychosocial and parenthood-specific adjustment and attitudes to parenting at 1 year postpartum of IVF parents. Prospective, controlled study. Volunteers in a teaching hospital environment. Sixty-five primiparous women with singleton IVF pregnancies and their partners, and a control group of 61 similarly aged primiparous women with no history of infertility and their partners. Completion of questionnaires and interviews. Parent reports of general and parenthood-specific adjustment and attitudes to parenting. The IVF mothers tended to report lower self-esteem and less parenting competence than control mothers. Although there were no group differences on protectiveness, IVF mothers saw their children as significantly more vulnerable and "special" compared with controls. The IVF fathers reported significantly lower self-esteem and marital satisfaction, although not less competence in parenting. Both IVF mothers and fathers did not differ from control parents on other measures of general adjustment (mood) or those more specific to parenthood (e.g., attachment to the child and attitudes to child rearing). The IVF parents' adjustment to parenthood is similar to naturally conceiving comparison families. Nonetheless, there are minor IVF differences that reflect heightened child-focused concern and less confidence in parenting for mothers, less satisfaction with the marriage for the fathers, and vulnerable self-esteem for both parents.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALEXITHYMIA, PARENTING STYLE, AND PARENTAL CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Barberis, Nadia; Costa, Sebastiano; Larcan, Rosalba

    2015-10-01

    Research on the relationship between parental alexithymia and parenting is relatively scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parental alexithymia and three styles of parenting (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the relationships between parental alexithymia and two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The participants were 946 parents ages 29-60 years (mothers: n = 473, M age = 44.6 yr., SD = 4.7; fathers: n = 473, M age = 48.1 yr., SD = 5.1) of children ages 11-18 years. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R), and the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine whether alexithymia could predict the three parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The first model showed that alexithymia was a positive predictor of authoritative and permissive parenting and a negative predictor of authoritarian parenting in both paternal and maternal data. The second model showed that, in both paternal and maternal data, alexithymia was a positive predictor of both dependency-oriented psychological control (DPC) and achievement-oriented psychological control (APC).

  17. Democratic parenting: paradoxical messages in democratic parent education theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John

    2013-06-01

    Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents a textual analysis of two such theories, the Adlerian model of parent education and the Parent Effectiveness Training (PET) model, as they are embodied in two original bestselling textbooks. Through content and argumentation analysis of these influential texts, this study examines the paradoxes inherent in these two theories when they articulate how to implement fully democratic principles within the parent-child relationship. We discover that in spite of their democratic rationale, both books offer communication practices that guide the child to modify misbehaviour, enforce parental power, and manipulate the child to make decisions that follow parental judgment, and thus do not endorse the use of a truly democratic parenting style. We suggest, as an alternative to the democratic parenting style, that parents be introduced to a guardianship management style, in which they do not share authority with children, but seek opportunities for enabling children to make more autonomous decisions and participate in more family decision making.

  18. Oral health behavior of parents as a predictor of oral health status of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors of children and their parents. Oral health status of children was examined. The parent and their children oral health relationship were tested using regression and correlation analysis. Results. About 222 parents and children participated in the study. There was a significant relationship between history of having dental problems in parents and dmft index in their children (P = 0.01). There was a significant relationship between parental frequency of tooth brushing and child frequency of tooth brushing (P = 0.05); however, there was no significant relationship between parental frequency of dental visits and those of their children (P = 0.1). Conclusion. The study concluded that some important health behaviors in parents, such as tooth brushing habits are important determinants of these behaviors in their young children. So promoting parent knowledge and attitude could affect their children oral health behavior and status.

  19. Momentary Parental Stress and Food-Related Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela R; Miner, Michael; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-12-01

    Research suggests that stress and depressed mood are associated with food-related parenting practices (ie, parent feeding practices, types of food served at meals). However, current measures of parental stress, depressed mood, and food-related parenting practices are typically survey-based and assessed as static/unchanging characteristics, failing to account for fluctuations across time and context. Identifying momentary factors that influence parent food-related parenting practices will facilitate the development of effective interventions aimed at promoting healthy food-related parenting practices. In this study, we used ecological momentary assessment to examine the association between momentary factors (eg, stress, depressed mood) occurring early in the day and food-related parenting practices at the evening meal. Children aged 5 to 7 years and their families ( N = 150) from 6 racial and/or ethnic groups ( n = 25 each African American, Hispanic/Latino, Hmong, American Indian, Somali, and white families) were recruited for this mixed-methods study through primary care clinics. Higher stress and depressed mood earlier in the day predicted pressure-to-eat feeding practices and fewer homemade foods served at meals the same night. Effect modification was found for certain racial and/or ethnic groups with regard to engaging in pressure-to-eat feeding practices (ie, America Indian, Somali) or serving fewer homemade meals (ie, African American, Hispanic/Latino) in the face of high stress or depressed mood. Clinicians may want to consider discussing with parents the influence stress and depressed mood can have on everyday food-related parenting practices. Additionally, future researchers should consider using real-time interventions to reduce parental stress and depressed mood to promote healthy parent food-related parenting practices. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Shape memory materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Compared with piezoelectric ceramics and magnetostrictive materials, the shape memory materials possess larger recoverable strain and recovery stress but slower response to external field. It is expected that the magneto-shape memory materials may develop considerable strain as well as rapid and precise shape control. Pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect (SME) resulted from martensitic transformation and its reverse transformation in shape memory materials were generally described. The requirements of appearing the shape memory effect in materials and the criteria for thermoelastic martensitic transformation were given. Some aspects concerning characteristics of martensitic transformation, and factors affecting SME in Ni-Ti, Cu-Zn-Al and Fe-Mn-Si based alloys as well as ZrO2 containing ceramics were briefly reviewed. Thermodynamic calculation of Ms temperature as function of grain size and parent ordering in Cu-Zn-Al was presented. The works on prediction of Ms in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys and in ZrO2-CeO2 were mentioned. Magnetic shape memory materials were briefly introduced.

  1. Distinguish natural sources out of secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters in Gamma ray spectrum analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yahong; Liu Yigang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine materials containing natural radionuclides in or out secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters. Methods: In gamma ray spectrum analyses, the activity concentration of every daughter is the same as that of its parent when the material is in secular equilibrium. The activity concentrations of daughters and their parents are different when the material is out of secular equilibrium. Results: It is different to determine whether the exposures from these materials should be exempted that materials containing natural radionuclides are in or out of secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters. Conclusion: It is important to determine materials containing natural radionuclides in or out secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters in gamma ray spectrum analyses. (authors)

  2. Antibiotics in pediatrics: Parental knowledge and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trkulja Maja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antibiotics represent the most prescribed class of medication in the pediatric circles. Almost 50% of the medication was prescribed without definite merit. Recently published studies have shown that the level of knowledge, awareness, as well as parents' expectations, play a significant role in the amount of prescribed antibiotics by pediatricians. Aim: To assess the level of parent's education, attitude and behavior, in regard to antibiotic use in pediatric population in Serbia. Material and methods: The cross-sectional study was performed between October 2015 and February 2016. An anonymous survey approach had been used. Demographic data of the participants gave an insight in the level of knowledge and common practice regarding the use of antibiotics in children. The data collected was analyzed by methods of descriptive and analytic statistics. Results: Of 850 recruited, 763 completed and returned the survey. A high level of knowledge was found in 79.5% of the participants. The highest percent of parents answered the questions correctly in regard to reporting drug-related adverse reactions, including allergic reactions (99% and 93% respectively. Almost one third (27% of the parents thought that antibiotics can cure viral infections. More than 20% of participants thought that antibiotics can control pain, and that more expensive medication was more effective. The worrisome is the fact that 15% bought antibiotic at least once without a doctor's prescriptions, while 18% stashed away leftovers for later use. Conclusion: Although study results showed good quality data, parents are still deciding by themselves if they should start antibiotic therapy. Reinforcing established educational programs and encouraging communication with their pediatrician would be highly justified.

  3. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  4. Parenting a Child with ASD: Comparison of Parenting Style between ASD, Anxiety, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventola, Pamela; Lei, Jiedi; Paisley, Courtney; Lebowitz, Eli; Silverman, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Parenting children with ASD has a complex history. Given parents' increasingly pivotal role in children's treatment, it is critical to consider parental style and behaviours. This study (1) compares parenting style of parents of children with ASD, parents of children with anxiety disorders, and parents of typically developing (TD) children and (2)…

  5. The Interplay between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…

  6. The relationship between perceived parental favoritism and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, L J; Sherman, M F

    1994-03-01

    In this study of 91 male and female college subjects, we used two questionnaires to explore the relationship between the students' perceived parental favoritism and their self-esteem. In addition, the prevalence of parental favoritism, the reasons for it, and the ways it is shown were examined. Results indicated that total self-esteem and two facets of self-esteem were related to parental favoritism; the no-favoritism subjects had higher total self-esteem than the nonfavored subjects, the no-favoritism and the favored subjects had higher self-esteem with respect to home-parent relationships than the nonfavored subjects, and the no-favoritism subjects had higher social self-esteem than the favored subjects. Furthermore, the perception of parental favoritism was widespread--62% of the subjects thought one or both of their parents had a favored child. Moreover, parents were more likely to show favoritism in subtle ways than in more obvious material ways; and the predominate reasons given for favoritism were the child's intellect, behavior, birth-order, and creativity rather than his or her physical appearance or gender.

  7. Partnering with parents to enhance habilitation: a parent's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Lisa

    2012-11-01

    Parents play a very important role in language habilitation for their children who are deaf or hard of hearing. However, many times parents are not aware of the difference they can make in their child's language development. It is important that professionals working with children support parents in understanding their role and identifying language learning strategies that parents can incorporate into their daily routines to increase language development opportunities. Parents also have a key role in monitoring their child's progress to assist the professionals in assessing how well the habilitation strategies they are using are working. Family support and coaching strategies that professionals can use to encourage and support the parent's role in habilitation are discussed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Reunions between adoptees and birth parents: the adoptive parents' view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, P R; Campbell, L; Patti, P

    1994-09-01

    This article looks at the reactions of adoptive parents to reunions between their adopted children and the children's birth parents. The focus is on how adoptive parents feel the reunion affects the family's integrity. Three types of family responses are identified: (1) closed, (2) divided, and (3) open. Acceptance of the differences between families created by adoption of children and those created by childbirth was a factor in the families' openness. Closed families saw no difference, and reunion suggested to the adults that they had failed as parents. Parents in open families understood the difference in families, saw the children as separate, and felt no threat to their competence as parents. Families' need for boundaries is examined, and the way the concept of family is constructed is discussed. Implications for the practice of adoption are considered.

  9. Oral health related knowledge and health behavior of parents and school children

    OpenAIRE

    Lalić Maja; Aleksić Ema; Gajić Mihajlo; Malešević Đoka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and ...

  10. The Association Between Parental Behavior Patterns and the Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in Tehran Kindergartens

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Pazuki; Majid Hajifaraji; Morvarid Nikoosokhan; Anahita Houshyarrad; Taghi Pourebrahim; Bahram Rashidkhani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the association between parental behavior and the dietary intake of Tehranian preschool children aged 2-6 years. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted on 310 children aged 2-6 years from the kindergartens of 22 districts of Tehran, a qualitative validated 85-item food frequency questionnaire was completed by interviewing with their parents. Also the effect of parental behavior on the children’s dietary ...

  11. Parental age at delivery and a man's semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina K; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is parental age at delivery associated with a man's semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER: In this large register-based study both mother's and father's age are found to have minimal effects on semen quality in men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Both maternal and paternal age have been associated...... with a range of adverse health effects in the offspring. Given the varied health effects of parental age upon offspring, and the sensitivity of genital development to external factors, it is plausible that the age of a man's mother and father at conception may impact his reproductive health. To our knowledge...... this is the first examination of the effects of parental age on semen quality. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective cohort study of 10 965 men with semen data and parental data. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The study was based on Danish men referred to the Copenhagen Sperm Analysis Laboratory...

  12. Parental affectionless control and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschin, Simona; Briggs, Jessica; Blanco-Lutzen, Sally; Cohen, Lisa J; Galynker, Igor

    2013-10-01

    Although poor parental bonding is a known risk factor for suicidality, current literature is inconsistent about the relative role of low parental care and parental overprotection, as well as the combination of the two, termed "affectionless control". This review presents the current state of knowledge of the relationship between suicidality and these two aspects of parental bonding. The computerized databases Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, PsychLit, and Google Scholar were searched using combinations of the following keywords: suicidality, suicide, suicide attempt, suicidal behavior, parental bonding, and parental bonding instrument. Using the results, we reviewed the reports on the relationship between suicidality and parental bonding as measured by validated parental bonding instruments. Twelve papers were analyzed. All of them used the parental bonding instrument (PBI) and one used both the PBI and the object representation inventory (ORI). Most reports agreed that, in mothers, either lack of maternal care and/or overprotection was associated with an increase in suicidal behavior, while in fathers only low care was consistently associated with suicidality. This lack of constancy with regard to the effect of paternal overprotection appears to be due to cultural differences in fathers' role in child rearing. With these differences acknowledged, affectionless control in both parents emerges as the parenting style most strongly associated with suicidal behavior. Common methodological problems included low numbers of subjects, inconsistent control groups, and the lack of a uniform definition of suicidality. Despite methodological limitations, current literature consistently indicates that parental affectionless control is associated with suicidal behavior. Recognizing affectionless control as a risk factor for suicide and developing early interventions aimed at modifying affectionless and overprotective parenting style in families with a history of affective disorders

  13. The Parental Overprotection Scale: Associations with child and parental anxiety ?

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Kiri; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Parental overprotection has commonly been implicated in the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders. Overprotection has been assessed using questionnaire and observational methods interchangeably; however, the extent to which these methods access the same construct has received little attention. Edwards, 2008 and Edwards et al., 2010 developed a promising parent-report measure of overprotection (OP) and reported that, with parents of pre-school children, the mea...

  14. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  15. Parenting Coordinators' Practices Recommendations: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Barbara Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to understand the experiences of seven parenting coordinators in using parenting coordination practices that they have found to be effective and would recommend to other parenting coordinators to achieve the following goals: educating parents, increasing the quality of parenting and co-parenting, managing conflict, and involving children and other family members in the process of parenting coordination. Data were collected with semi-str...

  16. Parents of the welfare state:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Karen Ida; Kjær, Bjørg; Palludan, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    institutions have a fundamental role to play. It would seem to be here – as well as within the family – that the foundation is laid for all that is to come. It has therefore also become a political mantra across the globe that a well-functioning partnership between parents and ECEC institutions is a necessity...... (Bach & Christensen 2016/7). Numerous studies have already shown how parents all over the world are increasingly expected to take an active role at their children’s schools (Axelvoll 2016, Dannesboe), but this seemingly also now applies to ECEC. Based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in three ECEC...... institutions and interviews with staff and parents, in this article, we discuss the relationship between parents and ECEC institutions in a Danish context. More specifically, we examine the role played by staff at ECEC institutions when parents ‘do’ parenting. Are they a helping hand and a friend in the hour...

  17. [A case of parental alienation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The clinical term "Parental Alienation Syndrome" (PAS) was introduced in 1984 by Richard Gardner, an American psychiatrist. Gardner described PAS and its symptoms, as a personality disorder, which appears chiefly in connection to child custody disputes wherein a child turns suddenly and massively against the non-custodial parent without reasonable grounds for doing so. This action by the child is a result of the custodial parent's emotionally abusive attempts to incite the child against the non-custodial parent.Where the child's rejection is based on some real past experience, there is not PAS. PAS only occurs as a result of the custodial parent's actions. Despite intensive effort, PAS was not included in the new DSM-V. In this case, a particularly impressive case history of parental alienation is described and discussed.

  18. Child to parent violence

    OpenAIRE

    Ansede Fariña, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    [GAO] A violencia filio – parental converteuse nun fenómeno en incremento na nosa sociedade, que se constata, principalmente, polo aumento de denuncias xudiciais interpostas polos pais agredidos. Realizamos un traballo de investigación documental, a través dunha metodoloxía baseada na busca e revisión bibliográfica sobre a temática, co fin de conceptualizar e describir este fenómeno. Expoñemos os principais modelos explicativos propostos por diferentes autores, os factores impl...

  19. Unmarried parents in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Sorensen, Kia

    2010-01-01

    Noting that access to higher education has expanded dramatically in the past several decades, Sara Goldrick-Rab and Kia Sorensen focus on how unmarried parents fare once they enter college. Contrary to the expectation that access to college consistently promotes family stability and economic security, the authors argue that deficiencies in current policy lead college attendance to have adverse consequences for some families headed by unmarried parents. Although rates of college attendance have increased substantially among unmarried parents, their college completion rates are low. One explanation is inadequate academic preparation. Another is financial constraints, which can force unmarried students to interrupt their studies or increase their work hours, both of which compromise the quality of their educational experiences and the outcomes for their children. The authors point out that although many public programs offer support to unmarried parents attending college, the support is neither well coordinated nor easily accessed. Over the past three decades, loans have increasingly replaced grants as the most common form of federal and state financial aid. Confusion about what is available leads many low-income students to the two most "straightforward" sources of income--loans and work, both of which involve significant costs and can operate at cross-purposes with public forms of support. Too much work can lead to reductions in public benefits, and earnings do not always replace the lost income. A growing body of experimental evidence shows that providing social, financial, and academic supports to vulnerable community college students can improve achievement and attainment. Contextualized learning programs, for example, have enabled participants not only to move on from basic skills to credit-bearing coursework, but also to complete credits, earn certificates, and make gains on basic skills tests. Another successful initiative provided low-performing students with

  20. Parenting stress in parents of children with cochlear implants: relationships among parent stress, child language, and unilateral versus bilateral implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarant, Julia; Garrard, Philippa

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been focused on stress levels of parents of children with cochlear implants (CIs). This study examined the stress experience of 70 parents of children with CIs by comparing stress levels in this group of parents to those in parents of children without disabilities, identifying primary stressors, examining the relationship between parent stress and child language, and comparing stress in parents of children with bilateral and unilateral CIs. Parents completed a parent stress questionnaire, and the receptive vocabulary and language abilities of the children were evaluated. Results indicated that these parents had a higher incidence of stress than the normative population. Parent stress levels and child language outcomes were negatively correlated. Child behavior and lack of spousal and social support were the prime causes of parent stress. Parents of children with bilateral CIs were significantly less stressed than were parents of children with unilateral CIs.

  1. Parental Divorce and Generalized Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Viitanen, Tarja

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of parental divorce during childhood on generalized trust later on in life using Australian HILDA panel data. The dependent variable is composed of answers to the statement: “Generally speaking, most people can be trusted”. The main explanatory variables include the occurrence of parental divorce for the whole sample and the age at which parents divorced for the sub-sample. The analysis is conducted using random effects ordered probit, correlated random effects ...

  2. Facilitating the Collection and Dissemination of Information to Parents of Children in a Child Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Maria P.

    To improve conditions at a nonprofit day care center serving low-income, mainly non-English-speaking families, this practicum addressed the need of recently immigrated parents to increase their knowledge of child development and available community resources. A total of 52 Hispanic parents were given materials at an information distribution area…

  3. Selling Out America's Children: How America Puts Profits before Values--and What Parents Can Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David

    Many believe that America's children are exposed to negative messages by the media--violence, irresponsible sex, and materialism--making it difficult for parents to teach traditional values. Noting that what motivates parents is the desire to teach their children right from wrong while what motivates society is financial profit, this book explores…

  4. Special Education: Parent and Student Rights = Educacion Especial: Los Derechos de los Padres y Estudiantes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Special Education Programs.

    Intended for parents of children with possible disabilities in Texas, these two combined booklets (one in English and one in Spanish) outline the step-by-step process qualifying the child for special education services and explain the parent's rights and responsibilities under federal and state law. Introductory material includes a letter to…

  5. The GENERATE Project: Curricular and Pedagogical Inspiration from Parents and Their Children Working Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes GENERATE, a pilot research project conducted by 12 artists and their children 3-14. Simply put, these artist/art educator/parents allowed their own children unlimited access to their studios, materials, equipment and workspaces for two years. During that time the children were able to work alongside their parents on making…

  6. Groups for Parents with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Analysis of Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Marie; Starke, Mikaela

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are often socially isolated and need support. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study is based on participant observations of a group for parents with with intellectual disabilities. Data were categorized and interpreted in the framework of social capital and symbolic interactionism.…

  7. Evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies: Insights into cometary nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSween, H.Y. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    It is thought that cometary samples will comprise the most primitive materials that are able to be sampled. Although parent body alteration of such samples would not necessarily detract from scientists' interest in them, the possibility exists that modification processes may have affected cometary nuclei. Inferences about the kinds of modifications that might be encountered can be drawn from data on the evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. Observations suggest that, of all the classes of chondrites, these meteorites are most applicable to the study of comets. If the proportion of possible internal heat sources such as Al-26 in cometary materials are similar to those in chondrites, and if the time scale of comet accretion was fast enough to permit incorporation of live radionuclides, comets might have had early thermal histories somewhat like those of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

  8. Sexual conflict between parents: offspring desertion and asymmetrical parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Tamás

    2014-09-25

    Parental care is an immensely variable social behavior, and sexual conflict offers a powerful paradigm to understand this diversity. Conflict over care (usually considered as a type of postzygotic sexual conflict) is common, because the evolutionary interests of male and female parents are rarely identical. I investigate how sexual conflict over care may facilitate the emergence and maintenance of diverse parenting strategies and argue that researchers should combine two fundamental concepts in social behavior to understand care patterns: cooperation and conflict. Behavioral evidence of conflict over care is well established, studies have estimated specific fitness implications of conflict for males or females, and experiments have investigated specific components of conflict. However, studies are long overdue to reveal the full implications of conflict for both males and females. Manipulating (or harming) the opposite sex seems less common in postzygotic conflicts than in prezygotic conflicts because by manipulating, coercing, or harming the opposite sex, the reproductive interest of the actor is also reduced. Parental care is a complex trait, although few studies have yet considered the implications of multidimensionality for parental conflict. Future research in parental conflict will benefit from understanding the behavioral interactions between male and female parents (e.g., negotiation, learning, and coercion), the genetic and neurogenomic bases of parental behavior, and the influence of social environment on parental strategies. Empirical studies are needed to put sexual conflict in a population context and reveal feedback between mate choice, pair bonds and parenting strategies, and their demographic consequences for the population such as mortalities and sex ratios. Taken together, sexual conflict offers a fascinating avenue for understanding the causes and consequences of parenting behavior, sex roles, and breeding system evolution. Copyright © 2014 Cold

  9. Parental Engagement: Beyond Parental Involvement in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kathleen

    This study critically analyzes parents' complex stories of engagement in school and science education. The purpose is not to essentialize parental involvement, but rather to understand the processes of parental involvement and push forward the current discourse on the engagement of low-income minority and immigrant parents in schools and specifically science education. Employing critical grounded theory methods over a four-year span, this study had three areas of focus. First, voices of marginalized parents in the context of various spaces within the school system are examined. Using a qualitative approach, informal, formal, and research spaces were explored along with how minority parents express voice in these various spaces. Findings indicate parents drew on capital to express voice differently in different spaces, essentially authoring new spaces or the type of engagement in existing spaces. Second, the values and beliefs of traditionally marginalized people, the Discourse of mainstream society, and how they can inform a third, more transformative space for parental engagement in science are considered. The voices of low-income, marginalized parents around science and parental engagement (i.e., first space) are contrasted with the tenets of major national science policy documents (i.e., second space). Findings indicate a disparity between the pathways of engagement for low-income parents and policymakers who shape science education. Third, methodological questions of responsibility and assumption in qualitative research are explored. The author's complex struggle to make sense of her positionality, responsibilities, and assumptions as a researcher is chronicled. Findings focused on insider/outsider issues and implications for culturally sensitive research are discussed. Finally, the implications for policy, teaching, and research are discussed.

  10. Parenting Stress in Parents of Infants With Congenital Heart Disease and Parents of Healthy Infants: The First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfenshtein, Nadya; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Deatrick, Janet A; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    While we know that the parents of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD), the most prevalent group of congenital anomalies, experience increased parenting stress, the stress levels throughout infancy have yet to be studied. Stress experienced by parents beyond the normative stress of parenting can interfere with parenting processes, and bear adverse family outcomes. This prospective cohort study was conducted to describe and compare parenting stress levels during infancy between parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants. The Parenting Stress Index-Long Form was distributed to parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants (N = 129). T-tests were used to compare stress between groups at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Parents of infants with complex CHD had higher parenting stress than parents of healthy infants on multiple subscales on the Child and Parent Domains, at 3 months of age. The stress remained higher on the demandingness subscale throughout infancy. Parents of CHD infants also demonstrated significantly higher stress scores on the life stress subscale at 12 months of age. Findings highlight stressful periods related to parenting infants with CHD, which may increase existing psycho-social risk for parents of infants with CHD. Early family intervention may promote parental adaptation to the illness, and help establishing healthy parenting practices.

  11. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  12. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  13. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is mixed with water before administration liquid paste tablet When iodine-based and barium-sulfate contrast materials ... for patients with kidney failure or allergies to MRI and/or computed tomography (CT) contrast material. Microbubble ...

  14. Impact of a parent-child sexual communication campaign: results from a controlled efficacy trial of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Evans, W Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2010-07-21

    would be successful were predictive of parent-child communication among both mothers and fathers. Treatment condition mothers exhibited larger changes than control mothers in both of these cognitive variables. Fathers exhibited no exposure effects. Results suggest that within a controlled setting, the "wait until older norm" and long-term outcome expectations were appropriate cognitions to target and the PSUNC media materials were successful in impacting them, particularly among mothers. This study highlights the importance of theoretical frameworks for parent-focused campaigns that identify appropriate behavioral precursors that are both predictive of a campaign's distal behavioral outcome and sensitive to campaign messages.

  15. Impact of a parent-child sexual communication campaign: results from a controlled efficacy trial of parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans W Douglas

    2010-07-01

    initiation and outcome expectations that communication would be successful were predictive of parent-child communication among both mothers and fathers. Treatment condition mothers exhibited larger changes than control mothers in both of these cognitive variables. Fathers exhibited no exposure effects. Conclusions Results suggest that within a controlled setting, the "wait until older norm" and long-term outcome expectations were appropriate cognitions to target and the PSUNC media materials were successful in impacting them, particularly among mothers. This study highlights the importance of theoretical frameworks for parent-focused campaigns that identify appropriate behavioral precursors that are both predictive of a campaign's distal behavioral outcome and sensitive to campaign messages.

  16. YOUTH SPORT AND PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Nešić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of contemporary sport is certainly a wide array of sports and sport discliplines young people can choose among. This is particularly obvious through establishment of numerous schools of sport as places where people can acquire fundamental sport knoweldge and skills. The point of selection for such an engagement is the school, or, in other words, primary school children. The development of young athletes starts at a very early stage. They are faced with high demands and exposed to training sessions of different scope and intensity. In order to direct complex processes in sport efficiently and well, various factors need to be considered that affect it to a lesser or higher degree. One of those factors is indisputably the family, i.e. the influence parents have on meeting the children’s need for physical (sport activity. In the process of children’s socialization that factor is given the greatest prominence. Therefore, parents are a crucial factor in young people’s sport engagement and, thus, cannot be taken as a constituent part of a sports organization’s surroundings, but as a partner in their development.

  17. Dirac materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wehling, T. O.; Black-Schaffer, A. M.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of materials, like d-wave superconductors, graphene, and topological insulators, share a fundamental similarity: their low-energy fermionic excitations behave as massless Dirac particles rather than fermions obeying the usual Schrodinger Hamiltonian. This emergent behavior of Dirac fermions in condensed matter systems defines the unifying framework for a class of materials we call "Dirac materials''. In order to establish this class of materials, we illustrate how Dirac fermions ...

  18. Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaldin, Nicola A.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic materials are the foundation of multi-billion dollar industries and the focus of intensive research across many disciplines. This book covers the fundamentals, basic theories and applications of magnetism and conventional magnetic materials. Based on a lecture course given by Nicola Spaldin in the Materials Department at University of California, Santa Barbara, the book is ideal for a one- semester course in magnetic materials. It contains numerous homework problems and solutions.

  19. Does Marital Status Influence the Parenting Styles Employed by Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiono, Benard Litali; Mwoma, Teresa B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to establish whether parents' marital status, influence their use of specific parenting styles in Kisauni District, Kenya. A correlational research design was employed to carry out this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select preschools while purposive sampling technique was used to select preschool…

  20. Influence of Self-Esteem, Parenting Style and Parental Monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on this, this study was set out to investigate the influence of self esteem, parental monitoring and parenting styles on adolescents' risky sexual behavior in Ibadan. Cross-sectional research design was used. A total number of 194 adolescents selected from three secondary schools participated in the study.

  1. Parents in Reading; Parents' Booklet (Folleto Para Los Padres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Roy

    Developed for Idaho's original Parents in Reading program, this booklet is designed for use by parents of preschool and elementary school students. Topics are discussed in both English and Spanish and include: reading, listening, and talking to children; controlling television viewing; using numbers with children; children's muscles and movements;…

  2. Implementation of parental feeding practices: does parenting style matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison; Hoffmann, Debra; Zbur, Samantha; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2016-09-01

    To combat childhood obesity, researchers have focused on parental feeding practices that promote child health. The current study investigated how parenting style relates to twelve parental feeding practices. Data on parenting style and parental feeding practices were obtained for a correlational study from users of Amazon's Mechanical Turk, an online survey system. USA. Mothers of children aged 7-11 years (n 193). Parenting style related differentially to eleven out of the twelve measured practices. Authoritative mothers displayed more feeding practices that promote child health and fewer practices that impede child health. Authoritarian and permissive mothers displayed more unhealthy practices than authoritative mothers, but differed from each other on the practices they employed. Parenting style may relate to more aspects of feeding than previously realized. The inclusion of numerous healthy feeding practices along with unhealthy practices in the current study provides suggestions for the application of healthy feeding behaviours. Instruction on feeding behaviours and parenting style should be a focus of future educational programmes.

  3. Raising Competent Kids: The Authoritative Parenting Style. For Parents Particularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that the authoritative parenting style without physical punishment produces more positive results and fewest children's problems. Identifies age-appropriate authoritative responses: demanding and responsive; controlling but not restrictive; high parent involvement; participating actively with child's life; communicating openly; following…

  4. Parental GCA testing: how many crosses per parent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    The impact of increasing the number of crosses per parent (k) on the efficiency of roguing seed orchards (backwards selection, i.e., reselection of parents) was examined by using Monte Carlo simulation. Efficiencies were examined in light of advanced-generation Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) tree improvement programs where...

  5. Parental Belief and Parental Engagement: How Do They Interact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature has shown the importance of parental engagement for children's outcomes; a largely separate body of literature has shown that there are clear effects on children's outcomes related to parental religion. This article is a literature review of these two fields, with the aim of relating them to each other. The article suggests two…

  6. Parental Divorce, Adolescents' Feelings toward Parents and Drunkenness in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3,

  7. Parent-Adolescent Separation: The Role of Parental Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, DeWayne; Hotch, Deborah F.

    1982-01-01

    Among late adolescent males, parental divorce was highly related to Emotional separation as a home-leaving indicator; for females, being a firstborn was associated with Personal Control as a home-leaving indicator. These findings supported previous research indicating that males experience more adjustment problems after parental divorce than…

  8. Review of Parent Training Interventions for Parents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Catherine; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Matthews, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background: This paper reviews recent research to provide an updated perspective on the effectiveness of parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability. The degree to which these studies meet previous recommendations for future research is explored, particularly with regard to the influence of context on intervention…

  9. Classification of soils derived from amphibolite parent material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 24, No 1 (1988) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Success Skills Curriculum for Teen Single Parents. Bulletin No. 96142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Sarah, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains the materials required to teach a 36-hour program of competency-based instruction designed to meet the needs of teen single parents who require additional skill building before entering the job market or a job training program. The course is divided into 4 learning modules that cover 18 competencies as follows: taking…

  11. A Parent's Guide to the Social Studies. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselle, Daniel; Singleton, Laurel R.

    This guide for parents seeks to answer seven questions concerning the social studies: (1) What is social studies? (2) Why is social studies important at every grade level? (3) What kinds of materials are used to teach social studies? (4) What teaching strategies are used in social studies classes? (5) What have the national reports on education…

  12. Chinese immigrants’ parental experiences in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    European Master in Social Work with Families and Children Existing empirical studies of parents in China found that this population presents features of authoritarian parenting style: greater parental demands and control together with lower parental responsiveness. However, when the investigation conducted on Chinese immigrants, parental practice is characterized as more authoritative style, combining high levels of controlling and responsiveness. Paradoxical findings between Chinese paren...

  13. Childrearing style of anxiety-disordered parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg; Markus, Monica; Hoogendijk, Thea; Borst, Sophie; Maingay, Ragna; Spinhoven, Philip; van Dyck, Richard; Boer, Frits

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether anxiety-disordered (AD) parents differ in their childrearing style from non-disordered parents. A clinical sample of 36 AD parents with children aged 6-18 was compared with a normal control sample of 36 parents. Childrearing was assessed through parent report and

  14. Bringing Culture into Parent Training with Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional frameworks of parenting have failed to capture the distinctive nature of parenting in Latino families. Cultural values likely influence parenting practices. The study of cultural values may allow us to identify aspects of parenting that are unique to Latinos and which complement traditional frameworks of parenting. This paper presents…

  15. Children with Lesbian Parents: A Community Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Perry, Beth; Burston, Amanda; Murray, Clare; Mooney-Somers, Julid; Stevens, Madeleine; Golding, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Examined the quality of parent-child relationships and the socioemotional and gender development of a community sample of 7-year-olds with lesbian parents, with two-parent heterosexual parents, or with single heterosexual mothers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Found no significant differences between lesbian mothers and…

  16. Family Makeover: Coaching, Confession and Parental Responsibilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstedt, Magnus; Fejes, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Today, there is a widespread idea that parents need to learn how to carry out their roles as parents. Practices of parental learning operate throughout society. This article deals with one particular practice of parental learning, namely nanny TV, and the way in which ideal parents are constructed through such programmes. The point of departure is…

  17. Choice, Empowerment, and Involvement: What Satisfies Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Ellen B.; Shapira, Rina

    1993-01-01

    Questionnaire responses from 337 parents in Israel examine the nature of interrelationships between parent satisfaction with public schools of choice and parent empowerment, parent involvement, and the congruence of parental expectation with school programs. Findings indicate the importance of socioeconomic status as a factor in these…

  18. Stress and parental competence: a study with working parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Padilla, Javier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the role of some dimensions related with labor and family context, and examine their influence to the stress level associated with parenthood. Special attention was given to the perceived competence as a parent after controlling different characteristics from both contexts. Several analyses were performed with the information obtained from 74 active-working parents responsible for at least one school-aged child. The results indicated that the work time, the number of children at home and the perception of difficulty about child caring were the most important variables for explaining the parental stress. Furthermore, analysis showed that a positive and optimistic perception of the parental role and child care helped to mitigate the appearance of parental stress

  19. Parenting goals: predictors of parent involvement in disease management of children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elizabeth M; Iannotti, Ronald J; Schneider, Stefan; Nansel, Tonja R; Haynie, Denise L; Sobel, Douglas O

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of diabetes-specific parenting goals for parents of children with type 1 diabetes and to examine whether parenting goals predict a change in parenting involvement in disease management. An independent sample of primary caretakers of 87 children aged 10 to 16 years with type 1 diabetes completed the measure of parenting goals (diabetes-specific and general goals); both parent and child completed measures of parent responsibility for diabetes management at baseline and 6 months. Parents ranked diabetes-specific parenting goals as more important than general parenting goals, and rankings were moderately stable over time. Parenting goals were related to parent responsibility for diabetes management. The relative ranking of diabetes-specific parenting goals predicted changes in parent involvement over 6 months, with baseline ranking of goals predicting more parental involvement at follow-up. Parenting goals may play an important role in family management of type 1 diabetes.

  20. EARLY POSTPARTUM PARENTAL PREOCCUPATION AND POSITIVE PARENTING THOUGHTS: RELATIONSHIP WITH PARENT-INFANT INTERACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Mayes, Linda; Feldman, Ruth; Leckman, James F; Swain, James E

    2013-01-01

    Parenting behaviors and parent-infant emotional bonding during the early postpartum months play a critical role in infant development. However, the nature and progression of parental thoughts and their relationship with interactive behaviors have received less research. The current study investigated the trajectory of parental thoughts and behaviors among primiparous mothers ( n = 18) and fathers ( n = 15) and multiparous mothers ( n = 13) and fathers ( n = 13), which were measured at the first and third postpartum month. At the third postpartum month, the relationship between parental thoughts and parental interactive behaviors also was tested. Mothers and fathers showed high levels of preoccupations and caregiving thoughts during the first postpartum month that significantly declined by the third postpartum month. In contrast, positive thoughts about parenting and the infant increased over the same time interval. Mothers presented higher levels of preoccupations and positive thoughts than did fathers, and first-time parents reported more intense preoccupations than did experienced parents. Although maternal sensitivity was inversely related to maternal anxious thoughts, paternal sensitivity was predicted by higher levels of anxious as well as caregiving and positive thoughts.

  1. Comparing parents' and overweight adolescents' reports on parent mealtime actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Carolina Bertagnoli; Petty, Maria Luiza Blanques; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Escrivão, Maria Arlete Meil Schimith

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare answers given by parents and their adolescent children to the Portuguese version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS) and to assess associations among the reported behaviors. To compare these answers, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 72 patients of the Obesity Clinic of the Division of Nutrology of the Pediatrics Department at the Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), Brazil. These patients were aged from 10 years to 19 years and 11 months, and their parents or legal guardians also participated. First, parents were interviewed and instructed to answer how often they perform each behavior measured by the PMAS (never, sometimes or always). Next, the same questions were answered by the adolescents. The general linear model (GLM) showed the effects of the interviewees and of the interaction between interviewees and sex. We also observed a triple interaction effect (sex x interviewees x categorized age). The internal reliability of the PMAS was higher for parental answers than for those given by the children. This finding is probably observed because the scale has been developed and validated to evaluate the pattern of parental responses concerning their eating practices during their children's meals. In addition, although parents believe they are engaging in certain behaviors, the effectiveness of these strategies may not be recognized by their children. Very low intraclass correlation coefficients were observed between parents' and children's answers to the original domains of the PMAS (ICC: 0.130-0.578), suggesting that the factorial structure of the PMAS may only be used to assess parental behavior, as it is not sufficiently accurate to assess the children's understanding of parent mealtime actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambrook, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A superconductor composite is described comprising at least one longitudinally extending superconductor filament or bundle of sub-filaments, each filament or bundle of sub-filaments being surrounded by and in good electrical contact with a matrix material, the matrix material comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending cells of a metal of high electrical conductivity surrounded by a material of lower electrical conductivity. The high electrical conductivity material surrounding the superconducting filament or bundle of sub-filaments is interrupted by a radially extending wall of the material of the lower electrical conductivity, the arrangement being such that at least two superconductor filaments or sub-filaments are circumferentially circumscribed by a single annulus of the material of high electrical conductivity. The annulus is electrically interrupted by a radially extending wall of the material of low electrical conductivity

  3. Parental efficacy, parental monitoring efficacy, and monitoring among Asian-Indian parents of adolescents living in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Chitra; Montemayor, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental efficacy and a new concept entitled parental monitoring efficacy, and to examine the association between parental monitoring efficacy and monitoring. We conducted two studies on two samples of Asian-Indian parents and adolescents living in Chennai, India. In the first study of 241 parents of adolescents in grades, 9-12, we constructed a new measure of parental efficacy that included two factors. The first factor, responding competently to negative adolescent behavior was more strongly predictive of parental monitoring efficacy than the second factor, instilling positive behavior. In the second study of 215 parents and adolescents in grades 10 and 12, parental monitoring efficacy predicted monitoring, especially adolescent disclosure and parental control. The importance of parental control as a monitoring technique among traditional Indian parents was discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aerospace materials and material technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wanhill, R

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of chapters on materials (both established and evolving) and material technologies that are important for aerospace systems. It considers aerospace materials in three Parts. Part I covers Metallic Materials (Mg, Al, Al-Li, Ti, aero steels, Ni, intermetallics, bronzes and Nb alloys); Part II deals with Composites (GLARE, PMCs, CMCs and Carbon based CMCs); and Part III considers Special Materials. This compilation has ensured that no important aerospace material system is ignored. Emphasis is laid in each chapter on the underlying scientific principles as well as basic and fundamental mechanisms leading to processing, characterization, property evaluation and applications. A considerable amount of materials data is compiled and presented in appendices at the end of the book. This book will be useful to students, researchers and professionals working in the domain of aerospace materials.

  5. Helping a Grieving Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stick with a TV show. Reading a newspaper may take longer than before, and retaining information ... Foundation: A Timeline Watch Our Video: Grief in Schools Copyright Information The materials on this website are ...

  6. The Student and His Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Ellen; Kennedy, C. E.

    1970-01-01

    Responses to questionnaire to parents indicate that they want to know what is happening in the lives of their students, and students want them to know and understand. It is conceivable that the arena of personnel work may well extend to include more work with parents. (Author)

  7. Intersectionality and Critical Race Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePouw, Christin

    2018-01-01

    This conceptual article employs critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical framework to explore the importance of intersectionality in critical race parenting. In particular, I focus on intersectionality to understand better how Whiteness and racial power play out in intimate relationships within the family, particularly between White parents and…

  8. Managing Parent Involvement during Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Lynette S.

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and the Virginia Tech shooting tragedy, it is no surprise that concern for students' safety is the primary reason attributed to parents' increased involvement. Parents and university administrators share in their commitment to student safety. However, college and university staff who assume responsibility…

  9. Sustaining Parenting Education in WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dave; Eisenmann, Kathleen; Gruenewald, Mary

    2004-01-01

    How can educators ensure that a good parenting program continues to be offered in the community year after year? A project in Wisconsin illustrates one way to create this sustained commitment and funding. This project has worked well, has been fairly easy and inexpensive, and has even led to new opportunities for parenting education. The project…

  10. My parent is an alcoholic..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    Alcoholism is still kept as a secret, inside and outside the family. Parents often hope to protect their children by not talking about their drink habits. Interviews with children of al-coholics show they always know, and from an early age they generate coping strategies to stop their parent from...

  11. Neurobiological basis of parenting disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Louise K; Harris, Melissa; Allen, Joanne

    2011-02-01

    It has been proposed that early attachment relationships shape the structure and reactivity of social brain structures that underlie later social capacities. We provide a review of the literature surrounding the development of neurological regulatory systems during infancy and outline recent research suggesting these systems go on to underlie adaptive parental responses. We review evidence in the peer-reviewed psychiatric literature including (i) observational human literature on the neurobiological and social sequelae of early parenting experiences, (ii) experimental animal literature on the effects of early maternal care on neurological development, (iii) experimental animal literature on the neurobiological underpinnings of parenting behaviours, (iv) observational and fMRI evidence on the neurobiological correlates of parenting behaviours, (v) functional and volumetric imaging studies on adults affected by borderline personality disorder. The development of infant regulatory systems is influenced by early parenting experiences. These frontolimbic regulatory systems are also heavily implicated in normal parental responses to infant cues. These frontolimbic disturbances are also observed in studies of borderline personality disorder; a disorder associated with poor emotional regulation, early trauma and disturbed parenting. While the current literature is limited to animal models of abnormal care giving, existing disorders associated with deficits in regulatory capacity and abnormal frontolimbic functioning may yet provide a human model of the neurobiology of parenting disturbance.

  12. Adlerian Counseling for Parent Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, Fred P.

    The helping professions must aid parents in understanding their children and in providing parents with methods to improve family relationships. Adlerian counseling is presented as one potentially useful method of reaching this goal. The basic principles and democratic philosophy of Adlerian counseling are outlined, and emphasis is placed on the…

  13. PARENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    by conducting a survey involving 200 parents in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State. The result ... the concept of linkage between education and working life; for instance, ... Parental attitudes towards vocational education: Implications for counselling. Okocha ... and methodically prepared special courses of fairly long.

  14. Children, Deaf, of Deaf Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, A.E.; van den Bogaerde, B.; Gertz, G.; Boudreault, P.

    2016-01-01

    Deaf children with Deaf parents usually grow up in the Deaf community, that is if their parents offer them a sign language and are active members of the community. These Deaf children are similar to other children of linguistic and cultural minorities in many ways. They are also different in that

  15. Spina bifida and parental occupation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatter, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were: (1) to identify parental occupations with an increased risk of spina bifida in offspring; (2) to study whether parental occupational exposure to chemicals or radiation during or shortly before pregnancy is a risk factor for the occurrence of spina bifida. In order to

  16. Parental separation and pediatric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Sally; Carlsen, Kathrine; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold Hansen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for separation (ending cohabitation) of the parents of a child with a diagnosis of cancer.......The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for separation (ending cohabitation) of the parents of a child with a diagnosis of cancer....

  17. Parental involvement and educational achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, G.; Smit, F.; Sleegers, P.

    2005-01-01

    Parental involvement is seen as an important strategy for the advancement of the quality of education. The ultimate objective of this is to expand the social and cognitive capacities of pupils. In addition, special attention is paid to the children of low-educated and ethnic minority parents.

  18. Parents, School Success, and Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-03

    In this podcast, Dr. William Jeynes, CDC Parenting Speaker Series guest, discusses the importance of parental involvement in children's academic success and lifelong health.  Created: 8/3/2009 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 8/3/2009.

  19. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Materials Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials characterization of sample by incoming beam and measuring outgoing particles, with data being stored and analyzed Staff Scientist Dr. Zakutayev specializes in design of novel semiconductor materials for energy

  20. Rural parents, teenagers and alcohol: what are parents thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melissa L; Ward, Bernadette; Munro, Geoffrey; Snow, Pamela; Ellis, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental role of alcohol in the lives of young Australians is mirrored in the level of drinking by adolescents. In 2001, more than one in four Australian adolescents aged 14-19 years consumed alcohol weekly. Teenagers in rural areas are more likely to consume alcohol than their metropolitan counterparts. Parents are key 'gatekeepers' of adolescent behaviour and as such are a salient group to consider in relation to adolescent alcohol use. The aim of this study was to explore parents' attitudes, beliefs, concerns and receptiveness to harm minimisation strategies with respect to teenage use of alcohol. A convenience sample of parents with adolescent children attended a series of focus groups across the north and north-western area of the State of Victoria, Australia. Schools were approached to advertise the project and invite parents to participate. Snowball sampling was used to enhance recruitment. Parents described patterns of alcohol use such as 'drinking to get drunk' and the influence of both parents and peers on the consumption of alcohol by adolescents. Few parents were concerned about the long-term risks of alcohol use by teenagers; rather they were more concerned about the short-term harms, for example, road trauma and other accidents and risky behaviours such as binge drinking. Parents indicated that they perceived alcohol to be less harmful than other drugs and many indicated that alcohol was often not perceived to be a drug. A number of strategies were adopted by parents to negotiate teenagers' drinking and to minimise the risks associated with alcohol use. These included transporting teenagers to parties, providing teenagers with a mobile phone, setting clear guidelines about alcohol use and/or providing teenagers with a small amount of alcohol. These were seen by parents as strategies for reducing the risks associated with alcohol consumption. Many parents reported that they do not feel well informed about alcohol use and how and when to use harm

  1. Bullying and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is an extreme form of social exclusion that affects a significant number of children in schools and other childhood institutions. The definition of bullying is a matter of debate among researchers. Some researchers emphasize aggressive contra vulnerable individual personality traits...... as a basic premise for the emergence of bullying behavior. Others conceptualize bullying as an effect of dysfunctional social mechanisms in groups. In line with such diverse understandings of how to define and understand bullying, researchers also discuss the part played by parents in children’s bullying...... practices. Researchers who understand bullying as an effect of deficits in individual children tend to explain such deficits as a consequence of inadequate upbringing. Researchers who explain bullying behavior as an effect of dysfunctional social patterns in groups of children (and adults), meanwhile, tend...

  2. Parenting style and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether parenting style is an independent risk factor of smoking initiation and experimentation among adolescents, and whether there is a relationship between parenting style and readiness to quit, or nicotine dependence among smokers. The 84-item Health and Smoking Questionnaire, which assesses demographics, smoking status and smoking history, perceptions of risk and risk reduction, risk factors for tobacco use, and parenting style, was administered to 816 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (mean age, 15.1 years) of whom 22.6% (n = 182) were smokers. Parenting style was measured by the brief, non-retrospective version of the Family of Origin Scale (FOS). Higher scores on the FOS indicated more positive perceived parenting style with high levels of intimacy and autonomy, characteristics of healthy parent-child relationships. Data were analyzed using a model-building approach to logistic regression with demographic and other psychosocial variables in the first two steps, and with parenting style as the last step. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that although parenting style is not a significant risk factor for smoking experimentation [odds ratio (OR) =.998; confidence interval (CI) =.977-1.019; p =.820], it is a significant independent risk factor for smoking initiation (OR =.950; CI =.930-.970; p =.000). Smokers who were more ready to quit had higher parenting style scores than those who were not ready to quit, and smokers who had made a serious quit attempt (an indicator of nicotine addiction) had higher parenting style scores than those who had not made a quit attempt. Moreover, nonsmokers who reported they would smoke a cigarette if their best friend offered had significantly lower parenting style scores than those who reported they would not smoke a cigarette. Additional research on parenting style and its impact on adolescent smoking with a more economically and ethnically diverse sample is warranted. If future research confirms

  3. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  4. Relationships among Parenting Practices, Parental Stress, Child Behaviour, and Children's Social-Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…

  5. The Likelihood of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence: Effects of Family Structure and Parental Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Estimated influence of child, parent, and family structural characteristics on likelihood of parents having coresident adult child, based on national sample of 4,893 parents. Results indicated most parents maintained own households and most parents and adult children who coresided lived in parents' home. Family structure was found to exert strong…

  6. Parental Involvement, Parenting Behaviors, and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income and Minority Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Singh, Kusum; Sung, Youngji Y.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the longitudinal association of parental involvement in Head Start parent-focused programs, parenting behaviors, and the cognitive development of children by specifying two longitudinal growth models. Model 1 examined the longitudinal effects of the parental involvement in three Head Start parenting programs (parenting classes,…

  7. Relations of Parenting Style and Parental Involvement with Ninth-Grade Students' Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.

    1994-01-01

    Compared adolescents' and parents' perceptions of maternal and paternal demandingness, responsiveness, and parental involvement with schooling. Found that adolescents' reports of parenting correlated only moderately with parents' reports. Adolescents', but not parents', reports of parenting predicted students' achievement outcome, with parental…

  8. Anxiety in school students: Role of parenting and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Bakhla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children version. Results: The sample consisted of 146 (55% male and 45% female with a mean age of 12.71 years. A total of 16 (11% students scored above cutoff for high anxiety, the mean scores across gender shows that female students scored significantly higher in total and all sub types of anxiety. Most of the students perceived their parents ′Democratic′ and other two authoritarian and permissive type of parenting were almost equal. There was significantly higher anxiety among the students who perceived their parents as authoritarian. Conclusions: The prevalence of high anxiety was 11% in class VIII students. High anxiety in students was significantly associated with female gender and authoritarian parenting pattern as perceived by the children.

  9. Working with families having parents who are gay or lesbian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmann, E

    1999-01-01

    Families in which one or both parents are gay or lesbian are becoming increasingly common as social acceptance of this lifestyle increases and legal barriers slowly erode. Despite past concerns and occasional reports to the contrary, the bulk of research has shown no evidence that children of parents who are gay or lesbian suffer any greater physical or mental pathology than children of heterosexual parents. However, research does suggest that there may be ways in which health care providers can be more respectful and supportive of homosexual parents and their families. Health care providers should examine their own attitudes toward these families and consider how to provide a welcoming environment and presence. Using gender neutral language about spouses, displaying posters and publications related to varied family types, and acknowledging both parents as participants in care are some examples. Health care providers who are aware of the special concerns these parents and their children may have, including stigmatization, the issue of disclosure, teasing, feeling different, and the stress resulting from challenges faced due to anti-homosexual social attitudes, can demonstrate sensitivity to the involved children and provide families with anticipatory guidance, support, suggested reading material, and referrals to appropriate organizations.

  10. Counseling parents of difficult adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph-DiCaprio, Julia

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between parent and child changes during adolescence. During that transition time, some youths may be challenging rules, engaging in risky behaviors, or failing to disclose their activities to their parents. Physicians and other health care providers are in a position to counsel not only youths about problem behaviors but also parents about how to more effectively deal with their children. One of the things they can recommend is an approach known as authoritative parenting. This approach has been shown to promote higher school achievement and self-esteem, and result in less depression and anxiety and more self-reliance among youths. This article describes the approach and offers physicians tips about what they can say to parents.

  11. Parenting Skillls in two Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    In modern welfare states it is becoming more and more common to work with parents in different set-tings with different goals and means (Miller, Skov & Larsen 2013) to improve their skills as parents. How do professionels work with parenting skills? What are their thoughts about methods...... are inspired by the American Early Intervention-tradition (Vik 2014, p.2). The programs are characterized by behavioristic theory, where the underlying assumption is that parents will develop better parenting skills if they just follow a program with very detailed and prefabricated manuals. To do that......, they need support from professionals to stick to the program and encourage the work. The empirical studies are investigating how an approach inspired by principles from ICDP in two different settings meets the challenges in practice? This program is not evident based in the same way as the others mentioned...

  12. The relationship between students' perception of parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between students' perception of parental involvement in their ... Perception of Parental Involvement in Education Questionnaire (SPOPIIEQ) plus ... This simply means that the more a student believes his or her parents are ...

  13. Parenting and restrictions in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Scherphof, C.; Carpay, J.A.; Augustijn, P.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Deković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: From the overprotection literature, the predictive and interactional (moderation) effects of controlling and indulgent parenting on restrictions in children with epilepsy were examined. Methods: Parents of 73 children with epilepsy completed questionnaires on parenting, restrictions, and

  14. Promoting positive parenting: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmann, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Positive parenting is built on respect for children and helps develop self-esteem, inner discipline, self-confidence, responsibility, and resourcefulness. Positive parenting is also good for parents: parents feel good about parenting well. It builds a sense of dignity. Positive parenting can be learned. Understanding normal development is a first step, so that parents can distinguish common behaviors in a stage of development from "problems." Central to positive parenting is developing thoughtful approaches to child guidance that can be used in place of anger, manipulation, punishment, and rewards. Support for developing creative and loving approaches to meet special parenting challenges, such as temperament, disabilities, separation and loss, and adoption, is sometimes necessary as well. This annotated bibliography offers resources to professionals helping parents and to parents wishing to develop positive parenting skills.

  15. Parents' Involvement in Children's Lives in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-12-17

    Dec 17, 2012 ... urban areas, why are single parent families and divorce on the rise; why are ... Understanding such issues as child-parent relations, parenting styles, ..... psychosocial challenges, including low self esteem, early marriages, ...

  16. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  17. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  18. Parenting Stress, Parental Reactions, and Externalizing Behavior From Ages 4 to 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Jennifer S; Kelleher, Rachael T; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P; O'Brien, Marion

    2015-04-01

    The association between parenting stress and child externalizing behavior, and the mediating role of parenting, has yielded inconsistent findings; however, the literature has typically been cross-sectional and unidirectional. In the current study the authors examined the longitudinal transactions among parenting stress, perceived negative parental reactions, and child externalizing at 4, 5, 7, and 10 years old. Models examining parent effects (parenting stress to child behavior), child effects (externalizing to parental reactions and stress), indirect effects of parental reactions, and the transactional associations among all variables, were compared. The transactional model best fit the data, and longitudinal reciprocal effects emerged between parenting stress and externalizing behavior. The mediating role of parental reactions was not supported; however, indirect effects suggest that parenting stress both is affected by and affects parent and child behavior. The complex associations among parent and child variables indicate the importance of interventions to improve the parent-child relationship and reducing parenting stress.

  19. Nano Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, In Ju; Lee, Ik Mo; Kwon, Yeung Gu

    2006-02-01

    This book introduces background of nano science such as summary, plenty room at the bottom, access way to nano technique, nanoparticles using bottom-up method which are a marvel of nature, and modern alchemy : chemical synthesis of artificial nano structure, understanding of quantum mechanics, STM/AFM, nano metal powder, ceramic nanoparticles, nano structure film, manufacture of nanoparticles using reverse micelle method, carbon nano tube, sol-gel material, nano energy material, nano catalyst nano bio material technology and spintronics.

  20. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  1. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  2. Materializing Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Geismar, H.; Horst, H. A.

    2004-01-01

    The articles in this volume were originally presented in a panel entitled ‘Material Methodologies’ at the American Anthropological Association meeting in New Orleans (November 2002). The panel was devised to tie together theoretical advances in the study of the material with the creative possibilities of fieldwork practices. Through detailed ethnographic discussion, we highlighted the ways in which a focus on a specifically material world enabled us to discover new perspecti...

  3. Transgender Parenting: A Review of Existing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Stotzer, Rebecca L; Herman, Jody L; Hasenbush, Amira

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this report reviewed 51 studies that analyze data about transgender parents. This report reviews the existing research on the prevalence and characteristics of transgender people who are parents, the quality of relationships between transgender parents and their children, outcomes for children with a transgender parent, and the reported needs of transgender parents. Overall, the authors found that substantial numbers of transgender people are parents, though at rates below the ...

  4. Tiger Parents or Sheep Parents?: Struggles of Parental Involvement in Working-Class Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Desirée Baolian; Han, Eun-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Research on Chinese immigrant parents tends to focus on their high levels of educational involvement and its positive impact on their children's exceptional educational performances. Relatively little research has been conducted to understand the challenges Chinese immigrant parents face in helping their children with school…

  5. Infant-Parent Attachment and Parental and Child Behavior during Parent-Toddler Storybook Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Cynthia A.; Cox, Martha J.; Goldman, Barbara Davis

    2001-01-01

    Examined longitudinal associations between infant-parent attachment and parent/toddler behavior during storybook interaction. Found that infants with insecure-resistant attachment with mothers were less enthusiastic and focused during storybook interaction at 24 months. Mothers of insecure-resistant infants were less warm/supportive, and less…

  6. Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting through the Cultural Notion of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…

  7. Parental monitoring, parental warmth, and minority youths' academic outcomes: exploring the integrative model of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Katie; Dotterer, Aryn M

    2013-09-01

    Guided by the integrative model of parenting, the present study investigated the relationship between parental monitoring and racial/ethnic minority adolescents' school engagement and academic motivation as a function of parental warmth, and explored whether these associations varied for boys and girls. Participants (60 % female) were 208 sixth through eighth grade students (63 % African American, 19 % Latino, 18 % Multiracial) from an urban middle school in the Midwestern United States. Youth completed an in-school survey with items on parenting (parental monitoring, mothers'/fathers' warmth), cognitive engagement (school self-esteem), behavioral engagement (school trouble), and academic motivation (intrinsic motivation). As hypothesized, mothers' warmth enhanced the association between parental monitoring and youths' engagement and motivation. No gender differences in these associations emerged. Fathers' warmth strengthened the negative association between parental monitoring and school trouble, and this association was stronger for boys. Implications regarding the importance of sustaining a high level of monitoring within the context of warm parent-adolescent relationships to best support academic outcomes among minority youth are discussed.

  8. Materials characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azali Muhammad

    2005-01-01

    Various nuclear techniques have been developed and employed by technologies and scientists worldwide to physically and chemically characterise the material particularly those that have applications in industry. These include small angle neutron scattering (SANS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) for the internal structural study of material, whereas, the x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for the chemical analysis, while the Moessbauer spectroscopy for the study on the magnetic properties and structural identity of material. Basic principle and instrumentations of the techniques are discussed in this chapter. Example of their applications in various disciplines particularly in characterisation of industrial materials also described

  9. Parenting influences on Latino children's social competence in the first grade: parental depression and parent involvement at home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R; Shewakramani, Vansa; Goldberg, Simon; Padilla, Brian

    2013-10-01

    Although it is widely accepted that parental depression is associated with problems with children's socioemotional adjustment, the pathways by which parental depression influences children's adjustment, particularly in low-income Latino children are not fully understood. In our investigation of 1,462 low-income Latino children in the first grade and their Spanish- and English-dominant parents, a factor analysis revealed three main pathways of possible influence of parent involvement in children's social development: emotional involvement and educational involvement at home and at school. The findings from multigroup structural equation modeling revealed that whereas the first two pathways mediated the effect of parental depression on child social competence for Spanish-dominant parents, only emotional involvement explained parental depression effects for English-dominant parents. Parent educational involvement at school did not mediate parental depression effects for either Spanish- or English-dominant Latino parents. Discussion and implications of findings with respect to research, practice, and policy with Latinos follow.

  10. Guide for First-Time Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  11. Danger of Antibiotic Overuse (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  12. When Your Parents Fight (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  13. Osgood-Schlatter Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  14. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  15. Relationship of personal authoritarianism with parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Laura

    2006-02-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).

  16. Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  17. DYADIC PARENTING AND CHILDREN'S EXTERNALIZING SYMPTOMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Karen B; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-07-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Three distinct groups emerged: Supportive Parents, Mixed-Support Parents and Unsupportive Parents. Results indicate that dyadic parenting styles were related to teacher-reported externalizing symptoms for boys but not for girls.

  18. Divorce process variables and the co-parental relationship and parental role fulfillment of divorced parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nehami

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the association between two sets of divorce process variables, a) initiation of and responsibility for the divorce and b) difficulty and duration of the legal procedure, and divorced spouses' co-parental relationship and parental functioning. In a random sample of 50 former couples, in Israel, findings showed that the longer and more conflictual the legal proceedings, the worse the coparental relationship in the view of both parents. They also showed that mothers' parental functioning was not significantly associated with any of the divorce variables, but fathers' were. The more responsibility the father assumed for the divorce and the more he viewed himself as the initiator, the more he fulfilled his parental functions. The findings are interpreted in the discussion, and their theoretical and practical implications considered.

  19. Parents' common pitfalls of discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoonchart, Chatree; Fangsa-ard, Thitiporn; Chaoaree, Supamit; Ketumarn, Panom; Kaewpornsawan, Titawee; Phatthrayuttawat, Sucheera

    2005-11-01

    Problems of discipline are common among parents. These may be the results of the parents' pitfalls in disciplining their children. To find out common pitfalls of parents in disciplining their children. Parents of students with ages ranged between 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, were selected by random sampling. Total number of 1947 children ages between 60-72 months were recruited. Parents of these children were interviewed with a questionnaire designed to probe into problems in child rearing. There hindered and fifty questionnaires were used for data analyses. Parents had high concerns about problems in discipline their children and needed support from professional personnel. They had limited knowledge and possessed lots of wrong attitude towards discipline. Common pitfalls on the topics were problems in, 1) limit setting 2) rewarding and punishment 3) supervision on children watching TV and bedtime routines. Parents of children with ages 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, had several common pitfalls in disciplining their children, including attitude, knowledge and practice.

  20. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  1. New materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S.K.; Rao, C.N.R.; Tsuruta, T.

    1992-01-01

    The book contains the state-of-the art lectures delivered at the discussion meeting on new materials, a field in which rapid advances are taking place. The main objective of the meeting was to bring active scientists in this area from Japan and India together. The topics covered diverse aspects of modern materials including high temperature superconducting compounds. (M.G.B.)

  2. Materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    the document is a collection of papers on different aspects of materials science. It discusses many items such as semiconductors, surface properties and interfaces, construction and civil engineering, metallic materials, polymers and composites, biology and biomaterials, metallurgy etc.. - 1 - Document1 Document1

  3. Parent-child interaction in motor speech therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Jethava, Vibhuti; Pukonen, Margit; Huynh, Anna; Goshulak, Debra; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    intervention. In developmental motor speech interventions, high-intensity treatment (2×/week/10 weeks) facilitates greater changes in the parent-child interactions than low intensity treatment (1×/week/10 weeks). On one hand, parents may need to attend more than five sessions with the clinician to learn how to observe and address their child's speech difficulties. On the other hand, children with speech sound disorders may need more than 10 sessions to adapt to structured play settings even when activities and therapy materials are age-appropriate.

  4. When children affect parents: Children's academic performance and parental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurk Quadlin, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Sociologists have extensively documented the ways that parent resources predict children's achievement. However, less is known about whether and how children's academic performance shapes parental investment behaviors. I use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and longitudinal fixed effects models to examine how changes in teacher assessments are related to changes in the conferral of various parent resources. Overall, I find that the relationship between achievement and investment varies based on the directionality in children's achievement and the type of resource at hand. Children whose performance improves receive a broad range of enrichment resources, while declines in performance are met with corrective educational resources. Results are largely consistent whether language or math assessments are used to predict investment, and also among children whose achievement does not change over time. I discuss these patterns, along with implications for the use of parent resources in education and family research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental alienation: when parents and children need help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Filipa Mendonça Gomes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The social changes that are contributing to modifications in family structure are also, among others, associated with an increase in divorces and difficulties in parenting. In this context, there are specific problems that arise such as parental alienation, where one of the parents, through manipulative strategies and maneuvers, tries to tarnish the image of the other, seeking to exclude him of child's life, destroying their bonding. Often, these actions can turn on false allegations of child abuse. For this reason it becomes even more important raising awareness on this issue. This article will focus the concept of parental alienation, as well as its causes, manifestations and effects that are associated with their practice.

  6. Parenting narcissus: what are the links between parenting and narcissism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Robert S; Bleau, Geoff; Drwecki, Brian

    2006-04-01

    Previous theorizing by clinical psychologists suggests that adolescent narcissism may be related to parenting practices (Kernberg, 1975; Kohut, 1977). Two studies investigated the relations between parenting dimensions (i.e., warmth, monitoring, and psychological control) and narcissism both with and without removing from narcissism variance associated with trait self-esteem. Two hundred and twenty-two college students (Study 1) and 212 high school students (Study 2) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, a trait self-esteem scale, and standard measures of the three parenting dimensions. Parental warmth was associated positively and monitoring was associated negatively with both types of narcissism. Psychological control was positively associated with narcissism scores from which trait self-esteem variance had been removed. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed, limitations are addressed, and future research directions are suggested.

  7. Material Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Tsaknaki, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    . Consequently we ask what the practice of programming and giving form to such materials would be like? How would we be able to familiarize ourselves with the dynamics of these materials and their different combinations of cause and effect? Which tools would we need and what would they look like? Will we program......, and color, but additionally being capable of sensing, actuating, and computing. Indeed, computers will not be things in and by themselves, but embedded into the materials that make up our surroundings. This also means that the way we interact with computers and the way we program them, will change...... these computational composites through external computers and then transfer the code them, or will the programming happen closer to the materials? In this feature we outline a new research program that floats between imagined futures and the development of a material programming practice....

  8. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Solihull, GB; Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  9. Materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Materials Science Division is engaged in research on physical properties of materials and the effects of radiation upon them. This involves solid state materials undergoing phase transitions, energy storing materials, and biomaterials. The Division also offers research facilities for M.S. and Ph.D. thesis work in the fields of physics, chemistry, materials, and radiation sciences in cooperation with the various colleges and departments of the UPR Mayaguez Campus. It is anticipated that it will serve as a catalyst in starting energy-related research programs in cooperation with UPR faculty, especially programs involving solar energy. To encourage and promote cooperative efforts, contact is maintained with former graduate students and with visiting scientists from Latin American research institutions

  10. Touching Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2012-01-01

    Dripping ink pens, colourful paint on skin, vegetables pots on a school roof. In interviews with three generations of former school pupils, memories of material objects bore a relation to everyday school life in the past. Interwoven, these objects entered the memorising processes, taking...... the interviewer and interviewee beyond an exclusively linguistic understanding of memory. This article analyses how the shifting objects of materiality in personal and generational school memories connects to material as well as sensuous experiences of everyday school life and its complex processes of learning....... Drawing on anthropological writings, the article argues that the objects of materiality are part of important but non-verbalised memories of schooling. The Dutch philosopher Eelco Runia’s notions of presence and metonymy are incorporated as tools for approaching objects of materiality in memory studies....

  11. When nurses compete with parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, B L

    1980-01-01

    Subtle competition flourishes between parents and nurses in neonatal intensive care settings. Because the parents have so little opportunity to contribute to the care of their infants, and because they come to the experience with a broad range of emotional preparation, they often feel displaced by the competent and occassionally overprotective staff nurses. The nurses may not recognize the subtle forms of competition but they do cope with outcomes: hostile or uncooperative parents. This article describes competitive situations, discusses the impact upon the family, and recommends alternatives to competitive nursing care.

  12. Perinatal grief in Latino parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Claudia; Kavanaugh, Karen; Klima, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research exists that describes the meaning of perinatal loss to some parents, but the experience of loss from the perspective of Latino parents is not clearly understood. Additionally, current perinatal bereavement practices used often to facilitate memory making for parents (such as viewing or holding the baby, taking photographs, or collecting mementos) are based on research done primarily with non-Latino families. Are these common practices appropriate for this population? Because there is a paucity of research on this topic, this article describes what has been written over the past 30 years on the topic of grief and perinatal loss in Latino culture.

  13. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-09-01

    "Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  14. Do parents of adolescents request the same universal parental support as parents of younger children? A random sample of Swedish parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorslund, Karin; Johansson Hanse, Jan; Axberg, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    Universal parental support intended to enhance parents' capacity for parenting is an important aspect of public health strategies. However, support has mostly been aimed at parents, especially mothers, of younger children. There is a gap in the research concerning parents of adolescents and fathers' interest in parenting support. To investigate and compare the interest in parenting support of parents of adolescents and younger children, potential differences between mothers and fathers, and their knowledge of what is being offered to them already, and to explore their requirements for future universal parental support. Telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 1336 parents. Quantitative methods were used to analyze differences between groups and qualitative methods were used to analyze open-ended questions in regard to parents' requirements for future universal parental support. About 82% of the parents of adolescents interviewed think that offering universal parental support is most important during child's adolescence. There is a substantial interest, particularly among mothers, in most forms of support. Despite their interest, parents have limited awareness of the support available. Only 7% knew about the local municipality website, although 70% reported a possible interest in such a website. Similarly, 3% knew that a parent phone line was available to them, while 59% reported a possible interest. It poses a challenge but is nevertheless important for municipalities to develop support targeted at parents of adolescents which is tailored to their needs, and to reach out with information.

  15. The role of parental personality traits in differential parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dillon T; Meunier, Jean Christophe; O'Connor, Thomas G; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2012-08-01

    Significant relationships have been demonstrated between parental personality and parenting toward individual children, but there is little research exploring the relationship between parental personality and differential parenting (DP). The present study examined the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and differential positivity and negativity in parenting (observed and self-report measures). The analyses are based on a sample of 867 children nested within 381 families. Using multilevel modeling and controlling for child age, gender, birth order, behavior, and family socioeconomic status analyses revealed that maternal and paternal agreeableness were inversely related to reports of differential positivity. Agreeableness predicted observed differential negativity, and the relationship was curvilinear (at both high and low levels of agreeableness, differential negativity was higher). Finally, mothers with the most openness to experience exhibited the highest levels of reported differential negativity. The findings suggest that parental personality is a modest yet important influence to consider when conceptualizing the sources of DP. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Preoperative parental information and parents' presence at induction of anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuto, M; Rosano, G; Rizzo, G; Disma, N; Raciti, L; Sciuto, O

    2006-06-01

    Preoperative preparation of paediatric patients and their environment in order to prevent anxiety is an important issue in paediatric anaesthesia. Anxiety in paediatric patients may lead to immediate negative postoperative responses. When a child undergoes surgery, information about the child's anaesthesia must be provided to parents who are responsible for making informed choices about healthcare on their child's behalf. A combination of written, pictorial, and verbal information would improve the process of informed consent. The issue of parental presence during induction of anaesthesia has been a controversial topic for many years. Potential benefits from parental presence at induction include reducing or avoiding the fear and anxiety that might occur in both the child and its parents, reducing the need for preoperative sedatives, and improving the child's compliance even if other studies showed no effects on the anxiety and satisfaction level. The presence of other figures such as clowns in the operating room, together with one of the child's parents, is an effective intervention for managing child and parent anxiety during the preoperative period.

  17. Parental divorce, adolescents' feelings toward parents and drunkenness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%) were obtained. Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the previous 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced and a measure of their feelings toward their parents. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the previous month, as were the high rates of negative and low rates of positive feelings toward both parents. The effect of divorce on drunkenness strongly decreased if adjusted for the affect of the adolescent toward the father, but not the mother. Our findings indicate that to keep the father positively involved after divorce might be a protective factor with regard to a higher probability of adolescent drunkenness in divorced families. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Becoming an Adoptive Parent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    Our research approaches transnational adoption as a nexus of local and global practices which are mediated in talk, text and other modalities of discourse. We use mediated discourse analysis combined with virtual ethnography to understand the cross-cultural similarities and differences in transna......Our research approaches transnational adoption as a nexus of local and global practices which are mediated in talk, text and other modalities of discourse. We use mediated discourse analysis combined with virtual ethnography to understand the cross-cultural similarities and differences...... in transnational adoption practice and representation. We present the results of our analysis of how the experiences of adoptive parents are (re)mediated in a Danish television documentary series following five prospective adoptive couples, not all of whom succeed in their 'quest' to adopt from abroad. Furthermore......, we trace how adopters publicly narrate their own experiences and problems with fertility and with adoption, as well as how they construct their personal websites, network with others locally and internationally, orient to other ‘sites’ or sources of information, share advice and create 'public goods...

  19. Parent-adolescent dyads: association of parental autonomy support and parent-adolescent shared diabetes care responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, K M; Dashiff, C J; Stump, T E; Weaver, M T

    2013-09-01

    Parent-adolescent shared responsibility for diabetes care is advocated by experts to achieve beneficial diabetes and psychosocial outcomes for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Parental autonomy support may be a way to facilitate this sharing. In this dyadic study, we examined parental diabetes-specific autonomy support experienced by adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents (n = 89 dyads), and its association with their experience of shared diabetes care responsibility. Path analysis was used to test an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model for parental autonomy support effects on shared responsibility. This was a secondary analysis of data from 89 parent-early/mid-adolescent dyads. Actor effects were identified. Parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parental autonomy support were associated with their respective reports of shared diabetes care responsibility. One partner effect was identified. Adolescents' reports of parental autonomy support were associated with parents' reports of shared responsibility. Parents and adolescents held similar views of autonomy support but discrepant views of shared responsibility. Older adolescents perceived less parental autonomy support. Increasing parental autonomy support may facilitate parent-adolescent sharing of diabetes care responsibility. Adolescent and parent perceptions influence each other and need to be considered when working with them to strengthen parental autonomy support. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Validation of the Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales to Measure Parenting Skills and Family Adjustment in Chinese Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingchun; Morawska, Alina; Filus, Ania

    2017-01-01

    This study validated a parent-report measure of the Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales in a Chinese cultural context through investigating 650 Chinese parents. The results provided evidence for satisfactory reliability and validity of Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales in a Chinese context, which is thus promising to be used for Chinese…

  1. Beliefs about Parental Authority, Parenting Styles, and Parent-Adolescent Conflict among Iranian Mothers of Middle Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Seyed Mohammad; Smetana, Judith; Shahmansouri, Nazila; Mohammadi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Associations among parenting styles, parental authority beliefs, and adolescent-parent conflict were examined in 426 mothers of middle adolescents from 3 cities in Iran. Consistent with past research, mothers judged parental authority as less legitimate for personal than for conventional or prudential issues. Poorer, less educated mothers were…

  2. Parents' Calcium Knowledge Is Associated with Parental Practices to Promote Calcium Intake among Parents of Early Adolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Carolyn W.; Rose, Angela M.; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Reicks, Marla; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Boushey, Carol J.; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here aimed to identify the relationship of parents' calcium knowledge with diet-related parental practices and determinants of calcium knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted measuring parental practices, calcium knowledge, and demographics. A convenience sample of 599 racially/ethnically diverse parents of children…

  3. Authoritative parenting and parental stress in parents of pre-school and older children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, L; Grant, E

    2006-03-01

    Rearing a child with a developmental disability is associated with increased parental stress. Theories of stress and adjustment and bi-directional theories of child development suggest that parenting could influence these negative outcomes. Relationships between parenting approaches and stress in parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) (N = 53) were examined across two age groups, 3-5 years and 9-11 years and compared with a contrast group of typically developing children (TD) (N = 60). Measures used were the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and Rickel and Biasatti's modification of Block's Child Rearing Practices Report, classified into Baumrind's parenting styles using Reitman and Gross's method. Parents in the older DD group used Authoritative parenting less than parents in the younger DD group, while the opposite developmental pattern was seen in the TD group. Multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant group x parenting style interaction for Parental Distress, Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction and Difficult Child. Stress measures were higher for the DD group and seemed to be associated with Authoritative parenting approaches, an effect that was not observed in the TD group. Findings suggest that the well-established effect of group on stress may be moderated by parenting style. Authoritative parenting may be highly stressful for parents of children with DD to implement, resulting in a decrease in its use across the two age groups.

  4. In Search of the Sources of Psychologically Controlling Parenting: The Role of Parental Separation Anxiety and Parental Maladaptive Perfectionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Duriez, Bart; Goossens, Luc

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of two dimensions of parental separation anxiety--Anxiety about Adolescent Distancing (AAD) and Comfort with Secure Base Role (CSBR)--and parental maladaptive perfectionism in the prediction of psychologically controlling parenting. In a sample of middle adolescents and their parents (N=677), it was found that…

  5. Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARENTS | DISEASES and the VACCINES THAT PREVENT THEM | Flu (Influenza) and the Vaccine to Prevent It Last updated October 2017 The best way to protect against flu is by getting a flu vaccine. Doctors recommend ...

  6. Safety Tips: Basketball (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Safety Tips: Basketball KidsHealth / For Parents / Safety Tips: Basketball ... make sure they follow these tips. Why Basketball Safety Is Important Fortunately, very few basketball injuries are ...

  7. Parental influence on adolescents' imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, A; Engelberg, D

    1984-09-01

    It was hypothesized that a permissive democratic parental attitude towards childrearing and favorable accepting attitude towards children's imagination are conducive to the development of their adolescent children's imaginative ability. It was also hypothesized that the mothers' role is more crucial than that of the fathers. The subjects were 104 adolescent Israeli boys and girls and their parents. The subjects were administered four scales of the Imaginal Processes Inventory and the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory. The parents filled out a questionnaire devised to study their attitude to children's imagination. The first two hypotheses were not confirmed. The data point in the opposite direction as regards the first hypothesis. There was partial conformation for the third hypothesis. The data were also discussed in relation to healthy and neurotic daydreaming.

  8. Prenatal Genetic Counseling (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Prenatal Genetic Counseling KidsHealth / For Parents / Prenatal Genetic Counseling What's in ... can they help your family? What Is Genetic Counseling? Genetic counseling is the process of: evaluating family ...

  9. Parental Involvement In Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, E. Lamonte

    1976-01-01

    Play therapy acts as a medium of expression for children. The purpose of this article is to outline a methodological approach as well as to emphasize the necessity of including the parent in the play therapy situation. (Author)

  10. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth / For Parents / Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... many kids with diabetes take to stay healthy. Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar The two main forms of ...

  11. All about Genetics (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español All About Genetics KidsHealth / For Parents / All About Genetics What's in ... the way they pick up special laboratory dyes. Genetic Problems Errors in the genetic code or "gene ...

  12. Kids and Smoking (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause cancer, heart disease, and lung disease. E-cigarettes , vape pens, and hookahs (water pipes) , which have ... and Asthma Nicotine: What Parents Need to Know E-Cigarettes Secondhand Smoke What Are the Risks of Smoking ...

  13. Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth / For Parents / Mad Cow Disease What's ... Is Being Done About It Print About Mad Cow Disease Mad cow disease has been in the ...

  14. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  15. Collaboration Between Childcare and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn Larsen, Maja

    2017-01-01

    other’s arrangements, but on the other hand, they are structurally connected and continuously interacting due to the crossover of the children’s activities. Therefore, collaboration and coordination between parents and professionals is an important part of childcare practice. Based on comprehensive...... empirical work in different Danish childcare centres, this chapter discusses how parental collaboration in the pedagogical practice is often a rather paradoxical effort, developed in relation to contradictory historical and institutional conditions and requirements to treat parents both as equal...... participants, consumers and clients. In this way, challenges and dilemmas in parental collaboration in childcare are analysed in relation to larger societal conflicts about the relation between society and citizen and the overall purpose of childcare as state institutions....

  16. Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Wound Drainage Culture KidsHealth / For Parents / Wound Drainage Culture What's in ...

  17. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  18. Living with Lupus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Living With Lupus KidsHealth / For Parents / Living With Lupus What's in ... disease for both doctors and their patients. About Lupus A healthy immune system produces proteins called antibodies ...

  19. [Basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation courses for parents of newborns and infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, Diego; Castro, Adriana; Rabasa, Cecilia; Capelli, Carola; Cores Ponte, Florencia; Gutiérrez, Susana; Mariani, Gonzalo; Pacchioni, Sergio; Pardo, Amorina; Pérez, Gastón; Sorgetti, Mariana; Szyld, Edgardo

    2014-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) courses meet all the definitions of an educational activity for prevention of cardiac arrest death by risk patients' parents and/or the general population. The aim is to improve patients' home care and turn parents confident before their children are discharged from hospital, mainly from intensive care units. Currently these courses are part of discharge protocols in many neonatologist services although there are offers that exceed this target, and extend to other areas such as education and caregivers. Locally the experience of neonatal CPR at the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría stands out in connection with delivering courses to high risk patients' parents as well as designing and spreading learning material.

  20. Los padres como consejeros o coparticipes en la toma de decisiones. Serie E: [E1] logro de la participacion de los padres. cuaderno 3. Edicion para el maestro. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as Advisors or Participants in Decision Making. Series E: Parent Participation, Book 3. Teacher Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rodolfo, Comp.

    This guide on training bilingual education teachers focuses on parents as advisors in the decision making process at bilingual schools. The two units, "An Introduction to Parent Participation" and "Parent Participation in Educational Decision Making," include objectives, definitions of terms, lists of materials and equipment, and learning…