WorldWideScience

Sample records for parent life time

  1. Family life under pressure? Parents' paid work and the quantity and quality of parent-child and family time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.

    2010-01-01

    Even though family life and paid work are often considered as difficult to reconcile, prior research found that family time is relatively unaffected by the demands paid work imposes upon employed parents. This dissertation investigates this puzzling finding by exploring how parents protect family

  2. Effect of parent and daughter deformation on half-life time in exotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shi and Swiatecki [6] put forward a model for exotic decay studies that uses Coulomb and proximity potential as interacting barrier for post-scission region and uses simple power law for overlap region. These authors [7] studied the effect of deformation of parent, daughter and shell attenuation on half-life time treating ...

  3. How parents of children receiving pediatric palliative care use religion, spirituality, or life philosophy in tough times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexem, Kari R; Mollen, Cynthia J; Carroll, Karen; Lanctot, Dexter A; Feudtner, Chris

    2011-01-01

    How parents of children with life threatening conditions draw upon religion, spirituality, or life philosophy is not empirically well described. Participants were parents of children who had enrolled in a prospective cohort study on parental decision-making for children receiving pediatric palliative care. Sixty-four (88%) of the 73 parents interviewed were asked an open-ended question on how religion, spirituality, or life philosophy (RSLP) was helpful in difficult times. Responses were coded and thematically organized utilizing qualitative data analysis methods. Any discrepancies amongst coders regarding codes or themes were resolved through discussion that reached consensus. Most parents of children receiving palliative care felt that RSLP was important in helping them deal with tough times, and most parents reported either participation in formal religious communities, or a sense of personal spirituality. A minority of parents, however, did not wish to discuss the topic at all. For those who described their RSLP, their beliefs and practices were associated with qualities of their overall outlook on life, questions of goodness and human capacity, or that "everything happens for a reason." RSLP was also important in defining the child's value and beliefs about the child's afterlife. Prayer and reading the bible were important spiritual practices in this population, and parents felt that these practices influenced their perspectives on the medical circumstances and decision-making, and their locus of control. From religious participation and practices, parents felt they received support from both their spiritual communities and from God, peace and comfort, and moral guidance. Some parents, however, also reported questioning their faith, feelings of anger and blame towards God, and rejecting religious beliefs or communities. RSLP play a diverse and important role in the lives of most, but not all, parents whose children are receiving pediatric palliative care.

  4. The Influence of Parental Education on Timing and Type of Union Formation: Changes Over the Life Course and Over Time in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooyaart, Jarl E; Liefbroer, Aart C

    2016-08-01

    Family background shapes young adults' decisions in their transition to adulthood, and the outcomes of these decisions lay the foundation for their subsequent life course. This study examines the influence of parental education on their children's union formation. We examine the timing of entry into a first union (a married or a cohabiting union), the choice between marriage and cohabitation, and the timing of first marriage. Data from eight nationally representative surveys conducted in the Netherlands are pooled (N = 39,777), with respondents being born between 1930 and 1990, to examine not only the effect of parental education on union formation but also whether this effect changes over birth cohorts, periods, and the life course, and varies by gender. Results from discrete-time hazard analyses show little change in the effect of parental education across cohorts and periods but strong life-course effects. Gender differences in the effect of parental education are relatively small.

  5. The Influence of Parental Education on Timing and Type of Union Formation : Changes Over the Life Course and Over Time in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooyaart, Jarl E.; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    Family background shapes young adults' decisions in their transition to adulthood, and the outcomes of these decisions lay the foundation for their subsequent life course. This study examines the influence of parental education on their children's union formation. We examine the timing of entry into

  6. Quality of life among pediatric patients with cancer: Contributions of time since diagnosis and parental chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Taralee; Latzman, Robert D; Latzman, Natasha E; Elkin, T David; Majumdar, Suvankar

    2015-07-01

    Pediatric cancer is associated with a host of negative psychosocial consequences; however, outcomes vary extensively suggesting a need to better understand this variation. Empirical research suggests a positive association between time since diagnosis (TSD) and Quality of Life (QoL). In addition to TSD, family stressors have been found to be particularly important in predicting QoL among children. The current study examined parental chronic stress beyond TSD in explanation of QoL functioning among a sample of pediatric patients with cancer. Participants included 43 pediatric patients aged 5-18 years (M(age) = 10.2 ± 3.6) who were undergoing oncological treatment. Parents reported on TSD, child's QoL, and their own chronic stress. TSD was associated with greater physical functioning (r = 0.30, P stress was associated with poorer emotional (r = -0.54, P stress contributed incrementally beyond TSD in the explanation of physical (β = -0.37, t = -2.58, P stress is associated with reduced levels of emotional, physical, and social functioning among pediatric patients. Future research is needed to further investigate the process by which chronic stress within the family interferes with adaptive coping among pediatric patients. In addition, clinical services may benefit from increased consideration of family factors, such as parental chronic stress, during oncological treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. On duty all the time: Health and quality of life among immigrant parents caring for a child with complex health needs

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Albertini Früh, Elena; Brekke, Idunn; Gardsjord, Ragnhild; Halvorsrud, Liv; Lidén, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To provide knowledge about how immigrant parents of children with complex health needs manage their family lives and how this affects their own health and quality of life. Background: Caregivers of children with complex health needs have additional risk for general health problems and mental health problems and immigrant parents may be more vulnerable to mental distress and failing health and quality of life. Results: Immigrant parents of children with complex health need...

  8. Parents' traces in life: When and how parents are presented in spontaneous life narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köber, Christin; Habermas, Tilmann

    2017-08-26

    Although parents are acknowledged to be a part of their children's personality and narrative identity and to remain important across the life span, narrative personality research has not yet explored the spontaneous presentation of parents in life stories. Therefore, this study examined longitudinally the place given to parents when crafting one's life narrative and how this changes with age. Furthermore, in contrast to prior studies, we focused on spontaneous mentions of parents. We investigated how often parents are mentioned in life narratives of six age groups spanning from age 8 to 69, how the parental relationship is evaluated, whether narrators express understanding of their parents, and whether they respond to parental values. People of all ages dedicated a substantial part of their life narratives to their parents and evaluated their relationship with them in an increasingly differentiated manner. Parents were increasingly perceived as individuals beyond their parental nurturing role. Until late in life, individuals reflect on values and opinions that were transferred to them by their parents. Parents hold a consistent place in life narratives, emphasizing their importance for narrative identity. Results are discussed in terms of lifelong child-parent relationships. Directions for future research are outlined. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. On duty all the time: health and quality of life among immigrant parents caring for a child with complex health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravdal Kvarme, Lisbeth; Albertini-Früh, Elena; Brekke, Idunn; Gardsjord, Ragnhild; Halvorsrud, Liv; Liden, Hilde

    2016-02-01

    To provide knowledge about how immigrant parents of children with complex health needs manage their family lives and how this affects their own health and quality of life. Caregivers of children with complex health needs have additional risk for general health problems and mental health problems and immigrant parents may be more vulnerable to mental distress and failing health and quality of life. This qualitative study used an exploratory design with individual and focus group interviews. Data collection and analysis followed phenomenological hermeneutic guidelines. Individual and group interviews with 27 parents: 18 mothers and 9 fathers from Pakistan, Poland and Vietnam. Immigrant parents of children with complex health needs experience their own health and quality of life challenges. They described the burden of dealing with their child's needs and special care, which affects their sleep and physical and mental health. Single mothers are particularly vulnerable. Parents reported positive and negative effects of their caregiving experience that may affect their health and quality of life. Mothers were the primary caregivers and reported more health problems than did fathers. The lack of respite care, social networks and support impacted maternal health. Immigrant parents struggle to access resources for their child with complex health needs. Hospital nurses, schools and community health care can play a valuable role in supporting the parents of children with complex health needs. It is important that parents are informed about their rights and receive a coordinator and interdisciplinary group to ensure that their needs are met with assistance and respite care. That maternal health was worse in this sample implies that health care professionals should pay more attention to reducing stress among these caregivers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Parental spirituality in life-threatening pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B; Barrera, Maru; Granek, Leeat; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Shaheed, Jenny; Beaune, Laura; Bouffet, Eric; Antle, Beverley

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed parental spirituality in the context of pediatric cancer with a poor prognosis. Drawing upon previous research implementing a longitudinal grounded theory design examining parental hope, 35 parents were interviewed regarding their experiences with an emergent description of the role of spirituality in parents' daily lives. Spirituality included religious beliefs and practices, notions of a higher force or cosmos, relationship with a divine being, as well as elements emerging from meaning-making and relationships. Parental expectations of spirituality remained relatively constant across data collection time points (3-9 months postdiagnosis), although limited variation occurred relative to shifting circumstance (e.g., deterioration of the child's condition). Spirituality appeared to offer: greater acceptance of parents' inability to protect their child from harm related to her/his life-threatening illness, guidance and emotion decompression, and support from one's faith community. Recommendations for integrating spiritual assessment in clinical care practice are offered.

  11. Early-Life Parent-Child Relationships and Adult Children's Support of Unpartnered Parents in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Wu, Hsueh-Sheng

    2018-02-08

    The proportion of older adults who are unpartnered has increased significantly over the past 25 years. Unpartnered older adults often rely on their adult children for support. Most previous studies have focused on proximal factors associated with adult children's support of their parents, while few have examined distal factors, such as parent-child relationships formed during childhood. This study fills the gap by investigating the direct and indirect associations between early-life parent-child relationships and adult children's upward transfers to unpartnered parents. Data came from two supplements to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, in which respondents were asked about their relationships with mothers and fathers before age 17 and their transfers of time and money to parents in 2013. Path models were estimated for unpartnered mother-adult child dyads and father-adult child dyads separately. For adult children of unpartnered mothers, psychological closeness has a direct, positive association with time transfer, while physical violence has an indirect association with time transfer through adult children's marital status. For adult children of unpartnered fathers, psychological closeness has neither a direct nor an indirect association with time or money transfer, but physical violence has a direct, negative association with time transfer. Early-life parent-child relationships play a pivotal role in influencing adult children's caregiving behavior, both directly and indirectly. Our findings suggest that by improving their relationships with children early in life, parents may be able to increase the amount of time transfer that they receive in late life. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Parental self-work: governing enactments in family life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselott Aarsand

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Discourses on lifelong and lifewide learning portray everyday life as a pedagogical space where requirements for how to preferably improve oneself through learning are highly significant. Drawing upon the notion of governmentality, it could be argued that techniques operate within a range of practices to shape, foster and stabilize the assumed adequate ways to perform. Using that particular lens, the case of parenting was investigated to accentuate selves and self-work in narrations on family life in Norway. The analysis illustrates how the techniques of activation and comparison are at work to define, fashion and develop the responsible, involved and attentive parental self, thereby signifying pedagogical claims one should aspire to. However, how this is accomplished differs slightly within the social contexts of family life. Parenting, then, may be discussed as a powerful educative practice for fabricating capable and wellbehaved citizens of contemporary times.

  13. Parental Separation, Parental Alcoholism, and Timing of First Sexual Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Doran, Kelly A.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined timing of first voluntary sexual intercourse as a joint function of parental separation during childhood and parental history of alcoholism. Methods Data were drawn from a birth cohort of female like-sex twins (n=569 African Ancestry [AA], n=3415 European or other Ancestry [EA]). Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first sex from dummy variables coding for parental separation and parental alcoholism. Propensity score analysis was also employed comparing intact and separated families, stratified by predicted probability of separation. Results Earlier sex was reported by EA twins from separated and alcoholic families, compared to EA twins from intact nonalcoholic families, with effects most pronounced through age 14. Among AA twins, effects of parental separation and parental alcoholism were largely nonsignificant. Results of propensity score analyses confirmed unique risks from parental separation in EA families, where consistent effects of parental separation were observed across predicted probability of separation. For AA families there was poor matching on risk-factors presumed to predate separation, which limited interpretability of survival-analytic findings. Conclusions In European American families, parental separation during childhood is an important predictor of early-onset sex, beyond parental alcoholism and other correlated risk-factors. To characterize risk for African Americans associated with parental separation, additional research is needed where matching on confounders can be achieved. PMID:25907653

  14. Parental separation, parental alcoholism, and timing of first sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Doran, Kelly A; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Duncan, Alexis E; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Sartor, Carolyn E; Heath, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    We examined timing of first voluntary sexual intercourse as a joint function of parental separation during childhood and parental history of alcoholism. Data were drawn from a birth cohort of female like-sex twins (n = 569 African ancestry [AA]; n = 3,415 European or other ancestry [EA]). Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first sex from dummy variables coding for parental separation and parental alcoholism. Propensity score analysis was also employed to compare intact and separated families, stratified by predicted probability of separation. Earlier sex was reported by EA twins from separated and alcoholic families, compared to EA twins from intact nonalcoholic families, with effects most pronounced through the age of 14 years. Among AA twins, effects of parental separation and parental alcoholism were largely nonsignificant. Results of propensity score analyses confirmed unique risks from parental separation in EA families, where consistent effects of parental separation were observed across predicted probability of separation. For AA families, there was poor matching on risk factors presumed to predate separation, which limited interpretability of survival-analytic findings. In European American families, parental separation during childhood is an important predictor of early-onset sex, beyond parental alcoholism and other correlated risk factors. To characterize risk for African Americans associated with parental separation, additional research is needed where matching on confounders can be achieved. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Life history and the evolution of parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B

    2010-03-01

    Patterns of parental care are strikingly diverse in nature, and parental care is thought to have evolved repeatedly multiple times. Surprisingly, relatively little is known about the most general conditions that lead to the origin of parental care. Here, we use a theoretical approach to explore the basic life-history conditions (i.e., stage-specific mortality and maturation rates, reproductive rates) that are most likely to favor the evolution of some form of parental care from a state of no care. We focus on parental care of eggs and eggs and juveniles and consider varying magnitudes of the benefits of care. Our results suggest that parental care can evolve under a range of life-history conditions, but in general will be most strongly favored when egg death rate in the absence of care is high, juvenile survival in the absence of care is low (for the scenario in which care extends into the juvenile stage), adult death rate is relatively high, egg maturation rate is low, and the duration of the juvenile stage is relatively short. Additionally, parental care has the potential to be favored at a broad range of adult reproductive rates. The relative importance of these life-history conditions in favoring or limiting the evolution of care depends on the magnitude of the benefits of care, the relationship between initial egg allocation and subsequent offspring survival, and whether care extends into the juvenile stage. The results of our model provide a general set of predictions regarding when we would expect parental care to evolve from a state of no care, and in conjunction with other work on the topic, will enhance our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of parental care and facilitate comparative analyses.

  16. Quality of Life of Parents of Children with Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Joanna; Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2017-06-09

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic dermatitis in children. The influence of AD on quality of life of parents of children with AD was studied using the Family Dermatology Life Quality Index (FDLQI). Fifty children with AD were included in the study (age range 2-24 months) together with their parents. Children's AD was found to influence the quality of life of both parents; however, it had a more significant influence on quality of life of mothers than that of fathers (mean FDLQI: 17.1 ± 5.3 vs. 14.7 ± 5.8 points; p children's AD, mothers spent more time caring for them and carried out more household duties. Childhood AD had a greater impact on quality of life of fathers through influence on their work or education. The influence of AD on the quality of life of family members is significant, and this should be taken into account in the therapeutic process.

  17. The Time Parents and Children Spend Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Mark E.

    Questions about how parents' childrearing time becomes associated with different developmental outcomes and about the relative importance of the quantity and quality of shared parent/child time remain largely unanswered. A study explored such associations in a sample of 48 white middle class third and fourth graders (24 boys and 24 girls) and…

  18. Quality of Life of Parents of Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Marciniak; Adam Reich; Jacek C. Szepietowski

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic dermatitis in children. The influence of AD on quality of life of parents of children with AD was studied using the Family Dermatology Life Quality Index (FDLQI). Fifty children with AD were included in the study (age range 2–24 months) together with their parents. Children’s AD was found to influence the quality of life of both parents; however, it had a more significant influence on quality of life of moth...

  19. Parental Perceptions of Life Context Variables for Involvement in Their Young Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Ali Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover Turkish parents' perceptions of life context variables, including personal knowledge and skills and personal time and energy for involvement activities in their young children's education. The scales used in this study were based on parents' self-report, and included: (1) Parental Perceptions of Personal…

  20. Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

  1. What influences parents' decisions to limit or withdraw life support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Mahesh; Meert, Kathleen L; Sarnaik, Ashok P

    2005-09-01

    Decisions to forgo life support from critically ill children are commonly faced by parents and physicians. Previous research regarding parents' perspectives on the decision-making process has been limited by retrospective methods and the use of closed-ended questionnaires. We prospectively identified and described parents' self-reported influences on decisions to forgo life support from their children. Deeper understanding of parents' views will allow physicians to focus end-of-life discussions on factors important to parents and help resolve conflicts. Prospective, qualitative pilot study. Pediatric intensive care unit of a university-affiliated children's hospital. A total of 14 parents of ten children whose pediatric intensive care unit physician had made a recommendation to limit or withdraw life support. : In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with parents during their decision-making process. Factors influencing the parents in this study in their decision to forgo life support included their previous experience with death and end-of-life decision making for others, their personal observations of their child's suffering, their perceptions of their child's will to survive, their need to protect and advocate for their child, and the family's financial resources and concerns regarding life-long care. Parents in this study expressed the desire to do what is best for their child but struggled with feelings of selfishness, guilt, and the need to avoid agony and sorrow. Physician recommendations, review of options, and joint formulation of a plan helped parents gain a sense of control over their situation. Parents of eight children agreed to forgo life support and parents of two did not. Prospective interviews with open-ended questions identified factors influencing parents' decision making not previously described in the critical care literature such as parents' past experiences with end-of-life decisions and their anticipated emotional adjustments and

  2. Time with Children, Children's Well-Being, and Work-Family Balance among Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkie, Melissa A.; Kendig, Sarah M.; Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Denny, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    Cultural imperatives for "good" parenting include spending time with children and ensuring that they do well in life. Knowledge of how these factors influence employed parents' work-family balance is limited. Analyses using time diary and survey data from the 2000 National Survey of Parents (N = 933) indicate that how time with children relates to…

  3. Later Life Parental Divorce and Widowhood: Impact on Young Adults' Assessment of Parent-Child Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored implications of later life parental divorce and widowhood for relationship between parents and young adult children among 3,281 young adults who grew up in intact families. Family disruption that occurred after children were grown had sizable effects on parent-adult child relations, with later life divorce lowering relationship quality…

  4. Very Preterm Birth and Parents' Quality of Life 27 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Baumann, Nicole; Busch, Barbara; Bartmann, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Parents of preterm children experience increased distress early in their children's lives. Whether the quality of life of parents of preterm children is comparable to that of parents of term children by the time their offspring reach adulthood is unknown. What precursors in their offspring's childhood predict parental quality of life? A prospective whole-population study in Germany followed very preterm (VP) (parents (VP or VLBW: N = 219; term: N = 227) from birth to adulthood. Parental quality of life was evaluated with the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment and the Satisfaction with Life questionnaire when their offspring were adults (mean age 27.3 years, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.2 to 27.3). Childhood standard assessments of VP or VLBW and term offspring included neurosensory disability, academic achievement, mental health, and parent-child and peer relationships. Overall quality of life of parents of VP or VLBW adults was found to be comparable to parents of term individuals ( P > .05). Parental quality of life was not predicted by their children being born VP or VLBW, experiencing disability, academic achievement, or the parent-child relationship in childhood but by their offspring's mental health (B = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.22) and peer relationships (B = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.16) in childhood. As a testament to resilience, parents of VP or VLBW adults had quality of life comparable to parents of term adults. Support and interventions to improve mental health and peer relationships in all children are likely to improve parents' quality of life. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Parental anxiety and quality of life of epileptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Ji, Cheng-Ye; Qin, Jiong; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence of parental anxiety associated with epileptic children, and to explore whether and how this specific condition affects children's quality of life (QOL), and what are the significant determinants for parental anxiety. Three hundred and forty parents whose children were affected with known epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Questionnaires for quality of life in childhood epilepsy (QOLCE), and hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) of parents were used to collect demographic data of both children and their parents, as well as clinical manifestations of epilepsy and family status. Parental anxiety (of any severity) was observed in 191 subjects at interview, giving a prevalence rate of 56.2%. Of the 191 subjects, 18.5% reported mild anxiety, 24.4% moderate anxiety, and 13.2% severe anxiety. Factors associated with parental anxiety included frequency of seizure in children, average monthly income per person and parents' knowledge about epilepsy (P < 0.05). Parental anxiety significantly (P = 0.000) correlated with quality of life of children with epilepsy. Parents of children with epilepsy are at high risk of having anxiety. Factors associated with parental anxiety originate both from children and from parents. Parental anxiety is significantly related with children's QOL. It is important for experts concerned to recognize such a relationship to improve the QOL of children and their parents.

  6. Parenting Stress in Parents of Infants With Congenital Heart Disease and Parents of Healthy Infants: The First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfenshtein, Nadya; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Deatrick, Janet A; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    While we know that the parents of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD), the most prevalent group of congenital anomalies, experience increased parenting stress, the stress levels throughout infancy have yet to be studied. Stress experienced by parents beyond the normative stress of parenting can interfere with parenting processes, and bear adverse family outcomes. This prospective cohort study was conducted to describe and compare parenting stress levels during infancy between parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants. The Parenting Stress Index-Long Form was distributed to parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants (N = 129). T-tests were used to compare stress between groups at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Parents of infants with complex CHD had higher parenting stress than parents of healthy infants on multiple subscales on the Child and Parent Domains, at 3 months of age. The stress remained higher on the demandingness subscale throughout infancy. Parents of CHD infants also demonstrated significantly higher stress scores on the life stress subscale at 12 months of age. Findings highlight stressful periods related to parenting infants with CHD, which may increase existing psycho-social risk for parents of infants with CHD. Early family intervention may promote parental adaptation to the illness, and help establishing healthy parenting practices.

  7. Children with Down Syndrome: Life Stories of Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Esquivel-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the premise that early stimulation is the appropriate program to start the integral care and education of newborns with Down Syndrome, with the primary objective being to optimize their cognitive, physical and socio-emotional capabilities. For this purpose, a naturalist paradigm and a descriptive case type approach were used, mainly with qualitative data related to the life stories of parents with Down Syndrome children. Parents (9 mothers and one father participated voluntarily in the research project. One of the instruments used was the compilation of life histories, which were collected though interviews to parents and were systematized in the form of chronicles.  Another instrument was phrases or sentences to fill in the blanks, which were used to know the deepest impressions experienced by parents before and after the birth of their Down Syndrome child.  This paper is intended to provide support to those who experience daily situations similar to the ones mentioned here and, particularly to impact on the time management in the integral development of children with this condition.

  8. Parents' daily time with their children: a workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly D; Lawson, Katie M; Almeida, David M; Kelly, Erin L; King, Rosalind B; Hammer, Leslie; Casper, Lynne M; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Hanson, Ginger; McHale, Susan M

    2015-05-01

    In the context of a group randomized field trial, we evaluated whether parents who participated in a workplace intervention, designed to increase supervisor support for personal and family life and schedule control, reported significantly more daily time with their children at the 12-month follow-up compared with parents assigned to the Usual Practice group. We also tested whether the intervention effect was moderated by parent gender, child gender, or child age. The Support-Transform-Achieve-Results Intervention was delivered in an information technology division of a US Fortune 500 company. Participants included 93 parents (45% mothers) of a randomly selected focal child aged 9 to 17 years (49% daughters) who completed daily telephone diaries at baseline and 12 months after intervention. During evening telephone calls on 8 consecutive days, parents reported how much time they spent with their child that day. Parents in the intervention group exhibited a significant increase in parent-child shared time, 39 minutes per day on average, between baseline and the 12-month follow-up. By contrast, parents in the Usual Practice group averaged 24 fewer minutes with their child per day at the 12-month follow-up. Intervention effects were evident for mothers but not for fathers and for daughters but not sons. The hypothesis that the intervention would improve parents' daily time with their children was supported. Future studies should examine how redesigning work can change the quality of parent-child interactions and activities known to be important for youth health and development. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Assessment of parental discipline in daily life.

    OpenAIRE

    Passini Christina Moses; Pihet Sandrine; Favez Nicolas; Schoebi Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) for studying parenting has been rare. We examined the psychometric properties and structural validity of an EMA Parenting Scale based on 32 mothers' reports of their parenting over a period of 10 consecutive days and explored the acceptance of the scale and compliance with the procedure. The results suggested that the EMA Parenting Scale was well accepted for the assessment of daily parenting and that it consistently captured the overreactive a...

  10. Parenting Styles and Life Satisfaction of Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya

    2012-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' perception of satisfaction from various life domains according to gender and parenting styles among 562 Turkish adolescents [53.2% girls; Mean (M) age = 14.1, Standard Deviation (SD) = 0.85]. The participants completed the multidimensional students' life satisfaction scale and the parenting style inventory. The…

  11. Parental self-feeding effects on parental care levels and time allocation in Palestine sunbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Markman

    Full Text Available The trade-off between parents feeding themselves and their young is an important life history problem that can be considered in terms of optimal behavioral strategies. Recent studies on birds have tested how parents allocate the food between themselves and their young. Until now the effect of food consumption by parent birds on their food delivery to their young as well as other parental activities has rarely been studied. I have previously shown that parent Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea will consume nectar and liquidized arthropods from artificial feeders. However, they will only feed their young with whole arthropods. This provided a unique opportunity to experimentally manipulate the food eaten by parents independent of that fed to their offspring. Here, I hypothesized that parents invest in their current young according to the quality of food that they themselves consume. Breeding pairs with two or three nestlings were provided with feeders containing water (control, sucrose solution (0.75 mol or liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution (0.75 mol. As food quality in feeders increased (from water up to liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution: 1 Parents (especially females increased their food delivery of whole arthropod prey to their young. 2 Only males increased their nest guarding effort. Nestling food intake and growth rate increased with increasing food quality of parents and decreasing brood size. These results imply that increasing the nutrient content of foods consumed by parent sunbirds allow them to increase the rate at which other foods are delivered to their young and to increase the time spent on other parental care activities.

  12. Perceived parental food controlling practices are related to obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Tatjana; van Niekerk, Rianne; Ouwens, Machteld A

    2009-08-01

    To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or leptogenic. Are these foods controlling practices more indicative of obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors? In a sample of 7-12-year-old boys and girls (n = 943) the perceived parental food controlling practices were related to various measures for unhealthy life style. Using factor analysis we assessed whether there is a constellation of lifestyle behaviors that is potentially obesogenic or leptogenic. Remarkably, perceived parental restriction and pressure loaded on two different factors. Perceived parental restriction to eat had a negative loading on a factor that further comprised potential obesogenic child life style behaviors, such as snacking (positive loading), time spend with screen media (television or computer) (positive loadings) and frequency of fruit consumption (negative loading). Perceived parental pressure to eat had a positive loading on a factor that further comprised potential leptogenic life style behaviors such as frequency of eating a breakfast meal and sporting (positive loadings). It is concluded that low perceived parental restriction in regard to food may perhaps be a sign of more uninvolved 'neglecting' or indulgent parenting/obesogenic home environment, whereas high perceived parental pressure to eat may be sign of a more 'concerned' leptogenic parenting/home environment, though more research into style of parenting is needed.

  13. The family context of low-income parents who restrict child screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents restrict child screen time to two hours per day, but many preschool-aged children exceed this viewing recommendation. Modifying children's viewing habits will require collaborating with parents, but little is known about the factors that influence parents' capacity for effective screen-related parenting. This study aimed to identify the demographic, family and community contextual factors associated with low-income parents' restriction of child screen time. Parents (N=146) of children (age 2-5 years) attending Head Start centers in the United States completed a self-report survey in 2010 assessing parent and child screen use (television, DVD, video, video games, and leisure-time computer use), parent restriction of child screen time, and family (parent stress, social support, and life pressures) and community (neighborhood safety and social capital) factors. Children were more likely to meet the American Academy of Pediatrics screen time recommendation if their parent reported high restriction of child screen time. Parent and child demographic characteristics were not associated with parents' restriction of child screen time. In multivariate analysis, less parent screen time, fewer parent life pressures, and greater social support were associated with parents' high restriction of screen time. Family contextual factors may play an important role in enabling low-income parents to restrict their children's screen time. When counseling low-income parents about the importance of restricting child screen time, practitioners should be sensitive to family contextual factors that may influence parents' capacity to implement this behavior change.

  14. Parental quality-of-life impacts following children's dento-alveolar trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, Jenny M; Rodd, Helen D; Baker, Sarah R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the impacts of children's dental injuries on parents and explore how demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics influence parental adaptation to dental injuries over time. A total of 244 families attending a UK-based Dental Hospital, for management of their child's traumatized permanent teeth, were invited to participate. Clinical information relating to the child's injury was collected from patient notes. Self-report questionnaires collected baseline information on children's oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL), parental satisfaction with dental treatment and parental health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and worry. Parental outcomes were assessed again at a six-month follow up. 108 children and 113 parents participated in the baseline study (44% and 46% response rates), and of this group, a total of 73 parents completed follow-up questionnaires (65% response rate). Parents reported improved HRQoL at follow up; however, parental worry did not decrease over time. Parental satisfaction with treatment and children's OHRQoL were the only significant predictors of parental HRQoL at the six-month follow up. The findings highlight the inter-relationship between child and parental outcomes following their children's dental injuries and the importance of the dental team delivering a family-centred approach for the management of their children's dental injuries. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Parenting the Premature Infant: Balancing Vulnerability and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiser, C.; Eiser, J. R.; Mayhew, A. G.; Gibson, A. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Relationships between child quality of life (QOL), maternal well-being and parenting were explored in a questionnaire study. Method: Mothers of 126 full-term (FT) and 91 pre-term (PT) infants during the child's second year of life completed measures of their own and the child's quality of life and behavioural difficulties. We developed…

  16. [End-of-life care in a Spanish Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: staff and parental evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagarro García, A; Dorao Martínez-Romillo, P; Moraleda, S; López, P; Moreno, T; San-José, B; Martínez Biarge, M; Tapia Moreno, R; Ruza-Tarrío, F

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate end-of-life care in a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Retrospective study developed in a PICU. 41 workers from the PICU and parents of 26 deceased children (from 2001 to 2005). A questionnaire was designed to investigate end-of-life care. An age parents were with their children at the time of death; 64 % of all parents consider this "positive", and 13 % consider it "negative". Forty per cent of staff stated that it is "positive" for parents to be by the side of their child at the time of death, and 52 % do not know. Seventy-three per cent of staff, but only 29 % of parents want further professional psychological support for parents. Twenty per cent of children died following withdrawal of life support. The most important factors for this decision were the possibility of survival and quality of life. The majority (73 %) of caregivers express the view that often, this decision should be taken earlier. Analysis of staff opinions underlines the importance of the way news is communicated, the timing of withdrawal of life support, and the need for psychological support. Parents emphasized the role of the family during time spent in a PICU and during the last moments.

  17. Parental Divorce, Life-Course Disruption, and Adult Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine E.; Mirowsky, John

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a national sample of adults (N=2,592) surveyed on the association between adult depression and childhood parental divorce. Results suggest that parental divorce may disrupt a person's life course and create lifelong consequences for their well being, by lowering socioeconomic status and increasing problems in interpersonal…

  18. Intergenerational support, satisfaction with parent-child relationship and elderly parents' life satisfaction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chenhong; Kwok, Chi Leung; Law, Yik Wa; Yip, Paul S F; Cheng, Qijin

    2018-01-22

    This study examines in what exchange patterns that three types of intergenerational support are associated with elderly parents' life satisfaction, and whether elderly parents' evaluation on parent-child relationship plays a mediation role on those associations. Data were drawn from Hong Kong Panel Survey for Poverty Alleviation. Respondents aged 65 and over were included ( N=504). Three types of support, namely, daily-living, financial, and emotional support were examined in four patterns-the over-benefited , under-benefited , reciprocal and no flow of exchange. A multivariable linear regression was applied to investigate the association between pattern of intergenerational exchange and life satisfaction, and mediation analysis was employed to examine the mediating role of satisfaction with parent-child relationship on their associations. Elderly parents were less satisfied with their lives when they had no flow of exchange in daily-living support, and more satisfied when they were under-benefited in financial support, and over-benefited or reciprocal in emotional support. Elderly parents' satisfaction with parent-child relationship mediated the association between exchange of emotional support and life satisfaction; but not the association between daily-living or financial support and life satisfaction. Different types of intergenerational support are associated with elderly parents' life satisfaction in different patterns.

  19. Life course of children with parental multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Julie Yoon

    2017-08-01

    The majority of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience onset of MS between the ages of 20 and 40. Since two-thirds of the persons with MS are young women of childbearing age, parenthood is an essential issue during this period of life. The potential influence of parental MS on children arises from the varied symptoms of the chronic illness, which affect physical and cognitive abilities. MS disabilities and fatigue can restrict daily life and result in less energy for activities or job loss and thus worse conditions for the family. This PhD thesis was designed to investigate whether parental MS influences children in different areas throughout the children's life course (i.e. education, employment, disability pension, and income) as well as to explore the experiences of having a parent with MS. We investigated the research question using two distinct METHODS: A quantitative method based on nationwide population-based Danish registers comparing a group of children with one biological parent with MS (termed 'MS offspring') with a matched group of children of parents without MS (termed 'reference cohort') up to 58 years of age (Papers I-II). A qualitative method based on phenomenological face-to-face interviews with young adults with parental MS (Paper III). The nationwide register-based epidemiological method complemented by a phenomenological interview method, the long time-span and the age groups of 'children' up to age 58 are original within this area of research. In Paper I, we investigated the educational achievements of 4,177 MS offspring compared with 33,416 reference children. MS off-spring achieved a higher grade point average in the final class of basic school, at age 15, although they achieved similar educational levels as did the reference children at ages 15 to 58. There was a trend toward more MS offspring women attaining health-related educations than did reference women at ages 21 to 58. In Paper II, we investigated employment and income of 2

  20. Adversity Across the Life Course of Incarcerated Parents: Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Sharon; Nurius, Paula; Eddy, J Mark

    More than half of the 1.6 million adults in U.S. prions are parents. Despite growing knowledge regarding the life course adversities of corrections-involved populations, less is known regarding incarcerated parents per se and the implications of cumulative adversities both on their needs and those of their children. Using a gender-balanced (41% minority) sample of incarcerated parents ( N =357) from a randomized controlled trial of an in-prison parent training program, this study examines differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers in their exposures to adversities across the life course. Mothers and fathers shared similar patterns of adversity exposure in their families of origin, but differed in their experiences of juvenile justice and child welfare systems involvement, as well as in their adult experiences of victimization and related adult social and mental health outcomes. Implications for gender-responsive parent support and prevention programs for their children of incarcerated mothers and fathers are discussed.

  1. Life through time and space

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, Wallace

    2017-01-01

    All humans share three origins: the beginning of our individual lives, the appearance of life on Earth, and the formation of our planetary home. Life through Time and Space brings together the latest discoveries in both biology and astronomy to examine our deepest questions about where we came from, where we are going, and whether we are alone in the cosmos. A distinctive voice in the growing field of astrobiology, Wallace Arthur combines embryological, evolutionary, and cosmological perspectives to tell the story of life on Earth and its potential to exist elsewhere in the universe. He guides us on a journey through the myriad events that started with the big bang and led to the universe we inhabit today. Along the way, readers learn about the evolution of life from a primordial soup of organic molecules to complex plants and animals, about Earth's geological transformation from barren rock to diverse ecosystems, and about human development from embryo to infant to adult. Arthur looks closely at the history...

  2. Working Parents' Use of Work-Life Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. den Dulk (Laura); A. Peper (Bram)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we examine working parent’s use of work-life policies in three financial sector organizations in the Netherlands. We analyse the barriers and support regarding the actual take up of work-life policies by working parents and to what extent this in turn influence their

  3. Quality of life of parents with Down syndrome children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Loureiro Buzatto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the social and demographic features and quality of life of parents that have children with Down syndrome, and to verify the influence that the care of these children has on the quality of life of their parents. Methods: This was an investigative and descriptive study that included a sample of 30 parents that have children with Down syndrome who were registered in the APAE Sao Paulo and APAE Barueri. A questionnaire elaborated by the authors and the Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire were applied. Rresults: In the sample of 30 parents of children with Down syndrome, 80% were female. The age ranged from 28 to 49 years, mean of 37 years. The quality of life was described as “good” by 60% of the sample. The following WOHQOL-BREF scores were found: social (80.72; physical (73.36; environmental (69.74; and psychological (60.28. There were 12 responses about the influence of the care of Down syndrome children on quality of life, of which 58.3% reported major involvement with the education and care of the children, which resulted in satisfaction. Cconclusion: The psychological domain had the lowest score in the quality of life evaluation, suggesting that parents need to be offered psychological support.

  4. Responsive parenting is associated with improved type 1 diabetes-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botello-Harbaum, M; Nansel, T; Haynie, D L; Iannotti, R J; Simons-Morton, B

    2008-09-01

    Improved quality of life is an important treatment goal for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. While previous research supports a relationship between family environment and quality of life, little research has addressed the relationship of parenting style constructs to quality of life in children with chronic disease. The present investigation assesses the relationship of parent responsiveness and demandingness with diabetes-related quality of life among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Baseline and 12-month follow-up self-report assessments were collected on a sample of 81 children with type 1 diabetes participating in an efficacy trial of a behavioural intervention to enhance adherence. The sample had a mean age of 13.3 years (SD=1.7) and duration of diabetes of 7.7 years (SD=3.7). Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship of parent responsiveness and demandingness to diabetes-related quality of life at each time point. After adjusting for demographic and diabetes characteristics, as well as diabetes-specific parent-child behaviours, parent responsiveness was significantly associated with baseline diabetes-related quality of life (beta=0.23; P=0.04). This relationship was sustained at 12-month follow-up (beta=0.22; P=0.04) after adjusting for baseline quality of life and treatment group assignment, suggesting that parent responsiveness is associated with improved quality of life. Findings indicate the importance of a supportive and emotionally warm parenting style in promoting improved quality of life for children with type 1 diabetes. Appropriate parenting skills should be an element of diabetes family management health care.

  5. Guide for First-Time Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  6. Parenting and female dermatologists' perceptions of work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattessich, S; Shea, K; Whitaker-Worth, D

    2017-09-01

    Women in medicine may feel pressure to choose between the competing demands of career goals and being a dedicated spouse and parent. The purpose of this survey study is to report on the current opinions of female dermatologists with regard to family planning, maternity leave, and career success. We surveyed 183 members of the Women's Dermatologic Society using a 13-question survey that was approved for distribution by the institutional review board committee of the University of Connecticut Health Center. We found that women were most likely to have children while they were residents (51%), despite the fact that residents were more likely to report barriers to childbearing at this career stage. These barriers included length of maternity leave, appearing less committed to residency responsibilities compared with peers, and inadequate time and privacy to breast feed. Strategies to achieve a work-life balance included hiring in-home help and working part-time. Of note, many women commented on the need for more family planning resources at work. Thought should be given to future administrative strategies that can lessen the burden of parents who are dermatologists and have academic ambitions.

  7. Working Parents' use of work-life policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dulk, Laura den; Peper, Bram

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we examine working parent’s use of work-life policies in three financial sector organizations in the Netherlands. We analyse the barriers and support regarding the actual take up of work-life policies by working parents and to what extent this in turn influence their experienced work-life balance. We collected survey data in three Dutch financial sector organizations: one public sector organization and two private firms. All three differ considerably regarding their organizatio...

  8. Characterizing the Life Stressors of Children of Alcoholic Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Huang, Wenjing; Chassin, Laurie; Sher, Kenneth J.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined differences between children of alcoholic (COAs) and non-alcoholic parents in their experience of negative life events across three, longitudinal studies together spanning the first three decades of life. We posited that COAs would differ from their peers in the life domains in which they are vulnerable to stressors, in the recurrence of stressors, and in the severity of stressors. Scale- and item-level analyses of adjusted odds-ratios based on stressors across seve...

  9. Music in everyday life by parents with their children with autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfried, Tali; Thompson, Grace; Carpente, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Music therapy has a long history in working with children with autism in both traditional settings and those which include working with the parents. Recent studies show that music therapy programs aimed at supporting parent–child interaction have resulted in significant gains in social...... communication skills of children with autism, and improved parental competency perception. However, little is known about the amount or type of musical play that parents engage in with their child with autism, or whether parents use music as a facilitator in certain daily situations. Objective: The Music...... in Everyday Life (MEL) assessment, developed by Gottfried and Thompson, was confirmed with evidences of validity to assess the use of music in everyday life by parents with their children with autism, and was used within a large multisite research project (TIME-A) in four countries. Discussion: This round...

  10. Early stress, parental motivation, and reproductive decision-making: applications of life history theory to parental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza de Baca, Tomás; Ellis, Bruce J

    2017-06-01

    This review focuses on the impact of parental behavior on child development, as interpreted from an evolutionary-developmental perspective. We employ psychosocial acceleration theory to reinterpret the effects of variation in parental investment and involvement on child development, arguing that these effects have been structured by natural selection to match the developing child to current and expected future environments. Over time, an individual's development, physiology, and behavior are organized in a coordinated manner (as instantiated in 'life history strategies') that facilitates survival and reproductive success under different conditions. We review evidence to suggest that parental behavior (1) is strategic and contingent on environmental opportunities and constraints and (2) influences child life history strategies across behavioral, cognitive, and physiological domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. "Parents a dead end life": The main experiences of parents of children with leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi, Rahmatollah; Hekmatpou, Davood; Eghbali, Aziz; Memari, Fereshteh; Anbari, Zohreh

    2014-11-01

    The quantitative studies show that due to the widespread prevalence, high death rate, high treatment expenses, and long hospital stay, leukemia influences the families and their children to a great extent. In this regard, no qualitative study has been conducted in Iran. So, this study was conducted in Arak in 2011 with the aim of expressing the experiences of the parents whose children suffered from leukemia. Using qualitative research approach, by applying content analysis method, 22 participants were interviewed in two educational hospitals during 2 months. The study was started by purposive sampling and continued by theoretical one. The data were analyzed based on the content analysis method. Data analysis showed that insolvency, knapsack problems, cancer secrecy, trust on God, self-sacrifice, adaptation, medical malpractice, and hospital facilities were the level 3 codes of parents' experiences and "parents a dead end life" was the main theme of this study. In this study, the experiences of the parents whose children suffered from cancer were studied deeply by the use of qualitative method, especially by the use of resources syncretism rather than studying quantitatively. Parents a dead end life emerged as the main theme of this study, emphasizing the necessity of paying further attention to the parents. On the other hand, making more use of parents' experiences and encouraging them helps make the treatment more effective. It is suggested that these experiences be shared with parents in the form of pamphlets distributed right at the beginning of the treatment process.

  12. Allocation of Parental Time and the Long Term Effect on Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    seem to be an increasingly important part of their children's daily life, this study, opposite to most other studies within the child care literature, explicitly takes both parents' time spent on child care into account as well as child care bought in the market. It is shown that the quality of market...... provided child care vs. the quality of parental child care is crucial for the parents' time use decisions but the availability of paternal child care does not seem to affect the mother's child care decision. The effect of parental child care time on children's educational outcome is tested using Danish......This paper develops a structural model which links parental time use decisions to a child's development in a household with two parents and one child. Since the allocation of home time and market work has become more equally distributed within households during the latest decades and since fathers...

  13. Parental Regulation of Teenagers' Time: Processes and Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarre, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Parental regulation of teenagers' time is pervasive. Parents attempt to constrain, well into adolescence, what their children do with their time, when they do it and how long they do it for. This article draws on interviews with 14- to 16-year-olds in the UK to explore teenagers' experiences of parents' temporal regulation, and whether their…

  14. Parental Views on Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Therapies in Critically Ill Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Koogler, Tracy; Sullivan, Christine; del Pilar Ortega, María; Hall, Emily; Frader, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Objective To broaden existing knowledge of pediatric end-of-life decision making by exploring factors described by parents of patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) as important/influential if they were to consider withdrawing life-sustaining therapies. Design Quantitative and qualitative analysis of semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Setting The PICUs at 2 tertiary care hospitals. Participants English- or Spanish-speaking parents who were older than 17 years and whose child was admitted to the PICU for more than 24 hours to up to 1 week. Intervention Semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Results Forty of 70 parents (57%) interviewed said they could imagine a situation in which they would consider withdrawing life-sustaining therapies. When asked if specific factors might influence their decision making, 64% of parents said they would consider withdrawing life-sustaining therapies if their child were suffering; 51% would make such a decision based on quality-of-life considerations; 43% acknowledged the influence of physician-estimated prognosis in their decision; and 7% said financial burden would affect their consideration. Qualitative analysis of their subsequent comments identified 9 factors influential to parents when considering withdrawing life-sustaining therapies: quality of life, suffering, ineffective treatments, faith, time, financial considerations, general rejection of withdrawing life-sustaining therapies, mistrust/doubt toward physicians, and reliance on self/intuition. Conclusion Parents describe a broad range of views regarding possible consideration of withdrawing life-sustaining therapies for their children and what factors might influence such a decision. PMID:19884588

  15. Parental views on withdrawing life-sustaining therapies in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Koogler, Tracy; Sullivan, Christine; Ortega, María del Pilar; Hall, Emily; Frader, Joel

    2009-11-01

    To broaden existing knowledge of pediatric end-of-life decision making by exploring factors described by parents of patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) as important/influential if they were to consider withdrawing life-sustaining therapies. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of semi-structured one-on-one interviews. The PICUs at 2 tertiary care hospitals. English- or Spanish-speaking parents who were older than 17 years and whose child was admitted to the PICU for more than 24 hours to up to 1 week. Semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Forty of 70 parents (57%) interviewed said they could imagine a situation in which they would consider withdrawing life-sustaining therapies. When asked if specific factors might influence their decision making, 64% of parents said they would consider withdrawing life-sustaining therapies if their child were suffering; 51% would make such a decision based on quality-of-life considerations; 43% acknowledged the influence of physician-estimated prognosis in their decision; and 7% said financial burden would affect their consideration. Qualitative analysis of their subsequent comments identified 9 factors influential to parents when considering withdrawing life-sustaining therapies: quality of life, suffering, ineffective treatments, faith, time, financial considerations, general rejection of withdrawing life-sustaining therapies, mistrust/doubt toward physicians, and reliance on self/intuition. Parents describe a broad range of views regarding possible consideration of withdrawing life-sustaining therapies for their children and what factors might influence such a decision.

  16. Parent and Adolescent Agreement for Reports of Life Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Shauna C; Tackett, Jennifer L

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we investigated the extent and nature of informant discrepancies on parent- and adolescent self-report versions of a checklist measuring youth exposure to life stressors. Specifically, we examined (a) mean-level differences, relative consistency, and consensus for family-level and youth-specific stressors and (b) the utility of parent-youth discrepancies in accounting for variance in youth temperament and psychopathology. Participants were 106 parent-child dyads (47 male, 59 female; 90.6% mothers) aged 13 to 18 years old ( M = 16.01, SD = 1.29). The results revealed evidence for both congruence and divergence in parent and youth reports, particularly with respect to respondents' accounts of youth-specific stressors. Discrepancies for youth-specific stressors were associated with adolescents' negative affectivity, surgency, effortful control, and internalizing problems. Discrepancies for youth stressors may therefore reveal individual differences in emotionality and self-regulation, thus reflecting meaningful variance in adolescents' functioning.

  17. Children with Autism: Quality of Life and Parental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca A.; Louie, Brian B.; Newschaffer, Craig J.

    2008-01-01

    Past research has shown that children with autism and their families have compromised quality of life (QOL) in several domains. This study examined QOL and parental concerns in children with autism during early childhood, childhood, and adolescence compared to children with Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder…

  18. Quality of life and parents' satisfaction with Duhamel's versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The aim of this study is to compare the surgical outcome as well as parents' satisfaction and quality of life for children after the transanal and the Duhamel pull-through operations in a single-center experience. Patients and methods A retrospective cohort file review was carried out of all cases of Hirschsprung's ...

  19. Life-span adjustment of children to their parents' divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, P R

    1994-01-01

    Children who experience parental divorce, compared with children in intact two-parent families, exhibit more conduct problems, more symptoms of psychological maladjustment, lower academic achievement, more social difficulties, and poorer self-concepts. Similarly, adults who experienced parental divorce as children, compared with adults raised in continuously intact two-parent families, score lower on a variety of indicators of psychological, interpersonal, and socioeconomic well-being. However, the overall group differences between offspring from divorced and intact families are small, with considerable diversity existing in children's reactions to divorce. Children's adjustment to divorce depends on several factors, including the amount and quality of contact with noncustodial parents, the custodial parents' psychological adjustment and parenting skills, the level of interparental conflict that precedes and follows divorce, the degree of economic hardship to which children are exposed, and the number of stressful life events that accompany and follow divorce. These factors can be used as guides to assess the probable impact of various legal and therapeutic interventions to improve the well-being of children of divorce.

  20. Parental communication and life satisfaction in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, María-Jesús; Buelga, Sofía; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2014-12-29

    This study aims to analyze the influence of communication with the mother and father on adolescents' life satisfaction, as well as possible indirect effects through self-esteem, feelings of loneliness, and perceived classroom environment. These relationships, and possible gender differences, were analyzed in a sample of 1,795 adolescents (52% male, 48% female) aged 11 to 18 years-old (M = 14.2, SD = 1.68), using structural equation modeling. Results indicate a direct effect of communication-mother (girls: β = .19, p communication-father (girls: β = .22, p communication-mother: girls, β = .18, p communication-father: girls: β = .28, p communication-mother: girls: β = -.19, p communication-father: girls: β = -.31, p < .001; boys: β = -.20, p < .01). The results and implications of this study are discussed.

  1. Is Part-Time Child Care Surrogate Parenting? Parents' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Avis

    The purpose of this survey and report is to gain information about parental planning for child-rearing when the mother is employed. This study is intended to explore mothers' perceptions of possible delegation of some basic child-rearing functions during the mothers' absence for employment. Comparison of the child care arrangements which the…

  2. Impact of a child's cancer disease on parents' everyday life: a longitudinal study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovén, Emma; Grönqvist, Helena; Pöder, Ulrika; von Essen, Louise; Lindahl Norberg, Annika

    2017-01-01

    A child's cancer disease may disrupt the daily life of the affected family for a long period. The aim was to describe restrictions on parents' leisure activities and work/studies during and after the child's treatment. This study used data from a cohort of mothers and fathers (n = 246) of children diagnosed with cancer. Data was collected five times from two months after diagnosis to one year after end of treatment. Reports of restrictions were evaluated over time, between mothers and fathers, and in relation to parent-reported child symptom burden (The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale) and partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version). Two (51%) and four (45%) months after diagnosis, about half reported that their leisure activities were restricted at least some of the time. Corresponding percentages for restrictions on work/studies were 84% and 77%. One year after end of treatment, the great majority reported that their leisure activities (91%) and/or work/studies (76%) were never/seldom restricted. During treatment, more mothers than fathers reported restrictions on work/studies all/most of the time. After end of treatment, gender was only related to reports of restrictions among parents not reporting partial PTSD. More parents who reported being restricted all/most of the time also reported partial PTSD and/or a greater symptom burden for the child. Parents report frequent restrictions on everyday life during treatment. One year after end of treatment, parents report only a limited impact of the child's cancer on their leisure activities and work/studies. More parents who report restrictions also report partial PTSD and/or a greater child symptom burden. The effect of gender on restrictions varies depending on reports of partial PTSD. Future studies of gender differences regarding the impact of a child's cancer on parents' everyday life should thus consider mothers' and fathers' level of psychological distress.

  3. Life, Information, Entropy, and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofts, Antony R.

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to understand how information content can be included in an accounting of the energy flux of the biosphere have led to the conclusion that, in information transmission, one component, the semantic content, or “the meaning of the message,” adds no thermodynamic burden over and above costs arising from coding, transmission and translation. In biology, semantic content has two major roles. For all life forms, the message of the genotype encoded in DNA specifies the phenotype, and hence the organism that is tested against the real world through the mechanisms of Darwinian evolution. For human beings, communication through language and similar abstractions provides an additional supra-phenotypic vehicle for semantic inheritance, which supports the cultural heritages around which civilizations revolve. The following three postulates provide the basis for discussion of a number of themes that demonstrate some important consequences. (i) Information transmission through either pathway has thermodynamic components associated with data storage and transmission. (ii) The semantic content adds no additional thermodynamic cost. (iii) For all semantic exchange, meaning is accessible only through translation and interpretation, and has a value only in context. (1) For both pathways of semantic inheritance, translational and copying machineries are imperfect. As a consequence both pathways are subject to mutation and to evolutionary pressure by selection. Recognition of semantic content as a common component allows an understanding of the relationship between genes and memes, and a reformulation of Universal Darwinism. (2) The emergent properties of life are dependent on a processing of semantic content. The translational steps allow amplification in complexity through combinatorial possibilities in space and time. Amplification depends on the increased potential for complexity opened by 3D interaction specificity of proteins, and on the selection of useful variants

  4. Allocation of Parental Time and the Long Term Effect on Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    to the child's development, and it is shown that the quality of market provided childcare vs. the quality of parental childcare is crucial for the parents' decisions. The availability of paternal childcare does not seem to affect the mother's labor supply decision, though. Several different policy scenarios......This paper develops a structural model which links parental time use to a child's development in a household with two parents and one child. Since the allocation of home time and market work has become more equally distributed within households during the latest decades and since fathers seem...... to be an increasingly important part of their children's daily life, this study, opposite of most other studies within the childcare literature, explicitly takes both parents' time spent on childcare into account as well as childcare bought in the market. The parents' optimal labor supply decisions are linked...

  5. The Long Term Effect of Parental Time Use on Children's Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    This paper develops a structural model which links parental time use to a child's development in a household with two parents and one child. Since the allocation of home time and market work has become more equally distributed within households during the latest decades and since fathers seem...... to be an increasingly important part of their children's daily life, this study, opposite of most other studies within the childcare literature, explicitly takes both parents' time spent on childcare into account as well as childcare bought in the market. The parents' optimal labor supply decisions are linked...... to the child's development, and it is shown that the quality of market provided childcare vs. the quality of parental childcare is crucial for the parents' decisions. The availability of paternal childcare does not seem to affect the mother's labor supply decision, though. Several different policy scenarios...

  6. [Parents' unemployment, selected life conditions, adolescents' wellbeing and perceived health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment in Poland is one of the most negative outcomes of the economical transformations taking place in the last decade of the XX and first years of the XXI century. Therefore, the study on an influence of parents' unemployment upon adolescents' life conditions and health was undertaken in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Training Department of the National Institute of Hygiene. The data were collected from randomly selected sample of 783 students aged 14-15 years attending to ten private and public secondary schools (gymnasiums) in Warsaw. A part of the questionnaire elaborated in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Department covered information about negative life events, which had occurred in the previous year, also about a loss of the job by father or mother. The self-assessment of health, and physical and psychical wellbeing measured the perceived health. The study showed that significantly higher percentage of the students, whose father or mother had lost a job in the previous year, noticed also occurrence of father and mother health disorders, lack of support from father and mother, frequent quarrels between parents, too much of home duties, worsening a housing conditions, lack of possibilities to travel away on vacation and lack of own money. The differences were higher, if both the parents were unemployed. Moreover, the children of unemployed parents significantly lower assessed their health, and physical and psychical wellbeing. It is necessary to help immediately the students, whose parents are unemployed, with financial and psychological support in frame of the programmes of unemployment overcoming.

  7. Parents' perspectives on the quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: trajectory, choices and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Bogossian, Aline; Lach, Lucyna M; Shevell, Michael; Majnemer, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome of health interventions for children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). When planning interventions it is fundamental to understand what constitutes a good QoL, a subjective construct, and what factors are important to consider from both parents' and children's perspectives. We used a grounded theory methodology to explore parents' perspectives on the factors that are important for the QoL of their adolescents with CP. Fourteen parents were interviewed using a purposeful sampling strategy, followed by theoretical sampling until saturation was reached. Parents reflected on several important aspects of their children's QoL. In particular, they described how their trajectories as parents of a child with a disability have contributed to their adolescents' current well-being. Over time, parents' hopes for a cure were transformed into hopes for their child's happiness. This trajectory was influenced by the adolescents' intrinsic characteristics and the parents' strategies to overcome challenges and was informed by the parents' and their children's ability to make choices in pursuit of their preferences. Adolescents' and parents' accounts should be considered when planning interventions for adolescents with disabilities. It is important to consider parents' personal characteristics, experiences and the strategies that have been proven to be efficacious in improving their children's QoL and to understand their need to make choices relating to participation and accessibility in order to promote QoL for this at-risk population. Implications for Rehabilitation Parents' trajectory on raising a child with a disability is important for understanding adolescents' QoL. Parents' characteristics and environmental factors influence adolescents' well-being. Hope and choice experiences by parents of children with CP are important for their children's QoL. Transition from pediatric to adult services are required to address disability

  8. PARENTAL ASSISTANCE, NEGATIVE LIFE EVENTS, AND ATTAINMENT DURING THE TRANSITION TO ADULTHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Teresa Toguchi; McLaughlin, Heather; Mortimer, Jeylan T

    2017-01-01

    Responding to the longer and more variable transition to adulthood, parents are stepping in to help their young adult children. Little is known, however, about the extent to which parental support promotes success, and whether parental support has different effects for young adult sons and daughters. Using longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study, we find that parental scaffolding assistance for educational expenses predicts college graduation for both men and women. Negative life events experienced during the transition to adulthood are associated with lower earnings by the early 30s, although there is some variation by type of event. More frequent parental support during times of need does not predict long-term economic attainment for sons or daughters.

  9. Associations of Parental Influences with Physical Activity and Screen Time among Young Children: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilan Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children’s physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1 parenting practices; (2 parents’ role modelling; (3 parental perceptions of children’s PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4 parental self-efficacy; and (5 general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents’ encouragement and support can increase children’s PA, and reducing parents’ own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children.

  10. [Parental life style as a determinant of children's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, A I; Liakhovich, A V; Gutman, M R

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers a family in the context of an attitude towards health. The focus of attention in children is their parental lifestyle they imitate in their behavioral model. A sociological survey of parents (n = 328) and adolescent schoolchildren (n = 344) has established that by the time of leaving school, the children form behavioral norms accepted in their families. There is devaluation of family values and lesser parenteral responsibility for children's health. The pedagogical unsoundness of the parents to cultivate healthy lifestyle (HLS) habits in children is due to their personal example, inadequate HLS motivation, and the spread of bad habits.

  11. Parental practices and beliefs on motor development in the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcilene Maria Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In the child’s first year of life, motor development is critical for the other areas of child development. Beliefs and parenting practices influence the parents’ care and encouragement of their children, reflecting in their motor development; however, the Brazilian literature on this subject is scarce. Objective: to characterize the parental practices and beliefs associated with motor development in the first year of life; and to verify if practices and beliefs are interrelated. Methods: Two questionnaires were developed and applied, one about parenting practices and the other about parental beliefs on motor development in the first year life, to 27 caregivers of children between 12 and 24 months of age, who participated in an aquatic stimulation program. The agreement between practices and beliefs was verified by a graphical method, based on the transformation of ordinal scores to an interval scale using Rasch analysis. Results: The participants had higher levels of education and economic status. They reported a variety of practices focused on the motor development of their children, such as family interaction through playing, toy offers, lap time and free movement space. Conclusion: Most of the practices were based on parental beliefs, for some activities, however, beliefs and practices diverged, demonstrating the complexity inherent to the formation of parental beliefs.

  12. What information do parents need when facing end-of-life decisions for their child? A meta-synthesis of parental feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xafis, Vicki; Wilkinson, Dominic; Sullivan, Jane

    2015-04-30

    The information needs of parents facing end-of-life decisions for their child are complex due to the wide-ranging dimensions within which such significant events unfold. While parents acknowledge that healthcare professionals are their main source of information, they also turn to a variety of additional sources of written information in an attempt to source facts, discover solutions, and find hope. Much has been written about the needs of parents faced with end-of-life decisions for their child but little is known about the written information needs such parents have. Research in the adult intensive care context has shown that written resources impact positively on the understanding of medical facts, including diagnoses and prognoses, communication between families and healthcare professionals, and the emotional wellbeing of families after their relative's death. A meta-synthesis of predominantly empirical research pertaining to features which assist or impede parental end-of-life decisions was undertaken to provide insight and guidance in our development of written resources (short print and online comprehensive version) for parents. The most prominently cited needs in the literature related to numerous aspects of information provision; the quantity, quality, delivery, and timing of information and its provision impacted not only on parents' ability to make end-of-life decisions but also on their emotional wellbeing. The meta-synthesis supports the value of written materials, as these provide guidance for both parents and healthcare professionals in pertinent content areas. Further research is required to determine the impact that written resources have on parental end-of-life decision-making and on parents' wellbeing during and after their experience and time in the hospital environment.

  13. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  14. Predicting child physical activity and screen time: parental support for physical activity and general parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-07-01

    To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Trending Longitudinal Agreement between Parent and Child Perceptions of Quality of Life for Pediatric Palliative Care Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghann S. Weaver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric palliative care studies often rely on proxy-reported instead of direct child-reported quality of life metrics. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally evaluate quality of life for pediatric patients receiving palliative care consultations and to compare patient-reported quality of life with parent perception of the child’s quality of life across wellness domains. The 23-item PedsQL™ V4.0 Measurement Model was utilized for ten child and parent dyads at time of initial palliative care consultation, Month 6, and Month 12 to assess for physical, emotional, social, and cognitive dimensions of quality of life as reported independently by the child and by the parent for the child. Findings were analyzed using Bland–Altman plots to compare observed differences to limits of agreement. This study revealed overall consistency between parent- and child-reported quality of life across domains. Physical health was noted to be in closest agreement. At the time of initial palliative care consult, children collectively scored their social quality of life higher than parental perception of the child’s social quality of life; whereas, emotional and cognitive quality of life domains were scored lower by children than by the parental report. At the one year survey time point, the physical, emotional, and social domains trended toward more positive patient perception than proxy perception with congruence between quality of life scores for the cognitive domain. Findings reveal the importance of eliciting a child report in addition to a parent report when measuring and longitudinally trending perceptions on quality of life.

  16. Adolescent Depression and Time Spent with Parents and Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desha, Laura N.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Ziviani, Jenny M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent depressive symptoms and the quantity and quality of time spent by adolescents with their parents and siblings. We use measures of the quality of relationships with parents and siblings as proxy indicators for the quality of time spent with these social partners. The study emphasizes the salience of parent…

  17. The time allocation to children by parents in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, A.H.; DeGusti, B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines cross-national differences in the time parents allocate to their children using aggregate data from 15 countries collected as part of the Harmonized European Time Use Survey (HETUS). The analysis is restricted to married or cohabiting parents with at least one child under the

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life of Children with Asthma: Self and Parental Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Eiser, Christine; Papathanasiou, Aikaterini

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to explore whether age, gender, asthma severity, asthma duration, and exposure to parental smoking were associated with levels of asthma-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Greek children with asthma and to identify any differences between self- and proxy ratings of asthma-specific HRQoL. One hundred and seventy-three (173) children with asthma (8-12 years old) and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Asthma Module self- and proxy measures. Asthma severity, age, and asthma duration explained almost half of the variance in asthma-specific HRQoL scores according to self- and proxy reports. Older male children with more severe asthma who were diagnosed for a longer period of time and had at least one smoking parent reported lower asthma-specific HRQoL according to self- and proxy reports. Although children and their parents seemed to agree in their views of asthma-specific HRQoL, there were significant differences in ratings of specific parameters of asthma-specific HRQoL. This study identifies the factors that account for a significant variance in asthma-specific HRQoL scores according to self- and proxy reports and is among the first to record the effect of parental smoking on children's and parents' perceptions of asthma-specific HRQoL.

  19. Pilot Evaluation of a Palliative and End-of-Life Communication Intervention for Parents of Children With a Brain Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L; Pradhan, Kamnesh; Shih, Chie-Schin; Gauvain, Karen M; Kane, Javier R; Liu, Jingxia; Haase, Joan E

    Providing timely palliative and end-of-life care (PC/EOL) information to parents of children with a serious illness is a national health care priority. The goals of this study were to determine feasibility, acceptability, and parent responses related to a PC/EOL communication intervention, titled "Communication Plan: Early through End of Life (COMPLETE)" to parents of children with a brain tumor. The study was a 2-site prospective, single-group pilot study targeting parents' stress and coping outcomes. The sample included 13 parents of 11 children (ie, 11 families). During the first 6 months postdiagnosis, we evaluated parent outcomes at 4 time points (baseline and 3 post-sessions). Our findings included significant decline in decision regret ( P = .0089); strong, significantly increased hope ( P ≤ .0001); and significantly decreased uncertainty ( P = .04). Over time, more than half of the parents (61.5%) preferred to receive information about their child's current condition and PC/EOL options. Our findings provide evidence to suggest that the COMPLETE intervention is feasible and acceptable and produces promising effects on 3 parent outcomes (ie, decision regret, hope, and uncertainty) in parents of children with a brain tumor. Further research is indicated to evaluate COMPLETE with a larger sample of parents of children with cancer and with a control group.

  20. Children's Experiences of Time when a Parent Travels for Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonkovic, Anisa; Swenson, Andrea; Cornwell, Zoë

    2017-08-01

    This qualitative study focuses on different ways time is experienced by children in families who face time challenges due to a family member's job that required work travel. Data are from a family-level study that includes interviews of all family members over the age of 7. Using grounded theory methodology, this study illustrates ways in which job demands and family processes interact. Analysis centers on the 75 children's perspectives from 43 families. Holding together assessments of having enough time while wanting more time with their parents, children express emotion, generally unrecognized by parents, around the topic of family time. Children's experience of time with parents is rushed or calm, depending on the activities done in time and the gender of the parent with whom they spend time. Findings are interpreted through a feminist social constructionist lens.

  1. Life Stress and Adjustment: Effects of Life Events Experienced by Young Adolescents and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Used a longitudinal design to test the effects of life events experienced by young adolescents and their parents. Criteria were the adolescents' depression, anxiety and self-esteem. Analysis showed a significant effect for the adolescents' controllable, but not uncontrollable, negative events. (Author/RWB)

  2. Adolescents' prospective screen time by gender and parental education, the mediation of parental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totland, Torunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Lien, Nanna; Bergh, Ingunn H; Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Grydeland, May; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Andersen, Lene F

    2013-07-06

    The present study investigated associations in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' time spent on television and video viewing (TV/DVD), and computer and electronic game use (PC/games) at the ages of 11 and 13 years. Possible mediating effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD and PC/game time were further examined. A total of 908 adolescents, participating at both ages 11 and 13 years in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-2009), were included in the analyses. Data on adolescents', mothers' and fathers' self reported time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games were measured at both time points by questionnaires. Correlation coefficients were used to examine gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' reports. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated possible mediation effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games between the ages of 11 and 13 years. Correlations of screen time behaviours in gender dyads of parents and adolescents showed significant associations in time spent on TV/DVD at the age of 11 and 13 years. Associations between mothers and sons and between fathers and daughters were also observed in time spent on PC/games at the age of 11 years. Maternal and paternal modelling was further found to mediate the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD time between the ages of 11 and 13 years. No mediation effect was observed for parental regulation, however a decrease in both maternal and paternal regulation at the age of 11 years significantly predicted more TV/DVD time among adolescents at the age of 13 years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships were observed in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' screen time behaviours at the ages of 11 and 13 years, and further

  3. Parent-Child Quality Time: Does Birth Order Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the American Time Use Survey, I find that a first-born child receives 20-30 more minutes of quality time each day with his or her parent than a second-born child of the same age from a similar family. The birth-order difference results from parents giving roughly equal time to each child at any point in time while the amount of…

  4. Leisure time activities, parental monitoring and drunkenness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between adolescent drunkenness and participation in risky leisure time activities and parental monitoring. A sample of 3,694 Slovak elementary school students (mean age 14.5 years; 49.0% males) was assessed for drunkenness in the previous month, participation in risky leisure activities and parental monitoring. Participation in risky leisure time activities increased the probability of drunkenness among adolescents, while parental monitoring decreased it. The effect did not change after adding the mother's and father's monitoring into the models. Our results imply that adolescents involved in going out with friends, having parties with friends and/or visiting sporting events every day or several times a week are at a higher risk of drunkenness, as are those less monitored by their parents. These less monitored adolescents and their parents should become a target group in prevention. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Parenting a child with phenylketonuria or galactosemia : implications for health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hoedt, Amber E.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Boelen, Carolien C. A.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Bosch, Annet M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    Parents of children with chronic disorders have an impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to parents of healthy children. Remarkably, parents of children with a metabolic disorder reported an even lower HRQoL than parents of children with other chronic disorders. Possibly, the

  6. Parenting a child with phenylketonuria or galactosemia: implications for health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hoedt, Amber E.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Boelen, Carolien C. A.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Bosch, Annet M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with chronic disorders have an impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to parents of healthy children. Remarkably, parents of children with a metabolic disorder reported an even lower HRQoL than parents of children with other chronic disorders. Possibly, the

  7. Parental modeling, education and children's sports and TV time: The ENERGY-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Alvira, J.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Singh, A.S.; Jimenez-Pavon, D.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Bere, E.; Manios, Y.; Kovacs, E.; Jan, N.; Moreno, L.A.; Brug, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We assessed whether differences in children's sports participation and television time according to parental education were mediated by parental modeling. Moreover, we explored the differences between parental and child reports on parental sports participation and television time as

  8. Associations between parents? subjective time pressure and mental health problems among children in the Nordic countries: a population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Bjereld, Ylva; Hensing, Gunnel; Petzold, Max; Povlsen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Background The home, the family and the parents represent a context of everyday life that is important for child health and development, with parent-child relationships highlighted as crucial for children?s mental health. Time pressure is an emerging feature of modern societies and previous studies indicates that parents with children living at home experience time pressure to a greater extent than people with no children living at home. Previous studies of children?s mental health in relatio...

  9. Two worlds: Adolescents' strategies for managing life with a parent in hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Denice Kopchak; Mayo, M Murray; Christ, Grace H; Heim, Kim; Parish, Stephanie; Shahrour, Ghada; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to generate an explanatory model of the coping strategies that adolescents employ to manage the stressors they experience in the final months of their ill parent's life and shortly after their death. The sample included 26 families of adolescents with a parent receiving care in a large hospice program in northeastern Ohio. A semistructured interview was conducted with 14 ill parents, 17 well parents/guardians, and 30 of their adolescent children before the parent's death and, additionally, with 6 of these families after the death. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a grounded-theory approach. The participants described two worlds that constituted the lives of the adolescents: the well world of normal adolescence and the ill world of having a parent near the end of life. The adolescents experienced a common challenge of living in two worlds and responded to the challenge with a process we labeled "managing two worlds." Five stages through which adolescents manage their worlds were identified: keeping the ill world and the well world separate; having the ill world intrude into the well world; moving between the ill world and the well world; being immersed in the ill world; and returning to the well world having been changed by the ill world. The explanatory model of "managing two worlds" outlines a complex and nuanced process that changes over time. The model can be used by health professionals who seek to help adolescents navigate this critical time when their parents are dying or have recently died. These results can also be used to inform the development of interventions that assist families with strategies tailored to an adolescent's specific needs. Future research should investigate associations among the process of "managing two worlds" and outcomes related to adolescent bereavement.

  10. Everyday Life of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Inclusionary and Exclusionary Processes among Young Adults of Parents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…

  11. Hope in Parents of Very-Low Birth Weight Infants and its Association with Parenting Stress and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, Trond; Rustøen, Tone; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Nakstad, Britt

    Being a parent of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant can be stressful. We aimed to describe parental hope 42months after the birth of a VLBW infant and determine whether there is an association between hope and parenting stress with quality of life (QoL), respectively. Fifty-nine parents of VLBW infants completed questionnaires about hope, parenting stress and QoL. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between the selected variables. To compare groups, t-test was used and Cohen's d for effect size was calculated. Parents of VLBW infants were more hopeful than the general population (phope were both independently associated with QoL (phope (p=0.041) and higher parenting stress (p=0.041) than parents of infants with birth weight 1000-1500g. Hope and parenting stress were both independent determinants of QoL. Parents of the presumably sickest infants had less hope and higher parenting stress than parents of VLBW infants with a birth weight over 1000g. Hope should be further explored as a coping mechanism in parents of VLBW infants. The clinical implications of the strong association between hope, parenting stress and QoL remain to be determined, but reducing stress and strengthening hope seem to be important. This should be taken into account both at hospital discharge and at follow-up, especially for lower-birth-weight infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…

  13. Barriers to first time parent groups: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Norma; Hanna, Lisa; Fitzpatrick, Owen Vincent

    2018-06-19

    First-time parents' groups are offered to new parents in Australia to support their transition to parenthood. Not all parents avail of the service, some cease attendance, and fathers are under-represented. In the present descriptive, qualitative study, we examined first-time mothers' perspectives on the barriers to parental participation in the groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of eight first-time mothers in a regional city in Victoria, Australia. Interviews revealed groups were perceived as sites strongly reinforcing traditional social norms of parenting. From this central theme, six gendered subthemes emerged as barriers to attendance. Barriers to mothers included non-normative mothering narratives, such as experiencing stillbirth or having a disabled child, perceived dissonance in parenting ethos, and group size. Barriers to fathers, as perceived by mothers, included groups as female spaces, dads as a minority, and female gatekeeping. A multi-faceted approach is required to change the common perception that groups are for mothers only. Groups need to be more inclusive of different parenting experiences and philosophies. Segregated groups might better address the needs of both parents. Further research is required to capture fathers' perspectives. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Parent and child physical activity and sedentary time: Do active parents foster active children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockman Rowan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has many positive effects on children's health while TV viewing has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Many children do not meet physical activity recommendations and exceed TV viewing guidelines. Parents are likely to be an important influence on their children's behaviour. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' and children's physical activity and TV viewing. Methods Year 6 children and their parent were recruited from 40 primary schools. Results are presented for the 340 parent-child dyads with accelerometer data that met a ≥ 3 day inclusion criteria and the 431 parent-child dyads with complete self-reported TV viewing. Over 80% of the dyads with valid TV viewing data included mothers and their child. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, minutes of sedentary time per day and counts per minute were assessed by accelerometer. Self-reported hours of TV viewing were coded into 3 groups (4 hours per day. Linear and multi-nominal regression models were run by child gender to examine parent-child associations. Results In linear regression models there was an association for the overall sedentary time of girls and their parents (t = 2.04. p = .020 but there was no association between girls' and parents' physical activity. There were no associations between parents' and boys' sedentary or physical activity time. For girls, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, (reference = 2 hours of TV per day, was 3.67 times higher if the girl's parent watched 2-4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.037. For boys, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, was 10.47 times higher if the boy's parent watched more than 4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.038. Conclusions There are associations in the sedentary time of parents and daughters. Higher parental TV viewing was associated with an increased risk of high levels of TV viewing for both boys

  15. Parent and child physical activity and sedentary time: do active parents foster active children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L

    2010-04-15

    Physical activity has many positive effects on children's health while TV viewing has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Many children do not meet physical activity recommendations and exceed TV viewing guidelines. Parents are likely to be an important influence on their children's behaviour. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' and children's physical activity and TV viewing. Year 6 children and their parent were recruited from 40 primary schools. Results are presented for the 340 parent-child dyads with accelerometer data that met a > or = 3 day inclusion criteria and the 431 parent-child dyads with complete self-reported TV viewing. Over 80% of the dyads with valid TV viewing data included mothers and their child. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), minutes of sedentary time per day and counts per minute were assessed by accelerometer. Self-reported hours of TV viewing were coded into 3 groups (4 hours per day. Linear and multi-nominal regression models were run by child gender to examine parent-child associations. In linear regression models there was an association for the overall sedentary time of girls and their parents (t = 2.04. p = .020) but there was no association between girls' and parents' physical activity. There were no associations between parents' and boys' sedentary or physical activity time. For girls, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, (reference = 2 hours of TV per day), was 3.67 times higher if the girl's parent watched 2-4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.037). For boys, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, was 10.47 times higher if the boy's parent watched more than 4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.038). There are associations in the sedentary time of parents and daughters. Higher parental TV viewing was associated with an increased risk of high levels of TV viewing for both boys and girls. There were no associations between the time that

  16. A study on family communication pattern and parenting styles with quality of life in adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanavi, Fariba Shahhraki; Baghbanian, Abdolvahab; Shovey, Mehdi Faraji; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between parenting styles and family communication patterns with adolescent's quality of life. The cross-sectional study was carried out on 439 randomly selected adolescents in the city of Zahedan, Iran, from January to July 2011.The subjects were asked to complete the KIDSCREEN-52 health-related quality of life questionnaire, while their parents were asked to complete the Diana Brinder's Test to show their parenting styles. SPSS 15 was used to analyse data. Most parents had 'authoritative' parenting style (n = 380; 86.6%). Pluralistic (n = 170; 38.7%) and consensual (n = 152; 34.6%) patterns were the most frequent styles of communication in families. Data suggested a significant relationship between parenting style and some dimensions of quality of life, including physical well-being, psychological well-being, social support and peers, and autonomy (p parent relation and home life (p parents while raising their children.

  17. Social Support as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship Between Parenting Stress and Life Satisfaction Among the Chinese Parents of Children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Hui; Wang, Guang-Hai; Lei, Hao; Shi, Meng-Liang; Zhu, Rui; Jiang, Fan

    2018-04-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated that social support affects a range of life experiences, few have examined its moderating and mediating effects. In the current study, 479 Chinese parents of children with ASD (aged 3-18 years) completed the surveys assessing parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction. Results indicated that parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction were significantly related. Moreover, social support both mediated and moderated the influence of parenting stress on life satisfaction. These findings imply that parenting stress and social support are critical indicators of life satisfaction and can serve as basic intervention strategies that promote life satisfaction among Chinese parents of children with ASD.

  18. Children's postdivorce residence arrangements and parental experienced time pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Franciëlla; Poortman, Anne Rigt; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Although the rise in postdivorce joint physical custody has fueled scholarly interest in its impact on children, consequences for parents remain understudied. Because children's residence arrangements determine time and coordination demands associated with child care, this study investigated the

  19. Parenting Style and the Timing of Jewish Adolescents’ Sexual Debut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Etzkin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parenting style and its effect on the timing of Jewish adolescents’ sexual debuts were examined in the reported study. One hundred sixty-eight research participants between the ages of 18 and 22 from a large university in the Southeast participated in the study. A survey instrument was administered at three fraternities and two sororities to examine parenting style and sexual debut retrospectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency chi square tests, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA; while post hoc results were determined through Tukey’s honestly significant difference. Results found that authoritative parenting provides a delay in the age of sexual debut for Jewish adolescents. All other parenting styles had mean ages less than the overall mean age of sexual debut, 17.10 years old, with indifferent parenting having the earliest debut. These findings suggest that parenting style may affect the timing of Jewish adolescents’ sexual debut. The study has implications for understanding factors that may affect the timing of a Jewish adolescent’s sexual debut and may help parents protect their adolescent from the negative effects associated with early sexual debut, such as low academic achievement. Recommendations for future research include exploring the effects of family structure and peer networks to understand fully the many factors that affect the timing of adolescents’ sexual debut.

  20. Self- and parental assessment of quality of life in child cochlear implant bearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafimahefa-Raoelina, T; Farinetti, A; Nicollas, R; Triglia, J-M; Roman, S; Anderson, L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess quality of life in children fitted with cochlear implants, using combined self- and parental assessment. Thirty-two children, aged 6 to 17 years, with prelingual hearing loss and receiving cochlear implants at a mean age of 22 months, were included along with their families. The KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire was implemented, in face-to-face interview, in its parents and children-adolescents versions, with 27 items covering physical well-being ("physical activities and health"), psychological well-being ("general mood and feelings about yourself"), autonomy & parents ("family and free time"), peers & social support ("friends") and school environment ("school and learning"). Parent and child responses were compared with a general population database, and pairwise. Global scores were compared against the general population on Cohen d effect-size. For child self-assessment, the results were: physical well-being, 72.81 (d=0); psychological well-being, 78.13 (d=-0.4); autonomy & parents, 63.84 (d=-0.2); peers & social support, 61.72 (d=-0.4); and school environment 73.83 (d=0). For parent assessment, the respective results were 62.66 (d=-0.8), 74.89 (d=-0.3), 57.37 (d=-1.2), 51.56 (d=-0.8), and 68.95 (d=-0.4). Half of the children could not answer the questionnaire, mainly due to associated disability. Schooling and language performance were poorer in non-respondent than respondent children. Quality of life was comparable between implanted and non-implanted children: Cohen d, 0 to 0.4. Early cochlear implantation in children with pre-lingual hearting loss provides quality of life comparable to that of the general population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Factors that influence quality of life in rural children with asthma and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer; Winkelstein, Marilyn; Land, Cassia; Lewis-Boyer, Lapricia; Quartey, Ruth; Pham, Luu; Butz, Arlene

    2008-01-01

    Among rural children with asthma and their parents, this study examined the relationship between parental and child reports of quality of life and described the relationship of several factors such as asthma severity, missed days of work, and asthma education on their quality of life. Two hundred one rural families with asthma were enrolled in a school-based educational program. Intervention parents and children participated in interactive asthma workshop(s) and received asthma devices and literature. Parent and child quality of life measurements were obtained before and after the intervention using Juniper's Paediatric Caregivers Quality of Life and Juniper's Paediatric Quality of Life Questionnaires. Asthma severity was measured using criteria from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines. There was no association between parent and child total quality of life scores, and mean parental total quality of life scores were higher at baseline and follow-up than those of the children. All the parents' quality of life scores were correlated with parental reports of missed days of work. For all children, emotional quality of life (EQOL) was significantly associated with parental reports of school days missed (P = .03) and marginally associated with parental reports of hospitalizations due to asthma (P = .08). Parent's EQOL and activity quality of life (AQOL) were significantly associated with children's asthma severity (EQOL, P = .009; AQOL, P = .03), but not the asthma educational intervention. None of the child quality of life measurements was associated with asthma severity. Asthma interventions for rural families should help families focus on gaining and maintaining low asthma severity levels to enjoy an optimal quality of life. Health care providers should try to assess the child's quality of life at each asthma care visit independently of the parents.

  2. Adolescents’ prospective screen time by gender and parental education, the mediation of parental influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study investigated associations in gender dyads of parents’ and adolescents’ time spent on television and video viewing (TV/DVD), and computer and electronic game use (PC/games) at the ages of 11 and 13 years. Possible mediating effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the relationship between parental education and adolescents’ prospective TV/DVD and PC/game time were further examined. Methods A total of 908 adolescents, participating at both ages 11 and 13 years in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007–2009), were included in the analyses. Data on adolescents’, mothers’ and fathers’ self reported time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games were measured at both time points by questionnaires. Correlation coefficients were used to examine gender dyads of parents’ and adolescents’ reports. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated possible mediation effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents’ time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games between the ages of 11 and 13 years. Results Correlations of screen time behaviours in gender dyads of parents and adolescents showed significant associations in time spent on TV/DVD at the age of 11 and 13 years. Associations between mothers and sons and between fathers and daughters were also observed in time spent on PC/games at the age of 11 years. Maternal and paternal modelling was further found to mediate the relationship between parental education and adolescents’ prospective TV/DVD time between the ages of 11 and 13 years. No mediation effect was observed for parental regulation, however a decrease in both maternal and paternal regulation at the age of 11 years significantly predicted more TV/DVD time among adolescents at the age of 13 years. Conclusion Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships were observed in gender dyads of parents’ and adolescents

  3. Having the Time of Their Life: College Student Stress, Dating and Satisfaction with Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Catherine; Darling, Carol A

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional design based on the family ecosystem framework was used to examine how students' time spent engaging in social interactions and personal behaviours was related to dating, stress and satisfaction with life. The data were extracted from the Parental Indulgence of Emerging Adults study and consisted of 534 students at a southeastern university. The findings indicated that the amount of time involved in non-verbal social interactions, such as texting and social networking, along with solitary activities, such as watching TV and studying, was negatively related to students' life satisfaction. In comparison, being in a relationship and talking to people on the phone were positively related to students' life satisfaction. These results have implications for family and health professionals along with university wellness centres that facilitate student health by incorporating preventative measures to help students deal with their stress. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Life time income of men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1992-01-01

    Life-time income is estimated here including the money value of household work. A modified opportunity principle is used, which means that non-employed women's price of time is found by calculating reservation wage rates. The overall results demonstrate that Danish women's ‘loss' of labour income...... during the child caring period is difficult for them to regain, and just to reach the same level of income as childless Danish women seems impossible; furthermore Danish men get a higher life-time income than Danish women even when we add the money value of household work...

  5. Life Experience of Parents with Amblyopic Children in Contact with Health Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kamali

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Amblyopia is most common binocular vision anomalies. To comprise is decrease of visual acuity witch doesn't remove by optical correction. Nowadays because of the psychosocial problem with amblyopia, is a functional disability. Awareness of parents of children with amblyopic life experience, when facing with curing system can provide effective for promotion of self-assessment, treatment and rehabilitation. Methods: To explore parent's experience in relation with health care provider utilize a qualitative study with phenomenological method. This study involving semi-structured on-depth interviews with 9 parents of child with amblyopia. Interviews were tape recorded. Data analysis was based on Van manen method. Results: Parents of children describe five subjects in relation with health care providers include: on time and correct diagnosis, consultation, therapist's behavior, change the therapist and visual screening. Discussion: This study indicates that on time diagnosis and intervention, therapists appropriate behavior, consultation and prescribe an appropriate treatment can effect on parental and child acceptance and successful treatment.

  6. Over-time associations among parental self-efficacy, promotive parenting practices, and adolescents' externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Terese; Buchanan, Christy M

    2015-06-01

    Parental self-efficacy (PSE) is defined as parents' beliefs about their abilities to influence their children in a way that fosters their children's positive development. Research has shown links among PSE, parenting, and children's behavior (Jones & Prinz, 2005), but there are still questions concerning the associations over time. Theory predicts 3 types of processes relevant to these associations: a PSE-driven process, a parent-behavior-driven process, and a child-driven process. In this study, we tested these processes during early to middle adolescence using reports from 401 parents (286 mothers, 115 fathers) from 305 families, and their adolescents (Mage = 11.5 years), at 3 time points. Cross-lagged panel models were used to examine the associations among PSE, promotive parenting practices, and adolescents' externalizing. Results supported a PSE-driven process for mothers within early adolescence. In addition, evidence for parent-behavior-driven and child-driven processes emerged at different times within this developmental period. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Athletic Trainer Perceptions of Life-Work Balance and Parenting Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberman, Lindsey E.; Kahanov, Leamor

    2013-01-01

    Context: Life-work balance may be one reason for retention concerns among athletic trainers (ATs), yet evidence does not exist to support the supposition. Objective: To assess the perceptions of ATs regarding life-work balance, specifically on parenting issues. Design: Survey. Setting: Online survey at www.surveymonkey.com. Patients or Other Participants: A random sample of National Athletic Trainers' Association members (N = 9516) received the survey; 20.6% (n = 1962; male = 954, female = 816; age = 37 ± 10 years, experience = 13 ± 9 years) completed any portion of the survey. Most respondents worked in the college/university (34.5%, n = 657 of 1908) and secondary school settings (25.9%, n = 476 of 1908). A majority of participants (50.7%, n = 898 of 1770) were parents. Intervention(s): We calculated frequencies and percentages and used Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests to identify the differences between sexes and among job settings on life-work balance measures among parents. Main Outcome Measures: The questionnaire included 8 life-work balance items, 7 parenting challenge items, and 3 nonparent items. Results: The results indicate that sex and setting significantly affected perceptions about parenting. Males articulated a stronger sense of difficulty in finding balance as a working parent (P managing work and family was stressful (P = .04; 3.86 ± 1.13) and caused burnout (P = .004; 3.50 ± 1.24), and that their energy tended to fall short of their needs (P work setting (P = .014; 3.37 ± 1.42). Both college/university (4.14 ± 0.85) and secondary school (4.03 ± 0.90) ATs would prefer to spend more time at home, as compared with ATs in other settings (P families were neglected because of work. In none of the settings did ATs feel that their employment settings were particularly tolerant of their parenting responsibilities (P = .027; 1.72 ± 1.97). Conclusions: Male and female employees had similar perceptions of life-work balance, but

  8. Athletic trainer perceptions of life-work balance and parenting concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberman, Lindsey E; Kahanov, Leamor

    2013-01-01

    Life-work balance may be one reason for retention concerns among athletic trainers (ATs), yet evidence does not exist to support the supposition. To assess the perceptions of ATs regarding life-work balance, specifically on parenting issues. Survey. Online survey at www.surveymonkey.com . A random sample of National Athletic Trainers' Association members (N = 9516) received the survey; 20.6% (n = 1962; male = 954, female = 816; age = 37 ± 10 years, experience = 13 ± 9 years) completed any portion of the survey. Most respondents worked in the college/university (34.5%, n = 657 of 1908) and secondary school settings (25.9%, n = 476 of 1908). A majority of participants (50.7%, n = 898 of 1770) were parents. We calculated frequencies and percentages and used Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests to identify the differences between sexes and among job settings on life-work balance measures among parents. The questionnaire included 8 life-work balance items, 7 parenting challenge items, and 3 nonparent items. The results indicate that sex and setting significantly affected perceptions about parenting. Males articulated a stronger sense of difficulty in finding balance as a working parent (P work and family was stressful (P = .04; 3.86 ± 1.13) and caused burnout (P = .004; 3.50 ± 1.24), and that their energy tended to fall short of their needs (P work setting (P = .014; 3.37 ± 1.42). Both college/university (4.14 ± 0.85) and secondary school (4.03 ± 0.90) ATs would prefer to spend more time at home, as compared with ATs in other settings (P work. In none of the settings did ATs feel that their employment settings were particularly tolerant of their parenting responsibilities (P = .027; 1.72 ± 1.97). Male and female employees had similar perceptions of life-work balance, but occupational setting may affect these perceptions.

  9. Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.

  10. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention. PMID:25772523

  11. Parental satisfaction with paediatric care, triage and waiting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Nicholas; Breen, Daniel T; Taylor, James; Paul, Eldho; Grosvenor, Robert; Heggie, Katrina; Mahar, Patrick D

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims to determine parental and guardian's perceptions of paediatric emergency care and satisfaction with care, waiting times and triage category in a community ED. A structured questionnaire was provided to parents or guardians of paediatric patients presenting to emergency. The survey evaluated parent perceptions of waiting time, environment/facilities, professionalism and communication skills of staff and overall satisfaction of care. One hundred and thirty-three completed questionnaires were received from parents of paediatric patients. Responses were overall positive with respect to the multiple domains assessed. Parents generally considered waiting times to be appropriate and consistent with triage categories. Overall satisfaction was not significantly different for varying treatment or waiting times. Patients triaged as semi-urgent were of the opinion that waiting times were less appropriate than urgent, less-urgent or non-urgent patients. On the basis of the present study, patient perceptions and overall satisfaction of care does not appear to be primarily influenced by time spent waiting or receiving treatment. Attempts made at the triage process to ensure that semi-urgent patients have reasonable expectations of waiting times might provide an opportunity to improve these patients' expectations and perceptions. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  12. Later School Start Times: What Informs Parent Support or Opposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunietz, Galit Levi; Matos-Moreno, Amilcar; Singer, Dianne C; Davis, Matthew M; O'Brien, Louise M; Chervin, Ronald D

    2017-07-15

    To investigate parental knowledge about adolescent sleep needs, and other beliefs that may inform their support for or objection to later school start times. In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of parents as part of the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. Parents with teens aged 13-17 years reported their children's sleep patterns and school schedules, and whether the parents supported later school start times (8:30 am or later). Responses associated with parental support of later school start times were examined with logistic regression analysis. Overall, 88% of parents reported school start times before 8:30 am, and served as the analysis sample (n = 554). In this group, 51% expressed support for later school start times. Support was associated with current school start times before 7:30 am (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 8.4]); parental opinion that their teen's current school start time was "too early" (OR = 3.8 [1.8, 7.8]); and agreement with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations about school start times (OR = 4.7 [2.2, 10.1]). Support also was associated with anticipation of improved school performance (OR = 3.0 [1.5, 5.9]) or increased sleep duration (OR = 4.0 [1.8, 8.9]) with later school start times. Conversely, parents who anticipated too little time for after-school activities (OR = 0.5 [0.3, 0.9]) and need for different transportation plans (OR = 0.5 [0.2, 0.9]) were often less supportive. Parental education about healthy sleep needs and anticipated health benefits may increase their support for later school start times. Educational efforts should also publicize the positive experiences of communities that have made this transition, with regard to limited adverse effect on after-school activity schedules and transportation. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  13. Effectiveness of a family-oriented rehabilitation program on the quality of life of parents of chronically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C A; Besier, T; Borth-Bruhns, T; Goldbeck, L

    2009-01-01

    Parents of chronically ill children face numerous burdens in daily life, which can impair their quality of life (QoL) significantly. Therefore in family-oriented rehabilitation, not only the children themselves, but also their parents receive interventions. These aim at stabilizing parents both mentally and physically to enable them to support their children in the best possible way. This study investigates the effects of an inpatient family-oriented rehabilitation program on the QoL of parents of chronically ill children. A consecutive sample of 231 mothers and 155 fathers of children suffering from cancer, cardiac diseases or cystic fibrosis participated in the study. In a prospective longitudinal study, parental QoL was repeatedly assessed using the Ulm Quality of Life Inventory for Parents (ULQIE) at three different time points: admission to the rehabilitation clinic, discharge after four weeks of inpatient treatment, and at a six-month follow-up. Parental QoL increased markedly during rehabilitation treatment (mothers eta (2)=.326, fathers eta (2)=.249). Moreover, six months after the intervention, parental quality of life was still markedly improved compared to baseline assessment (mothers eta (2)=.259, fathers eta (2)=.069). The child's diagnosis had no effect on the level and course of parental QoL. Taking part in family-oriented rehabilitation can improve the QoL of parents of children suffering from cancer, cardiac diseases or cystic fibrosis. Such programs could be expected to affect the way chronically ill children cope with their condition and this should be examined in future studies.

  14. Influence of parental history of hypertension on screen time and physical activity in young offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A; Teber, Erdahl; Mitchell, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological data on the relationship between parental hypertension and lifestyle factors among children are limited. We assessed the associations between positive parental history of hypertension with a range of indicators of sedentariness (television viewing, computer and videogame usage) and physical activity (outdoor and indoor activity) among prepubertal children. Six-year-old (1765 of 2238 eligible) students from a random cluster sample of 34 Sydney schools were examined. Parents completed questionnaires about their medical conditions and the child's activities. If the biological mother and/or father had hypertension, then this was classified as positive parental history of hypertension. Parents of 160 (9.2%) children gave a positive family history of hypertension. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, parental education and employment and exposure to passive smoking, children with, compared with those without, a family history of hypertension were more likely to spend above the median time (hours/day) watching television and playing videogames [odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.96; OR 1.52, CI 1.12-2.06, respectively]. The offspring of hypertensive parents were more likely to spend above the median time in total physical activity (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.23-2.27). Maternal (but not paternal) hypertension was associated with increased time spent watching television (P = 0.03) and in outdoor activity (P = 0.01). Parental hypertension influences the time that prepubertal offspring spend in both active and sedentary pursuits. These findings highlight potential factors that could be addressed in the development of cardiovascular disease-preventive measures starting early in life among the offspring of hypertensive parents.

  15. Parents' perception of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Melissa Maria Romero; Melo, Tatiana Rocha; Pinto, Rogério Melo Costa; Morales, Nívea Macedo Oliveira; Mendonça, Tânia Maria Silva; Paro, Helena Borges Martins da Silva; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the perception of parents or caregivers on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity and possible factors associated with this perception. This was a cross-sectional study involving 297 caregivers of children and adolescents with normal weight (n=170) and with overweight/obesity (n=127), from public and private schools in the study municipality. HRQOL scores obtained through the Child Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50) were compared according to the nutritional status and gender of the children/adolescents. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value of studied variables for the variation in HRQOL scores. Parents of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity attributed lower HRQOL scores to their children in the following domains: physical functioning (pnutritional status (β=-0.18; p≤0.01); emotional impact on parents, impact on parents' time (β=0.31; pchildren/adolescents with overweight/obesity was observed in the physical and psychosocial aspects. The nutritional status was the variable with the greatest contribution for the assessment the self-esteem of children and adolescents in this study. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Life Course Changes of Children and Well-Being of Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; De Graaf, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    How do children's life course transitions affect the well-being of their parents? Using a large panel survey among parents with longitudinal information on 2 randomly chosen children, the authors analyzed the effects of children's union formation, parenthood, and union dissolution on changes in depressive symptoms of parents. Negative effects were…

  17. The Examination of Relationship between Life Rhythm and Parent's Consciousness among Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Saori

    2008-01-01

    The social background of child care and rearing has changed rapidly today in Japan. Also young children's life rhythm has changed compared with before. These disorders of life rhythm cause big influence to young children's mind and body health. To improve young child's mind and body health, it is effective that parents improve the life rhythm at home. Therefore, the educational campaign to parents about young child's life rhythm was held. In this research, the relationship between improvement...

  18. The assessment of recalled parental rearing behavior and its relationship to life satisfaction and interpersonal problems: a general population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental rearing behavior is a significant etiological factor for the vulnerability of psychopathology and has been an issue of clinical research for a long time. For this scope instruments are important who asses economically recalled parental rearing behavior in a clinical practice. Therefore, a short German instrument for the assessment of the recalled parental rearing behavior Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten (FEE was psychometrically evaluated [Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior]. Methods This questionnaire was evaluated in a representative population sample (N = 2.948 in Germany which included 44.2% male and 55.8% female persons with a mean age of M = 47.35 (SD = 17.10, range = 18–92. For the content evaluation of the FEE the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP was filled out by the participants. Results The FEE scales yielded a good to satisfactory internal consistency and split-half reliability. Its three factors (rejection/punishment, emotional warmth, control/overprotection correlated positively with most of the areas of life satisfaction. Furthermore, positive associations between interpersonal problems and parental rejection and control could be identified. Conclusion The FEE is a short, reliable and valid instrument that can be applied in the clinical practice. In addition, the data proved an association between recalled parental rearing behavior, life satisfaction and interpersonal problems conform to the literature. Finally, specific problems with the retrospective assessment of parental rearing behavior were addressed as well.

  19. The relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction among Chinese young adults. A survey was administered to 395 university students in Hong Kong on their perceptions about their parents' parenting practices, filial piety beliefs, and life satisfaction. The results suggest that perceived authoritative parenting is associated with reciprocal filial piety and contributes positively to the young adults' life satisfaction. Both perceived authoritative and authoritarian parenting were associated with authoritarian filial piety, but authoritarian filial piety was not associated with young adults' life satisfaction. Due to the familial interdependence emphasized in the Chinese cultural context, Chinese adolescents' filial beliefs are related to the parenting they have experienced, and these beliefs may be associated with their psychosocial outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Depression and quality of life for women in single-parent and nuclear families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landero Hernández, René; Estrada Aranda, Benito; González Ramírez, Mónica Teresa

    2009-05-01

    This is a cross-sectional study which objectives are 1) to determine the predictors for perceived quality of life and 2) to analyze the differences between women from single-parent families and bi-parent families, about their quality of life, depression and familiar income. We worked with a non-probabilistic sample of 140 women from Monterrey, N.L, Mexico, 107 are from bi-parent families and 33 from single parent families. Some of the results show that women from single-parent families have lower quality of life (Z = -2.224, p = .026), lower income (Z = -2.727, p = .006) and greater depression (Z = -6.143, p = .001) than women from bi-parental families. The perceived quality of life's predictors, using a multiple regression model (n = 140) were depression, income and number of children, those variables explaining 25.4% of variance.

  1. Effects of parental cultural and economic status on adolescents’ life course preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijer, M.G.; Nagel, I.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent adolescents' ideas about their future life course in the professional and family domain are influenced by the cultural and economic status of their parents, and to what extent these influences are mediated by parents' own preferences for their child's future life

  2. Parental quality of life in the framework of paediatric chronic gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Rajna; Francisković, Tanja; Samarin, Radenka Munjas; Niksić, Milan

    2011-09-01

    Chronic gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease (CD), might have impact not only on the affected child but also on their parents since inside the family framework, a change in each member may have influence on the whole system. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that parents whose children have IBD or CD will have a lower quality of life (QoL) compared to parents of healthy children, as well as that lower QoL will be found among parents who perceive lower health related quality of life (HRQOL) of their child. 55 parents of children with IBD, 49 of CD and 53 parents of healthy children were included in the study. Children were aged 7-18 years. In order to measure parental QoL, a Croatian version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was administered, with four domains: physical health, psychological health, social relationship and environment. The Total QoL was calculated as a sum of all domain items. The parent-proxy report of children's HRQOL, PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales was used. Main result shows that parents of children with IBD report a significantly lower psychological health, compared to parents of other children, and significantly lower physical health compared to parents of healthy children. Among parents of children with CD and parents of healthy children, better parental Total QoL was significantly correlated with better parental report of children's HRQOL, while for parents of children with IBD those associations were not found. Results of study show association between presence of the disease in offspring with poorer parental QoL, thus highlight the importance of supporting not only children with chronic disease but also involving their parents in psychosocial interventions, as well as supporting the patient's association groups which gather both children with chronic disease and their parents.

  3. [How do mentally ill parents evaluate their children's quality of life? Associations with the parent's illness and family functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Eva; Bullinger, Monika; Jeske, Jana; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke

    2008-01-01

    To assess health-related quality of life (hrQoL) of children with a mentally ill parent, and its associations with the parent's illness (diagnoses, severity of disease, current symptoms) and family functioning, 51 mentally ill parents rated their children's hrQoL using the KINDL-R, a multidimensional hrQoL questionnaire for children. Parents rated their current psychiatric symptoms on the SCL-14 (Symptom Checklist-14) and family functioning on the FB-A ("Familienbögen"). The parents' therapists (psychologists or psychiatrists) provided psychiatric diagnoses as well as global ratings of disease severity (CGI) and patient's family functioning. Compared to the general population, parents rated their children's hrQoL significantly lower concerning the dimensions "Psychological Well-Being" and "Family': HrQoL ratings were moderately correlated with the parent's current depressive symptoms and moderately to highly correlated with family functioning from the parent's perspective. Lower depression severity and higher family functioning were associated with higher hrQoL ratings. Parents with affective disorders rated their children's hrQoL significantly lower than did parents with a diagnosis of substance abuse. Results show the importance of family functioning for parents' view of children's hrQoL and the influence of psychiatric symptoms on ill parents' reports. These findings are in line with previous results concerning potential psychological and behavioural problems in children of mentally ill parents. Family interventions and multi-informant assessment should be used in this high-risk group.

  4. Parent proxy-reported quality of life for children with cerebral palsy: is it related to parental psychosocial distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E; Mackinnon, A; Waters, E

    2012-07-01

    Parent-proxy reports of quality of life (QOL) are often used to guide decisions about children with cerebral palsy (CP), although little is known about the factors that influence parent-proxy reports. The aim of this study was to examine (i) the relationship between parental psychosocial distress and parent proxy-reported QOL; and (ii) whether parental psychosocial distress mediates the relationship between child impairment and proxy-reported QOL. A sample of 201 primary caregivers of children aged 4-12 years with CP completed the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children, a condition-specific QOL instrument, and a measure of psychosocial distress, the Kessler 10. The children, evenly distributed by gender (56% male) were sampled across Gross Motor Function Classification System levels (Level I = 18%, II = 28%, III = 14%, IV = 11%, V = 27%). Consistent with the hypotheses, parental distress was negatively correlated with all domains of parent proxy-reported QOL (r = -0.18 to r = -0.55). The relationship between impairment and proxy-reported QOL was mediated by parental distress for five of the seven domains of QOL (social well-being and acceptance, feelings about functioning, participation and physical health, emotional well-being and self-esteem, and pain and impact of disability). Child impairment did not predict access to services or family health. This is the first study that assesses the relationship between parental distress and proxy-reported QOL for children with CP. Although the cross-sectional nature of the available data precludes any statements of causality, the results suggest that, when using parent proxy, the parents' psychological state should also be measured. This is particularly important when, as is often the case for child disability research, proxy-reported QOL are the only available data. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Time to hospitalization for suicide attempt by the timing of parental suicide during offspring early development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, S. Janet; Runeson, Bo; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wilcox, Holly C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Previous studies have suggested that children who experience parental suicide at earlier ages are at higher risk of future hospitalization for suicide attempt. However, how the trajectories of risk differ by offspring age at the time of parental suicide is currently unknown. Objective To study time at risk to hospitalization for suicide attempt among offspring after experiencing parental suicide or accidental death by offspring developmental period at the time of parental death. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study Setting Sweden Participants 26,096 offspring who experienced parental suicide and 32,395 offspring of accident decedents prior to age 25 from 1973-2003. Main Outcome Measures Hospitalization for suicide attempt. Parametric survival analysis was used to model the time to hospitalization for suicide attempt across offspring who lost a parent during early childhood (0-5 years old), later childhood (6-12), adolescence (13-17) and young adulthood (18-24). Results The risk in offspring who lost a parent during early or late childhood surpassed the other two age groups’ hazards approximately 5 years after the origin and, for the youngest group, continued to rise over the course of decades. Offspring who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood were at greatest risk within 1 to 2 years after parental suicide, and risk declined over time. The shape of hospitalization risk was similar among those who experienced parental fatal accident. When the shape of hospitalization for suicide attempt at each developmental period was fixed to be the same between the two groups, offspring who lost a parent to suicide had earlier risk to hospitalization for suicide attempt hospitalization than offspring who lost a parent to an accident. Conclusion The hospitalization risk for suicide attempt in offspring who lost a parent during their childhood is different from those who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood. The results suggest

  6. Brief Self-Report Scales Assessing Life History Dimensions of Mating and Parenting Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Life history theory (LHT is a powerful evolutionary framework for understanding physiological, psychological, and behavioral variation both between and within species. Researchers and theorists are increasingly integrating LHT into evolutionary psychology, as it provides a strong foundation for research across many topical areas. Human life history variation has been represented in psychological and behavioral research in several ways, including indicators of conditions in the developmental environment, indicators of conditions in the current environment, and indicators of maturation and life milestones (e.g., menarche, initial sexual activity, first pregnancy, and in self-report survey scale measures. Survey scale measures have included constructs such as time perspective and future discounting, although the most widely used index is a constellation of indicators assessing the K-factor, thought to index general life history speed (from fast to slow. The current project examined the utility of two brief self-report survey measures assessing the life history dimensions of mating effort and parenting effort with a large undergraduate sample in the United States. Consistent with the theory, items reflected two inversely related dimensions. In regressions including the K-factor, the Mating Effort Scale proved to be a powerful predictor of other constructs and indicators related to life history variation. The Parenting Effort Scale had less predictive power overall, although it explained unique variance across several constructs and was the only unique predictor of the number of long-term (serious and committed relationships. These scales may be valuable additions to self-report survey research projects examining life history variation.

  7. The association between parental life history and offspring phenotype in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; McLennan, Darryl; McKelvey, Simon; Stewart, David C; Adams, Colin E; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    In many taxa there is considerable intraspecific variation in life history strategies from within a single population, reflecting alternative routes through which organisms can achieve successful reproduction. Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) show some of the greatest within-population variability in life history strategies amongst vertebrates, with multiple discrete male and female life histories co-existing and interbreeding on many spawning grounds, although the effect of the various combinations of life histories on offspring traits remains unknown. Using crosses of wild fish we show here that the life history strategy of both parents was significantly associated with a range of offspring traits. Mothers that had spent longer at sea (2 versus 1 year) produced offspring that were heavier, longer and in better condition at the time of first feeding. However, these relationships disappeared shortly after fry had begun feeding exogenously. At this stage, the juvenile rearing environment (i.e. time spent in fresh water as juveniles) of the mother was a better predictor of offspring traits, with mothers that were faster to develop in fresh water (migrating to sea after two rather than three years of age) producing offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, aerobic scopes, and that grew faster. Faster developing fathers (1 year old sneaker males) tended to produce offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, were in better body condition and grew faster. The results suggest that both genetic effects and those related to parental early and late life history contribute to offspring traits. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE OF PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiji Chalipat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Raising a child with chronic disability is stressful and demanding task which can affect the quality of life of the parent/caregiver adversely. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life of parents of children aged between 2-12 years with cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a cross sectional descriptive questionnaire based study, which included 30 parents of children with cerebral palsy between 2-12 years of age attending Paediatric OPD or Rehabilitation services. Interviews were conducted using a semistructured questionnaire and quality of life was assessed using World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOLBREF- Questionnaire-short version. Statistical analysis was done with descriptive statistics using SPSS version 10. RESULTS The mean score of the social domain of quality of life of caregivers was the lowest (9.33±1.49 SD followed by psychological (18.23±1.50 SD. Seventy percent of parents reported their overall quality of life as neither good nor poor and 66.67% of parents were satisfied with their own health. CONCLUSION Quality of life of parents of children with CP was affected in all domains, with predominant affection of social domain. More than half of parents were satisfied with their own general health and they reported overall quality of life was neither good nor poor.

  9. What parents want from doctors in end-of-life decision-making for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J; Monagle, P; Gillam, L

    2014-03-01

    End-of-life decision-making is difficult for everyone involved, as many studies have shown. Within this complexity, there has been little information on how parents see the role of doctors in end-of-life decision-making for children. This study aimed to examine parents' views and experiences of end-of-life decision-making. A qualitative method with a semistructured interview design was used. Parent participants were living in the community. Twenty-five bereaved parents. Parents reported varying roles taken by doctors: being the provider of information without opinion; giving information and advice as to the decision that should be taken; and seemingly being the decision maker for the child. The majority of parents found their child's doctor enabled them to be the ultimate decision maker for their child, which was what they very clearly wanted to be, and consequently enabled them to exercise their parental autonomy. Parents found it problematic when doctors took over decision-making. A less frequently reported, yet significant role for doctors was to affirm decisions after they had been made by parents. Other important aspects of the doctor's role were to provide follow-up support and referral. Understanding the role that doctors take in end-of-life decisions, and the subsequent impact of that role from the perspective of parents can form the basis of better informed clinical practice.

  10. Leisure time activities, parental monitoring and drunkenness in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Z.; Veselska, Z.; Madarasova Geckova, A.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between adolescent drunkenness and participation in risky leisure time activities and parental monitoring. Methods: A sample of 3,694 Slovak elementary school students (mean age 14.5 years; 49.0% males) was assessed for

  11. Leisure Time Activities, Parental Monitoring and Drunkenness in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between adolescent drunkenness and participation in risky leisure time activities and parental monitoring. Methods: A sample of 3,694 Slovak elementary school students (mean age 14.5 years; 49.0% males) was assessed for

  12. Linkages over Time between Adolescents' Relationships with Parents and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This 5-wave longitudinal study examines linkages over time between adolescents' perceptions of relationships with parents and friends with respect to support, negative interaction, and power. A total of 575 early adolescents (54.1% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Path analyses mainly showed bidirectional associations…

  13. Adolescent health, stress and life satisfaction: the paradox of indulgent parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Catherine; Darling, Carol A; Rehm, Marsha; Cui, Ming; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2012-08-01

    A survey of adolescents aged 15 to 16 years was used to examine the relationship between their perceptions of indulgent parenting and adolescent weight status to overall satisfaction with life, as associated with adolescent perceptions of body image, health and stress. In addition, perceptions of parental indulgence were examined in terms of their association with adolescent eating behaviours and health. The results revealed a paradox related to indulgent parenting, with both positive and negative outcomes for adolescents. Structural equation analyses showed that parental indulgence was not only related to lower stress and higher life satisfaction, but also to unhealthy eating behaviours. Path analysis indicated that both positive and negative eating outcomes for adolescents were related to parental indulgence. This research has many implications for both parent and adolescent health education, focusing on parenting styles, stress and healthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Adolescents' perspectives of parental practices influence diabetic adherence and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczyk, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether perceived parental support and different parenting styles were related to adherence to diabetes management, metabolic control, and perceived quality of life of adolescents diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age (N = 102) diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for at least one year participated. Parents were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or neglectful) based on their adolescents' surveyed perceptions of their general support and their overall responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived parental support was significantly correlated with adherence. Adolescents who perceived their parents to have authoritative parenting styles also had better adherence to their prescribed treatment plan as well as better perceived quality of life. Adolescents experience better management outcomes when adolescents and parents become interdependent by working together to achieve these outcomes.

  15. Early parental loss and depression history: associations with recent life stress in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M; Monroe, Scott M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2011-09-01

    Although exposure to early adversity and prior experiences with depression have both been associated with lower levels of precipitating life stress in depression, it is unclear whether these stress sensitization effects are similar for all types of stress or whether they are specific to stressors that may be particularly depressogenic, such as those involving interpersonal loss. To investigate this issue, we administered structured, interview-based measures of early adversity, depression history, and recent life stress to one hundred adults who were diagnosed with major depressive disorder. As predicted, individuals who experienced early parental loss or prolonged separation (i.e., lasting one year or longer) and persons with more lifetime episodes of depression became depressed following lower levels of life stress occurring in the etiologically-central time period of three months prior to onset of depression. Importantly, however, additional analyses revealed that these effects were unique to stressors involving interpersonal loss. These data highlight potential stressor-specific effects in stress sensitization and demonstrate for the first time that individuals exposed to early parental loss or separation, and persons with greater histories of MDD, may be selectively sensitized to stressors involving interpersonal loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring parents everyday life and emotion work related to school-home cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krab, Jimmy

    The paper will be based on an ongoing Ph.D. project using a critical ethnographic approach following families with children who experience difficulties in school in their everyday life. The project purpose is to explore parents perspectiv and everyday life. The paper will highlight a number of ex...... of examples of parents experience with school-home relations and discuss methodological challenges in researching everyday life practices and discuss how emotionwork – and management are connected to social differentierings processes in education...

  17. Parental Perspectives of Communication at the End of Life at a Pediatric Oncology Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaman, Jennifer M; Torres, Carlos; Duffy, Brian; Levine, Deena R; Gibson, Deborah V; Baker, Justin N

    2016-03-01

    The interaction of health care providers and hospital staff with patients and families at the end of life affects the parental grief experience. Both verbal and nonverbal communication are key components of this interaction. The study objective was to explore the communication between hospital staff members and patients and families at the time of patients' health decline near the end of life. Twelve bereaved parents participated in a focus group. Semantic content analysis was used to analyze the transcript. Parents' responses to the prompt about typical ways the medical team communicated yielded 109 codes, which were grouped into 12 themes. The most common themes were "patient inclusion" and "explanation of medical plan," both used in 17% of responses. Responses to the prompt about positive and negative aspects of communication generated 208 codes, yielding 15 different themes. The most common theme about positive communication was the "strong relationship between family and staff." The theme "variations in care with a negative impact" was used most frequently in describing negative communication. This study helps to identify techniques that should be used by clinicians as they work with children with cancer and their families, particularly including patients in treatment decisions, ongoing relationship building, communicating with caring and empathy, using an interdisciplinary team for additional support, and pairing bad news with a plan of action.

  18. Life-history theory and climate change: resolving population and parental investment paradoxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudell, Mark; Quinlan, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Population growth in the next half-century is on pace to raise global carbon emissions by half. Carbon emissions are associated with fertility as a by-product of somatic and parental investment, which is predicted to involve time orientation/preference as a mediating psychological mechanism. Here, we draw upon life-history theory (LHT) to investigate associations between future orientation and fertility, and their impacts on carbon emissions. We argue ' K -strategy' life history (LH) in high-income countries has resulted in parental investment behaviours involving future orientation that, paradoxically, promote unsustainable carbon emissions, thereby lowering the Earth's K or carrying capacity. Increasing the rate of approach towards this capacity are ' r -strategy' LHs in low-income countries that promote population growth. We explore interactions between future orientation and development that might slow the rate of approach towards global K . Examination of 67 000 individuals across 75 countries suggests that future orientation interacts with the relationship between environmental risk and fertility and with development related parental investment, particularly investment in higher education, to slow population growth and mitigate per capita carbon emissions. Results emphasize that LHT will be an important tool in understanding the demographic and consumption patterns that drive anthropogenic climate change.

  19. Parental psychological distress and quality of life after a prenatal or postnatal diagnosis of congenital anomaly: a controlled comparison study with parents of healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana; Nazaré, Bárbara; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2012-04-01

    Parental early adjustment to a prenatal or postnatal diagnosis of congenital anomaly has been studied mainly within a pathological and deterministic perspective, giving us an inadequate view of the impact of the diagnosis. Adopting a comprehensive approach on parental adjustment, we aimed to characterise the impact of the diagnosis on psychological distress and quality of life, in the early postdiagnosis stage. The effects of gender and the timing of the diagnosis were also examined. In this cross-sectional study, 42 couples with healthy infants and 42 couples whose infants were prenatal or postnatally diagnosed with a congenital anomaly responded to the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and to the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief instrument. In the early postdiagnosis stage, parents whose infants were diagnosed with a congenital anomaly presented higher levels of psychological distress than did the parents of healthy infants (F(2,79) = 6.23, p = .003), although they displayed similar levels of quality of life (F(4,78) = 0.62, p = .647). Mothers reported more adjustment difficulties than fathers in both groups. Receiving the diagnosis in the prenatal period was associated with higher maternal psychological quality of life (Z = -2.00, p = .045). The occurrence of a diagnosis of congenital anomaly during the transition to parenthood adds to an accumulation of stress-inducing events and manifests itself in psychopathological symptoms. Maintaining a positive evaluation of well-being may be understood as a parental resource to deal with the diagnosis. The importance of adopting a comprehensive perspective on parental adjustment is highlighted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quality of life, psychosocial strains and coping in parents of children with haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedebusch, S; Pollmann, H; Siegmund, B; Muthny, F A

    2008-09-01

    Quality of life in parents of children suffering from haemophilia may be diminished by the illness burden experienced in daily life and by non-adaptive ways of coping. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between parents' quality of life, their perceived psychosocial strains and ways of coping, and to compare parents' outcome to other paediatric illness groups (juvenile idiopathic arthritis, type 1 diabetes). In a cross-sectional study, parents completed a questionnaire concerning quality of life, psychosocial strains, coping strategies and needs as well as sociodemographic and illness parameters. Study participants were recruited in an ambulant haemophilia centre. A total of 55 parents (32 mothers, 23 fathers; age = 39.6; SD = 8.6) of children suffering from haemophilia (age = 11.0; SD = 6.4) took part in the study. Comparison groups were parents of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n = 161) and parents of children with type 1 diabetes (n = 69). Compared to parents from other paediatric illness groups, the parents of children with haemophilia experience less impact on their quality of life and lower psychosocial strains. Quality of life was predicted by the coping strategy 'improving marital relationship' (beta = 0.48) and by emotional strains and worries concerning future (beta = -0.43; explained variance 49%). Parents reported a pronounced need for further information on the comprehensive management of haemophilia. In the psychosocial care of families with a child suffering from -haemophilia, reducing psychosocial strains and strengthening adaptive coping strategies may be a preventive intervention for improving parents' quality of life.

  1. Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…

  2. Effects of Parental Stress, Optimism, and Health-Promoting Behaviors on the Quality of Life of Primiparous and Multiparous Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jennifer; Harms, Craig; Harman, Bronwyn

    Parental stress, optimism, and health-promoting behaviors (HPBs) are important predictors of the quality of life (QoL) of mothers. However, it is unclear how strongly these predictors affect the QoL of mothers. It is also unclear if the impact of these predictors on QoL differs between primiparous and multiparous mothers. In this study, we defined primiparous as "bearing young for the first time" and multiparous as "having experienced one or more previous childbirths." The first objective of this study was to examine the relative effect of parental stress, optimism, and HPBs on the QoL of mothers. The second objective was to investigate if the effect of these predictors differed between primiparous and multiparous mothers. One hundred ninety-four Australian mothers (n = 87, 44.8% primiparous mothers) participated in an online survey that included the Parental Stress Scale, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, the Revised Life Orientation Test, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. All predictors (parental stress, optimism, and HPBs) significantly affected the QoL of mothers; higher levels of optimism, greater use of HPBs, and lower parental stress were associated with higher levels of QoL for all mothers. Parity did not affect the relationships. This study sheds light on the nature and unique effect of parental stress, optimism, and HPBs on the QoL of mothers.

  3. Addressing Parental Vaccine Concerns: Engagement, Balance, and Timing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Glanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent United States measles epidemic has sparked another contentious national discussion about childhood vaccination. A growing number of parents are expressing concerns about the safety of vaccines, often fueled by misinformation from the internet, books, and other nonmedical sources. Many of these concerned parents are choosing to refuse or delay childhood vaccines, placing their children and surrounding communities at risk for serious diseases that are nearly 100% preventable with vaccination. Between 10% and 15% of parents are asking physicians to space out the timing of vaccines, which often poses an ethical dilemma for physicians. This trend reflects a tension between personal liberty and public health, as parents fight to control the decisions that affect the health of their children and public health officials strive to maintain high immunization rates to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Interventions to address this emerging public health issue are needed. We describe a framework by which web-based interventions can be used to help parents make evidence-based decisions about childhood vaccinations.

  4. Is parental rearing an associated factor of quality of life in adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacques J; Eisemann, Martin R; Fleck, Marcelo P

    2008-03-01

    To examine the hypothesis that favorable parental rearing is associated with better quality of life in adulthood. Two hundred and ninety seven university students answered questions on quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), parenting style (s-EMBU), coping strategies (Coping Strategies Inventory), life events (Social Readjustment Rating Scale) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). Data was analyzed by means of hierarchical multiple linear regression. The remote variable of perceived child rearing practices was significantly associated with the quality of life of the students. Maternal emotional warmth was associated with two quality of life domains, psychological and social relationships, in addition to global quality of life. These results strengthen the empirical notion that favorable parental care may be associated with better quality of life in adulthood.

  5. Cross-National Differences in the Association Between Parental Work Hours and Time with Children in Europe: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates cross-national differences in the association between parental work hours and parent-child interaction time and explains differences in this individual-level association on the basis of country characteristics. It extends prior research by testing the moderating effects of country characteristics through multilevel analyses and by considering the possibility of selection effects. The presumption was that parents employ strategies to protect family life from work encroachments and that these strategies are enhanced by reconciliation policies, stronger parenthood ideologies, access to part-time work and higher income levels. Multilevel analyses were based on a subset of 5.183 parents in 23 countries from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey that was complemented with country-level data. The negative association between parental work hours and parent-child time indeed varied significantly across countries and was weaker in countries where formal child care coverage was higher, part-time work was less prevalent, and earnings were lower. The effects of part-time work and earnings mainly applied to mothers. These findings suggest that child care coverage limits the availability of children and that differences in parent-child time between parents who work short and long hours are more pronounced when part-time work is more accessible and affordable.

  6. [The Mediating Role of Parenting Self-Efficacy on Parenting Stress and Quality of Life in Parents of Young Children With Developmental Delay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Chen, Jo-Lin

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies indicate that parents of developmentally delayed children have higher parenting stress (PS) and lower quality of life (QoL) than parents of healthy children. Parenting self-efficacy (PSE) may mediate the effects of PS on the QoL of parents. The present study explores the mediating role of PSE between PS and the QoL of parents of developmentally delayed children and compares the differences in several variables between fathers and mothers. A cross-sectional research design was used to study a sample of 70 parent dyads. Instruments used were the Basic Information Form, Parenting Stress Index Short Form (PSI-SF), Parenting Self-efficacy Scale (PSE Scale), and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Taiwan version (WHOQOL-BREF). (1) Participants had a moderate level of QoL, PS, and PSE. (2) The PS of participants was significantly and negatively correlated with both QoL and PSE while their PSE was significantly and positively correlated with QoL. (3) The PSE of the fathers completely mediated the effects of PS on their QoL (p accounting for 62.2% of observed variation, while the PSE of the mothers partially mediated the effects of PS on their QoL (p accounting for 59.5% of observed variation. PSE was identified as the mediator between PS and QoL in both fathers and mothers. The PSE of the fathers completely mediated the effect of PS on QoL, while the PSE of the mothers partially mediated the effect of PS on QoL. Further research that explores the factors that affect the QoL of parents and then uses the results to develop interventions to enhance the PSE of parents, especially fathers, is recommended.

  7. A study on family communication pattern and parenting styles with quality of life in adolescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanavi, F.S.; Baghbanian, A.; Shovey, M.F.; Moghaddam, A.A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between parenting styles and family communication patterns with adolescent's quality of life. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out on 439 randomly selected adolescents in the city of Zahedan, Iran, from January to July 2011. The subjects were asked to complete the KIDSCREEN-52 health-related quality of life questionnaire, while their parents were asked to complete the Diana Brinder's Test to show their parenting styles. SPSS 15 was used to analyse data. Results: Most parents had authoritative parenting style (n=380; 86.6%). Pluralistic (n=170; 38.7%) and consensual (n=152; 34.6%) patterns were the most frequent styles of communication in families. Data suggested a significant relationship between parenting style and some dimensions of quality of life, including physical well-being, psychological well-being, social support and peers, and autonomy (p<0.05). There was also a significant relationship between family communication patterns and parent relation and home life (p<0.001) as well as autonomy (p<0.006). Conclusion: Families play a critical role in increasing adolescents, health-related quality-of-life. Effort should be made to address problems facing parents while raising their children. (author)

  8. Time with children and employed parents' emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offer, Shira

    2014-09-01

    Using the experience sampling method and survey data from the 500 Family Study this study examined how parents feel when they spend time with their children and whether their emotional experiences differ by type of activity and the parent's gender. I found that mothers spent more time in childcare than fathers but this disparity was primarily due to mothers' more frequent engagement in activities that were not child-centered (i.e., non-focused and passive childcare). Multilevel models further showed that engagement in these activities was related to higher positive affect. Shared meals and leisure activities were particularly beneficial to parents' emotional well-being and the likelihood of engaging in them was not affected by parents' paid work hours. By contrast, routine childcare was associated with increased stress and lower engagement but only among mothers. Mothers were also less likely to provide childcare in conjunction with their spouse. These findings reveal the subtle dimensions of the unequal division of childcare by gender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Agreement in Quality of Life Assessment between Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, Spela; Skrbic, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects different aspects of functioning and quality of life, as well as the ability to independently assess the quality of life itself. The paper examines the agreement in the quality of life assessments made by adolescents with intellectual disability and their parents compared with assessments made by adolescents without…

  10. Parental Control of the Time Preadolescents Spend on Social Media: Links with Preadolescents' Social Media Appearance Comparisons and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Magson, Natasha R; Johnco, Carly J; Oar, Ella L; Rapee, Ronald M

    2018-07-01

    Time spent on social media and making online comparisons with others may influence users' mental health. This study examined links between parental control over the time their child spends on social media, preadolescents' time spent browsing social media, preadolescents' appearance comparisons on social media, and preadolescents' appearance satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction. Preadolescent social media users (N = 284, 49.1% female; aged 10-12) and one of their parents completed online surveys. Preadolescents, whose parents reported greater control over their child's time on social media, reported better mental health. This relationship was mediated by preadolescents spending less time browsing and making fewer appearance comparisons on social media. Parental control over time spent on social media may be associated with benefits for mental health among preadolescents.

  11. When does time matter? maternal employment, children's time with parents, and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina

    2014-10-01

    This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better "quality" of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers' education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and child care. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development.

  12. PWR life time: the EDF project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, R.; Reynes, L.; Mercier, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Operating a very large number of standardized PWR units which supply today 70% of French power generation, Electricite de France is highly interested in getting the best estimate of the safe and economical life of these plants. An extensive program of work has been undertaken in this respect. The studies have first to go through all available data on aging process, survey and maintenance of a limited number of major components. This review will lead to recommendation of complementary work in these fields. The first conclusions are that these units are able to perform a long service time, under provision of careful survey and maintenance [fr

  13. Quality of life and parental styles assessed by adolescents suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenova, Daniela; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Latalova, Klara; Karaskova, Eva; Hruby, Radovan; Kamaradova, Dana; Mihal, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in adolescents are chronic medical conditions with a substantial influence on the quality of life (QoL) of the families. A total of 27 adolescents suffering from IBD, 39 healthy adolescents, and their parents were included in the cross-sectional study. The adolescents completed the questionnaires ADOR (parenting styles), KidScreen-10 (QoL), SAD (The Scale of Anxiety in Children), and CDI (Children's Depression Inventory). The parents completed the BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory), BDI-II (Beck Depression Inventory, second version), and PedsQL (Pediatrics Quality of Life) Family Impact Module. The parental styles of the parents of the IBD adolescents and controls were without significant differences. The only exception was that fathers' positive parental style was significantly higher in the fathers of the controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the IBD children and controls in the QoL assessed using KidScreen-10. However, the QoL of the parents of the ill children was significantly lower than that of the parents of the controls (PedsQL total scores in mothers 66.84±14.78 vs 76.17±14.65 and in fathers 68.86±16.35 vs 81.74±12.89, respectively). The mothers of the IBD adolescents were significantly more anxious (BAI scores 9.50±10.38 vs 5.26±4.75) and the fathers more depressed (BDI-II scores 7.23±6.50 vs 3.64±3.51) than the parents of the controls, but there was no difference in the levels of anxiety or depression between the IBD adolescents and the controls. The positive parental style of both the parents of the children suffering from IBD positively correlated with the QoL of the adolescents evaluated by KidScreen-10. The positive parental style of the fathers negatively correlated with the children's state and trait anxiety and negatively correlated with the severity of childhood depression. The fathers of the IBD adolescents may exhibit low levels of positive parenting style and be mildly

  14. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Birdi, Gurkiran; Cooke, Richard; Knibb, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population complet...

  15. Quality of life in pediatric cancer survivors: contributions of parental distress and psychosocial family risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, N M; Khu, M; Reynolds, K; Guilcher, G M T; Schulte, F S M

    2018-02-01

    Pediatric survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk of poor quality of life and social-emotional outcomes following treatment. The relationship between parent psychological distress and child adjustment in pediatric cancer survivors has been well established. However, limited research has examined the factors that may buffer this association. The current study examined the associations between psychosocial family risk factors, parental psychological distress, and health-related quality of life (hrql) in pediatric cancer survivors. Fifty-two pediatric cancer survivors (34 males, 18 females, mean age = 11.92) and their parents were recruited from a long-term cancer survivor clinic. Children and their parents who consented to participate completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. Parents completed a demographic information form, the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (pat 2.0) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (bsi). The Intensity of Treatment Rating (itr-3) was evaluated by the research team. Multiple regression analyses revealed that parental psychological distress negatively predicted parent-reported hrql, while treatment intensity, gender, and psychosocial risk negatively predicted parent and child-reported hrql. Psychosocial risk moderated the association between parent psychological distress and parent-reported child hrql ( p = 0.03), whereby parents with high psychological distress but low levels of psychosocial risk reported their children to have higher hrql. Low levels of family psychosocial risk buffer the impact of parent psychological distress on child hrql in pediatric cancer survivors. The findings highlight the importance of identifying parents and families with at-risk psychological distress and psychosocial risk in order to provide targeted support interventions to mitigate the impact on hrql.

  16. Assessment of Psychopathology, Quality of Life, and Parental Attitudes in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Nilfer; Öztop, Didem Behice; Yilmaz, Savaş; Altun, Hatice

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify psychopathology, parental attitudes, perceptions of quality of life, and relationships between these factors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Fifty adolescents (12-18 years old) with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 50 healthy adolescents and their parents were recruited for the study. Clinical interviews with the diabetic adolescents were performed using "Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL)." Both groups completed the "Depression Scale for Children," "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory," and "Health Related Quality of Life Scale for Children," while their parents completed the "Parental Attitude Research Instrument," "The Coping Strategy Indicator," and "Health Related Quality of Life Scale for Children-Parent Form." The psychological disorder ratio in diabetic adolescents was 68%. No significant difference was found regarding perceptions of quality of life between the diabetic group and control group. However, diabetic adolescents with psychological disorder had reduced perception of quality of life than those without psychological disorder. Among parental attitudes, an authoritarian attitude was found to be more common in the diabetic group. It was found that among coping strategies, parents in the diabetic group use avoidance more commonly. In the present study, a high rate of psychopathology was detected among adolescents with type 1 DM. In addition, no clear impairment in quality of life was reported in patients with type 1 DM; however, there was worsening in the perception of quality of life in the presence of psychiatric disorders accompanying diabetes. It was found that parents of diabetic children use inappropriate coping strategies and negative parental attitudes more often than those of healthy controls.

  17. Relations of Parenting and Negative Life Events to Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alanna E.; Cole, David A.; Dallaire, Danielle H.; Jacquez, Farrah M.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; LaGrange, Beth

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 299 children (grades 2, 4, and 6), we examined parenting and negative life events as predictors of depressive cognitions, specifically low self-perceived competence, depressive cognitive schemas, and depressogenic attributional style. We also examined developmental trends in these relations. Children completed measures of parenting,…

  18. Parental Distress and Quality of Life in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Implications for the Outpatient Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, Kay; Haverman, Lotte; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Benninga, Marc A.; Kindermann, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    The interrelation between the course of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in children and parent's distress, and the subsequent impact this may have on Health-Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL) of the child is unclear. Therefore, we investigated (I) patient's HRQOL and parental distress, and (II) the

  19. Transitions from School for Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Parental Perspectives on "Life as an Adjustment"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael D.; Beamish, Wendi

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated transition programs and outcomes for young adults with disabilities as viewed from the parent perspective. The current Australian study provided a voice for parents to report on the experiences of and outcomes for young adults following their recent transition from school into post-school life. Method: A…

  20. Interplay between childhood maltreatment, parental bonding, and gender effects: impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhye, Kobita; Tyrka, Audrey R; Kelly, Megan M; Gagne, Gerard G; Mello, Andrea F; Mello, Marcelo F; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood adversity, parental bonding, gender, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in non-treatment-seeking adults from the community. Effects of differential parental rearing were compared in adults who reported a high degree of childhood maltreatment (n=72) and those who reported no significant adverse events in childhood (n=69). Subjects completed retrospective measures of childhood maltreatment and perceived parenting style, as well as measures of current depressive symptoms and quality of life. The subjects without childhood maltreatment were younger and endorsed less current depressive symptomatology than did subjects with childhood maltreatment. While the subjects without a history of maltreatment reported more "optimal" bonding experiences with their parents, the maltreatment group members were more likely to characterize their early parental bonding experiences in terms of "affectionless control" (pparenting), "affectionate constraint" (p=.025 for maternal parenting and p=.004 for paternal parenting), or "weak or absent" bonding (pparenting). Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that overall quality of paternal care (p=.015) and current level of depressive symptoms (pparental bonding data were limited to the group with childhood maltreatment. These findings extend previous work documenting a relationship between early life maltreatment and suboptimal parental bonding, suggesting gender-specific effects of maternal and paternal care. Effects of childhood maltreatment on quality of life in adulthood appear to be linked with the quality of childhood paternal care and the occurrence of depressive symptomatology in adulthood, suggesting possible targets for primary or secondary prevention.

  1. The proxy problem: Child report versus parent report in health-related quality of life research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Vogels, T.G.C.; Koopman, H.M.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Wit, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluates the agreement between child and parent reports on children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a representative sample of 1,105 Dutch children (age 8-11 years old). Both children and their parents completed a 56 item questionnaire (TACQOL). The questionnaire contains

  2. The Role of Life Satisfaction in the Relationship between Authoritative Parenting Dimensions and Adolescent Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Huebner, E. Scott

    2004-01-01

    Research examining environmental factors associated with adolescents' life satisfaction (LS) has revealed that familial variables (e.g., parent-child conflict, family structure) are crucial correlates. The purpose of the current study was to identify particular dimensions of authoritative parenting (strictness-supervision, social…

  3. Parent Attachment and Early Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    Research using an attachment theory framework has provided evidence that parent attachment is one of the crucial determinants of psychological adjustment in adolescents, including global life satisfaction (LS). This study investigated the interrelationships among parent attachment, hope, and LS during early adolescence, including the mediation…

  4. Relationships between Parental Attachment, Work and Family Roles, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Webb, L. Kay; Jackson, Z. Vance

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental attachment and satisfaction with work and family roles, as well as the relationship of these variables to life satisfaction. Results from a multiple regression analysis indicated that satisfaction with work and marriage, but not parenting satisfaction or parental…

  5. Predictors of Satisfaction with Life in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Jason; Shepherd, Daniel; Goedeke, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, care-related activities, and satisfaction with life (SWL) in 184 parents caring for a child with ASD in New Zealand. The relationships between coping styles and SWL were also examined. The parents' SWL scores indicated they were slightly dissatisfied with their…

  6. Parenting Practices and Quality of Life in Dutch and Portuguese Adolescents : A Cross-Cultural Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, Cristina; Bodden, Denise; Lemos, Ida; Lorence, Barbara; Jimenez, Lucia; Bodden, Denise

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in Quality of life (QoL) and parenting practices, as well as the impact of parenting practices on QoL in Dutch and Portuguese adolescents. A total of 168 Portuguese (44.64% girls, 55.36% boys) and 155 Dutch adolescents (55.68% girls, 44.32% boys) aged

  7. Parenting Practices and Quality of Life in Dutch and Portuguese Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, C.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Lemos, I.; Lorence, B.; Jimenez, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in Quality of life (QoL) and parenting practices, as well as the impact of parenting practices on QoL in Dutch and Portuguese adolescents. A total of 168 Portuguese (44.64% girls, 55.36% boys) and 155 Dutch adolescents (55.68% girls, 44.32% boys) aged

  8. Life course changes of children and well-being of parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; de Graaf, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    How do children's life course transitions affect the well-being of their parents? Using a large panel survey among parents with longitudinal information on 2 randomly chosen children, the authors analyzed the effects of children's union formation, parenthood, and union dissolution on changes in

  9. Interplay between Childhood Maltreatment, Parental Bonding, and Gender Effects: Impact on Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhye, Kobita; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Kelly, Megan M.; Gagne, Gerard G., Jr.; Mello, Andrea F.; Mello, Marcello F.; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood adversity, parental bonding, gender, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in non-treatment-seeking adults from the community. Method: Effects of differential parental rearing were compared in adults who reported a high degree of childhood maltreatment (n = 72) and…

  10. Energy and water budgets of larks in a life history perspective : Parental effort varies with aridity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, BI; Williams, JB; Visser, GH

    We compared physiological, demographic, and ecological variables of larks to gain insights into life history variation along an aridity gradient, incorporating phylogenetic relationships in analyses when appropriate. Quantifying field metabolic rate (FMR). and water influx rate (WIR) of parents

  11. Parent-adolescent joint projects involving leisure time and activities during the transition to high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sheila K; Young, Richard A; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Lollis, Susan; Tilton-Weaver, Lauree; Nelson, Margo; Goessling, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    Leisure research to date has generally overlooked planning and organizing of leisure time and activities between parents and adolescents. This investigation examined how a sample of Canadian adolescents and their parents jointly constructed and acted on goals related to adolescents' leisure time during the move from elementary to high school. Using the Qualitative Action-Project Method, data were collected over an 8-10 month period from 26 parent-adolescent dyads located in two urban sites, through video-taped conversations about leisure time, video recall interviews, and telephone monitoring interviews. Analysis of the data revealed that the joint projects of the 26 dyads could be grouped into three clusters: a) governance transfer or attempts to shift, from parent to adolescent, responsibility over academic demands, organizing leisure time, and safety with peers, b) balancing extra-curricular activities with family life, academics, and social activities, and c) relationship adjustment or maintenance. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Talk Time. Communicate Effectively with Parents, and Maximize Students' Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents suggestions for how teachers can build positive, strong relationships with parents or caregivers, including: telephone parents before an open house or in-person meeting; start the first conference by asking parents to share what is happening at home; be aware of different cultures, values, and parenting styles; and enlist parent input.…

  13. Parent-reported quality of life of children with cerebral palsy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaud, Catherine; White-Koning, Melanie; I. Michelsen, Susan

    2008-01-01

    : The parental response rates were >93% for all domains except one. Gross motor function and IQ level were found to be associated independently with quality of life in most domains. However, greater severity of impairment was not always associated with poorer quality of life; in the moods and emotions, self-perception......, social acceptance, and school environment domains, less severely impaired children were more likely to have poor quality of life. Pain was associated with poor quality of life in the physical and psychological well-being and self-perception domains. Parents with higher levels of stress were more likely...

  14. Associations of American Indian children's screen-time behavior with parental television behavior, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and media-related resources in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Smyth, Mary; Himes, John H; Hannan, Peter J; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Story, Mary

    2011-09-01

    American Indian children have high rates of overweight and obesity, which may be partially attributable to screen-time behavior. Young children's screen-time behavior is strongly influenced by their environment and their parents' behavior. We explored whether parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and media-related resources in the home are related to screen time (ie, television, DVD/video, video game, and computer use) among Oglala Lakota youth residing on or near the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. We collected baseline data from 431 child and parent/caregiver pairs who participated in Bright Start, a group-randomized, controlled, school-based obesity prevention trial to reduce excess weight gain. Controlling for demographic characteristics, we used linear regression analysis to assess associations between children's screen time and parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and availability of media-related household resources. The most parsimonious model for explaining child screen time included the children's sex, parental body mass index, parental television watching time, how often the child watched television after school or in the evening, parental perception that the child spent too much time playing video games, how often the parent limited the child's television time, and the presence of a VCR/DVD player or video game player in the home (F(7,367) = 14.67; P strategy for reducing overweight and obesity in American Indian children.

  15. Parenting under pressure: a grounded theory of parenting young children with life-threatening congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Gwen R; Ravindran, Vinitha; Rogers, Laura G; Magill-Evans, Joyce

    2013-03-01

    To report a grounded theory study to describe the process of parenting young children who have survived hypoplastic left heart syndrome to inform parent-focused interventions. Technological advances in paediatric cardiology worldwide have improved the survival rates for young children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who undergo staged surgical palliation. These children, however, are at risk for life-threatening complications and parents are charged with the responsibility to monitor their children at home with minimal support and guidance from healthcare professionals once home. A constructivist grounded theory study. The study was conducted in 2006-2008. Participants were 25 parents (15 mothers, 10 fathers) and 28 grandparents (17 grandmothers, 11 grandfathers) of 15 young children (6 months-4·5 years) who had undergone the Sano surgical approach for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The 53 interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using open and focused coding, constant comparative analysis and memoing. A process of Parenting under Pressure emerged that was characterized by four overlapping and re-emerging phases: (1) realizing and adjusting to the inconceivable; (2) growing increasingly attached; (3) watching for and accommodating the unexpected; and (4) encountering new challenges. In-depth understanding of the phases of Parenting under Pressure provides direction for nurses to support parents of children who survive hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Interventions that help carers of children with complex health conditions move through the phases of our Parenting under Pressure process may help them safeguard the survival of their children, and their own survival as parents as they manage multiple demands. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Perceptions of Parental Awareness of Emotional Responses to Stressful Life Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Parra, Gilbert R.; Buckholdt, Kelly E.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to better understand family processes related to recovery from past stressful life events. The present study aimed to investigate links between perceptions of parental awareness regarding stressful life events, continued event-related rumination, and current symptoms of depression. Students at a diverse, urban university completed a life events checklist and a semi-structured interview regarding family processing of stressful life events, as well as self-report measures of eve...

  17. Detecting effects of the indicated prevention Programme for Externalizing Problem behaviour (PEP) on child symptoms, parenting, and parental quality of life in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Freund-Braier, Inez; Hautmann, Christopher; Jänen, Nicola; Plück, Julia; Brix, Gabriele; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Behavioural parent training is effective in improving child disruptive behavioural problems in preschool children by increasing parenting competence. The indicated Prevention Programme for Externalizing Problem behaviour (PEP) is a group training programme for parents and kindergarten teachers of children aged 3-6 years with externalizing behavioural problems. To evaluate the effects of PEP on child problem behaviour, parenting practices, parent-child interactions, and parental quality of life. Parents and kindergarten teachers of 155 children were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 91) and a nontreated control group (n = 64). They rated children's problem behaviour before and after PEP training; parents also reported on their parenting practices and quality of life. Standardized play situations were video-taped and rated for parent-child interactions, e.g. parental warmth. In the intention to treat analysis, mothers of the intervention group described less disruptive child behaviour and better parenting strategies, and showed more parental warmth during a standardized parent-child interaction. Dosage analyses confirmed these results for parents who attended at least five training sessions. Children were also rated to show less behaviour problems by their kindergarten teachers. Training effects were especially positive for parents who attended at least half of the training sessions. CBCL: Child Behaviour Checklist; CII: Coder Impressions Inventory; DASS: Depression anxiety Stress Scale; HSQ: Home-situation Questionnaire; LSS: Life Satisfaction Scale; OBDT: observed behaviour during the test; PCL: Problem Checklist; PEP: prevention programme for externalizing problem behaviour; PPC: Parent Problem Checklist; PPS: Parent Practices Scale; PS: Parenting Scale; PSBC: Problem Setting and Behaviour checklist; QJPS: Questionnaire on Judging Parental Strains; SEFS: Self-Efficacy Scale; SSC: Social Support Scale; TRF: Caregiver-Teacher Report Form.

  18. Hypnobirth within the NHS: time to ditch the parent craft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin-Jones, Teri

    2016-05-01

    Antenatal education within the National Health Service (NHS) is a service in decline within some hospital trusts. Classes on offer are being moved into online formats or discontinued completely. Whilst research into antenatal education remains limited, what is known is that good birth preparation is of value. "Participative preparation for childbirth can enhance women's overall satisfaction with the childbirth experience" (Schrader McMillan et al 2009: 49). There are pockets of excellent antenatal education within the NHS, but no system for regulating the quality and content. Traditional 'parent craft' classes can be oversubscribed, turning what should be a participative group into an audience. Offering good quality antenatal education has the potential to increase normality, improve the birth outcome and the experience of both woman and her birth partner. Is it time to ditch the parent craft and implement dynamic woman-focused education?

  19. Life Experience of Bereaved Parents After the 2014 Sewol Ferry Disaster in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Khang, Minsoo; Shin, Jiyoung; Lee, Hwa Jung; Brown, Jacqueline A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the outcomes of parental bereavement and the changes in life experience that follow the traumatic death of a teenage child. The results of the study are aimed to assist counselors and educators who work with themes of grief and loss. From 17 in-depth interviews from parents bereaved by the Sewol ferry disaster of 2014 in South Korea, three main categories were found to capture the reality for parents after the sudden and traumatic death of a teenage child: (a) personal changes, (b) changes in close relationships, and (c) changes in social life. Recommendations for future research and potential implications were discussed.

  20. Parental care trade-offs and life-history relationships in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, James D J; Manica, Andrea

    2010-08-01

    Insect parental care is extensive and varied, but its life-history implications have never been comparatively tested. Using original and literature data, we tested predictions about egg size, egg number (lifetime fecundity), and body size under different parental care modes across a phylogeny of 287 insect species. Life-history theory and both comparative and intraspecific evidence from ectotherms suggest parental care should select for bigger, fewer eggs, but that allometric scaling of egg size and lifetime fecundity may depend on whether care consists of provisioning (density-dependent offspring survival) or merely guarding (density-independent offspring survival). Against expectation, egg size was indistinguishable among parental care modes, covarying only with body size. This refutes most theory of egg size evolution under parental care. Lifetime fecundity scaled differently depending on parental investment-positively under no care and guarding, as in most ectotherms, but negatively under provisioning. Reproductive allocation in provisioning insects resembled that in mammals and birds, also groups with obligate provisioning. We propose that the metabolic demands of multiple offspring must scale with species body size more steeply than the parent's provisioning capacity, resulting in larger females laying fewer eggs. These patterns lay the groundwork for a more general understanding of parental care and life history.

  1. An exploration of parent-child dyadic asthma management influences on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of childhood asthma management use data from a single family reporter and fail to capture the parent-child dyadic influences. In this descriptive exploratory study with 183 parent-child dyads, data were collected from both parents and children. Using structural equation modeling, the relationships of parents' and children's asthma knowledge, self-efficacy to manage asthma, and asthma management on the child's quality of life were examined. Direct significant relationships from knowledge to self-efficacy to asthma management were found for each member of the dyad. The associations between parents' and children's self-efficacy and asthma management were not statistically significant. Only the children's self-efficacy to manage asthma was significantly associated with children's asthma-related quality of life.

  2. Communication and support from health-care professionals to families, with dependent children, following the diagnosis of parental life-limiting illness: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Rachel; Boland, Jason W

    2017-03-01

    Communication between parents and their children about parental life-limiting illness is stressful. Parents want support from health-care professionals; however, the extent of this support is not known. Awareness of family's needs would help ensure appropriate support. To find the current literature exploring (1) how parents with a life-limiting illness, who have dependent children, perceive health-care professionals' communication with them about the illness, diagnosis and treatments, including how social, practical and emotional support is offered to them and (2) how this contributes to the parents' feelings of supporting their children. A systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ASSIA ProQuest were searched in November 2015 for studies assessing communication between health-care professionals and parents about how to talk with their children about the parent's illness. There were 1342 records identified, five qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria (55 ill parents, 11 spouses/carers, 26 children and 16 health-care professionals). Parents wanted information from health-care professionals about how to talk to their children about the illness; this was not routinely offered. Children also want to talk with a health-care professional about their parents' illness. Health-care professionals are concerned that conversations with parents and their children will be too difficult and time-consuming. Parents with a life-limiting illness want support from their health-care professionals about how to communicate with their children about the illness. Their children look to health-care professionals for information about their parent's illness. Health-care professionals, have an important role but appear reluctant to address these concerns because of fears of insufficient time and expertise.

  3. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  4. Parent Perspectives of Neonatal Intensive Care at the End-of-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Erin R; Christian, Becky J; Hinds, Pamela S; Perna, Samuel J; Robinson, Cheryl; Day, Sara; Meneses, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study explored parent experiences related to their infant's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization, end-of-life care, and palliative care consultation. "Life and death in the NICU environment" emerged as the primary theme with the following categories: ups and downs of parenting in the NICU, decision-making challenges in the NICU, and parent support. Parents encountered challenges with areas for improvement for end-of-life and palliative care in the NICU. Further research is necessary to understand barriers with integrating palliative care and curative care in the NICU, and how NICU care affects bereavement and coping outcomes after infant death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effectiveness of Mindful Parenting, Social Thinking and Exercise on Quality of Life in ADHD Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Dehkordian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundQuality of life (QOL, is the most important goal of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of mindful parenting, social thinking and exercise on quality of life in ADHD children.Materials and MethodsAn experimental design was used. Samples consist of 60 students 8-12 years with the DSM-5 classification ADHD that were engaging in education in 2015-2016 in Abadan, Iran. 60 children according to criteria inclusion were randomly placed in 4 groups: mindful parenting (17 mothers of ADHD children, social thinking (n=15, exercise (n=13, and control group (n=15. Measure tools consist of Conner’s Parent Rating Scale (CPRS and Pediatric quality of life (pedQOL questionnaire. Interventions were: mindful parenting (9-session, social thinking (8 sessions and exercise (8-session.ResultsThe results showed significant change in QOL of experimental group compared with the control group (P

  6. The experience of Chinese American parents of children with life-limiting illness: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiao; Kearney, Joan A

    2013-07-01

    Life-limiting childhood illness is a traumatic experience presenting parents with psychological, physical, and social challenges. While cultural influences affect all parents coping with the life-limiting illness and end-of-life period of their child, little is known about the experiences of Chinese American parents. The purpose of this comprehensive literature review was to describe Chinese American parents' experiences during their children's end-of-life period from a culturally informed perspective. Important themes in the literature are revealed including culture-based phenomena regarding philosophy of life and illness that can affect treatment choices, cultural mores that influence parental behaviour in Western health-care systems, specific communication patterns within families and between families and providers, certain coping risks, and gender-based roles and caregiving activities that have implications for provider communication patterns. The findings are consonant with the larger literature regarding the impact of traditional culture and values on Chinese family and health behaviours. Health professionals must be sensitive to Chinese American parents' communication styles, unspoken concerns, and unresolved cultural conflicts in American health-care settings. Educational interventions may be very helpful in this regard.

  7. Quality of life and parental styles assessed by adolescents suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenova D

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Jelenova,1 Jan Prasko,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Eva Karaskova,2 Radovan Hruby,3 Dana Kamaradova,1 Vladimir Mihal21Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University, University Hospital, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 3Private Practice, Martin, Slovak RepublicBackground: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs in adolescents are chronic medical conditions with a substantial influence on the quality of life (QoL of the families.Methods: A total of 27 adolescents suffering from IBD, 39 healthy adolescents, and their parents were included in the cross-sectional study. The adolescents completed the questionnaires ADOR (parenting styles, KidScreen-10 (QoL, SAD (The Scale of Anxiety in Children, and CDI (Children’s Depression Inventory. The parents completed the BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory, BDI-II (Beck Depression Inventory, second version, and PedsQL (Pediatrics Quality of Life Family Impact Module.Results: The parental styles of the parents of the IBD adolescents and controls were without significant differences. The only exception was that fathers’ positive parental style was significantly higher in the fathers of the controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the IBD children and controls in the QoL assessed using KidScreen-10. However, the QoL of the parents of the ill children was significantly lower than that of the parents of the controls (PedsQL total scores in mothers 66.84±14.78 vs 76.17±14.65 and in fathers 68.86±16.35 vs 81.74±12.89, respectively. The mothers of the IBD adolescents were significantly more anxious (BAI scores 9.50±10.38 vs 5.26±4.75 and the fathers more depressed (BDI-II scores 7.23±6.50 vs 3.64±3.51 than the parents of the controls, but there was no difference in the levels of anxiety or depression between the IBD adolescents and the controls. The positive parental style of both the parents of the children suffering from

  8. Parental Stress, Family-Professional Partnerships, and Family Quality of Life: Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the quality of life of families that have at least one child with autism spectrum disorder, parental stress level, and partnerships between the family and professionals. Also, parent perceptions of parental stress, family quality of life, and family-professional partnerships were…

  9. Child Health-Related Quality of Life and Parental Social Capital in Greece: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…

  10. Quality of life and impact of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for children and their parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, Katharine D.; Speight, Jane; Skinner, T. Chas

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify key components of quality of life (QoL) and assess the impact of insulin pump therapy on children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. The Schedule for the Evaluation of Individualised Quality of Life (SEIQoL) interview was adapted to be (1) insulin pum...

  11. Relationship between attachment to God and meaningful life parents of mentally retarded children in Zahedan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Jenaabadi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Given a significant positive correlation between appeal to God and meaningful life, it is suggested including spirituality therapy sessions and teaching religious coping methods to reduce stress and thus make meaningful life in these parents by welfare, education of exceptional children, and radio and television organizations.

  12. Quality of life among parents of children with autistic disorder: a sample from the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2014-02-01

    A growing body of research has sought to examine issues associated with the Quality of Life (QoL) of parents of children with Autistic Disorder. However, no studies have examined the QoL of Arab parents whose parenting experience is expected to be substantially different from that of their western counterparts. Therefore, the purposes of this study were: (1) to examine differences in the QoL between fathers and mothers of children with Autistic Disorder in a sample from an Arab country, and (2) to examine the psychosocial correlates of the QoL of Arab parents of children with Autistic Disorder. Self-administered questionnaires on parents' QoL, stress, coping strategies, and demographic characteristics were completed by 184 parents of children with Autistic Disorder. The participants were recruited using the convenience sampling design. Fathers and mothers of children with Autistic Disorder showed no significant differences in their physical, psychological, social, and environmental health. Further, both parents showed almost similar bivariate correlations between the reported QoL levels and their parenting stress, coping strategies, and demographic characteristics. This is the first study to examine the QoL of parents of children with Autistic Disorder in the Arab world and, in doing so, it highlighted the distinct lack of research in this area. The QoL of Arab parents of children with Autistic Disorder crosses lines with their stress levels, coping strategies, demographic characteristics, and to some extent their cultural context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Caregiving Youth Knowledge and Perceptions of Parental End-of-Life Wishes in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Melinda S; Noh, Hyunjin; Zhang, Lixia

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of patient end-of-life (EOL) wishes and discussions are vital for family caregivers, including children and youth who may be in caregiving roles ("young carers" or "caregiving youth"). However, little is known about caregiving youth awareness and perceptions of EOL issues. This study sought to explore caregiving youth knowledge of EOL wishes and their willingness for EOL discussions. Face-to-face interviews with 40 caregiving youth ages 10-20, who have a parent with Huntington's disease (HD), provided information about their knowledge of the presence of their ill parent's living will (LW) and durable power of attorney for health care (DPAHC), and willingness to talk with the parent about EOL choices and possibility of death. Less than one-half of the participants were aware of the parent's LW or DPAHC. Content analysis revealed themes in reasons to want or not want EOL discussion with the parent: respect for the parent's wishes, caregiving youths' opinion not valued, and avoidance of EOL issues. Themes also included reasons to not want discussion with the parent about possibility of death: protecting the parent, parent in denial, parent not ready, and realization of the terminal outcome. Findings suggest HD patients and their caregiving youth need support for open EOL discussions, and could benefit from educational programs and support groups around EOL issues.

  14. Parenting style impacts on quality of life in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Adi; Shalev, Ruth S; Biran, Gali; Gross-Tsur, Varda

    2007-07-01

    To assess the impact of parenting style and disease severity on quality of life (QOL) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirty-nine children with CP, their siblings, and their parents participated in the study. Probands and siblings, ages 6 to 18 years, completed questionnaires on parenting style (accepting, rejecting, controlling, and autonomy allowing) using the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory. Parents completed generic (Child Health Questionnaire [CHQ]) and disease-specific (Pediatric Outcomes Data Collecting Instrument [PODCI]) QOL questionnaires for both children. A physician determined disease severity with the Gross Motor Function Classification System. In children with CP, parenting style positively correlated with the CHQ scores: physical summary and psychosocial summary (r = 0.40, P = .01) and family activities scale (r = 0.34, P = .03). Autonomy allowing parenting style impacted on psychosocial aspects of QOL, as reflected by CHQ scores, more than the degree of disability. In other domains of QOL, the effect of parenting style was greater than IQ, anxiety, and socioeconomic status. Parenting style is a significant factor in QOL in CP and the only known factor to impact on the psychosocial domains of the CHQ, exceeding the effect of disease severity. Because QOL is an important treatment goal in children with CP, early family interventions, particularly those focusing on parenting style, should be considered.

  15. [Do parental resources mediate between social inequality and health-related quality of life of children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold-Kerri, S; Sperlich, S

    2010-02-01

    The present study examines the influence of socioeconomic position and the family's living conditions on children's self-reported quality of life. The aim is to analyse to what extent these relationships are mediated by maternal parenting resources (coping strategies, psychological health and maternal self-efficacy). We used data from 691 children (aged 8 - 12 years) and their mothers, collected in mother-child rehabilitation centres in Germany. The children's quality of life was measured by the KID-KINDL (self-report). Maternal parenting resources were measured by the SVF-60 (coping strategies), the SCL-K-9 (psychological health) and the FKE-K (maternal self-efficacy). Analyses of variance were used for estimating the effects of social factors on children's self-reported quality of life and on parenting resources. The relationship between children's quality of life and maternal parenting resources was assessed by computing correlation measures. The mediating effects of parenting resources on relationships between social factors and children's quality of life were estimated by means of multiple regression. Overall girls and boys showed high quality of life levels. A social gradient was only found for girls. The most significant influence was shown by receiving social welfare (t-test, p=0.000), flat size (VA, p=0.011) and single motherhood (t-test, p=0.011). The influence depends on the type of indicator for family living conditions as well as on specific dimensions of quality of life. Overall the influence of living conditions on the quality of life was small. Probably this is due to the sample being drawn from a clinical population. A social gradient was also found for maternal parenting resources: Psychological health as well as maternal self-efficacy were significantly different depending on whether families received social welfare or not (t-test, p=0.000; p=0.001). Single mothers showed more negative coping strategies and lower psychological health and maternal

  16. Parental Physical Proximity in End-of-Life Care in the PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenburg, Jeannette L; Tibboel, Dick; Ganzevoort, Ruard R; Gischler, Saskia; Hagoort, Jacobus; van Dijk, Monique

    2016-05-01

    Health professionals in PICUs support both child and parents when a child's death is imminent. Parents long to stay connected to their dying child but the high-tech environment and treatment implications make it difficult to stay physically close. This study explores in what sense physical aspects of end-of-life care in the PICU influence the parent-child relationship. Retrospective, qualitative interview study. Level 3 PICU in Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands. Thirty-six parents of 20 children who had died in this unit 5 years previously. Parents vividly remembered the damage done to the child's physical appearance, an inevitable consequence of medical treatment. They felt frustrated and hurt when they could not hold their child. Yet they felt comforted if facilitated to be physically close to the dying child, like lying with the child in one bed, holding the child in the hour of death, and washing the child after death. End-of-life treatment in the PICU presents both a barrier and an opportunity for parents to stay physically connected to their child. Parents' experiences suggest that aspects of physicality in medical settings deserve more attention. Better understanding of the significance of bodily aspects-other than pain and symptom management-improves end-of-life support and should be part of the humane approach to families.

  17. American parent perspectives on quality of life in pediatric cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Roshini; Warner-Czyz, Andrea; Silver, Cheryl H; Loy, Betty; Tobey, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implantation influences not only communication but also psychosocial outcomes in children with severe to profound hearing loss. Focusing on issues specific to cochlear implantation (e.g., self-reliance, social relations, education, effects of implantation, and supporting the child) may provide a more accurate and relative view of functional status of pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients. The present study analyzes parental perspectives of CI-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with CIs to determine (a) if parents differentially rate their child's quality of life according to psychosocial domain (e.g., communication, self-reliance, education); (b) if associations exist between quality of life domains specific to cochlear implantation in pediatric implant recipients; and (c) if demographic variables (i.e., chronologic age, age at cochlear implantation, duration of device experience) mediate parent ratings of quality of life in pediatric CI recipients. Parents of 33 children with CIs (mean age, 9.85 years; mean age of CI activation, 2.47 years; mean device experience, 7.47 years) completed a validated condition-specific questionnaire, Children With Cochlear Implants: Parental Perspectives. Parents positively rated most HRQoL domains, although education and effects of implantation received significantly less positive ratings (p self-reliance, and well-being) significantly correlated with at least 5 other domains, suggesting that positivity in one domain co-occurs with positivity in other domains. Demographic variables (chronologic age, CI activation age, and duration of CI use) did not correlate significantly with psychosocial outcomes; rather, parents reported positive HRQoL and successful functional use of CI across demographic variables. Parents of children and adolescents with CIs rate overall HRQoL positively across psychosocial domains. Significantly less positive ratings of education and effects of implantation may result

  18. Social Support as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Parenting Stress and Life Satisfaction among the Chinese Parents of Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Hui; Wang, Guang-Hai; Lei, Hao; Shi, Meng-Liang; Zhu, Rui; Jiang, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated that social support affects a range of life experiences, few have examined its moderating and mediating effects. In the current study, 479 Chinese parents of children with ASD (aged 3-18 years) completed the surveys assessing parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction. Results indicated that…

  19. Perceptions of Parental Awareness of Emotional Responses to Stressful Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Parra, Gilbert R; Buckholdt, Kelly E

    2013-10-01

    There is a need to better understand family processes related to recovery from past stressful life events. The present study aimed to investigate links between perceptions of parental awareness regarding stressful life events, continued event-related rumination, and current symptoms of depression. Students at a diverse, urban university completed a life events checklist and a semi-structured interview regarding family processing of stressful life events, as well as self-report measures of event-related rumination and depression. Results indicated that perceptions of mothers' and fathers' awareness of sadness regarding stressful life events as well as mothers' and fathers' verbal event processing predicted symptoms of event-related rumination and depression. Results support the inclusion of perceptions of parental awareness in the understanding of how emerging adults continue to cope with past stressful life events.

  20. Effects of harsh parenting and positive parenting practices on youth aggressive behavior: The moderating role of early pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Prior research indicates that early pubertal timing is associated with aggressive behavior, particularly in the context of adversity as postulated in the contextual amplification hypothesis. However, few studies have examined harsh parenting as the context for the effect of early pubertal timing. Even fewer studies have tested the interactive effect of early pubertal timing and positive parenting on aggressive behavior. In this study, we tested the proposition that early pubertal timing, contrary to the general conception of it as a vulnerability, indexed susceptibility, and thus early maturing individuals were affected more by their environment in a "for better and for worse" manner. The sample consisted of 411 community-recruited youth aged 11-12 years (51% boys, 80% African Americans). Participants reported Tanner Stages of pubertal development, aggressive behavior and harsh parenting practice of their parents. Puberty scores were standardized with groups of the same age, sex, and ethnicity, and those that scored the top one-third were defined as early maturing individuals. Parents reported youth's aggressive behavior and their parenting practices towards the youth, including harsh parenting and positive parenting. Early pubertal timing significantly moderated the relationship between harsh/positive parenting and aggressive behavior. Specifically, harsh parenting was positively associated with aggressive behavior to a larger degree among early maturing individuals than among on-time/late-maturing individuals. Positive parenting was inversely associated with aggressive behavior but only among early maturing individuals. This study is the first to document support for early pubertal timing as susceptibility to the environmental influences in relation to aggressive behavior. Theoretical and intervention implications are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Oral health-related quality of life among parents and teachers of disabled schoolchildren in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyama, Maddi; Honkala, Sisko; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha A; Honkala, Eino

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the oral health-related quality of life between the parents and the teachers of disabled schoolchildren in Kuwait. The three category response version of the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) (12 questions, always, sometimes, never) was used in the questionnaires in Kuwait. Three hundred and eight (308) parents and 112 teachers were enrolled in this study. The mean age of the parents was 45 ± 9.9 years and of the teachers 38 ± 8.4 years. The mean GOHAI was 27.2 ± 3.5 among the parents and 27.8 ± 3.3 among the teachers (p = 0.091). GOHAI was higher in the older age groups (p = 0.002) and among the parents with a university education (p < 0.001). GOHAI was also higher with increasing toothbrushing frequency among the parents (p = 0.047) and the teachers (p = 0.003). Altogether, 203 (66%) of the parents and 85 (76%) of the teachers were always able to swallow comfortably; 123 (40%) of the parents and 41 (37%) of the teachers were able to eat without discomfort. Overall, 132 (43%) of the parents and 41 (37%) of the teachers were always pleased and happy with the looks of their teeth and gums, or dentures. The Cronbach's alpha (0.83) indicated a high degree of internal consistency between different GOHAI items. There seemed to be no difference in the impact of oral health on the quality of life between the parents and the teachers of disabled schoolchildren. Oral health had a relatively weak impact on the quality of life of these adults. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Caring Decisions: The Development of a Written Resource for Parents Facing End-of-Life Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xafis, Vicki; Gillam, Lynn; Hynson, Jenny; Sullivan, Jane; Cossich, Mary; Wilkinson, Dominic

    2015-11-01

    Written resources in adult intensive care have been shown to benefit families facing end of life (EoL) decisions. There are few resources for parents making EoL decisions for their child and no existing resources addressing ethical issues. The Caring Decisions handbook and website were developed to fill these gaps. We discuss the development of the resources, modification after reviewer feedback and findings from initial pilot implementation. A targeted literature review-to identify resources and factors that impact on parental EoL decision-making; development phase-guided by the literature and the researchers' expertise; consultation process-comprised a multi-disciplinary panel of experts and parents; pilot evaluation study-hard-copy handbook was distributed as part of routine care at an Australian Children's Hospital. Twelve experts and parents formed the consultation panel. Eight parents of children with life-limiting conditions and clinicians were interviewed in the pilot study. Numerous factors supporting/impeding EoL decisions were identified. Caring Decisions addressed issues identified in the literature and by the multidisciplinary research team. The consultation panel provided overwhelmingly positive feedback. Pilot study parents found the resources helpful and comforting. Most clinicians viewed the resources as very beneficial to parents and identified them as ideal for training purposes. The development of the resources addressed many of the gaps in existing resources. The consultation process and the pilot study suggest these resources could be of significant benefit to parents and clinicians.

  3. Parental perceptions of forgoing artificial nutrition and hydration during end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Adam; Shaheed, Jenny; Newman, Christine; Rugg, Maria; Steele, Rose

    2013-05-01

    Forgoing artificial nutrition and hydration (FANH) in children at the end of life (EOL) is a medically, legally, and ethically acceptable practice under specific circumstances. However, most of the evidence on FANH involves dying adults. There is a paucity of pediatric evidence to guide health care providers' and parents' decision-making around this practice. Objectives were (1) to explore the experiences of bereaved parents when a decision had been made to FANH during EOL care for their child and (2) to describe the perceived quality of death in these children, as reported by their parents. This was a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with parents whose children died after a decision to FANH. Parental perceptions about the experience and their child's quality of death were explored. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed, then data were analyzed by using interpretive description methodology. All parents were satisfied with their decision to FANH and believed that their child's death was generally peaceful and comfortable. The child's perceived poor quality of life was central to the decision to FANH, with feeding intolerance often contributing to this perception. Despite overall satisfaction, all parents had doubts and questions about the decision and benefited from ongoing assurances from the clinical team. FANH in children at the EOL is an acceptable form of palliation for some parents and may contribute to a death that is perceived to be peaceful and comfortable. In situations in which FANH may be a reasonable possibility, physicians should be prepared to introduce the option.

  4. Emotional and behavioural resilience to multiple risk exposure in early life: the role of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Joshi, Heather; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2015-07-01

    Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to neighbourhood disadvantage, family poverty and adverse life events. Traditionally, these three types of risk factors have been examined independently of one another or combined into one cumulative risk index. The first approach results in poor prediction of child outcomes, and the second is not well rooted in ecological theory as it does not consider that distal risk factors (such as poverty) may indirectly impact children through proximal risk factors (such as adverse life events). In this study, we modelled simultaneously the longitudinal effects of these three risk factors on children's internalising and externalising problems, exploring the role of parenting in moderating these effects. Our sample followed 16,916 children (at ages 3, 5 and 7 years; N = 16,916; 49% girls) from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Parenting was characterised by quality of parent-child relationship, parental involvement in learning and parental discipline. Neighbourhood disadvantage, family poverty and adverse events were all simultaneously related to the trajectories of both outcomes. As expected, parenting moderated risk effects. Positive parent-child relationship, rather than greater involvement or authoritative discipline, most consistently 'buffered' risk effects. These findings suggest that a good parent-child relationship may promote young children's emotional and behavioural resilience to different types of environmental risk.

  5. Communication with parents concerning withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining interventions in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Annie; Barrington, Keith; Farlow, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    The nature and content of the conversations between the healthcare team and the parents concerning withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining interventions for neonates vary greatly. These depend upon the status of the infant; for some neonates, death may be imminent, while other infants may be relatively stable, yet with a potential risk for surviving with severe disability. Healthcare providers also need to communicate with prospective parents before the birth of premature infants or neonates with uncertain outcomes. Many authors recommend that parents of fragile neonates receive detailed information about the potential outcomes of their children and the choices they have provided in an unbiased and empathetic manner. However, the exact manner this is to be achieved in clinical practice remains unclear. Parents and healthcare providers may have different values regarding the provision of life-sustaining interventions. However, parents base their decisions on many factors, not just probabilities. The role of emotions, regret, hope, quality of life, resilience, and relationships is rarely discussed. End-of-life discussions with parents should be individualized and personalized. This article suggests ways to personalize these conversations. The mnemonic "SOBPIE" may help providers have fruitful discussions: (1) What is the Situation? Is the baby imminently dying? Should withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining interventions be considered? (2) Opinions and options: personal biases of healthcare professionals and alternatives for patients. (3) Basic human interactions. (4) Parents: their story, their concerns, their needs, and their goals. (5) Information: meeting parental informational needs and providing balanced information. (6) Emotions: relational aspects of decision making which include the following: emotions, social supports, coping with uncertainty, adaptation, and resilience. In this paper, we consider some aspects of this complex process. Copyright

  6. End-of-life decision-making for children with severe developmental disabilities: The parental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaal-Schuller, I H; de Vos, M A; Ewals, F V P M; van Goudoever, J B; Willems, D L

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this integrative review were to understand how parents of children with severe developmental disorders experience their involvement in end-of-life decision-making, how they prefer to be involved and what factors influence their decisions. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The search was limited to articles in English or Dutch published between January 2004 and August 2014. We included qualitative and quantitative original studies that directly investigated the experiences of parents of children aged 0-18 years with severe developmental disorders for whom an end-of-life decision had been considered or made. We identified nine studies that met all inclusion criteria. Reportedly, parental involvement in end-of-life decision-making varied widely, ranging from having no involvement to being the sole decision-maker. Most parents preferred to actively share in the decision-making process regardless of their child's specific diagnosis or comorbidity. The main factors that influenced parents in their decision-making were: their strong urge to advocate for their child's best interests and to make the best (possible) decision. In addition, parents felt influenced by their child's visible suffering, remaining quality of life and the will they perceived in their child to survive. Most parents of children with severe developmental disorders wish to actively share in the end-of-life decision-making process. An important emerging factor in this process is the parents' feeling that they have to stand up for their child's interests in conversations with the medical team. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Time pressure among parents in the Nordic countries: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Petzold, Max; Povlsen, Lene

    2014-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of time pressure experienced by parents in the Nordic countries and examine potential gender disparities as well as associations to parents' family and/or living conditions. 5949 parents of children aged 2-17 years from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, participating in the 2011 version of the NordChild study, reported their experience of time pressure when keeping up with duties of everyday life. A postal questionnaire addressed to the most active caretaker of the child, was used for data gathering and logistic regression analysis applied. The mother was regarded as the primary caregiver in 83.9% of the cases. Of the mothers, 14.2% reported that they experienced time pressure "most often", 54.7 % reported "sometimes" and 31.1 % reported they did "not" experience time pressure at all. Time pressure was experienced by 22.2 % of mothers in Sweden, 18.4% in Finland, 13.7% in Norway and 3.9% in Denmark, and could be associated to lack of support, high educational level, financial stress, young child age and working overtime. The mother is regarded as the child's primary caregiver among the vast majority of families in spite of living in societies with gender-equal family policies. The results indicate that time pressure is embedded in everyday life of mainly highly-educated mothers and those experiencing financial stress and/or lack of social support. No conclusion could be made about time pressure from the "normbreaking" fathers participating in the study, but associations were found to financial stress and lack of support.

  8. Parent Management of Organization, Time Management, and Planning Deficits among Adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H; Campez, Mileini; Perez, Analay; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M; Altszuler, Amy R; Coxe, Stefany; Yequez, Carlos E

    2016-06-01

    Organization, Time Management, and Planning (OTP) problems are a key mechanism of academic failure for adolescents with ADHD. Parents may be well positioned to promote remediation of these deficits; yet, almost nothing is known about OTP management behaviors among parents of middle and high school students with ADHD. In a sample of 299 well-diagnosed adolescents with ADHD, a measure of parental OTP management was psychometrically validated. Latent Class Analysis was conducted to detect distinct patterns of parental OTP management and yielded four unique classes: Parental Control (18.7 %), Parent-Teen Collaboration (20.4 %), Homework Assistance (20.4 %), and Uninvolved (40.5 %). Logistic Regression analyses indicated that maladaptive parental OTP strategies were related to higher levels of parent and adolescent psychopathology. Parental OTP management did not relate to current adolescent OTP skills or GPA, indicating that parents did not select OTP management strategies in immediate response to adolescent functioning. Implications for parent-directed intervention are discussed.

  9. Parental quality of life in complex paediatric neurologic disorders of unknown aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nimwegen, K J M; Kievit, W; van der Wilt, G J; Schieving, J H; Willemsen, M A A P; Donders, A R T; Verhaak, C M; Grutters, J P C

    2016-09-01

    Complex paediatric neurology (CPN) patients generally present with non-specific symptoms, such as developmental delay, impaired movement and epilepsy. The diagnostic trajectory in these disorders is usually complicated and long-lasting, and may be burdensome to the patients and their parents. Additionally, as caring for a chronically ill child can be stressful and demanding, parents of these patients may experience impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aims to assess parental HRQoL and factors related to it in CPN. Physical and mental HRQoL of 120 parents was measured and compared to the general population using the SF-12 questionnaire. Parents also completed this questionnaire for the measurement of patient HRQoL. Additional questionnaires were used to measure parental uncertainty (Visual Analogue Scale) and worry phenomena (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), and to obtain socio-demographic data. A linear mixed model with random effect was used to investigate which of these variables were associated with parental HRQoL. As compared to the general population, HRQoL of these parents appeared diminished. Fathers showed both lowered physical (51.76, p parental worry phenomena were significantly correlated with overall and mental parental HRQoL. The reduction in parental mental HRQoL is alarming, also because children strongly rely on their parents and parental mental health is known to influence children's health. Awareness of these problems among clinicians, and supportive care if needed are important to prevent exacerbation of the problems. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parenting and female dermatologists’ perceptions of work-life balance

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mattessich, BS; K. Shea, MD; D. Whitaker-Worth, MD

    2017-01-01

    Background: Women in medicine may feel pressure to choose between the competing demands of career goals and being a dedicated spouse and parent. Objective: The purpose of this survey study is to report on the current opinions of female dermatologists with regard to family planning, maternity leave, and career success. Methods: We surveyed 183 members of the Women’s Dermatologic Society using a 13-question survey that was approved for distribution by the institutional review board commit...

  11. His or her work-life Balance? Experiences of self-employed immigrant parents

    OpenAIRE

    Munkejord, Mai Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The question of how to achieve ‘work–life balance’ has been a central debate for several decades. Hitherto, this subject has primarily been explored in organizational contexts; less is known in the context of self-employment. This article advances our understanding of work–life balance by analysing the everyday stories of self-employed immigrant parents in Norway. In this study, work– life balance is constructed in contrasting ways between mothers and fathers on the individual lev...

  12. Associations between parents' subjective time pressure and mental health problems among children in the Nordic countries: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Bjereld, Ylva; Hensing, Gunnel; Petzold, Max; Povlsen, Lene

    2015-04-10

    The home, the family and the parents represent a context of everyday life that is important for child health and development, with parent-child relationships highlighted as crucial for children's mental health. Time pressure is an emerging feature of modern societies and previous studies indicates that parents with children living at home experience time pressure to a greater extent than people with no children living at home. Previous studies of children's mental health in relation to parents' time pressure are lacking. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between parents' subjective time pressure and mental health problems among children in the Nordic countries as well as potential disparities between boys and girls in different age groups. 4592 children, aged 4-16 from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, participating in the 2011 version of the NordChild study, were included. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure children's mental health and associations to parents' time pressure were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Among children of parents experiencing time pressure, 18.6% had mental health problems compared to 10.1% among children of parents experiencing time pressure not or sometimes. The odds of mental health problems were higher among both boys (OR 1.80 95% CI 1.32-2.46) and girls (OR 1.95 95% CI 1.42-2.66) if their parents experienced time pressure when adjusted for financial stress. The highest prevalence of mental health problems in the case of parental time pressure was found among girls 13-16 years old (23.6%) and the lowest prevalence was found among boys 13-16 years old (10.7%). In this study an association between parents' subjective time pressure and increased mental health problems among children was found. Given that time pressure is a growing feature of modern societies, the results might contribute to an explanation as to mental health problems are common among children

  13. The origin of parental care in relation to male and female life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care has been the focus of a great deal of research. Males and females vary in basic life-history characteristics (e.g., stage-specific mortality, maturation) in ways that are unrelated to parental investment. Surprisingly, few studies have examined the effect of this variation in male and female life history on the evolution of care. Here, we use a theoretical approach to determine the sex-specific life-history characteristics that give rise to the origin of paternal, maternal, or bi-parental care from an ancestral state of no care. Females initially invest more into each egg than males. Despite this inherent difference between the sexes, paternal, maternal, and bi-parental care are equally likely when males and females are otherwise similar. Thus, sex differences in initial zygotic investment do not explain the origin of one pattern of care over another. However, sex differences in adult mortality, egg maturation rate, and juvenile survival affect the pattern of care that will be most likely to evolve. Maternal care is more likely if female adult mortality is high, whereas paternal care is more likely if male adult mortality is high. These findings suggest that basic life-history differences between the sexes can alone explain the origin of maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. As a result, the influence of life-history characteristics should be considered as a baseline scenario in studies examining the origin of care.

  14. Benefits of Medical Home Care Reaching Beyond Chronically Ill Teens: Exploring Parent Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J; Grannis, Connor; Dolce, Millie; Chisolm, Deena J

    2018-03-15

    Caring for teens with special health care needs places physical and mental health burdens on parents, which can be exacerbated by the stresses of transitions to independence. Medical homes can improve teen transitions to greater self-management and reduce health care-related time and financial burdens for families. We examined the association between parent-reported teen medical home status and caregiver health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The study sample included parents or caregivers of teens with special health care needs aged 15 to 18 recruited from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization who participated in a survey (response rate, 40.5%). The primary outcome was parent HRQOL scores (0-100 points) measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Family Impact Module. Medical home status was based on parent report of teen's health care meeting medical home criteria. Linear regression models were used to estimate HRQOL scores, adjusted for demographic characteristics, health literacy, and teen functional limitation. Among 488 parents, 27% reported their teen received care consistent with a medical home. Adjusted parent HRQOL scores were significantly higher among those whose teens had a medical home (74.40; 95% confidence interval, 71.31-77.48), relative to those whose teens did not (65.78; 95% confidence interval, 63.92-67.65). Medical home subscale analyses showed HRQOL scores had significant positive associations with family-centered care and coordinated care, but not other subscales. Teen medical home status was positively associated with caregiver HRQOL, suggesting that the medical home may benefit overall caregiver well-being. In particular, receiving care that was family centered and coordinated appeared to be the most beneficial. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Allocation of Parental Time and the Long-Term Effect on Children´s Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    of market-provided childcare vs. the quality of parental childcare is crucial for parents´ time use decisions but availability of paternal childcare does not directly affect the mother´s childcare decision. The effect of parental childcare time on children´s educational outcome is tested using Danish time......This paper empirically and theoretically links parental time use decisions to child development in a household with two full-time employed parents. Both parents. time spent on childcare is explicitly taken into account as well as childcare bought in the market. It is shown that the quality...... use data combined with administrative register data. I find a statistically signi.cant positive association between mothers´ childcare time on weekdays and children´s outcomes as well as a positive association between fathers´ childcare time on weekends and children´s outcomes. Parents.time spent...

  16. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van de Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the ...

  17. The effect of an online video intervention ‘Movie Models’ on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to children’s physical activity, screen-time and healthy diet: a quasi experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Lepeleere

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In children, being sufficiently physically active, having low levels of screen-time and having a healthy diet are largely influenced by parenting practices. Children of parents applying positive parenting practices are at lower risk for overweight and obesity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a health promoting online video intervention for parents (‘Movie Models’ on children’s physical activity (PA, screen-time and healthy diet, and on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to these parenting practices. The online videos are delivered to parents of primary schoolchildren, and were based on real-life scenarios. Methods A two-armed, quasi experimental design was used. Parents of primary schoolchildren were recruited between November and December 2013 by spreading an appeal in social media, and by contacting primary schools. Participating parents were predominantly of high socio-economic status (SES (83.1%, and only 6.8% of children were overweight/obese. Intervention group participants were invited to watch online videos for 4 weeks. Specific parenting practices, parental self-efficacy, PA, screen-time and healthy diet of the child were assessed at baseline (T0, at one (T1 and at four (T2 months post baseline. Repeated Measures (Multivariate ANOVAs were used to examine intervention effects. The potential moderating effect of age and gender of the child and parental SES was also examined. Results Between T0 and T2, no significant intervention effects were found on children’s PA, screen-time or healthy diet. Most significant intervention effects were found for more complex parenting practices (e.g., an increase in motivating the child to eat fruit. Subgroup analyses showed that the intervention had more effect on the actual parenting practices related to PA, screen-time and healthy diet in parents of older children (10–12 years old, whereas intervention effects on parental self

  18. The effect of an online video intervention 'Movie Models' on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to children's physical activity, screen-time and healthy diet: a quasi experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lepeleere, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Verloigne, Maïté

    2017-04-27

    In children, being sufficiently physically active, having low levels of screen-time and having a healthy diet are largely influenced by parenting practices. Children of parents applying positive parenting practices are at lower risk for overweight and obesity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a health promoting online video intervention for parents ('Movie Models') on children's physical activity (PA), screen-time and healthy diet, and on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to these parenting practices. The online videos are delivered to parents of primary schoolchildren, and were based on real-life scenarios. A two-armed, quasi experimental design was used. Parents of primary schoolchildren were recruited between November and December 2013 by spreading an appeal in social media, and by contacting primary schools. Participating parents were predominantly of high socio-economic status (SES) (83.1%), and only 6.8% of children were overweight/obese. Intervention group participants were invited to watch online videos for 4 weeks. Specific parenting practices, parental self-efficacy, PA, screen-time and healthy diet of the child were assessed at baseline (T0), at one (T1) and at four (T2) months post baseline. Repeated Measures (Multivariate) ANOVAs were used to examine intervention effects. The potential moderating effect of age and gender of the child and parental SES was also examined. Between T0 and T2, no significant intervention effects were found on children's PA, screen-time or healthy diet. Most significant intervention effects were found for more complex parenting practices (e.g., an increase in motivating the child to eat fruit). Subgroup analyses showed that the intervention had more effect on the actual parenting practices related to PA, screen-time and healthy diet in parents of older children (10-12 years old), whereas intervention effects on parental self-efficacy related to those behaviors were stronger in parents of

  19. Life After the Event: A Review of Basic Life Support Training for Parents Following Apparent Life-Threatening Events and Their Experience and Practices Following Discharge

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-05-01

    Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs) are a common presentation to paediatric hospitals and represent a significant cause of parental anxiety. Basic Life Support (BLS) training is recommended for all caregivers following ALTEs. This study aimed to assess the rate of caregiver BLS training and reviewed parents experience following discharge. Parents were interviewed by phone following discharge. Over the study period 25 children attended the Emergency Department with ALTE, 17\\/25 (68%) were trained and 13\\/17 (76%) were contactable for interview. All parents found training decreased their anxiety level and were interested in attending for re-training. BLS resuscitation was subsequently required by 2\\/13 (15%) of children. Non-medical grade monitors were in use by 10\\/13 (77%) of caregivers following discharge. Caregivers are eager to engage in BLS training and it effectively reduces their caregiver anxiety. We recommend an increase in instructor staff and use of group re-training post discharge

  20. Life After the Event: A Review of Basic Life Support Training for Parents Following Apparent Life-Threatening Events and Their Experience and Practices Following Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, W L; Clarke, N; Nadeem, M; Coghlan, D

    2017-05-10

    Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs) are a common presentation to paediatric hospitals and represent a significant cause of parental anxiety. Basic Life Support (BLS) training is recommended for all caregivers following ALTEs. This study aimed to assess the rate of caregiver BLS training and reviewed parents experience following discharge. Parents were interviewed by phone following discharge. Over the study period 25 children attended the Emergency Department with ALTE, 17/25 (68%) were trained and 13/17 (76%) were contactable for interview. All parents found training decreased their anxiety level and were interested in attending for re-training. BLS resuscitation was subsequently required by 2/13 (15%) of children. Non-medical grade monitors were in use by 10/13 (77%) of caregivers following discharge. Caregivers are eager to engage in BLS training and it effectively reduces their caregiver anxiety. We recommend an increase in instructor staff and use of group re-training post discharge.

  1. Parenting, family life, and well-being among sexual minorities: nursing policy and practice implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Scott

    2008-06-01

    Parenting and family life are fundamental social constructs in human society and in law and public policy. Family structures and support systems provide important economic and psychological advantages for parents as well as for their children. Stigma toward lesbian and gay parents often marginalize individuals in these families and restrict family members' full expression of social citizenship, humanity, and personhood. Stigma directly contributes to increased risk for substance abuse, anxiety, and depressive illness among both parents and children. This article reviews the relevant policy literature to deconstruct the impacts of stigma on the psychological health and well-being of sexual minority parents so that psychiatric/mental health nurses and other health care providers can identify and counter these effects in their practices and advocate for policy improvements.

  2. Intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and life satisfaction of Roma minority adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential time preferences for money and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parouty, M. B. Y.; Le, Hoa; Krooshof, D.; Postma, M. J.

    Background This study provides an empirical investigation into differential time preferences between money and quality of life. Thus far, time preference investigations in health have mostly involved life-years gained and lives saved. However, the quality-adjusted life-year, which is recommended by

  4. Family Functions and Life Quality of Parents of Children With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Belma I; Gülşen, Ayşe; Tirank, Şadiye B; Findikçioğlu, Kemal; Uzuner, F Deniz; Tutar, Hakan; Üçüncü, Neslihan

    2018-05-15

    This study was designed to identify variables affecting family functions and life quality of parents with cleft lip and/or palate children. Family Assesment Scale (FAS) and short form of World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF-TR) were used to measure family functions and life quality of parents. Questionnaire Forms were given to 146 parents: 74 having cleft lip and/or palate children (cleft-group), and the other 72 with healthy children (control-group). Parents were divided into 3 subgroups according to children's age as 0 to 6, 7 to 12, and 13 to 18 years. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to evaluate differences between the groups. Behavior of cleft patients' parents was found to be problematic in behavioral control, required attention and role areas at 0 to 6 years, required attention area at ages 7 to 12 and 13 to 18 years. When compared to control group, significant differences were detected in required attention at ages 0 to 6 years, problem-solving, and communication areas at 7 to 12 years. Findings of life quality were found to be over medium level in physical, social, psychological and environmental areas in cleft group at all age groups; however, life quality was found better in control group in physical, psychological, and social subtests at age 13 to 18 years. Cleft children influence family functions in behavioral control, required attention and role areas at early childhood, and continue to affect required attention through adolescence. Also social, physical, and psychological fields of life quality were found lower in cleft parents compared to control group at adolescence.

  5. Parent-Child Shared Time from Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across…

  6. What factors influence parents' perception of the quality of life of children and adolescents with neurocardiogenic syncope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi Capitello, Teresa; Fiorilli, Caterina; Placidi, Silvia; Vallone, Roberta; Drago, Fabrizio; Gentile, Simonetta

    2016-05-17

    Health-related quality of life, which can be investigated using self-reports or parental reports, could help healthcare providers understand the subjective perception of well-being of children suffering from recurrent syncopal episodes. Quality of life is not only a measure of health but is also a reflection of patients' and parents' perceptions and expectations of health. This study assessed: 1) the consistency and agreement between pediatric patients' self-reports and parents' proxy-reports of their child's quality of life; 2) whether this patient-parent agreement is dependent on additional demographic and clinical or distress factors; 3) whether the parents' psychological distress influences children's and parents' responses to questionnaires on quality of life. One hundred and twenty-five Italian children aged 6-18 years old (Mean age 12.75, SD 2.73, 48 % female) and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory with self-reports and parent-proxy reports, the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6-18. Patients' and parents' scores on quality of life were analyzed via an intra-class correlation coefficient, Spearman's correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Bland-Altman plot. Child-rated quality of life was lower than parent-rated quality of life. However, there were no statistically significant differences between pediatric patients' self-reports and their parents' proxy-reports of on quality of life. Clinically significant patient-parent variation in pediatric health-related quality of life was observed. Differences in patient-parent proxy Pediatric Quality of Life inventory Total Scale Score scores were significantly associated with patient age. Concerning parents' proxy-ratings of their children's quality of life on the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory, parental stress was found to be negatively associated with their perceptions of their child's psychological quality

  7. Time to consider search strategies for complex life on exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Bains, William

    2018-05-01

    Upcoming telescopes might be able to detect signatures of complex life on other worlds, but we need to involve physical, chemical and life scientists at the planning stage in order to interpret the findings when the time comes.

  8. Migrant mothers in unstable environments balancing healthy life styles and parenting responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    and -practice. This paper investigates the promotion of healthy life styles in migrant families, living in insecure or uncertain situations in Denmark. It will describe the logics, rationalities and difficulties of migrant mothers, who want to promote a healthy life style in their families, and will question...... the notion of a universal, adequate parenting style and practice. The paper will address the overall question of how migrant mothers deal with health related concerns for their children, while living in precarious conditions. The following themes will be explored in the presentation: “Appropriate parenting...

  9. Parental explicit heuristics in decision-making for children with life-threatening illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renjilian, Chris B; Womer, James W; Carroll, Karen W; Kang, Tammy I; Feudtner, Chris

    2013-02-01

    To identify and illustrate common explicit heuristics (decision-making aids or shortcuts expressed verbally as terse rules of thumb, aphorisms, maxims, or mantras and intended to convey a compelling truth or guiding principle) used by parents of children with life-threatening illnesses when confronting and making medical decisions. Prospective cross-sectional observational study of 69 parents of 46 children who participated in the Decision-making in Pediatric Palliative Care Study between 2006 and 2008 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Parents were guided individually through a semistructured in-depth interview about their experiences and thoughts regarding making medical decisions on behalf of their ill children, and the transcribed interviews were qualitatively analyzed. All parents in our study employed explicit heuristics in interviews about decision-making for their children, with the number of identified explicit heuristics used by an individual parent ranging from tens to hundreds. The heuristics served 5 general functions: (1) to depict or facilitate understanding of a complex situation; (2) to clarify, organize, and focus pertinent information and values; (3) to serve as a decision-making compass; (4) to communicate with others about a complex topic; and (5) to justify a choice. Explicit heuristics played an important role in decision-making and communication about decision-making in our population of parents. Recognizing explicit heuristics in parent interactions and understanding their content and functions can aid clinicians in their efforts to partner with parents in the decision-making process.

  10. Camus: a life lived in critical times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, I.; Hughes, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    The life of Albert Camus (1913-60) was profoundly affected by the three major tragedies which dominate the history of twentieth-century France: the Great War (1914-18), World War II (1939-45) and the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62). It is unusual that Camus's destiny should have been so

  11. A Dyadic Perspective on PTSD Symptoms' Associations with Couple Functioning and Parenting Stress in First-Time Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Steffany J; Le, Yunying; Marshall, Amy D; Brick, Timothy R; Feinberg, Mark E

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with disruptions in both couple functioning and parenting, and limited research suggests that, among military couples, perceptions of couple functioning and parenting stress are a function of both one's own and one's partner's mental health symptoms. However, this work has not been generalized to civilian couples, and little is known about the associations between PTSD symptoms and family adjustment in specific family developmental contexts. We examined PTSD symptoms' associations with perceived couple functioning and parenting stress within a dyadic context in civilian couples who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a universal, couple-based transition to parenthood program and at least one member of the couple reported having experienced a Criterion A1 traumatic event. Results of actor-partner interdependence models revealed that parents' own and partners' PTSD symptoms were negatively associated with perceived couple functioning; contrary to expectation, the association of partners' PTSD symptoms with perceived couple functioning was strongest among men who received the intervention. A parent's own PTSD symptoms were positively associated with parenting stress for both men and women and were unexpectedly strongest for men who received the intervention. Partner PTSD symptoms were also positively associated with increased parenting stress for both men and women. Findings support a dyadic conceptualization of the associations between spouses' PTSD symptoms and family outcomes during the transition to parenthood and suggest that participating in a couple-based, psychoeducational program during this phase in the family life cycle may be particularly salient for men.

  12. Timing of cochlear implantation and parents' global ratings of children's health and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Riley, Anne W; Carson, Christine M; Meserole, Rachel L; Lin, Frank R; Eisenberg, Laurie S; Tobey, Emily A; Quittner, Alexandra L; Francis, Howard W; Niparko, John K

    2012-06-01

    To assess children's health-related quality of life (HRQL) and development after cochlear implant (CI) surgery and compare improvements between different age of implantation categories. Prospective, longitudinal study comparing outcomes of deaf children post-CI with hearing controls. Six US CI centers. Deaf children who received CI (n = 188) and hearing children of comparable ages (n = 97). CI before 5 years of age. Parental ratings of global HRQL and development, as assessed over the first 4 years of follow-up using visual analog scales. Development scores assess parental views of children's growth and development, motor skills, ability to express themselves and communicate with others, and learning abilities. Associations of baseline child and family characteristics with post-CI HRQL and development were investigated using multivariable analysis, controlling for factors that influence post-CI language learning. Baseline deficits of CI candidates relative to hearing controls were larger in development than HRQL. Development scores improved significantly by 4 years after CI, particularly in the youngest CI recipients. Developmental deficits of older CI recipients with early, extended hearing aid use were only partially remediated by CI. Overall, no significant health deficits were observed in CI children after 4 years. Cognition and speech recognition were positively associated with both HRQL and development. Parental perspectives on quality of their child's life and development provide practical insight into the optimal timing of interventions for early-onset deafness. Validity of parental global assessments is supported by clinical measures of speech perception and language learning and comparison with a well-validated health status instrument.

  13. Development and initial validation of the Parental PELICAN Questionnaire (PaPEQu)--an instrument to assess parental experiences and needs during their child's end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Karin; Cignacco, Eva; Eskola, Katri; Engberg, Sandra; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Bergstraesser, Eva

    2015-12-01

    To develop and test the Parental PELICAN Questionnaire, an instrument to retrospectively assess parental experiences and needs during their child's end-of-life care. To offer appropriate care for dying children, healthcare professionals need to understand the illness experience from the family perspective. A questionnaire specific to the end-of-life experiences and needs of parents losing a child is needed to evaluate the perceived quality of paediatric end-of-life care. This is an instrument development study applying mixed methods based on recommendations for questionnaire design and validation. The Parental PELICAN Questionnaire was developed in four phases between August 2012-March 2014: phase 1: item generation; phase 2: validity testing; phase 3: translation; phase 4: pilot testing. Psychometric properties were assessed after applying the Parental PELICAN Questionnaire in a sample of 224 bereaved parents in April 2014. Validity testing covered the evidence based on tests of content, internal structure and relations to other variables. The Parental PELICAN Questionnaire consists of approximately 90 items in four slightly different versions accounting for particularities of the four diagnostic groups. The questionnaire's items were structured according to six quality domains described in the literature. Evidence of initial validity and reliability could be demonstrated with the involvement of healthcare professionals and bereaved parents. The Parental PELICAN Questionnaire holds promise as a measure to assess parental experiences and needs and is applicable to a broad range of paediatric specialties and settings. Future validation is needed to evaluate its suitability in different cultures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Assessment of quality of life of parents of children with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak-Kubat, Anna; Kurnatowska, Olga; Jakubowska-Pietkiewicz, Elzbieta; Chlebna-Sokół, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work was an objective assessment of the quality of life of parents of children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and of its determinant factors. The survey answers of 25 parents were analyzed and contained demographic parameters, socioeconomic status information, quality of life of responses and type of support they have been receiving. In order to assess the effects of this children's disease on the quality of life of the parents, families were divided into two groups depending on the OI severity: group M--mild (type I and IV OI), group S--severe (type III OI). The objective of the work was carried out based on the WHOQOL-BREF quality of life questionnaire and measures of family status: education degree based on the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), a subjective assessment of the family's wealth (Perceived Family Wealth, PFW), and the family's financial resources (Family Affluence Scale, FAS). 56% of respondents assessed their global quality of life (Quality of Life, QL) as good, whereas 8% answered poor. Perception of general health status was similar. Life domains assessed in the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire received the following mean values on a scale from 4 to 20 points: physical--12.2 +/- 1.2, psychological--15.04 +/- 2.2, environmental--13.32 +/- 2, social relationships--14.28 +/- 1.5. In the severe OI group, the environmental domain was assessed as worse than in the mild OI group and this assessment was statistically significant, despite the fact that the group of families with severe cases of OI received more support from the appropriate institutions. Indicators of socioeconomic status did not affect the respondents' assessment of their global quality of life. In the tested group of families, the child's disease did not affect either the global quality of life assessment or health of the respondents or their quality of life in terms of physical and mental status and social relationships. The parents of children with

  15. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys) between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514) years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial beha...

  16. Faith, Hope, and Spirituality: SUPPORTING PARENTS WHEN THEIR CHILD HAS A LIFE-LIMITING ILLNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    When a child has a life-limiting illness, parents' goals and strategies for their child's life may need to be drastically altered, especially if early death looms. This article reviews literature and research about how families employ faith, hope, spirituality, and biblical perspectives as their child becomes critically ill and faces death. Suggestions are made for best caring practices for families and children encountering this difficult journey.

  17. Health related quality of life in parents of six to eight year old children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Jan Pieter; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Hatzmann, Janneke; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2013-11-01

    Raising a child with Down syndrome (DS) has been found to be associated with lowered health related quality of life (HRQoL) in the domains cognitive functioning, social functioning, daily activities and vitality. We aimed to explore which socio-demographics, child functioning and psychosocial variables were related to these HRQoL domains in parents of children with DS. Parents of 98 children with DS completed the TNO-AZL adult quality of life questionnaire (TAAQOL) and a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, child functioning and psychosocial predictors. Using multiple linear regression analyses for each category of predictors, we selected relevant predictors for the final models. The final multiple linear regression models revealed that cognitive functioning was best predicted by the sleep of the child (β=.29, pparent having given up a hobby (β=-.29, pparent having to care for an ill friend or family member (β=-.31, pparent having enough personal time (β=.32, ppressure. Systematic screening of parents to detect problems timely, and interventions targeting the supportive network and the demands in time are recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hidden Consequences of Success in Pediatrics: Parental Health-Related Quality of Life-Results From the Care Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatzmann, Janneke; Heymans, Hugo S. A.; Ferrer-I-Carbonell, Ada; van Praag, Bernard M. S.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT. The number of parents who care for a chronically ill child is increasing. Because of advances in medical care, parental caring tasks are changing. A detailed description of parental health-related quality of life will add to the understanding of the impact of caring for a chronically ill

  19. Health related quality of life and perceptions of child vulnerability among parents of children with a history of Kawasaki disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, Hedy A.; Tacke, Carline E.; Haverman, Lotte; Kuipers, Irene M.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2014-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute paediatric vasculitis. The psychosocial consequences of this sudden illness for parents are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate health related quality of life (HRQOL) and parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PPCV) in parents of children with KD, and to

  20. Working time, satisfaction and work life balance: A European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Humpert, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses gender-specific differences in working time mismatches by using three different measures for representing satisfaction and work life balance. Results show that, while male satisfaction with life or work is in general not affected by working for more or less hours, over-time is found to significantly lower male work life balance. Women are more sensitive to the amount of working hours as they prefer part-time employment and they are dissatisfied with changes ...

  1. Determinants of child-parent agreement in quality-of-life reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White-Koning, Melanie; Arnaud, Catherine; Dickinson, Heather O

    2007-01-01

    children aged 8 to 12 years who had cerebral palsy and were living in 7 countries in Europe. RESULTS: The mean child-reported scores of quality of life were significantly higher than the parent proxy reports in 8 domains, significantly lower for the finances domain, and similar for the emotions domain...

  2. Mediating Effects of Social Support on Quality of Life for Parents of Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsack, Christina N.; Samuel, Preethy S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of formal and informal social support on the relationship of caregiver burden and quality of life (QOL), using a sample of 320 parents (aged 50 or older) of adult children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Multiple linear regression and mediation analyses indicated that caregiver burden…

  3. The Role of Life Satisfaction and Parenting Styles in Predicting Delinquent Behaviors among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Fulya Cenkseven; Yilmaz, Yasin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the parenting styles and life satisfaction predict delinquent behaviors frequently or not. Firstly the data were collected from 471 girls and 410 boys, a total of 881 high school students. Then the research was carried out with 502 students showing low (n = 262, 52.2%) and high level of delinquent…

  4. Origins of Early Adolescents' Hope: Personality, Parental Attachment, and Stressful Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Kristin L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychology has recently increased attention to identifying psychological qualities in individuals that indicate positive mental health, such as hope. In an effort to understand further the origins of hope, we examined the relations among parental attachment, stressful life events, personality variables, and hope in a sample of 647 middle school…

  5. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  6. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.

    To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children

  7. Health-related quality of life and impact of haemangiomas on children and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornweg, Marije J.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haemangiomas are the most common tumours of infancy, they are often present on the face and can lead to disfigurement. The aim of our study was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children aged 1-15 years with a haemangioma and their parents in comparison with healthy

  8. End-of-life decision-making for children with severe developmental disabilities: The parental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal-Schuller, I. H.; de Vos, M. A.; Ewals, F. V. P. M.; van Goudoever, J. B.; Willems, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this integrative review were to understand how parents of children with severe developmental disorders experience their involvement in end-of-life decision-making, how they prefer to be involved and what factors influence their decisions. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and

  9. Does the Importance of Parent and Peer Relationships for Adolescents' Life Satisfaction Vary across Cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Beate; Mayer, Boris; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Friedlmeier, Mihaela; Lubiewska, Katarzyna; Mishra, Ramesh; Peltzer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the associations between (a) the quality of the parent-child relationship and peer acceptance and (b) early adolescents' life satisfaction differed depending on the importance of family values in the respective culture. As part of the Value of Children Study, data from a subsample of N = 1,034 adolescents (58%…

  10. End-of-life parental communication priorities among bereaved fathers due to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eliza M; Deal, Allison M; Yopp, Justin M; Edwards, Teresa; Stephenson, Elise M; Hailey, Claire E; Nakamura, Zev M; Rosenstein, Donald L

    2017-05-01

    To elicit widowed fathers' perspectives on which domains of parenting-related communication they consider most important for dying parents to discuss at the end of life (EOL). Two hundred seventy nine fathers widowed by cancer completed a survey about their own depression and bereavement symptoms, their wife's illness, and EOL parental communication priorities. Chi square and Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression were used to evaluate relationships between maternal EOL characteristics and fathers' responses to parenting-related EOL communication priorities. Fathers identified raising children in a manner that reflected maternal wishes, whether/how to talk with children about their mother's death, and how the mother wanted to be remembered as the most important EOL communication domains. Fathers who reported that their dying wives were worried about the children were more likely to prioritize raising children in ways that reflect her wishes (p=0.01). Other EOL characteristics were not associated with communication domains. Communicating with children and maintaining emotional connection with the deceased parent are important priorities for bereaved fathers who lost a spouse to cancer. Health care providers working with seriously ill parents may improve family outcomes by supporting communication at the EOL between co-parents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality of life and functional vision concerns of children with cataracts and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Y S; Cheng-Patel, C S; Leske, D A; Wernimont, S M; Hatt, S R; Liebermann, L; Birch, E E; Holmes, J M

    2016-09-01

    PurposeTo identify specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and functional vision concerns affecting children with cataracts and common associated conditions as expressed by children or one of their parents (proxy), and HRQOL concerns affecting the parents themselves.MethodsIndividual semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of children with cataracts (N=31) and with the children themselves (ages 5-17 years; N=16). Transcripts of recorded interviews were evaluated using NVivo software. Specific concerns were identified and coded, and broad themes were identified. The frequency of each theme was calculated, with the frequency of specific concerns within each theme.ResultsRegarding the child's experience, 6 themes were identified: Visual Function (mentioned by 16 of 16 children (100%) and by 26 of 31 parents (84%), Social (94 and 65%), Treatment (81 and 90%), Worry (75 and 10%), Emotions (63 and 68%), and Physical Discomfort (63 and 26%). Worry showed the largest discrepancy between child and their parent; although 75% children reported Worry, only 6% of parents reported that their child experienced Worry (P=0.0009). Regarding the parents' own experience, 5 themes were identified: Worry (100%), Compensation for Condition (100%), Treatment (94%), Emotions (90%), and Affects Family (52%).ConclusionsA wide range of concerns were identified from interviews of children with cataracts and their parents. Concerns reflect the impact of cataracts in physical, emotional, and social domains, and specific concerns will be used for the development of questionnaires to quantify the quality of life and functional vision effects of cataracts.

  12. Community factors to promote parents' quality of child-nurturing life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Megumi; Wei, Chang Nian; Chang-nian, Wei; Harada, Koichi; Ueda, Kimiyo; Takano, Miyuki; Ueda, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of community factors in parents' quality of child-nurturing life (QCNL). We developed a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of QCNL and determine the structural factors related to QCNL as community factors related to parents' QCNL derived from focus group interviews and the Delphi technique. The questionnaire also included the battery of the self-rating depression scale and Tsumori-Inage Infant's Developmental Test. Using the questionnaire, we then conducted a quantitative survey of parents whose children attended nursery schools in Kumamoto Prefecture. Factor analysis, calculation of the mean score and/or ratio to each item, Pearson's correlation coefficient, t test, multiple regression analysis, and covariance structure analysis were performed. The questionnaire we developed consisted of seven items with 75 elements, involving ten elements as community factors. Subjects included 699 parents (mean age 33.6 ± 5.4 years) and 965 children (age range 0-6 years). Factor analysis revealed that community factors consisted of five factors, such as "lifestyle rooted in the ground," "balance of housekeeping and work," "community network," "amenity," and "regeneration of life". These factors may be dominant in a rural area. Finally, we developed a structural model with "community factors," QCNL, QOL, and "child growth" by covariance structural analysis. The analysis revealed that community factors had a positive relation to parents' QCNL (r = 0.81, p < 0.001) and that parental SDS score had a negative relation to parents' QCNL (r = -0.59, p < 0.001). The analysis did show that community factors were positively related to the sound growth of children. The covariance structure analysis revealed that community factors were associated with parents' QCNL, SDS, and "child growth."

  13. Flexible Work Hours and Other Job Factors in Parental Time with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Flexible working hours are typically seen to be advantageous to working parents, as the flexible hours more easily allow responsibilities of care and employment be balanced. But do flexible work hours actually mean that parents can spend more time with their children? This article explores this for parents of young children in Australia. The…

  14. Parental Experiences of the "Time Together" Home Visiting Intervention: An Attachment Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Rebecca L.; Gersch, Irvine S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of research into parental experiences of the Somerset (UK) "Time Together" home visiting intervention, with regards to its impact on the parent-child relationship. The research was carried out using an Attachment Theory lens in order to understand the qualitative experiences of seven parents of children in…

  15. Effect of Timing of Parental Divorce on the Vulnerability of Children to Depression in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosaari, Ulla; Aro, Hillevi

    1994-01-01

    Compared young adults who had experienced parental divorce before school age (n=134), in latency (n=129), and in adolescence (n=71). Found that 24% of boys who had experienced parental divorce in latency were depressive as compared with 9% and 6% in other groups. Among girls, depression was independent of timing of parental divorce. (Author/NB)

  16. Don't trust anyone over 30: parental legitimacy as a mediator between parenting style and changes in delinquent behavior over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S; Rebellon, Cesar J; Van Gundy, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Both law and society scholars and developmental psychologists have focused on the legitimacy of authority figures, although in different domains (police versus parents). The purpose of the current research is to bridge these two fields by examining the relations among parenting style (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive), the perception of parental legitimacy, and changes in delinquency over time. It is hypothesized that parental legitimacy mediates the relation between parenting style and future delinquent behavior. Middle school and high school students completed questionnaires three times over a period of 18 months. Parenting style and delinquent behavior were measured at time 1, parental legitimacy at time 2, and delinquency again at time 3. The results show that authoritative parenting was positively related to parental legitimacy, while authoritarian parenting was negatively associated with parental legitimacy. Furthermore, parental legitimacy was negatively associated with future delinquency. Structural equation modeling indicated that parental legitimacy mediated the relation between parenting styles and changes in delinquency over the 18-month time period. The implications for parenting style and parental legitimacy affecting delinquent behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Importance of Quality of Life Issues: A Pilot Comparison of Teachers and Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Frederick, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) issues for parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are important to investigate. Independence, social functioning, school functioning and participating in leisure activities are some of the quality of life indicators that parents and teachers must agree upon to ensure effective communication and…

  18. Quality of life, anxiety and concerns among statin-treated children with familial hypercholesterolaemia and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, S.; Kerckhoffs, M. C.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Bakker, H. D.; Heymans, H. S. A.; Last, B. F.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To assess the quality of life, anxiety and concerns among statin-treated children with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) and their parents. Methods: 69 FH children on statin therapy and 87 parents (51 families) participated in this study. Quality of life of the children, and anxiety levels of

  19. Life course experiences and lay diagnosis explain low-income parents' child dental decisions: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Vanessa; Levine, Alissa; Nicolau, Belinda; Landry, Anne; Bedos, Christophe

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to better understand low-income parents' child dental care decisions through a life course approach that captured parents' experiences within the social context of poverty. We conducted 43 qualitative life history interviews with 10 parents, who were long-term social assistance recipients living in Montreal, Canada. Thematic analysis involved interview debriefing, transcript coding, theme identification and data interpretation. Our interviews identified two emergent themes: lay diagnosis and parental oral health management. Parents described a process of 'lay diagnosis' that consisted of examining their children's teeth and interpreting their children's oral signs and symptoms based on their observations. These lay diagnoses were also shaped by their own dental crises, care experiences and oral health knowledge gained across a life course of poverty and dental disadvantage. Parents' management strategies included monitoring and managing their children's oral health themselves or by seeking professional recourse. Parents' management strategies were influenced both by their lay diagnoses and their perceived ability to manage their children's oral health. Parents felt responsible for their children's dental care, empowered to manage their oral health and sometimes forgo dental visits for their children because of their own self-management life history. This original approach revealed insights that help to understand why low-income parents may underutilize free dental services. Further research should consider how dental programs can nurture parental empowerment and capitalize on parents' perceived ability to diagnose and manage their children's oral health.

  20. Parents' views on the quality of life of their children 2-3 years after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, K; Rimmanen, S; Vikman, S; Virokannas, N; Sorri, M; Archbold, S; Lutman, M E

    2009-12-01

    Cochlear implants for children are known to have impact on the lives of recipients and their families in a variety of ways. To obtain a clearer picture of these benefits, we explored the quality of life of 36 Finnish children and their families 2-3 years after unilateral cochlear implantation. The studied children were, on average 5 years old, and had received their implant at the median age of 2 years:5 months (range 1:6 to 12:3). Most (67%) of the children used speech, eight (22%) used speech and signs, and four (11%) used sign language as their main communication mode. A third of the children had concomitant problems in addition to their profound hearing impairment. A validated closed-set questionnaire "Children with cochlear implants: parental perspectives" (available, e.g., at http://www.earfoundation.org.uk/research/questionnaires.html) was used to find out parents' views and experiences on implantation and explore life after it. Parents were most satisfied with improved/expanded social relations, improved communication (the development of spoken language), general functioning with the help of hearing and improved self-reliance of the child. Benefit of cochlear implantation was also detected with the Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP), which was concordant with views of the parents on the progress of their child in the areas of communication and education. When deciding on implantation, the parents particularly expected auditory information to enhance their child's safety in traffic, joining socially the hearing world, and better employment prospects as adults. Concerning the process of implantation, parents especially valued the know-how and fluent services of the implant centre, positive attitude within the family and information received from other families during the time they were considering the implant decision. Parents also found it important that they have the possibility to influence the communication mode that is used in their child

  1. Maintaining everyday life in a family with a dying parent: Teenagers' experiences of adapting to responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Ulrica; Sandell, Rolf; Henriksson, Anette

    2015-12-01

    Teenagers are living through a turbulent period in their development, when they are breaking away from the family to form their own identities, and so they are particularly vulnerable to the stressful situation of having a parent affected by a progressive and incurable illness. The current study sought to gain more knowledge about the ways that teenagers themselves describe living in a family with a seriously ill and dying parent. More specifically, the aims were to describe how teenagers are emotionally affected by everyday life in a family with a dying parent and to determine how they attempt to adapt to this situation. The study employed a descriptive and interpretive design using qualitative content analysis. A total of 10 teenagers (aged 14-19 years, 7 boys and 3 girls) participated through repeated, individual, informal interviews that were carried out as free-ranging conversations. While contending with their own vulnerable developmental period of life, the teenagers were greatly affected by their parent's illness and took on great responsibility for supporting their parents and siblings, and for maintaining family life. Lacking sufficient information and support left them rather unprepared, having to guess and to interpret the vague signs of failing health on their own, with feelings of uncertainty and loneliness as a consequence. Support from healthcare professionals should be designed to help and encourage parents to have open communications about their illness with their teenaged children. Our results add further support to the literature, reinforcing the need for an approach that uses a systemic perspective and considers the family to be the appropriate unit of care and offers a suitable support system.

  2. Psychosocial support and parents' social life determine the self-esteem of orphan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erango, Markos Abiso; Ayka, Zikie Ataro

    2015-01-01

    Parental death affects the life of children in many ways, one of which is self-esteem problems. Providing psychosocial support and equipping orphans play a vital role in their lifes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 7-18-year-old orphans at 17 local districts of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Regional State of Ethiopia. From a total of 48,270 orphans in these areas, 4,368 were selected using stratified simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with a designed questionnaire based on the Rosenberg's rating scale to measure their self-esteem levels. Self-esteem with a score less than or equal to an average score was considered to be low self-esteem in the analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the data using the SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that the probability of orphans suffering from low self-esteem was 0.59. Several risk factors were found to be significant at the level of 5%. Psychosocial support (good guidance, counseling and treatment, physical protection and amount of love shared, financial and material support, and fellowship with other children), parents living together before death, strong relationship between parents before death, high average monthly income, voluntary support, and consideration from the society are some of the factors that decrease the risk of being low in self-esteem. There are many orphans with low self-esteem in the study areas. The factors negatively affecting the self-esteem of orphans include the lack of psychosocial support, poor social life of parents, and death of parents due to AIDS. Society and parents should be aware of the consequences of these factors which can influence their children's future self-esteem.

  3. The relationship between proxy reported health-related quality of life and parental distress: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E; Davies, B; Waters, E; Priest, N

    2008-11-01

    Although primary caregiver proxy reports of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are often used for healthcare decision making when child self-reports are unable to be collected (because of a variety of reasons such as child illness, disability or age), we have little understanding of the correlates of parent-proxy reports. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between parental depression and parent-proxy reported QOL for primary caregivers (mothers and fathers), using a multidimensional HRQOL instrument. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would be negatively correlated with maternal reported HRQOL, but that paternal depression would not be correlated with paternal reported HRQOL. Data were from parents of children aged 4-5 years (n = 4983) involved in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. A questionnaire assessing parental depression (Kessler-6) and proxy reported HRQOL (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) was completed by the primary caregiver. For maternal primary caregivers, maternal depression was negatively correlated with all domains of maternal proxy reports of HRQOL (r = -0.24 to r = -0.36). For paternal primary caregivers, there was no relationship between paternal depression and paternal proxy reports of HRQOL. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that maternal depression was a significant predictor of total HRQOL, accounting for 12% of the variance. For paternal mental health, depression did not predict parent-proxy reported total HRQOL. These results highlight the importance of assessing maternal mental health when measuring proxy reported QOL. Further research is needed in this area to examine the relationship between parental depression and proxy reported HRQOL (including both mothers and fathers, where possible), as well as child self-reported HRQOL.

  4. The quality of life in children with cerebral palsy according to their personal and parents' report

    OpenAIRE

    Glinac Alma; Delalić Azra; Matović Lejla

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender and socioeconomic status of family on the quality of life related to the health of children with cerebral palsy, according to the assessment of children themselves and one of the parents. Cross-sectional study included 76 children with cerebral palsy, with median age of 8.85, and 76 parents. The specific questionnaire, PedsQLTM Module cerebral palsy, Version 3.0, which includes age-adjusted questionnaire for children and a quest...

  5. The Consequences of Parental Divorce on the Life Course Outcomes of Canadian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Martin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Applying the theory of the intergenerational transmission of divorce, this paper examines the consequences of parental divorce on three aspects of the life course of children: union formation, nonmarital fertility, and marital dissolution. The 1995 Canadian General Social Survey (GSS is used to estimate various regression models (Cox proportional hazards. Results show that children of divorced parents have a significantly higher likelihood to have births outside of marriage, enter into cohabiting unions, and to experience higher levels of divorce. Throughout the paper, attention is placed on the markedly different behaviour observed in Quebec compared to elsewhere in Canada.

  6. Time for Children, One's Spouse and Oneself among Parents Who Work Nonstandard Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Vanessa R.; Raley, Sara B.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Surveys, this article examines nonstandard work hours and their relationship to parents' family, leisure and personal care time--informing the discussion of the costs and benefits of working nonstandard hours. The results suggest that parents who work nonstandard evening hours spend less time in…

  7. Understanding and Improving Health Education Among First-time Parents of Infants With Sickle Cell Anemia in Alabama: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensburger, Jeffrey D.; Grosse, Scott D.; Altice, Jessica L.; Thierry, JoAnn M.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary With the increase in access to medical information, parents can acquire health information from multiple sources. An understanding of parents' reactions to a newborn infant's diagnosis of sickle cell anemia and how they acquire knowledge can identify parent beliefs and preferences about the process of sickle cell education. This study utilized a sequential exploratory mixed methods design. First, qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 parents of infants with sickle cell anemia to understand the process of health education. Second, quantitative surveys were conducted with 22 other parents to test qualitative findings. Parents of infants with sickle cell anemia expressed a high level of fear at the time of notification of a positive screen. Parents desired an understanding of how to identify acute complications of disease and how sickle cell will alter their child's life. Parents actively sought information at the time they were told their child had sickle cell disease. Sickle cell education should begin at time of notification of positive newborn screening results and address identified parent concerns. Health care providers should build trust with parents and provide them with immediate access to educational materials. Hematologists should work with primary care providers to develop complementary educational programs and resources. PMID:25072367

  8. Does Parent Stress Predict the Quality of Life of Children With a Diagnosis of ADHD? A Comparison of Parent and Child Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Helen; Newman, Emily; Miller, Nicola; Yuill, Clare

    2016-05-13

    There are indicators that parental psychological factors may affect how parents evaluate their child's quality of life (QoL) when the child has a health condition. This study examined the impact of parents' perceived stress on parent and child ratings of the QoL of children with ADHD. A cross-sectional sample of 45 matched parent-child dyads completed parallel versions of the KIDSCREEN-27. Children were 8 to 14 years with clinician diagnosed ADHD. Parents who rated their child's QoL lower than their child had higher perceived stress scores. Parent stress was a unique predictor of child QoL from parent proxy-rated but not child-rated QoL scores. Parents' perceived stress may play an important role in their assessments of their child's QoL, suggesting both parent and child perspectives of QoL should be utilized wherever possible. Interventions that target parent stress may contribute to improvements in the child's QoL. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Meaning in life, resilience, and psychological well-being among children affected by parental HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2017-11-01

    Meaning in life has been posited to improve psychological well-being. People facing adversities can reduce psychological distress through pursuing a sense of purpose in life. However, the effectiveness of meaning in life in promoting psychological well-being has been found varied, and what factors may affect the function of meaning in life remain unclear. In this paper, the authors suggest that resilience, the positive adaptation during or following significant adversity, can strengthen the protective effects of meaning in life on psychological well-being. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed data from a sample of 518 vulnerable children of parents living with HIV about their meaning in life, resilience, depression, and loneliness. Results showed that resilience moderated the relationship between meaning in life and depression, and between meaning in life and loneliness. Meaning in life was associated with lower levels of depression and loneliness among children high in resilience, in comparison to children low in resilience. Future interventions targeting meaning in life and well-being should consider children's resilience, which can allow for better individualization of the treatment.

  10. Effects of Parental Aging During Embryo Development and Adult Life: The Case of Nothobranchius furzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Api, Martina; Biondi, Piera; Olivotto, Ike; Terzibasi, Eva; Cellerino, Alessandro; Carnevali, Oliana

    2018-04-01

    Studies on parental aging are a very attractive field, although it is poorly understood how parental age affects embryonic development and adult traits of the offspring. In this study, we used the turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri, as is the vertebrate with shortest captive lifespan and an interesting model. The embryos of N. furzeri can follow two distinct developmental pathways either entering diapause or proceeding through direct development. Thus, this embryonic plasticity allows this model to be used to study different factors that could affect their embryonic development, including parental age. The first goal of the present study was to investigate whether parental aging could affect the embryo development. To do this, we collected F1 embryos from two breeder groups (old parents and young parents). We monitored the duration of embryonic development and analyzed genes involved in dorsalization process. The second goal was to investigate if embryonic developmental plasticity could be modulated by an epigenetic process. To this end, the expression of DNMTs genes was examined. Our data support the hypothesis that diapause, occurring more frequently in embryos from old parents, is associated with increased expression of DNMT3A and DNMT3B suggesting an epigenetic control. Finally, we analyzed whether parental age could affect metabolism and growth during adult life. Morphometric results and qPCR analysis of genes from IGF system showed a slower growth in adults from old breeders. Moreover, a gender-specificity effect on growth emerged. In conclusion, these results may contribute to the better understanding of the complex mechanism of aging.

  11. Alcoholism and Timing of Separation in Parents: Findings in a Midwestern Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined history of alcoholism and occurrence and timing of separation in parents of a female twin cohort. Method: Parental separation (never-together; never-married cohabitants who separated; married who separated) was predicted from maternal and paternal alcoholism in 326 African ancestry (AA) and 1,849 European/other ancestry (EA) families. Broad (single-informant, reported in abstract) and narrow (self-report or two-informant) measures of alcoholism were compared. Results: Parental separation was more common in families with parental alcoholism: By the time twins were 18 years of age, parents had separated in only 24% of EA families in which neither parent was alcoholic, contrasted with 58% of families in which only the father was (father-only), 61% of families in which only the mother was (mother-only), and 75% in which both parents were alcoholic (two-parent); corresponding AA percentages were 59%, 71%, 82%, and 86%, respectively. Maternal alcoholism was more common in EA never-together couples (mother-only: odds ratio [OR] = 5.95; two parent: OR = 3.69). In ever-together couples, alcoholism in either parent predicted elevated risk of separation, with half of EA relationships ending in separation within 12 years of twins’ birth for father-only families, 9 years for mother-only families, and 4 years for both parents alcoholic; corresponding median survival times for AA couples were 9, 4, and 2 years, respectively. EA maternal alcoholism was especially strongly associated with separation in the early postnatal years (mother-only: birth—5 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.43; 6 years on, HR = 2.52; two-parent: HRs = 5.76, 3.68, respectively). Conclusions: Parental separation is a childhood environmental exposure that is more common in children of alcoholics, with timing of separation highly dependent on alcoholic parent gender. PMID:23384382

  12. Alcoholism and timing of separation in parents: findings in a midwestern birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    We examined history of alcoholism and occurrence and timing of separation in parents of a female twin cohort. Parental separation (never-together; never-married cohabitants who separated; married who separated) was predicted from maternal and paternal alcoholism in 326 African ancestry (AA) and 1,849 European/ other ancestry (EA) families. Broad (single-informant, reported in abstract) and narrow (self-report or two-informant) measures of alcoholism were compared. Parental separation was more common in families with parental alcoholism: By the time twins were 18 years of age, parents had separated in only 24% of EA families in which neither parent was alcoholic, contrasted with 58% of families in which only the father was (father-only), 61% of families in which only the mother was (mother-only), and 75% in which both parents were alcoholic (two-parent); corresponding AA percentages were 59%, 71%, 82%, and 86%, respectively. Maternal alcoholism was more common in EA nevertogether couples (mother-only: odds ratio [OR] = 5.95; two parent: OR = 3.69). In ever-together couples, alcoholism in either parent predicted elevated risk of separation, with half of EA relationships ending in separation within 12 years of twins' birth for father-only families, 9 years for mother-only families, and 4 years for both parents alcoholic; corresponding median survival times for AA couples were 9, 4, and 2 years, respectively. EA maternal alcoholism was especially strongly associated with separation in the early postnatal years (mother-only: birth-5 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.43; 6 years on, HR = 2.52; two-parent: HRs = 5.76, 3.68, respectively). Parental separation is a childhood environmental exposure that is more common in children of alcoholics, with timing of separation highly dependent on alcoholic parent gender.

  13. Life-time of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Mahi, M.; Meslin, C.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.

    1998-01-01

    The study of the systems Ne + Au, Ar + Au and Kr + Au has allowed description of the de-excitation and particularly the evolution of the fragment emission time intervals as o function of the compound system excitation energy. The analysis of data obtained by the multidetector NAUTILUS for Pb + Au at 29 MeV/u has permitted the access to another time scale: the lifetime of the two partners before fragmentation. For this system and this energy the predominant process is primarily a two-body process analogue to that observed at lower energies (deep inelastic transfer). This mechanism can lead to a complete relaxation energy and consequently to low relative velocities between the two partners in the exit channel. In contrast to the low energy process where the two partners decay by evaporation, here the energy implied may lead to the rupture of one and/or the other partner in several fragments (2 to 5). For the the most relaxed events the excitation energies may reach the values of 6 MeV/u. Simulations were realized in which the entrance channel i.e. the relaxation of the two partners is described by a classical trajectory calculation. In the exit channel after a time τ one of the two partners splits in several fragments. The study of the trajectories of these fragments allows the determination of the angular distributions relative to the direction of the un-split partner. The comparison between this calculation and the data is given. The τ values vary from a negative value corresponding to a rupture during the interaction of two partners up to a τ of 200 fm/c. The best fit indicates a τ 100 fm/c, this showing that the lifetime of the splitting nucleus is of the order of 100 fm/c after separation of the two partners. By comparing this result with microscopic models one can obtain a better understanding of the system rupture scenario. This study is under way

  14. Hidden consequences of success in pediatrics: parental health-related quality of life--results from the Care Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzmann, Janneke; Heymans, Hugo S A; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; van Praag, Bernard M S; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2008-11-01

    The number of parents who care for a chronically ill child is increasing. Because of advances in medical care, parental caring tasks are changing. A detailed description of parental health-related quality of life will add to the understanding of the impact of caring for a chronically ill child. This will contribute to pediatric family care. Our goal was to determine the health-related quality of life of parents of chronically ill children compared with parents of healthy schoolchildren. A survey of 533 parents of children with chronic conditions (10 diagnosis groups, children aged 1-19 years, diagnosed >1 year ago, living at home) and 443 parents of schoolchildren was conducted between January 2006 and September 2007. Parents were approached through Emma Children's Hospital (which has a tertiary referral and a regional function) and through parent associations. The comparison group included parents of healthy schoolchildren. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the TNO-AZL Questionnaire for Adult's Health Related Quality of Life. Health-related quality of life measures gross and fine motor function, cognitive functioning, sleep, pain, social functioning, daily activities, sexuality, vitality, positive and depressive emotions, and aggressiveness. The health-related quality of life of the study group was compared with that of the comparison group, and effect sizes were estimated. The percentages of parents at risk for a low health-related quality of life were compared with the 25th percentile scores of the comparison group. RESULTS. Parents of chronically ill children had a significantly lower health-related quality of life. Subgroup analysis showed lower health-related quality of life on sleep, social functioning, daily activities, vitality, positive emotions, and depressive emotions in disease-specific groups. On average, 45% of the parents were at risk for health-related quality-of-life impairment. Parents of chronically ill children report a seriously

  15. Parental stress, family quality of life, and family-teacher partnerships: Families of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Higgins, Kyle; Pierce, Tom; Whitby, Peggy J Schaefer; Tandy, Richard D

    2017-11-01

    Reducing parental stress and improving family quality of Life (FQOL) are continuing concerns for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Family-teacher partnerships have been identified as a positive factor to help parents reduce their stress and improve their FQOL. However, the interrelations among parental stress, FQOL, and family-teacher partnerships need to be further examined so as to identify the possible paths to help parents reduce their stress and improve their FQOL. The purpose of this study was to examine the interrelations among these three variables. A total of 236 parents of school children with ASD completed questionnaires, which included three measures: (a) the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale, (b) the Parental Stress Scale, and (c) the Beach Center Family-Professional Partnerships Scale. The structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelations among these three variables. Perceived parental stress had a direct effect on parental satisfaction concerning FQOL and vice versa. Perceived family-teacher partnerships had a direct effect on FQOL, but did not have a direct effect on parental stress. However, family-teacher partnerships had an indirect effect on parental stress through FQOL. Reducing parental stress could improve FQOL for families of children with ASD and vice versa. Strong family-teacher partnerships could help parents of children with ASD improve their FQOL and indirectly reduce their stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex differences in life history drive evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2013-04-01

    Evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care have been common in many animal groups. We use a mathematical model to examine the effect of male and female life-history characteristics (stage-specific maturation and mortality) on evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. When males and females are relatively similar - that is, when females initially invest relatively little into eggs and both sexes have similar mortality and maturation - transitions among different patterns of care are unlikely to be strongly favored. As males and females become more different, transitions are more likely. If females initially invest heavily into eggs and this reduces their expected future reproductive success, transitions to increased maternal care (paternal → maternal, paternal → bi-parental, bi-parental → maternal) are favored. This effect of anisogamy (i.e., the fact that females initially invest more into each individual zygote than males) might help explain the predominance of maternal care in nature and differs from previous work that found no effect of anisogamy on the origin of different sex-specific patterns of care from an ancestral state of no care. When male mortality is high or male egg maturation rate is low, males have reduced future reproductive potential and transitions to increased paternal care (maternal → paternal, bi-parental → paternal, maternal → bi-parental) are favored. Offspring need (i.e., low offspring survival in the absence of care) also plays a role in transitions to paternal care. In general, basic life-history differences between the sexes can drive evolutionary transitions among different sex-specific patterns of care. The finding that simple life-history differences can alone lead to transitions among maternal and paternal care suggests that the effect of inter-sexual life-history differences should be considered as a baseline scenario when attempting to understand how other

  17. Physician and parent perceptions of prognosis and end-of-life experience in children with advanced heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Emily M; Wolfe, Joanne; Ziniel, Sonja I; Lang, Peter; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Dillis, Shay; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; Blume, Elizabeth D

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about how physician and parent perspectives compare regarding the prognosis and end-of-life (EOL) experience of children with advanced heart disease (AHD). The study's objective was to describe and compare parent and physician perceptions regarding prognosis and EOL experience in children with AHD. This was a cross-sectional survey study of cardiologists and bereaved parents. Study subjects were parents and cardiologists of children with primary cardiac diagnoses who died in a tertiary care pediatric hospital between January 2007 and December 2009. Inclusion required both physician and parent to have completed surveys respective to the same patient. A total of 31 parent/physician pairs formed the analytic sample. Perceptions were measured of cardiologists and bereaved parents regarding the EOL experience of children with AHD. Nearly half of parents and physicians felt that patients suffered 'a great deal,' 'a lot,' or 'somewhat' at EOL, but there was no agreement between them. At diagnosis, parents more often expected complete repair and normal lifespan while the majority of physicians expected shortened lifespan without normal quality of life. Parents who expected complete repair with normal life were more likely to report 'a lot' of suffering at EOL (p=0.002). In 43% of cases, physicians reported that the parents were prepared for the way in which their child died, while the parents reported feeling unprepared. Both parents and physicians perceive suffering at EOL in patients who die of AHD. Moreover, parent expectations at diagnosis may influence perceptions of suffering at EOL. Physicians overestimate the degree of parent preparedness for their child's death.

  18. Impact of Mid-Life Symptoms of Alcoholism on the Health and Wellbeing of Aging Parents of Adults with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subharati; Ha, Jung-Hwa; Pai, Manacy; Essenfeld, Harper; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the effect of adult children's disability on parents' physical health in later life and the extent to which parents' symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life moderates the link between children's disability and later life parental health. Analyses are based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The analytic sample included parents of children with developmental disabilities (n = 145) or mental health problems (n = 200) and 2,432 parents of unaffected children. The results showed that the negative health consequences in later life of having a child with a developmental disability were greater for those who showed more symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life. However, symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life did not significantly moderate the impact of an adult child's mental health problems on parents' later life physical health. The findings suggest a potential area where gerontological social workers could intervene, given the negative impact of symptoms of alcoholism on the health of aging parents of children with a disability who may be significantly more susceptible to the negative health impacts of alcohol compared to their younger counterparts.

  19. Quality of life, psychological characteristics, and adjustment in parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappe, Emilie; Bolduc, Mélanie; Rougé, Marie-Caroline; Saiag, Marie-Claude; Delorme, Richard

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated quality of life and adjustment mechanisms in parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Ninety parents of children with ADHD completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and self-assessment scales to measure their perceived stress, social support, sense of control, coping strategies and quality of life. ADHD in children negatively affected parents' quality of life, especially their psychological well-being and personal fulfillment. Family and couple relationships, as well as daily life activities, were also affected. The severity of the disorder, perceiving the situation as a threat or a loss, feeling guilty and holding on to irrational beliefs were related to emotion-focused coping strategies and to a poorer quality of life. Furthermore, hyperactivity index and stress ratings relative to perceiving the situation as a threat or a loss, and adopting emotion-focused coping strategies, predicted poorer quality of life. In contrast, perceiving the situation as challenging was related to a greater sense of control and personal fulfillment. Moreover, perceiving the situation as challenging and adopting problem-focused coping strategies predicted better quality of life. The findings highlight the negative effects of ADHD on parent psychological adjustment and underline the need to recommend training programs that improve parenting skills, parents' perceptions concerning their child's behavior disorder and parental functioning.

  20. Measuring work-life balance using time diary data

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Fisher; Richard Layte

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines how time diaries facilitate the study of work-life balance. We first compare aggregate time spent in paid work, unpaid work, attending to personal needs, and free time across seven countries using the Multinational Time Use Study. We then measure the overlap of work with other activities in two ways. First, we map the timing of episodes of work over the day, and overlay these maps onto maps of leisure time. A social group can be said to have a work-life balance if their pe...

  1. Parents' Views of an Optimal School Life: Using Social Role Valorization to Explore Differences in Parental Perspectives When Children Have Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Glenys; Moni, Karen; Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Children with disability continue to experience disadvantage in their school lives; thus, the question of what makes up an optimal school life, and whether this is different for children with disability, becomes critical. This paper reports on research into parental views about an optimal school life and the usefulness of Social Role Valorization…

  2. Time in Parenting Activities in Dual-Earner Families at the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, Letitia E.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp

    2015-01-01

    Time in parenting was compared for new mothers and fathers in a sample of 182 dual-earner families. Parenting domains included positive engagement, responsibility, routine childcare, and accessibility. Time diaries captured parents’ time use over a 24-hour workday and nonworkday when infants were 3 and 9 months old. Parents were highly involved with their infants. Mothers were more involved than fathers in positive engagement and routine childcare on both days and at each assessment, and allocated more available time on workdays to these domains than fathers, with one exception. Fathers and mothers allocated similar shares of available workday time to positive engagement at 9 months. Greater equity in responsibility and accessibility was found; Mothers spent more, and a greater share of, parenting time in responsibility than fathers on the 9-month workday only, and were more accessible on the 3 month workday only. Implications for parents in today's diverse families are discussed. PMID:26405367

  3. Do visually impaired children and their parents agree on the child's vision-related quality of life and functional vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2017-03-01

    To investigate agreement between children with visual impairment (VI) and their parents on their ratings of the child's vision-related quality of life (VQoL) and functional vision (FV) using two novel self-report patient-reported outcome measures developed for this population. 99 children aged 10-15 years (mean age=12.2, SD=1.9) with VI (best corrected acuity (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) 0.50 or worse in better eye) and their parents participated in a national postal survey, completing the child and proxy versions of our novel instruments assessing VQoL and FV of children with VI-the vision-related quality of life instrument for children and young people (VQoL_CYP) and the functional vision questionnaire for children and young people (FVQ_CYP), respectively. Parent-child agreement was investigated using the Bland-Altman (BA) method. Variation across key sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was examined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Average parental ratings of their child's VQoL and FV were significantly lower than the children's own ratings, but the range of disagreement was wide, with parents both overestimating and underestimating their child's VQoL (mean score difference=5.7, BA limits of agreement (LOA): lower -22.10 (CI 95% -24.61 to 19.59) and upper 33.50 (CI 95% 30.99 to 36.01)), but more consistently underestimating the child's FV (mean score difference=-11.8, BA LOA: lower -39.60 (CI 95% -42.12 to 37.08) and upper 16 (CI 95% 13.48 to 18.52)). There was variation in agreement by some child characteristics, including vision level, time of onset and course of VI progression. Visually impaired children and their parents perceive the broader impact of living with VI very differently. There is value in routine capture of information independently from children and their parents for comprehensively gauging the impact of childhood VI and tailoring appropriate interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  4. Do visually impaired children and their parents agree on the child's vision-related quality of life and functional vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2017-01-01

    Aims To investigate agreement between children with visual impairment (VI) and their parents on their ratings of the child's vision-related quality of life (VQoL) and functional vision (FV) using two novel self-report patient-reported outcome measures developed for this population. Methods 99 children aged 10–15 years (mean age=12.2, SD=1.9) with VI (best corrected acuity (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) 0.50 or worse in better eye) and their parents participated in a national postal survey, completing the child and proxy versions of our novel instruments assessing VQoL and FV of children with VI—the vision-related quality of life instrument for children and young people (VQoL_CYP) and the functional vision questionnaire for children and young people (FVQ_CYP), respectively. Parent-child agreement was investigated using the Bland-Altman (BA) method. Variation across key sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was examined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Results Average parental ratings of their child's VQoL and FV were significantly lower than the children's own ratings, but the range of disagreement was wide, with parents both overestimating and underestimating their child's VQoL (mean score difference=5.7, BA limits of agreement (LOA): lower −22.10 (CI 95% −24.61 to 19.59) and upper 33.50 (CI 95% 30.99 to 36.01)), but more consistently underestimating the child's FV (mean score difference=−11.8, BA LOA: lower −39.60 (CI 95% −42.12 to 37.08) and upper 16 (CI 95% 13.48 to 18.52)). There was variation in agreement by some child characteristics, including vision level, time of onset and course of VI progression. Conclusions Visually impaired children and their parents perceive the broader impact of living with VI very differently. There is value in routine capture of information independently from children and their parents for comprehensively gauging the impact of childhood VI and tailoring appropriate interventions

  5. The relationship between parental overprotection and health-related quality of life in pediatric cancer: the mediating role of perceived child vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Meyer, William H; McNall-Knapp, Rene Y; Mullins, Larry L

    2010-11-01

    The current study sought to examine the relation of parental overprotection and perceived child vulnerability to parent-reported health-related quality of life in parents of children with cancer. Parents (N = 89) of children who had been diagnosed with cancer completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parent-proxy report of health-related quality of life. After controlling for theoretically relevant covariates, parental overprotection and perceived child vulnerability were both found to be significantly related to child health-related quality of life. Additional analyses revealed that perceived child vulnerability mediated the relationship between overprotective parenting behaviors and the child's health-related quality of life. The findings highlight the need to assess for these discrete parenting variables in parents of children with cancer and to develop interventions to target parental perceptions of vulnerability.

  6. The Relationship Between Physical Health and Meaning in Life Among Parents of Special Needs Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Bekenkamp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Whereas former research has studied the psychological health of parents raising a special needs child (a child with a disability or chronic disease, the present study focused on their perceived physical health in relation to meaning in life. Specifically, it was investigated whether physical health is positively related to the meaning in life dimensions self-actualization, self-acceptance and self-transcendence. Visitors of Dutch internet forums (N = 115 completed the Existential Fulfillment Scale and an inventory of subjective health, the VOEG-21. Parents of special needs children were found to suffer more health problems than the average population. In addition, self-actualization and self-acceptance were positively related to their perceived physical health. For self-transcendence, however, a negative relationship was established. The perceived poor health of these parents raising a special needs child implies a need for interventions for this group. The Existential Fulfillment Scale appears to be a useful instrument for identifying those parents in need of such interventions. Self-actualization and self-acceptance seem to be relevant subjects for therapeutic interventions and further research.

  7. Departure scripts and life review of parents living with abusive adult children with mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avieli, Hila; Smeloy, Yael; Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2015-08-01

    Increasing numbers of aging parents are finding themselves in the role of caregiver for their mentally ill adult child due to global deinstitutionalization policy. The aim of this article is to explore preparations for the end of life in light of the life review process among old parents of abusive children with mental disorder. Data collection was performed through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 20 parents, followed by phenomenological analysis. Five different types of departure scripts emerged: a pragmatic departure script, a burned-out departure script, a dead-end departure script, an optimistic departure script, and a violent departure script. The parents in this study tended to interpret events in their past to fit their perception of the current relationship with their child, thus connecting past, present, and future into one coherent picture. Years of extended care have led to a unique aging process which does not allow separation from the child or the development of a sense of closure that characterizes the aging process. This calls for better insights and deeper understanding in regard to intervention with such families. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Fractured families: parental perspectives of the effects of adolescent drug abuse on family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Debra; Usher, Kim; O'Brien, Louise

    Drug use in young people has serious ramifications for health and well-being of young people and their families and continues to be an area of major concern for health workers. Though the task of dealing with drug-related problems falls on families, particularly parents, very little literature has explored parental experiences of managing drug use within the context of family life. Eighteen parents of drug-abusing young people were recruited into this qualitative study that aimed to develop understandings into the effects of adolescent drug use on family life. Findings revealed that the experience of having a drug-abusing adolescent family member had a profound effect on other members of the immediate family. Family relationships were fractured and split as a result of the on-going destructive and damaging behaviour of the drug-abusing young person. Five themes were identified that captured the concept of fractured families. These are: betrayal and loss of trust: 'You had to have the doors locked'; abuse, threats and violence: 'there were holes in the wall'; sibling anger and resentment: 'Better off now with him gone'; isolated, disgraced and humiliated: 'You are on your own with it'; and, feeling blamed: 'You are not a good parent'. Implications for practice and further research are drawn from the findings of this paper.

  9. Time use of parents raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijkx, J; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2017-07-01

    Raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is expected to put extreme pressure on parental time use patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the total time use of mothers and fathers raising children with PIMD and compare it with the time use of parents of typically developing children. Twenty-seven fathers and 30 mothers raising children with PIMD completed a time use diary on a mobile phone or tablet app, as did 66 fathers and 109 mothers of typically developing children. Independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare mean time use. There are no differences in the time use of parents of children with PIMD on contracted time (paid work and educational activities) and necessary time (personal care, eating and drinking and sleeping) when compared with parents of typically developing children. There are significant differences between the parents of children with PIMD and the parents of typically developing children in terms of committed time (time for domestic work and the care and supervision of their children) and free time. The mothers of children with PIMD spend significantly less time on domestic work and more time on care and supervision than mothers of typically developing children. This study shows that the parents of children with PIMD have to spend a significant amount of time on care tasks and have on average 1.5 h less free time per day than parents of typically developing children. This is a striking difference, because leisure time can substantially contribute to well-being. Therefore, it is important not only to consider a child with PIMD's support needs but also to identify what parents need to continue their children's daily care and supervision. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Exploring the effects of adolescent perceptions of parenting in free time and gender on adolescent motivation in free time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton E., Jr. Watts; Linda L. Caldwell

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how gender and perceptions of parenting related to adolescent motivation during free-time. The sample consisted of 377 ninthgraders from high schools in eastern Massachusetts. Significant gender differences were found for rules enacted, with females reporting more rules in place than males. When examining the relationship between parenting practices...

  11. A Qualitative Examination of Physician Gender and Parental Status in Pediatric End-of-Life Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Lori Brand; White, Marjorie Lee; Tofil, Nancy M; Clair, Jeffrey Michael; Needham, Belinda L

    2017-07-01

    In this study we utilized the framework of patient-centered communication to explore the influence of physician gender and physician parental status on (1) physician-parent communication and (2) care of pediatric patients at the end of life (EOL). The findings presented here emerged from a larger qualitative study that explored physician narratives surrounding pediatric EOL communication. The current study includes 17 pediatric critical care and pediatric emergency medicine physician participants who completed narrative interviews between March and October 2012 to discuss how their backgrounds influenced their approaches to pediatric EOL communication. Between April and June of 2013, participants completed a second round of narrative interviews to discuss topics generated out of the first round of interviews. We used grounded theory to inform the design and analysis of the study. Findings indicated that physician gender is related to pediatric EOL communication and care in two primary ways: (1) the level of physician emotional distress and (2) the way physicians perceive the influence of gender on communication. Additionally, parental status emerged as an important theme as it related to EOL decision-making and communication, emotional distress, and empathy. Although physicians reported experiencing more emotional distress related to interacting with patients at the EOL after they became parents, they also felt that they were better able to show empathy to parents of their patients.

  12. Quality of life and wishes in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: the perception of children and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Arias Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the agreement between children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD and their parents regarding the perception of quality of life (QOL and the wishes expressed by children. Methods: The study involved 14 patients (median age = 9.9 yearsold followed up in Sarah Rehabilitation Center – Fortaleza, Brazil and their parents. The following instruments were used: AUQEI questionnaire (Autoquestionnaire Qualité de Vie Enfant Imagé and Three Wishes Projective Technique, this being analyzed by Nereo & Hinton’s system of categories (2003. Results: The analysis of AUQEI showed a good agreement with ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0,699 and a positive and significant correlation between scores of both children and their parents (rho = 0.54, p < 0.05. The Three Wishes also showed a good agreement, mainly in the categories of Material Goods and Activities. Conclusions: Despite children with DMD and their parents exhibited similar perceptions of the QOL and wishes, we suggest that both be heard in respect to aspects of the rehabilitation program. This study provides additional data concerning the need for child QOL assessment instruments that include parallel versions directed to the children and their parents.

  13. Caring Decisions: The Development of a Written Resource for Parents Facing End-of-Life Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Xafis, Vicki; Gillam, Lynn; Hynson, Jenny; Sullivan, Jane; Cossich, Mary; Wilkinson, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Background: Written resources in adult intensive care have been shown to benefit families facing end of life (EoL) decisions. There are few resources for parents making EoL decisions for their child and no existing resources addressing ethical issues. TheCaring Decisionshandbook and website were developed to fill these gaps. Aim: We discuss the development of the resources, modification after reviewer feedback and findings from initial pilot implementation. Design: A targeted...

  14. Hispanic parents' reading language preference and pediatric oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioglu, Iffet; Jones, Judith A; Cortés, Dharma; Rich, Sharron; Garcia, Raul

    2013-01-01

    This study compared scores and psychometric properties from self-identified Hispanic parents who completed Pediatric Oral Health-related Quality of life (POQL) parent report-on-child questionnaires in Spanish or English. The study hypothesized that there were no differences in psychometric properties or POQL scores by parent reading language preference, controlling for dental needs, child's place of birth, age, insurance and use of care. POQL scores were computed, and the internal consistency, feasibility, factor structure and construct validity of the Spanish language version assessed. Hispanic parents (N = 387) of 8-14 year old children (mean age 10.2) completed the survey; 237 in Spanish and 150 in English. Internal consistency scores were higher (Cronbach α range = .86-.93) among Hispanic parents who completed the questionnaire in Spanish than in English (.66-.86). POQL scores from parents who completed questionnaires in Spanish were higher (worse) overall (6.03 vs. 3.82, P = 0.022), as were physical (11.61 vs. 6.54, P = 0.001) and role functioning domains (1.87 vs. 0.82, P = 0.029). Items for crying, pain, and eating were higher (P parent reports of dental visit in the last year (P = 0.05) and worse oral health than a year ago (P = 0.002), controlling for reading language (not significant) and visit in last year in the final multivariate linear regression. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. Parental influence on children's answers to an oral-health-related quality of life questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Dantas, Laíza Rocha; Dantas, Lívia Rocha; da Silva, Bruno Rafael Cruz; Perazzo, Matheus de França; Siqueira, Maria Betânia Lins Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate parental influence on children's answers to an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of 84 pairs of 5-year-olds and parents/guardians. The participants were selected from a primary family healthcare center in Campina Grande, Brazil. First, the children and parents answered respective versions of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5). Seven days later, the children answered their version of the SOHO-5, without the presence of their parents/guardians, and underwent a clinical exam of dental caries, traumatic dental injury and malocclusion, by a previously calibrated researcher. Statistical analysis involved a comparison of mean scores and the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Poisson regression models were used to associate the variables (α = 5%). No significant differences were found between the mean SOHO-5 scores of the children when alone or accompanied by parents/guardians (p > 0.05). The ICC between the answers of the children alone or accompanied was 0.84. White spot (PR = 6.32; 95%CI: 1.36 - 29.40) and cavitated lesions (PR = 9.81; 95%CI: 3.22 - 29.85) had an impact on OHRQoL, according to the children's self-report, whereas cavitated lesions (PR = 90.52; 95%CI: 13.26 - 617.74) and anterior open bite (PR = 1.95; 95%IC: 1.07 - 3.53) remained on the final model, according to the parents' version of the SOHO-5. In conclusion, parents did not influence the children's responses, and dental caries are the oral health problem exerting the greatest impact on the children's OHRQoL.

  16. Poor parents?: the realities of work-life balance in a low-income neighbourhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley Dean

    2007-01-01

    The article explores the work-life balance policy agenda as it has emerged in post-industrial societies, such as the UK, and it reports on a small-scale study of the experiences and expectations of work-life balance in a low-income inner-London neighbourhood. From the study certain general issues are identified relating to the inconsistency of employers' practices and the currently fragmented nature of childcare provision. And certain issues of particular relevance for low-earning parents are...

  17. Impairment of quality of life in parents of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Arrigo Valentina

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the Quality of Life (QOL in parents of children with developmental diseases as compared to other severe neurological or psychiatric disorders. Aims of the present study were: to evaluate QOL in parents of children affected by Pervasive Development Disorder (PDDs, Cerebral Palsy (CP or Mental Retardation (MR as compared to a control group (CG; to evaluate QOL of parents of patients with different types of PDDs, namely Autistic Disorder (AD, High Function Autism/Asperger Syndromes (HFA/AS and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PPD-NOS; and to compare the level of impairment in QOL of mothers and fathers within PDDs, CP, MR groups and between AD, HFA/AS, PDD-NOS sub-groups. Methods The sample consisted of 212 parents (115 mothers and 97 fathers of 135 children or adolescents affected by PDDs, MR or CP. An additional sample of 77 parents (42 mothers and 35 fathers of 48 healthy children was also included and used as a control group. QOL was assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Results Compared with parents of healthy children, parents in the PDDs group reported impairment in physical activity (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 and worse overall perception of their QOL (p = 0.0001 and health (p = 0.005. Scores in the physical (p = 0.0001, psychological (p = 0.0001 and social relationships domains (p = 0.0001 and in the physical (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 domains were lower compared to the MR group CP group respectively. Little differences were observed between MR, CP and control groups. The level of impairment of physical (p = 0.001 and psychological (p = 0.03 well-being were higher in mothers than in fathers in the PDDs and CP groups respectively; in the other groups, and across all the other domains of QQL impairment was similar. There were no statistically significant differences in the scores between the AD, HFA/AS and PDD-NOS sub

  18. Health related quality of life in parents of children with speech and hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Ivana; Stevanović, Ranko; Vlahović, Sanja; Stevanović, Siniša; Kolarić, Branko; Kondić, Ljiljana

    2014-02-01

    Hearing impairment and specific language disorder are two entities that seriously affect language acquisition in children and reduce their communication skills. These children require specific treatment and higher levels of care than healthy children. Their language abilities also strongly influence parent-child interactions. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the parents of hearing-impaired children and the parents of children with speech difficulties (specific language disorder). Our study subjects included 349 parents (182 mothers and 167 fathers) of preschool-aged children with receptive expressive language disorder and 131 parents (71 mothers and 60 fathers) of children with severe hearing impairment. A control group was composed of 146 parents (82 mothers and 64 fathers) of healthy children of the same age. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. For all groups of parents, the mothers had poorer scores compared with the fathers, but large differences were apparent depending on the child's impairment. In the control group, the scores of the mothers were significantly lower than the fathers' scores in only two (of eight) health domains. In contrast, the scores were lower in three domains for the mothers of speech-impaired children and in six domains for the mothers of hearing-impaired children, representing the greatest difference between the parents. When compared with the control group, both the mothers and fathers of speech-impaired children scored significantly worse in five health domains. Fathers of hearing-impaired children scored significantly worse than controls in three health domains. The lowest scores, indicating the poorest HRQOL, were observed for mothers of hearing-impaired children, who obtained significantly lower scores than the control mothers in all health domains except the emotional role. The parents of preschool-aged speech-and hearing-impaired children experience poorer HRQOL

  19. Montessori Parenting: An Idea Whose Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Sonnie; McFarland, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Since Dr. Maria Montessori's discovery of the true nature of childhood over a century ago, children around the globe have benefited from Montessori education. However, even parents who have children enrolled in Montessori schools could derive further benefits through the implementation of Montessori principles and practices in the home. Helping…

  20. Talking to Parents: Communication in Times of Crisis and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Charlene

    2002-01-01

    Camps should always have a crisis management plan, but the events of September 11, 2001, make it especially important. Honest communication with parents is paramount--directors should choose their words carefully and control the tone of their voices. Examples are given of crises involving weather, transportation, and a shooting. Questions to…

  1. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls’ Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, J.; Cham, H.; Gonzales, NA.; White, R.M.B.; Tein, J.-Y.; Wong, J.; Roosa, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Scarce research has examined pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans, or examined the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers using three waves of data. Measures included girls’ self-report of pubertal development and girls’ and mothers’ report of maternal harsh parenting and daughters’ mental health. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls’ internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the influence of mothers’ and daughters’ nativity on these relations. Results differed depending on reporter and maternal nativity. Using daughters’ report, Mexican American mothers’ harsh parenting acted as a moderator. At high levels of harsh parenting, early pubertal timing predicted higher externalizing scores, while at low levels of harsh parenting, early timing predicted lower externalizing scores. For Mexican immigrant mothers, harsh parenting mediated the effects of pubertal timing on girls’ internalizing and externalizing problems. There were no significant pubertal effects for mothers’ report. Findings suggest that maternal harsh parenting plays a key role in the relations between early pubertal timing and behavioral and emotional outcomes among Mexican-origin girls. PMID:23231686

  2. Stress and quality of life among parents of children with congenital heart disease referred for psychological services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida; Shields, Clarissa; Brosig, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    The study examined parent stress and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among families of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) referred for psychological services. Parents of 54 children (85% boys) aged 3 to 13 (M age  = 7.48, SD = 2.38) completed measures to assess parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index - Short Form; Pediatric Inventory for Parents) and the PedsQL Family Impact Module. Medical information was retrieved from medical record review. Half of parents of children with single ventricle anatomy had clinically significant levels of parenting stress. Parents of children with single ventricle anatomy reported more frequent illness-related stress and more difficulty dealing with illness-related stress than parents of children with two ventricle anatomy. Younger gestational age at birth and referral for attention or behavior problems were associated with greater likelihood of parent at-risk psychosocial functioning. Among children referred for psychological services, many parents report significant stress and significant negative impact of the child's medical condition on the family. Results underscore the need to consider assessing parent psychosocial functioning and providing additional support for parents of children with CHD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Parental perspectives on suffering and quality of life at end-of-life in children with advanced heart disease: an exploratory study*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Elizabeth D; Balkin, Emily Morell; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Ziniel, Sonja; Beke, Dorothy M; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Taylor, Laura; Kulik, Thomas; Pituch, Kenneth; Wolfe, Joanne

    2014-05-01

    To describe parent perspectives regarding the end-of-life experience of children with advanced heart disease. Cross-sectional multicenter survey study of bereaved parents. Two tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Parents of children younger than 21 years with primary cardiac diagnoses who died in the hospital 9 months to 4 years before the survey date. Parents were excluded if they were non-English speakers or had previously denied permission to contact. The Survey for Caring for Children with Advanced Heart Disease was developed, piloted, and then sent to parents of all children who died at two sites. Fifty bereaved parents responded (39% response rate) a mean of 2.7 years after their child's death. Median age at death was 6 months (3.6 d to 20.4 yr). At end-of-life, 86% of children were intubated and 46% were receiving mechanical circulatory support. Seventy-eight percent died during withdrawal of life-sustaining interventions and 16% during resuscitative efforts. Parents realized that their child had no realistic chance of survival a median of 2 days prior to death (0-30 d). According to parents, 47% of children suffered "a great deal," "a lot," or "somewhat" during the end-of-life period. The symptoms parents perceived to be causing the most suffering were breathing and feeding difficulties in children under 2 years and fatigue and sleeping difficulties in older children. Seventy-one percent of parents described the quality of life of their child during the last month of life as "poor" or "fair." Most parents (84%) described the quality of care delivered as "very good" or "excellent." According to their parents, many children with advanced heart disease experience suffering in the end-of-life care period. For most, realization that their child has no realistic chance of survival does not occur until late, some not until death is imminent. Once this realization occurs, however, parents perceive peacefulness, a "good death," and excellent quality of care

  4. Parental Autonomy-Support, Intrinsic Life Goals, and Well-Being among Adolescents in China and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekes, Natasha; Gingras, Isabelle; Philippe, Frederick L.; Koestner, Richard; Fang, Jianqun

    2010-01-01

    Self-determination theory proposes that prioritizing intrinsic life goals, such as community involvement, is related to well-being, whereas focusing on extrinsic life goals, such as financial success, is associated with lower well-being and that parenting influences the type of life goals that youth adopt. In a sample of 515 Chinese (56% female,…

  5. Health-related quality of life for children with rare diagnoses, their parents' satisfaction with life and the association between the two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Heidi; Dammann, Brede; Andresen, Inger-Lise; Fagerland, Morten Wang

    2013-09-08

    To examine children's health-related quality of life and parents' satisfaction with life and explore the association between the two in families where a child has a rare disorder. We used a cross-sectional study design. A questionnaire was sent to parents of 439 school children (6-18 years) with congenital rare disorders. Children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was examined by Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM 4.0 (PedsQL) Norwegian version. Satisfaction with life was examined by Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). The response rate was 48% (n = 209). The average age of the children was 12 years and 50% were girls. The parents scored their children with reduced physical, emotional, social and school functioning. The reductions were greatest in the physical area. Parents scored average to high on SWLS but significantly lower than the general Norwegian population. There was a positive association between parental SWLS and the children's social functioning and school functioning. Children with congenital, rare disorders often require assistance from many parts of the public service system. Caring for their physical needs should not conflict with their educational and social needs. It is important that the children's school-life is organized so that the diagnosis does not interfere with the children's education and social life more than necessary.

  6. Treatment of infants with atopic eczema with pimecrolimus cream 1% improves parents' quality of life: a multicenter, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Doris; Kaufmann, Roland; Bräutigam, Matthias; Wahn, Ulrich

    2005-09-01

    Atopic eczema begins primarily in infancy or early childhood, and sleep loss due to night-time pruritus can have a considerable impact on patients' and parents' quality of life (QoL). In this study, infants (n = 196) with mild to severe atopic eczema were randomized 2:1, double-blind, to receive either pimecrolimus cream 1% (Elidel, Novartis Pharma, Nürnberg, Germany) or the corresponding vehicle bid for 4 wk, followed by a 12 wk, open-label phase and a 4 wk, treatment-free, follow-up period. The parents' QoL was measured at baseline and at the end of the double-blind phase, using the questionnaire 'QoL in Parents of Children with Atopic Dermatitis' (PQoL-AD), thus data presented here refer to the initial 4-wk treatment phase only. After 4 wk of double-blind treatment, an increase in the mean percentage change from baseline in eczema area and severity index of 71.5% was observed with pimecrolimus, compared with 19.4% with vehicle. The increase in efficacy was paralleled by the following mean percentage changes from baseline in the five domains of the questionnaire in pimecrolimus and vehicle, respectively: psychosomatic well-being: 14.6% vs. 6.2%; effects on social life: 6.7% vs. 2.3%; confidence in medical treatment: 10.0% vs. 3.7%; emotional coping: 16.1% vs. 6.5%; acceptance of disease: 19.6% vs. 7.0%. Analysis (ancova) of the dependent variable difference from baseline and the covariate baseline value revealed values of p eczema in infants achieved by treatment with pimecrolimus have a significant beneficial effect on the QoL of parents.

  7. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Van der Geest

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA and screen sedentary time (SST, is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8–11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047. Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, and PA and SST (mean min/day. The modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. Results The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%, while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%. No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. Conclusions No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an

  8. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M

    2017-09-29

    Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8-11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047). Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful), and PA and SST (mean min/day). The modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%), while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%). No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an authoritative parenting style was associated with a reduction in SST

  9. Parental autonomy-support, intrinsic life goals, and well-being among adolescents in China and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekes, Natasha; Gingras, Isabelle; Philippe, Frederick L; Koestner, Richard; Fang, Jianqun

    2010-08-01

    Self-determination theory proposes that prioritizing intrinsic life goals, such as community involvement, is related to well-being, whereas focusing on extrinsic life goals, such as financial success, is associated with lower well-being and that parenting influences the type of life goals that youth adopt. In a sample of 515 Chinese (56% female, mean age = 15.50) and 567 North American (52% male, mean age = 14.17) adolescents, a model of the relationships between parenting, life goals, and well-being was investigated and confirmed for intrinsic life goals. Across societies, autonomy-supportive parenting was associated with the endorsement of intrinsic life goals, which in turn was associated with well-being. Intrinsic life goals partially mediated the relationship between parental autonomy-support and well-being. These findings suggest that, cross-culturally, prioritizing intrinsic life goals is related to increased well-being among adolescents and that parents could encourage intrinsic life goals by being supportive of their children's autonomy.

  10. Growing up with grief: revisiting the death of a parent over the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Nancee M; Werner-Lin, Allison

    2011-01-01

    In the era of managed care, evidence-based practice, and short term, solution focused interventions, clinicians in agency based settings generally do not have the luxury of long-term contact with bereaved children. Although a substantial, yet controversial, literature argues that children cannot fully resolve early loss until adulthood, limited attention is given to how children's understandings of early loss shift as their cognitive capacities mature. This article argues the emotional experience of grief shifts: 1) as children grapple with both normative life changes and the tasks of mourning, and 2) as their cognitive and emotional development allow them to understand and question aspects of their deceased parent's life and death in new ways. This article will present an overview of longitudinal and cross-sectional research on the long-term impact of childhood grief. We then suggest the ways bereaved children and adolescents revisit and reintegrate the loss of a parent as their emotional, moral, and cognitive capacities mature and as normative ego-centrism and magical thinking decline. To demonstrate these ideas, we draw on the case of a parentally bereaved boy and his family presenting across agency-based and private-practice work over the course of 14 years. This case suggests the need for coordinated care for children who are moving beyond the initial trauma of parental loss into various stages of grief and reintegration. While the loss of a parent is permanent and unchanging, the process is not: it is part of the child's ongoing experience. (Worden, 1996, p. 16).

  11. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  12. Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments - parents' experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Borgestig, Maria; Rytterstrom, Patrik; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe and explore parents' experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based assistive technology (AT)) for use in daily life. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents' experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis...

  13. Grandparents’ Stories of Family Life After Donor Conception (Parents of heterosexual couples with children conceived using donor sperm or eggs)

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Hazel; Nordqvist, Petra; Smart, Carol

    2015-01-01

    This leaflet is written for the parents of heterosexual couples who have, or are planning, children using donor conception. It is based on many hours of research interviews, during which parents and grandparents of donor-conceived children told usabout their experiences of family life after donor conception.This leaflet is one of a series of four, written for parents and grandparents with donor-conceived children. They are based on research from the Relative Strangers project.

  14. Psychosocial health and quality of life among children with cardiac diagnoses: agreement and discrepancies between parent and child reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavika J; Lai, Lillian; Goldfield, Gary; Sananes, Renee; Longmuir, Patricia E

    2017-05-01

    Psychosocial health issues are common among children with cardiac diagnoses. Understanding parent and child perceptions is important because parents are the primary health information source. Significant discrepancies have been documented between parent/child quality-of-life data but have not been examined among psychosocial diagnostic instruments. This study examined agreement and discrepancies between parent and child reports of psychosocial health and quality of life in the paediatric cardiology population. Children (n=50, 6-14 years) with diagnoses of CHDs (n=38), arrhythmia (n=5), cardiomyopathy (n=4), or infectious disease affecting the heart (n=3) were enrolled, completing one or more outcome measures. Children and their parents completed self-reports and parent proxy reports of quality of life - Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory - and psychosocial health - Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children (Version 2). Patients also completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children. Associations (Pearson's correlations, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients) and differences (Student's t-tests) between parent proxy reports and child self-reports were evaluated. Moderate parent-child correlations were found for physical (R=0.33, p=0.03), school (R=0.43, pParent-child reports of externalising behaviour problems, for example aggression, were strongly correlated (R=0.70, pparent-child associations were found for emotional quality of life (R=0.25, p=0.10), internalising problems (R=0.17, p=0.56), personal adjustment/adaptation skills (R=0.23, p=0.42), or anxiety (R=0.07, p=0.72). Our data suggest that clinicians caring for paediatric cardiac patients should assess both parent and child perspectives, particularly in relation to domains such as anxiety and emotional quality of life, which are more difficult to observe.

  15. Beyond deficits: intimate partner violence, maternal parenting, and child behavior over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Megan R; Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah I; Beeble, Marisa; Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has negative consequences for children's well-being and behavior. Much of the research on parenting in the context of IPV has focused on whether and how IPV victimization may negatively shape maternal parenting, and how parenting may in turn negatively influence child behavior, resulting in a deficit model of mothering in the context of IPV. However, extant research has yet to untangle the interrelationships among the constructs and test whether the negative effects of IPV on child behavior are indeed attributable to IPV affecting mothers' parenting. The current study employed path analysis to examine the relationships among IPV, mothers' parenting practices, and their children's externalizing behaviors over three waves of data collection among a sample of 160 women with physically abusive partners. Findings indicate that women who reported higher levels of IPV also reported higher levels of behavior problems in their children at the next time point. When parenting practices were examined individually as mediators of the relationship between IPV and child behavior over time, one type of parenting was significant, such that higher IPV led to higher authoritative parenting and lower child behavior problems [corrected]. On the other hand, there was no evidence that higher levels of IPV contributed to more child behavior problems due to maternal parenting. Instead, IPV had a significant cumulative indirect effect on child behavior via the stability of both IPV and behavior over time. Implications for promoting women's and children's well-being in the context of IPV are discussed.

  16. Response shift in parents' assessment of health-related quality of life of children with new-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajobi, Tolulope T; Speechley, Kathy N; Liang, Zhiying; Goodwin, Shane W; Ferro, Mark A; Wiebe, Samuel

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of epilepsy is known to impact health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with new-onset epilepsy and can also influence their conceptualization and valuation of HRQOL construct, also known as response shift. This study investigates the presence of response shift in a cohort of children with new-onset epilepsy. Data are from the HEalth-Related QUality of Life in children with Epilepsy Study, a prospective cohort study of 373 children with new-onset epilepsy. Hypotheses about the presence of reconceptualization, reprioritization, and recalibration response shift were tested in the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE-55) Questionnaire, a parent-reported, disease-specific HRQOL measure, using Oort's structural equation model between baseline and 1-year follow-up. Model fit was assessed using log-likelihood ratio test, root mean square error of approximation, and comparative fit index. Small positive uniform recalibration response shift effects were observed on physical, emotional, and social functioning domains of the QOLCE-55, but negligibly small negative nonuniform recalibration response shift effect was observed on social functioning domain. There was no significant change in overall QOLCE-55 scores over time after adjusting for response shift effects. Parents of children with new-onset epilepsy are likely to positively recalibrate (upward bias) their assessments of their children's HRQOL over a 1-year period after diagnosis. This study highlights the potential benefits of response shift as a desired consequence in parents' perception of changes in HRQOL of children with new-onset epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Duration of a cow-milk exclusion diet worsens parents' perception of quality of life in children with food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indinnimeo, Luciana; Baldini, Luciano; De Vittori, Valentina; Zicari, Anna Maria; De Castro, Giovanna; Tancredi, Giancarlo; Lais, Giulia; Duse, Marzia

    2013-12-05

    In Italy, rigorous studies obtained with specific and validated questionnaires that explore the impact of exclusion diets on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with food allergies are lacking. In this cross-sectional study, we wished to validate the Italian version of a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire, and assess the impact of exclusion diets on the HRQoL in a cohort of Italian children with IgE-mediated food allergies. Children on an exclusion diet for ≥1 food were enrolled consecutively, and their parents completed the validated Italian version of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF) and Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM). Ninety-six parents of children aged 0-12 years answered the FAQLQ-PF. The validity of the construct of the questionnaire was assessed by correlation between the FAQLQ-PF and FAIM-PF (r = 0.85). The Italian version of the FAQLQ had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α >0.70). Factors that mainly influenced the HRQoL were older age, severity of food allergy, and the duration of the cow milk-exclusion diet. The FAQLQ-PF, validated in Italian, is a reliable instrument. Worse QoL scores were observed among older children, those with severe systemic reactions, and those with a prolonged cow milk-free diet. It is very important to consider the QoL assessment as an integral part of food-allergy management. These results emphasize the need to administer exclusion diets only for the necessary time and the importance of assessment of the HRQoL in these patients.

  18. Mother's Childrearing History and Current Parenting: Patterns of Association and the Moderating Role of Current Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Carri; Stein, Jennifer; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the association between positive and negative aspects of childrearing history and current parenting and the moderating effect of current stress. Seventy mother-child dyads participated in this study. Mothers provided retrospective reports of childrearing histories and current reports of life stress. Parenting was assessed via…

  19. Validation of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire with Parents of Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa A.; Ahmad, Muayyad M.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) has been used in many studies that target parents of children with Autistic Disorder. However, the measure has yet to be validated and adapted to this sample group whose daily experiences are considered substantially different from those of parents of children…

  20. Relations of Parenting and Temperament to Chinese Children's Experience of Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and…

  1. Family Resources and Mid-Life Level of Education: A Longitudinal Study of the Mediating Influence of Childhood Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Otter, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of parental involvement, popular among educators and policy-makers, in investigating differences in level of attained education by family background. The question is if parental involvement in children's schooling at age 14 acts as a mediator between family resources and mid-life level of attained education. Using…

  2. Meson life time in the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Allahbakhshi, Davood

    2014-01-01

    In the hot (an)isotropic plasma the meson life time τ is defined as a time scale after which the meson dissociates. According to the gauge/gravity duality, this time can be identified with the inverse of the imaginary part of the frequency of the quasinormal modes, ω_I, in the (an)isotropic black hole background. In the high temperature limit, we numerically show that at fixed temperature(entropy density) the life time of the mesons decreases(increases) as the anisotropy parameter raises. For general case, at fixed temperature we introduce a polynomial function for ω_I and observe that the meson life time decreases. Moreover, we realize that (s/T"3)"6, where s and T are entropy density and temperature of the plasma respectively, can be expressed as a function of anisotropy parameter over temperature. Interestingly, this function is a Padé approximant.

  3. Effects of supportive-educative program on quality of life of adolescents living with a parent with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Azarbarzin

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This research showed that supportive-educative program can enhance some aspects of quality of life. Therefore, nurses and other health professionals can use this scheme or similar programs for helping adolescents living with a parent with cancer.

  4. Psychosocial support and parents' social life determine the self-esteem of orphan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erango MA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Markos Abiso Erango,1 Zikie Ataro Ayka2 1School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Department of Applied Statistics, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2Department of Biology, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Abstract: Parental death affects the life of children in many ways, one of which is self-esteem problems. Providing psychosocial support and equipping orphans play a vital role in their lifes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 7–18-year-old orphans at 17 local districts of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Regional State of Ethiopia. From a total of 48,270 orphans in these areas, 4,368 were selected using stratified simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with a designed questionnaire based on the Rosenberg's rating scale to measure their self-esteem levels. Self-esteem with a score less than or equal to an average score was considered to be low self-esteem in the analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the data using the SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that the probability of orphans suffering from low self-esteem was 0.59. Several risk factors were found to be significant at the level of 5%. Psychosocial support (good guidance, counseling and treatment, physical protection and amount of love shared, financial and material support, and fellowship with other children, parents living together before death, strong relationship between parents before death, high average monthly income, voluntary support, and consideration from the society are some of the factors that decrease the risk of being low in self-esteem. There are many orphans with low self-esteem in the study areas. The factors negatively affecting the self-esteem of orphans include the lack of psychosocial support, poor social life of parents, and death of parents due to AIDS. Society and parents should be aware of the consequences of these factors which can influence their children's future self

  5. 'Inconvenient biology:' advantages and disadvantages of first-time parenting after age 40 using in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Dougall, K; Beyene, Y; Nachtigall, R D

    2012-04-01

    As ages at first birth have steadily risen in the industrial west over the last several decades, the phenomenon of 'delayed childbearing' has come under research scrutiny by demographers, medical specialists and social scientists. In this study, we specifically explore the perceived advantages and disadvantages of postponed conception as well as participants' retrospective opinions on the 'optimal age' for parenting. To this end, we examined a cohort purposely chosen to epitomize delayed childbearing, i.e. men and women who used IVF to conceive at the very end of their reproductive capability. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 with 46 couples and 15 individual self-selected US women and men who had used IVF to conceive their first child when the woman was aged 40 or older at the time of delivery. Although the demographics of this cohort were consistent with others who use IVF in the USA, their median income was 3-4 times higher than that of the average US family, which may bias their largely positive parenting experiences. Most women and men believed that childbearing later in life resulted in advantages for themselves and their families. These included having established careers with financial security and career-time flexibility, enhanced emotional preparedness, committed co-parenting relationships and a positive overall family experience. The main disadvantage was the unexpected difficulty in conceiving that culminated in the use of IVF and resulted in a smaller family than desired, although many expressed feeling 'lucky' to have children at all. Other disadvantages were lack of energy for parenting, less available lifetime to spend with children and anticipated stigma as older parents. These disadvantages appear to have influenced conception and parenting experiences so that in hindsight the majority of participants identified the optimal age for first-time parenting as 5-10 years earlier than they had conceived. This age

  6. Associations of Parental Rules and Socioeconomic Position With Preschool Children's Sedentary Behaviour and Screen Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine L; Hinkley, Trina; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2015-04-01

    There is little current understanding of the influences on sedentary behavior and screen time in preschool children. This study investigated socioeconomic position (SEP) and parental rules as potential correlates of preschool children's sedentary behavior and screen time. Data from the Healthy Active Preschool Years (HAPPY) Study were used. Participating parents reported their child's usual weekly screen time and their rules to regulate their child's screen time. Children wore accelerometers for 8 days to objectively measure sedentary time. Children whose parents limited television viewing spent significantly less time in that behavior and in total screen time; however, overall sedentary behavior was unaffected. An association between parents limiting computer/electronic game use and time spent on the computer was found for girls only. SEP was inversely associated with girls', but not boys', total screen time and television viewing. As parental rules were generally associated with lower levels of screen time, intervention strategies could potentially encourage parents to set limits on, and switch off, screen devices. Intervention strategies should target preschool children across all SEP areas, as there was no difference by SEP in overall sedentary behavior or screen time for boys.

  7. Long-term effects of parental divorce timing on depression: A population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sung-Youn; Jang, Suk-Yong; Choi, Jae-Woo; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-09-08

    We examined the long-term effects of parental divorce timing on depression using longitudinal data from the Korean Welfare Panel Study. Depression symptoms were measured using the 11 items of Center for Epidemiologic Scale for Depression (CES-D-11), and we categorized parental divorce timing into 'early childhood', 'adolescent' and 'none'. Although participants who experienced parental divorce during adolescence exhibited a significantly higher CES-D-11 score (p = .0468), 'early childhood' participants displayed the most increased CES-D-11 score compared to the control group (p = .0007). Conversely, among participants who were unsatisfied with their marriage, those who experienced parental divorce in early childhood showed lower CES-D-11 scores, while 'adolescent period' participants exhibited significantly higher CES-D-11 scores (p = .0131). We concluded that timing of parental divorce exerts substantial yet varied effects on long-term depression symptoms and future marriage satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Parent Alcoholism Impacts the Severity and Timing of Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Although previous studies show that children of alcoholic parents have higher rates of externalizing symptoms compared to their peers, it remains unclear whether the timing of children's externalizing symptoms is linked to that of their parent's alcohol-related symptoms. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether children aged 2…

  9. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the

  10. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van De Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.

    Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the

  11. Children's Well-Being during Parents' Marital Disruption Process: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2002-01-01

    Examines the extent to which parents' marital disruption process affects children's academic performance and well-being both before and after parental divorce. Compared with peers in intact families, children of divorce faired less well. Discusses how family resources mediate detrimental effects over time. Similar results are noted for girls and…

  12. Disneyland Dads, Disneyland Moms? How Nonresident Parents Spend Time with Absent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Susan D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines gender differences in how nonresident parents spend time with their absent children. Results suggest that nonresident mothers and fathers exhibit a similar pattern of participation in activities with their absent children. Most nonresident parents either engage in only leisure activities with their children or have no contact. (Author/MKA)

  13. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children's Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucaides, Constantinos A; Tsangaridou, Niki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children ( N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child's questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between "general friend support," "friends' activity norms," and physical activity ( r = 0.343 and 0.333 resp., p friend support" and time spent outside ( r = 0.460, p parental and friends' influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children's physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends' influences may have a stronger impact on children's behaviors.

  14. Adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report of health-related quality of life: an analysis of validity and reliability of PedsQL 4.0 among a sample of Malaysian adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartina, Sanker; Chin, Yit Siew; Fara Wahida, Rezali; Woon, Fui Chee; Hiew, Chu Chien; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib

    2015-04-08

    The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core Scales (PedsQL) 4.0 is a generalized assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) based on adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report. This study aims to determine the construct validity and reliability of PedsQL 4.0 among a sample of Malaysian adolescents and parents. A cross-sectional study was carried out at three selected public schools in the state of Selangor. A total of 379 Malaysian adolescents completed the PedsQL 4.0 adolescent self-report and 218 (55.9%) parents completed the PedsQL 4.0 parent proxy-report. Weight and height of adolescents were measured and BMI-for-age by sex was used to determine their body weight status. There were 50.8% male and 49.2% female adolescents who participated in this study (14.25 ± 1.23 years). The prevalence of overweight and obesity (25.8%) was four times higher than the prevalence of severe thinness and thinness (6.1%). Construct validity was analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Based on CFA, adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report met the criteria of convergent validity (factor loading > 0.5, Average Variance Extracted (AVE) > 0.5, Construct Reliability > 0.7) and showed good fit to the data. The adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report exhibited discriminant validity as the AVE values were larger than the R(2) values. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the adolescent self-report (α = 0.862) and parent proxy-report (α = 0.922) showed these instruments are reliable. Parents perceived the HRQoL of adolescents was poorer compared to the perception of the adolescent themselves (t = 5.92, p 0.05). Parent proxy-report was negatively associated with the adolescents' BMI-for-age (r = -0.152, p 0.05). Adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report of the PedsQL 4.0 are valid and reliable to assess HRQoL of Malaysian adolescents. Future studies are recommended to use both adolescent self-report and parent-proxy report of HRQoL as

  15. Relative likelihood for life as a function of cosmic time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Abraham [Astronomy department, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Batista, Rafael A.; Sloan, David, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rafael.alvesbatista@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: david.sloan@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics - Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, OX1 3RH, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We address this question by calculating the relative formation probability per unit time of habitable Earth-like planets within a fixed comoving volume of the Universe, dP ( t )/ dt , starting from the first stars and continuing to the distant cosmic future. We conservatively restrict our attention to the context of ''life as we know it'' and the standard cosmological model, ΛCDM . We find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near ∼ 0.1 M {sub ⊙} stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

  16. Relative likelihood for life as a function of cosmic time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, Abraham; Batista, Rafael A.; Sloan, David

    2016-01-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We address this question by calculating the relative formation probability per unit time of habitable Earth-like planets within a fixed comoving volume of the Universe, dP ( t )/ dt , starting from the first stars and continuing to the distant cosmic future. We conservatively restrict our attention to the context of ''life as we know it'' and the standard cosmological model, ΛCDM . We find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near ∼ 0.1 M ⊙ stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

  17. ADVISING OF PARENTS ON QUESTIONS OF FEEDING OF THE CHILD OF FIRST-YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Ryumina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment and maintenance of the contact is a major condition of the successful advising of parents on questions of feeding. An author is divided his own experience with parents not only after the birth of child, but also in the period of pregnancy, as it is particularly important in forming of correct relation of mother to the breast-feeding. The aims of consulting physician are not only a revival of culture of breast-feeding but also providing and control of the correct feeding and care of kid on the first year of life.Key words: advising, breast-feeding, extra feed. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:106-112

  18. Parental perceptions of health-related quality of life of Albanian children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrosini Kalyva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy adversely affects the health-related quality of life (HRQoL of children living with it. Even though almost 80% of children with epilepsy live in developing countries very little research has been conducted with the specific population. The present study took place in Albania and aimed to investigate parental perceptions of the HRQoL of their children with epilepsy. Considering the well-defined gender roles in the Albanian traditional family it was expected that mothers and fathers reports of their children’s HRQoL would differ. Results showed no differences in maternal and paternal reports; instead there was a moderate correspondence between the reports across all dimensions. Parents also reported the highest scores of HRQoL in the interpersonal dimension and the lowest scores in the intrapersonal dimension. The findings have implications in the context of future research and also medical care for children with epilepsy in Albania.

  19. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdi, Gurkiran; Cooke, Richard; Knibb, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population completed validated measures of QoL, anxiety, depression, and stress. Results. Parents of children with food allergy (PA or MA) reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression than the control group (all p food allergy related QoL compared to parents of children with PA (p food allergy have significantly poorer mental health compared to healthy controls, irrespective of whether food allergy is medically diagnosed or not. It is important to encourage parents to have their child medically tested for food allergy and to recognise and refer for psychological support where needed.

  20. What happens to offspring when parents are inbred, old or had a poor start in life? Evidence for sex-specific parental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Trejo, Regina; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Jennions, Michael D; Head, Megan L

    2018-05-23

    Parental effects on offspring performance have been attributed to many factors such as parental age, size and condition. However, we know little about how these different parental characteristics interact to determine parental effects, or the extent to which their effect on offspring depends on either the sex of the parent or that of the offspring. Here we experimentally tested for effects of variation in parents' early diet and inbreeding levels, as well as effects of parental age, and for potential interactive effects of these three factors on key aspects of offspring development in the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Older mothers produced offspring that were significantly smaller at birth. This negative effect of maternal age on offspring size was still evident at maturation as older mothers had smaller daughters, but not smaller sons. The daughters of older mothers did, however, reach maturity sooner. Paternal age did not affect offspring body size, but it had a complex effect on their sons' relative genital size. When initially raised on a food-restricted diet, older fathers sired sons with relatively smaller genitalia, but when fathers were initially raised on a control diet their sons had relatively larger genitalia. The inbreeding status of mothers and fathers had no significant effects on any of the measured offspring traits. Our results indicate that the manifestation of parental effects can be complex. It can vary with both parent and offspring sex; can change over an offspring's life; and is sometimes evident as an interaction between different parental traits. Understanding this complexity will be important to predict the role of parental effects in adaptation. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  2. Quality of life of parents of children with newly diagnosed specific learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor school performance in children causes significant stress to parents. Aims: To analyze the quality of life (QOL of parents having a child with newly diagnosed specific learning disability (SpLD and to evaluate the impact of clinical and socio-demographic characteristics on their QOL. Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Setting: Learning disability clinic in tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: From June 2006 to February 2007, 150 parents (either mother or father of children consecutively diagnosed as having SpLD were enrolled. Parent′s QOL was measured by the WHOQOL-100 instrument which is a generic instrument containing 25 facets of QOL organized in six domains. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis were carried out for statistical significance. Results: Mean age of parents was 42.6 years (SD 5.5; mothers to fathers ratio 1.3:1; and 19 (12.7% were currently ill. Only four WHOQOL-100 domains (psychological > social relationships > environment > spiritual and five WHOQOL-100 facets (leisur > pfeel > energy > esteem > sex contributed significantly to their "overall" QOL. Female gender, being currently ill, being in paid work, and having a male child were characteristics that independently predicted a poor domain/facet QOL score. Conclusions: The present study has identified domains and facets that need to be addressed by counselors for improving overall QOL of these parents. Initiating these measures would also improve the home environment and help in the rehabilitation of children with SpLD.

  3. Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments - parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgestig, Maria; Rytterström, Patrik; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2017-07-01

    To describe and explore parents' experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based assistive technology (AT)) for use in daily life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents' experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis. The findings demonstrate that for parents, children's gaze-based AT usage meant that children demonstrated agency, provided them with opportunities to show personality and competencies, and gave children possibilities to develop. Overall, children's gaze-based AT provides hope for a better future for their children with severe physical impairments; a future in which the children can develop and gain influence in life. Gaze-based AT provides children with new opportunities to perform activities and take initiatives to communicate, giving parents hope about the children's future.

  4. A predictive model of Health Related Quality of life of parents of chronically ill children: the importance of care-dependency of their child and their support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzmann, Janneke; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Heymans, Hugo S A; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2009-07-28

    Parents of chronically ill children are at risk for a lower Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Insight in the dynamics of factors influencing parental HRQoL is necessary for development of interventions. Aim of the present study was to explore the influence of demographic and disease related factors on parental HRQoL, mediated by employment, income, leisure time, holiday and emotional support in a comprehensive model. In a cross-sectional design, 543 parents of chronically ill children completed questionnaires. A conceptual model of parental HRQoL was developed. Structural equation modeling was performed to explore the relations in the conceptual model, and to test if the model fitted the data. The model fitted the data closely (CHISQ(14) = 11.37, p = 0.66; RMSEA = 0.0, 90%CI [0.00;0.034]. The effect of socio-demographic and medical data on HRQoL was mediated by days on holiday (MCS: beta = .21) and emotional support (PCS: beta = .14; MCS: beta = .28). Also, female gender (beta = -.10), age (beta = .10), being chronically ill as a parent (beta = -.34), and care dependency of the child (beta = -.14; beta = -.15) were directly related to parental HRQoL. The final model was slightly different from the conceptual model. Main factors explaining parental HRQoL seemed to be emotional support, care dependency, days on holiday and being chronically ill as a parent. Holiday and emotional support mediated the effect of demographic and disease-related factors on HRQoL. Hours of employment, leisure time and household income did not mediate between background characteristics and HRQoL, contrasting the hypotheses.

  5. A predictive model of Health Related Quality of life of parents of chronically ill children: the importance of care-dependency of their child and their support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heymans Hugo SA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of chronically ill children are at risk for a lower Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL. Insight in the dynamics of factors influencing parental HRQoL is necessary for development of interventions. Aim of the present study was to explore the influence of demographic and disease related factors on parental HRQoL, mediated by employment, income, leisure time, holiday and emotional support in a comprehensive model. Methods In a cross-sectional design, 543 parents of chronically ill children completed questionnaires. A conceptual model of parental HRQoL was developed. Structural equation modeling was performed to explore the relations in the conceptual model, and to test if the model fitted the data. Results The model fitted the data closely (CHISQ(14 = 11.37, p = 0.66; RMSEA = 0.0, 90%CI [0.00;0.034]. The effect of socio-demographic and medical data on HRQoL was mediated by days on holiday (MCS: β = .21 and emotional support (PCS: β = .14; MCS: β = .28. Also, female gender (β = -.10, age (β = .10, being chronically ill as a parent (β = -.34, and care dependency of the child (β = -.14; β = -.15 were directly related to parental HRQoL. Conclusion The final model was slightly different from the conceptual model. Main factors explaining parental HRQoL seemed to be emotional support, care dependency, days on holiday and being chronically ill as a parent. Holiday and emotional support mediated the effect of demographic and disease-related factors on HRQoL. Hours of employment, leisure time and household income did not mediate between background characteristics and HRQoL, contrasting the hypotheses.

  6. Time, Interaction, and Design in Support of a Good Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    development. Our ongoing investigation of Interaction Design for a Good Life (http://itu.dk/IxDLab/) has uncovered a broad diversity of perspectives on how to unpack ‘a good life’ through research and design, and indeed what constitutes a good life to begin with. Through our investigations, time has surfaced...... as pivotal to our budding understanding of elements of a good life and a useful framing for future investigations. Time is also an important topic for interaction design, because it is at the core of interaction, the practice of design, and, in many ways, our use and relationships with technological......This position paper outlines a research program for the IxD Research Group at the IT University of Copenhagen. As such, it presents a range of questions addressing different corners of the question of time in IxD from the point of view of HCI, social interaction, material expressions, and software...

  7. Relieving the Time Squeeze? Effects of a White-Collar Workplace Change on Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rachelle; Tranby, Eric; Kelly, Erin; Moen, Phyllis

    2013-08-01

    Employed parents perceive a time squeeze even as trends from the 1960s show they are spending more time with their children. Work conditions (e.g., hours and schedule control) would seem to affect both parents' time with children and perceived time squeeze, but most studies rely on cross-sectional data that do not establish causality. The authors examined the effects of the introduction of a workplace flexibility initiative (Results Only Work Environment [ROWE]) on changes in mothers' and fathers' perceptions of the adequacy of their time with children and actual time spent with children ( N = 225). Baseline data show the importance of work conditions for parents' sense of perceived time adequacy. Panel data show that mothers (but not fathers) in ROWE report increased schedule control and improved time adequacy, but no change in actual time spent with children, except that ROWE increases evening meals with children for mothers sharing few meals at baseline.

  8. Wealth in Middle and Later Life: Examining the Life Course Timing of Women's Health Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Lindsay R; Ferraro, Kenneth F; Mustillo, Sarah A

    2018-06-04

    Guided by cumulative inequality theory, this study poses two main questions: (a) Does women's poor health compromise household financial assets? (b) If yes, is wealth sensitive to the timing of women's health limitations? In addressing these questions, we consider the effect of health limitations on wealth at older ages, as well as examine how health limitations influence wealth over particular segments of the life course, giving attention to both the onset and duration of health limitations. Using 36 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, piecewise growth curve and linear regression models were used to estimate the effects of life course timing and duration of health limitations on household wealth. The findings reveal that women who experienced health limitations accumulated substantially less wealth over time, especially if the health limitations were manifest during childhood or early adulthood. This study identifies how early-life health problems lead to less wealth in later life.

  9. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption.

  10. Gender-Typed Behavior Over Time in Children with Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi L.

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual two-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children’s gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at three time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents’ gender and sexual orientation; children’s gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys’ behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by two mothers or two fathers. PMID:27416364

  11. Temporary Life Changes and the Timing of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Breen, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Marriage is a risky undertaking that people enter with incomplete information about their partner and their future life circumstances. A large literature has shown how new information gained from unforeseen but long-lasting or permanent changes in life circumstances may trigger a divorce. We extend this literature by considering how information gained from a temporary change in life circumstances-in our case, a couple having a child with infantile colic-may affect divorce behavior. Although persistent life changes are known to induce divorce, we argue that a temporary stressful situation allows couples more quickly to discern the quality of their relationship, in some cases leading them to divorce sooner than they otherwise would have. We formalize this argument in a model of Bayesian updating and test it using data from Denmark. We find that the incidence of infantile colic shortens the time to divorce or disruption among couples who would have split up anyway.

  12. When parents face the death of their child: a nationwide cross-sectional survey of parental perspectives on their child's end-of life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Karin; Bergstraesser, Eva; Engberg, Sandra; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Marfurt-Russenberger, Katrin; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Grandjean, Chantal; Fahrni-Nater, Patricia; Cignacco, Eva

    2016-03-09

    Parents facing the death of their child have a strong need for compassionate professional support. Care services should be based on empirical evidence, be sensitive to the needs of the families concerned, take into account the heterogeneity within the medical field of paediatrics, and fit into the local health care system. We need to better understand the perspectives of parents facing the death of their child in order to guide further development and evaluation of specialised paediatric palliative and end-of-life (EOL) care services. Questionnaire survey to assess the EOL care perspectives of a Swiss population-based sample of bereaved parents who had lost a child due to a cardiac, neurological or oncological condition, or during the neonatal period in the years 2011 or 2012. The parental perspective was assessed with a newly developed and tested instrument that was structured according to six evidence-based quality domains. Responses regarding parental experiences and perceived satisfaction are described. Differences between the four diagnostic groups are analysed using a generalized estimation equation to account for the dyadic data structure. Of 307 eligible families, 267 could be contacted and 135 (51%) consented to participate in this questionnaire survey. Our findings show positive parental experiences of their child's EOL care and high perceived satisfaction with the care their child received. Parents of a child with cancer rated their experiences highest in most of the six quality domains and reported the highest satisfaction with care. The lowest scores were mainly reported by parents from the neurology group, with the exception of the shared decision making domain, where parents of neonates reported significantly less positive experiences. Although positive in general, our study results suggest some areas for improvement. The integration of specialised paediatric palliative care has the potential to minimise lost opportunities to support and assist

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Malay version of the parent-proxy Health-Related Quality of Life Measure for Children with Epilepsy (CHEQOL-25) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, Su Woan; Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Ong, Lai Choo; Low, Wah Yun; Lim, Kheng Seang; Tay, Chee Giap; Wong, Chee Piau; Ranjini, Sivanesom

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to cross-culturally adapt the parent-proxy Health-Related Quality of Life Measure for Children with Epilepsy (CHEQOL-25) into Malay and to determine its validity and reliability among parents of children with epilepsy in Malaysia. The English version of the parent-proxy CHEQOL-25 was translated according to international guidelines to Malay. Content validity was verified by an expert panel and piloted in five parents of children with epilepsy (CWE). The Malay parent-proxy CHEQOL-25 was then administered to 40 parents of CWE, aged 8-18years from two tertiary hospitals, at baseline and 2weeks later. Parents were also required to complete the Malay PedsQL™ 4.0 so that convergent validity could be assessed. Hypothesis testing was assessed by correlating the individual subscales in the parent-proxy CHEQOL-25 with epilepsy severity, the number of anticonvulsants, and the number of close friends. Participants from the pilot study did not encounter any problems in answering the final translated Malay parent-proxy CHEQOL-25. Hence, no further modifications were made. Cronbach's α for each subscale of the Malay parent-proxy CHEQOL-25 ranged from 0.67 to 0.83. The intraclass correlation coefficient for all items at test-retest ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. Both the CHEQOL-25 and the PedsQL™ 4.0 showed good correlation in the social and emotional subscales (r=0.598, p=0.002 and r=0.342, p=0.031, respectively). The severity of epilepsy, higher number of antiepileptic drug(s), poorer cognitive ability of the child, lower number of close friends, and lesser amount of time spent with friends were significantly associated with poorer health-related quality of life. The Malay parent-proxy CHEQOL-25 was found to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess parents' perceived HRQOL of their CWE in Malaysia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations between parental rules, style of communication and children's screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, Mona; Soenens, Bart; Bere, Elling; Kovács, Éva; Lien, Nanna; Maes, Lea; Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; te Velde, Saskia J

    2015-10-01

    Research suggests an inverse association between parental rules and screen time in pre-adolescents, and that parents' style of communication with their children is related to the children's time spent watching TV. The aims of this study were to examine associations of parental rules and parental style of communication with children's screen time and perceived excessive screen time in five European countries. UP4FUN was a multi-centre, cluster randomised controlled trial with pre- and post-test measurements in each of five countries; Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary and Norway. Questionnaires were completed by the children at school and the parent questionnaire was brought home. Three structural equation models were tested based on measures of screen time and parental style of communication from the pre-test questionnaires. Of the 152 schools invited, 62 (41 %) schools agreed to participate. In total 3325 children (average age 11.2 years and 51 % girls) and 3038 parents (81 % mothers) completed the pre-test questionnaire. The average TV/DVD times across the countries were between 1.5 and 1.8 h/day, while less time was used for computer/games console (0.9-1.4 h/day). The children's perceived parental style of communication was quite consistent for TV/DVD and computer/games console. The presence of rules was significantly associated with less time watching TV/DVD and use of computer/games console time. Moreover, the use of an autonomy-supportive style was negatively related to both time watching TV/DVD and use of computer/games console time. The use of a controlling style was related positively to perceived excessive time used on TV/DVD and excessive time used on computer/games console. With a few exceptions, results were similar across the five countries. This study suggests that an autonomy-supportive style of communicating rules for TV/DVD or computer/ games console use is negatively related to children's time watching TV/DVD and use of computer/games console time

  15. Coping Strategies in Late Adolescence: Relationships to Parental Attachment and Time Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Anna-Sara; Svahn, Kajsa; Åström, Elisabeth; Rönnlund, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated adolescents' use of coping strategies in relation to attachment to parents and time perspective. Adolescents in Grade 3 upper secondary school (M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.6 years; n = 160) completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the Brief COPE. Correlational analyses showed that attachment to parents was associated with a more favorable view of the past (higher past positive and lower past negative), a less fatalistic view of the present, and a more favorable view of the future (higher future positive and lower future negative). Parental attachment accounted for significant variance in composite coping scores (adaptive and maladaptive) when entered before, but not after, time perspective subscales in hierarchical regression analyses. However, time perspective (mainly present hedonistic and positive or negative future) predicted adaptive or maladaptive coping over and beyond attachment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and coping is mediated by individual differences in time perspective. By contrast, factors other than attachment to parents (e.g., temperament) must be considered to fully account for the relationship between time perspective and coping.

  16. Parent-offspring conflict theory, signaling of need, and weight gain in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C

    2003-06-01

    Human growth in early life has major implications for fitness. During this period, the mother regulates the growth of her offspring through placental nutrition and lactation. However, parent-offspring conflict theory predicts that offspring are selected to demand more resources than the mother is selected to provide. This general issue has prompted the development of begging theory, which attempts to find the optimal levels of offspring demand and parental provisioning. Several models have been proposed to account for begging behavior, whether by biochemical or behavioral pathways, including: (1) blackmail of parents; (2) scramble competition between multiple offspring; (3) honest signaling of nutritional need; and (4) honest signaling of offspring worth. These models are all supported by data from nonhuman animals, with species varying according to which model is relevant. This paper examines the evidence that human suckling and crying signal nutritional demand, need, and worth to the mother. While suckling provides hormonal stimulation of breast milk production and signals hunger, crying fulfills a different role, with evidence suggesting that it signals both worth and need for resources (nutrition and thermoregulation). The role of signaling in nutritional demand is examined in the context of three common health problems that have traditionally been assumed to have physiological rather than behavioral causes: excess weight gain, failure to thrive, and colic. The value of such an evolutionary approach lies in its potential to enhance behavioral management of these conditions.

  17. Early unexpected diagnosis of fetal life-limiting malformation; antenatal palliative care and parental decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariona, Federico; Burnett, Marianne; Zoma, Melody; Blake, Janice; Khouri, Hanna

    2017-11-02

    Conjoined twins are an infrequent occurrence in obstetric practice. Live-conjoined twins on a late preterm triplet pregnancy is an even rarer event. The objective of this study is to emphasize the critical importance of perinatal palliative care and non-directive parental counseling, informed decision making and respect for autonomy following full disclosure of findings, fetal life-limiting diagnosis, treatment alternatives, maternal-fetal potential complications, and most likely perinatal outcomes. Early surprise prenatal diagnosis, comprehensive parental counseling, palliative care, and perinatal care of a set of conjoined twins and a singleton. Cesarean delivery of a set of conjoined twins and a singleton at 34 weeks' gestation. Immediate neonatal death of the conjoined twins, intact survival, and discharge of the singleton. Review of the database on previously reported similar cases. It is very important to utilize simple and direct language for parents to understand the grave prognosis to the pregnancy. Care alternatives in view of the maternal physical risks and psychological impact of carrying a high order abnormal multiple pregnancy, along with the possible side effects on the singleton.

  18. Parent-Child Shared Time From Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. Additionally, secondborns’ social time declined more slowly than firstborns’, and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042

  19. Parent-child shared time from middle childhood to late adolescence: developmental course and adjustment correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C

    2012-11-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. In addition, secondborns' social time declined more slowly than firstborns', and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Impact of chronic illness timing and persistence at school entry on child and parent outcomes: Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Jon; Barnett, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To understand the prevalence and timing of child chronic illness at school entry; associations with child learning, behavior and health-related quality of life and parent mental health at ages 6 to 7, 8 to 9, and 10 to 11 years; and cumulative health care costs. Data were drawn from the first 4 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Children were aged 4 to 5 years at wave 1, with data collection every 2 years. Parent-reported timing of child chronic illness at school entry was categorized into 4 chronic illness groups based on changes between waves 1 and 2: none, resolving, incident and persistent. Child outcomes included: parent-reported quality of life, parent- and teacher-reported behavior, teacher-reported child learning, teacher-reported child-teacher relationship, directly assessed nonverbal and verbal cognition and parent self-reported mental health. Linear regression, adjusted for gender and socioeconomic position, was used to quantify longitudinal associations between chronic illness timing at school entry with outcomes at age 6 to 7 years, 8 to 9 years and 10 to 11 years. Of the 4983 children enrolled in the study, chronic illness data was available for 4464 children (89.6%) at both waves 1 and 2. From wave 1, 6.1% had a condition that persisted until wave 2, while 14.1% had a condition that resolved. Furthermore, 4.7% had a newly emerging condition at wave 2. Compared with the no chronic illness group, children with persistent or emerging chronic illness during school entry had the poorest outcomes (except father's mental health) at all time points, while children with resolving conditions had smaller differences. Child chronic illness at school entry is associated with poorer longitudinal child and maternal outcomes. Therefore, future research should aim to determine the risk and protective factors that contribute to the poorer child and parent outcomes experienced in this growing population. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric

  1. Finite life time effects in the coherent exciton transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvik, I.; Herman, P.

    1992-04-01

    The paper addresses a specific problem in the exciton transfer in molecular aggregates, namely the influence of the finite life time effects, on the memory functions entering the Generalized Master Equation (GME) which connect different sites of the system. 7 refs, 2 figs

  2. Designing life-time recycling loops for elastomer products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, Jacques; Dierkes, Wilma; Blume, Anke; Dijkhuis, Kuno; van Hoek, Hans; Reuvekamp, Louis; Saiwari, Siti

    2017-01-01

    With depletion of natural resources and growing awareness of the limited capabilities of the globe to cope with pollution, the need to design life-time recycling loops for all types of products is steadily increasing. Rubber articles of all sorts and the need for a proper disposal of these at the

  3. Time in a Timeless Environment My Life in a Bunker

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Time in a Timeless Environment My Life in a Bunker. L Geetha. General Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 66-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/03/0066-0077 ...

  4. Parental bereavement during mid-to-later life: pre- to postbereavement functioning and intrapersonal resources for coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Frank J; Mailick Seltzer, Marsha; Greenberg, Jan S; Song, Jieun

    2013-06-01

    The death of a child when parents are in mid-to-late life is a traumatic event for aging parents. In order to evaluate adjustment, the impact of unanticipated versus anticipated deaths, and the effects of internal resources for coping with bereavement, we examined pre- and postbereavement functioning, using the 1992/94 and 2004/06 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, for parents (M age = 54 and 65 years, respectively) whose adult child died between these dates (n = 175). The results revealed a general pattern of adaptation in which most bereaved parents were functioning as well as a matched comparison group (n = 175), though more depression symptoms were present both before and after the death of the child for the mothers of children who died from long-term illnesses and the fathers of children who committed suicide, suggesting that conditions predating the death were chronic strains for these parents. Intrapersonal resources, including a sense of purpose in life and high levels of agreeableness, were associated with better functioning, particularly for bereaved parents whose children's deaths were not anticipated. The study places parental bereavement in the context of normative aging and the framework of chronic life strain. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. A life enriching togetherness--meanings of informal support when being a parent of a child with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Britt-Marie; Holritz-Rasmussen, Birgit; Sandman, Per-Olof

    2007-06-01

    The majority of children affected by disability are cared for at home by their parents. It is well documented in research literature that the parents are in need of professional support. In the striving to improve the professional caring, it is also important to deepen our understanding about the meaning of informal support from the perspective of parents' life world. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meanings of lived experience of informal support, when being a parent of a child affected by disability. Thirteen parents, eight mothers and five fathers within eight families, participated in narrative interviews, which were analysed by using a phenomenological-hermeneutic method. The meanings resulted in three themes: 'being gratified by experiences of the child as having a natural place in relation with others', 'being provided a room for sorrow and joy' and 'being enabled to live an eased and spontaneous daily life'. These themes emanated from the experiences of other persons' being and doing in relation to the parents, the child affected by disability and the siblings. According to our interpretation, informal support means a life enriching togetherness, the core of which is natural human caring. The findings also showed that parents highly valued professional support concerning informal supporters.

  6. Self-image profile in children and adolescents with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and the quality of life in their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormez, Vahdet; Forbes, Fiona C M

    2015-01-01

    We explored the impact of clinical response to treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents on the subsequent changes in their self-image profile, the quality of life of their parents, and its effect on socio-demographic variables. Conners Rating Scales for Parents (CPRS-R) and for Teachers (CTRS-R) completed at the time of entry to the service were repeated to measure clinical response to treatment; the Self-image Profiles for Children (SIP-C) and Adolescents (SIP-A), the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL) questionnaire and postcode data were used to evaluate other domains. Data was collected for 53 boys (84%) and 10 girls (16%) with current mean age 11.5 years. Four-fifths (51/63) received pharmacological treatment and all parents were offered group parent training program. The only subscale in CPRS-R to show significance was the ADHD Index. The CTRS-R demonstrated statistically significant improvement (p Self-image Profile, children reported themselves as more Kind (p Self-image Profile of children and adolescents, but its impact on the QoL in parents was limited. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Developing the Scale for Quality of Life in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18: Adolescent Form and Parent Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Murat; Akdeniz Kudubes, Aslı; Ugur, Ozlem; Vergin, Canan; Demirag, Bengü

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to develop the Scale for Quality of Life in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18: Adolescent Form and Parent Form. We used the child and parent information form, Visual Quality of Life Scale, and our own scale, the Scale for Quality of Life in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18: Adolescent Form and Parent Form. We finalized the 35-item scale to determine the items, received opinions from 14 specialists on the scale, and pilot-tested the scale in 25 children and their parents. We used Pearson correlation analysis, Cronbach α coefficient, factor analysis and receiver operating characteristics analysis to analyze the data. The total Cronbach α of the parent form was .97, the total factor load was .60-.97 and the total variance was 80.4%. The cutoff point of the parent form was 85.50. The total Cronbach α of the adolescent form was .98, the total factor load was .62-.96, and the total variance explained was 83.4%. The cutoff point of the adolescent form was 75.50. As a result of the parent form factor analysis, we determined the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient as .83, the Barlett test χ(2) as 12,615.92; the factor coefficients of all items of the parent form ranged from .63 to .98. The factor coefficients of all items of the adolescent form ranged from .34 to .99. As a result of the adolescent form factor analysis, we determined the KMO as .79, and the Barlett test χ(2) as 13,970.62. Conclusively, we found that the adolescent form and the parent form were valid and reliable in assessing the children's quality of life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Social-cognitive predictors of low-income parents' restriction of screen time among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents (N = 147) of preschool-aged children (2-6 years) completed self-administered questionnaires examining parent and child screen time, parent restriction of screen time, self-efficacy to restrict screen time, and beliefs about screen time. Structural equation modeling results indicated that greater self-efficacy to restrict screen time (β = .29, p = .016) and greater perceived importance of restricting child screen use (β = .55, p < .001) were associated with greater restriction of child screen use, after controlling for parent screen time. Family-based interventions that consider broader attitudinal factors around child screen time may be necessary to engage parents in restricting screen use.

  9. Discrepancies between parent and adolescent beliefs about daily life topics and performance on an emotion recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D; Thomas, Sarah A; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions-particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment-predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents' and children and adolescents' abilities to decode and identify others' emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents' and adolescents' emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54 % African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals).

  10. Impact, meaning and need for help and support: The experience of parents caring for children with disabilities, life-limiting/life-threatening illness or technology dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Parenting a child with complex needs or disabilities is a challenging proposition. This study, which drew upon of the experiences of the parents of 34 children (in 33 families), set out to explore the themes of impact, need for help and support and meaning/sense-making as they were related by parents. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, and an emerging theoretical framework was validated through the use of a series of mind-maps(®) which were presented to individual parents as the basis for a second round (verificational) interview. Parents were nominated into the study by health care professions who were asked to identify the subject children to one of three separate sub-groups: children with a disability; children with a life-limiting/life-threatening illness or children with a technology dependence. Comparisons were made between the three study sub-groups in order to identify areas of consistency and of inconsistency. A fourth study theme - 'battleground' emerged from entirely within the data set. Sense-making occupied a central position within the overall theoretical framework for the study and parental perception of 'battleground' presented as significant element of parental sense-making, particularly in the context of their relationships with professional staff. © The Author(s) 2012.

  11. Does decisional conflict differ across race and ethnicity groups? A study of parents whose children have a life-threatening illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Caprice; Sberna-Hinojosa, Melanie; Baron-Lee, Jacqueline; Curtis, Charlotte; Huang, I-Chan

    2014-05-01

    Children with life-threatening illnesses and their families may face a myriad of medical decisions in their lifetimes. Oftentimes these complicated medical decisions cause disagreements among patients, families, and providers about what is the best course of action. Although no evidence exists, it is possible that conflict may affect subgroups of the population differently. This study aims to investigate how decisional conflict varies among racial and ethnic subgroups. Two hundred sixty-six surveys were completed with parents whose children have a life-threatening illness. All children lived in Florida and were enrolled in the Medicaid program. The Decisional Conflict Scale, overall and broken down into its five distinct subscales, was used to assess parental decision-making. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted. Subgroup analyses were conducted on Latino respondents. Our bivariate results suggest that minority parents report less Effective Decision Making (pracial and ethnic differences in decisional conflict of parents of children with life-threatening illnesses. Significant differences exist by race, ethnicity, language spoken, and diagnosis time across several subdomains of decisional conflict. These differences are important to address when creating clinical care plans, engaging in shared decision-making, and creating interventions to alleviate decisional conflict.

  12. Parental influences on child physical activity and screen viewing time: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfenden Luke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents can influence their children's physical activity participation and screen time.This study examined the relative significance of perceived parental barriers and self-efficacy in relation to children's physical activity participation and screen time viewing. The associations between these factors and the behaviours were analysed. Methods Cross-sectional population survey in New South Wales, Australia of parents of pre-school (N = 764, younger (Kindergarten, Grades 2 and 4; N = 1557 and older children (Grades 6, 8 and 10; N = 1665. Parents reported barriers and self-efficacy to influence their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours in a range of circumstances. Differences were examined by child's sex and age group, household income, maternal education and location of residence. The duration of physical activity and screen viewing was measured by parental report for pre-school and younger children and self-report for older children. Associations between parental factors and children's organised, non-organised and total activity and screen time were analysed. Results Cost, lack of opportunities for participation and transport problems were the barriers most often reported, particularly by low income parents and those in rural areas. The number of barriers was inversely related to children's time spent in organised activity, but not their non-organised activity. Higher parental self-efficacy was positively associated with organised physical activity in the younger and older children's groups and the non-organised activity of older children. School-age children (younger and older groups were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines when parents reported ≥4 barriers (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.25-11.34 and OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.71-8.11 respectively. Low parental self-efficacy was also associated with the likelihood of children exceeding screen time guidelines for each age group (pre-school OR 0.62, 95% CI 0

  13. Quality of life of French Canadian parents raising a child with autism spectrum disorder and effects of psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappe, Émilie; Poirier, Nathalie; Sankey, Carol; Belzil, Andréa; Dionne, Carmen

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the quality of life of parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder in Quebec. Seventy-seven participants completed a questionnaire with socio-biographic information and five self-assessed scales, to measure perceived stress, social support and control, coping strategies, and quality of life. Perception of their child's autonomy level, of the severity of the disorder, of the family's income, as well as changes in their professional or familial organization influenced parents' quality of life. Perceiving their situation as a threat predicted poor quality of life, whereas satisfaction of social support predicted good quality of life. In addition, parents who used problem solving and support-seeking coping strategies had a better relationship with their child, whereas those who used more emotion-centered coping strategies struggled. Lastly, parents who felt they had the power to contribute to their child's development were more satisfied and less disturbed. Beyond the parents' actual situation, our results underscore the importance of paying attention to their own perception of the situation in order to provide them with appropriate support.

  14. Relations among school/daycare functioning, fear of hypoglycaemia and quality of life in parents of young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Linda J; Clary, Lauren; Owen, Victoria; Monaghan, Maureen; Alvarez, Vanessa; Streisand, Randi

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the type 1 diabetes-related school/daycare experiences of parents of young children and to examine the relationship among child school/daycare functioning, parent fear of hypoglycaemia and parent type 1 diabetes-related quality of life. Parents of young children who attend school/daycare must rely on others for daily type 1 diabetes management. Worry about school/daycare type 1 diabetes management may cause parental distress and contribute to diminished parent quality of life. Parental concerns about type 1 diabetes management in young children in the school/daycare setting have not been well described in the literature. Descriptive correlational and cross-sectional parent report of questionnaires design. As part of a randomised controlled trial for parents of young children with type 1 diabetes, 134 parents completed self-report measures at baseline. Data included demographic, school/daycare, and medical information, parent reports of child school/daycare functioning, parent fear of hypoglycaemia and parent type 1 diabetes-related quality of life. Parents of younger children, children on a more intensive medical regimen and children who had experienced type 1 diabetes-related unconsciousness or seizures had more school/daycare concerns. Parents who perceived their children had higher school/daycare functioning had less fear about hypoglycaemia and reported better type 1 diabetes-related quality of life. School/daycare functioning and fear of hypoglycaemia were significantly associated with parent type 1 diabetes-related quality of life. Parents' concerns about school/daycare functioning and fear of hypoglycaemia play an important role in parents' type 1 diabetes-related quality of life. Members of the healthcare team should be aware of concerns related to children attending school/daycare and provide additional support as warranted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Do First Time House Buyers Receive Financial Transfers from Their Parents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Using Danish longitudinal data with information about wealth for a sample of first-time house buyers and their parents, we test whether there are direct financial transfers from parents to children in connection with the house purchase, or in connection with unemployment spells occurring just after...... the purchase, when children typically hold few liquid assets. First, we document that child and parent financial resources are correlated. Then, we introduce conditioning variables and exploit the panel aspect of the data to also condition on fixed unobserved factors, which arguably govern preferences and....../or productivity. We find no evidence of direct financial transfers....

  16. Parent-child communication and marijuana initiation: evidence using discrete-time survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M; Silber-Ashley, Olivia; Farrelly, Matthew C; Dench, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This study supplements existing literature on the relationship between parent-child communication and adolescent drug use by exploring whether parental and/or adolescent recall of specific drug-related conversations differentially impact youth's likelihood of initiating marijuana use. Using discrete-time survival analysis, we estimated the hazard of marijuana initiation using a logit model to obtain an estimate of the relative risk of initiation. Our results suggest that parent-child communication about drug use is either not protective (no effect) or - in the case of youth reports of communication - potentially harmful (leading to increased likelihood of marijuana initiation). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Testing the Feasibility of Skype and FaceTime Updates With Parents in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Elizabeth Gingell; Sherman, Jessica; Blackman, Amy; Sinkin, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Effective provider-parent relationships are essential during critical illness when treatment decisions are complex, the environment is crowded and unfamiliar, and outcomes are uncertain. To evaluate the feasibility of daily Skype or FaceTime updates with parents of patients in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to assess the intervention's potential for improving parent-provider relationships. A pre/post mixed-methods approach was used. NICU parent participants received daily Skype or FaceTime updates for 5 days and completed demographic and feasibility surveys. Parents also completed Penticuff's Parents' Understanding survey before and after the intervention. Nurses and physicians completed feasibility surveys after each update. Twenty-six parents were enrolled and 15 completed the study. More than 90% of providers and parents perceived the intervention to be reliable and easy to use, and about 80% of parents and providers rated video and audio quality as either excellent or good. Frozen screens and missed updates due to scheduling problems were challenges. Two of the 4 subscores on the Parents' Understanding survey improved significantly. Qualitative data favor the intervention as meaningful for parents. Real-time videoconferencing via Skype or FaceTime is feasible for providing updates for parents when they cannot be present in the NICU and can be used to include parents in bedside rounds. Videoconferencing updates may improve relationships between parents and the health care team. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  18. Children's Quality of Life Based on the KIDSCREEN-27: Child Self-Report, Parent Ratings and Child-Parent Agreement in a Swedish Random Population Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H Berman

    Full Text Available The KIDSCREEN-27 is a measure of child and adolescent quality of life (QoL, with excellent psychometric properties, available in child-report and parent-rating versions in 38 languages. This study provides child-reported and parent-rated norms for the KIDSCREEN-27 among Swedish 11-16 year-olds, as well as child-parent agreement. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported wellbeing and parent-rated wellbeing were also measured.A random population sample consisting of 600 children aged 11-16, 100 per age group and one of their parents (N = 1200, were approached for response to self-reported and parent-rated versions of the KIDSCREEN-27. Parents were also asked about their education, employment status and their own QoL based on the 26-item WHOQOL-Bref. Based on the final sampling pool of 1158 persons, a 34.8% response rate of 403 individuals was obtained, including 175 child-parent pairs, 27 child singleton responders and 26 parent singletons. Gender and age differences for parent ratings and child-reported data were analyzed using t-tests and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Post-hoc Dunn tests were conducted for pairwise comparisons when the p-value for specific subscales was 0.05 or lower. Child-parent agreement was tested item-by-item, using the Prevalence- and Bias-Adjusted Kappa (PABAK coefficient for ordinal data (PABAK-OS; dimensional and total score agreement was evaluated based on dichotomous cut-offs for lower well-being, using the PABAK and total, continuous scores were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots.Compared to European norms, Swedish children in this sample scored lower on Physical wellbeing (48.8 SE/49.94 EU but higher on the other KIDSCREEN-27 dimensions: Psychological wellbeing (53.4/49.77, Parent relations and autonomy (55.1/49.99, Social Support and peers (54.1/49.94 and School (55.8/50.01. Older children self-reported lower wellbeing than younger children. No significant self-reported gender differences occurred and parent ratings

  19. Relationship of external influence to parental distress in decision making regarding children with a life-threatening illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Luce, Mary Frances; Nelson, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    To examine the relationship of external influence to parental distress when making a decision about research or treatment for a child with a life-threatening illness and to test potential moderators of this relationship. Parents (n = 219) who made a decision about research or treatment for a child completed measures of external influence, distress, decision-making preference, and coping. More external influence was associated with more hostility, uncertainty, and confusion. Decision-making preference and coping style moderated the relationship between external influence and distress: More external influence was associated with more distress when decision-making preference was low and task-focused coping was high. External influence appears to be related to distress in parents making research and treatment decisions for children with life-threatening illnesses. However, it is important to consider parent characteristics, such as decision-making preference and coping style, when examining the effects of contextual factors on distress during decision making.

  20. The life cycle dimension of time transfers in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zannella

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reallocation of economic resources between generations and genders has important consequences for economic growth and inequality. Unpaid work is a relevant component of intergenerational transfers, but is invisible to traditional accounts. Time use data can complement accounts of monetary transfers. Objective: The main goal of this article is to provide estimates of life cycle profiles of consumption and production of unpaid activities. These profiles can be used to evaluate transfers of time by age and sex. Methods: We use data from the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS to estimate profiles of time allocated to unpaid productive activities, by age, sex and household structure, for selected European countries. The unpaid working time is then distributed, with a statistical model, to those age groups that benefit from it, in order to estimate age-specific consumption profiles of time. Results: We observe large transfers of time from females to males, and from adults to children. Life course trajectories are qualitatively similar across countries, but with significant variations in levels. Differences in profiles by household structure may be associated with incentives or disincentives for particular fertility choices in different social and institutional settings. Conclusions: This article quantifies household production and non-market transfers. It offers insight into the underestimation of the economic contribution of women. Comments: This article provides some descriptive findings that could be incorporated with other research pursued by scholars in the National Transfer Accounts (NTA project to monetize the value of time and include it in standard transfer accounts.

  1. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Low-Income Parents' Restriction of Screen Time among Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents ("N" = 147) of…

  2. Gender-typed behavior over time in children with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi L

    2016-10-01

    The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual 2-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children's gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at 3 time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents' gender and sexual orientation; children's gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys' behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by 2 mothers or 2 fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A quality of life quandary: a framework for navigating parental refusal of treatment for co-morbidities in infants with underlying medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sarah N; McAdams, Ryan M; Diekema, Douglas S; Opel, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Parental refusal of a recommended treatment is not an uncommon scenario in the neonatal intensive care unit. These refusals may be based upon the parents' perceptions of their child's projected quality of life. The inherent subjectivity of quality of life assessments, however, can exacerbate disagreement between parents and healthcare providers. We present a case of parental refusal of surgical intervention for necrotizing enterocolitis in an infant with Bartter syndrome and develop an ethical framework in which to consider the appropriateness of parental refusal based upon an infant's projected quality of life. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  4. Parent and child screen-viewing time and home media environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Gama, Augusta; Carvalhal, Isabel Mourão; Nogueira, Helena; Rosado, Vítor; Padez, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Screen-viewing time has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Data on the predictors of youth screen-viewing time is predominately from older children in North America. Parental and home media environment factors that are associated with screen-viewing time could be targeted in interventions. Examine if parental screen-viewing time and electronic media (access to game equipment, TVs, PCs, and laptops) environment factors were associated with Portuguese children's screen-viewing time and if associations differed by child age (families with children aged 3-10 years. Data were collected in 2009-2010 and analyzed in 2011. Outcomes were child spending ≥2 hours watching TV and ≥1 hour per day playing with combined other media. Exposures were mothers and fathers watching ≥2 hours of TV and electronic media variables. Parental TV-viewing time was strongly associated with child weekday and weekend TV-viewing time across all four gender and age subgroups. Maternal TV-viewing time was a stronger predictor of child TV-viewing time than paternal TV-viewing time. There was very limited evidence that parental TV-viewing time was associated with combined other media time among boys or girls. Access to electronic game equipment increased the likelihood that children spent >1 hour using combined other media on weekdays and weekend days. Parental TV-viewing time was associated with Portuguese children's TV-viewing time. The numbers of TVs in the household and electronic games equipment access were also associated with TV- and combined other media-viewing/usage time. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of parent reported quality of life in children with epilepsy from Northern India: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, Vandana; Gehlawat, Virender Kumar; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gathwala, Geeta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the following study is to assess parent reported quality of life (QOL) in children with epilepsy and to assess the demographic and clinical factors, which influence the QOL in children with epilepsy. Study Participants: We consecutively enrolled 40 children aged from 2 years to 14 years with active epilepsy who had undergone a comprehensive evaluation for epilepsy. Materials and Methods: Parents were enquired on baseline demographic variables including age, gender,...

  6. Symposium on extension of life time of atomic energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This symposium was held on November 18, 1987 in University of Tokyo under the sponsorship of Japan Welding Engineering Society. The papers were presented on the various problems on the examination of the extension of life time and the deterioration with the lapse of years of nuclear power plants, the data of corrosion fatigue strength in high temperature water and the controlling factors, the trend of the research on corrosion fatigue crack development in high temperature, high pressure water and future problems, long life corrosion fatigue characteristics and the method of estimating remaining life, the trend of the research on the neutron irradiation embrittlement of pressure vessels, the results of the property confirmation test on the strain aging of reactor pressure vessel materials, the evaluation of life time by probabilistic fracture mechanics, the radiation deterioration of electric wire coating and insulation materials, the deterioration of concrete structures with the lapse of years, and the detection of the deterioration with the lapse of years. (K.I.)

  7. Health-Related Quality of Life and Parental Stress in Children With Fecal Incontinence: A Normative Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Christopher C; Martinez-Leo, Bruno; Bischoff, Andrea; Hall, Jennifer; Helmrath, Michael; Dickie, Belinda H; Levitt, Marc A; Peña, Alberto; Zeller, Meg H; Frischer, Jason S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the quality of life and parenting stress associated with a child with fecal incontinence (FI). Female caregivers (n = 170) of children of 3 to 12 years age with FI completed a broad and general measure of quality of life and a measure of parenting stress. Results were compared with proxy reports for a normative sample of healthy children. Caregivers of children with FI reported significantly impaired quality of life for their children and increased parenting stress in all of the respective domains relative to healthy controls. Impairments reported by caregivers were large in magnitude. Similarly, rates of parenting stress were at or greater than the 98th percentile for caregivers of children with FI. Children with fecal incontinence and their families are in need of interventions targeting their quality of life and the stress associated with caregiving. FI appears to be particularly stressful for caregivers who may be in need of support beyond medical management of their child's bowel. Moreover, additional refinements in disease-specific quality of life assessment are needed in this population. Such refinement would allow for more precise measurement of the quality of life processes that are unique to FI.

  8. Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with celiac disease: from the perspectives of children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byström, Ing-Marie; Hollén, Elisabet; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Johansson, Annakarin

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To examine how celiac children and adolescents on gluten-free diet valued their health-related quality of life, and if age and severity of the disease at onset affected the children's self-valuation later in life. We also assessed the parents' valuation of their child's quality of life. Methods. The DISABKIDS Chronic generic measure, short versions for both children and parents, was used on 160 families with celiac disease. A paediatric gastroenterologist classified manifestations of the disease at onset retrospectively. Results. Age or sex did not influence the outcome. Children diagnosed before the age of five scored higher than children diagnosed later. Children diagnosed more than eight years ago scored higher than more recently diagnosed children, and children who had the classical symptoms of the disease at onset scored higher than those who had atypical symptoms or were asymptomatic. The parents valuated their children's quality of life as lower than the children did. Conclusion. Health-related quality of life in treated celiac children and adolescents was influenced by age at diagnosis, disease severity at onset, and years on gluten-free diet. The disagreement between child-parent valuations highlights the importance of letting the children themselves be heard about their perceived quality of life.

  9. Early psychological reactions in parents of children with a life threatening illness within a pediatric hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscara, F; McCarthy, M C; Woolf, C; Hearps, S J C; Burke, K; Anderson, V A

    2015-07-01

    Parents of children with life threatening illness or injuries are at elevated risk of distress reactions, involving symptoms of acute stress disorder, depression and anxiety. Currently, the impact of child illness factors is unclear, and to date research systematically examining the prevalence of these psychological reactions across different illness groups with an acute life threat is sparse. This is important to explore given that studies show that parent functioning impacts on the psychological adjustment and recovery of the ill child. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: At four weeks following a child's diagnosis of a serious illness, 49-54% of parents met DSM-IV criteria for acute stress disorder, across a number of illness groups, whereas 15-27% of parents were in the moderate/severe range for depression and anxiety, and 25-31% for stress. Results from this study demonstrate that rates and severity of these psychological reactions in parents of seriously ill children do not vary according to illness type. A life threatening childhood illness/injury can lead to significant distress reactions in parents, with independent studies finding such reactions in several different illness groups. To date, there is limited research systematically comparing the prevalence of adverse parental psychological reactions across different childhood illness groups with an acute life threat. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and severity of symptoms of acute traumatic stress, depression, anxiety and general stress in parents, following admission of their child to hospital for a life threatening illness. The study also aimed to explore the relationship between these symptoms, and to determine whether they differ according to illness/injury. Cross-sectional data from a prospective, longitudinal study are reported. Participants were 194 parents of 145 children (49 couples), admitted to cardiology (n=53), oncology (n=40) and pediatric intensive care units (n=52), for serious

  10. Parental influence on children’s answers to an oral-health-related quality of life questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Flávia GRANVILLE-GARCIA; Monalisa Cesarino GOMES; Laíza Rocha DANTAS; Lívia Rocha DANTAS; Bruno Rafael Cruz da SILVA; Matheus de França PERAZZO; Maria Betânia Lins Dantas SIQUEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate parental influence on children’s answers to an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of 84 pairs of 5-year-olds and parents/guardians. The participants were selected from a primary family healthcare center in Campina Grande, Brazil. First, the children and parents answered respective versions of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (...

  11. Perception of parents and caregivers regarding the impact of malocclusion on adolescents' quality of life: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to assess the perception of parents and caregivers regarding the impact of malocclusion on adolescents' oral health -related quality of life (OHRQoL). This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 280 parents/caregivers of 11 and 12-year-old adolescents who answered the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ). Parent-assessed quality of life of adolescents was the dependent variable. The main independent variable was adolescents' malocclusion which was diagnosed by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Based on DAI cut-off points, adolescents were classified into four grades of malocclusion, with different orthodontic treatment recommendations assigned to each grade: no need/slight treatment need, elective treatment, highly desirable treatment and mandatory treatment. Adolescents' age and sex, as well as family monthly income, were considered as confounding variables. Statistical analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and Poisson regression with robust variance. Of the 280 parents/caregivers initially accepted in this study, 18 refused to answer the P-CPQ. Therefore, 262 individuals participated in this assessment, providing a response rate of 93.5%. The severity of adolescents' malocclusion was significantly associated with a higher negative impact on parents'/caregivers' perception on the oral symptoms (pcontrolling variables. Parents/caregivers reported a negative impact of malocclusion on adolescents' OHRQoL. Increased severity of malocclusion is associated with higher adverse impact on OHRQoL.

  12. [Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Bomba, Franziska; Tönnies, Sven; Bullinger, Monika; Plass, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children? Parents with a mental disorder often display a problematic attachment style which may impact on their children's health related quality of life (HrQoL). The current study cross-sectionally examines attachment styles (BEPE) in mentally ill parents with underage children (n = 62) and the effect of attachment on their children's HrQoL (KINDL-R). Results show that secure attachment is less represented in parents with a mental health condition than in a healthy reference group. Within the clinical sample, children of mentally ill parents with a secure attachment style exhibit a higher HrQoL than children of mentally ill parents with ambivalent or avoidant attachment styles. These findings indicate not only that problematic attachment styles frequently occur in families with a mentally ill parent, but also suggest that this negatively affects the children's HrQoL. Appropriate interventions should include attachment oriented concepts.

  13. Defining quality of life in the children of parents with severe mental illness: a preliminary stakeholder-led model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Penny; Berzins, Kathryn; Calam, Rachel; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Abel, Kathryn M

    2013-01-01

    Severe parental mental illness poses a challenge to quality of life (QoL) in a substantial number of children and adolescents, and improving the lives of these children is of urgent political and public health concern. This study used a bottom-up qualitative approach to develop a new stakeholder-led model of quality of life relevant to this population. Qualitative data were collected from 19 individuals participating in focus groups or individual interviews. Participants comprised 8 clinical academics, health and social care professionals or voluntary agency representatives; 5 parents and 6 young people (aged 13-18 yrs) with lived experience of severe parental mental illness. Data underwent inductive thematic analysis for the purposes of informing a population-specific quality of life model. Fifty nine individual themes were identified and grouped into 11 key 'meta-themes'. Mapping each meta-theme against existing child-centred quality of life concepts revealed a multi-dimensional model that endorsed, to a greater or lesser degree, the core domains of generic quality of life models. Three new population-specific priorities were also observed: i) the alleviation of parental mental health symptoms, ii) improved problem-based coping skills and iii) increased mental health literacy. The identification of these priorities raises questions regarding the validity of generic quality of life measures to monitor the effectiveness of services for families and children affected by severe mental illness. New, age-appropriate instruments that better reflect the life priorities and unique challenges faced by the children of parents with severe mental illness may need to be developed. Challenges then remain in augmenting and adapting service design and delivery mechanisms better to meet these needs. Future child and adult mental health services need to work seamlessly alongside statutory education and social care services and a growing number of relevant third sector providers to

  14. Defining Quality of Life in the Children of Parents with Severe Mental Illness: A Preliminary Stakeholder-Led Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Penny; Berzins, Kathryn; Calam, Rachel; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Abel, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Severe parental mental illness poses a challenge to quality of life (QoL) in a substantial number of children and adolescents, and improving the lives of these children is of urgent political and public health concern. This study used a bottom-up qualitative approach to develop a new stakeholder-led model of quality of life relevant to this population. Qualitative data were collected from 19 individuals participating in focus groups or individual interviews. Participants comprised 8 clinical academics, health and social care professionals or voluntary agency representatives; 5 parents and 6 young people (aged 13–18 yrs) with lived experience of severe parental mental illness. Data underwent inductive thematic analysis for the purposes of informing a population-specific quality of life model. Fifty nine individual themes were identified and grouped into 11 key ‘meta-themes’. Mapping each meta-theme against existing child-centred quality of life concepts revealed a multi-dimensional model that endorsed, to a greater or lesser degree, the core domains of generic quality of life models. Three new population-specific priorities were also observed: i) the alleviation of parental mental health symptoms, ii) improved problem-based coping skills and iii) increased mental health literacy. The identification of these priorities raises questions regarding the validity of generic quality of life measures to monitor the effectiveness of services for families and children affected by severe mental illness. New, age-appropriate instruments that better reflect the life priorities and unique challenges faced by the children of parents with severe mental illness may need to be developed. Challenges then remain in augmenting and adapting service design and delivery mechanisms better to meet these needs. Future child and adult mental health services need to work seamlessly alongside statutory education and social care services and a growing number of relevant third sector

  15. Defining quality of life in the children of parents with severe mental illness: a preliminary stakeholder-led model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Bee

    Full Text Available Severe parental mental illness poses a challenge to quality of life (QoL in a substantial number of children and adolescents, and improving the lives of these children is of urgent political and public health concern. This study used a bottom-up qualitative approach to develop a new stakeholder-led model of quality of life relevant to this population. Qualitative data were collected from 19 individuals participating in focus groups or individual interviews. Participants comprised 8 clinical academics, health and social care professionals or voluntary agency representatives; 5 parents and 6 young people (aged 13-18 yrs with lived experience of severe parental mental illness. Data underwent inductive thematic analysis for the purposes of informing a population-specific quality of life model. Fifty nine individual themes were identified and grouped into 11 key 'meta-themes'. Mapping each meta-theme against existing child-centred quality of life concepts revealed a multi-dimensional model that endorsed, to a greater or lesser degree, the core domains of generic quality of life models. Three new population-specific priorities were also observed: i the alleviation of parental mental health symptoms, ii improved problem-based coping skills and iii increased mental health literacy. The identification of these priorities raises questions regarding the validity of generic quality of life measures to monitor the effectiveness of services for families and children affected by severe mental illness. New, age-appropriate instruments that better reflect the life priorities and unique challenges faced by the children of parents with severe mental illness may need to be developed. Challenges then remain in augmenting and adapting service design and delivery mechanisms better to meet these needs. Future child and adult mental health services need to work seamlessly alongside statutory education and social care services and a growing number of relevant third

  16. A parent-child dyad approach to the assessment of health status and health-related quality of life in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Wendy J; Boydell, Katherine; Dell, Sharon; Feldman, Brian M; Marshall, Deborah; Willan, Andrew; Wright, James G

    2012-08-01

    Assessment of health state and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) are limited by a child's age and cognitive ability. Parent-proxy reports are known to differ from children's reports. Simultaneous assessment using a parent-child dyad is an alternative approach. Our objective was to assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of a parent-child dyad approach to utility and HR-QOL assessment of paediatric asthma health states. The setting was specialist care in a hospital-based asthma clinic. Participants were 91 girls and boys with asthma aged 8 to 17 years and 91 parents. The intervention employed was parent-child dyad administration of the Health Utilities Index (HUI) 2 and 3, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Core and Asthma modules, and the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). Questionnaires were administered by interview to children and parents separately and then together as a dyad to assess the child's health state. The dyad interview was repeated at the next clinic visit. Dyad-child agreement was measured by intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient; Spearman correlations were used to assess convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 28 children who remained clinically stable between visits with a two-way ICC coefficient. Responsiveness to change from baseline was assessed with Spearman coefficients in 30 children who demonstrated clinical change between visits. There was no significant agreement between parent and child for the HUI2 or HUI3 whereas agreement between dyad and child was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36, 0.69) for the HUI2 and 0.74 (95% CI 0.61, 0.82) for the HUI3 overall. With respect to dyad performance characteristics, both HUI2 and HUI3 overall scores demonstrated moderate convergent validity with the generic PedsQL™ Core domains (range r = 0.30-0.52; p  0.4; p < 0.05) was observed for dyad HUI2 total score change over time as correlated with dyad

  17. Clever mothers balance time and effort in parental care: a study on free-ranging dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K; Bhadra, Anindita

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian offspring require parental care, at least in the form of nursing during their early development. While mothers need to invest considerable time and energy in ensuring the survival of their current offspring, they also need to optimize their investment in one batch of offspring in order to ensure future reproduction and hence lifetime reproductive success. Free-ranging dogs live in small social groups, mate promiscuously and lack the cooperative breeding biology of other group-living canids. They face high early-life mortality, which in turn reduces fitness benefits of the mother from a batch of pups. We carried out a field-based study on free-ranging dogs in India to understand the nature of maternal care. Our analysis reveals that mothers reduce investment in energy-intensive active care and increase passive care as the pups grow older, thereby keeping overall levels of care more or less constant over pup age. Using the patterns of mother-pup interactions, we define the different phases of maternal care behaviour.

  18. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  19. Qualitative Analysis of Parental Observations on Quality of Life in Australian Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nada; Epstein, Amy; Leonard, Helen; Davis, Elise; Reddihough, Dinah; Whitehouse, Andrew; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; Williams, Katrina; Downs, Jenny

    There are many challenges to health, functioning, and participation for children with Down syndrome; yet, the quality-of-life (QOL) domains important for this group have never been clearly articulated. This study investigated parental observations to identify QOL domains in children with Down syndrome and determined whether domains differed between children and adolescents. The sample comprised 17 families whose child with Down syndrome was aged 6 to 18 years. Primary caregivers took part in semistructured telephone interviews to explore aspects of their child's life that were satisfying or challenging. Qualitative thematic analysis was implemented using a grounded theory framework to identify domains. The coded data set was divided into 2 groups (childhood and adolescence) at 3 age cut points to observe whether differences existed between the coded domains and domain elements: (1) 6 to 11 years with 12 to 18 years; (2) 6 to 13 years with 14 to 18 years; and (3) 6 to 15 years with 16 to 18 years. Eleven domains were identified: physical health, behavior and emotion, personal value, communication, movement and physical activity, routines and predictability, independence and autonomy, social connectedness and relationships, variety of activities, nature and outdoors, and access to services. No differences in domains and domain elements were identified across childhood and adolescence. Our data form a preliminary framework from which to design investigations of the child's perspectives on life quality and suggest a range of necessary supports and services.

  20. Impact of Pediatric Acute Otitis Media on Child and Parental Quality of Life and Associated Productivity Loss in Malaysia: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Bruce; Hashim, Siti Sabzah Mohd; Prepageran, Narayanan; See, Goh Bee; Meier, Genevieve; Wada, Keiko; Coon, Cheryl; Delgleize, Emmanuelle; DeRosa, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) affects both child and parental quality of life (QoL). Data on QoL associated with AOM in Malaysia is sparse, and the burden of indirect costs have not been previously reported. To determine the effect of pediatric AOM on child and parental QoL in Malaysia and its economic impact (indirect costs). We utilized a set of QoL questionnaires (PAR-AOM-QOL, OM-6, and EQ-5D) combined with questions addressing work/productivity loss and financial costs associated with caring for a child during his or her illness in an observational, multicenter, prospective study. One hundred and ten AOM patients aged ≤5 years were included in the analysis. The majority of respondents were the patient's mother. Parental QoL was negatively affected for both emotional and daily disturbance scales, but the level of disturbance was low. Using OM-6, the greatest negative impact was on the child's QoL, followed by caregiver concerns, physical suffering, and emotional distress. Using EQ-5D, a moderately positive relationship between parents' emotional disturbance and daily disturbance, and a weak, negative correlation between parental emotional disturbance and parental health status was found. Parents with paid employment took an average of 21 h from work to care for their child, at an average cost of 321.8 Malaysian ringgit (US$97) in addition to their contribution to direct medical costs. Productivity losses whilst at work, uncompensated wage losses, and leisure time losses are also reported. This study found that AOM is associated with some negative impact on parental QoL and significant economic impact at both patient and societal levels. The findings provide useful data on healthcare resource utilization and disease burden of AOM in Malaysia.

  1. Life-time management for mechanical components; Lebensdauermanagement mechanischer Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA)

    2006-07-01

    The safety and economic efficiency of industrial systems depend on the quality of components and systems. In the field of power generation, power plants should be safe and have high availability and minimum specific generation cost. Life management is essential for this. Depending on the safety relevance of systems, structures and components (SSC), this includes proofs of integrity, time-oriented or condition-oriented preventive maintenance, or just failure-oriented maintenance. (orig.)

  2. Hypoglycaemia, fear of hypoglycaemia and quality of life in children with Type 1 diabetes and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R; Cooper, M N; Davis, E A; Jones, T W

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the association between fear of hypoglycaemia, episodes of hypoglycaemia and quality of life in children with Type 1 diabetes and their parents. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study of 325 children with Type 1 diabetes and their parents. The children were aged 2-18 years. A total of 325 parents of the patients aged 2-18 years and 196 of the patients themselves (aged 8-18 years) completed questionnaires including the PedsQL Diabetes Module, the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey and Clarke's hypoglycaemia awareness questionnaire. Data were compared with HbA1c results and the history of severe hypoglycaemia episodes. Parents with the highest levels of fear of hypoglycaemia reported that their children had a reduced quality of life (P children with the greatest fear also reported a reduced quality of life (P fear of hypoglycaemia for the parents (P = 0.004) but not the children. Children in the highest fear quartile also had a higher HbA(1c) concentration compared with those in the lowest fear quartile [increase in HbA(1c) 7 mmol/mol (0.6%), P Fear of hypoglycaemia and not episodes of hypoglycaemia per se is associated with increased psychological burden for children with Type 1 diabetes. Interventions to reduce fear of hypoglycaemia in these families may improve their quality of life. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  3. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa; Porębowicz-Dörsmann, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls) completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  4. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  5. The Consequences of Parental Divorce on the Life Course Outcomes of Canadian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishApplying the theory of the intergenerational transmission of divorce, thispaperexamines the consequences of parental divorce on three aspects of the life courseof children: union formation, nonmarital fertility, and marital dissolution. The1995 Canadian General Social Survey (GSS is used to estimate various regressionmodels (Cox proportional hazards. Results show that children of divorced parentshave a significantly higher likelihood to have births outside of marriage, enter intocohabiting unions, and to experience higher levels of divorce. Throughout thepaper, attention is placed on the markedly different behaviour observed in Quebeccompared to elsewhere in Canada.FrenchS’inspirant de la théorie de la transmission intergénérationnelle du divorce, cetarticle examine les conséquences d’un divorce parental en regard de trois aspectsde la trajectoire de vie des enfants rendus à l’âge adulte: la formation du couple,l’arrivée d’une naissance hors mariage et le risque de rupture du mariage. Lesdonnées provenant de l’Enquête sociale générale sur la famille, réalisée parStatistique Canada en 1995, sont analysées à partir de différents modèles derégression (analyse des transitions ou modèle de Cox. Les résultats montrent queles enfants venant d’une famille divorcée sont plus à risque que les enfants venantd’une famille intacte d’avoir une naissance hors mariage, de former une unionlibre et de divorcer une fois mariés. Une attention particulière est portée auxdifférences de comportements qui séparent le Québec du reste du Canada.

  6. Determinants of health-related quality of life in polish patients with CF - adolescents' and parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borawska-Kowalczyk, Urszula; Sands, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    1. Evaluation of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). 2. Evaluation of HRQOL in children with CF from the parents' perspective. 3. Evaluation of the relationship between HRQOL and both medical and psychosocial factors. Health-related quality of life was measured with the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire - Revised. Seventy patients with cystic fibrosis, aged 14-18 years completed the version for adolescents and adults (CFQ-R 14⁺ and 70 parents of children aged 6-13 years filled out the version for parents (CFQ-R 6-13). Scores ranged from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating a better quality of life. Disease severity was assessed by lung function test, nutritional status, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and type of CFTR gene mutation. Social indices i.e. the patient's school attendance and the parent's work status were collected. In the adolescents' opinion, Eating problems and Digestive functioning got the highest rate, whereas Vitality, Treatment burden, Health perceptions and Weight got the lowest. Boys estimated their Physical functioning significantly higher than girls. When evaluating their children's quality of life, parents granted the highest score to Physical, Respiratory and Digestive functioning and the lowest results were attributed to Treatment burden. Nutritional status and lung function impairment turned out to be predictors of some other domains but not psychosocial ones. The chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection had an influence on several quality of life areas from the parents' perspective. School attendance had a significant impact on many aspects of the adolescents' functioning. 1. The study revealed that the health-related quality of life of CF children and adolescents is moderately good. 2. Digestive functioning was one of the highest scored domains, while Treatment burden was one of the lowest, according to both the adolescents' and the parents' perception. 3. The potential impact of

  7. Parenting and Time Adolescents Spend in Criminogenic Settings : A Between- and Within-person Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Heleen J.; Dekovic, Maja; Bruinsma, Gerben J. N.

    Although there has been increasing interest in explaining adolescents' crime involvement by the time adolescents spend in criminogenic settings, little is known about its determinants. We examine the extent to which (change in) parenting is related to (change in) time spent in criminogenic settings.

  8. Adolescents' academic achievement and life satisfaction: the role of parents' education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crede, Julia; Wirthwein, Linda; McElvany, Nele; Steinmayr, Ricarda

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the background of positive psychology, there has only recently been a focus on adolescents' life satisfaction (LS) in the context of education. Studies examining the relationship between adolescents' academic achievement and LS have shown conflicting results and the reasons are not fully understood. The present study investigated the role of parents' education as a potential moderator of the relationship between adolescents' academic achievement and LS. A sample of German high school students (N = 411) reported parents' educational attainment, as an indicator of family socio-economic status, and students' academic achievement was operationalized by grade point average in five subjects. Results indicated that only mothers' education functioned as a moderator of the relationship between academic achievement and students' LS. The association between academic achievement and LS was only found in the group of students whose mothers had achieved the same or a higher education (at least high school diploma) as their own children. Fathers' educational attainment, however, was not a significant moderator of the respective relationship. Directions for future research and the differential influences of fathers' and mothers' education are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  9. Predictors of parent-reported quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marion; Eisemann, Nora; Arnaud, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Parent-reporting is needed to examine Quality of Life (QoL) of children with cerebral palsy (CP) across all severities. This study examines whether QoL changes between childhood and adolescence, and what predicts adolescent QoL. METHOD: SPARCLE is a European cohort study of children with CP...... domain). Associations were assessed using linear regression. RESULTS: Between childhood and adolescence, average QoL reduced in six domains (1.3-3.8 points, pChildhood...... QoL was a strong predictor of all domains of adolescent QoL. Severe impairments of motor function, IQ or communication predicted higher adolescent QoL on some domains; except that severe motor impairment predicted lower adolescent QoL on the Autonomy domain. More psychological problems and higher...

  10. Destructive Divorce in the Family Life Cycle and its Implications: Criticisms of Parental Alienation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimar Antônio de Alcântara Mendes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Some difficulties may arise during the divorce process, taking the family into “destructive divorce”. In such cases, some authors can see the rising of Parental Alienation (PA. This article aims to criticize PA, reflecting about the Family Life Cycle and divorce. Regarding this, a qualitative study was conducted with legal actors (judges, prosecutors, psychologists, social workers, lawyers on the issues of divorce and PA and the results were built using the conceptions of Zones of Sense by Gonzalez Rey. The summary results are: (a PA does not contextualize the conflict; (b it does not consider the history of the relationships; (c it pathologizes, medicates and criminalizes the phenomena of post-divorce and (d PA underestimates the child in the conflict.

  11. The Association of Mindful Parenting with Glycemic Control and Quality of Life in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serkel-Schrama, Inge J P; de Vries, Jolanda; Nieuwesteeg, Anke M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between the mindful parenting style of parents of adolescents (aged 12-18) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and the glycaemic control and quality of life (QoL) of the adolescents. Chronic health conditions, such as T1DM, that require...... mindful parenting style (IM-P-NL) and the adolescents' glycaemic control. Parents and the adolescents with T1DM (N = 129) both reported on adolescents' generic and diabetes-specific QoL (PedsQL™). The results showed that a more mindful parenting style was associated with more optimal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c......) values for boys. For girls, a more mindful parenting style was associated with not having been hospitalized for ketoacidosis. For both boys and girls, a more mindful parenting style was associated with better generic and diabetes-specific proxy-reported QoL. In conclusion, mindful parenting style may...

  12. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives

  13. Paediatric end-of-life care needs in Switzerland: current practices, and perspectives from parents and professionals. A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstraesser, Eva; Zimmermann, Karin; Eskola, Katri; Luck, Patricia; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Cignacco, Eva

    2015-08-01

    To present a protocol for a multi-phase study about the current practice of end-of-life care in paediatric settings in Switzerland. In Switzerland, paediatric palliative care is usually provided by teams, who may not necessarily have specific training. There is a lack of systematic data about specific aspects of care at the end of a child's life, such as symptom management, involvement of parents in decision-making and family-centred care and experiences and needs of parents, and perspectives of healthcare professionals. This retrospective nationwide multicentre study, Paediatric End-of-LIfe CAre Needs in Switzerland (PELICAN), combines quantitative and qualitative methods of enquiry. The PELICAN study consists of three observational parts, PELICAN I describes practices of end-of-life care (defined as the last 4 weeks of life) in the hospital and home care setting of children (0-18 years) who died in the years 2011-2012 due to a cardiac, neurological or oncological disease, or who died in the neonatal period. PELICAN II assesses the experiences and needs of parents during the end-of-life phase of their child. PELICAN III focuses on healthcare professionals and explores their perspectives concerning the provision of end-of-life care. This first study across Switzerland will provide comprehensive insight into the current end-of-life care in children with distinct diagnoses and the perspectives of affected parents and health professionals. The results may facilitate the development and implementation of programmes for end-of-life care in children across Switzerland, building on real experiences and needs. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01983852. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Development and psychometric evaluation of the PROMIS Pediatric Life Satisfaction item banks, child-report, and parent-proxy editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Devine, Janine; Bevans, Katherine B; Becker, Brandon D; Carle, Adam C; Teneralli, Rachel E; Moon, JeanHee; Tucker, Carole A; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    To describe the psychometric evaluation and item response theory calibration of the PROMIS Pediatric Life Satisfaction item banks, child-report, and parent-proxy editions. A pool of 55 life satisfaction items was administered to 1992 children 8-17 years old and 964 parents of children 5-17 years old. Analyses included descriptive statistics, reliability, factor analysis, differential item functioning, and assessment of construct validity. Thirteen items were deleted because of poor psychometric performance. An 8-item short form was administered to a national sample of 996 children 8-17 years old, and 1294 parents of children 5-17 years old. The combined sample (2988 children and 2258 parents) was used in item response theory (IRT) calibration analyses. The final item banks were unidimensional, the items were locally independent, and the items were free from impactful differential item functioning. The 8-item and 4-item short form scales showed excellent reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Life satisfaction decreased with declining socio-economic status, presence of a special health care need, and increasing age for girls, but not boys. After IRT calibration, we found that 4- and 8-item short forms had a high degree of precision (reliability) across a wide range (>4 SD units) of the latent variable. The PROMIS Pediatric Life Satisfaction item banks and their short forms provide efficient, precise, and valid assessments of life satisfaction in children and youth.

  15. How parents can affect excessive spending of time on screen-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindova, Daniela; Pavelka, Jan; Ševčikova, Anna; Žežula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    2014-12-12

    The aim of this study is to explore the association between family-related factors and excessive time spent on screen-based activities among school-aged children. A cross-sectional survey using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was performed in 2013, with data collected from Slovak (n = 258) and Czech (n = 406) 11- and 15-year-old children. The effects of age, gender, availability of a TV or computer in the bedroom, parental rules on time spent watching TV or working on a computer, parental rules on the content of TV programmes and computer work and watching TV together with parents on excessive time spent with screen-based activities were explored using logistic regression models. Two-thirds of respondents watch TV or play computer games at least two hours a day. Older children have a 1.80-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (CI: 1.30-2.51) and a 3.91-times higher chance of excessive computer use (CI: 2.82-5.43) in comparison with younger children. More than half of children have a TV (53%) and a computer (73%) available in their bedroom, which increases the chance of excessive TV watching by 1.59 times (CI: 1.17-2.16) and of computer use by 2.25 times (CI: 1.59-3.20). More than half of parents rarely or never apply rules on the length of TV watching (64%) or time spent on computer work (56%), and their children have a 1.76-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (CI: 1.26-2.46) and a 1.50-times greater chance of excessive computer use (CI: 1.07-2.08). A quarter of children reported that they are used to watching TV together with their parents every day, and these have a 1.84-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (1.25-2.70). Reducing time spent watching TV by applying parental rules or a parental role model might help prevent excessive time spent on screen-based activities.

  16. The Relevance of Parents' Beliefs for Their Involvement in Children's School Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubic, Andreja; Tošic, Antonela

    2016-01-01

    Parents play a very important role in all aspects of children's experiences, and parental involvement in children's school lives is associated with numerous educational outcomes. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of several parents' demographic characteristics, parental self-efficacy, as well as beliefs regarding the value of…

  17. Introduction to Psychology Students' Parental Status Predicts Learning Preferences and Life Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Elyse D'nn; Munn, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    This study explores Introduction to Psychology students' learning preferences and their personal search for meaning while considering their parental status. The findings suggest that parents show preferences for project-based learning and have lower levels of searching for meaning than non-parents. When parental status, age, and finances were…

  18. Time perception and psychopathology: Influence of time perspective on quality of life of severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanadel, Cristián; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2014-01-01

    The study of time perception and mental illness has given priority to time estimation over time perspective. Considering Zimbardo’s theory on five dimensions of time perspective, and balanced time perspective profile, this study has aimed to compare people with severe mental illness (SMI) and healthy people, with measurements of time perspective and time estimation and to assess whether the time perspective profile influences the quality of life in people with SMI. Using a quasi-experimental design, a clinical group (n=167) corresponding to four samples of severe mental disorders (major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and personality disorders) and healthy people (n=167) were compared in their performance regarding time perspective and time estimation. After, the clinical sample was grouped according to their deviation from the balanced time perspective profile (DBTP) and negative profile (DNTP). These groups were evaluated with health measures and time estimation tasks. Through the ANOVA, it can be seen that the time perspective profile affects health measurements. There are significant differences between the clinical sample and controls regarding time perspective and time estimation. Within the group of patients, it was observed that those who were closer to the BTP profile had better physical health, and less hopelessness (ptime perspective in the assessment, treatment and quality of life of people with SMI.

  19. Measuring parent time scarcity and fatigue as barriers to meal planning and preparation: quantitative scale development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2013-03-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of 9 quantitative items that assess time scarcity and fatigue as parent barriers to planning and preparing meals for their children. A convenience sample of 342 parents of children aged 2-6 years completed a 20-minute online survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure and create summary scales. Internal consistency reliability and measures of construct and concurrent validity were assessed. Two scales were created based on the factor analysis: time and energy for meals and meal planning. Preliminary evidence suggests that both scales are reliable and valid. The time and energy for meals and meal planning scales can be completed quickly by busy and tired parents. As many children do not eat nutritious diets, a better understanding of the barriers that parents face is critical and may help inform interventions tailored to the needs of tired, busy parents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of children's kindergarten life on their homes, investigated through parents'attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    藤崎, 春代; Haruyo, FUJISAKI; 昭和女子大学大学院生活機構研究科

    2013-01-01

    Influence of children's kindergarten on their homes was investigated through assessing parents'attitudes, from the perspective that for children and parents, the kindergarten is the first transition from home to society. I conducted a longitudinal questionnaires survey with parents of three to five-year-old children that consisted of six waves. Results indicated the following:(1)Older children spoke more about friends than about their caretakers with their parents,(2)Parents felt uneasy about...

  1. Latent Profiles of Perceived Time Adequacy for Paid Work, Parenting, and Partner Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M.; Davis, Kelly D.; King, Rosalind B.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N=880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified three profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: Family Time Protected, Family Time Sacrificed, and Time Balanced. Drawing upon the Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the Family Time Sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the Family Time Protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the Time Balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the Family Time Protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the Family Time Protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. PMID:26075739

  2. Latent profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M; Davis, Kelly D; King, Rosalind B; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L

    2015-10-01

    This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N = 880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified 3 profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: family time protected, family time sacrificed, and time balanced. Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the family time sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the family time protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the time balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the family time protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the family time sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the family time protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the family time sacrificed profile. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Signs of Change? At-Home and Breadwinner Parents' Housework and Child-Care Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Noelle; Flood, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    We analyze American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data to examine patterns in domestic work among at-home and breadwinner parents to further gauge how time availability, relative earnings, and gender shape time use in couples with extreme differences in earnings and work hours. We find that involvement in female-typed housework is an important driver of overall housework time. It is counter-normative housework behavior by at-home fathers that shapes conclusions about how time availability, relative resources, and gender influence parents' housework. While time availability appears to shape child care in comparable ways across parents, mothers are more engaged in child care than similarly-situated fathers. Overall, our comparisons point to the importance of distinguishing among gender-normative housework tasks and accounting for differences in engagement on work and non-work days. Our results also provide a basis for assessing the social significance of growing numbers of parents in work-family roles that are not gender-normative.

  4. Change in Corporal Punishment Over Time in a Representative Sample of Canadian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Sabrina; Romano, Elisa

    2015-08-01

    Corporal punishment is a controversial form of discipline. Although its prevalence appears high, legal reforms and public education efforts to limit corporal punishment may be resulting in a decrease in its prevalence and frequency of use. This study drew on Canadian nationally representative data to understand the social change that might be happening and to characterize parents who continue to use corporal punishment. The study relied on cross-sectional data from Cycles 1 (1994) to 8 (2008) of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to examine parental reports of corporal punishment for children ages 2–11 years. Analyses were conducted separately for 2- to 5-, 6- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds, and sociodemographics associated with corporal punishment were examined. A significant decrease in the prevalence and frequency of corporal punishment use was observed across time for all age groups. Child sex, parent age, employment status, family structure, household size, immigration status, ethnicity, and religion significantly distinguished parents who use corporal punishment from those who do not, but there was variability across the age groups. Effect sizes question the relevance of the observed decrease in corporal punishment from an applied perspective. Approximately 25% of Canadian parents still use corporal punishment with children ages 2–11 years; therefore, it remains an issue that merits continued attention. Certain child, parent, and family characteristics seem to characterize parents who use corporal punishment, but other more dynamic variables may be important to consider, such as parental stress and their attitudes toward corporal punishment.

  5. Working parents: what factors are involved in their ability to take time off from work when their children are sick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S J; Toomey, S; Furstenberg, F

    1999-08-01

    A series of studies has demonstrated that sick children fare better when their parents are present. To examine working conditions that determine whether parents can spend time with and become involved in the care of their children when they are sick. Survey with a multivariate analysis of factors influencing parental care of sick children. Mixed-income urban working parents aged 26 to 29 years participating in the Baltimore Parenthood Study. Only 42% of working parents in our sample cared for their young children when they became sick. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict which parents stayed at home when their children were sick. Those parents who had either paid sick or vacation leave were 5.2 times as likely to care for their children themselves when they were sick. Of parents with less than a high school education, 17% received paid leave, compared with 57% of parents with a general equivalency diploma, 76% of parents with a high school diploma, and 92% of parents with more than a high school education (Pparents were unable to care for their sick children themselves is important for pediatric care. While low-income children are more likely to face marked health problems and to be in need of parental care, they are more likely to live in households in which parents lack paid leave and cannot afford to take unpaid leave.

  6. Influence of parental life history on maturation and smoltification in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dȩbowski Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The developmental pathways of the offspring of three groups of trout, Salmo trutta L., with known life histories were compared: one group from a freshwater resident population and two groups from an anadromous population (fish that have smoltified and fish that have not. The fish were hybridized within a group, and 27 families were obtained and reared mixed in two tanks. Tracking fish specimens was possible thanks to individual passive integrated transponder (PIT tagging. All families followed different life pathways. Faster growth favored early smoltification and maturation at the age of 1+ in males that had not smoltified. In addition, both processes were clearly also influenced by inherited factors. Fish of freshwater resident origin smoltified more infrequently, and males matured earlier than did fish from the migratory population. The offspring of parents from the migratory population, which did smoltify during their individual histories, smoltified early (in the second year more often than offspring of non-smoltified members of the population.

  7. Oral Health Quality of Life in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Parental Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashiry, Eman A; Alaki, Sumer M; Nouri, Sumaya M

    To assess the parents' perception of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and compare it with normally developing children. 63 children with CP were recruited from 8 disability centers, and 99 healthy controls were recruited from 5 elementary schools. The ages of the children in both groups were from 6-12 years. The Franciscan Hospital for Children Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (FHC-OHRQOL) was used to measure the OHRQOL and an oral examination was conducted in the schools/centers of the children to assess the teeth, gingival health, and oral hygiene. The FHC-OHRQOL showed a significant difference in 3 out of 4 sections indicating lower OHRQOL in the CP group. The examination showed no significant difference in the dental and gingival health and in the level of oral hygiene. The OHRQOL of children with CP is significantly lower than that of normally developing children although the oral health status of children with CP is not significantly different from that of normally developing children.

  8. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children’s Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinos A. Loucaides; Niki Tsangaridou

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Explorat...

  9. Parental stress, pediatric quality of life, and behavior at baseline and one-year follow-up: Results from the FEBSTAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnar, Ruth C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Hesdorffer, Dale C; O'Hara, Kathryn; Conklin, Terrie; Cornett, Karen Mohler; Miazga, Diana; Sun, Shumei

    2017-04-01

    Febrile status epilepticus is a serious and frightening event in the life of the child and parent. It is regarded as a medical emergency with potential long lasting consequences. The purpose of this study was to look at the immediate and long term effects of such an event on parental stress and parents' perception of their child's physical and psychosocial wellbeing. From 2003 to 2010, 199 subjects, age 1 month to 5 years, were recruited as part of a prospective, multicenter study (FEBSTAT) of consequences of febrile status epilepticus (FSE). At one month and one year after the episode of FSE, parents were asked to complete the Parenting Stress Index, short form (PSI/SF), the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). In addition to PedsQL and CBCL in the FEBSTAT subjects only, a comparison was made between Columbia Study of First Febrile Seizures subjects with a first simple febrile seizure (SFS) and the FEBSTAT group, including 15 subjects with FSE from the Columbia group, in the area of parental stress which was administered at the same time intervals in both studies. At baseline, the PSI/SF was statistically significantly higher for SFS versus FSE on the parent-child dysfunctional score and the total raw score, however at one year this difference resolved. In the FSE group, significantly higher parental stress over one year was reported in children with abnormal versus normal prior development (p= 0.02). Prior abnormal development was a risk factor at 1 year for lower total PEDSQL (p=0.01) versus prior normal development. Mean scores on the CBCL at baseline and 1 year were within the normal range for both empirically based scales and major risk factors. Parents of children experiencing a SFS experienced more stress at baseline than those with FSE. Families of children in the FEBSTAT cohort with identified development problems at baseline that continued, or progressed over the one year period, reported decreasing QOL

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease: From the Perspectives of Children and Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Marie Byström

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine how celiac children and adolescents on gluten-free diet valued their health-related quality of life, and if age and severity of the disease at onset affected the children’s self-valuation later in life. We also assessed the parents’ valuation of their child’s quality of life. Methods. The DISABKIDS Chronic generic measure, short versions for both children and parents, was used on 160 families with celiac disease. A paediatric gastroenterologist classified manifestations of the disease at onset retrospectively. Results. Age or sex did not influence the outcome. Children diagnosed before the age of five scored higher than children diagnosed later. Children diagnosed more than eight years ago scored higher than more recently diagnosed children, and children who had the classical symptoms of the disease at onset scored higher than those who had atypical symptoms or were asymptomatic. The parents valuated their children’s quality of life as lower than the children did. Conclusion. Health-related quality of life in treated celiac children and adolescents was influenced by age at diagnosis, disease severity at onset, and years on gluten-free diet. The disagreement between child-parent valuations highlights the importance of letting the children themselves be heard about their perceived quality of life.

  11. Life habits of school-aged children with specific language impairment as perceived by their parents and by school professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Claire; McMahon-Morin, Paméla; Morin, Claudia; Jutras, Benoît; Trudeau, Natacha; Le Dorze, Guylaine

    2015-01-01

    Describe social participation of a group of children with specific language impairment. 26 parents of children with specific language impairment (SLI) aged from 5 to 13 years and 11 school professionals participated in the study. Data collection was performed with the adapted version for children aged from 5 to 13 years old of the Assessment of Life Habits (Fougeyrollas et al., 2001). The questionnaire encompasses 196 life habits, grouped in 12 dimensions: nutrition, fitness, personal care, communication, housing, mobility, responsibilities, interpersonal relationships, community life, education, work and recreation (Fougeyrollas, 2010). According to their parents and school professionals, children in this study carried out without difficulty life habits related to housing and mobility. However, they experienced difficulty with life habits related to interpersonal relationships, recreation and responsibilities, in addition to communication and education. Children with SLI are perceived by their parents and school professionals as having reduced social participation in many aspects of their daily life. Social participation should be considered as a major outcome when offering services in school to these children. This study proposes specific ways to help children with SLI. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Time-dependent fatigue--phenomenology and life prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, L.F.

    1979-01-01

    The time-dependent fatigue behavior of materials used or considered for use in present and advanced systems for power generation is outlined. A picture is first presented to show how basic mechanisms and phenomenological information relate to the performance of the component under consideration through the so-called local strain approach. By this means life prediction criteria and design rules can be formulated utilizing laboratory test information which is directly translated to predicting the performance of a component. The body of phenomenological information relative to time-dependent fatigue is reviewed. Included are effects of strain range, strain rate and frequency, environment and wave shape, all of which are shown to be important in developing both an understanding and design base for time dependent fatigue. Using this information, some of the current methods being considered for the life prediction of components are reviewed. These include the current ASME code case, frequency-modified fatigue equations, strain range partitioning, the damage function method, frequency separation and damage rate equations. From this review, it is hoped that a better perspective on future directions for basic material science at high temperature can be achieved

  13. Tesla the life and times of an electric messiah

    CERN Document Server

    Cawthorne, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Despite being incredibly popular during his time, Nikola Tesla today remains largely overlooked among lists of the greatest inventors and scientists of the modern era.  Thomas Edison gets all the glory for discovering the light bulb, but it was his one time assistant and life long arch nemesis, Tesla, who made the breakthrough in alternating current technology.  Edison and Tesla carried on a bitter feud for years, but it was Tesla's AC generators that illuminated the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago; the first time that an event of such magnitude had ever taken place under artificial light.  Today, all homes and electrical appliances run on Tesla's AC current.Born in Croatia in 1856, Tesla spoke eight languages and as well as almost single handedly developing household electricity.  During his life, he patented more than 700 inventions.  He invented electrical generators, FM radio, remote control robots, spark plugs and fluorescent lights.  He had a photographic memory and did advanced calculus and physic...

  14. ‘The Life and Times of Uncle Warwick’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Haines

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, I had the privilege of hosting a session in honour of Dr. Warwick Bray at the 71st Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The following is a forward to Pamela J. Smith’s interview which introduces the reader to this wonderfully modest and endearingly understated man. His modest nature is exemplified in the title for my introduction which comes from a letter Warwick sent me in response to my request for his curriculum vitae – a document he humourously paralleled to children’s book ‘The Life and Times of Uncle Wiggley’.

  15. LIFE: A Journey Through Time – THE BOOK

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The astonishing photographs by National Geographic photographer Frans Lanting that were part of Origins, the multimedia performance held on the LHC inauguration day, can be enjoyed in the book "LIFE, A Journey Through Time". This features Lanting’s remarkable journey with more than 175 colour photographs, along with his personal essays and stories about the images. In English, French, Italian, German and Spanish SPECIAL PRICE 80 CHF or 50 €, for sale at the SHOP, Reception Building 33, and during special Xmas sales in the Main building Friday 12 December. To learn more: http://www.lifethroughtime.com/book.html

  16. Caring for a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Parents' Quality of Life: Application of the CarerQol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hoefman (Renske); N. Payakachat (Nalin); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); K.A. Kuhlthau (Karen); E.M. Kovacs (Erica); J.M. Pyne (Jeffrey); J.M. Tilford (John Mick)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis study describes the impact of caregiving on parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Secondly, we investigate construct validation of the care-related quality of life instrument (CarerQol) measuring impact of caregiving. Primary caregivers of children with ASDs

  17. Does it take a village to raise a child?: The buffering effect of relationships with relatives for parental life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mikucka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strong relationships with relatives may alleviate the consequences of stressful experiences,but the evidence documenting such 'buffering effect' during parenthood is scarce. Objective: This paper investigated the buffering effect of relationships with relatives during parenthoodin Switzerland. We tested whether relationships with relatives (network size, frequencyof contact, and availability of practical and emotional support were activated inresponse to parenthood, and if people who had stronger relationships with their relativesexperienced more positive trajectories of life satisfaction during parenthood. Methods: We used Swiss Household Panel data for the years 2000-2011, and fixed effect regressionmodels. Results: The birth of a first child was associated with an increase in mothers' contact with nonresidentrelatives. Moreover, parents with at least two children who had better accessto support from relatives experienced more increase and less decline in life satisfactionduring parenthood than parents who had less access to relatives' support. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the support of relatives is a resource for parents having twoor more children and that it improves the experience of parenthood even in a relativelywealthy society. Contribution: This is the first paper which demonstrates that relationships with relatives are a source of heterogeneity of the effect of parenthood on life satisfaction. Moreover, it shows that weak relationships with relatives may lower life satisfaction of parents and limit fertility, especially at higher parities.

  18. The Relation of Parental Attitudes to Life Satisfaction and Depression in Early Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acun-Kapikiran, Necla; Körükçü, Özlem; Kapikiran, Sahin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether self-esteem in adolescence has a mediator role in the relationship between parental attitude and life satisfaction and depression. Data was collected from 360 secondary school students ages ranging from 11 to 14 (M = 12.67, SD= 0.97) out of which 216 of them were female and 144 male. The…

  19. Gene-Environment Interaction Effects of Peer Deviance, Parental Knowledge and Stressful Life Events on Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Megan E; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Latvala, Antti; Korhonen, Tellervo; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Salvatore, Jessica E; Dick, Danielle M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to address two methodological issues that have called into question whether previously reported gene-environment interaction (GxE) effects for adolescent alcohol use are 'real'. These issues are (1) the potential correlation between the environmental moderator and the outcome across twins and (2) non-linear transformations of the behavioral outcome. Three environments that have been previously studied (peer deviance, parental knowledge, and potentially stressful life events) were examined here. For each moderator (peer deviance, parental knowledge, and potentially stressful life events), a series of models was fit to both a raw and transformed measure of monthly adolescent alcohol use in a sample that included 825 dizygotic (DZ) and 803 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. The results showed that the moderating effect of peer deviance was robust to transformation, and that although the significance of moderating effects of parental knowledge and potentially stressful life events were dependent on the scale of the adolescent alcohol use outcome, the overall results were consistent across transformation. In addition, the findings did not vary across statistical models. The consistency of the peer deviance results and the shift of the parental knowledge and potentially stressful life events results between trending and significant, shed some light on why previous findings for certain moderators have been inconsistent and emphasize the importance of considering both methodological issues and previous findings when conducting and interpreting GxE analyses.

  20. Life Course Influences on African American Men's Depression: Adolescent Parental Composition, Self-Concept, and Adult Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizell, C. Andre

    1999-01-01

    Examines factors over the life course that affect levels of depression in Black men using samples of 892 African-American and 1,454 White men from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Parental educational attainment is a significant negative predictor of depression. Its role and that of other identified predictors of depression are…

  1. Domains of quality of life of people with profound multiple disabilities : The perspective of parents and direct support staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petry, K; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C

    Background This study considered the general validity of the basic domains of quality of life that appear in theoretical models, in relation to people with profound multiple disabilities. The authors examined how parents and direct support staff operationalized these basic domains for people with

  2. Young traffic victims' long-term health-related quality of life : Child self-reports and parental reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturms, LM; van der Sluis, CK; Groothoff, JW; ten Duis, HJ; Eisma, WH

    Objectives: To describe the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) reported by young traffic injury victims and to assess the child-parent agreement on the child's HRQOL. Design: Cohort study with a mean follow-up of 2.4 years. Setting: Traumatology department in a university hospital in

  3. Supportive communication with parents moderates the negative effects of electronic media use on life satisfaction during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boniel-Nissim, M.; Tabak, I.; Mazur, J.; Borraccino, A.; Brooks, F.; Gommans, R.; Sluijs, W. van der; Zsiros, E.; Craig, W.M.; Harel-Fisch, Y.; Finne, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of electronic media (EM) use on teenagers’ life satisfaction (LS) and to assess the potential moderating effect of supportive communication with parents (SCP). Methods Data were drawn from the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

  4. Supportive communication with parents moderates the negative effects of electronic media use on life satisfaction during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Borraccino, Alberto; Brooks, Fiona; Gommans, Rob; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Zsiros, Emese; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Finne, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of electronic media (EM) use on teenagers’ life satisfaction (LS) and to assess the potential moderating effect of supportive communication with parents (SCP). Methods Data were drawn from the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

  5. Functional abdominal complaints in pre-school children: Parental reports of health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); H.P. Jongman (Henri); J.M. Landgraf (Jeanne); H. Raat (Hein); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The aim of this study is to assess the influence of functional abdominal complaints (FAC) on health-related quality of life in a group of Dutch pre-school children. Methods Parents of children aged up to 6.0 visiting the outpatient pediatric department, Erasmus MC-Sophia,

  6. Parental Retrospective Assessment of Development and Behavior in Asperger Syndrome during the First 2 Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewrang, Petra; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2010-01-01

    Development and behavior during the first 2 years of life was assessed retrospectively by the parents to 23 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 13 typically developing adolescents and young adults. The groups were matched on chronological age and the participants were within the normal range of intelligence. The questionnaire,…

  7. Informing social work practice through research with parent caregivers of a child with a life-limiting illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadell, Susan; Kennedy, Kimberly; Hemsworth, David

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric palliative care is an evolving field of practice in social work. As such, research plays a critical role in informing best social work practices in this area. For parents, caring for a child with a life-limiting illness (LLI) is a stressful experience that compounds the usual challenges of parenting. The negative aspects of caring for a child with an LLI are well documented. In the face of such adversity, parent caregivers can also experience positive changes caring for children with even the most serious conditions. This article presents results from a research study of posttraumatic growth in parents who are caring for a child with a LLI. Using mixed methods, two overarching themes were prominent in both the quantitative and qualitative data. The first describes stress related to financial burden associated with caregiving. The second theme concerns the posttraumatic growth experienced by the parent caregivers. The quantitative and qualitative data have been woven together to underscore issues and parental perspectives related to these two themes. This provides a unique and important platform for parent caregivers' experiences that can inform the work of social workers and other pediatric palliative care professionals.

  8. TIMELY DELIVERY OF LASER INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY (LIFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, A M

    2010-11-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A key goal of the NIF is to demonstrate fusion ignition for the first time in the laboratory. Its flexibility allows multiple target designs (both indirect and direct drive) to be fielded, offering substantial scope for optimization of a robust target design. In this paper we discuss an approach to generating gigawatt levels of electrical power from a laser-driven source of fusion neutrons based on these demonstration experiments. This 'LIFE' concept enables rapid time-to-market for a commercial power plant, assuming success with ignition and a technology demonstration program that links directly to a facility design and construction project. The LIFE design makes use of recent advances in diode-pumped, solid-state laser technology. It adopts the paradigm of Line Replaceable Units utilized on the NIF to provide high levels of availability and maintainability and mitigate the need for advanced materials development. A demonstration LIFE plant based on these design principles is described, along with the areas of technology development required prior to plant construction. A goal-oriented, evidence-based approach has been proposed to allow LIFE power plant rollout on a time scale that meets policy imperatives and is consistent with utility planning horizons. The system-level delivery builds from our prior national investment over many decades and makes full use of the distributed capability in laser technology, the ubiquity of semiconductor diodes, high volume manufacturing markets, and U.S. capability in fusion science and nuclear engineering. The LIFE approach is based on the ignition evidence emerging from NIF and adopts a line-replaceable unit approach to ensure high plant availability and to allow evolution from available technologies and materials. Utilization of a proven physics platform for the

  9. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  10. Consequences of caring for a child with a chronic disease: Employment and leisure time of parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatzmann, Janneke; Peek, Niels; Heymans, Hugo; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Chronically ill children require several hours of additional care per day compared to healthy children. As parents provide most of this care, they have to incorporate it into their daily schedule, which implies a reduction in time for other activities. The study aimed to assess the effect of having

  11. Pubertal Onset in Boys and Girls Is Influenced by Pubertal Timing of Both Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P

    2016-01-01

    children in a longitudinal cohort study. Information on parental timing of puberty (earlier, comparable to, or later compared to peers) and menarche age was retrieved from questionnaires. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 672 girls and 846 boys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age at onset of pubic hair (PH2+), breasts (B2...

  12. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls' Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Julianna; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wong, Jessie J.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Research concerning pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans or the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations has been scarce. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers in…

  13. Reducing children's television-viewing time: a qualitative study of parents and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B; Hersey, James C; McDivitt, Judith A; Heitzler, Carrie D

    2006-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children over age 2 years spend dining room. Although virtually all of the parents reported having guidelines for children's television viewing, few had rules restricting the time children spend watching television. Data from this exploratory study suggest several potential barriers to implementing a 2-hour limit, including: parents' need to use television as a safe and affordable distraction, parents' own heavy television viewing patterns, the role that television plays in the family's day-to-day routine, and a belief that children should spend their weekend leisure time as they wish. Interviews revealed that for many of these families there is a lack of concern that television viewing is a problem for their child, and there remains confusion about the boundaries of the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Parents in this study expressed interest in taking steps toward reducing children's television time but also uncertainty about how to go about doing so. Results suggest possible strategies to reduce the amount of time children spend in front of the screen.

  14. Testing the Efficacy of a Scholarship Program for Single Parent, Post-Freshmen, Full Time Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Kaka, Sarah J.; Tygret, Jennifer A.; Cathcart, Katy

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of a scholarship program designed to assist single parent, post-freshmen, full time undergraduate students and predictors of success among a sample of said students, where success is defined as progress toward completion, academic achievement, and degree completion. Results of fixed effects regression and…

  15. Examining the Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Training on Increasing Hope and Life Satisfaction in Mothers of Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Omid Sotoudeh Navroodi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders are exposed to mental distress because of having a disabled child more than parents with children with other psychological disorders, and their children's disorder has a negative effect on their hope and life satisfaction. The present study aimed to examining the effectiveness of group positive parenting training on increasing hope and life satisfaction in mothers of children with autism.Method: This was a quasi-experimental study with pretest, posttest, and control and experimental groups. Mothers with autistic children (6-15 years in Rasht consisted the statistical population of the study. All the children had a medical record and autism diagnosis based on DSM-IV-TR by a psychiatrist. Hope Questionnaires by Snyder and Life Satisfaction Questionnaire by Diener were implemented. Participants of the experimental group received positive parenting training for 8 sessions, and participants of the control group were put in the state of waiting. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage and inferential statistics (univariate and multivariate covariance analysis were used for data analysis.Results: In this study, 27 mothers of children with autism were examined. The mean and standard deviation of the age of mothers in the experimental group was 36.14± 2.47 years and it was 37± 3.62 years for mothers in the control group. The results of univariate covariance analysis revealed a significant difference between the scores of pretest and posttest of the experimental and control groups in life satisfaction (Sum of square = 16.558, F = 13.534, DF = 1, P = 0.002, 〖=ƞ〗^2 = 0.361.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that using group positive parenting training can have a positive effect on dimensions of hope and life satisfaction in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

  16. Life-time of the bound layer in nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Jestin, Jacques; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that an effectively irreversibly adsorbed monolayer of polymer forms when a polymer melt is intimately mixed with nanoparticles, in the limit where their enthalpic interactions are favorable. This bound layer has been postulated as being a central player in many of the highly favorable properties that result from polymer based nanocomposite materials. We investigated well-defined nanocomposites formed with different combinations of deuterated and hydrogenated polymers (P2VP and PMMA) and silica nanoparticles. SANS, in conjunction with contrast variation, then provides a direct means of probing the structure of the bound layer as a core-shell and its exchange kinetics with bulk (unbound) chains with annealing time and temperature. SAXS directly provides information on the particle-particle partial structure factor and particle dispersion. Thermodynamic equilibrium of the bound layer is reached around one day at 150 °C while its exchange life time is ~ one hour at 180 °C.

  17. Prayer beliefs and change in life satisfaction over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R David

    2013-06-01

    A considerable number of studies have focused on the relationship between prayer, health, and well-being. But the influence of some types of prayer (e.g., petitionary prayer) has received more attention than others. The purpose of this study is to examine an overlooked aspect of prayer: trust-based prayer beliefs. People with this orientation believe that God knows that best way to answer a prayer and He selects the best time to provide an answer. Three main findings emerge from data that were provided by a nationwide longitudinal survey of older people reveals. First, the results reveal that Conservative Protestants are more likely to endorse trust-based prayer beliefs. Second, the findings suggest that these prayer beliefs tend to be reinforced through prayer groups and informal support from fellow church members. Third, the data indicate that stronger trust-based prayer beliefs are associated with a greater sense of life satisfaction over time.

  18. Life time evaluation of spectrum loaded machine parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabb, R. [Waertsilae NSD Corporation, Vaasa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    In a medium speed diesel engine there are some important components, such as the cylinder head, the piston and the cylinder liner, which are subjected to a specific load spectrum consisting of mainly two distinct parts. One is the low cycle part which is due to the temperature field that builds up after that the engine has been started. This low cycle part causes a big stress amplitude but consists of only a couple of thousand cycles during the engine life time. The other part of the load spectrum is the high cycle part due to the firing pressure. The high cycle part has a smaller amplitude but consists of billions of cycles during the engine life time. The cylinder head and the cylinder liner are made of cast iron. In this investigation the true extension into the high cycle domain of the S-N curve for grey cast iron grade 300/ISO 185 was established through fatigue tests with a load spectrum resembling the existing one. This testing resulted in much new and improved knowledge about the fatigue properties of grey cast iron and it was even possible to generalize the outcome of the spectrum fatigue tests into a simple design curve. (orig.) 11 refs.

  19. The association of mindful parenting with glycemic control and quality of life in adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES—The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Serkel-Schrama, I.J.P.; de Vries, J.; Nieuwesteeg, A.M.; Pouwer, F.; Nyklíček, I.; Speight, J.; de Bruin, E.I.; Bögels, S.M.; Hartman, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between the mindful parenting style of parents of adolescents (aged 12?18) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and the glycaemic control and quality of life (QoL) of the adolescents. Chronic health conditions, such as T1DM, that require demanding treatment regimens, can negatively impact adolescents? quality of life. Therefore, it is important to determine whether mindful parenting may have a positive impact in these adolescents. Age, ...

  20. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-09-18

    Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). 12 UK children's hospitals. Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication and appropriate timing of deferred consent discussions

  1. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Design Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. Participants 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). Setting 12 UK children's hospitals. Results Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication

  2. The role of parental rearing practices and family demographics on oral health-related quality of life in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Zimmer-Gembeck, M J; Kroon, J; Lalloo, R; Johnson, N W

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the direct and indirect (via oral health-related behaviour) effects of parental rearing practices on children's Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) within a family-focused, comprehensive predictive model. Participants were 11- to 14-year-old children and their parents living in Telangana State, India (N = 1130). Children were clinically assessed for dental caries, gingivitis, oral hygiene status, fluorosis, and malocclusion, and completed a self-administered questionnaire on oral health-related behaviour and OHRQoL. Parents answered questions related to their socioeconomic status (SES), family circumstances, parent's perceptions of child's OHRQoL, and child rearing practices. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the pathways through which parenting practices were associated with children's OHRQoL. Parents with higher positive (β = -0.106) and lower power assertion rearing practices (β = 0.103) had children with better OHRQoL. Parental rearing practices did not have any effect on children's oral hygiene behaviour. Children who had malocclusion (β = 0.076) and fluorosis (β = 0.38) had lower OHRQoL. Family SES had a significant effect on children's oral hygiene behaviour and oral hygiene status with children of higher SES demonstrating better oral hygiene behaviour and status. Children living in single-parent families reported poorer oral hygiene behaviour (β = -0.048) than those living in other types of families. Parental rearing practices had direct effects on OHRQoL. However, the hypothesised indirect effects of these practices on OHRQoL via poor oral health behaviour were not supported.

  3. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this

  4. Parenting Style, the Home Environment, and Screen Time of 5-Year-Old Children; The 'Be Active, Eat Right' Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, L.; van Grieken, A.; Renders, C.M.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Raat, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we

  5. Reliability of the Music in Everyday Life (MEL) Scale: A Parent-Report Assessment for Children on the Autism Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Tali; Thompson, Grace; Elefant, Cochavit; Gold, Christian

    2018-06-07

    For young children on the autism spectrum, the inclusion of shared parent-child music activities in everyday life may provide additional opportunities for social interactions in the home. However, no psychometrically validated assessment exists to measure the extent of shared music activity within family or community contexts. This study aimed to develop and test the reliability of a self-report assessment to measure the use of Music in Everyday Life (MEL) by parents with young children on the autism spectrum. A total of 45 mothers of children with autism aged between 4 and 7 years completed the MEL questionnaire. Internal consistency and item-total correlation were examined. Analysis confirmed the reliability of two predetermined subscales: Music in Everyday Life-Joint Activities using Music (MEL-JAM) and Music in Everyday Life-Routine Activities using Music (MEL-RAM). Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.63 and 0.75) and positive item-total correlation (Pearson's r between .23 to .62 for MEL-JAM and between .30 to .67 for MEL-RAM) were demonstrated. The reliability of the MEL assessment to measure the use of music in everyday life by parents with their children with autism was confirmed, filling an important gap in the availability of assessment tools.

  6. Quality of Life as reported by children and parents: a comparison between students and child psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefiak, Thomas; Larsson, Bo; Wichstrøm, Lars; Wallander, Jan; Mattejat, Fritz

    2010-11-22

    During the recent decade, a number of studies have begun to address Quality of Life (QoL) in children and adolescents with mental health problems in general population and clinical samples. Only about half of the studies utilized both self and parent proxy report of child QoL. Generally children with mental health problems have reported lower QoL compared to healthy children. The question whether QoL assessment by both self and parent proxy report can identify psychiatric health services needs not detected by an established instrument for assessing mental health problems, i.e. the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), has never been examined and was the purpose of the present study. No study exists that compares child QoL as rated by both child and parent, in a sample of referred child psychiatric outpatients with a representative sample of students attending public school in the same catchment area while controlling for mental health problems in the child. In the current study patients and students, aged 8-15.5 years, were matched with respect to age, gender and levels of the CBCL Total Problems scores. QoL was assessed by the self- and parent proxy-reports on the Inventory of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents (ILC). QoL scores were analyzed by non-parametric tests, using Wilcoxon paired rank comparisons. Both outpatients and their parents reported significantly lower child QoL on the ILC than did students and their parents, when children were matched on sex and age. Given equal levels of emotional and behavioural problems, as reported by the parents on the CBCL, in the two contrasting samples, the outpatients and their parents still reported lower QoL levels than did the students and their parents. Child QoL reported both by child and parent was reduced in outpatients compared to students with equal levels of mental health problems as reported by their parents on the CBCL. This suggests that it should be helpful to add assessment of QoL to achieve a fuller

  7. Relationships between parenting and adolescent adjustment over time: genetic and environmental contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiderhiser, J M; Reiss, D; Hetherington, E M; Plomin, R

    1999-05-01

    The predictive association between parenting and adolescent adjustment has been assumed to be environmental; however, genetic and environmental contributions have not been examined. This article represents one effort to examine these associations in which a genetically informative design was used. Participants were 395 families with adolescent siblings who participated in the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development (D. Reiss et al., 1994) project at 2 times of assessment, 3 years apart. There were 5 sibling types in 2 types of families: 63 identical twins, 75 fraternal twins, and 58 full siblings in nondivorced families and 95 full, 60 half, and 44 genetically unrelated siblings in stepfamilies. Results indicate that the cross-lagged associations between parental conflict-negativity and adolescent antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms can be explained primarily by genetic factors. These findings emphasize the need to recognize and examine the impact that adolescents have on parenting and the contribution of genetic factors to developmental change.

  8. The Association of Mindful Parenting with Glycemic Control and Quality of Life in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkel-Schrama, Inge J P; de Vries, Jolanda; Nieuwesteeg, Anke M; Pouwer, Frans; Nyklíček, Ivan; Speight, Jane; de Bruin, Esther I; Bögels, Susan M; Hartman, Esther E

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between the mindful parenting style of parents of adolescents (aged 12-18) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and the glycaemic control and quality of life (QoL) of the adolescents. Chronic health conditions, such as T1DM, that require demanding treatment regimens, can negatively impact adolescents' quality of life. Therefore, it is important to determine whether mindful parenting may have a positive impact in these adolescents. Age, sex and duration of T1DM were examined as potential moderators. Parents ( N  = 215) reported on their own mindful parenting style (IM-P-NL) and the adolescents' glycaemic control. Parents and the adolescents with T1DM ( N  = 129) both reported on adolescents' generic and diabetes-specific QoL (PedsQL™). The results showed that a more mindful parenting style was associated with more optimal hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) values for boys. For girls, a more mindful parenting style was associated with not having been hospitalized for ketoacidosis. For both boys and girls, a more mindful parenting style was associated with better generic and diabetes-specific proxy-reported QoL. In conclusion, mindful parenting style may be a factor in helping adolescents manage their T1DM. Mindful parenting intervention studies for parents of adolescents with T1DM are needed to examine the effects on adolescents' glycaemic control and their quality of life.

  9. Towards intensive parenting? Changes in the composition and determinants of mothers' and fathers' time with children 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Lyn; Powell, Abigail; Smyth, Ciara

    2014-09-01

    Contemporary expectations of good parenting hold that focused, intensive parental attention is essential to children's development. Parental input is viewed as a key determinant in children's social, psychological and educational outcomes, with the early years particularly crucial. However, increased rates of maternal employment mean that more parents are juggling work and family commitments and have less non-work time available to devote to children. Yet studies find that parental childcare time has increased over recent decades. In this paper, we explore the detail of this trend using data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Time Use Survey (TUS), 1992 and 2006. To investigate whether discourses on intensive parenting are reflected in behaviour, we examine a greater range of parent-child activities than has been undertaken to date, looking at trends in active childcare time (disaggregated into talk-based, physical and accompanying care activities); time in childcare as a secondary activity; time spent in the company of children in leisure activities; and time spent in the company of children in total. We also investigate whether the influence of factors known to predict parental time with children (gender, education, employment status and the age of children) have changed over time. We contextualize our analyses within social and economic trends in Australia and find a compositional change in parental time, with more active childcare occurring within less overall time, which suggests more intensive, child-centred parenting. Fathers' parent-child time, particularly in physical care, increased more than mothers' (from a much lower base), and tertiary education no longer predicts significantly higher childcare time. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  10. Conceptualisation and Development of a Quality of Life Measure for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamma Eapen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD tend to experience greater psychological distress than parents of typically developing children or children with other disabilities. Quality of Life (QoL is increasingly recognised as a critical outcome measure for planning and treatment purposes in ASD. There is a need for ASD-specific QoL measures as generic measures may not capture all relevant aspects of living with ASD. This paper describes the conceptualisation and development of an autism-specific measure of QoL, the Quality of Life in Autism Questionnaire (QoLA for parents and caregivers of children with ASD, that is suitable to clinical and research settings. Preliminary psychometric properties (reliability and validity of the measure are also presented. The QoLA has 48 items in two subscales: one comprising QoL items and the second a parent report of how problematic their child’s ASD symptoms are. A study involving 39 families suggested the QoLA has excellent internal consistency as well as good known-groups validity between parents of children with ASD and those who were typically developing. The QoLA also showed good convergent validity with other measures of QoL and ASD symptom severity, respectively. The QoLA may be a valuable assessment tool and merits further psychometric evaluation.

  11. The Mediating Role of Parental Support in the Relationship between Life Stress and Suicidal Ideation among Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong-Hee; Kang, Jae-Heon; Park, Hyun-Ah; Cho, Young-Gyu; Hur, Yang-Im; Sim, Won Yong; Byeon, Gyeong-Ran; Kim, Kyoungwoo

    2017-07-01

    Youth suicide is increasingly being recognized as a major social problem in South Korea. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of parental support on the relationship between life stress and suicidal ideation among middle-school students. This study analyzed data from a cross-sectional study on mental health conducted by the South Korea National Youth Policy Institute between May and July of 2013. Questionnaire responses from 3,007 middle-school students regarding stress factors, thoughts of suicide during the past year, and parental support were analyzed in terms of 3 subscale elements: emotional, academic, and financial support. Among the participants, 234 male students (7.8%) and 476 female students (15.8%) reported experiencing suicidal ideation in the past year. Life stress significantly influenced suicidal ideation (Pstress increased suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.318; Pstress on suicidal ideation decreased with parental support (aOR, 1.238; Pstress was independently related to an increase in suicidal ideation. Parental support buffered the relationship between life stress and suicidal ideation.

  12. Life satisfaction of people with intellectual disability living in community residences: perceptions of the residents, their parents and staff members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C; Rabinovitz, S

    2003-02-01

    Within the literature on quality of life (QoL), life satisfaction (LS) has emerged as a key variable by which to measure perceived well-being, which is referred to as subjective QoL. The LS self-reports of 93 residents with intellectual disability (ID) living in community-based residences were compared with reports about their LS completed by their staff and parents. The residents were interviewed on their LS by social workers who did not belong to the staff of the interviewee's residence. The instrument used was the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Staff and parents completed the short version of the LSS. Residents and staff's LS reports were positively correlated. However, significant differences were found between these two groups of informants when the residents were characterized as high functioning, had a low score in challenging behaviour, worked in an integrative employment setting and lived in an apartment. As opposed to staff/resident discrepancies, no differences were found between parents' and residents' LS reports. If residents cannot to be interviewed about their LS, then the parent is the preferred person to respond on behalf of the resident. The current study highlights the importance of including both objective measures (e.g. functional assessment characteristics) and subjective measures (e.g. LS) in order to get a better understanding of the QoL of people with ID.

  13. The Effectiveness of the Quality of Life Therapy on Parental Stress and its Dimensions among Mothers with Intellectually Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    صدیقه آقائی

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the effectiveness of quality of life therapy on reducing parental stress and its dimensions among mothers who have children with intellectual disability. The research was designed as semi-experimental pretest-posttest with a control group. The statistical population was all mothers who had school children with intellectual disability in Semirom town. The statistical sample contained 30 mothers with intellectually disabled children who were voluntary selected. They were randomly assigned in experimental (15 mothers and control (15 mothers groups. While the control group was in waiting list, the experimental group received eight 90-minutes sessions of quality of life therapy. The measurement was the short form of Parental Stress Questionnaire (Abedin, 1983. Both groups were evaluated in pre-test and post-test. Collected data were analyzed by descriptive (means and standard deviations and inferential statistic (multivariate covariate analysis methods. The results showed that the scores of control group in posttest parental stress was higher in comparison to experimental group. As regard to the results it can be said that the quality of life therapy training is significantly effective on improving parental stress and its dimensions among mothers with Intellectually Disabled Children.

  14. Associations Between Parental SES and Children's Health-Related Quality of Life: The Role of Objective and Subjective Social Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kay W; Wallander, Jan L; Peskin, Melissa; Cuccaro, Paula; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2018-06-01

    We examined (1) the relationship that parental objective social status (OSS) and subjective social status (SSS) have with children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL), (2) whether SSS mediates the association between OSS and HRQOL, and (3) whether these associations differ among Black, Latino, and White children. Data came from 4,824 Black, Latino, and White 5th graders in the Healthy PassagesTM study. OSS was measured as parent educational attainment and net equivalent household income. SSS was measured by parent rating of community and national standing on the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status. Child HRQOL was measured with child report on the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) physical and psychosocial scales. Structural equation modeling path analysis was conducted using Mplus version 7.4. The data supported the hypothesized measurement and structural models. Whereas parental OSS was positively related to psychosocial HRQOL for all three racial/ethnic groups and to physical HRQOL for Latino children, parental SSS was not related to either for any of the racial/ethnic groups. Therefore, mediation by SSS was not supported for any group. OSS was confirmed to have stronger association with children's HRQOL than parental SSS. This is in contrast to some research on adults, raising the questions of how best to assess SSS relevant to children and at what point in development SSS may influence children's health and well-being. The persistent relationship found between parental OSS and child health suggests that efforts to improve low socioeconomic resources in families may contribute to improve children's health.

  15. Quality of life among adolescents with sickle cell disease: Mediation of pain by internalizing symptoms and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lauren C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to clarify associations between pain, psychological adjustment, and family functioning with health-related quality of life (HRQOL in a sample of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD utilizing teen- and parent-report. Methods Forty-two adolescents (between the ages of 12 and 18 with SCD and their primary caregivers completed paper-and-pencil measures of pain, teen's psychological adjustment, and HRQOL. In addition, primary caregivers completed a measure of disease-related parenting stress. Medical file review established disease severity. Results Pearson correlations identified significant inverse associations of pain frequency with physical and psychosocial domains of HRQOL as rated by the teen and primary caregiver. Generally, internalizing symptoms (i.e. anxiety and depression and disease-related parenting stress were also significantly correlated with lower HRQOL. Examination of possible mediator models via a series of regression analyses confirmed that disease-related parenting stress served as a mediator between pain frequency and physical and psychosocial HRQOL. Less consistent were findings for mediation models involving internalizing symptoms. For these, parent-rated teen depression and teen anxiety served as mediators of the association of pain frequency and HRQOL. Conclusion Results are consistent with extant literature that suggests the association of pain and HRQOL and identify concomitant pain variables of internalizing symptoms and family variables as mediators. Efforts to improve HRQOL should aim to address internalizing symptoms associated with pain as well as parenting stress in the context of SCD management.

  16. Children′s physical activity and screen time: qualitative comparison of views of parents of infants and preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesketh Kylie D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While parents are central to the development of behaviours in their young children, little is known about how parents view their role in shaping physical activity and screen time behaviours. Methods Using an unstructured focus group design, parental views and practices around children′s physical activity and screen time (television and computer use were explored with eight groups of new parents (n=61; child age Results Parents generally believed children are naturally active, which may preclude their engagement in strategies designed to increase physical activity. While parents across both age groups shared many overarching views concerning parenting for children′s physical activity and screen time behaviours, some strategies and barriers differed depending on the age of the child. While most new parents were optimistic about their ability to positively influence their child′s behaviours, many parents of preschool-aged children seemed more resigned to strategies that worked for them, even when aware such strategies may not be ideal. Conclusions Interventions aiming to increase children′s physical activity and decrease screen time may need to tailor strategies to the age group of the child and address parents′ misconceptions and barriers to optimum parenting in these domains.

  17. Obtaining a genetic diagnosis in a child with disability: impact on parental quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingen, M; Albers, L; Borchers, M; Haass, S; Gärtner, J; Schröder, S; Goldbeck, L; von Kries, R; Brockmann, K; Zirn, B

    2016-02-01

    Recent progress in genetic testing has facilitated obtaining an etiologic diagnosis in children with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) or both. Little is known about the benefits of diagnostic elucidation for affected families. We studied the impact of a genetic diagnosis on parental quality of life (QoL) using a validated semiquantitative questionnaire in families with a disabled child investigated by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). We received completed questionnaires from 95 mothers and 76 fathers of 99 families. We used multivariate analysis for adjustment of potential confounders. Taken all 99 families together, maternal QoL score (percentile rank scale 51.05) was significantly lower than fathers' QoL (61.83, p = 0.01). Maternal QoL score was 20.17 [95% CI (5.49; 34.82)] percentile rank scales higher in mothers of children with diagnostic (n = 34) aCGH as opposed to mothers of children with inconclusive (n = 65) aCGH (Hedges' g = 0.71). Comparison of these QoL scores with retrospectively recalled QoL before aCGH revealed an increase of maternal QoL after diagnostic clarification. Our results indicate a benefit for maternal QoL if a genetic test, here aCGH, succeeds to clarify the etiologic diagnosis in a disabled child. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Sleep-Time Cost of Parenting: Sleep Duration and Sleepiness Among Employed Parents in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W.; Mirer, Anna G.; Palta, Mari; Peppard, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with poor health and increased mortality. Studies on whether parenthood (including consideration of number and ages of children) is associated with sleep duration or sleep problems are scant and inconclusive. Using data collected in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (n = 4,809) between 1989 and 2008, we examined cross-sectional associations of number and ages of children with self-reported parental sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and dozing among employed adults. Longitudinal change in sleep duration over 19 years was examined to evaluate changes in parental sleep associated with children transitioning into adulthood (n = 833). Each child under age 2 years was associated with 13 fewer minutes of parental sleep per day (95% confidence interval (CI): 5, 21); each child aged 2–5 years was associated with 9 fewer minutes of sleep (95% CI: 5, 13); and each child aged 6–18 years was associated with 4 fewer minutes (95% CI: 2, 6). Adult children were not associated with shorter parental sleep duration. Parents of children over age 2 years were significantly more likely to experience daytime sleepiness and dozing during daytime activities. Parents of minor children at baseline had significantly greater increases in sleep duration over 19 years of follow-up. Parenting minor children is associated with shorter sleep duration. As children age into adulthood, the sleep duration of parents with more children approaches that of parents with fewer children. PMID:23378502

  19. Parent-Teacher Association, Soup Kitchen, Church, or the Local Civic Club? Life Stage Indicators of Volunteer Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Dawn C; King, Katherine; Matz-Costa, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Gaps in existing literature hinder our knowledge of how life stage-related identities (e.g., worker, parent, student, etc.) influence individuals' decisions about whether and how to get involved in community service. Interventions to increase volunteerism throughout the life course require a more nuanced understanding of this relationship. We use multinomial logistic models to analyze how life phase factors relate to involvement in different types of voluntary organizations across the adult life course in the Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Half of the adults did not volunteer. Those who did volunteer were categorized as charitable, youth-oriented, religious, civic, or multidomain volunteers. Age, employment, family structure, demographics, and self-rated health differentially predicted volunteering in specific domains. Findings from this study suggest that recruitment and retention efforts employed by different nonprofit organizations may be more effective if they take into consideration the life phase factors that enhance or detract from likelihood of engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. LOGIC SIMULATION OF LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM COMPONENT IN REAL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Marchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article proposed the use of simulation methods for evaluating the effectiveness of a stepped fan engine speed control while maintaining the air flow volume in the set boundaries of the «fan-filter» system. A detailed algorithm of the program made on the basis of an Any Logic software package. Is analyzed the possibility of using the proposed method in the design of ventilation systems.The proposed method allows at the design stage to determine the maximum replacement intervals of the systems filter elements, as well as to predict the time to switch the fan motor speeds. Using of the technique allows to refuse the complex air flow systems and maximize the life of the filter elements set.Methods of logical processes modeling allows to reduce construction costs and improve energy efficiency of buildings. 

  1. Rhythms of life: antecedents and outcomes of work-family balance in employed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryee, Samuel; Srinivas, E S; Tan, Hwee Hoon

    2005-01-01

    This study examined antecedents and outcomes of a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance in terms of the direction of influence (work-family vs. family-work) and type of effect (conflict vs. facilitation). Respondents were full-time employed parents in India. Confirmatory factor analysis results provided evidence for the discriminant validity of M. R. Frone's (2003) fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance. Results of moderated regression analysis revealed that different processes underlie the conflict and facilitation components. Furthermore, gender had only a limited moderating influence on the relationships between the antecedents and the components of work-family balance. Last, work-family facilitation was related to the work outcomes of job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

  2. Computer/Mobile Device Screen Time of Children and Their Eye Care Behavior: The Roles of Risk Perception and Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the computer/mobile device screen time and eye care behavior of children and examined the roles of risk perception and parental practices. Data were obtained from a sample of 2,454 child-parent dyads recruited from 30 primary schools in Taipei city and New Taipei city, Taiwan, in 2016. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from students and parents. Fifth-grade students spend more time on new media (computer/smartphone/tablet: 16 hours a week) than on traditional media (television: 10 hours a week). The average daily screen time (3.5 hours) for these children exceeded the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations (≤2 hours). Multivariate analysis results showed that after controlling for demographic factors, the parents with higher levels of risk perception and parental efficacy were more likely to mediate their child's eye care behavior. Children who reported lower academic performance, who were from non-intact families, reported lower levels of risk perception of mobile device use, had parents who spent more time using computers and mobile devices, and had lower levels of parental mediation were more likely to spend more time using computers and mobile devices; whereas children who reported higher academic performance, higher levels of risk perception, and higher levels of parental mediation were more likely to engage in higher levels of eye care behavior. Risk perception by children and parental practices are associated with the amount of screen time that children regularly engage in and their level of eye care behavior.

  3. Life-course occupational social class and health in later life: the importance of frequency and timing of measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Juliet; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Blane, David

    2014-09-01

    Research investigating associations between social class over the life-course and later health relies primarily on secondary analysis of existing data, limiting the number and timing of available measurements. This paper aims to examine the impact of these constraints on the measurement of life-course occupational social class and subsequent explanatory analyses predicting health in later life. Participants of the UK Boyd Orr Lifegrid Subsample ( n  = 294), aged an average of 68 years, provided retrospective information on their life-course occupational social class, coded at 6-month intervals. This was used to simulate two types of life-course data: (1) Theoretical: Life stage (four data-points at key life stages); (2) A-theoretical: Panel data (data-points at regular intervals of varying length). The percentage of life time in disadvantage and the predictive value for limiting longstanding illness (LLI) in later life using the full life-course and simulated data was compared. The presence of 'critical periods' of exposure and the role of trajectories of social class were also investigated. Compared with the full data, the life stage approach estimated a higher percentage of life time in disadvantage and emphasised 'transient' periods in disadvantage (e.g. labour market entry). With varying intervals using the a-theoretical approach, there was no clear pattern. Percentage of life time in manual class was a significant predictor of LLI only when using the four-point life stage approach. Occupational social class at lab