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Sample records for parent education infant

  1. Infant simulation in parental and sexuality education in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines processes related to teaching and learning through implementation of a new dialogue-based parental and sexuality education program using infant simulators. Aim: The purpose is to examine the ways in which infant simulators used in sexuality education in Greenland...... operate to include and exclude, embrace and marginalize, offer access to and create barriers to students’ learning of parental roles and responsibility, pregnancy and sexuality. Methodology: The empirical findings are draw from the account of the education effects observed in schools geographically spread......, partly through an extensive survey of students and parents (n = 1068). The sample includes 802 answers to questionnaires from students, predominantly aged 13 to 16 years, and 266 parental answers. Classroom observations have been supplemented with personal interviews conducted with the principal...

  2. Effect of an educational intervention on parental readiness for premature infant discharge from the neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Bai, Jinbing

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect of an educational intervention on parental readiness for premature infant discharge from neonatal intensive care units. Low readiness for discharge can result in negative healthcare outcomes for infants and their parents. However, few studies have examined the effect of discharge education programmes on parental readiness for premature infant discharge in Chinese critical care settings. A quasi-experimental study. Between October 2011-March 2012, 154 parents of premature infants were recruited from neonatal intensive care units of two tertiary hospitals in Central China. These parents were assigned to either the intervention or control group based on their entry order. Parents in the intervention group received two sessions of 60-minute discharge education along with hospital routine care; parents in the control group only received hospital routine care. Parental readiness for discharge and quality of discharge education were assessed on the day of infant discharge from neonatal intensive care units. Independent samples t-test and linear regression were used to analyse the data. Parental readiness for premature infant discharge was in the moderate level. Independent samples t-test showed that both mean scores of parental discharge readiness and discharge teaching quality from the intervention group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Linear regression analysis showed that discharge teaching quality explained 39·7% of the variance in parental readiness for premature infant discharge. Discharge education can improve parental readiness for premature infant discharge. Quality of discharge teaching can significantly predict parental readiness for premature infant discharge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. What follows newborn screening? An evaluation of a residential education program for parents of infants with newly diagnosed cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Susan M; Glazner, Judith A

    2004-08-01

    The diagnosis of a severe life-limiting condition, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), is generally followed by assessment and treatment of the child and education and counseling for parents. The introduction of newborn screening for CF provides an opportunity for standardized assessment and education. The aim of this study was to evaluate a 5-day residential assessment and education program for parents of infants who receive a diagnosis of CF after newborn screening. Eligible parents had a 6- to 30-month-old infant with CF diagnosed by newborn screening. Parents were interviewed by telephone using a structured questionnaire that addressed 3 main themes: 1) initial communication of the diagnosis of CF, 2) the perceived value of the 5-day assessment and education program, and 3) the perceived advantages and disadvantages of the residential component (Care-By-Parent unit) of the program. Fifteen of 17 eligible families took part in the 5-day assessment and education program, 12 of whom used the residential Care-By-Parent unit. At the end of the program, parents believed that they had the knowledge and skills required to manage their child's CF at home. One hundred percent endorsed the timing of the assessment and education program immediately after the child's diagnosis and would recommend it to other families in the same situation. Perceived advantages of the residential program were not having to travel (89%), being able to concentrate on CF (50%), and the benefit of a "home base" at the hospital (39%). Twenty-two percent reported that financial costs related to participation (paternal time off work) were a disadvantage, 17% reported additional strain on family members caring for siblings, and 17% mentioned lack of comfort within the unit. This time-intensive residential program was evaluated positively by parents of children with newly diagnosed CF. It provides a model for education programs after the diagnosis of CF by newborn screening, as well as for other pediatric

  4. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...

  5. Understanding and Improving Health Education Among First-time Parents of Infants With Sickle Cell Anemia in Alabama: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensburger, Jeffrey D.; Grosse, Scott D.; Altice, Jessica L.; Thierry, JoAnn M.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary With the increase in access to medical information, parents can acquire health information from multiple sources. An understanding of parents' reactions to a newborn infant's diagnosis of sickle cell anemia and how they acquire knowledge can identify parent beliefs and preferences about the process of sickle cell education. This study utilized a sequential exploratory mixed methods design. First, qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 parents of infants with sickle cell anemia to understand the process of health education. Second, quantitative surveys were conducted with 22 other parents to test qualitative findings. Parents of infants with sickle cell anemia expressed a high level of fear at the time of notification of a positive screen. Parents desired an understanding of how to identify acute complications of disease and how sickle cell will alter their child's life. Parents actively sought information at the time they were told their child had sickle cell disease. Sickle cell education should begin at time of notification of positive newborn screening results and address identified parent concerns. Health care providers should build trust with parents and provide them with immediate access to educational materials. Hematologists should work with primary care providers to develop complementary educational programs and resources. PMID:25072367

  6. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  7. Parenting paradox: parenting after infant loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warland, Jane; O'Leary, Joann; McCutcheon, Helen; Williamson, Victoria

    2011-10-01

    to gain an in-depth understanding of the parenting experiences of bereaved parents in the years following an infant death. an exploratory qualitative study. semi-structured interview in the participants' homes. Data were collected over a five-month period in 2008 and analysed using thematic analysis. a purposive sample of 13 bereaved parents (10 mothers and three fathers) was used. Parents who had accessed the support services offered by two bereavement support agencies were recruited. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of raising their subsequent child. Interviews were conducted when the next born child was at least three years of age. the parents described a 'paradoxical' parenting style where they were trying to parent using two diametrically opposed unsustainable options. For example, they described trying to hold their subsequent child emotionally close but aloof at the same time. the results from this study indicate that the impact of a loss of an infant has far-reaching consequences on subsequent parenting. Support and early intervention at the time of the stillbirth and subsequent pregnancy are likely to be useful. However, further research is required to determine the extent to which early intervention can alter the tendency towards bereaved parents adopting a paradoxical parenting style. The impact of this style on mental health and the emotional health and well-being of the next born child/ren after perinatal loss should also be further examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Infant Attachment Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or

  9. Infants in Drug Withdrawal: A National Description of Nurse Workload, Infant Acuity, and Parental Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica G; Rogowski, Jeannette A; Schoenauer, Kathryn M; Lake, Eileen T

    Infants in drug withdrawal have complex physiological and behavioral states, requiring intensive nursing care. The study objectives were to describe acuity, parental needs, and nurse workload of infants in drug withdrawal compared with other infants. The design was cross-sectional and involved secondary nurse survey data from 6045 staff nurses from a national sample of 104 neonatal intensive care units. Nurses reported the care of 15 233 infants, 361 (2.4%) of whom were in drug withdrawal. Three-fourths of hospitals had at least 1 infant in drug withdrawal. In these hospitals, the mean number of infants in drug withdrawal was 4.7. Infant acuity was significantly higher among infants in drug withdrawal. Parents of infants in drug withdrawal required significantly more care to address complex social situations (51% vs 12%). The number of infants assigned to nurses with at least 1 infant in withdrawal (mean = 2.69) was significantly higher than typical (mean = 2.51). Given infant acuity and parental needs, policies legislating patient-to-nurse ratios should permit professional discretion on the number of patients to assign nurses caring for infants in drug withdrawal. Managers and charge nurses should consider the demands of caring for infants in drug withdrawal in assignment decisions and provide support and education.

  10. Health Literacy Among Parents of Newborn Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackley, Amy; Winter, Michael; Guillen, Ursula; Paul, David A.; Locke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Health Literacy is the ability to obtain, process, and understand health information to make knowledgeable health decisions. PURPOSE To determine baseline health literacy of NICU parents at a tertiary care hospital during periods of crucial information exchange. METHODS Health Literacy of English speaking NICU parents was assessed using the Newest vital Sign (NVS) on admission (n=121) and discharge (n=59). A quasi-control group of well newborn (WBN) parents (n=24) and prenatal obstetric clinic (PRE) parents (n=18) were included. A single, Likert-style question measured nurse’s assessment of parental comprehension with discharge teaching. Suspected limited health literacy (SLHL) was defined as NVS score of ≤3. FINDINGS / RESULTS Forty-three percent of parents on NICU admission and 32% at NICU discharge had SLHL (pNICU parents and 25% of WBN parents with SLHL at time of admission/infant birth had a college education. Nurse subjective measurement of parental comprehension of discharge instructions was not correlated to the objective measurement of health literacy (p=0.26). IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE SLHL is common during peak time periods of complex health discussion in the NICU, WBN, and PRE settings. NICU providers may not accurately gauge parent’s literacy status. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH Methods for improving health communication are needed. Studies should evaluate SLHL in a larger NICU population and across different languages and cultures. PMID:27391562

  11. Parenting Stress in Parents of Infants With Congenital Heart Disease and Parents of Healthy Infants: The First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfenshtein, Nadya; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Deatrick, Janet A; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    While we know that the parents of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD), the most prevalent group of congenital anomalies, experience increased parenting stress, the stress levels throughout infancy have yet to be studied. Stress experienced by parents beyond the normative stress of parenting can interfere with parenting processes, and bear adverse family outcomes. This prospective cohort study was conducted to describe and compare parenting stress levels during infancy between parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants. The Parenting Stress Index-Long Form was distributed to parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants (N = 129). T-tests were used to compare stress between groups at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Parents of infants with complex CHD had higher parenting stress than parents of healthy infants on multiple subscales on the Child and Parent Domains, at 3 months of age. The stress remained higher on the demandingness subscale throughout infancy. Parents of CHD infants also demonstrated significantly higher stress scores on the life stress subscale at 12 months of age. Findings highlight stressful periods related to parenting infants with CHD, which may increase existing psycho-social risk for parents of infants with CHD. Early family intervention may promote parental adaptation to the illness, and help establishing healthy parenting practices.

  12. Early Parent-infant Interactions; Are Health Visitors' Observations Reliable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ingeborg Hedegaard; Simonsen, Marianne; Trillingsgaard, Tea

    2014-01-01

    -infant relations, and there was no significant difference between the two groups according to intentions, self-efficacy, age, years educated and working part or full time. Certificated Marte Meo-therapists had significantly higher skills assessing mother- infant interactions and they scored significantly higher...... high intention and self-efficacy to work with parent-infant relation, professionals certified as Marte Meo-therapists are 8-12% superior in terms of observation skills and knowledge. Further research is needed to determinate whether the level of knowledge and observation skills is associated...

  13. Bidirectional Associations between Bedtime Parenting and Infant Sleep: Parenting Quality, Parenting Practices, and their Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbrook, Lauren E.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2016-01-01

    In keeping with transactional conceptualizations of infant sleep development (Sadeh et al., 2010), the present study examined longitudinal, bidirectional linkages between bedtime parenting (direct observations of parenting practices and quality) and infant sleep across the first six months postpartum. In doing so, we also drew from Darling and Steinberg's (1993) conceptual model to examine parenting quality as a moderator of linkages between specific bedtime practices and infant sleep. Multilevel model analyses revealed that the strongest increases in infant nighttime sleep across the first six months occurred among infants of mothers who engaged in low levels of nursing at bedtime. Within-person linkages between mothers' emotional availability (EA) at bedtime, infant distress, and infant sleep were found, such that at time points when mothers were more emotionally available, infants were less distressed and slept more throughout the night. Several moderating effects of maternal EA on linkages between parenting practices and infant sleep were obtained that were consistent with predictions from Darling and Steinberg (1993). Higher maternal EA in combination with less close contact at bedtime was associated with more infant sleep across the night on average, and higher EA in combination with fewer arousing bedtime activities predicted more rapid increases in infant sleep with age. Finally, there was evidence of infant-driven effects, as higher infant nighttime distress predicted lower EA at subsequent time points. Results showcased the complex, reciprocal interplay between parents and infants in the development of infant sleep patterns and parenting behavior during the first six months postpartum. PMID:27010601

  14. Infant-Parent Attachment and Parental and Child Behavior during Parent-Toddler Storybook Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Cynthia A.; Cox, Martha J.; Goldman, Barbara Davis

    2001-01-01

    Examined longitudinal associations between infant-parent attachment and parent/toddler behavior during storybook interaction. Found that infants with insecure-resistant attachment with mothers were less enthusiastic and focused during storybook interaction at 24 months. Mothers of insecure-resistant infants were less warm/supportive, and less…

  15. Communicating with parents of premature infants: who is the informant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, W J; Leef, K H; Mackley, A; Spear, M L; Paul, D A

    2006-01-01

    To determine what sources of information are most helpful for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents, who provides NICU parents with the information, and also what expectations parents have regarding obtaining information. A 19-item questionnaire was given to the parents of infants 32 weeks or younger prior to discharge from the NICU. Out of the 101 parents who consented, almost all of the parents (96%) felt that 'the medical team gave them the information they needed about their baby' and that the 'neonatologist did a good job of communicating' with them (91%). However, the nurse was chosen as 'the person who spent the most time explaining the baby's condition, 'the best source of information,' and the person who told them 'about important changes in their baby's condition' (Pparent education is satisfactory, the parents identified the nurses as the primary source of information.

  16. Open adoption of infants: adoptive parents' feelings seven years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Deborah H

    2003-07-01

    Adoptions today increasingly include contact between adoptive and birth families. What do these "open adoptions" look like? How do the participants feel about them? This article, based on part of a longitudinal study that first examined adoptive parents' perceptions of their infants' open adoptions seven years ago, explores the parents' reactions now that their children are school age. This qualitative descriptive research revealed changes in the openness in the adoptions over time and identified four dimensions along which open adoptions vary. Findings showed parents' enthusiasm for the openness in their adoptions, regardless of the type and extent of openness. Implications for social work practice, education, and policy are explored.

  17. Bidirectional associations between bedtime parenting and infant sleep: Parenting quality, parenting practices, and their interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbrook, Lauren E; Teti, Douglas M

    2016-06-01

    In keeping with transactional conceptualizations of infant sleep development (Sadeh, Tikotzky, & Scher, 2010), the present study was an examination of longitudinal, bidirectional linkages between bedtime parenting (through direct observations of parenting practices and quality) and infant sleep across the first 6 months postpartum. In doing so, we also drew from Darling and Steinberg's (1993) conceptual model to examine parenting quality as a moderator of linkages between specific bedtime practices and infant sleep. Multilevel model analyses revealed that the strongest increases in infant nighttime sleep across the first 6 months occurred among infants of mothers who engaged in low levels of nursing at bedtime. Within-person linkages between mothers' emotional availability (EA) at bedtime, infant distress, and infant sleep were found, such that at time points when mothers were more emotionally available, infants were less distressed and slept more throughout the night. Several moderating effects of maternal EA on linkages between parenting practices and infant sleep were obtained that were consistent with predictions from Darling and Steinberg (1993). Higher maternal EA in combination with less close contact at bedtime was associated with more infant sleep across the night on average, and higher EA in combination with fewer arousing bedtime activities predicted more rapid increases in infant sleep with age. Finally, there was evidence of infant-driven effects, as higher infant nighttime distress predicted lower EA at subsequent time points. Results showcased the complex, reciprocal interplay between parents and infants in the development of infant sleep patterns and parenting behavior during the first 6 months postpartum. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. How do parents' depression and anxiety, and infants' negative temperament relate to parent-infant face-to-face interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Evin; Colonnesi, Cristina; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Bögels, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigated the associations of mothers' and fathers' lifetime depression and anxiety symptoms, and of infants' negative temperament with parents' and infants' gaze, facial expressions of emotion, and synchrony. We observed infants' (age between 3.5 and 5.5 months, N = 101) and parents' gaze and facial expressions during 4-min naturalistic face-to-face interactions. Parents' lifetime symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed with clinical interviews, and infants' negative temperament was measured with standardized observations. Parents with more depressive symptoms and their infants expressed less positive and more neutral affect. Parents' lifetime anxiety symptoms were not significantly related to parents' expressions of affect, while they were linked to longer durations of gaze to parent, and to more positive and negative affect in infants. Parents' lifetime depression or anxiety was not related to synchrony. Infants' temperament did not predict infants' or parents' interactive behavior. The study reveals that more depression symptoms in parents are linked to more neutral affect from parents and from infants during face-to-face interactions, while parents' anxiety symptoms are related to more attention to parent and less neutral affect from infants (but not from parents).

  19. Parental Involvement in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tessa

    1979-01-01

    Arguments in favor of increased parental involvement, particularly in nursery education, are presented. Opposition to participation from parents and teachers is discussed and specific areas in which cooperation might be possible are suggested along with different levels of participation. (JMF)

  20. Parental professional help-seeking for infant sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Wen; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tung, Yi-Ching; Thomas, Karen A; Tsai, Shao-Yu

    2017-12-01

    To explore the perceptions and experiences of parental professional help-seeking for infant sleep and sleep-related concerns. Infant sleep is a frequent concern for parents. However, very little is known about the reasons parents seek, do not seek or delay seeking professional attention about their concerns related to infant sleep. A qualitative study design was used. Twenty audio-taped interviews with parents of healthy 12-month-old infants were conducted at a university-affiliated hospital or parents' homes depending on where parents felt more comfortable discussing their personal views and medical help-seeking experiences. Thematic content analysis was performed to determine specific patterns and similarities within and between interview data. Three main themes developed from the interviews were as follows: (i) uncertainty about infant sleep; (ii) I can handle infant sleep; and (iii) I am not satisfied with the professional services provided for infant sleep. Overall, parents knew little about or misunderstood infant sleep behaviours. Lack of proper information and knowledge about infant sleep influenced parents' motivation for professional help-seeking and help-receiving. Parents who have consulted a healthcare professional but received unsatisfactory responses, such as an ambivalent attitude or insufficient assessment, reported being less motivated or unwilling to seek medical help again. Our study demonstrates the complexity of parental professional help-seeking and receiving for infant sleep. Findings suggest that parents perceive a wide range of barriers that influence the likelihood that they will seek professional advice for infant sleep. Reducing knowledge barriers and providing adequate attention at all well-infant visits would facilitate parental use of healthcare services to manage problematic infant sleep behaviours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Parent-infant psychotherapy for improving parental and infant mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Bennett, Cathy; Midgley, Nick; Larkin, Soili K; Wei, Yinghui

    2015-01-08

    Parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP) is a dyadic intervention that works with parent and infant together, with the aim of improving the parent-infant relationship and promoting infant attachment and optimal infant development. PIP aims to achieve this by targeting the mother's view of her infant, which may be affected by her own experiences, and linking them to her current relationship to her child, in order to improve the parent-infant relationship directly. 1. To assess the effectiveness of PIP in improving parental and infant mental health and the parent-infant relationship.2. To identify the programme components that appear to be associated with more effective outcomes and factors that modify intervention effectiveness (e.g. programme duration, programme focus). We searched the following electronic databases on 13 January 2014: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2014, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, BIOSIS Citation Index, Science Citation Index, ERIC, and Sociological Abstracts. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, checked reference lists, and contacted study authors and other experts. Two review authors assessed study eligibility independently. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-randomised controlled trials (quasi-RCT) that compared a PIP programme directed at parents with infants aged 24 months or less at study entry, with a control condition (i.e. waiting-list, no treatment or treatment-as-usual), and used at least one standardised measure of parental or infant functioning. We also included studies that only used a second treatment group. We adhered to the standard methodological procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration. We standardised the treatment effect for each outcome in each study by dividing the mean difference (MD) in post-intervention scores between the intervention and control groups by the pooled standard deviation. We presented standardised mean differences (SMDs) and

  2. Infants' symptoms of illness assessed by parents: Impact and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Siersma, Volkert; Reventlow, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Some parents with a sick infant contact a doctor, while others do not. The reasons underlying such parental decisions have not been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to explore how the actual symptoms in the infant were associated with parent-rated illness......, illness severity, and the probability of the parents contacting a doctor. Design. A retrospective questionnaire and a prospective diary study covering 14 months of the participating infants' lives. Setting and subjects. The 194 participating infants were followed for three months prospectively from...... with at least one symptom; 38% of the infants were reported to have had five or more symptoms for more than five days. Fever, earache, and vomiting were the symptoms most likely to cause parents to rate their infant as ill. Earache was the symptom that triggered doctor contact most immediately. The parent...

  3. Pinterest for Parent Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, Brianna; Langworthy, Sara; Jastram, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    As more parents are using the Internet to answer their questions, Extension needs to provide practical, research-based resources in an accessible format. Pinterest is a platform that can be used by Extension educators to provide continued education and make reputable resources more discoverable for parents. Based on Knowles adult learning theory…

  4. Effectiveness of a presentation on infant oral health care for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Vincent; Kebriaei, Amy; Pitner, Sheryl; Balluff, Mary; Salama, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an infant oral health education programme, using a pre-post test design, for parents attending a paediatric clinic. The subjects were parents attending the well baby appointments at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. The study participants were men and women, all with an infant between 3 and 12 months of age. A 16 question assessment in the form of a questionnaire was completed immediately before and after the introduction of a 30 min educational intervention in the form of a PowerPoint presentation and a video of infant oral hygiene for parents. The parents completed the questionnaire twice (pre-post test design) in the same visit. Recruited parents attended only one presentation. The presentation educated parents about infant oral health and provided anticipatory guidance. Forty-seven parents or caretakers participated in the study. On the pre-test 28% had a score of 70% or less, and on the post-test 87% got a score of 88% or better. On the pre-test, 72% had a score of 70% or higher, and on the post-test 87% got a score of 88% or higher. Most parents (80%) reported that the presentation was helpful and indicated that the information would change the way they care for their baby's teeth at home. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of a 30 min PowerPoint and Video presentation in improving the oral health knowledge of parents caring for an infant.

  5. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent-Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, M Angeles; Sierra-García, Purificación; Pons-Salvador, Gemma; Trenado, Rosa M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant's gender. The State Space Grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each group. MANOVA results showed no differential parenting of boys and girls. Additionally, mothers and fathers showed no differences in the Diversity of behavioral dyadic states nor in Predictability. However, differences associated with parent's gender were found in that the paternal dyads were more "active" than the maternal dyads: they were faster in the rates per second of behavioral events and transitions or change of state. In contrast, maternal dyads were more repetitive because, once they visited a certain dyadic state, they tend to be involved in more events. Results showed a significant discriminant function on the parental groups, fathers and mothers. Specifically, the content analyses carried out for the three NDS variables, that previously showed differences between groups, showed particular dyadic behavioral states associated with the rate of Transitions and the Events per Visit ratio. Thus, the transitions involving 'in-out' of 'Child Social Approach neutral - Sensitive Approach neutral' state and the repetitions of events in the dyadic state 'Child Play-Sensitive Approach neutral' distinguished fathers from mothers. The classification of dyads (with fathers and mothers) based on this discriminant function identified 73.10% (19/26) of the father-infant dyads and 88.5% (23/26) of the mother-infant dyads. The study of father-infant interaction using the SSG approach offers interesting possibilities because it characterizes and quantifies the actual moment-to-moment flow

  6. Parental Socioeconomic Status and Weight Faltering in Infants in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Kachi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies in the UK and Denmark found no significant association between low socioeconomic status (SES and weight faltering. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies from other developed countries. We examined the association between parental SES and weight faltering in infants up to 1.5 years of age, and investigated whether the inequalities changed between 2001 and 2010 in Japan.Methods: We used data from two Japanese population-based birth cohorts started in 2001 (n = 34,594 and 2010 (n = 21,189. Parental SES was assessed as household income and parental education when the infant was 6 months old. Weight faltering was defined as the slowest weight gaining in 5% of all children in each cohort. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with adjustment for covariates. The relative index of inequality was used to assess relative impact of parental SES on weight faltering.Results: Infants in the lowest quartile of household income were 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10, 1.52 and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.56 times more likely to experience weight faltering than those in the highest income quartile both in the 2001 and 2010 cohorts, respectively. The relative index of inequality for household income was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.36, 1.96 in 2001 and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.31 in 2010.Conclusions: Infants from lower income families have a greater risk of weight faltering in Japan. Additionally, the income-related inequalities in weight faltering did not change between the two cohorts. Social policies to address maldistribution of weight faltering due to household income are needed.

  7. Decisions of black parents about infant bedding and sleep surfaces: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Taiwo I; Oden, Rosalind P; Joyner, Brandi L; Moon, Rachel Y

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this qualitative study was to examine factors influencing decisions by black parents regarding use of soft bedding and sleep surfaces for their infants. We conducted focus groups and individual interviews with black mothers of lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES). Mothers were asked about many infant care practices, including sleep surface and bedding. Eighty-three mothers were interviewed, 73 (47 lower and 26 higher SES) in focus groups and 10 (7 lower and 3 higher SES) in individual interviews. The primary reason for using soft surfaces was infant comfort. Parents perceived that infants were uncomfortable if the surface was not soft. Many parents also interpreted "firm sleep surface" to mean taut; they were comfortable with and believed that they were following recommendations for a firm sleep surface when they placed pillows/blankets on the mattress as long as a sheet was pulled tautly over the pillows/blankets. The primary reasons for using soft bedding (including bumper pads) were comfort, safety, and aesthetics. In addition to using bedding to soften sleep surfaces, bedding was used to prevent infant rollover and falls, particularly for infants sleeping on a bed or sofa. Some parents used soft bedding to create an attractive space for the infant. Many black parents believe that soft bedding will keep their infant safe and comfortable. There is much misunderstanding about the meaning of a "firm" sleep surface. Additional educational messages apparently are needed to change parental perceptions and practices.

  8. Infant Gaze Following during Parent-Infant Coviewing of Baby Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Lindsay B.; Hanson, Katherine G.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 122 parent–infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television…

  9. Effects of Health Education on Infant's Parents Participating in Child Health Care%健康教育对婴儿家长参与儿童保健的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季冬

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究分析健康教育对婴儿家长参与儿童保健的效果。方法随机选取儿童保健门诊婴儿180例,将其平均分为观察组与对照组,对观察组婴儿家长实施健康教育,对照组不实施健康教育,一段时间后比较两组婴儿家长参加儿童保健的情况。结果观察组家长参与儿童保健情况优于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对婴儿家长实施健康教育可有效提高儿童的保健质量。%ObjectiveTo study the effect of health education on infant's parents' participation in child health care.Methods Randomly selected child health clinic infants 180 cases. They were divided into observation group and control group. The parents of the observation group were carried out health education,and the control group did not carry out health education. After a period of time were compared between the two groups of the parents of the baby in child care.Results The parents of the observation group were significantly better than the control group in child care,and the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05).Conclusion Health education can effectively improve the quality of health care for infants and their parents.

  10. An Investigation of How Parents and Non-parents Attend to Infant and Child Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson-Booth, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Detecting infant facial cues is a necessary precursor for effective parenting responses. The question arises whether infant faces elicit preferential allocation of attention in order to facilitate such detection. This thesis employed variations of an existing behavioural attentional paradigm (Hodsoll, Viding, & Lavie, 2011) in first-time parents and non-parents. Individual differences in attentional engagement to infant faces were investigated in relation to: parental status; sex; current sym...

  11. Parental Perceptions of Touch between Parents and Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the role of touch in the parental experience of having an infant in the NICU. Using a narrative analysis methodology, the researcher interviewed six parents who currently had infants in the NICU. Both mothers and one father were interviewed. Infant ages ranged from 24-28 weeks gestation and all…

  12. Parents on education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex Herweijer; Ria Vogels

    2004-01-01

    Original title: Ouders over opvoeding en onderwijs. The position of parents with regard to children' education has been changing in recent years: the government believes that they should have a major influence on what happens at their children's school, and also that parents and schools should

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder in parents following infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2017-01-01

    Parents who have lost an infant prior to, during, or following birth often interpret the event as highly traumatic. The present systematic review included 46 articles based on 31 different studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in parents bereaved by infant death. The PTSD prevalence...

  14. Parents' perceptions of their infant's pain experience in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Gay; Franck, Linda S; Kools, Susan; Lynch, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Despite numerous advances in the recognition, assessment, and management of pain in neonates over the past two decades, there has been limited improvement in the knowledge base regarding parental responses to their infant's pain. This study examined parents' views of their experiences observing and coping with their infant's pain in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Twelve participants were recruited using purposive sampling from two groups: (a) parents who had infants currently receiving care in the NICU (n=6); and (b) parents whose infants had been discharged from the NICU and were enrolled in the outpatient follow-up clinic at each hospital (n=6). An exploratory, semi-structured format was used to interview parents individually (n=5) or in focus groups (n=7) regarding their infant's clinical course, infant pain experiences, and the parenting experience during and after the NICU stay. Thematic content analysis was used to develop conceptual categories. Two broad themes were identified: (a) infant pain as a source of parental distress and (b) relief of parental distress due to infant's pain.

  15. A Methodology for Assessing Parental Perception of Infant Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others

    The Perception of Baby Temperament Scales (PBT) were used to elicit parental perceptions of infant temperament, with the results rated for internal consistency and congruence between parents. Data was obtained from 26 families, with both father and mother describing their first-born infants at five months of age. The PBT Scales deal with a range…

  16. GAME (Goals - Activity - Motor Enrichment): protocol of a single blind randomised controlled trial of motor training, parent education and environmental enrichment for infants at high risk of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Catherine; Novak, Iona; Dale, Russell C; Guzzetta, Andrea; Badawi, Nadia

    2014-10-07

    Cerebral palsy is the most common physical disability of childhood and early detection is possible using evidence based assessments. Systematic reviews indicate early intervention trials rarely demonstrate efficacy for improving motor outcomes but environmental enrichment interventions appear promising. This study is built on a previous pilot study and has been designed to assess the effectiveness of a goal - oriented motor training and enrichment intervention programme, "GAME", on the motor outcomes of infants at very high risk of cerebral palsy (CP) compared with standard community based care. A two group, single blind randomised controlled trial (n = 30) will be conducted. Eligible infants are those diagnosed with CP or designated "at high risk of CP" on the basis of the General Movements Assessment and/or abnormal neuroimaging. A physiotherapist and occupational therapist will deliver home-based GAME intervention at least fortnightly until the infant's first birthday. The intervention aims to optimize motor function and engage parents in developmental activities aimed at enriching the home learning environment. Primary endpoint measures will be taken 16 weeks after intervention commences with the secondary endpoint at 12 months and 24 months corrected age. The primary outcome measure will be the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale second edition. Secondary outcomes measures include the Gross Motor Function Measure, Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale, and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Parent well-being will be monitored using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. This paper presents the background, design and intervention protocol of a randomised trial of a goal driven, motor learning approach with customised environmental interventions and parental education for young infants at high risk of cerebral palsy. This trial is registered on the Australian

  17. The Effect of Health Education on Infant's Parents' Participation in Chil-dren's Health Care%健康教育对社区婴儿家长参与儿童保健的效果探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of health education on the role of community infant parents in child health care. Methods 140 infants parents were selected during the period July 2014 to 2015 September a community service station un-der the jurisdiction as the research object, randomly divided for the study group and the control group, each 70 cases in each, control group received routine community publicity, research group on the basis of the control group also be issue of free manuals, lectures on health and telephone consultation etc. methods of publicity, compared two groups of infants and parents on children's health knowledge understanding. Results Degree of 88.6%in the control group infants parents of child care knowledge, parents of infants in the study group child care knowledge of 97.1%, degree (χ2=3.877,P< 0.05) of under-standing children's health knowledge of parents of infants in the two groups, control group of the parents of the baby in the infant nutrition guidance and disease prevention, growth and development index, immunity index score were lower than those of the study group and between groups (P< 0.05). Conclusion The application of health education to children's par-ents to participate in child health care can improve the knowledge of infant parents to children's health knowledge, to en-sure the healthy growth of infants has important significance.%目的:探究应用健康教育对社区婴儿家长参与儿童保健的作用效果。方法选取2014年7月—2015年9月期间某社区服务站管辖的140例婴儿家长作为研究对象,将其随机分为对照组和研究组,每组70例,对照组行常规的社区工作方法宣传,研究组在对照组的基础上同时予以发放免费的手册、健康讲座以及电话咨询等方法进行宣传,对比两组婴儿家长对儿童保健知识的了解情况。结果对照组婴儿家长的儿童保健知识了解度为88.6%,研究组婴儿家长的儿童保健知识了解度为97

  18. Relations of Mothers' and Fathers' Reports of Infant Temperament, Parents' Psychological Functioning, and Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Jaqueline N.; Stevenson, Marguerite B.

    1986-01-01

    Examines 95 parents' reports of relations between infant termperament and parental psychological conditions, as well as familiy characteristics of socioeconomic status, birth order, and infant gender. (HOD)

  19. Muenster Parental Programme empowers parents in communicating with their infant with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanemann, Reinhild; Reichmuth, Karen; Matulat, Peter; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette Am

    2013-12-01

    With the implementation of the Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS), the age of diagnosis of children with hearing loss (HL) has been steadily declining in the past years. Consequently, there is a need for early educational intervention methods that are suitable for infants at the preverbal level. To meet this need we have developed and evaluated the Muenster Parental Programme (MPP), a responsive parenting programme for parents of children with HL aged 3-18 months. It aims at enhancing the parents' communicative skills towards their child. The MPP is introduced following confirmation of a HL. Flanked by two individual counselling sessions, the programme comprises six group sessions and two single training sessions with video feedback. The focus of the programme lies in enhancing parents' responsive behaviour and in reducing inappropriate initiative behaviour. The present study involved 29 parents of 24 children aged 6.6 (mean, range: 3-12) months at the outset of the MPP. The children's degree of HL ranged from moderate to profound. Parents of children with unilateral HL and/or risk for an additional developmental delay were included. The prospective study compared parent communication skills of a trained (N = 15) versus a control group (N = 14) before and after the MPP. For this purpose, instances of responsive behaviour to the signals of the child and total time of initiative behaviour within a 4-min video-sample were measured before and after completion of the study in both groups. Trained parents could enhance their responsiveness to vocal and preverbal signals of the child (Wilcoxon test, p = .002) and also their responsiveness to non-verbal signals (Wilcoxon test, p parents reduced their inappropriate initiative behaviour (related t-test, p parental responsiveness to infants with HL is of great importance as these early behaviours underlie later acquisition of speech, language, hearing and social communication skills. The MPP constitutes the first

  20. EARLY POSTPARTUM PARENTAL PREOCCUPATION AND POSITIVE PARENTING THOUGHTS: RELATIONSHIP WITH PARENT-INFANT INTERACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Mayes, Linda; Feldman, Ruth; Leckman, James F; Swain, James E

    2013-01-01

    Parenting behaviors and parent-infant emotional bonding during the early postpartum months play a critical role in infant development. However, the nature and progression of parental thoughts and their relationship with interactive behaviors have received less research. The current study investigated the trajectory of parental thoughts and behaviors among primiparous mothers ( n = 18) and fathers ( n = 15) and multiparous mothers ( n = 13) and fathers ( n = 13), which were measured at the first and third postpartum month. At the third postpartum month, the relationship between parental thoughts and parental interactive behaviors also was tested. Mothers and fathers showed high levels of preoccupations and caregiving thoughts during the first postpartum month that significantly declined by the third postpartum month. In contrast, positive thoughts about parenting and the infant increased over the same time interval. Mothers presented higher levels of preoccupations and positive thoughts than did fathers, and first-time parents reported more intense preoccupations than did experienced parents. Although maternal sensitivity was inversely related to maternal anxious thoughts, paternal sensitivity was predicted by higher levels of anxious as well as caregiving and positive thoughts.

  1. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy, the Transition to Parenthood and Parental Narcissism: Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espasa, Francisco Palacio

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author discusses some of the indications for short- or long-term parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions in terms of what he defines as "problems of parenthood" and "problems of parental narcissism". Brief parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions are most frequently indicated in the case of the former: more neurotic…

  2. Nighttime parenting strategies and sleep-related risks to infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Lane E; Ball, Helen L; McKenna, James J

    2013-02-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004. Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may

  3. Natural Parenting — Back to Basics in Infant Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine A. Schön

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines an age-old approach to parenting recently rediscovered in Western industrialized societies and known by names such as natural parenting, attachment parenting, and instinctive parenting. Its leading principle is utmost sensitivity to the child's innate emotional and physical needs, resulting in extended breastfeeding on demand, extensive infant carrying on the caregiver's body, and cosleeping of infant and parents. The described practices prevailed during the evolutionary history of the human species and reflect the natural, innate rearing style of the human species to which the human infant has biologically adapted over the course of evolution. An overview of research from diverse areas regarding psychological as well as physiological aspects of early care provides evidence for the beneficial effects of natural parenting. Cross-cultural and historical data is cited to reveal the widespread use of the investigated parenting style. It is concluded that the described approach to parenting provides the human infant with an ideal environment for optimal growth both psychologically and physiologically. It is yet to be determined how much departure from this prototype of optimal human parenting is possible without compromising infant and parental wellbeing. The review also invites a critical reevaluation of current Western childrearing practices.

  4. Intimate Surveillance: Normalizing Parental Monitoring and Mediation of Infants Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tama Leaver

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parents are increasingly sharing information about infants online in various forms and capacities. To more meaningfully understand the way parents decide what to share about young people and the way those decisions are being shaped, this article focuses on two overlapping areas: parental monitoring of babies and infants through the example of wearable technologies and parental mediation through the example of the public sharing practices of celebrity and influencer parents. The article begins by contextualizing these parental practices within the literature on surveillance, with particular attention to online surveillance and the increasing importance of affect. It then gives a brief overview of work on pregnancy mediation, monitoring on social media, and via pregnancy apps, which is the obvious precursor to examining parental sharing and monitoring practices regarding babies and infants. The examples of parental monitoring and parental mediation will then build on the idea of “intimate surveillance” which entails close and seemingly invasive monitoring by parents. Parental monitoring and mediation contribute to the normalization of intimate surveillance to the extent that surveillance is (resituated as a necessary culture of care. The choice to not survey infants is thus positioned, worryingly, as a failure of parenting.

  5. A qualitative study of clinical reasoning in physiotherapy with preterm infants and their parents: Action and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkstad, Ragnhild B; Obstfelder, Aud; Øberg, Gunn Kristin

    2018-09-01

    Physiotherapists (PTs) in primary health care provide services to preterm infants and their parents after hospital discharge. The service should be collaborative and individualized to meet the family's needs. In this study, we analyze pediatric PTs' collaborative work in the clinical setting and investigate the PTs' emerging clinical reasoning (CR) in interaction with the infant and parent(s). The study is based on observations of 20 physical therapy sessions and 20 interviews with PTs. We performed a systematic content analysis informed by enactive theory regarding the interactions and co-creation of meaning. CR emerged in reciprocity with the PTs' interaction with the infant and parent(s). Based on the sensitivity to the infant's motor abilities and signs of engagement as well as the parents' need of support and education, the PTs individualized and reasoned about their therapeutic approach. This interactional CR was vulnerable: infant disengagement, parent expectations, and PT preoccupations could obfuscate interactions and hamper CR. Through mutuality and engagement with the infant and parent(s), the PTs allow the autonomy of interaction to emerge and shape the translation of CR into successful therapeutic actions and learning together with the infant and parent(s).

  6. Parental Perception of Neonates, Parental Stress and Education for NICU Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Mee Ahn, RN, PhD

    2007-12-01

    Conclusion: Environmental modifications of the nursery setting, particularly its remote location to the NICU, could improve mothers' perception of full-term neonates. NICU mothers, as the principal care- givers, may suffer from culturally-grounded, psychoemotional disturbances after giving birth to a sick infant, which may not be applicable to fathers. The quality of family-centered care in the NICU environment, parental role alteration, and the condition of infants need to be improved to decrease parental stress in the NICU. Fathers may have significant potential in caring for mothers and sick infants during the transition to parenthood. Education for NICU parents should be done for both mothers and fathers in the acute postpartum period.

  7. Infant and child deaths: Parent concerns about subsequent pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M; Hannan, Jean; Caicedo, Carmen; Roche, Rosa; Malkawi, Fatima

    2015-12-01

    Examine parents' concerns about subsequent pregnancies after experiencing an infant or child death (newborn to 18 years). Thirty-nine semistructured parent (white, black, Hispanic) interviews 7 and 13 months post infant/child death conducted in English and/or Spanish, audio-recorded, transcribed, and content analyzed. Mothers' mean age was 31.8 years, fathers' was 39 years; 11 parents were white, 16 black, and 12 Hispanic. Themes common at 7 and 13 months: wanting more children; fear, anxiety, scared; praying to God/God's will; thinking about/keeping the infant's/child's memory and at 7 months importance of becoming pregnant for family members; and at 13 months happy about a new baby. Parents who lost a child in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) commented more than those who lost a child in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Black and Hispanic parents commented more on praying to God and subsequent pregnancies being God's will than white parents. Loss of an infant/child is a significant stressor on parents with documented negative physical and mental health outcomes. Assessing parents' subsequent pregnancy plans, recognizing the legitimacy of their fears about another pregnancy, discussing a plan should they encounter problems, and carefully monitoring the health of all parents who lost an infant/child is an essential practitioner role. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Parent and Child Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Kim F.; And Others

    The Parent and Child Education Program (PACE) is a pilot program, developed in Kentucky, to provide adult, early childhood and parent education. PACE targets families that have one or both parents without a high school diploma or equivalency certificate and one child three or four years of age. Parents and children ride the bus to school together,…

  9. Infants' behavioral styles in joint attention situations and parents' socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Monika; Hutman, Ted

    2015-08-01

    In this study the eco-cultural model of parenting (Keller, H. (2007). Cultures of infancy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum) was applied to the study of joint attention behavior of children from families with different socio-economic status (SES). It was hypothesized that infants' early communication styles would differ with SES reflecting more independent or interdependent interactions with their caregivers. It was also hypothesized that infants would use the same types of behaviors whether they have declarative or imperative communication goals. The Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS, Mundy et al., 2003) was administered to 103 typically developing infants of 12 months (approximately half of them siblings of children with autism). A factor analysis, yielding four behavioral factors, namely pointing, eye contact, actions and following points, confirmed the hypothesis that infants use behaviors consistently across situations independent of their communicative intent. MANOVAs (comprising parental education and income) revealed that higher SES infants showed actions more frequently in the ESCS whereas lower SES infants followed experimenter's points more frequently. The results are discussed in the context of presumably differing socialization goals for infants and the divergent contribution of parental education and income that seem to have additive contribution to some factors (actions, following points) but divergent contributions to others (pointing, eye contact). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The comparison of parents' educational level on the breastfeeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mother's milk plays an important role in infant's health, and World Health Organization (WHO) recommends infants should be breastfed for 2 years or up. Aim: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the breastfeeding status based on parents' educational level with comparison between Turkman and ...

  11. Blended Infant Massage–Parenting Enhancement Program on Recovering Substance-Abusing Mothers' Parenting Stress, Self-Esteem, Depression, Maternal Attachment, and Mother-Infant Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz S. Porter, PhD, ARNP, FAANP, FAAN

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that infant massage blended into a structured parenting program has value-added effects in decreasing parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms, but not on SAM's self-esteem, attachment, or maternal-infant interaction.

  12. Bonding with books: the parent-infant connection in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lynne J

    2013-01-01

    Parents of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experience one of the most stressful events of their lives. At times, they are unable to participate fully, if at all, in the care of their infant. Parents in the NICU have a need to participate in the care of their infant to attain the parental role. Parental reading to infants in the NICU is an intervention that can connect the parent and infant and offers a way for parents to participate in caregiving. This intervention may have many benefits and may positively affect the parent-infant relationship.

  13. Stress in parents of very low birth weight preterm infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units. A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, Francisca; Tapia, José L; Torres, Gabriela; Cánepa, Paula; González, María Aurelia; Rodríguez, Diana; Escobar, Marisol; Reyes, Bernardita; Capelli, Carola; Menéndez, Laura; Delgado, Patricia; Treuer, Sergio; Ramírez, Rodrigo; Borja, Norma; Domínguez, Angélica

    2015-08-01

    The birth of a premature baby is a stressful event for parents. The objective of this study was to determine early stress in parents of very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) hospitalized in 12 neonatal intensive care units from a South American Neonatal Network, to identify associated factors, and to compare the level of parental stress in public versus private healthcare facilities. Cross-sectional study in mothers/fathers of VLBWIs (500 to 1500 g). Early parental stress was measured using the Parental Stressor Scale, with a score from 1 (low stress) to 5 (high stress). The sociodemographic characteristics of parents and newborn infants were collected and associated with levels of parental stress. The study included 273 fathers/mothers of a total of 218 VLBW preterm infants. The survey was administered at 5.9 ± 2.0 days of life. The average total parental stress was 3.1 ± 0.8, and the highest score was obtained for the parental role subscale (3.6). A lower education level, unemployment, not having held the newborn infant, and respiratory support requirement were associated with higher parental stress levels. Stress was higher among mothers than fathers, and at public facilities versus private ones. Among parents of VLBWIs, a moderate early parental stress was observed. Parental role alteration was the most relevant factor. Parental stress was higher among mothers and at public healthcare facilities. A greater sensitization, further research and interventions in this area are required.

  14. Teens as Parents of Babies and Toddlers: A Resource Guide for Educators. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birckmayer, Jennifer; Mabb, Katherine; Westendorf, Bonnie-Jo; Wilson, Jerridith

    Providing effective parent education for teen parents can be a challenge for educators. This guide for cooperative extension facilitators provides workshop outlines for teen parents regarding their social world, infant and toddler development, and health and safety. The guide's introduction discusses the challenges of parenting, the Eriksonian…

  15. Factors influencing parents' decision to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Linda A; Pearce, Margaret M

    2014-11-01

    To examine factors that influence a parent's decision to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research. Grounded theory, using semi-structured interviews conducted with 35 postpartum mother or mother-father dyads in an urban teaching hospital. Data were collected from July 2011 to January 2012. Audiorecorded semistructured interviews were conducted in private rooms with mothers or mother-father dyads 24 to 48 hr after the birth of their healthy, full-term infant. Data-driven content analysis using selected principles of grounded theory was performed. Parents' willingness to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk pediatric genetic research emerged as a process involving three interacting components: the parents, the scientist, and the comfort of the child embedded within the context of benefit to the child. The purpose of the study and parents' perception of their commitment of time and resources determined their willingness to participate. The scientist's ability to communicate trust in the research process influenced parents' decisions. Physical discomfort of the child shaped parents' decision to donate DNA. Parental perception of a direct benefit to their child affected their willingness to discuss genetic research and its outcomes. Significant gaps and misunderstandings in parental knowledge of pediatric genetic research may affect parental willingness to donate their healthy child's DNA. Nurses knowledgeable about the decision-making process parents utilize to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research and the factors influencing that decision are well positioned to educate parents about the role of genetics in health and illness and reassure potential research participants of the value and safeguards in pediatric genetic research. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Black parental involvement in education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The South African Schools Act of 1996 (SASA) provides formal power in education to parents as well as communities. ... Review of selected studies on parental involvement in ..... Anna, a Grade 11 teacher, summed up the feelings of the.

  17. Effectiveness of therapeutic behavioral interventions for parents of low birth weight premature infants: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Carrie; Shaw, Richard J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; John, Nicholas H. St.

    2014-01-01

    Premature birth has been associated with a number of adverse maternal psychological outcomes that include depression, anxiety, and trauma as well as adverse effects on maternal coping ability and parenting style. Infants and children who were premature are more likely to have poorer cognitive and developmental functioning and, thus, may be harder to parent. In response to these findings, there have been a number of educational and behavioral interventions developed that target maternal psychological functioning, parenting and aspects of the parent-infant relationship. Since the last comprehensive review of this topic in 2002, there have been a significant number of developments in the quality of the studies conducted and the theoretical models that address the experience of parents of premature infants. In the current review, eighteen new interventions were identified and grouped into four categories based on treatment length and the target of the intervention. Findings suggest a trend towards early, brief interventions that are theoretically based, specifically target parent trauma, and utilize cognitive behavioral techniques. Although it is difficult to generalize study findings, conclusions from the review suggest that targeted interventions may have positive effects on both maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:24532861

  18. Maternal role attainment with medically fragile infants: Part 2. relationship to the quality of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Burchinal, Margaret R; Goldman, Barbara Davis

    2011-02-01

    We examined which components of maternal role attainment (identity, presence, competence) influenced quality of parenting for 72 medically fragile infants, controlling for maternal education and infant illness severity. Maternal competence was related to responsiveness. Maternal presence and technology dependence were inversely related to participation. Greater competence and maternal education were associated with better normal caregiving. Presence was negatively related although competence was positively related to illness-related caregiving. Mothers with lower competence and more technology dependent children perceived their children as more vulnerable and child cues as more difficult to read. Maternal role attainment influenced parenting quality for these infants more than did child illness severity; thus interventions are needed to help mothers develop their maternal role during hospitalization and after discharge. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 34:35-48, 2011. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Social media as a beneficial tool to support preterm infants and parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Ghazisaeedi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Home care, continuous follow-up, and endless post discharge support play vital role in preventing the emergence of mental and physical disabilities and death among preterm infants. Providing necessary care and support for such infants requires huge financial and human resources and exposes heavy costs on hygiene and health system. Internet and information sharing applications, particularly Web 2.0, and social media present innovative techniques to provide a convenient channel to exchange necessary information between infants, parents, and caregivers. Despite the increasingly expanding use of social media in health and medicine, such devices have rarely been applied in more specialized fields, such as the hygiene and health of preterm infants. Thus, the present study aims at investigating studies published on the experiences of parent in regard with the integration of social media in the improvement of preterm infant treatment, determining the function of social media in taking better care of preterm infants, and presenting suggestions for further practical researches in this area of knowledge. This review study was conducted in 2016. To conduct the study, published articles in the years 2005 to 2016, in English with an emphasis on Social media and Preterm infants were studied. Search was done in databases including Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Proquest. The collected data were analyzed. The role of social media in three areas of preterm infants care, sharing the knowledge of clinical professionals, and sharing parenting experiences was clarified. Social media provide the necessary background for the distribution of the knowledge of medical experts; it also creates the opportunities of exchanging ideas, sharing parenting experiences, and expanding the knowledge of experts and educated individuals in addition to providing a stress free environment. The potential of social media in facilitating medical interventions for preterm infants

  20. Parent picture-book reading to infants in the neonatal intensive care unit as an intervention supporting parent-infant interaction and later book reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lariviere, Janice; Rennick, Janet E

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effects of a parent book reading intervention in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on parent-infant interaction and on the incidence of parents reading to their infants 3 months post-NICU discharge. A nonrandomized, participant blinded intervention study using a historical control group (CG) was conducted. The intervention group (IG: n = 59) consisted of parents of infants admitted to the NICU after the introduction of the parent reading program. The CG (n = 57) consisted of parents of infants discharged from the NICU in the 3-month period before the introduction of the reading program. Questionnaires were mailed to participants 3 months after their infant's discharge and completed verbally, over the telephone. Groups were compared on parenting activities and reading. In addition, a thematic analysis of qualitative descriptive data provided insight into the parents' experiences with reading to their infants. Sixty-nine percent of IG parents reported that reading helped them feel closer to their baby, and 86% reported it was enjoyable. Parents reported an increased sense of control and normalcy and increased intimacy with their infant. Twice as many parents in the IG reported reading 3 or more times a week to their infants (55.9% IG; 23.3% CG). Study results support the use of a parent book-reading intervention in the NICU to enhance parent-infant interactions and promote reading.

  1. Information needs of parents of infants diagnosed with cystic fibrosis: Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Danielle J; Wicking, Kristin; Smyth, Wendy; Shields, Linda; Douglas, Tonia

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the information needs, priorities and information-seeking behaviours of parents of infants recently diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (CF) following newborn screening, by piloting the 'Care of Cystic Fibrosis Families Survey'. The questionnaires were posted to eligible parents ( n = 66) attending CF clinics in hospitals in two Australian states; reply-paid envelopes were provided for return of the questionnaires. Twenty-six were returned (response rate 39.4%). The most common questions to which parents required answers during their initial education period related to what CF is, how it is treated and how to care for their child. Parents preferred face-to-face consultations to deliver information, and yet all reported using the Internet to search for more information at some point during the education period. Many parents provided negative feedback about being given their child's CF diagnosis via telephone. The timing, content and method of information delivery can all affect the initial education experience. We can deliver education to better suit the information needs and priorities for education of parents of infants recently diagnosed with CF. The Care of Cystic Fibrosis Families Survey was successfully piloted and recommendations for amendments have been made for use in a larger study across Australia.

  2. Effects of parenting role and parent-child interaction on infant motor development in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lin, Dai-Chan; Lee, Chun-Yang; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have rarely focused on healthy infants' motor development, and nationwide birth cohort studies in Taiwan are limited. It has been shown that parent-child interactions significantly influence infant motor development and the effect of mother-infant attachment on infant development is stronger than father-infant attachment. However, it is not well understood that whether the mother-infant or father-infant interaction has the confounding effect on infant motor development. To understand healthy infant motor development in Taiwan; and to investigate the effects of parenting roles and parent-child interactions on infant motor development. Data were derived from the 1st through the 2nd waves of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Pilot Database. Infants were classified into two categories (complete or incomplete development) according to their developmental milestones. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) and random effects models were used to clarify the possible long-term effects. The rate of infants who completed development in 6 months was 30.50%; however the rate was increased in 18 month-old children (80.01%). A mother's perceived infant care competence was the most important factor for infant motor development. "Whether or not the infant was the only baby in the family" and "parent-child interaction" had slightly significant effect on infant motor development. In conclusion, the mother's perceived competence must be strengthened and parent-infant interactions should be emphasized on a daily basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mind Matters: A Meta-Analysis on Parental Mentalization and Sensitivity as Predictors of Infant-Parent Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.A.J.; Colonnesi, C.; Stams, G.-J.J.M.; Meins, E.

    2017-01-01

    Major developments in attachment research over the past 2 decades have introduced parental mentalization as a predictor of infant-parent attachment security. Parental mentalization is the degree to which parents show frequent, coherent, or appropriate appreciation of their infants' internal states.

  4. Hope in Parents of Very-Low Birth Weight Infants and its Association with Parenting Stress and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, Trond; Rustøen, Tone; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Nakstad, Britt

    Being a parent of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant can be stressful. We aimed to describe parental hope 42months after the birth of a VLBW infant and determine whether there is an association between hope and parenting stress with quality of life (QoL), respectively. Fifty-nine parents of VLBW infants completed questionnaires about hope, parenting stress and QoL. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between the selected variables. To compare groups, t-test was used and Cohen's d for effect size was calculated. Parents of VLBW infants were more hopeful than the general population (phope were both independently associated with QoL (phope (p=0.041) and higher parenting stress (p=0.041) than parents of infants with birth weight 1000-1500g. Hope and parenting stress were both independent determinants of QoL. Parents of the presumably sickest infants had less hope and higher parenting stress than parents of VLBW infants with a birth weight over 1000g. Hope should be further explored as a coping mechanism in parents of VLBW infants. The clinical implications of the strong association between hope, parenting stress and QoL remain to be determined, but reducing stress and strengthening hope seem to be important. This should be taken into account both at hospital discharge and at follow-up, especially for lower-birth-weight infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Infant-parent attachment: Definition, types, antecedents, measurement and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Diane

    2004-10-01

    Attachment theory is one of the most popular and empirically grounded theories relating to parenting. The purpose of the present article is to review some pertinent aspects of attachment theory and findings from attachment research. Attachment is one specific aspect of the relationship between a child and a parent with its purpose being to make a child safe, secure and protected. Attachment is distinguished from other aspects of parenting, such as disciplining, entertaining and teaching. Common misconceptions about what attachment is and what it is not are discussed. The distinction between attachment and bonding is provided. The recognized method to assess infant-parent attachment, the Strange Situation procedure, is described. In addition, a description is provided for the four major types of infant-parent attachment, ie, secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant and insecure-disorganized. The antecedents and consequences of each of the four types of infant-parent attachment are discussed. A special emphasis is placed on the description of disorganized attachment because of its association with significant emotional and behavioural problems, and poor social and emotional outcomes in high-risk groups and in the majority of children who have disorganized attachment with their primary caregiver. Practical applications of attachment theory and research are presented.

  6. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent–Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Angeles Cerezo; Purificación Sierra-García; Gemma Pons-Salvador; Rosa M. Trenado

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant’s gender. The State Space Grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each gro...

  7. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Falco, Simona; Bornstein, Marc H; Caria, Andrea; Buffolino, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs) infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.

  8. Literature Review The development of parent-infant/child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes the form of an account of the emergence of the field of psychoanalytically informed parent-infant/child psychotherapy in South Africa. It traces the origins and the development of the South African field by locating local practice within the international field. The influential links between international ...

  9. The Grandmaternal Transference in Parent-Infant/Child Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugmore, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The psychic significance of the figure of the grandmother in psychodynamic psychotherapy has received scant attention. This paper develops the concept of the "grandmaternal transference" in parent-infant psychotherapy and explores its identification, its possible functions and its therapeutic significance. The grandmaternal transference has…

  10. Parenting the Premature Infant: Balancing Vulnerability and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiser, C.; Eiser, J. R.; Mayhew, A. G.; Gibson, A. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Relationships between child quality of life (QOL), maternal well-being and parenting were explored in a questionnaire study. Method: Mothers of 126 full-term (FT) and 91 pre-term (PT) infants during the child's second year of life completed measures of their own and the child's quality of life and behavioural difficulties. We developed…

  11. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy and Postpartum Depression: The Fathers Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena da Rosa Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the specificities of postpartum maternal depression, the literature recommends that fathers become involved in psychological interventions within this context. This study presents an investigation of the participation of fathers in parent-infant psychotherapy in the context of maternal postpartum depression. Two families participated in this study, both with a child aged between 7 and 8 months old, whose mothers showed depressive symptoms. These families participated in parent-infant psychotherapy lasting approximately 12 sessions. Analysis of the fathers’ participation in psychotherapy showed that their presence during sessions enables the therapy to address aspects of parenthood, and also reduce the feeling of mothers as being the only ones responsible for the family’s process of change. In regard to the technique, the presence of fathers during sessions allows the therapist to see and address the issues concerning mother-father-infant during sessions.

  12. Sustaining Parenting Education in WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dave; Eisenmann, Kathleen; Gruenewald, Mary

    2004-01-01

    How can educators ensure that a good parenting program continues to be offered in the community year after year? A project in Wisconsin illustrates one way to create this sustained commitment and funding. This project has worked well, has been fairly easy and inexpensive, and has even led to new opportunities for parenting education. The project…

  13. PARENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    by conducting a survey involving 200 parents in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State. The result ... the concept of linkage between education and working life; for instance, ... Parental attitudes towards vocational education: Implications for counselling. Okocha ... and methodically prepared special courses of fairly long.

  14. Parental involvement and educational achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, G.; Smit, F.; Sleegers, P.

    2005-01-01

    Parental involvement is seen as an important strategy for the advancement of the quality of education. The ultimate objective of this is to expand the social and cognitive capacities of pupils. In addition, special attention is paid to the children of low-educated and ethnic minority parents.

  15. Effects of employment and education on preterm and full-term infant mortality in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Y-J; Shin, S-H; Park, S M; Kim, H-S; Lee, J-Y; Kim, K H; Cho, B

    2014-03-01

    The infant mortality rate is a sensitive and commonly used indicator of the socio-economic status of a population. Generally, studies investigating the relationship between infant mortality and socio-economic status have focused on full-term infants in Western populations. This study examined the effects of education level and employment status on full-term and preterm infant mortality in Korea. Data were collected from the National Birth Registration Database and merged with data from the National Death Certification Database. Prospective cohort study. In total, 1,316,184 singleton births registered in Korea's National Birth Registration Database between January 2004 and December 2006 were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Paternal and maternal education levels were inversely related to infant mortality in preterm and full-term infants following multivariate adjusted logistic models. Parental employment status was not associated with infant mortality in full-term infants, but was associated with infant mortality in preterm infants, after adjusting for place of birth, gender, marital status, paternal age, maternal age and parity. Low paternal and maternal education levels were found to be associated with infant mortality in both full-term and preterm infants. Low parental employment status was found to be associated with infant mortality in preterm infants but not in full-term infants. In order to reduce inequalities in infant mortality, public health interventions should focus on providing equal access to education. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between parent-infant attachment and parental satisfaction with supportive nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadery-Sefat, Akram; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Badiee, Zohreh; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Parent-infant attachment is an important factor in accepting parenting role, accelerating infant survival, and adjusting to the environment outside the uterus. Since family supportive interventions can strengthen the parent-infant caring relationship, this study sought to investigate the relationship between mother-infant attachment and satisfaction of the mothers with the supportive nursing care received in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this descriptive-correlational study, 210 mothers with premature infants who were hospitalized in the NICUs affiliated to Isfahan Medical University hospitals took part. The data were collected via Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale and researcher's self-tailored questionnaire based on Nurse Parent Support Tool. Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the collected data. The results showed that the overall score of mother-infant attachment and the overall score of maternal satisfaction correlated with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.195. Also, the overall score of mother-infant attachment and mothers' satisfaction scores in the emotional, communicative-informative, and self-confidence domains correlated with correlation coefficients of r = 0.182, r = 0.0.189, and r = 0.0.304, respectively. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that about 15% of changes in the dependent variable (mother-infant attachment) could be explained by different dimensions of mothers' satisfaction. The results of the study showed that mother-infant attachment improved by increasing mothers' satisfaction of supportive nursing care. Therefore, it seems necessary to increase maternal satisfaction through given nursing care support, in order to promote mother-infant attachment.

  17. Social support for parents of premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Skurzak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is still an actual medical problem. Significant increase in the survival rate of premature babies is observed due to the progress in perinatal care .Usually, parents are not prepared for a premature birth, for the majority of them the hospitalization of a child in neonatal intensive care unit is a source of fear,  moreover parents often blame themselves for the situation. Appearing emotions and questions require a compatible response from the therapeutic team. The most important activity in the practice of the team is emotional, informative, evaluative support.

  18. Counselling strategies for parents of infants with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, S

    1998-07-01

    Congenital heart disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn. Its diagnosis may lead to a crisis in the affected families; there are the perceived implications of having an abnormality of so vital an organ. To that may be added the assumed guilt or blame, grief and at times anger, frequently experienced by parents of abnormal infants. It often befalls the paediatric cardiologist to initiate counselling while providing the expert information concerning the abnormality and its optimum management. Such counselling differs from that needed for minor lesions as compared for more complex abnormalities where a fatal outcome may ensure. While it is important to provide an accurate diagnosis and management plan to the parents, early detailed information is often confusing and may not be assimilated at a time of great stress. The parents seem more concerned as to whether the infant will survive, what the long term outlook will be, whether he or she will attend school, play, work and so on. With the more severe cardiac abnormalities, especially where there is a family history, one need be aware of the often perceived guilt of the parents. At times, it may be necessary to help the parents retain sufficient 'self-control', delaying the grieving process to enable them to contribute to the decision making. Where the infant has died, a follow-up appointment can facilitate grieving and help deal with unresolved issues. Through skilled counselling, the cardiologist in addition to his/her diagnostic and management skills, may meaningfully influence the ongoing care of the infant. They may help avoid the development of unrealistic fears or an over-optimistic outlook, thereby fostering the normal development of the child.

  19. The effects of parenting interventions for at-risk parents with infants:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayce, Signe Lynne Boe; Rasmussen, Ida Scheel; Klest, Sihu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Infancy is a critical stage of life, and a secure relationship with caring and responsive caregivers is crucial for healthy infant development. Early parenting interventions aim to support families in which infants are at risk of developmental harm. Our objective is to systematically...... review the effects of parenting interventions on child development and on parent–child relationship for at-risk families with infants aged 0–12 months. Design This is a systematic review and meta-analyses. We extracted publications from 10 databases in June 2013, January 2015 and June 2016......, and supplemented with grey literature and hand search. We assessed risk of bias, calculated effect sizes and conducted meta-analyses. Inclusion criteria (1) Randomised controlled trials of structured psychosocial interventions offered to at-risk families with infants aged 0–12 months in Western Organisation...

  20. Cross-cultural differences in parental beliefs about infant motor development: A quantitative and qualitative report of middle-class Israeli and Dutch parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Saskia D M; Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Atun-Einy, Osnat

    2018-06-01

    The present study explored cultural differences in parental beliefs about motor development across 2 Western cultures: Israel and the Netherlands. Can 2 cultural models be distinguished regarding infant motor development in Israel and the Netherlands or are parental beliefs about motor development similar across these cultures? Using a questionnaire containing closed and open questions, beliefs of 206 Israeli and 198 Dutch parents of first-born children between 2 and 7 months old were analyzed. Based on both quantitative and qualitative analyses, distinct cultural models were found showing that the Dutch attributed a bigger role to maturation and children's own pace than to stimulation. The Israeli parents found stimulation of motor development important and discussed active stimulation more elaborately. When discussing supportive activities, the Israeli parents mentioned specific activities, whereas the Dutch parents used more general, vague expressions about support. Moreover, the Israeli parents discussed the need for expert advice and advice from relatives and other parents more than the Dutch parents, who rely on their own observations, books, or websites more often. The cultural background was the strongest predictor of parental beliefs about motor development. Parental education, age, children's birth weight, gender, and having seen a physical therapist showed weaker relations with parental beliefs. Altogether, 2 distinguishing cultural models can be found, raising the question whether infant motor development can be approached similarly across Western cultures. Besides this implication for science, practitioners should also be aware of differences between cultures and between parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Sleep Arrangements, Parent-Infant Sleep during the First Year, and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teti, Douglas M.; Shimizu, Mina; Crosby, Brian; Kim, Bo-Ram

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study addressed the ongoing debate regarding the benefits and risks of infant-parent cosleeping by examining associations between sleep arrangement patterns across the first year of life and infant and parent sleep, marital and family functioning, and quality of mothers' behavior with infants at bedtime. Patterns of infant…

  2. Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Have Merited Concerns about Their Later-Born Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Caitlin R.; Malesa, Elizabeth E.; Yoder, Paul J.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2007-01-01

    Infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at elevated risk for social, cognitive, and language delays which may cause parents to become hypervigilant (i.e., excessively worried) about their infant's development. The extent to which parental concern is related to actual cognitive or language impairment in these infants is…

  3. Saying Goodbye: An Investigation into Parent-Infant Separation Behaviours on Arrival in Childcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this small-scale study was to investigate how parental separation behaviours affect the transitional behaviour of infants aged 6-18 months. Thirty parent-infant pairs were observed during the separation process across three metropolitan childcare centres in Adelaide, South Australia. Observed interactions with both their infants and…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis eKoukounari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks. When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions. Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy.

  5. Parental Sensitivity, Infant Affect, and Affect Regulation: Predictors of Later Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Garwood, Molly M.; Powers, Bruce P.; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2001-01-01

    Examined extent to which parent sensitivity, infant affect, and affect regulation at 4 months predicted mother- and father-infant attachment classifications at 1 year. Found that affect regulation and maternal sensitivity discriminated infant-mother attachment groups. The association between maternal sensitivity and infant-mother attachment was…

  6. Roken in aanwezigheid van zuigelingen: een enquête onder consultatiebureau ouders [Smoking in presence of infants; an enquiry among parents of infants attending an infant welfare clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirasing, R.A.; Gena, S.A.D.; Simon, J.G.; Kossen-Boot, H.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Oudenrijn, C. van den

    1994-01-01

    Objective. To determine the exposure to cigarette smoke of infants aged 0-14 months. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. The area of Westfriesland, the Netherlands. Method. All parents of infants 8 days, 3, 5, 9, and 14 months old who visited the infant welfare centre in 1992 were asked to fill in a

  7. Communicating with parents of high-risk infants in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wendy; Ross, Sue

    2006-05-01

    Good communication between parents and staff about the likely outcome of high-risk infants is essential to ensure parents' full involvement in decision-making. The present paper discusses the literature on this topic to explore the best practices for professionals communicating with parents of high-risk infants.

  8. The effectiveness of video interaction guidance in parents of premature infants: A multicenter randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooten Anneke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have consistently found a high incidence of neonatal medical problems, premature births and low birth weights in abused and neglected children. One of the explanations proposed for the relation between neonatal problems and adverse parenting is a possible delay or disturbance in the bonding process between the parent and infant. This hypothesis suggests that due to neonatal problems, the development of an affectionate bond between the parent and the infant is impeded. The disruption of an optimal parent-infant bond -on its turn- may predispose to distorted parent-infant interactions and thus facilitate abusive or neglectful behaviours. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG is expected to promote the bond between parents and newborns and is expected to diminish non-optimal parenting behaviour. Methods/design This study is a multi-center randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Interaction Guidance in parents of premature infants. In this study 210 newborn infants with their parents will be included: n = 70 healthy term infants (>37 weeks GA, n = 70 moderate term infants (32–37 weeks GA which are recruited from maternity wards of 6 general hospitals and n = 70 extremely preterm infants or very low birth weight infants (i.e. full term infants and their parents, receiving care as usual, a control group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving care as usual and an intervention group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving VIG. The data will be collected during the first six months after birth using observations of parent-infant interactions, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcomes are the quality of parental bonding and parent-infant interactive behaviour. Parental secondary outcomes are (posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, anxiety and feelings of anger and hostility. Infant secondary outcomes are behavioral aspects such as crying

  9. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent–Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles Cerezo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant’s gender. The State Space Grid (SSG method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each group. MANOVA results showed no differential parenting of boys and girls. Additionally, mothers and fathers showed no differences in the Diversity of behavioral dyadic states nor in Predictability. However, differences associated with parent’s gender were found in that the paternal dyads were more “active” than the maternal dyads: they were faster in the rates per second of behavioral events and transitions or change of state. In contrast, maternal dyads were more repetitive because, once they visited a certain dyadic state, they tend to be involved in more events. Results showed a significant discriminant function on the parental groups, fathers and mothers. Specifically, the content analyses carried out for the three NDS variables, that previously showed differences between groups, showed particular dyadic behavioral states associated with the rate of Transitions and the Events per Visit ratio. Thus, the transitions involving ‘in–out’ of ‘Child Social Approach neutral – Sensitive Approach neutral’ state and the repetitions of events in the dyadic state ‘Child Play-Sensitive Approach neutral’ distinguished fathers from mothers. The classification of dyads (with fathers and mothers based on this discriminant function identified 73.10% (19/26 of the father–infant dyads and 88.5% (23/26 of the mother–infant dyads. The study of father-infant interaction using the SSG approach offers interesting possibilities because it characterizes and

  10. Parenting of 7-month-old infants at familial risk for ADHD during infant's free play, with restrictions on interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Rivka; Amiel-Laviad, Riki; Berger, Andrea; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G

    2009-04-01

    Patterns of interaction of 34 mothers and fathers with their 7-month-old boys at familial risk for ADHD and 25 comparison families were studied during infant play with blocks. The parents were instructed to refrain from intervening as much as possible. Infants in the risk group did not differ from those in the comparison group in frequency of needing help or involving parents in play. Nonetheless, they received adequate responsivity from their mothers less often than infants in the comparison group. Mothers in the risk group were also more likely not to respond to these needs at all. Mothers in the comparison group were more physically intrusive. No group difference was found for maternal rebuilding of the infant's play. No group differences were found for any of father's behaviors. However, fathers in both groups rebuilt their infant's play more frequently than mothers, infants looked at them more often, and a larger number of infants involved the father in their play.

  11. Infant sleep, parental sleep and parenting stress in families of mothers on maternity leave and in families of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Dana; Tikotzky, Liat

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the links between infants' sleep and their parents' sleep and to assess the links between infant/parent sleep and parenting stress. Furthermore, we explored whether the links between sleep and parenting stress are moderated by maternal leave status. Participants were 50 families with an infant between the ages of 4-5 months. Half of the mothers were on maternity leave while the others returned to work. Parents completed daily sleep logs about infants' and their own sleep for 4 consecutive nights. Each parent also completed the Parenting Stress Index. Infant sleep was associated with sleep of both mothers and fathers, but the correlations with maternal sleep were stronger. Parental perceptions of their infant's sleep as problematic were associated with higher parenting stress. Poorer infant and maternal sleep patterns were associated with parenting stress only in families with mothers on maternity leave, probably because these mothers need to provide intensive caregiving "around the clock" without sufficient opportunities to rest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of universally offered parenting interventions for parents with infants: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Klest, Sihu K; Patras, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    and supplemented by grey and hand search. Risk of bias was assessed, and effect sizes were calculated. Participants: Inclusion criteria were: 1) Randomized controlled trials of structured, psychosocial interventions offered to a universal population of parents with infants 0-12 months old in western OECD countries...

  13. Infant temperament and parental stress in 3-month-old infants after surgery for complex congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torowicz, Deborah; Irving, Sharon Y; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Sumpter, Danica F; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to identify and compare differences in temperament and maternal stress between infants with complex congenital heart disease and healthy controls at 3 months of age. Study sample was drawn from an existing longitudinal study examining growth in infants with congenital heart disease when compared with healthy controls. Infant temperament and parental stress were measured in 129 mother-infant dyads. Inclusion criteria for infants with congenital heart disease were > or = 36-week postmenstrual age, > or = 2500 g at birth, surgery in first 6 weeks of life, and no major congenital anomalies or genetic syndromes. The Early Infancy Temperament Questionnaire and Parent Stress Index were the assessment tools used. Infants with single ventricular (SV) physiology were more negative in mood (F = 7.14, p parenting an irritable infant with SV physiology put these mothers at risk for high levels of stress. Results suggest the need for predischarge anticipatory guidance for parents to better understand and respond to the behavioral style of their infants, in particular, infants with SV physiology.

  14. Factors Associated With Parents' Perceptions of Their Infants' Oral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M; Levy, Steven M; Xu, Yinghui; Jackson, Richard D; Eckert, George J; Levy, Barcey T; Fontana, Margherita

    2016-07-01

    Parents have an important role ensuring their infants receive oral and medical health care. Their decisions affect the well-being of their children. This study used data collected from a longitudinal, prospective study with the aim of developing and validating a caries risk assessment tool. The objectives of this study are to (a) compare parents' perceptions of how well they do in taking care of the infants' teeth and/or gums versus how well they do in taking care of the infants' medical health and (b) determine factors associated with parental perceptions of how well they do in taking care of the infants' teeth and/or gums. A total of 1323 parent/infant pairs were enrolled in the study at Duke University, Indiana University, and the University of Iowa. Through a survey, 283 (21%) of the parents perceived they did an excellent job of both taking care of both the infant's oral and medical health, while 861 (65%) perceived the care of their infant's medical health was better than their care of the teeth and/or gums. In the multivariable model, parents who perceived they provided excellent/very good/good care for the infants' teeth and/or gums were more likely to brush the infant's teeth daily, use toothpaste daily, clean inside the infant's mouth and/or gums daily, and not let the infant have something other than water after brushing and prior to bedtime. Also, those with infants having Medicaid or State Insurance, parents not eating sugary snacks frequently, and parents getting dental checkups at least annually were likely to perceive that they provided excellent/very good/good care for their infant's teeth and/or gums. Parents who provide good infant oral health care are more likely to perceive they provide good care and more likely to have better personal dental health behaviors. This agrees with previous studies concerning older children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Rethinking Stress in Parents of Preterm Infants: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappin, Renske; Wijnroks, Lex; Uniken Venema, Monica M. A. T.; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background With improved medical outcome in preterm infants, the psychosocial situation of their families is receiving increasing attention. For parents, the birth of a preterm infant is generally regarded as a stressful experience, and therefore many interventions are based on reducing parental stress. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether parents of children born preterm experience more stress than parents of term-born children, which would justify these interventions. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive account of parental stress in parents of preterm infants, from birth of the infant through to their adolescence. Mean levels of stress in specific domains of family functioning were investigated, and stress levels in parents of preterm and term infants, and fathers and mothers of preterm infants, were compared. Furthermore, we investigated moderators of parental stress. Methods and Findings A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted including 38 studies describing 3025 parents of preterm (stress was measured with two parent-reported questionnaires, the Parenting Stress Index and the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The results indicate that parents of preterm-born children experience only slightly more stress than parents of term-born children, with small effect sizes. Furthermore, mothers have slightly more stress than fathers, but these effect sizes are also small. Parents report more stress for infants with lower gestational ages and lower birth weights. There is a strong effect for infant birth year, with decreasing parental stress from the 1980s onward, probably due to increased quality of care for preterm infants. Conclusions Based on our findings we argue that prematurity can best be regarded as one of the possible complications of birth, and not as a source of stress in itself. PMID:23405105

  16. Increased risk of peanut allergy in infants of Asian-born parents compared to those of Australian-born parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, J J; Peters, R L; Ponsonby, A-L; Gurrin, L C; Hill, D; Tang, M L K; Dharmage, S C; Allen, K J

    2014-12-01

    Asian infants appear to be over-represented among patients with clinical food allergy in Australia, but this has not been formally examined at the population level. Any difference in prevalence according to parental country of birth may be secondary to modifiable lifestyle factors. We aimed to quantify (i) differences in the prevalence of peanut allergy by parental country of birth and (ii) contribution of measured environmental exposures to these differences. The population-based HealthNuts study in Melbourne, Australia, screened 5276 infants (74% participation) with skin prick tests and sensitized infants underwent food challenge. Of these, 535 had a parent born in East Asia and 574 in UK/Europe. Associations between parents' country of birth and offspring peanut allergy were examined using multiple logistic regression. Compared to infants with two Australian-born parents, peanut allergy was more common among infants with parent/s born in East Asia (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.2-5.1) but not those with parent/s born in the UK/Europe (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.5). Paradoxically rates of allergic disease were lower among Asian parents. A higher prevalence of eczema among infants of Asian parents explained around 30% of the increase in peanut allergy, while differences in dog ownership explained around 18%. The high peanut allergy prevalence among infants of Asian-born parents appears to have occurred in a single generation and was not present among infants with parents migrating from other countries, suggesting gene-environment interactions are important. The role of eczema and microbial exposure in food allergy prevention warrants exploration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. What is good parental education? Interviews with parents who have attended parental education sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Kerstin; Petersson, Christer; Håkansson, Anders

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the study was to highlight the experiences and expectations of Swedish parents with respect to general parental education within child healthcare. Interviews were carried out with 25 parents who had attended education sessions. With a few exceptions the fathers did not take part, and those mothers who did comprised a relatively highly educated group; their views therefore predominate in this study. Socially vulnerable parents such as the unemployed and immigrants took part more sporadically in the meetings, which is why less material is available from these groups. The arrangement and analysis of the material was done using qualitative content analysis. We identified two main categories of importance: 'parental education content' and 'parental education structure'. The parents were on the whole satisfied with the content with respect to the child's physical and psychosocial development. On the other hand, first-time parents expressed a degree of uncertainty with respect to the new parent roles and parent relation and they thought that the education should place more emphasis on the interplay between the parents and between child and parents. The degree of confidence in the nurse as group leader was mainly high. The parents thought that the groups functioned well socially and were satisfied with the organization of the meetings. They did, however, demand clearer structure and framework with respect to the content. Since the aim of legally established parental education is to improve the conditions of childhood growth and to provide support to parents, it must be considered especially important to provide resources so that the socially vulnerable groups in the community may also be reached.

  18. Relation between sleep status of preterm infants aged 1-2 years and mothers' parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Yoko; Takada, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare infants' sleep measures through an actigraph and maternal parenting stress among preterm and full-term mothers, and to explore the factors affecting maternal parenting stress in relation to infants' sleep. The subjects were 44 pairs of mothers and children. Twenty-one were in the preterm group, and 23 were in the full-term group. Inclusion criteria for preterm infants were born at less than 36 weeks and birthweight of less than 2500 g. The Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form assesses maternal perception of the degree of parenting stress: the children's domain, and the parent's domain. An actigraph was applied to assess the infants' sleep measures. The PSI showed significant differences, with high scores in parenting stress in the preterm group. Also, the number of mothers who complained about their infant's sleep issues was significantly higher in the preterm group. Most of the sleep measures showed improvement by their age in both preterm and full-term infants. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that sleep efficiency, longest sleep duration at nighttime accounted for 71% of stress in the children's domain of the PSI of the preterm group. The parenting stress among mothers of preterm infants was significantly higher than that of mothers of full-term infants. The mothers of preterm infants were concerned about their infant's nocturnal sleep quality. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Adding "Circle of Security - Parenting" to treatment as usual in three Swedish infant mental health clinics. Effects on parents' internal representations and quality of parent-infant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risholm Mothander, Pia; Furmark, Catarina; Neander, Kerstin

    2018-06-01

    This study presents effects of adding Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P) to an already established comprehensive therapeutic model for early parent-child intervention in three Swedish infant mental health (IMH) clinics. Parents' internal representations and quality of parent-infant interaction were studied in a clinical sample comprised of 52 parent-infant dyads randomly allocated to two comparable groups. One group consisted of 28 dyads receiving treatment as usual (TAU) supplemented with COS-P in a small group format, and another group of 24 dyads receiving TAU only. Assessments were made at baseline (T1), 6 months after inclusion (T2) and 12 months after inclusion (T3). Changes over time were explored in 42 dyads. In the COS-P group, the proportion of balanced representations, as assessed with Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI), significantly increased between T1 and T3. Further, the proportion of emotionally available interactions, as assessed with Emotional Availability scales (EA), significantly increased over time in the COS-P group. Improvements in the TAU-group were close to significant. Limitations of the study are mainly related to the small sample size. Strength is the real world character of the study, where COS-P was implemented in a clinical context not otherwise adapted to research. We conclude by discussing the value of supplementing TAU with COS-P in IMH treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Communicating prognosis with parents of critically ill infants: direct observation of clinician behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, R D; Lemmon, M E; Arnold, R M; Donohue, P K

    2017-11-01

    Delivering prognostic information to families requires clinicians to forecast an infant's illness course and future. We lack robust empirical data about how prognosis is shared and how that affects clinician-family concordance regarding infant outcomes. Prospective audiorecording of neonatal intensive care unit family conferences, immediately followed by parent/clinician surveys. Existing qualitative analysis frameworks were applied. We analyzed 19 conferences. Most prognostic discussion targeted predicted infant functional needs, for example, medications or feeding. There was little discussion of how infant prognosis would affect infant/family quality of life. Prognostic framing was typically optimistic. Most parents left the conference believing their infant's prognosis to be more optimistic than did clinicians. Clinician approach to prognostic disclosure in these audiotaped family conferences tended to be broad and optimistic, without detail regarding implications of infant health for infant/family quality of life. Families and clinicians left these conversations with little consensus about infant prognosis.

  1. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Infant temperament moderates relations between maternal parenting in early childhood and children's adjustment in first grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, the current study found that temperament moderated associations between maternal parenting styles during early childhood and children's first-grade academic competence, social skills, and relationships with teachers and peers. Relations between parenting and first-grade outcomes were stronger for difficult than for less difficult infants. Infants with difficult temperaments had better adjustment than less difficult infants when parenting quality was high and poorer adjustment when parenting quality was lower.

  3. Parental experiences of a developmentally focused care program for infants and children during prolonged hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Stephanie; Rogers, Alaine; Patterson, Catherine; Drew, Wendy; Maxwell, Julia; Darch, Jane; Hoyle, Carolyn; Patterson, Sarah; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates parental experiences and perceptions of the care received during their child's prolonged hospitalization. It relates this care to the Beanstalk Program (BP), a develop-mentally focused care program provided to these families within an acute care hospital setting. A total of 20 parents (of children hospitalized between 1-15 months) completed the Measures of Processes of Care (MPOC-20) with additional questions regarding the BP. Scores rate the extent of the health-care provider's behaviour as perceived by the family, ranging from 'to a great extent' (7) to 'never' (1). Parents rated Respectful and Supportive Care (6.33) as highest, while Providing General Information (5.65) was rated lowest. Eleven parents participated in a follow-up, qualitative, semi-structured interview. Interview data generated key themes: (a) parents strive for positive and normal experiences for their child within the hospital environment; (b) parents value the focus on child development in the midst of their child's complex medical care; and (c) appropriate developmentally focused education helps parents shift from feeling overwhelmed with a medically ill child to instilling feelings of confidence and empowerment to care for their child and transition home. These results emphasize the importance of enhancing child development for hospitalized infants and young children through programs such as the BP. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Chinese Parents and English Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, P.; Wong, R.

    1989-01-01

    Interviews of 34 Chinese families in Manchester, England, ascertained their views on their children's schooling. These parents have little knowledge of English and the school system. They value education highly, would like more homework and discipline, and would like the schools' help in preserving their language and culture. (SK)

  5. Social signal processing for studying parent-infant interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eAvril

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyse communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviours (including synchrony. This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent-infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyses highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies.

  6. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriweradechachai Suntree

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS, and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively. On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3. Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day and delayed language development at the age of 2 years. Gender (male was the only variable associated with delayed language development.

  7. Child-rearing history and emotional bonding in parents of preterm and full-term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Tooten, A.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Bakel, H.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Some parents fail to develop strong emotional bonds with their newborn infants. As the quality of the parent–infant relationship contributes to the infant’s development, it is of great importance to identify protective and risk factors that facilitate or impede the development of the parent–infant

  8. Development of Infant Positive Emotionality: The Contribution of Maternal Characteristics and Effects on Subsequent Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J.; Laake, Lauren M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Dorn, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the influence of maternal characteristics on the development of infant smiling and laughter, a marker of early positive emotionality (PE) and how maternal characteristics and the development of infant PE contributed to subsequent maternal parenting. One hundred fifty-nine mothers with 4-month-old infants participated.…

  9. Prevalence of infant formula advertisements in parenting magazines over a 5-year span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Shaffer, Ellen J; Hammond, Rodney; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-01-01

    Marketing of infant formula contributes to a decreased likelihood to breastfeed. This study established the prevalence of infant formula advertisements in two popular US parenting magazines and explored trends in infant formula advertisement prevalence from 2007 to 2012. Advertisements were analyzed using a comprehensive coding schematic. We established a high proportion of 0.43 advertisements per page of content in both magazines and observed a significant increase in infant formula advertisement prevalence beginning in 2009. Infant formula companies use aggressive marketing in parenting magazines. Nurses who are well-trained in breastfeeding best practices can offer new mothers evidence-based information on the benefits of breastfeeding. © 2013.

  10. Kangaroo care for adoptive parents and their critically ill preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Leslie; Anderson, Gene Cranston

    2002-01-01

    In this case study kangaroo care (KC) was facilitated for an adoptive mother and father who were planning to attend the birth of the infant they had arranged to adopt. Unexpectedly, the birth mother delivered at 27 weeks gestation. The infant was critically ill and required mechanical ventilation. However, in this neonatal intensive care unit where all adoptive parents and parents of mechanically ventilated infants are offered KC, these adoptive parents began KC on Day 3 while their infant daughter was still mechanically ventilated. She thrived thereafter and the entire experience was profoundly beneficial for this beginning family both at the hospital and after discharge home.

  11. Communicating with parents of high-risk infants in neonatal intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Wendy; Ross, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Good communication between parents and staff about the likely outcome of high-risk infants is essential to ensure parents’ full involvement in decision-making. The present paper discusses the literature on this topic to explore the best practices for professionals communicating with parents of high-risk infants.

  12. Sex differences in parent-infant interaction during free play, departure, and separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, M; Frankel, J

    1977-12-01

    20 18-month-olds were observed with their mothers and 20 with their fathers in laboratory free-play, departure, and separation situations. Parent and infant behaviors were allowed to vary naturally. Although there were no parent sex or infant sex differences in infants' free-play behavior, there were parent sex X infant sex differences in parental free-play behaviors. Parents talked to, sat on the floor more with, and tended to share play more with same-sexed than opposite-sexed infants, and the patterning of free-play behaviors was different for mothers and fathers. During departure, fathers talked to the infants more than mothers. Infants were more distressed in the absence of same-sexed than opposite-sexed parents. There were infant sex X parent sex differences in the relationships between separation distress and parental free-play and departure behaviors. The implications of these findings for understanding differential roles of mothers and fathers, the development of sex differences, and the determinants of separation distress are discussed.

  13. The perception of partnership between parents of premature infants and nurses in neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Larsen, Palle; Weis, Janne

    2016-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to identify how parents of premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and nurses perceive their partnership.The review questions are: how do parents of premature infants and nurses perceive their partnership during...

  14. Infant Temperament Moderates Relations between Maternal Parenting in Early Childhood and Children's Adjustment in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the…

  15. Parents and nurses balancing parent-infant closeness and separation: a qualitative study of NICU nurses' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Nancy; Genest, Christine; Niela-Vilén, Hannakaisa; Charbonneau, Lyne; Axelin, Anna

    2016-08-20

    When a newborn requires neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization, parent and infant experience an unusual often prolonged separation. This critical care environment poses challenges to parent-infant closeness. Parents desire physical contact and holding and touching are particularly important. Evidence shows that visitation, holding, talking, and skin to skin contact are associated with better outcomes for infants and parents during hospitalization and beyond. Thus, it would be important to understand closeness in this context. The purpose of this study was to explore from nurses' perspective, what do parents and nurses do to promote parent-infant closeness or provoke separation. Qualitative methods were utilized to attain an understanding of closeness and separation. Following ethics approval, purposive sampling was used to recruit nurses with varying experience working different shifts in NICUs in two countries. Nurses were loaned a smartphone over one work shift to record their thoughts and perceptions of events that occurred or experiences they had that they considered to be closeness or separation between parents and their hospitalized infant. Sample size was determined by saturation (18 Canada, 19 Finland). Audio recordings were subjected to inductive thematic analysis. Team meetings were held to discuss emerging codes, refine categories, and confirm these reflected data from both sites. One overarching theme was elaborated. Balancing closeness and separation was the major theme. Both parents and nurses engaged in actions to optimize closeness. They sought closeness by acting autonomously in infant caregiving, assuming decision-making for their infant, seeking information or skills, and establishing a connection in the face of separation. Parents balanced their desire for closeness with other competing demands, such as their own needs. Nurses balanced infant care needs and ability to handle stimulation with the need for closeness with parents

  16. A History and Evaluation of Parent Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, James W.; Glover, Kenneth E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper traces the history of parent education, the purposive learning activity of parents attempting to change methods of interaction with their children. Parent education will almost certainly receive increasing attention and emphasis within a variety of programs especially in the fields of education and mental health. (Author)

  17. The experiences of parents with infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari, Haydeh; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Fooladi, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent years significant medical science advances have been made in the field midwifery and infant care. The premature, low birth weight and ill infants are admitted to the technologically advanced NICU for care and they often require long-term stay. This study addresses parental experiences with the infant care in NICU, explores their concerns regarding nursing supports for parents and offers nurses? perspectives on performing duties. Materials and Methods: A qualitative induc...

  18. Blended Infant Massage-Parenting Enhancement Program on Recovering Substance-Abusing Mothers' Parenting Stress, Self-Esteem, Depression, Maternal Attachment, and Mother-Infant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Luz S; Porter, Brian O; McCoy, Virginia; Bango-Sanchez, Vivian; Kissel, Bonnie; Williams, Marjorie; Nunnewar, Sachin

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a blended Infant Massage-Parenting Enhancement Program (IMPEP) improved maternal psychosocial health outcomes (parenting stress, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, maternal attachment) and maternal-infant interaction among substance-addicted mothers (SAMs) actively engaged in outpatient rehabilitation. Designed as a randomized, three-group controlled trial testing two levels of psychoeducational intervention (IMPEP vs. PEP) and a control group (standard care parenting resources), the study was conducted in two substance abuse centers in southeast Florida on a convenience sample of 138 recovering SAM-infant pairs. IMPEP or PEP classes were held weekly on Weeks 2-5, with data collected at baseline (Week 1), Week 6, and Week 12 via structured interviews, observation (Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction), and self-administered questionnaires (Abidin Parenting Stress Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory), analyzed descriptively and inferentially using Kruskall-Wallis analysis of variance and post hoc Wilcoxon rank sum and Mann-Whitney U tests. Both IMPEP and PEP groups had significantly increased Parenting Stress Index scores (decreased parenting stress) and decreased Beck Depression Inventory scores (decreased depressive symptoms) compared to controls at Week 12, whereas there were no clinically meaningful differences among study groups in Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory, or Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction scores. Only the IMPEP group showed significant improvements in both psychological and physical (waist-hip ratio) measures of parenting stress over time. The findings suggest that infant massage blended into a structured parenting program has value-added effects in decreasing parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms, but not on SAM's self-esteem, attachment, or maternal-infant

  19. [Basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation courses for parents of newborns and infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, Diego; Castro, Adriana; Rabasa, Cecilia; Capelli, Carola; Cores Ponte, Florencia; Gutiérrez, Susana; Mariani, Gonzalo; Pacchioni, Sergio; Pardo, Amorina; Pérez, Gastón; Sorgetti, Mariana; Szyld, Edgardo

    2014-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) courses meet all the definitions of an educational activity for prevention of cardiac arrest death by risk patients' parents and/or the general population. The aim is to improve patients' home care and turn parents confident before their children are discharged from hospital, mainly from intensive care units. Currently these courses are part of discharge protocols in many neonatologist services although there are offers that exceed this target, and extend to other areas such as education and caregivers. Locally the experience of neonatal CPR at the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría stands out in connection with delivering courses to high risk patients' parents as well as designing and spreading learning material.

  20. Parenting style impacts cognitive and behavioural outcomes of former preterm infants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, M L M; Stark, A R; Maitre, N L

    2018-03-25

    We sought to evaluate published evidence in aggregate regarding the impact of parenting style on the cognitive and behavioural outcomes of former preterm infants. We searched 5 databases using germane MeSH terms. Parenting style was defined as any descriptor of parenting using ≥2 dimensions on published parenting axes. We evaluated studies for quality of evidence and strength of recommendations using standardized tools and categorized summative recommendations by parenting axis and child outcome. Twenty-seven articles met our inclusion criteria. Parental responsivity is the only parenting axis strongly associated with both improved child cognition and behaviour. Parental demandingness is associated only with improved child cognition, and parental warmth and rejection are associated only with child behaviour. Parental coercion is not associated with subsequent child outcomes. Parental responsivity may be essential in optimizing neurodevelopment in former preterm infants. More targeted studies are needed to inform this relationship and identify opportunities for intervention. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Parents' Perceptions of Primary Health Care Physiotherapy With Preterm Infants: Normalization, Clarity, and Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkstad, Ragnhild B; Obstfelder, Aud; Øberg, Gunn Kristin

    2016-08-01

    Having a preterm infant is a life-altering event for parents. The use of interventions intended to support the parents is recommended. In this study, we investigated how parents' perceptions of physiotherapy in primary health care influenced their adaptation to caring for a preterm child. We conducted 17 interviews involving parents of seven infants, at infants' corrected age (CA) 3, 6, and 12 months. The analysis was a systematic text condensation, connecting to theory of participatory sense-making. The parents described a progression toward a new normalcy in the setting of persistent uncertainty. Physiotherapists can ameliorate this uncertainty and support the parents' progression toward normalization, by providing knowledge and acknowledging both the child as subject and the parent-child relationship. Via embodied interaction and the exploration of their child's capacity, the parents learn about their children's individuality and gain the confidence necessary to support and care for their children in everyday life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Mind matters: A meta-analysis on parental mentalization and sensitivity as predictors of infant-parent attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Moniek A J; Colonnesi, Cristina; Stams, Geert-Jan J M; Meins, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Major developments in attachment research over the past 2 decades have introduced parental mentalization as a predictor of infant-parent attachment security. Parental mentalization is the degree to which parents show frequent, coherent, or appropriate appreciation of their infants' internal states. The present study examined the triangular relations between parental mentalization, parental sensitivity, and attachment security. A total of 20 effect sizes (N = 974) on the relation between parental mentalization and attachment, 82 effect sizes (N = 6,664) on the relation between sensitivity and attachment, and 24 effect sizes (N = 2,029) on the relation between mentalization and sensitivity were subjected to multilevel meta-analyses. The results showed a pooled correlation of r = .30 between parental mentalization and infant attachment security, and rs of .25 for the correlations between sensitivity and attachment security, and between parental mentalization and sensitivity. A meta-analytic structural equation model was performed to examine the combined effects of mentalization and sensitivity as predictors of infant attachment. Together, the predictors explained 12% of the variance in attachment security. After controlling for the effect of sensitivity, the relation between parental mentalization and attachment remained, r = .24; the relation between sensitivity and attachment remained after controlling for parental mentalization, r = .19. Sensitivity also mediated the relation between parental mentalization and attachment security, r = .07, suggesting that mentalization exerts both direct and indirect influences on attachment security. The results imply that parental mentalization should be incorporated into existing models that map the predictors of infant-parent attachment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Comparison of skin-to-skin (kangaroo) and traditional care: parenting outcomes and preterm infant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Eidelman, Arthur I; Sirota, Lea; Weller, Aron

    2002-07-01

    To examine whether the kangaroo care (KC) intervention in premature infants affects parent-child interactions and infant development. Seventy-three preterm infants who received KC in the neonatal intensive care unit were matched with 73 control infants who received standard incubator care for birth weight, gestational age (GA), medical severity, and demographics. At 37 weeks' GA, mother-infant interaction, maternal depression, and mother perceptions were examined. At 3 months' corrected age, infant temperament, maternal and paternal sensitivity, and the home environment (with the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment [HOME]) were observed. At 6 months' corrected age, cognitive development was measured with the Bayley-II and mother-infant interaction was filmed. Seven clusters of outcomes were examined at 3 time periods: at 37 weeks' GA, mother-infant interaction and maternal perceptions; at 3-month, HOME mothers, HOME fathers, and infant temperament; at 6 months, cognitive development and mother-infant interaction. After KC, interactions were more positive at 37 weeks' GA: mothers showed more positive affect, touch, and adaptation to infant cues, and infants showed more alertness and less gaze aversion. Mothers reported less depression and perceived infants as less abnormal. At 3 months, mothers and fathers of KC infants were more sensitive and provided a better home environment. At 6 months, KC mothers were more sensitive and infants scored higher on the Bayley Mental Developmental Index (KC: mean: 96.39; controls: mean: 91.81) and the Psychomotor Developmental Index (KC: mean: 85.47; controls: mean: 80.53). KC had a significant positive impact on the infant's perceptual-cognitive and motor development and on the parenting process. We speculate that KC has both a direct impact on infant development by contributing to neurophysiological organization and an indirect effect by improving parental mood, perceptions, and interactive behavior.

  4. [Effects of an infant/toddler health program on parenting knowledge, behavior, confidence, and home environment in low-income mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; Yang, Soo; Jang, Mi Heui; Yeom, Mijung

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a mother/infant-toddler health program developed to enhance parenting knowledge, behavior and confidence in low income mothers and home environment. A one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. Sixty-nine dyads of mothers and infant-toddlers (aged 0-36 months) were provided with weekly intervention for seven session. Each session consisted of three parts; first, educating to increase integrated knowledge related to the development of the infant/toddler including nutrition, first aid and home environment; second, counseling to share parenting experience among the mothers and to increase their nurturing confidence; third, playing with the infant/toddler to facilitate attachment-based parenting behavior for the mothers. Following the programs, there were significant increases in parenting knowledge on nutrition and first aid. A significant improvement was found in attachment-based parenting behavior, but not in home safety practice. Nurturing confidence was not significantly increased. The program led to more positive home environment for infant/toddler's health and development. The findings provide evidence for mother-infant/toddler health program to improve parenting knowledge, attachment-based parenting behavior and better home environment in low income mothers. Study of the long term effectiveness of this program is recommended for future research.

  5. The Effect of Parenting Style on Social Smiling in Infants at High and Low Risk for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Colleen M.; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Nguyen, Thanh P.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how parenting style at 9 months predicts growth in infant social engagement (i.e., social smiling) between 9 and 18 months during a free-play interaction in infants at high (HR-infants) and low (LR-infants) familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results indicated that across all infants, higher levels of maternal…

  6. Breastfeeding duration and early parenting behaviour: the importance of an infant-led, responsive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Arnott, Bronia

    2014-01-01

    Popular parenting literature promotes different approaches to caring for infants, based around variations in the use of parent-led routines and promoting infant independence. However, there is little empirical evidence of how these early behaviours affect wider parenting choices such as infant feeding. Breastfeeding often requires an infant-led approach, feeding on demand and allowing the infant to regulate intake whilst conversely formula feeding is open to greater caregiver manipulation. The infant-led style associated with breastfeeding may therefore be at odds with philosophies that encourage strict use of routine and independence. The aim of this study was to explore the association between early parenting behaviours and breastfeeding duration. Five hundred and eight mothers with an infant aged 0-12 months completed a questionnaire examining breastfeeding duration, attitudes and behaviours surrounding early parenting (e.g. anxiety, use of routine, involvement, nurturance and discipline). Participants were attendees at baby groups or participants of online parenting forums based in the UK. Formula use at birth or short breastfeeding duration were significantly associated with low levels of nurturance, high levels of reported anxiety and increased maternal use of Parent-led routines. Conversely an infant-led approach characterised by responding to and following infant cues was associated with longer breastfeeding duration. Maternal desire to follow a structured parenting approach which purports use of Parent-led routines and early demands for infant independence may have a negative impact upon breastfeeding duration. Increased maternal anxiety may further influence this relationship. The findings have important implications for Health Professionals supporting new mothers during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  7. Breastfeeding Duration and Early Parenting Behaviour: The Importance of an Infant-Led, Responsive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Arnott, Bronia

    2014-01-01

    Background Popular parenting literature promotes different approaches to caring for infants, based around variations in the use of parent-led routines and promoting infant independence. However, there is little empirical evidence of how these early behaviours affect wider parenting choices such as infant feeding. Breastfeeding often requires an infant-led approach, feeding on demand and allowing the infant to regulate intake whilst conversely formula feeding is open to greater caregiver manipulation. The infant-led style associated with breastfeeding may therefore be at odds with philosophies that encourage strict use of routine and independence. The aim of this study was to explore the association between early parenting behaviours and breastfeeding duration. Methods Five hundred and eight mothers with an infant aged 0–12 months completed a questionnaire examining breastfeeding duration, attitudes and behaviours surrounding early parenting (e.g. anxiety, use of routine, involvement, nurturance and discipline). Participants were attendees at baby groups or participants of online parenting forums based in the UK. Results Formula use at birth or short breastfeeding duration were significantly associated with low levels of nurturance, high levels of reported anxiety and increased maternal use of Parent-led routines. Conversely an infant-led approach characterised by responding to and following infant cues was associated with longer breastfeeding duration. Discussion Maternal desire to follow a structured parenting approach which purports use of Parent-led routines and early demands for infant independence may have a negative impact upon breastfeeding duration. Increased maternal anxiety may further influence this relationship. The findings have important implications for Health Professionals supporting new mothers during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:24533046

  8. Breastfeeding duration and early parenting behaviour: the importance of an infant-led, responsive style.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Brown

    Full Text Available Popular parenting literature promotes different approaches to caring for infants, based around variations in the use of parent-led routines and promoting infant independence. However, there is little empirical evidence of how these early behaviours affect wider parenting choices such as infant feeding. Breastfeeding often requires an infant-led approach, feeding on demand and allowing the infant to regulate intake whilst conversely formula feeding is open to greater caregiver manipulation. The infant-led style associated with breastfeeding may therefore be at odds with philosophies that encourage strict use of routine and independence. The aim of this study was to explore the association between early parenting behaviours and breastfeeding duration.Five hundred and eight mothers with an infant aged 0-12 months completed a questionnaire examining breastfeeding duration, attitudes and behaviours surrounding early parenting (e.g. anxiety, use of routine, involvement, nurturance and discipline. Participants were attendees at baby groups or participants of online parenting forums based in the UK.Formula use at birth or short breastfeeding duration were significantly associated with low levels of nurturance, high levels of reported anxiety and increased maternal use of Parent-led routines. Conversely an infant-led approach characterised by responding to and following infant cues was associated with longer breastfeeding duration.Maternal desire to follow a structured parenting approach which purports use of Parent-led routines and early demands for infant independence may have a negative impact upon breastfeeding duration. Increased maternal anxiety may further influence this relationship. The findings have important implications for Health Professionals supporting new mothers during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  9. Parental preference and perspectives on continuous pulse oximetry in infants and children with bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendaus MA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed A Hendaus,1,2 Suzan Nassar,3 Bassil A Leghrouz,3 Ahmed H Alhammadi,1,2 Mohammed Alamri4 1Department of Pediatrics, Section of Academic General Pediatrics, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar; 2Department of Clinical Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medicine, Doha, Qatar; 3Department of Pediatrics, Hamad General Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 4Pediatric Emergency Center, Hamad General Corporation, Doha, Qatar Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate parental preference of continuous pulse oximetry in infants and children with bronchiolitis. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar. Parents of infants and children <24 months old and hospitalized with bronchiolitis were offered an interview survey. Results: A total of 132 questionnaires were completed (response rate 100%. Approximately 90% of participants were 20–40 years of age, and 85% were females. The mean age of children was 7.2±5.8 months. Approximately eight in ten parents supported the idea of continuous pulse oximetry in children with bronchiolitis. Almost 43% of parents believed that continuous pulse-oximetry monitoring would delay their children’s hospital discharge. Interestingly, approximately 85% of caregivers agreed that continuous pulse oximetry had a good impact on their children’s health. In addition, around one in two of the participants stated that good bedside examinations can obviate the need for continuous pulse oximetry. Furthermore, 80% of parents believed that continuous pulse-oximetry monitoring would give the health-care provider a good sense of security regarding the child’s health. Finally, being a male parent was associated with significantly increased risk of reporting unnecessary fatigue, attributed to the sound of continuous pulse oximetry (P=0.031. Conclusion: Continuous pulse-oximetry monitoring in children with bronchiolitis was perceived as reassuring for parents. Involving parents

  10. Cross-parent reliability in rating ASD markers in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Amit-Ben-Simhon, Hemda; Meyer, Sonya

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the congruence and discrepancies between mother and father reports of early autism spectrum disorders (ASD) markers. Mothers (n = 80) and fathers (n = 78) of 12-month-old infants (55% boys) completed the first year inventory (FYI), an ASD norm-referenced screening questionnaire. Mothers also completed the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). There were significant and moderate intra-class correlations between mother and father reports for most FYI factors. Fathers' median FYI social-communication domain score was almost twice that of mothers. Mann-Whitney tests indicated that fathers rated their child significantly higher than mothers on the four FYI social-communication factors and on the sensory processing factor. Linear weighted kappa analyses indicated poor agreement on gaze-related and reactivity FYI items. FYI social-communication and sensory-regulatory factors showed significant correlations with corresponding ITSEA scores. Social-communication markers pose a greater challenge for consistent report across parents than sensory-regulatory markers.

  11. Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A. Oenema (Anke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8. years. One parent completed

  12. Associations between infant negative affect and parent anxiety symptoms are bidirectional: Evidence from mothers and fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Brooker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about child-based effects on parents’ anxiety symptoms early in life despite the possibility that child characteristics may contribute to the quality of the early environment and children’s own long-term risk for psychological disorder. We examined bidirectional effects between parent anxiety symptoms and infant fear-based negative affect using a prospective adoption design. Infant fear-based negative affect and adoptive parent anxiety symptoms were assessed at child ages 9, 18, and 27 months. Birth parent negative affect was assessed at child age 18 months. More anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents at child age 9 months predicted more negative affect in infants 9 months later. More infant negative affect at child age 9 months predicted more anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents 18 months later. Patterns of results did not differ for adoptive mothers and adoptive fathers. Birth parent negative affect was unrelated to infant or adoptive parent measures. Consistent with expectations, associations between infant negative affect and rearing parents’ anxiety symptoms appear to be bidirectional. In addition to traditional parent-to-child effects, our results suggest that infants’ characteristics may contribute to parent qualities that are known to impact childhood outcomes.

  13. Parents' Perspectives of Closeness and Separation With Their Preterm Infants in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treherne, Stephanie C; Feeley, Nancy; Charbonneau, Lyne; Axelin, Anna

    To discover parents' perceptions of closeness to and separation from their preterm infants in the NICU. Qualitative descriptive. Urban Level III NICU. Twenty parents of preterm infants in the NICU. After ethics approval, data were collected with a smartphone application created for this study. Parents recorded their descriptions of moments of closeness and separation over a 24-hour period in the NICU. Data were transcribed verbatim and content was analyzed. Five themes related to parents' perceptions of closeness and separation were identified: Having a role as a parent: Feeling autonomous and making decisions; Providing for and getting to know the infant: Feeding, holding, and interacting; Support from staff; Reluctantly leaving the infant's bedside; and NICU environment. Autonomy is a key element of a parent's perception of closeness. Staff in the NICU can facilitate autonomy by involving parents in the care of their preterm infants as much as possible to reinforce the parental role. Parents described leaving their infants' bedsides as very difficult. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of parental sensitivity and involvement in caregiving on mother-infant and father-infant attachment in a Portuguese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Marina; Faria, Anabela; Beeghly, Marjorie; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    In the present longitudinal study, we investigated attachment quality in Portuguese mother-infant and in father-infant dyads, and evaluated whether attachment quality was related to parental sensitivity during parent-infant social interaction or to the amount of time each parent spent with the infant during play and in routine caregiving activities (e.g., feeding, bathing, play). The sample consisted of 82 healthy full-term infants (30 girls, 53 boys, 48 first born), and their mothers and fathers from mostly middle-class households. To assess parental sensitivity, mothers and fathers were independently observed during free play interactions with their infants when infants were 9 and 15 months old. The videotaped interactions were scored by masked coders using the Crittenden's CARE-Index. When infants were 12 and 18 months old, mother-infant and father-infant dyads were videotaped during an adaptation of Ainsworth's Strange Situation. Parents also described their level of involvement in infant caregiving activities using a Portuguese version of the McBride and Mills Parent Responsibility Scale. Mothers were rated as being more sensitive than fathers during parent-infant free play at both 9 and 15 months. There also was a higher prevalence of secure attachment in mother-infant versus father-infant dyads at both 12 and 18 months. Attachment security was predicted by the amount of time mothers and fathers were involved in caregiving and play with the infant, and with parents' behavior during parent-infant free play. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The state of infant oral healthcare knowledge and awareness: Disparity among parents and healthcare professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprakash P

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Provision of infant oral health (IOH care is a challenging issue in the rural areas of our country due to lack of pedodontists and other dental workforces. To overcome these barriers it is essential to call the medical and other healthcare professionals to provide IOH care in joint collaboration with dental professionals. However, it is unclear to what extent these medical professionals are really aware of preventive strategies and to what extent they impart them. Thus, the present study was designed to begin from the grass-root levels, that is, assessing the baseline knowledge and awareness regarding IOH care among students (dental/medical and parents (urban/rural. Variation of opinions with inconsistencies were obtained from both medical and/dental students and as well as from both the parental groups. This study calls for further research to evaluate the role of various factors involved in IOH care and to effectively educate all healthcare providers in this area.

  16. Future Directions in Parent Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, May

    This paper suggests goals for future research programs in parent education. Suggestions include: (1) developing and replicating long-term studies of the effects of parent education, (2) examining the antecedents of adult behavior disorders to plan parenting programs that aim at preventing such disorders, (3) replacing deficit models of parenting…

  17. Finnish Parents' Attitudes toward Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räty, Hannu; Korhonen, Maija; Kasanen, Kati; Komulainen, Katri; Rautiainen, Riitta; Siivonen, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    This study set out to investigate parental attitudes toward entrepreneurship education as evaluative directing components of social representations. A nationwide sample of parents (N = 625) was asked to indicate their opinions on a set of statements about entrepreneurship education. The parents' attitudinal orientation suggested that they would…

  18. Relationships between parental sleep quality, fatigue, cognitions about infant sleep, and parental depression pre and post-intervention for infant behavioral sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wendy A; Moynihan, Melissa; Bhagat, Radhika; Wooldridge, Joanne

    2017-04-04

    Maternal and paternal depression has been associated with infants' behavioral sleep problems. Behavioral sleep interventions, which alter parental cognitions about infant sleep, have improved infant sleep problems. This study reports relationships between parental depression, fatigue, sleep quality, and cognitions about infant sleep pre and post-intervention for a behavioral sleep problem. This secondary analysis of data from Canadian parents (n = 455), with healthy infants aged 6-to-8-months exposed to a behavioral sleep intervention, examined baseline data and follow-up data from 18 or 24 weeks post intervention (group teaching or printed material) exposure. Parents reported on sleep quality, fatigue, depression, and cognitions about infant sleep. Data were analyzed using Pearson's r and stepwise regression analysis. Parents' fatigue, sleep quality, sleep cognitions, and depression scores were correlated at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, sleep quality (b = .52, 95% CI .19-.85), fatigue (b = .48, 95% CI .33-.63), doubt about managing infant sleep (b = .44, 95% CI .19-.69), and anger about infant sleep (b = .69, 95% CI .44-.94) were associated with mothers' depression. At baseline, fathers' depression related to sleep quality (b = .42, 95% CI .01-.83), fatigue (b = .47, 95% CI .32-.63), and doubt about managing infant sleep (b = .50, 95% CI .24-.76). At follow-up, mothers' depression was associated with sleep quality (b = .76, 95% CI .41-1.12), fatigue (b = .25, 95% CI .14-.37), doubt about managing infant sleep (b = .44, 95% CI .16-.73), sleep anger (b = .31, 95% CI .02-.59), and setting sleep limits (b = -.22, 95% CI -.41-[-.03]). At follow-up, fathers' depression related to sleep quality (b = .84, 95% CI .46-1.22), fatigue (b = .31, 95% CI .17-.45), sleep doubt (b = .34, 95% CI .05-.62), and setting sleep limits (b = .25, 95% CI .01-.49). Mothers' and fathers' cognitions about infant

  19. Hush Now Baby: Mothers’ and Fathers’ Strategies for Soothing Their Infants and Associated Parenting Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Carolyn Joy; Walsh, Tova B.; Oh, Wonjung; Volling, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the types of soothing behaviors used by mothers and fathers of infants, differences in use trajectories over time, and associated parenting outcomes. Methods Longitudinal study of 241 families expecting their second child. Data were collected at 1, 4 and 8 postnatal months and included measures of parental soothing techniques, involvement in soothing, distress in response to infant crying, and parenting self-efficacy. Results Average number of soothing techniques used was 7.7 for mothers and 5.9 for fathers. Soothing frequency decreased over time and change patterns of soothing differed over time by gender. In couples who shared responsibility for soothing fathers felt more efficacious in parenting and mothers were less upset by infant crying. Discussion Clinicians are encouraged to support fathers’ engagement in infant soothing, to facilitate the development of fathers’ parenting confidence, and to promote fathers’ involvement in children’s health and healthcare. PMID:25440811

  20. Negative (but not Positive) Parenting Interacts with Infant Negative Affect to Predict Infant Approach: Evidence of Diathesis-Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Jacob B; Burt, Nicole M; Edwards, Erin S; Rosinski, Leanna D; Bridgett, David J

    2018-01-01

    Temperament by parenting interactions may reflect that individuals with greater risk are more likely to experience negative outcomes in adverse contexts (diathesis-stress) or that these individuals are more susceptible to contextual influences in a 'for better or for worse' pattern (differential susceptibility). Although such interactions have been identified for a variety of child outcomes, prior research has not examined approach characteristics - excitement and approach toward pleasurable activities - in the first year of life. Therefore, the current study investigated whether 6-month maternal reported infant negative affect - a phenotypic marker of risk/susceptibility - interacted with 8-month observed parenting behaviors (positive parenting, negative parenting) to predict 12-month infant behavioral approach. Based a sample of mothers and their infants ( N =150), results indicated that negative parenting was inversely associated with subsequent approach for infants with high, but not low, levels of early negative affect. Similar results did not occur regarding positive parenting. These findings better fit a diathesis-stress model rather than a differential susceptibility model. Implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.

  1. Maternal and Infant Temperament Characteristics as Contributors to Parenting Stress in the First Year Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Kate B.; Murdock, Kyle W.; Vadnais, Sarah; Bridgett, David J.; Gartstein, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Although prominent models emphasize that maternal, child, and situational variables are associated with parenting stress, previous research has often neglected to examine associations between maternal and infant temperament characteristics and stress experienced in the parenting role. Additionally, while predictors of global parenting stress have…

  2. Mindful Parenting Predicts Mothers' and Infants' Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Activity during a Dyadic Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Duncan, Larissa G.; Lightcap, April; Khan, Faaiza

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness in the parenting relationship has been proposed to help both parents and children better regulate stress, though this has not yet been shown at the physiological level. In this study, we tested relations between maternal mindfulness in parenting and both mothers' and their infants' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity…

  3. Parent-Child Interaction Synchrony for Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Gengoux, Grace W; Smith, Amanda; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated interactions between parents and 12-month-old infants at high (HR-SIBS; n = 27) and low (LR-SIBS; n = 14) familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The contributions of parental variables, as well as child's autism symptom severity and verbal skills, to the parent interaction style were examined. Parents of HR-SIBS exhibited a higher level of synchronous-demanding behaviors, which was associated with parental report of atypical mood in the infant, but not with autism symptom severity, verbal skills, or parental depressive symptoms. These preliminary findings suggest a need for further investigation into HR-SIBS' emotional development and parental perception of that development, as these factors may shape parent-child interaction and influence the effectiveness of parent-assisted early intervention programs.

  4. Baby please stop crying: an experimental approach to infant crying, affect, and expected parenting self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cock, E.S.A.; Henrichs, J.; Rijk, C.H.A.M.; van Bakel, H.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study examines the effect of infant crying on parental affect, state anxiety and parenting self-efficacy in an experimental setting. Background: Infant crying causes distress and feelings of incompetence in many parents. These frustrating parental feelings can lead to

  5. Variation in outcomes of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program according to maternal education and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Ball, Kylie; Hesketh, Kylie D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Salmon, Jo; Crawford, David A; Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program according to maternal education and age. A cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 mother/infant pairs from 62 existing first-time parent groups was conducted in 2008 in Melbourne, Australia. The intervention involved 6 × 2-hour dietitian-delivered sessions, DVD and written resources from infant age 4-15 months. Outcomes included infant diet (3 × 24 h diet recalls), physical activity (accelerometry), television viewing and body mass index. We tested for moderation by maternal education (with/without a University degree) and age (education and age. The intervention effects on vegetable (positive effect) and sweet snack consumption (negative effect) were greater in children with higher educated mothers while intervention effects on water consumption (positive effect) were greater in infants with lower educated mothers. The intervention was also more effective in increasing both vegetable and water consumption in infants with mothers aged education and age. Evidence of differential effects is important for informing more sensitively targeted/tailored approaches. © 2013.

  6. Maternal physiological dysregulation while parenting poses risk for infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M; Su, Jinni; Calkins, Susan D; O'Brien, Marion; Supple, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    The extent to which indices of maternal physiological arousal (skin conductance augmentation) and regulation (vagal withdrawal) while parenting predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems directly or indirectly via maternal sensitivity was examined in a sample of 259 mothers and their infants. Two covariates, maternal self-reported emotional risk and Adult Attachment Interview attachment coherence were assessed prenatally. Mothers' physiological arousal and regulation were measured during parenting tasks when infants were 6 months old. Maternal sensitivity was observed during distress-eliciting tasks when infants were 6 and 14 months old, and an average sensitivity score was calculated. Attachment disorganization was observed during the Strange Situation when infants were 14 months old, and mothers reported on infants' behavior problems when infants were 27 months old. Over and above covariates, mothers' arousal and regulation while parenting interacted to predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems such that maternal arousal was associated with higher attachment disorganization and behavior problems when maternal regulation was low but not when maternal regulation was high. This effect was direct and not explained by maternal sensitivity. The results suggest that maternal physiological dysregulation while parenting places infants at risk for psychopathology.

  7. Music therapy microanalysis of parent-infant interaction in a three-month-old infant later diagnosed with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Suvini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Infant research literature has described for a long time the main aspects of parentese (motherese and fatherese referring to musicality and specifically to musical language. It is believed that there is a deep analogy between the vital affects experienced by the child during interaction with the parent and the type of parentese that is a direct representation of them. Disruption of parentese has been described in early autism. The aim of this paper was to achieve a better understanding of this disruptive process. Participants and procedure Sequences of parent-infant interaction extracted from one home movie of a child later diagnosed with autism were analyzed in a micro-musical way in order to create a musical score that allows the description of parent-infant interaction in a new way (considering form, pulse, rhythm, melody, timbre and silence. Results Musical microanalysis is able to highlight features not brought out by other kinds of analysis. The first fragment is dominated by the anxiety of the mother, who attempts to stimulate the unresponsive infant. In the second fragment there is a change in musicality parallel to changes in the relationship: the mother participates in and coordinates the infant’s experience through rhythm, prosody and musical dynamics. This change persists in the third fragment. Conclusions Musical transcription of parent-infant interactions has allowed us to highlight changes occurring in a short time during early interactions and to get a closer view of the disruptive process created by autism. This kind of research represents a potential shift in autism research, by focusing on dynamic parent-infant interactions instead of single behaviors of the child or of the parent. The usefulness of Stern’s concept of intersubjective communion is discussed.

  8. Parenting self-efficacy: links with maternal depression, infant behaviour and adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne

    2013-04-01

    This study examined predictors of parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in a sample of first-time mothers during the first year after childbirth and evaluated the effect of a brief, intensive, mother-infant residential intervention on PSE and infant behaviour. 83 primiparous women with infants aged 0-12 months admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis of depressive and anxiety disorders and completed questionnaires assessing psychological distress, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. During their residential stay, nurses recorded infant behaviour using 24-hour charts. Results showed PSE to be inversely correlated with maternal depression, maternal anxiety and attachment insecurity. Low levels of parental abuse during childhood, avoidant attachment, male infant gender and depressive symptom severity were found to predict low PSE. Major depression mediated the relation between attachment insecurity and PSE, but there were no links between PSE and infant behaviour. After the intervention, there was a significant improvement in PSE, with abusive parenting during childhood and depressive symptom severity being predictive of change. This study highlights the links between maternal psychopathology and maternal background factors such as childhood parenting experiences and attachment style in the development of postnatal PSE. Directions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Autism Parent Screen for Infants: Predicting Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder Based on Parent-Reported Behavior Observed at 6-24 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R.; Bryson, Susan; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Brian, Jessica; Smith, Isabel M.; Roberts, Wendy; Szatmari, Peter; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Roncadin, Caroline; Garon, Nancy

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether a novel parent-report questionnaire, the Autism Parent Screen for Infants, could differentiate infants subsequently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder from a high-risk cohort (siblings of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (n = 66)) from high-risk and low-risk comparison infants (no family history of…

  10. Democratic parenting: paradoxical messages in democratic parent education theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John

    2013-06-01

    Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents a textual analysis of two such theories, the Adlerian model of parent education and the Parent Effectiveness Training (PET) model, as they are embodied in two original bestselling textbooks. Through content and argumentation analysis of these influential texts, this study examines the paradoxes inherent in these two theories when they articulate how to implement fully democratic principles within the parent-child relationship. We discover that in spite of their democratic rationale, both books offer communication practices that guide the child to modify misbehaviour, enforce parental power, and manipulate the child to make decisions that follow parental judgment, and thus do not endorse the use of a truly democratic parenting style. We suggest, as an alternative to the democratic parenting style, that parents be introduced to a guardianship management style, in which they do not share authority with children, but seek opportunities for enabling children to make more autonomous decisions and participate in more family decision making.

  11. Symbolic interactionism: a framework for the care of parents of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L D; Saunders, R B

    1990-04-01

    Because of stressors surrounding preterm birth, parents can be expected to have difficulty in early interactions with their preterm infants. Care givers who work with preterm infants and their parents can positively affect the early parental experiences of these mothers and fathers. If care givers are consciously guided by a conceptual model, therapeutic care for distressed parents is more likely to be provided. A logical framework, such as symbolic interactionism, helps care givers to proceed systematically in assessing parental behaviors, in intervening appropriately, and in evaluating both the process and outcome of the care. Selected aspects of the symbolic interaction model are described in this article and applied to the care of parents of preterm infants.

  12. Infant Attachment Moderates Paths From Early Negativity to Preadolescent Outcomes for Children and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna; Jonas, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Although infant attachment has been long seen as key for development, its long-term effects may be complex. Attachment may be a catalyst or moderator of future developmental sequelae rather than a source of main effects. In 102 mothers, fathers, and infants, attachment was assessed at 15 months; children's negativity (rejection of parental rules and modeling attempts) at 25, 38, 52, and 67 months; and developmental outcomes (the child's parent-rated externalizing problems and the parent-child observed relationship quality) at ages 10 and 12. In both mother-child and father-child relationships, children's higher negativity was associated with more detrimental outcomes but only in dyads with formerly insecure infants. Infant insecurity appears to amplify detrimental cascades, whereas infant security appears to defuse such risks. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Parents' early healthcare transition experiences with preterm and acutely ill infants: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, M; Orava, T; Bernardo, S; McPherson, A C; Church, P; Fehlings, D

    2017-11-01

    Parents undergo multiple transitions following the birth of an ill infant: their infant's illness-health trajectory, neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization and transfers from one healthcare setting to another, while also transitioning to parenthood. The objective of this review was to map and synthesize evidence on the experiences and needs of parents of preterm or ill infants as they transition within and between healthcare settings following birth. The scoping review followed Arskey and O'Malley's () framework, enhanced by Levac et al. (). Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search strategy of scientific and grey literature databases, online networks, Web of Science and citation lists of relevant articles. Inclusion criteria encompassed a focus on infants undergoing a healthcare transition, and the experiences and needs of parents during transition. Studies were appraised for design quality, and data relevant to parent experiences were extracted and underwent thematic analysis. A total of 7773 records were retrieved, 90 full texts reviewed and 11 articles synthesized that represented a total sample of 435 parents of preterm or ill infants. Parents reported on their experiences in response to their infant's transition within and between hospitals and across levels of neonatal intensive care unit, intermediate and community hospital care. Ten studies used qualitative research methods, while one employed quantitative survey methods. Four key themes were identified: that of parent distress throughout transition, parenting at a distance, sources of stress and sources of support. Parents' stress resulted from not being informed or involved in the transition decision, inadequate communication and perceived differences in cultures of care across healthcare settings. Opportunities to improve parents' early transition experiences include enhanced engagement, communication, information-sharing and shared decision-making between health care

  14. Effect of Education on the Awareness of Primigravida Couples toward Infant Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bagheri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infancy is one of the most critical stages of life, which requires parents to have adequate knowledge in order to provide careful nursing, attention and care for newborns. Given the importance of infant health, it is essential to teach proper child care techniques and principles to primigravida parents. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of education on the awareness of primigravida couples toward infant care. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 50 couples in the healthcare centers affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Study tools were researcher-made questionnaires, and data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: In this study, poor awareness of infant care was observed in the couples before training, which improved to moderate awareness after the educational sessions. Moreover, mean score of parental awareness significantly increased in mothers (P=0.005 and fathers (P=0.05 after the training. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, educational intervention could promote parental awareness in primigravida couples. Therefore, application of this method could help parents to provide nursing care for their newborns.

  15. Household chaos, sociodemographic risk, coparenting, and parent-infant relations during infants' first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Corey J; Teti, Douglas M; Crosby, Brian; Kim, Bo-Ram

    2015-04-01

    Household chaos is a construct often overlooked in studies of human development, despite its theoretical links with the integrity of individual well-being, family processes, and child development. The present longitudinal study examined relations between household chaos and well-established correlates of chaos (sociodemographic risk, major life events, and personal distress) and several constructs that, to date, are theoretically linked with chaos but never before assessed as correlates (quality of coparenting and emotional availability with infants at bedtime). In addressing this aim, we introduce a new measure of household chaos (the Descriptive In-home Survey of Chaos--Observer ReporteD, or DISCORD), wholly reliant on independent observer report, which draws from household chaos theory and prior empirical work but extends the measurement of chaos to include information about families' compliance with a home visiting protocol. Household chaos was significantly associated with socioeconomic risk, negative life events, less favorable coparenting, and less emotionally available bedtime parenting, but not with personal distress. These findings emphasize the need to examine household chaos as a direct and indirect influence on child and family outcomes, as a moderator of intervention attempts to improving parenting and child development, and as a target of intervention in its own right. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Parents bereaved by infant death: Sex differences and moderation in PTSD, attachment, coping, and social support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Olff, Miranda; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parents bereaved by infant death experience a wide range of symptomatology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that may persist for years after the loss. Little research has been conducted on PTSD in fathers who have lost an infant. Mothers report most symptoms to a greater...

  17. Parents bereaved by infant death: sex differences and moderation in PTSD, attachment, coping and social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Olff, Miranda; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Parents bereaved by infant death experience a wide range of symptomatology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that may persist for years after the loss. Little research has been conducted on PTSD in fathers who have lost an infant. Mothers report most symptoms to a greater extent than

  18. The Effects of Prematurity and Illness on Parents' Perceptions of Their Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, Maribeth; And Others

    Part of a larger study investigating the longitudinal effects of prematurity, illness, and hospitalization, this study focuses on parent perceptions of their infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, with age being corrected for conceptional age at birth. It was hypothesized that neonatal condition and age of infant at the time of measurement would…

  19. Direct and Indirect Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Infant Language Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M; Garcia, Dainelys; Hill, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    Given the strong association between early behavior problems and language impairment, we examined the effect of a brief home-based adaptation of Parent-child Interaction Therapy on infant language production. Sixty infants (55% male; mean age 13.47±1.31 months) were recruited at a large urban primary care clinic and were included if their scores exceeded the 75th percentile on a brief screener of early behavior problems. Families were randomly assigned to receive the home-based parenting intervention or standard pediatric primary care. The observed number of infant total (i.e., token) and different (i.e., type) utterances spoken during an observation of an infant-led play and a parent-report measure of infant externalizing behavior problems were examined at pre- and post-intervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Infants receiving the intervention demonstrated a significantly higher number of observed different and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up compared to infants in standard care. Furthermore, there was an indirect effect of the intervention on infant language production, such that the intervention led to decreases in infant externalizing behavior problems from pre- to post-intervention, which, in turn, led to increases in infant different utterances at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up. Results provide initial evidence for the effect of this brief and home-based intervention on infant language production, including the indirect effect of the intervention on infant language through improvements in infant behavior, highlighting the importance of targeting behavior problems in early intervention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Chuthapisith, Jariya; Mo-suwan, Ladda; Kriweradechachai, Suntree; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Choprapawon, Chanpen

    2009-01-01

    Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a) study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age television (as recommended by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), television toward their child's development. Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS), and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively). On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male) was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3). Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day) and delayed language development at the

  1. Parents' beliefs about appropriate infant size, growth and feeding behaviour: implications for the prevention of childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Judy A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of risk factors are associated with the development of childhood obesity which can be identified during infancy. These include infant feeding practices, parental response to infant temperament and parental perception of infant growth and appetite. Parental beliefs and understanding are crucial determinants of infant feeding behaviour; therefore any intervention would need to take account of their views. This study aimed to explore UK parents' beliefs concerning their infant's size, growth and feeding behaviour and parental receptiveness to early intervention aimed at reducing the risk of childhood obesity. Method Six focus groups were undertaken in a range of different demographic localities, with parents of infants less than one year of age. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results 38 parents (n = 36 female, n = 2 male, age range 19-45 years (mean 30.1 years, SD 6.28 participated in the focus groups. 12/38 were overweight (BMI 25-29.99 and 8/38 obese (BMI >30. Five main themes were identified. These were a parental concern about breast milk, infant contentment and growth; b the belief that the main cause of infant distress is hunger is widespread and drives inappropriate feeding; c rationalisation for infants' larger size; d parental uncertainty about identifying and managing infants at risk of obesity and e intentions and behaviour in relation to a healthy lifestyle. Conclusions There are a number of barriers to early intervention with parents of infants at risk of developing obesity. Parents are receptive to prevention prior to weaning and need better support with best practice in infant feeding. In particular, this should focus on helping them understand the physiology of breast feeding, how to differentiate between infant distress caused by hunger and other causes and the timing of weaning. Some parents also need

  2. “Expectant Parents”: Study protocol of a longitudinal study concerning prenatal (risk factors and postnatal infant development, parenting, and parent-infant relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas A Janneke BM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of the infant-parent relationship from the child’s perspective is acknowledged worldwide, there is still a lack of knowledge about predictors and long-term benefits or consequences of the quality of parent-infant relationships from the parent’s perspective. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the quality of parent-infant relationships from parents’ perspectives, both in the prenatal and postpartum period. This study therefore focuses on prenatal (risk factors that may influence the quality of pre- and postnatal bonding, the transition to parenthood, and bonding as a process within families with young children. In contrast to most research concerning pregnancy and infant development, not only the roles and experiences of mothers during pregnancy and the first two years of infants’ lives are studied, but also those of fathers. Methods/design The present study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, in which pregnant women (N = 466 and their partners (N = 319 are followed from 15 weeks gestation until their child is 24 months old. During pregnancy, midwives register the presence of prenatal risk factors and provide obstetric information after the child’s birth. Parental characteristics are investigated using self-report questionnaires at 15, 26, and 36 weeks gestational age and at 4, 6, 12, and 24 months postpartum. At 26 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum, parents are interviewed concerning their representations of the (unborn child. At 6 months postpartum, the mother-child interaction is observed in several situations within the home setting. When children are 4, 6, 12, and 24 months old, parents also completed questionnaires concerning the child’s (social-emotional development and the parent-child relationship. Additionally, at 12 months information about the child’s physical development and well-being during the first year of life is retrieved from

  3. The Interplay between Expressed Parental Anxiety and Infant Behavioural Inhibition Predicts Infant Avoidance in a Social Referencing Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Evin; Majdandzic, Mirjana; de Vente, Wieke; Bogels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anxiety aggregates in families. Environmental factors, such as modelling of anxious behaviours, are assumed to play a causal role in the development of child anxiety. We investigated the predictive value of paternal and maternal anxiety (lifetime anxiety disorders and expressed parental anxiety) on infants' fear and avoidance during…

  4. Parenting stress and development of late preterm infants at 4 months corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad K; Ginn, Carla S; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Benzies, Karen M

    2017-10-01

    Parenting stress has been linked to child development issues in early preterm infants, but less is known about its effects on development in infants born late preterm. We examined relationships between parenting stress of 108 mothers and 108 fathers and development of late preterm infants born at 34 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation. At 4 months corrected age, mothers and fathers completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI-3); mothers were primary caregivers in almost all families and completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-2) on child development. Mothers reported significantly more stress than fathers on the PSI-3 Parent Domain. PSI-3 subscale scores from the Child Domain were significant predictors of mother-reported infant development as measured by the ASQ-2 in regression models: Reinforces Parent predicted Gross Motor, Mood predicted Communication, and Acceptability predicted Communication, Fine Motor, Problem Solving, and Personal -Social development scale scores. Experiences of parenting stress differed for mothers and fathers. Further research is required on specific dimensions of parenting stress related to development of late preterm infants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sleep location and parent-perceived sleep outcomes in older infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Leichman, Erin S; Walters, Russel M

    2017-11-01

    Initial studies indicate more independent and consolidated sleep in the first few months in infants who sleep separately. Little is known, however, about the relationship of sleep location (separate room, room-sharing, bed-sharing) with sleep outcomes in older infants (ages 6-12 months). It was expected that those who sleep in a separate room would have better parent-perceived sleep outcomes and more positive sleep health behaviors. Parents of 6236 infants (6-12 months) in the United States (US) and 3798 in an international sample (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Great Britain, and New Zealand) completed a smartphone app-based expanded version of the validated Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. A total of 37.2% of the infants in the US and 48.4% in the international sample slept in a separate room. In both samples, infants who slept in a separate room as opposed to room-sharing or bed-sharing had parent-perceived sleep outcomes and sleep-related behaviors that reflected earlier bedtimes, shorter time to fall asleep, more nighttime and total sleep, and increased sleep consolidation. They were also more likely to have a consistent bedtime routine and to fall asleep independently, as well as less likely to feed to sleep at bedtime and during the night. In addition, parents of separate room sleepers perceived bedtime to be less difficult and sleep to be better overall. Overall, 6- to 12-month-old infants who slept in a separate room had better reported sleep outcomes and fewer parent-perceived disturbances at bedtime than infants who room-shared with their parents, as well compared to those who slept in their parents' bed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Paid parental leave supports breastfeeding and mother-infant relationship: a prospective investigation of maternal postpartum employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the association between the mother-infant relationship, defined as maternal-infant emotional attachment, maternal separation anxiety and breastfeeding, and maternal employment status at 10 months following first childbirth. Samples of employed, pregnant women, over 18 years of age and with sufficient English literacy were recruited systematically from one public and one private maternity hospital in Victoria. Data were collected by structured interview and self-report questionnaire in the third trimester, and at 3 and 10 months postpartum. Socio-demographic, employment, and breastfeeding information was collected. Participants completed standardised assessments of maternal separation anxiety and mother-to-infant emotional attachment. Of 205 eligible women, 165 (81%) agreed to participate and 129 (78%) provided complete data. A reduced odds of employment participation was independently associated with continuing to breastfeed at 10 months (OR=0.22, p=0.004) and reporting higher maternal separation anxiety (OR=0.23, p=0.01) when maternal age, education, occupational status and use of paid maternity leave and occupational status were adjusted for in analyses. Employment participation in the first 10 months postpartum is associated with lower maternal separation anxiety, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Paid parental leave has public health implications for mothers and infants. These include permitting sufficient time to protect sustained breastfeeding, and the development of optimal maternal infant attachment, reflected in confidence about separation from her infant. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Parental Engagement: Beyond Parental Involvement in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kathleen

    This study critically analyzes parents' complex stories of engagement in school and science education. The purpose is not to essentialize parental involvement, but rather to understand the processes of parental involvement and push forward the current discourse on the engagement of low-income minority and immigrant parents in schools and specifically science education. Employing critical grounded theory methods over a four-year span, this study had three areas of focus. First, voices of marginalized parents in the context of various spaces within the school system are examined. Using a qualitative approach, informal, formal, and research spaces were explored along with how minority parents express voice in these various spaces. Findings indicate parents drew on capital to express voice differently in different spaces, essentially authoring new spaces or the type of engagement in existing spaces. Second, the values and beliefs of traditionally marginalized people, the Discourse of mainstream society, and how they can inform a third, more transformative space for parental engagement in science are considered. The voices of low-income, marginalized parents around science and parental engagement (i.e., first space) are contrasted with the tenets of major national science policy documents (i.e., second space). Findings indicate a disparity between the pathways of engagement for low-income parents and policymakers who shape science education. Third, methodological questions of responsibility and assumption in qualitative research are explored. The author's complex struggle to make sense of her positionality, responsibilities, and assumptions as a researcher is chronicled. Findings focused on insider/outsider issues and implications for culturally sensitive research are discussed. Finally, the implications for policy, teaching, and research are discussed.

  8. Father-Inclusive Perinatal Parent Education Programs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joyce Y; Knauer, Heather A; Lee, Shawna J; MacEachern, Mark P; Garfield, Craig F

    2018-06-14

    Fathers contribute to their children's health starting at the beginning of life. Few parent education programs include fathers. Among those that do, there is little effort to report program effects on father outcomes. In this systematic review, we examined father-inclusive perinatal parent education programs in the United States as they relate to a range of father outcomes. The databases searched were PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, Ovid Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO. Studies were included if they included an evaluation of a parent education program and a report of father outcomes measured within 1 year of the child's birth and were conducted within the United States. Of 1353 total articles, 21 met study criteria. The overall state of the father-inclusive perinatal parent education program literature was poor, with few interventions available to fathers. Available programs were associated with increased father involvement, coparenting relationship, partner relationship quality, father's mental health, and father's supportive behaviors. Program effects on father-infant interaction, parenting knowledge, and attitudes and parenting self-efficacy were inconclusive. Three programs emerged as best evidence-based interventions. Risk of bias was high for many studies. Outcome variability, small sample size, and publication bias contributed to the weak evidence base. There is a need for more evidence-based interventions to support fathers. Clinicians play a key role in engaging fathers in early parent education programs and health care settings. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017050099. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. The contribution of Australian residential early parenting centres to comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants: evidence from a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jane RW

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia's public access residential early parenting services provide programs to assist parents who self-refer, to care for their infants and young children. Treatment programs target infant feeding and sleeping difficulties and maternal mental health. There is limited systematic evidence of maternal and infant mental health, psychosocial circumstances or presenting problems, or the effectiveness of the programs. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evidence base about residential early parenting services. Methods A prospective cohort design was used. A consecutive sample of mothers with infants under one year old recruited during admission to a public access residential early parenting service for a 4 or 5 night stay in Melbourne, Australia was recruited. They completed structured self-report questionnaires, incorporating standardised measures of infant behaviour and maternal mood, during admission and at one and six months after discharge. Changes in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning after discharge were observed. Results 79 women completed the first questionnaire during admission, and 58 provided complete data. Women admitted to the residential program have poor physical and mental health, limited family support, and infants with substantial behaviour difficulties. One month after discharge significant improvements in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning were observed (mean (SD daily crying and fussing during admission = 101.02 (100.8 minutes reduced to 37.7 (55.2 at one month post discharge, p Conclusions This psycho-educational approach is an effective and acceptable early intervention for parenting difficulties and maternal mood disturbance, and contributes to a system of comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants.

  10. Autism Treatment in the First Year of Life: A Pilot Study of Infant Start, a Parent-Implemented Intervention for Symptomatic Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S. J.; Vismara, L.; Wagner, A. L.; McCormick, C.; Young, G.; Ozonoff, S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of early autism screening is earlier treatment. We pilot-tested a 12-week, low-intensity treatment with seven symptomatic infants ages 7-15 months. Parents mastered the intervention and maintained skills after treatment ended. Four comparison groups were matched from a study of infant siblings. The treated group of infants was…

  11. Educational Optimism among Parents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' (N = 351) educational optimism in terms of their trust in the possibilities of school to develop children's intelligence. It was found that educational optimism could be depicted as a bipolar factor with optimism and pessimism on the opposing ends of the same dimension. Optimistic parents indicated more satisfaction…

  12. [Smoking in the presence of infants; a survey among parents attending well-baby clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasing, R A; Gena, S A; Simon, J G; Kossen-Boot, H; Meulmeester, J F; van den Oudenrijn, C

    1994-07-09

    To determine the exposure to cigarette smoke of infants aged 0-14 months. Cross-sectional. The area of Westfriesland, the Netherlands. All parents of infants 8 days, 3, 5, 9, and 14 months old who visited the infant welfare centre in 1992 were asked to fill in a questionnaire. The questionnaire was filled in by 75% of the parents. Smoking before pregnancy was reported by 38% of the mothers, 25% smoked for more than 12 weeks during pregnancy. Almost 50% of all infants were exposed to cigarette smoke at home: 31% of the fathers, 27% of the mothers and 21% others smoked at home. The number of parents who smoked > or = 16 cigarettes a day at home was significantly higher in the weekend than on working days. Nobody smoked in the bedroom of the infant, 42% smoked in the living room, 21% smoked during nursing the infant and 11% smoked in the car in the presence of the infant. Infants are often exposed to cigarette smoke at home, during nursing and in the car.

  13. The influence of interpersonal aggression on maternal perceptions of infant emotions: Associations with early parenting quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Carolyn J; Huth-Bocks, Alissa C; Busuito, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that mothers who have experienced child maltreatment and aggression within their adult relationships may be at particular risk for misinterpreting infant emotions, leading to less sensitive parenting behaviors. Participants were 120 pregnant women recruited for a larger, longitudinal study investigating the role of psychosocial and environmental risk on women and their young children. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy, and when children were 1 and 2 years of age. Participants completed a projective test designed to elicit individual differences in perceptions of infant emotions and an observer-rated assessment of parenting behaviors was conducted in the family home. Using structural equation modeling, we tested associations between maternal interpersonal aggression exposure and perceptions of infant emotion and parenting behaviors. Results demonstrated that a history of child abuse and intimate partner conflict were associated with a maternal tendency to view ambiguous infant facial expressions as negative (i.e., negative attribution bias), and in turn, with less parenting sensitivity over time. Findings suggest that negative attributions of infant emotion may be 1 mechanism by which a history of trauma and violence exposure contributes to less sensitive parenting for some mothers. Implications for intervention include the need for trauma-informed clinical services and psychoeducational methods that help mothers more accurately read and respond to infant emotional expression and bids for connection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Parents and the educational process of art education

    OpenAIRE

    Bobinac, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In this Thesis I have researched the parents and the educational process of art education. I wondered how parents encourage their children in artistic creation. The research was based on 37 parents of 3rd graders. Required information was obtained via questionnaires. I have found that parents support children in artistic activities outside school hours, often providing them with art accessories and materials, with the resulting products being exhibited around their homes. Sometimes th...

  15. Parent-Infant Vocalisations at 12 Months Predict Psychopathology at 7 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allely, C. S.; Purves, D.; McConnachie, A.; Marwick, H.; Johnson, P.; Doolin, O.; Puckering, C.; Golding, J.; Gillberg, C.; Wilson, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant…

  16. Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on…

  17. Parenting Self-Efficacy Predicts Perceptions of Infant Negative Temperament Characteristics, Not Vice Versa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhage, M.L.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2013-01-01

    Infant temperamental characteristics have been found associated with decreasing parenting self-efficacy(PSE) during the first year after birth, which has been generally interpreted as a child effect on the parent.To test direction of effects, PSE was assessed during the third trimester of pregnancy

  18. Parenting stress in mothers of very preterm infants -- influence of development, temperament and maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter H; Edwards, Dawn M; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Cuskelly, Monica; Gibbons, Kristen

    2013-09-01

    To measure levels of parenting stress and postnatal depression in mothers of very preterm infants in comparison with mothers of infants born at term is the objective of this study. The study also aimed to explore factors associated with parenting stress in the mothers of the preterm infants. One hundred and five mothers who delivered 124 babies at ≤30 weeks gestation were enrolled together with 105 term mothers who delivered 120 babies. At one year of age (corrected for prematurity for the preterm cohort), the mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index Short Form (PSI), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Short Temperament Scale for Toddlers. The infants had neurodevelopmental assessment. The preterm and term groups were compared. Questionnaires were completed by 101 of the preterm mothers and 98 of the term mothers. The mean PSI Total Stress score was significantly higher for the preterm mothers (70.28 vs 64.52, p = 0.022), with 19% of the preterm group and 9% of the term group having high scores (p = 0.038).There was no group difference on the EPDS or measures of temperament, with disability being greater in the preterm infants. For the preterm group, maternal depression and infant temperament were independent predictors of Total Stress scores on multivariate analysis. Parenting stress in mothers of preterm infants at one year of age is significantly greater than that found in mothers of term infants. For preterm mothers, symptoms of depression and infant temperament are independent risk factors for higher levels of parenting stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The dynamic still-face effect: do infants decrease bidding over time when parents are not responsive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi V; Haltigan, John D; Messinger, Daniel S

    2013-06-01

    The still-face paradigm (SFP) was designed to assess infant expectations that parents will respond to infant communicative signals. During the still-face (SF) episode, the parent ceases interaction and maintains a neutral expression. Original, qualitative descriptions of infant behavior suggested changes within the SF episode: infants decrease bidding and disengage from their impassive parent. Research has documented changes in mean levels of infant behavior between episodes of the SFP. The hypothesis that infant behavior changes within the SF episode has not been empirically tested. In this study, hierarchical linear modeling indicated that infant gazing at the parent, smiling, and social bidding (smiling while gazing at the parent) decreased with time in the SF episode, while infant cry-face expressions increased. Changes in infant behaviors within the SF episode were associated with infant attachment and infant internalizing problems. The dynamic still-face effect quantifies infant initiation of interaction in the face of parental unresponsiveness and is a potential predictor of individual differences in development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment: the mediation role of maternal parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Kang, Su-Kyoung; Yee, Bangsil; Shim, So-Yeon; Chung, Mira

    2016-12-12

    Father-child interactions are associated with improved developmental outcomes among infants. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has addressed the effects of paternal involvement on the neurodevelopment of infants who are less than 6 months of age, and no study has reported how maternal parenting stress mediates the relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment during early infancy. This study investigates the direct and indirect relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment at 3-4 months of age. The indirect relationship was assessed through the mediating factor of maternal parenting stress. The participants were recruited through the Sesalmaul Research Center's website from April to June 2014. The final data included 255 mothers and their healthy infants, who were aged 3-4 months. The mothers reported paternal involvement and maternal parenting stress by using Korean Parenting Alliance Inventory (K-PAI) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI), respectively. Experts visited the participants' homes to observe infant neurodevelopment, and completed a developmental examination using Korean version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II (K-ASQ II). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used for data analysis. Infants' mean ages were 106 days and girls accounted for 46.3%. The mean total scores (reference range) of the K-PAI, PSI, and the K-ASQ II were 55.5 (17-68), 45.8 (25-100), and 243.2 (0-300), respectively. Paternal involvement had a positive relationship with K-ASQ II scores (β = 0.29, p parenting stress was negatively related with K-ASQ II scores (β = -0.32, p parenting stress mediated the relationship between paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment (Z = 3.24, p parenting stress (β = -0.25, p parenting stress partially mediates that association. This result emphasizes the importance of fathers' involvement and mothers' parenting stress on early infant

  1. Grandparental education, parental education and child height: evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Shirley S L; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-08-01

    Adult height is the sum of growth during fetal, infancy, childhood, and puberty, controlled by different biological factors. In long-term developed Western populations, height is positively associated with socioeconomic position, but less clearly so in recently developing populations. We aimed to elucidate socioeconomic influences on height at different growth phases. We examined the associations of parents' education and grandparents' education with birth weight and height gain z-scores during infancy (birth to education, but not grandparents', was positively associated with birth weight (z-score, 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.12 for grade ≥12 compared with grade ≤9) and height gain during infancy (0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.18), adjusted for gender, gestational age, initial size, parity, parents' age, parents' birthplace, and parents' height. Conversely, similarly adjusted, grandparents' education, but not parents', was associated with height gain during childhood (0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-0.18). Parental education was associated with fetal and infant, but not childhood, linear growth, suggesting the mechanism underlying socioeconomic influences on height at different growth phases may be contextually specific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing hospital expenditures with the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment) program for parents and premature infants: an analysis of direct healthcare neonatal intensive care unit costs and savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Feinstein, Nancy Fischbeck

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 premature infants are born in the United States every year. Preterm birth results in a multitude of negative adverse outcomes for children, including extended stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), developmental delays, physical and mental health/behavioral problems, increased medical utilization, and poor academic performance. In addition, parents of preterms experience a higher incidence of depression and anxiety disorders along with altered parent-infant interactions and overprotective parenting, which negatively impact their children. The costs associated with preterm birth are exorbitant. In 2005, it is estimated that preterm birth cost the United States $26.2 billion. The purpose of this study was to perform a cost analysis of the Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment (COPE) program for parents of premature infants, a manualized educational-behavioral intervention program comprising audiotaped information and an activity workbook that is administered to parents in 4 phases, the first phase commencing 2 to 4 days after admission to the NICU. Findings indicated that the COPE program resulted in cost savings of at least $4864 per infant. In addition to improving parent and child outcomes, routine implementation of COPE in NICUs across the United States could save the healthcare system more than $2 billion per year.

  3. The evolution of parental self-efficacy in knowledge and skill in the home care of preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Anne Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the consideration of the ability and confidence of a caregiver to take care of a preterm infant before discharge (D/C.Objective: To identify how parental self-efficacy as measured by the Infant Care Survey (ICS evolves during their preterm child’s Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU admission, and to identify conditions associated with caregiver confidence.Methods: Prospective cohort study involving parents of infants ≤ 32 weeks gestation who were enrolled between 10-20 days of their infant’s life. Parent/infant demographic, pregnancy, NICU, and D/C data was collected. Parents responded to the ICS at enrollment and D/C. Enrollment and D/C ICS scores were compared to one another using a Paired Samples t-test to assess the change in scores over time. Further, conditions which are thought to affect self-efficacy were compared to enrollment, D/C, and the change in total ICS scores to assess for correlations.Results: Total ICS scores showed significant improvement from enrollment to D/C: (188.3 ± 60.5 vs. 235.9 ± 20.9. When comparing caregivers who did not have other children in the home to parents who did, caregivers without previous children had significantly lower ICS scores at enrollment (149.8 ± 64.0 vs. 221.7 ± 31.2; however, D/C ICS scores were similar (228.7 ± 23.1 vs. 242.1 ± 17.2. This was the result of a more profound improvement in self-efficacy amongst first time parents during their child’s NICU admission (79.0 ± 68.1 vs. 20.3 ± 35.2.Conclusion: Despite the stress and anxiety of having a child in the NICU, parental self-efficacy is likely to significantly improve during their child’s hospitalization. This was most evident amongst first time parents. We suspect that parental participation in their infant’s care and formal educational opportunities contribute to improvement in confidence over time.

  4. Effects of a Brief, Prevention-Focused Parenting Education Program for New Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooge, Sharon L; Benzies, Karen M; Mannion, Cynthia A

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of a parenting program, Baby and You, on parenting knowledge, parenting morale, and social support using a single-group, pre-test, and post-test design with 159 Canadian mothers of infants aged 2 to 9 months old. Baby and You is a prevention-focused parenting program (PFPP) to improve maternal and infant health through education and social support. The 4-week curriculum focuses on infant development and safety, parent-child relationships, maternal self-care, and community resources. We computed repeated-measures ANOVAs separately for scores on Parenting Knowledge Scale, Parenting Moral Index, and Family Support Scale. We found a significant increase between pre-test and post-test on parenting knowledge, but not parenting morale or social support. Parenting morale may be a stable construct that shows little change over time. It may take more than 4 weeks of programming for mothers to identify and integrate new sources of social support. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Recruiting bereaved parents for research after infant death in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Erin R; Roche, Cathy; Christian, Becky J; Bakitas, Marie; Meneses, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Understanding parental experiences following infant death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a high research priority and a necessary first step to improving health services. However, recruiting bereaved parents to discuss their experiences on such an extremely sensitive topic can be challenging and research procedures must be planned carefully in order to get an adequate sample. There is little published in the literature detailing specific strategies for recruiting bereaved parents for grief research, especially strategies for contacting parents and identifying factors that might affect participation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of recruiting bereaved parents into a qualitative research study exploring parental NICU experiences and grief responses following infant death. We describe a successful recruitment plan that led to the enrollment of difficult to recruit participants such as fathers, and individuals representing minorities and those from lower socioeconomic (SES) groups. Bereaved parents of infants after an NICU hospitalization should continue to be recruited for research studies for their unique perspectives and valuable insights about the devastating experience of infant death. Participants in this study reported more benefits than harm and the results addressed a critical gap in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention intervention, on parent-reported measures. Bahamian parent-youth dyads (N = 1,833) participating in the randomized control trial were assigned to receive one of four conditions. Parents were assessed longitudinally at baseline and 6 and 12 months later. Through 12 months follow-up, parents exposed to Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together showed higher knowledge of condom use skills, perceptions of improved condom use competence on the part of their youth, and perceived improved parent-child communication about sex-related information. Although youth were the targeted beneficiary, parents also benefited directly from the sexual risk reduction parenting program. Parents demonstrated improved perceptions and knowledge that would enable them to more effectively guide their child and also protect themselves from sexual risk. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. The Effect of Secure Attachment State and Infant Facial Expressions on Childless Adults' Parental Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fangyuan; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (M age = 19.22, 118 males, 100 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components (a) liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; (b) representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and (c) evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the "liking" of infants, the second and third components entail the "wanting" of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting) in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions.

  8. The effect of secure attachment state and infant facial expressions on childless adults’ parental motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (Mage=19.22, 118 males, 100 females were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components a liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; b representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and c evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the liking of infants, the second and third components entail the wanting of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions.

  9. Parenting stress trajectories in mothers of very preterm infants to 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter H; Edwards, Dawn M; Gibbons, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    To examine levels of parenting stress in mothers of preterm and term infants when the children were 2 years old; to determine the trajectory of stress over three time periods and to examine the association of maternal and neonatal factors and developmental outcomes with parenting stress. It is a prospective longitudinal study to determine parenting stress in mothers of preterm and term infants with outcomes having been previously obtained at 4 and 12 months. At 2 years, 79 preterm mothers (96 babies) and 64 term mothers (77 babies) participated. The mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). The infants had a neurological examination and the Bayley-III scales were administered. The mean total PSI-SF at 2 years was significantly higher for the preterm group compared with the term group of mothers (p=0.007). There was a significant increase in the mean total PSI over time for the preterm mothers (pparenting stress and abnormal scores on the DASS (pparenting stress and maternal demographics, neonatal factors or Bayley-III results. Parenting stress in mothers of preterm infants continues to be high at 2 years having increased over time. Maternal mental health problems and infant behavioural issues contribute to the stress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Do preterm infants with a birth weight ≤1250 g born to single-parent families have poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 3 than those born to two-parent families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Abhay; Lakhani, Jahan; Ediger, Krystyna; Tang, Selphee; Lodha, Arijit; Gandhi, Vardhil; Creighton, Dianne

    2018-05-08

    Investigate neurodevelopmental outcomes at 3 years corrected age in infants with a birth weight ≤1250 g born to single parents. Infants born between 1995 and 2010 with a birth weight ≤1250 g were considered eligible. Primary outcome was neurodevelopmental impairment; considered present if a child had any of the following: cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, visual impairment, or deafness/neurosensory hearing impairment. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 1900 infants were eligible for inclusion. Follow-up data were available for 1395; 88 were born to a single parent. Infants in the single-parent group had higher mortality (18% vs. 11%, p = 0.009), IQ ≥1 SD below the mean (40% vs. 21%, p = 0.001) and any neurodevelopmental impairment (47% vs. 29%, p = 0.003). Single-parent family status, maternal education, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and severe neurological injury were significant predictors of intellectual impairment at 3 years corrected age. Preterm infants with a birth weight ≤1250 g born to single parents at birth have poorer intellectual functioning at 3 years corrected age.

  11. Focusing the lens: The infant's point of view. Discussion of "Brief interventions with parents, infants, and young children: A Framework for thinking".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Brigid

    2011-11-01

    This is a discussion of the article "Brief Interventions With Parents, Infants, and Young Children: A Framework for Thinking by Louise Emmanuel." Questions of symptom formation, the difference between a defense and developmental phenomena, and different therapeutic techniques are explored from the perspective of The Baby as Subject (an infant-parent psychotherapy approach developed at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia). The relationship between feeding difficulties and the dynamics of the infant-parent attachment relationship are discussed with reference to whether the infant's apparent self-sufficiency is interpersonally generated and whether bids for autonomy are a sign of healthy, age-appropriate developmental drives at play. The use of representational toys in infant-parent psychotherapy to enable infants and toddlers to represent their experience or for the therapist to visually express what he or she understands the infant's experience to be and thus to work directly with the infant's representations is outlined. In addition to the linguistic content of verbal interpretations, the infant is receptive to the experience of another thinking mind and the emotional language, facial expressions, and gestures that also convey to the baby the experience of being understood or misunderstood. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. The Effect of Parenting Style on Social Smiling in Infants at High and Low Risk for ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Colleen M; Ibañez, Lisa V; Nguyen, Thanh P; Messinger, Daniel S; Stone, Wendy L

    2016-07-01

    This study examined how parenting style at 9 months predicts growth in infant social engagement (i.e., social smiling) between 9 and 18 months during a free-play interaction in infants at high (HR-infants) and low (LR-infants) familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results indicated that across all infants, higher levels of maternal responsiveness were concurrently associated with higher levels of social smiling, while higher levels of maternal directiveness predicted slower growth in social smiling. When accounting for maternal directiveness, which was higher in mothers of HR-infants, HR-infants exhibited greater growth in social smiling than LR-infants. Overall, each parenting style appears to make a unique contribution to the development of social engagement in infants at high- and low-risk for ASD.

  13. Reaping the Benefits of Parent Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakmat, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Martha Haakmat writes in this article that in some ways she understands why parents might have a harder time understanding why Montessori is education at its best, especially as their children progress past preschool. Haakmat goes on to say that the learning path at Montessori schools is more proactive. Montessori schools ask that parents partner…

  14. Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

  15. The need to know: The information needs of parents of infants with an intellectual disability-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Tracy; Redley, Bernice; Ottmann, Goetz

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the information needs of parents of infants with an intellectual disability in the first year of life. Parents whose infant has an intellectual disability need access to information if they are to facilitate optimal care for their child. A lack of timely, accurate information provision by health professionals, particularly nurses and midwives, can increase parental stress and hinder access to the supports they and their infant require. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used for the study. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with parents of 11 children with intellectual disabilities in Victoria, Australia in 2014. Data were analysed using descriptive thematic analysis. Parents experienced challenges accessing quality information during the first year of their child's life. Parents required incremental information provision to build a strong knowledge base to facilitate optimal care for their infants. Three types of knowledge were identified as crucial for parents: knowledge about (1) the infant's condition; (2) the infant's specific needs and (3) available supports and services. Health professionals were the key resource to access this information. Health professionals' responsibilities include providing relevant, timely information to parents of infants with intellectual disabilities. This study conceptualises three types of information parents need to develop a strong knowledge base to guide their infant's care and provides guidance concerning the optimal timing for the delivery of information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Experiences of self-esteem among parents to preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    2014-01-01

    Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows that involvem......Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows...... that involvement of the father increases the fatherhood and thereby the bonding to the child. The parents’ self-esteem seems to be affected negatively by the premature birth. Objective: To gain further knowledge and a deeper understanding of the parents’ experience of their self-esteem during the admission...... phases: 1) Three weeks from birth and 2) eight months after discharge. Results: The findings of the research are based on a theoretical frame concerning self-esteem from a psychological point of view. The data from the first phase three weeks after birth show that, individual, relational and structural...

  17. Adlerian Counseling for Parent Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, Fred P.

    The helping professions must aid parents in understanding their children and in providing parents with methods to improve family relationships. Adlerian counseling is presented as one potentially useful method of reaching this goal. The basic principles and democratic philosophy of Adlerian counseling are outlined, and emphasis is placed on the…

  18. Bereaved mothers' and fathers' perceptions of a legacy intervention for parents of infants in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akard, T F; Duffy, M; Hord, A; Randall, A; Sanders, A; Adelstein, K; Anani, U E; Gilmer, M J

    2018-01-01

    Legacy-making, actions or behaviors aimed at being remembered, may be one strategy to enhance coping and improve grief outcomes for bereaved parents and siblings. While legacy interventions have been developed and tested in pediatric and adult populations, legacy activities specific to bereaved parents in the neonatal intensive care unit remain unexplored. This study explored bereaved parents' perceptions of a digital storytelling legacy-making intervention for parents after the death of an infant. Six bereaved mothers and fathers participated in a focus group interview three to 12 months after the death of an infant in the NICU. A semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions was used to obtain parent self-reports. Qualitative content analysis identified emerging themes. Four major themes emerged regarding participants' perceptions of a legacy intervention: (a) parents' willingness to participate in a legacy intervention, (b) parents' suggestions for a feasible intervention, (c) parents' suggestions for an acceptable intervention, and (d) parents' perceived benefits of legacy-making. Participants reported that a legacy-making intervention via digital storytelling would be feasible, acceptable, and beneficial for NICU parents. Study results support the need and desire for legacy-making services to be developed and offered in the NICU.

  19. The importance of the eyes: communication skills in infants of blind parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, Atsushi; Tucker, Leslie; Pasco, Greg; Hudry, Kristelle; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H

    2013-06-07

    The effects of selectively different experience of eye contact and gaze behaviour on the early development of five sighted infants of blind parents were investigated. Infants were assessed longitudinally at 6-10, 12-15 and 24-47 months. Face scanning and gaze following were assessed using eye tracking. In addition, established measures of autistic-like behaviours and standardized tests of cognitive, motor and linguistic development, as well as observations of naturalistic parent-child interaction were collected. These data were compared with those obtained from a larger group of sighted infants of sighted parents. Infants with blind parents did not show an overall decrease in eye contact or gaze following when they observed sighted adults on video or in live interactions, nor did they show any autistic-like behaviours. However, they directed their own eye gaze somewhat less frequently towards their blind mothers and also showed improved performance in visual memory and attention at younger ages. Being reared with significantly reduced experience of eye contact and gaze behaviour does not preclude sighted infants from developing typical gaze processing and other social-communication skills. Indeed, the need to switch between different types of communication strategy may actually enhance other skills during development.

  20. [New parenting education in maternal child nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2009-12-01

    Taiwan society is today typified by low birth rates amongst Taiwanese and a rising number of children born to immigrant and trans-cultural marriage families. Unhealthy behavior and anxiety on the part of pregnant women increase postpartum depression and complications and negatively affect neonatal heath. Such may further negatively impact upon romantic feelings between the new parents and the nascent parent-child relationship. New parenting education is a proactive and innovative strategy that may be used to improve maternal and child health. Therefore, it is worthy to explore how best to achieve cost-effective education interventions. First, the importance of new parenting education and its influence factors must be understood. Factors of women's health and nursing responsibilities potentially addressed by new parenting education include pregnancy complications, fetal death and malformation, accidents and traumas during childhood and adolescence, childhood obesity, and pediatric health-care delivery systems. It is the responsibility of nursing professionals to collect and interpret information on health promotion, disease prevention and childcare in cooperation with other disciplines. Nurses are also responsible to participate in family education and services that target new parents. Therefore, nursing professionals participate in planning and intervention actions related to health promotion, develop support group and counseling centers, collect and organize relevant information, and develop family education and health promotion models. Achieving preventive health service goals while maintaining family competencies and empowerment is an essential aspect of the parenthood mission and vision.

  1. Pediatrician and Parent Opinion on Nutrition in Infants Under 3 Years: Results of Pilot Survey Conducted in Central Federal District of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. Borovik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rational nutrition management in infants under 3 years is an important part of their adequate development at this age and in future.Objective: Our aim was to evaluate awareness of pediatricians and parents concerning rational nutrition management in infants under 3 years.Methods: 300 pediatricians and 300 parents of infants under 3 years who live in Moscow, Ivanovo, and Yaroslavl were enrolled in pilot survey.Results: Pediatricians' recommendations on child nutrition management satisfied the majority of parents (252; 84%, however, less than half of families (135; 45% followed them. In other cases the child's ration depended on mother's opinion on the matter (96; 32% and on child's food preference. «Unhealthy» food such as groceries and provision, processed food, spices, seafood, fast food, chocolate, candies, and sweets as well as soda was included in child's ration at the age of 2 and its consumption frequency increased significantly at the age of 3. Pediatricians strongly recommended special dairy for infants from the age of 1 (known as the 3rd formula. In fact, only half of children in Moscow eat them, and 27–30% of children in Ivanovo and Yaroslavl.Conclusion: Harmful breach of nutrition management in infants under 3 years is detected. Evidently, parents are not competent on the question. Optimization of educational activities performed by pediatricians, medical stuff, and mass media is required.

  2. "What is genuine maternal love"? Clinical considerations and technique n psychoanalytic parent-infant psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradon, Tessa

    2005-01-01

    The question of what is genuine maternal love was posed by a mother struggling to understand and value the nature of her bond with her small baby. The question surfaced time and again in the context of this dyad's long-term parent-infant psychotherapy and has challenged me to examine my thinking and, indeed, has produced impassioned discussions within the Parent Infant Project team at The Anna Freud Centre. In this paper I will address this question through sessional material of this mother and baby and discuss issues of technique in response to it, including my countertransference and conceptualization.

  3. Maternal reflective functioning among mothers with childhood maltreatment histories: links to sensitive parenting and infant attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacks, Ann M; Muzik, Maria; Wong, Kristyn; Beeghly, Marjorie; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Irwin, Jessica L; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships among maternal reflective functioning, parenting, infant attachment, and demographic risk in a relatively large (N = 83) socioeconomically diverse sample of women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment and their infants. Most prior research on parental reflective functioning has utilized small homogenous samples. Reflective functioning was assessed with the Parent Development Interview, parenting was coded from videotaped mother-child interactions, and infant attachment was evaluated in Ainsworth's Strange Situation by independent teams of reliable coders masked to maternal history. Reflective functioning was associated with parenting sensitivity and secure attachment, and inversely associated with demographic risk and parenting negativity; however, it was not associated with maternal maltreatment history or PTSD. Parenting sensitivity mediated the relationship between reflective functioning and infant attachment, controlling for demographic risk. Findings are discussed in the context of prior research on reflective functioning and the importance of targeting reflective functioning in interventions.

  4. How Parents Read Counting Books and Non-numerical Books to Their Preverbal Infants: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Alison; Cole, Thomas; Cordes, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Studies have stressed the importance of counting with children to promote formal numeracy abilities; however, little work has investigated when parents begin to engage in this behavior with their young children. In the current study, we investigated whether parents elaborated on numerical information when reading a counting book to their preverbal infants and whether developmental differences in numerical input exist even in the 1st year of life. Parents and their 5-10 months old infants were asked to read, as they would at home, two books to their infants: a counting book and another book that did not have numerical content. Parents' spontaneous statements rarely focused on number and those that did consisted primarily of counting, with little emphasis on labeling the cardinality of the set. However, developmental differences were observed even in this age range, such that parents were more likely to make numerical utterances when reading to older infants. Together, results are the first to characterize naturalistic reading behaviors between parents and their preverbal infants in the context of counting books, suggesting that although counting books promote numerical language in parents, infants still receive very little in the way of numerical input before the end of the 1st year of life. While little is known regarding the impact of number talk on the cognitive development of young infants, the current results may guide future work in this area by providing the first assessment of the characteristics of parental numerical input to preverbal infants.

  5. The Parent-Child Relationship Competencies: How Three Infant-Parent Psychotherapists Find Paths into Diverse Infant-Family Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Maria Seymour

    2016-01-01

    This article weaves the stories of three practitioner-family relationships and describes how the Parent-Child Relationship Competencies (PCRCs; St. John, 2010) function as a map for assessment and treatment planning. The PCRCs are a set of culturally variable yet universal bi-directional (parent-to-child and child-to-parent) relational capacities…

  6. [Integrative parent-infant psychotherapy for early regulatory and relationship disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Mechthild; de Chuquisengo, Ruth Wollwerth

    2006-01-01

    The author introduces both the concept and practice of Integrative Parent-Infant Psychotherapy (IPI-P), a treatment specifically designed for the most frequent developmental problems and psychological needs of infants and their parents. Based on growing knowledge from interdisciplinary infancy research, both basic and clinical, IPI-P has been developed and practised in the "Munich Interdisciplinary Research and Intervention Program" for early regulatory and relationship disorders since the early nineties. Preverbal parent-infant communication represents both the port of entry into the system and the main focus of diagnostics, developmental counselling, interaction guidance, or psychodynamic psychotherapy of distorted communication and distressed/disordered relationships. The method of videomicroanalysis during video-feedback with the parent has proven particularly efficient--while observing, reliving and working through brief episodes of recorded parent-infant interaction. The author illustrates the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with excerpts from psychotherapy of a toddler with an age-specific regulatory disorder in the context of severely distressed primary relationships.

  7. Parental behaviors and sleep outcomes in infants and toddlers: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Kohyama, Jun; How, Ti Hwei

    2010-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of parental behaviors and other factors of sleep ecology and to analyze their relationships with sleep outcomes in a large sample of children ages birth to 36months in multiple countries/regions. Parents of 29,287 infants and toddlers (48% boys; Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Vietnam) completed an internet-based expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Overall, there is a high level of parental involvement in sleep onset and sleep maintenance for young children, with significant differences in parenting behaviors across cultural groups. For predominantly-Caucasian, the most common behavior occurring at bedtime is falling asleep independently in own crib/bed (57%), compared to just 4% of those children living in predominantly-Asian regions. Parental behaviors and sleep ecology, including parental presence at sleep onset, bedtime, and bedtime routine, significantly explain a portion of the variance in sleep patterns. Overall, parental behaviors are more highly predictive of nighttime sleep outcomes in predominantly-Caucasian regions. Finally, parental involvement in sleep onset mediates the relationship between cosleeping and sleep outcomes. Overall, the best predictors of nighttime sleep are related to parental behaviors at bedtime and during the night. Furthermore, sleep disruption and decreased total sleep associated with bed sharing and room sharing are mediated by parental presence at bedtime. These findings provide additional support for addressing parental behaviors in behavioral interventions for infant and toddler sleep problems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Comparison of Maternal and Paternal Experiences of Becoming Parents of a Very Preterm Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzi, Livio; Barello, Serena; Fumagalli, Monica; Graffigna, Guendalina; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Savarese, Mariarosaria; Montirosso, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    To compare maternal and paternal experiences of very preterm (VPT) birth (gestational age < 32 weeks) and the NICU stay. Qualitative study. Data collection took place at parents' homes 3 to 6 months after NICU discharge. Ten parental couples participated in the study (20 parents). All VPT infants were healthy, without any neonatal or postnatal complications or injuries. Computer-assisted content analysis was used to highlight thematic clusters from parents' narratives, which were labeled through qualitative interpretation. Two main dimensions (Adjustment Process to Preterm Birth and Parental Role Assumption) and three main thematic clusters (Facing the Unexpected, Learning to Parent, and Finally Back Home) described the parental experience. Mothers focused mostly on the Finally Back Home cluster, which was characterized by moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by awareness of their own maternal roles. Fathers focused mostly on the Learning to Parent cluster, which was characterized by low to moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by a limited assumption of paternal role. To our knowledge, this study is unique in that we compared mothers and fathers who experienced the VPT births of their infants and described their experiences of the NICU stay. We found that the VPT birth experience for parents involves a dynamic adjustment. Differences in maternal and paternal experiences may indicate the need for tailored supportive interventions in the NICU. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Using a pacifier to decrease sudden infant death syndrome: an emergency department educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walsh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pacifier use decreases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. An emergency department (ED visit may provide an opportunistic ‘teachable moment’ for parents.Objectives. To test the hypotheses (1 that caregivers were less familiar with the role of pacifiers in sudden infant death (SIDS prevention than other recommendations, and (2 that an ED educational intervention would increase pacifier use in infants younger than six months, and (3 that otitis media would not occur more frequently in pacifier users.Methods. We did an intervention-group-only longitudinal study in a county hospital ED. We measured pacifier use infants and baseline knowledge of SIDs prevention recommendations in caregivers. We followed up three months later to determine pacifier use, and 12 months later to determine episodes of otitis media.Results. We analyzed data for 780 infants. Parents knew of advice against co-sleeping in 469/780 (60%, smoking in 660/776 (85%, and prone sleeping in 613/780 (79%. Only 268/777 (35% knew the recommendation to offer a pacifier at bedtime. At enrollment 449/780 (58% did not use a pacifier. Of 210/338 infants aged less than 6 months followed up 41/112 (37% non-users had started using a pacifier at bedtime (NNT 3. Over the same period, 37/98 (38% users had discontinued their pacifier. Otitis media did not differ between users and non-users at 12 months.Conclusion. Caregiver knowledge of the role of pacifiers in SIDS prevention was less than for other recommendations. Our educational intervention appeared to increase pacifier use. Pacifier use was not associated with increased otitis media.

  10. A comparison of parent and staff perceptions of setting-specific and everyday stressors encountered by parents with very preterm infants experiencing neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Verena E; Montgomery-Hönger, Argène

    2014-10-01

    Stress responses among parents of premature infants experiencing the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment are widely reported. However, less is known about how nurses perceive parents' experiences or how stressors relating to demands on family finances and practical challenges associated with infant hospitalization contribute to parental stress levels in the NICU. 1) To compare parent and staff perceptions of the stressors facing parents experiencing neonatal intensive care; and 2) to develop a scale suitable for identifying stressors outside the NICU setting. At infant 34 weeks, parents (n=21) of very preterm infants (≤ 32 weeks GA) and NICU nurses (n=23) completed the Parental Stressor Scale: NICU (PSS: NICU) and a custom-made External Stressor Scale (ESS: NICU). Nurses perceived parents to experience higher stress in the NICU than parents themselves (psparents reporting low-to-moderate stress and staff rating parental stress as moderate-to-high. Parents reported slightly lower levels of stress on the ESS: NICU, with nurses again overestimating the level of parental stress (psparent perceptions should be encouraged along with research dedicated to a fuller understanding of the range of stressors facing parents experiencing neonatal intensive care in attempts to reduce stress levels and aid integration into the unit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How Parents Read Counting Books and Non-Numerical Books to Their Preverbal Infants: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Goldstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have stressed the importance of counting with children to promote formal numeracy abilities; however little work has investigated when parents begin to engage in this behavior with their young children. In the current study, we investigated whether parents elaborated on numerical information when reading a counting book to their preverbal infants and whether developmental differences in numerical input exist even in the first year of life. Parents and their 5-10 month old infants were asked to read, as they would at home, two books to their infants: a counting book and another book that did not have numerical content. Parents’ spontaneous statements rarely focused on number and those that did consisted primarily of counting, with little emphasis on labeling the cardinality of the set. However, developmental differences were observed even in this age range, such that parents were more likely to make numerical utterances when reading to older infants. Together, results are the first to characterize naturalistic reading behaviors between parents and their preverbal infants in the context of counting books, suggesting that although counting books promote numerical language in parents, infants still receive very little in the way of numerical input before the end of the first year of life. While little is known regarding the impact of number talk on the cognitive development of young infants, the current results may guide future work in this area by providing the first assessment of the characteristics of parental numerical input to preverbal infants.

  12. Parental control over feeding in infancy. Influence of infant weight, appetite and feeding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, Alison; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2015-08-01

    Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infancy is responsive to infant appetite and weight. Participants were 1920 mothers from the Gemini twin cohort, using one randomly selected child per family. Data come from questionnaires completed when the children were approximately 8 months. Mothers completed measures of 'pressure' and 'restriction', reported feeding method (breast- and bottle feeding), rated their infant's appetite during the first 3 months, provided health professional recorded weight measurements, and reported their concerns about their infant's weight. Logistic regression examined predictors of 'pressure' and 'restriction', adjusting for maternal demographics and BMI. Interactions between feeding method and control were also tested. 'Pressure' was associated with lower birth weight (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65-0.97), greater concern about underweight (OR = 1.88, 1.29-2.75), and lower infant appetite (OR = 0.59, 0.47-0.75). 'Restriction' was associated with higher appetite (OR = 1.44, 1.09-1.89) and bottle feeding (OR = 2.86, 2.18-3.75). A significant interaction with feeding method indicated that infants with high appetites were more likely to be restricted only if they were bottle-fed (OR = 1.52, 1.13-2.04). Mothers vary in their levels of control over milk-feeding and this is partly responsive to the infant's characteristics. They tend to pressure infants who are lighter and have a smaller appetite, and restrict infants with larger appetites if they are bottle-fed. Guidance on infant feeding may be better received if it acknowledges that parents respond to infant characteristics in order to achieve their feeding goals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Parental control over feeding in infancy. Influence of infant weight, appetite and feeding method☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, Alison; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H.M.; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infancy is responsive to infant appetite and weight. Subjects and methods: Participants were 1920 mothers from the Gemini twin cohort, using one randomly selected child per family. Data come from questionnaires completed when the children were approximately 8 months. Mothers completed measures of ‘pressure’ and ‘restriction’, reported feeding method (breast- and bottle feeding), rated their infant's appetite during the first 3 months, provided health professional recorded weight measurements, and reported their concerns about their infant's weight. Logistic regression examined predictors of ‘pressure’ and ‘restriction’, adjusting for maternal demographics and BMI. Interactions between feeding method and control were also tested. Results: ‘Pressure’ was associated with lower birth weight (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65–0.97), greater concern about underweight (OR = 1.88, 1.29–2.75), and lower infant appetite (OR = 0.59, 0.47–0.75). ‘Restriction’ was associated with higher appetite (OR = 1.44, 1.09–1.89) and bottle feeding (OR = 2.86, 2.18–3.75). A significant interaction with feeding method indicated that infants with high appetites were more likely to be restricted only if they were bottle-fed (OR = 1.52, 1.13–2.04). Conclusion: Mothers vary in their levels of control over milk-feeding and this is partly responsive to the infant's characteristics. They tend to pressure infants who are lighter and have a smaller appetite, and restrict infants with larger appetites if they are bottle-fed. Guidance on infant feeding may be better received if it acknowledges that parents respond to infant characteristics in order to achieve

  14. Music and Sign Language to Promote Infant and Toddler Communication and Enhance Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Cynthia; Memmott, Jenny; Meeker-Miller, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using music and/or sign language to promote early communication in infants and toddlers (6-20 months) and to enhance parent-child interactions. Three groups used for this study were pairs of participants (care-giver(s) and child) assigned to each group: 1) Music Alone 2) Sign Language…

  15. Adaptations Supporting Relationships between Parents with Physical Disabilities and Their Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshbaum, Megan

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on a disability culture-based organization's process of addressing baby care adaptation issues of parents with physical disabilities and their babies and toddlers. The author describes the role of teamwork between infant mental health specialists and occupational therapists, application in custody situations, and public policy…

  16. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…

  17. Parents bereaved by infant death: PTSD symptoms up to 18 years after the loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic

  18. Family matters: infants, toddlers and preschoolers of parents affected by mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalenko, N.M.; Mares, S.P.; Newman, L.K.; Williams, A.E.S.; Powrie, R.M.; Doesum, K.T.M. van

    2012-01-01

    One in five young people in Australia, including infants, toddlers and preschoolers, lives in a family with a parent with a mental illness.1 Families affected by mental illness are more likely than other families to experience poverty and social isolation,2 and are more likely to have children taken

  19. Talk with Expectant Parents about Late Vitamin K Deficient Bleeding Among Infants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Lauren Marcewicz, a pediatrician with CDC’s Division of Blood Disorders, speaks about vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infants, the importance of vitamin K prophylaxis at birth, and how healthcare providers can provide the best information to their expectant parents.

  20. Social Support, Infant Temperament, and Parenting Self-Efficacy: A Mediational Model of Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Troutman, Beth R.

    1986-01-01

    Infant temperamental difficulty was strongly related to mothers' level of postpartum depression, both directly and through the mediation of parenting self-efficacy. Social support appeared to function protectively against depression, primarily through self-efficacy. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. (Author/RH)

  1. Social Situation of Development: Parents Perspectives on Infants-Toddlers' Concept Formation in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    The social situation of development (SSD) specific to each age determines regularly the whole picture of the child's life. Therefore, we need to learn about the whole context surrounding children relevant to their development. The focus of the study is to understand parent's views on infant-toddler's science concept formation in the family…

  2. Designing the parents-to-infant bonding experience in the NICU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, S.; Chen, W.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Linden, van der W.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Kreps, G.; Dini, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the research work on the search for design opportunities through explorative interviews within the case study ‘designing the parent-to-infant bonding experience’. In the complete case study we explore how to design for support of such a complex, flexible, individualized and

  3. Oxytocin decreases handgrip force in reaction to infant crying in females without harsh parenting experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Riem, M.M.E.; Tops, M.; Alink, L.R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Infant crying can elicit sensitive caregiving as well as hostility and harsh parenting responses. In the current study (N=42 females) with a double-blind experimental design, we tested the effect of intranasal oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force using a hand-grip dynamometer during

  4. How Parents Read Counting Books and Non-Numerical Books to Their Preverbal Infants: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Goldstein; Thomas Cole; Sara Cordes

    2016-01-01

    Studies have stressed the importance of counting with children to promote formal numeracy abilities; however little work has investigated when parents begin to engage in this behavior with their young children. In the current study, we investigated whether parents elaborated on numerical information when reading a counting book to their preverbal infants and whether developmental differences in numerical input exist even in the first year of life. Parents and their 5-10 month old infants wer...

  5. [Parents have accepted the advice on how to prevent sudden infant death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Bernt; Wennergren, Göran; Erdes, Laslo; Möllborg, Per; Pettersson, Rolf; Aberg, Nils; Norvenius, S Gunnar

    2004-04-01

    We have compared 430 healthy Swedish infants born between 1991 and 1995 with 599 healthy, six months old infants born in 2002, regarding the prevalence of risk factors for SIDS. Following the introduction of the campaign to reduce the risk of SIDS in Sweden in 1992, we could see a decrease in prone sleeping from 32% to 7% together with an increase in supine sleeping from 35% to 44%. Maternal smoking during pregnancy has gone down from 24% to 10%. The prevalence of breast feeding, already high in Sweden in the 90s, was largely unchanged, 69% at six months of age in 2002. This comparison shows that parents of small infants have accepted the advice on ways to reduce the risk of SIDS, and that information given at infant welfare clinics is still effective ten years later. Further improvements are possible by changing the side sleeping position to supine, and by decreasing tobacco smoking among pregnant mothers.

  6. Parenting self-efficacy moderates linkage between partner relationship dissatisfaction and avoidant infant-mother attachment: A Dutch study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassé, Julie F H; Oosterman, Mirjam; Schuengel, Carlo

    2016-12-01

    The early infant-mother attachment relationship is part of a network of close relationships in which the relationship between parents is especially relevant. Evidence for linkages between maternal satisfaction with the partner relationship and infant-mother attachment is equivocal. The current study tested whether associations between partner relationship dissatisfaction and infant-mother attachment quality might be conditional on mothers' parenting self-efficacy. The bivariate effect of partner relationship dissatisfaction on infant-mother attachment as well as moderation of this effect by parenting self-efficacy was tested in a sample of 260 infant-mother dyads 1 year after birth. There was no direct effect of partner dissatisfaction on attachment. Unexpectedly, for high parenting self-efficacy, greater partner dissatisfaction increased the odds of an avoidant infant attachment (compared with a disorganized) whereas, for low parenting self-efficacy, greater partner dissatisfaction decreased the odds of an avoidant infant attachment (compared with secure and disorganized). Findings underline the importance of parenting cognitions for understanding contextual factors of infant-mother attachment quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Post-traumatic growth in parents after infants' neonatal intensive care unit hospitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftyka, Anna; Rozalska-Walaszek, Ilona; Rosa, Wojciech; Rybojad, Beata; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of post-traumatic growth in a group of parents of children hospitalised in the intensive care unit in the past. A premature birth or a birth with life-threatening conditions is a traumatic event for the parents and may lead to a number of changes, some of which are positive, known as post-traumatic growth. The survey covered 106 parents of 67 infants aged 3-12 months. An original questionnaire and standardised research tools were used in the study: Impact Event Scale - Revised, Perceived Stress Scale, COPE Inventory: Positive Reinterpretation and Growth, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Post-traumatic Growth Inventory and Parent and Infant Characteristic Questionnaire. Due to a stepwise backward variables selection, we found three main factors that explain post-traumatic growth: post-traumatic stress symptoms, positive reinterpretation and growth and dichotomic variable infants' survival. This model explained 29% of the post-traumatic growth variation. Similar models that were considered separately for mothers and fathers showed no significantly better properties. Post-traumatic growth was related to a lesser extent to sociodemographic variables or the stressor itself, and related to a far greater extent to psychological factors. Our study highlights the fact that post-traumatic growth in the parents of neonates hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care units remains under-evaluated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Perceptions of parents on the participation of their infants in clinical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, A; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Bisgaard, H

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the motivations and perceptions of parents on the participation of their infants and young children in a comprehensive and invasive clinical research study. METHODS: Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 mothers with asthma whose infants and young...... children were participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using the template analysis method. RESULTS: Parents were motivated by altruism and by the opportunity to get their child checked regularly by medical experts...... to prevent the possible development of asthma. Parents found it very important that their children enjoyed their visits to the research clinic, and that they could withdraw from the study if their child started responding negatively to those visits. No apparent difference was seen in the attitude between...

  9. Infant oral health: Knowledge, attitude and practices of parents in Udaipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Kakatkar, Gauri; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Ramesh, Gayathri; Sandesh, Nagarajappa

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the infant oral health (IOH) related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of parents in Udaipur, India. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 470 parents visiting the Department of Pediatrics, Rabindranath Tagore Medical College and Hospital. A 32-item questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics and questions pertaining to KAP regarding IOH care was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Scheffe's test were used for the statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05). Majority of the parents had good knowledge regarding tooth eruption, but had a poor knowledge of cleaning (58.7%) and development of caries (48.5%). Parents in the age group of 25-30 years showed significantly higher mean knowledge (25.90 ± 3.93), attitude (15.71 ± 2.23), and practice (20.09 ± 2.50) scores. Female parents showed a significantly higher mean knowledge (21.45 ± 4.27) and attitude scores (14.97 ± 2.15) than the male parents. Parent's knowledge on IOH care was inadequate. Health professionals, who are the first to come into contact with expectant and new mothers, need to disseminate appropriate and accurate information about oral health-care for infants.

  10. 'Now she has become my daughter': parents' early experiences of skin-to-skin contact with extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Weis, Janne; Engsig, Anne B; Johannsen, Kirsten L; Zoffmann, Vibeke

    2017-08-29

    Based on the Family-Centred Care philosophy, skin-to-skin contact is a key activity in neonatal care, and use of this practice is increasing also with extremely preterm infants. Little is known about parents' immediate experiences of and readiness for skin-to-skin contact, while their fragile infant may still not be 'on safe ground'. Knowledge about parents' experiences might reduce doubt and reluctance among healthcare professionals to use skin-to-skin contact with extremely preterm infants and thus increase its dissemination in practice. To explore parents' immediate experiences of skin-to-skin contact with extremely preterm infants parents after skin-to-skin contact with their extremely preterm infants analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Parents' experiences were related to the process before, during and after skin-to-skin contact and moved from ambivalence to appreciating skin-to-skin contact as beneficial for both parents and infant. The process comprised three stages: (i) overcoming ambivalence through professional support and personal experience; (ii) proximity creating parental feelings and an inner need to provide care; (iii) feeling useful as a parent and realising the importance of skin-to-skin contact. Having repeatedly gone through stages 2 and 3, parents developed an overall confidence in the value of bonding, independent of the infant's survival. Parents progressed from ambivalence to a feeling of fundamental mutual needs for skin-to-skin contact. Parents found the bonding facilitated by skin-to-skin contact to be valuable, regardless of the infant's survival. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Effects of parenting interventions for at-risk parents with infants: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayce, Signe B; Rasmussen, Ida S; Klest, Sihu K; Patras, Joshua; Pontoppidan, Maiken

    2017-12-27

    Infancy is a critical stage of life, and a secure relationship with caring and responsive caregivers is crucial for healthy infant development. Early parenting interventions aim to support families in which infants are at risk of developmental harm. Our objective is to systematically review the effects of parenting interventions on child development and on parent-child relationship for at-risk families with infants aged 0-12 months. This is a systematic review and meta-analyses. We extracted publications from 10 databases in June 2013, January 2015 and June 2016, and supplemented with grey literature and hand search. We assessed risk of bias, calculated effect sizes and conducted meta-analyses. (1) Randomised controlled trials of structured psychosocial interventions offered to at-risk families with infants aged 0-12 months in Western Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, (2) interventions with a minimum of three sessions and at least half of these delivered postnatally and (3) outcomes reported for child development or parent-child relationship. Sixteen studies were included. Meta-analyses were conducted on seven outcomes represented in 13 studies. Parenting interventions significantly improved child behaviour ( d =0.14; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.26), parent-child relationship ( d =0.44; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.80) and maternal sensitivity ( d =0.46; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.65) postintervention. There were no significant effects on cognitive development ( d= 0.13; 95% CI -0.08 to 0.41), internalising behaviour ( d= 0.16; 95% CI -0.03 to 0.33) or externalising behaviour ( d= 0.16; 95% CI -0.01 to 0.30) post-intervention. At long-term follow-up we found no significant effect on child behaviour ( d= 0.15; 95% CI -0.03 to 0.31). Interventions offered to at-risk families in the first year of the child's life appear to improve child behaviour, parent-child relationship and maternal sensitivity post-intervention, but not child cognitive

  12. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children

  13. Angry Responses to Infant Challenges: Parent, Marital, and Child Genetic Factors Associated with Harsh Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Hajal, Nastassia J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Moore, Ginger A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of 9-month-olds. We examined whether positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics were associated with harsh parenting in addition to negative characteristics. We were particularly interested in examining evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) by testing the effect of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents’ harsh parenting. Additionally, we examined associations among adoptive parents’ own te...

  14. Perpetuating "scientific motherhood": infant feeding discourse in Parents magazine, 1930-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Katherine A

    2010-05-01

    Although breastfeeding initiation rates have recently been at an all-time high, duration continues to be considerably low. Given the health benefits associated with extended breastfeeding, this discrepancy is cause for concern. This research examined the messages conveyed about infant feeding in a popular parenting magazine, Parents magazine, from 1930 through 2007. Findings indicated that the messages about infant feeding shifted in accordance with changing ideologies about the means of infant feeding-from bottle-feeding to breastfeeding. However, even with changing attitudes toward infant feeding, writers used scientific evidence and the advice of "experts" to justify the dominant form of feeding. The absence of practical advice regarding breastfeeding challenges, especially from "real" women set up false expectations about the breastfeeding experience, painting it as "natural" and best for the baby. The dependency on experts and lack of practical advice in popular media, like Parents magazine, may help explain a societal trend that downplays breastfeeding obstacles, giving insight into the vast discrepancy between breastfeeding initiation and duration.

  15. Effect of Early Intervention to Promote Mother - Infant Interaction and Maternal Sensitivity in Japan: A Parenting Support Program based on Infant Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Keiko; Hirose, Taiko; Omori, Takahide; Takeo, Naoko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okubo, Noriko; Okawa, Hiroji

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Japanese Early Promotion Program (JEPP), which is based on the Infant Mental Health (IMH) program. The JEPP aims to promote mother-infant interactions by enhancing the mother's ability to respond appropriately her child. Mothers in the JEPP group (n = 15) received support from IMH nurses in a pediatric clinic until their infants reached 12 months of age. The nurses provided positive feedback that emphasized strength of parenting, and assisted the mothers in understanding the construct of their infants. Mother-infant interactions and mother's mental health status were assessed at intake (1-3 months), and at 6, 9, and 12 months of infants' age. The JEPP group data were compared with cross-sectional data of the control group (n = 120). Although JEPP dyads were not found to be significantly different from the control group in general dyadic synchrony, both before and after intervention, JEPP mothers significantly improved their ability to understand their infant's cues and to respond promptly. In the JEPP group, unresponsiveness to infants was reduced in mothers, while infants showed reduced passiveness and enhanced responsiveness to the mother. Furthermore, the intervention reduced the mothers' parenting stress and negative emotions, thereby enhancing their self-esteem.

  16. Angry responses to infant challenges: parent, marital, and child genetic factors associated with harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajal, Nastassia; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Moore, Ginger; Leve, Leslie; Shaw, Daniel; Harold, Gordon; Scaramella, Laura; Ganiban, Jody; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of adopted 9-month-olds (N = 503), with an emphasis on positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics. Evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) was examined by testing the effect of both positive and negative indices of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents' harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers' harsh parenting was inversely related to birth mother positive temperament, indicating evocative rGE, as well as to marital quality. Adoptive parents' negative temperamental characteristics were related to hostile parenting for both fathers and mothers. Findings support the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Parent Involvement in Education: Toward an Understanding of Parents' Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kellie J.; Minke, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    Parent involvement (PI) in education is associated with positive outcomes for students; however, little is known about how parents decide to be involved in children's education. On the basis of the K. V. Hoover-Dempsey and H. M. Sandler (1995, 1997) model of parent decision making, the authors examined the relationship among 4 parent variables…

  18. Infant oral health: Knowledge, attitude and practices of parents in Udaipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Nagarajappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the infant oral health (IOH related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of parents in Udaipur, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 470 parents visiting the Department of Pediatrics, Rabindranath Tagore Medical College and Hospital. A 32-item questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics and questions pertaining to KAP regarding IOH care was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics, Student′s t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Scheffe′s test were used for the statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05. Results: Majority of the parents had good knowledge regarding tooth eruption, but had a poor knowledge of cleaning (58.7% and development of caries (48.5%. Parents in the age group of 25-30 years showed significantly higher mean knowledge (25.90 ± 3.93, attitude (15.71 ± 2.23, and practice (20.09 ± 2.50 scores. Female parents showed a significantly higher mean knowledge (21.45 ± 4.27 and attitude scores (14.97 ± 2.15 than the male parents. Conclusion: Parent′s knowledge on IOH care was inadequate. Health professionals, who are the first to come into contact with expectant and new mothers, need to disseminate appropriate and accurate information about oral health-care for infants.

  19. Maternal Education Gradients in Infant Health in Four South American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2017-11-01

    Objective We investigate gradients (i.e. differences) in infant health outcomes by maternal education in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Venezuela and explore channels related to father's education, household labor outcomes, and maternal health, fertility, and use of prenatal services and technology. Methods We employ secondary interview and birth record data similarly collected across a network of birth hospitals from the early 1980s through 2011 within the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies (ECLAMC). Focusing on children without birth defects, we estimate gradients in several infant health outcomes including birth weight, gestational age, and hospital discharge status by maternal education using ordinary least squares regression models adjusting for several demographic factors. To explore channels, we add as covariates father's education, parental occupational activity, maternal health and fertility history, and use of prenatal services and technology and evaluate changes in the coefficient of maternal education. We use the same models for each country sample. Results We find important differences in gradients across countries. We find evidence for educational gradients in preterm birth in three countries but weaker evidence for gradients in fetal growth. The extent to which observed household and maternal factors explain these gradients based on changes in the regression coefficient of maternal education when controlling for these factors as covariates also varies between countries. In contrast, we generally find evidence across all countries that higher maternal education is associated with increased use of prenatal care services and technology. Conclusions Our findings suggest that differences in infant health by maternal education and their underlying mechanisms vary and are not necessarily generalizable across countries. However, the positive association between maternal education and use of prenatal services and technology is more

  20. Efficacy of preventative parenting interventions for parents of preterm infants on later child behavior: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Michael; Whittingham, Koa; Sanders, Matthew; Colditz, Paul; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of parenting interventions for parents of preterm infants to improve child behavior. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of parenting interventions for parents of preterm infants were included. Searchers were conducted of PubMed from 1951 to April 2013, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) from 1982 to April 2013, Scopus from 1966 to April 2013, PsycINFO from 1840 to April 2013, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Twelve RCTs were identified that assessed child behavior. Of these studies, only data from three were able to be pooled for meta-analysis: the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) at 3 years, the Mother-Infant Transaction Program (modified; MITP-M) at 5 years, and the Victorian Infant Brain Studies (VIBeS Plus) at 4 years. Outcome from this analysis revealed a small, but significant, effect on child behavior favoring the intervention (95% CI: 0.08-0.32; p = .001). There is evidence that preterm parenting interventions can improve child behavior. Streamlined interventions such as MITP-M and VIBeS Plus that have a strong focus on the mother-infant relationship may have greatest potential. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Anxiety, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Social Supports Among Parents of Premature and Full-Term Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Maryam; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shams, Jamal; Alavi-Majd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Premature birth is one of the most important unresolved reproductive health problems. Premature birth is often traumatic and a source of distress for parents. Increased parental stress during the first year of their infant's life is a risk factor for later behavioral problems in infants. Objectives: This study was designed to compare anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and social supports in parents of premature and mature infants. Patients and Methods: This was a comparative descriptive study conducted at healthcare centers of Qom city, in 2012. In this study, 82 couples (164 parents) divided into two groups including parents who have preterm and term infants. Questionnaires including items such as demographic characteristics, obstetric and post-traumatic stress disorders, Spielberger anxiety and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were completed two months after childbirth. Data were analyzed using χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney test, independent t-test, and regression logistic using SPSS18 software. Results: The levels of anxiety was not significantly different in mothers and fathers in the two groups, but the trait anxiety level of mothers (P Post-traumatic stress disorder was significantly greater in mothers of preterm infants than those of term infants (P = 0.03), but this amount was not significantly different between the two groups of fathers. Mothers' social support did not differ significantly (P = 0.08), however, it was significantly different in fathers (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Premature infants' parents are more at risk of mental disorders than term infants' parents. This result shows the need of interventions, so these parents can better deal with the problems of premature infants. PMID:24829766

  2. Bullying: A Handbook for Educators and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Ian; Duncan, Neil; Besag, Valerie E.

    2009-01-01

    "Bullying: A Handbook for Educators and Parents" offers a comprehensive exploration of the bullying within public schools, drawing upon research conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, Scandinavia, and Canada. It offers insights into the immediate and long-term impact bullying can have upon the lives of students, their families,…

  3. Parent Group Education to ENABLE “Barrio” Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Curiel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a 1960s “War on Poverty” parent group education program that brought together three national private voluntary agencies with federal funding by the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO. Project ENABLE (Education Neighborhood Action for a Better Living Environment sought to direct professional efforts to help/empower the poor and societal members of ethnic minority groups. Group education as a preventive modality was used to strengthen parents’ problem solving skills in their roles both as parents and as community leaders. The author describes his group leadership role together with that of the indigenous case aides who helped direct/enable the collective power of a group of poor Spanish speaking Mexican origin families living in barrios (neighborhoods of a major metropolitan southern city. Project ENABLE embraced a strengths-based perspective characteristic of social work’s historical empowerment traditions. Despite its brief existence, Project ENABLE functioned as a demonstration program in 62 communities across the United States. Ironically, its prevention focus and demonstration nature served to undermine its ability to compete with other OEO initiatives like Head Start and job training programs. The author cites a combination of historical and logistic factors that contributed to the short life and ultimate demise of a once promising outreach program.

  4. Sex Education: New Resources Help Parents Talk with Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Virginia

    2002-01-01

    To help parents talk with children about sexual health, the Kaiser Family Foundation and National PTA developed a series of free resources for parents (e.g., the booklet "Talking with Kids: A Parent's Guide to Sex Education") to increase parent involvement and communication around sex education. This paper notes the importance of parents…

  5. The Autism Parent Screen for Infants: Predicting risk of autism spectrum disorder based on parent-reported behavior observed at 6-24 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Bryson, Susan; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Brian, Jessica; Smith, Isabel M; Roberts, Wendy; Szatmari, Peter; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Roncadin, Caroline; Garon, Nancy

    2018-04-01

    This study examined whether a novel parent-report questionnaire, the Autism Parent Screen for Infants, could differentiate infants subsequently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder from a high-risk cohort (siblings of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (n = 66)) from high-risk and low-risk comparison infants (no family history of autism spectrum disorder) who did not develop autism spectrum disorder (n = 138 and 79, respectively). Participants were assessed prospectively at 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months of age. At 36 months, a blind independent diagnostic assessment for autism spectrum disorder was completed. Parent report on the Autism Parent Screen for Infants was examined in relation to diagnostic outcome and risk status (i.e. high-risk sibling with autism spectrum disorder, high-risk sibling without autism spectrum disorder, and low-risk control). The results indicated that from 6 months of age, total score on the Autism Parent Screen for Infants differentiated between the siblings with autism spectrum disorder and the other two groups. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive validity of the Autism Parent Screen for Infants highlight its potential for the early screening of autism spectrum disorder in high-risk cohorts.

  6. Parenting after infertility: issues for families and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jacqueline M; Samra, Haifa A; Zukowsky, Ksenia; Baker, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the research related to parenting after assisted reproduction and uses that research to discuss clinical implications for nurses who work to support these families and the development of their children. The worldwide diagnosis of infertility continues to rise and now hovers near 20%. The increased availability and success of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) provides a potential option for infertile families to conceive and begin a family, but as nurses know, infertility treatments are not easy to tolerate, are time-consuming, physically taxing, and expensive. In addition, a positive outcome is far from guaranteed. Even when infertile couples successfully give birth, they can continue to struggle with the psychological aspects of infertility and the ongoing care of a child who may be premature, low birth weight, or afflicted with another high-risk condition such as long-term developmental or behavioral problems. Unfortunately, the psychological needs of the couple and the family may not be addressed during ART treatment or after the birth of a child. Parenting is a challenging life task; parenting when the partners may have to work through the psychological aspects of infertility and the care of a high-risk child is even more complex and may have long-lasting effects on the partners as well as their children.

  7. Parental anxiety, parenting behavior, and infant anxiety: differential associations for fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, E.L.; Majdandžić, M.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies investigating the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of anxiety from parents to children have focused on mothers. However, recent research suggests that mothers and fathers may parent differently and may differentially affect the development of child

  8. Intergenerational education transmission: neighborhood quality and/or parents' involvement?

    OpenAIRE

    Patacchini, Eleonora; Zenou, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Using cultural transmission, we develop a model that gives some microfoundation to the impact of residential neighborhood on children's educational attainment and then test it using the UK National Child Development Study. We find that, for high-educated parents, the better the quality of the neighborhood in terms of human capital, the higher the parent's involvement in children's education, indicating cultural complementarity. For high-educated parents, we also find that both parents' involv...

  9. The amount of television that infants and their parents watched influenced children's viewing habits when they got older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Chan; Li, Yi-Fan; Wu, Wen-Chi; Chiang, Tung-Liang

    2017-06-01

    Excessive television (TV) exposure has negative impacts on a child's development, health and behaviour. This study examined the under-researched area of what impact infant and parental TV viewing during a child's infancy had on the child's later viewing habits. Data on 18 577 babies born in 2005 were collected from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study, a prospective longitudinal study of a nationally representative cohort. Group-based trajectory analysis was conducted to identify childhood TV viewing trajectories at 18, 36 and 66 months of age. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the influence of parents' TV behaviour on their children's TV viewing trajectories. The percentage of children falling into the TV viewing trajectories that were identified were low (20%), increasing (46.5%) and high (33.5%). The child's TV viewing trajectory was significantly associated with the child's sex, parent's monthly household income, child's day care arrangements, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal TV viewing time and whether the child's TV viewing time was restricted. The amount of TV that children watched when they were older was associated with a range of factors, and the results particularly highlight the need to restrict child and parental viewing time in infancy. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, Nete K; Pejtersen, Jan H

    2017-01-01

    Background. Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further...... evaluation and intervention. Objective. To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0–24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings. Methods. We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, Psych......Info, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected. Results. Based on 3310 screened articles, we located...

  11. Evaluation of a Parental Questionnaire to Identify Atopic Dermatitis in Infants and Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kobyletzki, Laura B.; Janson, Staffan; Hasselgren, Mikael; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Svensson, Åke

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To develop and validate a questionnaire for detecting atopic dermatitis in infants and small children from the age of 2 months. Methods. Parents to 60 children answered a written questionnaire prior to a physical examination and individual semistructured interview. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of validity, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the questionnaire were performed. Results. A total of 27 girls and 33 boys, aged 2 to 71 months, 35 with and 25 without physician-diagnosed eczema, participated. Validation of the questionnaire by comparisons with physicians' diagnoses showed a sensitivity of 0.91 (95% CI 0.77–0.98) and a specificity of 1 (95% CI 0.86–1). Conclusions. Three questions in a parental questionnaire were sufficient for diagnosing eczema in infants and small children. PMID:22500189

  12. Evaluating a brief parental-education program for parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, B C; Janz, P C; Fox, R A

    1998-06-01

    The effectiveness of a brief parental-education program for 40 families with very young children was studied. Families were assigned to either a parental-education or waiting-list control group. The parental-education program included information and strategies drawn from developmental and cognitive psychology and social learning theory. Analysis showed that participating parents significantly reduced their use of corporal and verbal punishment, changed their parenting attitudes, and improved their perceptions of their children's behavior in comparison to the control group. Effects were maintained at six weeks follow-up. Results supported tailoring parental-education programs to the unique needs of participants.

  13. Adult separation anxiety and unsettled infant behavior: Associations with adverse parenting during childhood and insecure adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne; Eapen, Valsamma

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder (ASAD) and Adult Separation Anxiety (ASA) symptoms in a sample of first-time mothers with an unsettled infant during the first postpartum year. Eighty-three primiparous women admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis and questionnaires assessing ASA symptoms, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. Nurses recorded infant behavior using 24-hour charts. The prevalence of ASAD in this sample was 19.3% and women with ASAD were, on average, more likely to be diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders, report aversive parenting experiences during childhood and show adult attachment style insecurity. Both ASAD and ASA symptoms were predicted by adult attachment anxiety, and ASAD was associated with unsettled infant behavior. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance mediated relations between parental over-control and ASAD diagnosis, and between parental abuse and ASAD diagnosis. Attachment anxiety mediated the relation between parental over-control and ASA symptoms, and attachment avoidance mediated the relations of parental over-control and parental abuse with ASA symptoms. This study highlights the prevalence of ASAD among first time mothers experiencing early parenting difficulties and the roles of childhood parenting experiences and adult attachment style in the development of the disorder. This points to the importance of introducing universal screening for ASAD in postnatal settings, and for the development of targeted interventions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neurobehaviour between birth and 40 weeks' gestation in infants born parental psychological wellbeing: predictors of brain development and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J; Thompson, Deanne K; Brown, Nisha C; Treyvaud, Karli; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Lee, Katherine J; Pace, Carmen C; Olsen, Joy; Allinson, Leesa G; Morgan, Angela T; Seal, Marc; Eeles, Abbey; Judd, Fiona; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-04-24

    Infants born long term neurodevelopmental problems compared with term born peers. The predictive value of neurobehavioural examinations at term equivalent age in very preterm infants has been reported for subsequent impairment. Yet there is little knowledge surrounding earlier neurobehavioural development in preterm infants prior to term equivalent age, and how it relates to perinatal factors, cerebral structure, and later developmental outcomes. In addition, maternal psychological wellbeing has been associated with child development. Given the high rate of psychological distress reported by parents of preterm children, it is vital we understand maternal and paternal wellbeing in the early weeks and months after preterm birth and how this influences the parent-child relationship and children's outcomes. Therefore this study aims to examine how 1) early neurobehaviour and 2) parental mental health relate to developmental outcomes for infants born preterm compared with infants born at term. This prospective cohort study will describe the neurobehaviour of 150 infants born at term equivalent age, and explore how early neurobehavioural deficits relate to brain growth or injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging, perinatal factors, parental mental health and later developmental outcomes measured using standardised assessment tools at term, one and two years' corrected age. A control group of 150 healthy term-born infants will also be recruited for comparison of outcomes. To examine the effects of parental mental health on developmental outcomes, both parents of preterm and term-born infants will complete standardised questionnaires related to symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress at regular intervals from the first week of their child's birth until their child's second birthday. The parent-child relationship will be assessed at one and two years' corrected age. Detailing the trajectory of infant neurobehaviour and parental psychological

  15. Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, Nete K; Pejtersen, Jan H; Julian, Megan M; Væver, Mette S

    2017-04-01

    Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further evaluation and intervention. To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0-24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings. We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected. Based on 3310 screened articles, we located 242 measures that were screened for eligibility. In all 18 measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development were included. Ten of the measures were developed specifically for measuring social-emotional development, and eight were measures including subscales of social-emotional development. The measures varied with respect to, e.g. the time of publication, number of items, age span, cost and amount of psychometric data available. Several measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development have been developed within the last decade. The majority of psychometric data are available through manuals, not peer-reviewed journals. Although all measures show acceptable reliability, the most comprehensive and psychometrically sound measures are the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional-2, Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment and Child Behaviour Checklist 1½-5. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Baby Business: a randomised controlled trial of a universal parenting program that aims to prevent early infant sleep and cry problems and associated parental depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Fallon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant crying and sleep problems (e.g. frequent night waking, difficulties settling to sleep each affect up to 30% of infants and often co-exist. They are costly to manage and associated with adverse outcomes including postnatal depression symptoms, early weaning from breast milk, and later child behaviour problems. Preventing such problems could improve these adverse outcomes and reduce costs to families and the health care system. Anticipatory guidance-i.e. providing parents with information about normal infant sleep and cry patterns, ways to encourage self-settling in infants, and ways to develop feeding and settling routines before the onset of problems-could prevent such problems. This paper outlines the protocol for our study which aims to test an anticipatory guidance approach. Methods/Design 750 families from four Local Government Areas in Melbourne, Australia have been randomised to receive the Baby Business program (intervention group or usual care (control group offered by health services. The Baby Business program provides parents with information about infant sleep and crying via a DVD and booklet (mailed soon after birth, telephone consultation (at infant age 6-8 weeks and parent group session (at infant age 12 weeks. All English speaking parents of healthy newborn infants born at > 32 weeks gestation and referred by their maternal and child health nurse at their first post partum home visit (day 7-10 postpartum, are eligible. The primary outcome is parent report of infant night time sleep as a problem at four months of age and secondary outcomes include parent report of infant daytime sleep or crying as a problem, mean duration of infant sleep and crying/24 hours, parental depression symptoms, parent sleep quality and quantity and health service use. Data will be collected at two weeks (baseline, four months and six months of age. An economic evaluation using a cost-consequences approach will, from a societal

  17. Baby Business: a randomised controlled trial of a universal parenting program that aims to prevent early infant sleep and cry problems and associated parental depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Fallon; Bayer, Jordana; Le, Ha N D; Mensah, Fiona; Cann, Warren; Hiscock, Harriet

    2012-02-06

    Infant crying and sleep problems (e.g. frequent night waking, difficulties settling to sleep) each affect up to 30% of infants and often co-exist. They are costly to manage and associated with adverse outcomes including postnatal depression symptoms, early weaning from breast milk, and later child behaviour problems. Preventing such problems could improve these adverse outcomes and reduce costs to families and the health care system. Anticipatory guidance-i.e. providing parents with information about normal infant sleep and cry patterns, ways to encourage self-settling in infants, and ways to develop feeding and settling routines before the onset of problems-could prevent such problems. This paper outlines the protocol for our study which aims to test an anticipatory guidance approach. 750 families from four Local Government Areas in Melbourne, Australia have been randomised to receive the Baby Business program (intervention group) or usual care (control group) offered by health services. The Baby Business program provides parents with information about infant sleep and crying via a DVD and booklet (mailed soon after birth), telephone consultation (at infant age 6-8 weeks) and parent group session (at infant age 12 weeks). All English speaking parents of healthy newborn infants born at > 32 weeks gestation and referred by their maternal and child health nurse at their first post partum home visit (day 7-10 postpartum), are eligible. The primary outcome is parent report of infant night time sleep as a problem at four months of age and secondary outcomes include parent report of infant daytime sleep or crying as a problem, mean duration of infant sleep and crying/24 hours, parental depression symptoms, parent sleep quality and quantity and health service use. Data will be collected at two weeks (baseline), four months and six months of age. An economic evaluation using a cost-consequences approach will, from a societal perspective, compare costs and health outcomes

  18. Admission to day stay early parenting program is associated with improvements in mental health and infant behaviour: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Heather

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia’s Early Parenting Services support families and intervene early in mental health problems in parents. The Victorian Early Parenting Strategy, a platform for government policy recommended a stronger evidence base for early parenting services. Tweddle Child and Family Health Service (TCFHS is a not-for-profit public sector early parenting centre, which provides residential, day stay, home visiting and outreach programs. This study aimed i to examine the health, social circumstances and presenting needs of clients attending the Tweddle Day Stay Program (DSP with infants under 12 months old and ii to assess the parent mental health and infant behaviour outcomes and the factors associated with program success. Methods A cohort of clients was recruited prior to admission and followed-up 8 weeks after discharge. Data were collected using standardised measures in a study specific questionnaire at baseline, participant’s Tweddle records and a follow-up telephone interview. Health, social circumstances and presenting needs of clients were described. Changes in parents’ symptoms of depression and infants’ sleep and settling between admission and follow-up were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with changes in primary outcomes. Results Of the total 162 clients who were eligible and invited to participate, 115 (72% were recruited. Parents admitted to the DSP had worse general self-reported physical and mental health than community samples. Infants of DSP participants were no more likely to be premature or have low birth weight, but significantly more unsettled than other community samples. Participants’ mental health and their infants’ behaviours were significantly improved after DSP admission. In multivariate analysis, higher depression score at baseline and greater educational attainment were significantly associated with improvements in parents’ mental

  19. Parenting self-efficacy moderates linkage between partner relationship dissatisfaction and avoidant infant-mother attachment: A Dutch study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casse, J.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2016-01-01

    The early infant-mother attachment relationship is part of a network of close relationships in which the relationship between parents is especially relevant. Evidence for linkages between maternal satisfaction with the partner relationship and infant-mother attachment is equivocal. The current study

  20. University-Community Collaboration to Promote Healthy Mothers and Infants: The Relationships and Parenting Support (RAPS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia Hrusa; Oravecz, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    Research highlights the vulnerability of Black mothers and their infants, who experience higher rates of stress, preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant mortality than other racial groups. This article describes the development and implementation of the Relationships and Parenting Support (RAPS) Program, a community-based, family-focused…

  1. Parents bereaved by infant death: PTSD symptoms up to 18 years after the loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Dorte M; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants filled out a questionnaire package including measures of PTSD (the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), coping (the Coping Style Questionnaire), perceived social support (the Crisis Support Scale) and attachment (the Revised Adult Attachment Scale). Associations between variables were examined through the use of analyses of variance, correlation analyses and a regression analysis. We found an estimated PTSD prevalence of 12.3%. Type of loss (pre-, peri- or postnatal) did not have any effect on PTSD severity, but lower gestational age was associated with more symptoms. Time since the loss, female sex, attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, emotion-focused coping, rational coping, feeling let down and social support satisfaction accounted for 42% of the variance in PTSD severity. The study highlights the long-term impact of infant loss and points to attachment, coping and social support as important contributors to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress symptoms. © 2013.

  2. Talk with Expectant Parents about Late Vitamin K Deficient Bleeding Among Infants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    In this podcast, Dr. Lauren Marcewicz, a pediatrician with CDC’s Division of Blood Disorders, speaks about vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infants, the importance of vitamin K prophylaxis at birth, and how healthcare providers can provide the best information to their expectant parents.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 12/31/2013.

  3. Evaluation of a Parental Questionnaire to Identify Atopic Dermatitis in Infants and Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Laura B. von Kobyletzki; Staffan Janson; Mikael Hasselgren; Carl-Gustaf Bornehag; Åke Svensson

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To develop and validate a questionnaire for detecting atopic dermatitis in infants and small children from the age of 2 months. Methods: Parents to 60 children answered a written questionnaire prior to a physical examination and individual semistructured interview. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of validity, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the questionnaire were performed. Results: A total of 27 girls and 33 boys, aged 2 to 71 months, 35 with and...

  4. A qualitative study of the infant feeding beliefs and behaviours of mothers with low educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Catherine Georgina; Taki, Sarah; Azadi, Leva; Campbell, Karen J; Laws, Rachel; Elliott, Rosalind; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth

    2016-05-21

    Infancy is an important period for the promotion of healthy eating, diet and weight. However little is known about how best to engage caregivers of infants in healthy eating programs. This is particularly true for caregivers, infants and children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds who experience greater rates of overweight and obesity yet are more challenging to reach in health programs. Behaviour change interventions targeting parent-infant feeding interactions are more likely to be effective if assumptions about what needs to change for the target behaviours to occur are identified. As such we explored the precursors of key obesity promoting infant feeding practices in mothers with low educational attainment. One-on-one semi-structured telephone interviews were developed around the Capability Opportunity Motivation Behaviour (COM-B) framework and applied to parental feeding practices associated with infant excess or healthy weight gain. The target behaviours and their competing alternatives were (a) initiating breastfeeding/formula feeding, (b) prolonging breastfeeding/replacing breast milk with formula, (c) best practice formula preparation/sub-optimal formula preparation, (d) delaying the introduction of solid foods until around six months of age/introducing solids earlier than four months of age, and (e) introducing healthy first foods/introducing unhealthy first foods, and (f) feeding to appetite/use of non-nutritive (i.e., feeding for reasons other than hunger) feeding. The participants' education level was used as the indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage. Two researchers independently undertook thematic analysis. Participants were 29 mothers of infants aged 2-11 months. The COM-B elements of Social and Environmental Opportunity, Psychological Capability, and Reflective Motivation were the key elements identified as determinants of a mother's likelihood to adopt the healthy target behaviours although the relative importance of each of the

  5. Copenhagen infant mental health project: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing circle of security –parenting and care as usual as interventions targeting infant mental health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Skovgaard Væver

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems and psychopathologies. In disadvantaged populations insecure and disorganized attachment are common, which points to the need of identifying early risk and effective methods of addressing such problems. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of an indicated group-based parental educational program, Circle of Security–Parenting (COS-P, currently being conducted in Denmark. Methods/design In a parallel randomized controlled trial of two intervention groups this study tests the efficacy of COS-P compared to Care as Usual (CAU in enhancing maternal sensitivity and child attachment in a community sample in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314, who agree to participate, will be randomly allocated with a ratio of 2:1 into the COS-P intervention arm and into CAU. Data will be obtained at inclusion (baseline and at follow-up when the child is 12–16 months. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity. Secondary outcomes include quality of infant attachment, language, cognitive and socioemotional development, family functioning, parental stress, parental mentalizing and maternal mental wellbeing

  6. Maternal and paternal infant representations: A comparison between parents of term and preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooten, A.; Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Bakel, van H.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Research on parental attachment representations after preterm birth is limited and inconclusive. The present study is the first in which maternal and paternal attachment representations after term, moderately and very preterm birth are compared. In addition, special attention was directed

  7. Maternal and paternal infant representations : A comparison between parents of term and preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooten, A.; Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Bakel, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research on parental attachment representations after preterm birth is limited and inconclusive. The present study is the first in which maternal and paternal attachment representations after term, moderately and very preterm birth are compared. In addition, special attention was directed

  8. Influences on Infant Feeding: Perceptions of Mother-Father Parent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majee, Wilson; Thullen, Matthew J; Davis, Alexandra N; Sethi, Tarunjot K

    The purpose of this study was to examine interrelational-, organizational-, and community-level influences on how coparents collaborate about infant and toddler feeding. Using qualitative methods, we interviewed mother-father parent dyads to explore the potential influences on infant and toddler feeding. Participants were purposively recruited from two Midwest, rural, university-system pediatric clinics. Thematic analysis was used to code the data. Mother-father dyadic interviews were conducted using a semistructured interview schedule. Twenty-four mother-father dyads who had a child between the ages of 6 and 36 months were interviewed together. Major themes include interpersonal factors (peer behavior reinforcement, dyad and important others infant feeding conflict, conflict resolution proactiveness), organizational factors (healthcare provider infant-feeding support, workplace flexibility), and community factors (public perception on breastfeeding and social media influence). Community-based collaboration can be a platform for mother-father dyads, researchers, public health nurses, and other healthcare providers to proactively create interventions that include opportunity for building coparenting skills and infant-feeding knowledge that promote team management of common early childhood feeding challenges.

  9. Cross-Cultural Differences in Parental Beliefs About Infant Motor Development : A Quantitative and Qualitative Report of Middle-Class Israeli and Dutch Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, S.D.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357534689; Oudgenoeg-Paz, O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341157627; Atun-Einy, Osnat

    The present study explored cultural differences in parental beliefs about motor development across 2 Western cultures: Israel and the Netherlands. Can 2 cultural models be distinguished regarding infant motor development in Israel and the Netherlands or are parental beliefs about motor development

  10. Prem Baby Triple P: a randomised controlled trial of enhanced parenting capacity to improve developmental outcomes in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Paul; Sanders, Matthew R; Boyd, Roslyn; Pritchard, Margo; Gray, Peter; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Slaughter, Virginia; Whittingham, Koa; O'Rourke, Peter; Winter, Leanne; Evans, Tracey; Herd, Michael; Ahern, Jessica; Jardine, Luke

    2015-03-04

    Very preterm birth (parenting have the greatest potential to create sustained effects on child development and parental psychopathology. Triple P (Positive Parenting Program) has shown positive effects on child behaviour and adjustment, parenting practices and family functioning. Baby Triple P for Preterm infants, has been developed to target parents of very preterm infants. This study tests the effectiveness of Baby Triple P for Preterm infants in improving child and parent/couple outcomes at 24 months corrected age (CA). Families will be randomised to receive either Baby Triple P for Preterm infants or Care as Usual (CAU). Baby Triple P for Preterm infants involves 4 × 2 hr group sessions at the hospital plus 4 × 30 min telephone consultations soon after transfer (42 weeks C.A.). After discharge participants will be linked to community based Triple P and intervention maintenance up to 24 months C.A. Assessments will be: baseline, post-intervention (6 weeks C.A.), at 12 and 24 months C.A. The primary outcome measure is the Infant Toddler Social & Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) at 24 months C.A. Child behavioural and emotional problems will be coded using the mother-toddler version of the Family Observation Schedule at 24 months C.A. Secondary outcome will be the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID III) cognitive development, language and motor abilities. Proximal targets of parenting style, parental self-efficacy, parental mental health, parental adjustment, parent-infant attachment, couple relationship satisfaction and couple communication will also be assessed. Our sample size based on the ITSEA, has 80% power, predicted effect size of 0.33 and an 85% retention rate, requires 165 families are required in each group (total sample of 330 families). This protocol presents the study design, methods and intervention to be analysed in a randomised trial of Baby Triple P for Preterm infants compared to Care as Usual (CAU) for families of very preterm

  11. Parents' experiences of transition when their infants are discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Spliid, Mette; Fegran, Liv

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available studies exploring parents' experiences of transition when their infants are discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).The review questions are: Giving birth to a premature or sick infant is a stressful event for parents. The parents' presence and participation in the care of the infant is fundamental to reduce this stress and to provide optimal care for both the premature or sick infant and family. A full term pregnancy is estimated to last between 37 and 40 weeks. Preterm infants born before 28 week (5.1%) are defined as extremely preterm, while those who are born between 28 to 31 weeks (10.3%) are defined as very preterm. The majority of the preterm (84.1%) are born between 32 to 37 week and may have significant medical problems requiring prolonged hospitalization.The prevalence of preterm birth is increasing worldwide. More than one in ten babies are born preterm annually. This is equal to 15 million preterm infants born globally and the second largest direct cause of deaths in children below five. The highest rates of preterm birth are in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (more than 60%) and the lowest rates are in Northern Africa, Western Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. The preterm birth rates in the developing countries vary widely and follow a different pattern than in high income countries.The preterm birth rate has increased between 1990 and 2010 with an average of 0.8% annually in almost all countries. Morbidity among critically ill newborn and preterm infants vary widely from no late effects to severe complications, such as visual or hearing impairment, chronic lung disease, growth failure in infancy and specific learning impairments, dyslexia and reduced academic achievement. Full term infants may also experience significant health problems requiring neonatal intensive care. The most common reasons for a full term infant to be admitted to a NICU

  12. The influence of parents, older siblings, and non-parental care on infant development at nine months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruise, Sharon; O'Reilly, Dermot

    2014-11-01

    The majority of research examining the influence of social environment on early child development suggests benefits to two-parent households, but contradictory evidence for the effects of siblings. The aims of the present study were to examine the influence of the child's proximal social environment, and the effects of interactions between socioeconomic status and social environment on developmental outcomes. Primary caregivers of a representative sample of 10,748 nine-month-old infants in Ireland completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and provided information on social environment. Adjustment was made for infant and maternal characteristics, household income, and area where the child was living at the time of the study. Further analyses tested for interactions between social environment and household income. Binary logistic regressions indicated no effects for number of parents in the household. However, the presence of siblings in the household was a consistent predictor of failing to reach milestones in communication, gross motor, problem-solving, and personal-social development. Furthermore, there was a gradient of increasing likelihood of failing in gross motor, problem-solving, and personal-social development with increasing numbers of siblings. Care by a grandparent decreased the likelihood of failing in communication and personal-social development. These findings do not support the majority of research that finds positive benefits for two-parent households. Similarly, the findings suggest limited effects for non-parental care. However, the observed negative effects of siblings support both the confluence and resource dilution models of sibling effect. Examination of follow-up data may elucidate current findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parent involvement when developing health education programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hassel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The problem of obesity in children and adults has been widely recognised and described in the literature [1]. There are several challenges leading to an augmentation of the problem. Firstly, the aetiology of overweight and obesity is not clear. Secondly, the long term effectiveness of prevention programmes is low. Only in some groups and for a short period of time an effect may be visible [2]. Thirdly, little is known about what children should learn when [3]. A proper concept of educating children in regard to healthy eating or physical activity does not exist. As far as we know an essential pre-requisite for health education programmes is that they are lifestyleoriented and easily transferable into daily family life [4]. For this, working together with the parents would be essential. The main goal of this article will be 1 to get a better understanding of what parents and nurses/ teachers want 2 to strengthen the point that this method is one way to involve the target groups and thus it is likely to increase the acceptance of health education programmes 3 to describe that focus group discussions are a useful tool to identify the opinions of the target group.

    Methods: In the frame of three projects, focus groups with nurses/ teachers and parents have been carried out.

    Results and Conclusions: Results from different focus group discussions with pedagogues and parents will be discussed and conclusions for health education programmes relevant to all key players involved will be identified.

  14. Mother-Infant Emotion Regulation at Three Months: The Role of Maternal Anxiety, Depression and Parenting Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Ferro, Valentino; Gallucci, Marcello; Parodi, Cinzia; Astengo, Marina

    While the association between anxiety and postpartum depression is well known, few studies have investigated the relationship between these two states and parenting stress. Furthermore, a number of studies have found that postpartum depression affects mother-infant emotion regulation, but there has been only one study on anxiety and emotion regulation and no studies at all on parenting stress and emotion regulation. Therefore, the primary aim of our study is to identify, in a community sample of 71 mothers, the relationship between maternal depression, anxiety, and parenting stress. The second aim is to examine the relationship between anxiety, postpartum depression, and parenting stress and mother-infant emotion regulation assessed at 3 months. Mother-infant interaction was coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver and Engagement Phases (ICEP) using a microanalytic approach. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) were administered to the mothers to assess depression, anxiety, and parenting stress, respectively. Analysis revealed correlations between anxiety and depression, showing that parenting stress is associated with both states. In a laboratory observation, depression was correlated with both negative maternal states and negative dyadic matches as well as infant positive/mother negative mismatches; anxiety was correlated with both negative maternal states and infant negative states as well as mismatches involving one of the partners having a negative state. Multiple regression analysis showed that anxiety is a greater predictor than depression of less adequate styles of mother-infant emotion regulation. Parenting stress was not shown to predict such regulation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Development and Initial Validation of a Parent Report Measure of the Behavioral Development of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Ward, Rebecca A.; Savona, Danielle; Regehr, Kaleigh; Parker, Kevin; Hudson, Melissa; Penning, Henderika; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a new parent report instrument--Parent Observation of Early Markers Scale (POEMS)--to monitor the behavioral development of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have older affected siblings. Parents of 108 at-risk infants (74 males, 34 females) completed the POEMS from child age 1-24 months.…

  16. Parent attitudes toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartos, Jessica; Huff, David C

    2008-01-01

    The widespread adoption of graduated driver licensing (GDL) policies has effectively reduced crash risk for young drivers; however, parents must support, reinforce, and enforce GDL for it to be effective, and research indicates that parents need better information and instruction for adhering to GDL requirements, conducting supervised practice driving, and restricting independent teenage driving. Because teenagers in most states must take driver education to enter the licensing process prior to age 18, integrating parent involvement into driver education may be an effective way to inform and instruct parents on a large scale about teen driver safety. This study assessed parent attitudes (overall and by rural status, minority status, and income level) toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education classes. In this study, 321 parents of teenagers enrolled in driver education classes across the state of Montana completed surveys about current involvement in driver education and attitudes toward required involvement. The results indicated that parents were not very involved currently in their teenagers' driver education classes, but 76% reported that parents should be required to be involved. If involvement were required, parents would prefer having written materials sent home, access to information over the Internet, or discussions in person with the instructor; far fewer would prefer to attend classes or behind-the-wheel driving instruction. There were few differences in parent attitudes by rural or minority status but many by income level. Compared to higher income parents, lower income parents were more likely to endorse required parent involvement in teenage driver education classes and to want parent information from driver education about many teen driving issues. That the majority of parents are open to required involvement in their teenagers' driver education classes is promising because doing so could better prepare parents to understand

  17. Parent "cocoon" immunization to prevent pertussis-related hospitalization in infants: the case of Piemonte in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meregaglia, Michela; Ferrara, Lorenza; Melegaro, Alessia; Demicheli, Vittorio

    2013-02-06

    Pertussis incidence in Piemonte (Italy) is now at the lowest level ever reached (0.85 per 100,000 in 2010) but the disease is still endemic in infants (54 per 100,000 in 2005-2010). Parental "cocoon" immunization has been proposed in some countries (i.e. United States, France) as a measure to protect newborns from serious pertussis outcomes. We assessed the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent hospital admissions in infants (€100,000. The "cocoon" programme leads to net costs from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective (ROI<1). In contexts of low incidence and without reliable data on a high parent-attributable infant risk, the parental "cocoon" programme is poorly efficient and very resource intensive in preventing pertussis in infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Exploratory Study of Parents' Perceived Educational Needs for Parenting a Child with Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Tong Chien, PhD

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate a few important educational needs of parents in caring for a child with SLD that might be underestimated by mental health professionals and teachers, such as psychological support and information needs. To facilitate effective parenting, holistic and individualized needs assessment and education should be provided to address each parent's biopsychosocial and cultural needs in relation to caregiving.

  19. Making the Difference with Active Parenting; Forming Educational Partnerships between Parents and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostdam, Ron; Hooge, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Although parental involvement is often a priority on the quality agenda of schools for primary and secondary education, it is still not usual to involve parents as an educational partner in the actual learning process of their child. Rather than adopting an open approach, teachers tend to tell parents what they should do or keep them at a safe…

  20. PARENTS ATTITUDE: INCLUSIVE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojicic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the attitudes of parents of “normal” developing children toward the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream education in Macedonia. Specifically, the study was aimed to explore the similarities and differences in the attitudes of two groups of parents: a group of parents of preschool children and a group of parents of school age children. Participants included 88 parents. Generally, many of the parents accept inclusive education, but most of them still think the special school is better place for education of children with disability.

  1. Educating Parents on Developmentally Age-Appropriate Learning in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mitzi C.

    This practicum paper reports on a project undertaken to enhance the knowledge of age-appropriate learning for parents of 3-year-old preschoolers. The project implemented a variety of techniques and strategies to improve parent knowledge, including parent education classes, a monthly newsletter for parents that addressed current research on…

  2. Web-Based Intervention to Teach Developmentally Supportive Care to Parents of Preterm Infants: Feasibility and Acceptability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Thuy Mai; Xie, Li Feng; Peckre, Perrine; Cote, Sylvana; Karsenti, Thierry; Walker, Claire-Dominique; Gosselin, Julie

    2017-11-30

    Preterm birth affects 8% to 11% of the population and conveys a significant risk of developmental delays. Intervention programs that support child development have been shown to have a positive impact on early motor and cognitive development and on parental well-being. However, these programs are often difficult to implement in a real-life setting due to lack of resources. Hence, our multidisciplinary team developed Mieux Agir au Quotidien (MAQ) to teach developmentally supportive care to parents of preterm infants with the goal of improving child development and parental outcomes. Our intervention included 3 in-person workshops that occurred prior to hospital discharge and a Web-based platform with written and videotaped materials that addressed 5 main themes: (1) infant behavioral cues, (2) flexion positioning; (3) oral feeding support, (4) parent-infant interactions, and (5) anticipation of developmental milestones. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention by parents of preterm infants and assess clinical benefits on child neurodevelopment and parental outcomes during the first year of life. A total of 107 infants born at children and investigate how Web-based technologies can efficiently complement individualized intervention to alleviate the burden on health care resources. ©Thuy Mai Luu, Li Feng Xie, Perrine Peckre, Sylvana Cote, Thierry Karsenti, Claire-Dominique Walker, Julie Gosselin. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 30.11.2017.

  3. Parental Involvement in Elementary Children's Religious Education: A Phenomenological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Peter Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The issue of parental involvement in religious education is an important one for the family, the church, the Christian school, and society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe parents' concepts and practices of involvement in their children's religious education as evangelical Christian parents in Midwestern communities.…

  4. Parenting Education at Medford and Churchill High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mary Cihak

    1986-01-01

    Nationally, interest in family life and parenting programs has grown amidst concern for "basic education." Parenting education in today's schools may be justified because of increased family stress and deteriorating family support systems. Most parenting and family life courses are offered within home economics departments, have a narrow…

  5. Black parental involvement in education | Singh | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Schools Act of 1996 (SASA) provides formal power in education to parents as well as communities. SASA creates the expectation for parents to be meaningful partners in school governance. It envisages a system where school-based educators would collaborate with the parents to ensure quality ...

  6. Preferences Regarding School Sexuality Education among Elementary Schoolchildren's Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Baksovich, Christine M.; Wielinski, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive review of the literature failed to find any studies to assess elementary school parents' preferred philosophical approach to teaching sexuality education and sexuality education topics discussed by parents. All previous research reported parent data for grades K-12 or grades 9-12 only. Methods: A random sample of 2400…

  7. What Does Whole Child Education Mean to Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Molly

    2011-01-01

    To learn more about how parents understand the whole child approach to education, ASCD commissioned KRC Research to conduct a study that included parent focus groups in Richmond, Virginia; and Columbus, Ohio, as well as a survey of 800 parents across the United States to identify their perceptions of what a whole child education is, how it is…

  8. Client evaluation of a specialist inpatient parent-infant psychiatric service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Revi; Bilszta, Justin; Salam, Nilam; Shafira, Nadia; Buist, Anne

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to collect feedback on a specialist parent-infant psychiatric service in terms of client satisfaction with inpatient treatment, and the impact on health outcomes of providing written information about available support options in the community following discharge. Women (n = 37) from consecutive admissions between January 2006 and December 2007 were contacted by telephone and administered a service quality evaluation questionnaire. Women were happy with the quality of inpatient care provided but suggested areas of improvement included continuity of staff during the inpatient stay and better communication between inpatient and outpatient services post-discharge. At discharge, women were not confident with their ability in coping with motherhood but confidence with parenting skills increased post-discharge. Use of recommended post-discharge community support and/or health services was poor. As adherence with discharge recommendations was less than ideal, greater involvement of primary/community health care professionals, and active participation of clients and carers, in discharge planning is required. Increased emphasis on the practical skills of motherhood as well as opportunities to develop the mother-infant relationship may assist mothers in gaining confidence to interact with their baby and pick up infant cues.

  9. Resolved Parental Infertility and Children's Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Amelia R; Helgertz, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    Although difficulty conceiving a child has long been a major medical and social preoccupation, it has not been considered as a predictor of long-term outcomes in children ultimately conceived. This is consistent with a broader gap in knowledge regarding the consequences of parental health for educational performance in offspring. Here we address that omission, asking how resolved parental infertility relates to children's academic achievement. In a sample of all Swedish births between 1988 and 1995, we find that involuntary childlessness prior to either a first or a second birth is associated with lower academic achievement (both test scores and GPA) in children at age 16, even if the period of infertility was prior to a sibling's birth rather than the child's own. Our results support a conceptualization of infertility as a cumulative physical and social experience with effects extending well beyond the point at which a child is born, and emphasize the need to better understand how specific parental health conditions constrain children's educational outcomes.

  10. Mental health and well-being in parents of excessively crying infants: Prospective evaluation of a support package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C; Bamber, D; Long, J; Garratt, R; Brown, J; Rudge, S; Morris, T; Bhupendra Jaicim, N; Plachcinski, R; Dyson, S; Boyle, E M; St James-Roberts, I

    2018-04-17

    During the first 4 months of age, approximately 20% of infants cry a lot without an apparent reason. Most research has targeted the crying, but the impact of the crying on parents, and subsequent outcomes, need to receive equal attention. This study reports the findings from a prospective evaluation of a package of materials designed to support the well-being and mental health of parents who judge their infant to be crying excessively. The resulting "Surviving Crying" package comprised a website, printed materials, and programme of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based support sessions delivered to parents by a qualified practitioner. It was designed to be suitable for United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS) use. Parents were referred to the study by 12 NHS Health Visitor/Community Public Health Nurse teams in one UK East Midlands NHS Trust. Fifty-two of 57 parents of excessively crying babies received the support package and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 anxiety questionnaire, as well as other measures, before receiving the support package and afterwards. Significant reductions in depression and anxiety were found, with numbers of parents meeting clinical criteria for depression or anxiety halving between baseline and outcome. These improvements were not explained by reductions in infant crying. Reductions also occurred in the number of parents reporting the crying to be a large or severe problem (from 28 to 3 parents) or feeling very or extremely frustrated by the crying (from 31 to 1 parent). Other findings included increases in parents' confidence, knowledge of infant crying, and improvements in parents' sleep. The findings suggest that the Surviving Crying package may be effective in supporting the well-being and mental health of parents of excessively crying babies. Further, large-scale controlled trials of the package in NHS settings are warranted. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of Socio-Economic Status of Parents on Educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Socio-Economic Status of Parents on Educational Attainment of Female ... of educational infrastructure like textbooks and well-equipped laboratories. ... homes the opportunity to acquire basic primary education to university level.

  12. Parenting stress, anxiety, and depression in mothers with visually impaired infants: a cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkalou, Elena; Sakki, Hanna; O'reilly, Michelle A; Salt, Alison T; Dale, Naomi J

    2018-03-01

    This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of parenting stress, adult anxiety, and depression in mothers of children with profound or severe visual impairment (PVI or SVI) at 1 year and 2 years of age. Mothers of a national longitudinal cohort (OPTIMUM Project) of infants with congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system and PVI (light perception at best) or SVI (basic 'form' vision of non-light reflecting objects) participated. Infant age at baseline (T 1 ) was 8 to 16 months. Mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at T 1 (n=79) and at follow-up 12 months later (T 2 ) (n=73). Mothers of the total group had higher parenting stress levels (34.6% in clinical range) than community normative data at T 1 (p=0.017). Mothers of infants in the PVI subgroup had elevated stress at T 1 (p=0.014) and T 2 (p=0.009). The PVI subgroup was also elevated in the Difficult Child subscale at T 2 (p=0.001). Within-sample differences in parenting stress between the visual impairment subgroups were found at T 2 only: the PVI subgroup scored higher than the SVI subgroup (p=0.029). Adult anxiety and depression in the total group were not elevated compared with community normative data at T 1 and T 2 ; however, higher parenting stress was related to raised adult anxiety and depression levels at T 1 and T 2 (p=0.001). Regression analysis found parenting stress and lower child vision level (T 1 ) predicted parenting stress (T 2 ) (p=0.001; 42% variance). Mothers of 1-year-old infants with visual impairment showed raised risk for parenting stress, which continued to be elevated for children with PVI and those perceived as 'difficult' at 2 years. This was also a psychological risk, with greater adult anxiety and depression in those mothers with raised parenting stress. The clinical significance is that identification of parenting stress and targeted parenting, and behavioural support of the child in

  13. Parental and infant characteristics and childhood leukemia in Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Julie A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukemia is the most common childhood cancer. With the exception of Down syndrome, prenatal radiation exposure, and higher birth weight, particularly for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, few risk factors have been firmly established. Translocations present in neonatal blood spots and the young age peak of diagnosis suggest that early-life factors are involved in childhood leukemia etiology. Methods We investigated the association between birth characteristics and childhood leukemia through linkage of the Minnesota birth and cancer registries using a case-cohort study design. Cases included 560 children with ALL and 87 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML diagnoses from 28 days to 14 years. The comparison group was comprised of 8,750 individuals selected through random sampling of the birth cohort from 1976–2004. Cox proportional hazards regression specific for case-cohort studies was used to compute hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Male sex (HR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.16–1.70, white race (HR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.13–4.76, and maternal birth interval ≥ 3 years (HR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.01–1.70 increased ALL risk, while maternal age increased AML risk (HR = 1.21/5 year age increase, 95% CI 1.0–1.47. Higher birth weights (>3798 grams (HRALL = 1.46, 1.08–1.98; HRAML = 1.97, 95% CI 1.07–3.65, and one minute Apgar scores ≤ 7 (HRALL = 1.30, 95% CI 1.05–1.61; HRAML = 1.62, 95% CI 1.01–2.60 increased risk for both types of leukemia. Sex was not a significant modifier of the association between ALL and other covariates, with the exception of maternal education. Conclusion We confirmed known risk factors for ALL: male sex, high birth weight, and white race. We have also provided data that supports an increased risk for AML following higher birth weights, and demonstrated an association with low Apgar scores.

  14. Accessing Programs for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers with Disabilities: A Parent's Guide = Programas para Infantes y Ninos Pre-escolares con Discapacidades: Guia para Padres de Familia. Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This parent's guide (presented in both English and Spanish) is intended to help families access services for young children with special needs. It is presented in the form of questions and answers arranged in three parts. Part I presents 12 questions and answers about early intervention services for infants and toddlers (ages birth through 2…

  15. Infant circumcision: the last stand for the dead dogma of parental (sovereignal) rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Howe, Robert S

    2013-07-01

    J S Mill used the term 'dead dogma' to describe a belief that has gone unquestioned for so long and to such a degree that people have little idea why they accept it or why they continue to believe it. When wives and children were considered chattel, it made sense for the head of a household to have a 'sovereignal right' to do as he wished with his property. Now that women and children are considered to have the full complement of human rights and slavery has been abolished, it is no longer acceptable for someone to have a 'right' to completely control the life of another human being. Revealingly, parental rights tend to be invoked only when parents want to do something that is arguably not in their child's best interest. Infant male circumcision is a case in point. Instead of parental rights, I claim that parents have an obligation to protect their children's rights as well as to preserve the future options of those children so far as possible. In this essay, it is argued that the notion that parents have a right to make decisions concerning their children's bodies and minds-irrespective of the child's best interests-is a dead dogma. The ramifications of this argument for the circumcision debate are then spelled out and discussed.

  16. Parent-delivered early intervention in infants at risk for ASD: Effects on electrophysiological and habituation measures of social attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J H; Dawson, Geraldine; Kelly, Jean; Estes, Annette; Jane Webb, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Prospective longitudinal studies of infants with older siblings with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have indicated that differences in the neurocognitive systems underlying social attention may emerge prior to the child meeting ASD diagnostic criteria. Thus, targeting social attention with early intervention might have the potential to alter developmental trajectories for infants at high risk for ASD. Electrophysiological and habituation measures of social attention were collected at 6, 12, and 18 months in a group of high-risk infant siblings of children with ASD (N = 33). Between 9 and 11 months of age, infant siblings received a parent-delivered intervention, promoting first relationships (PFR), (n = 19) or on-going assessment without intervention (n = 14). PFR has been previously shown to increase parental responsivity to infant social communicative cues and infant contingent responding. Compared to infants who only received assessment and monitoring, infants who received the intervention showed improvements in neurocognitive metrics of social attention, as reflected in a greater reduction in habituation times to face versus object stimuli between 6 and 12 months, maintained at 18 months; a greater increase in frontal EEG theta power between 6 and 12 months; and a more comparable P400 response to faces and objects at 12 months. The high-risk infants who received the intervention showed a pattern of responses that appeared closer to the normative responses of two groups of age-matched low-risk control participants. Though replication is necessary, these results suggest that early parent-mediated intervention has the potential to impact the brain systems underpinning social attention in infants at familial risk for ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 961-972. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A systematic mapping review of effective interventions for communicating with, supporting and providing information to parents of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jo; Staniszewska, Sophie; Newburn, Mary; Jones, Nicola; Taylor, Lesley

    2011-06-02

    Background and objective The birth of a preterm infant can be an overwhelming experience of guilt, fear and helplessness for parents. Provision of interventions to support and engage parents in the care of their infant may improve outcomes for both the parents and the infant. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and map out effective interventions for communication with, supporting and providing information for parents of preterm infants. Design Systematic searches were conducted in the electronic databases Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, the Cochrane library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Midwives Information and Resource Service, Health Management Information Consortium, and Health Management and Information Service. Hand-searching of reference lists and journals was conducted. Studies were included if they provided parent-reported outcomes of interventions relating to information, communication and/or support for parents of preterm infants prior to the birth, during care at the neonatal intensive care unit and after going home with their preterm infant. Titles and abstracts were read for relevance, and papers judged to meet inclusion criteria were included. Papers were data-extracted, their quality was assessed, and a narrative summary was conducted in line with the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines. Studies reviewed Of the 72 papers identified, 19 papers were randomised controlled trials, 16 were cohort or quasi-experimental studies, and 37 were non-intervention studies. Results Interventions for supporting, communicating with, and providing information to parents that have had a premature infant are reported. Parents report feeling supported through individualised developmental and behavioural care programmes, through being taught behavioural assessment scales, and through breastfeeding, kangaroo-care and baby-massage programmes. Parents also felt supported through organised support groups and

  18. INITIAL VALIDATION OF THE ASSESSMENT OF PARENTING TOOL: A TASK- AND DOMAIN-LEVEL MEASURE OF PARENTING SELF-EFFICACY FOR PARENTS OF INFANTS FROM BIRTH TO 24 MONTHS OF AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Tracy E; Polanin, Joshua R; Evenson, Amber L; Troutman, Beth R; Franklin, Christina L

    2016-05-01

    Parenting self-efficacy (PSE) includes parents' self-perceptions regarding their capabilities in performing the numerous and changing tasks associated with parenting a specific child (i.e., domain-specific PSE) as well as their self-perceptions in the parenting role overall (i.e., domain-general PSE). Prior literature has demonstrated PSE's relations with numerous constructs significant to mental health and the parent-infant relationship. Prior measures of PSE have been limited by focusing on only domain-specific or domain-general PSE, ignoring the importance of infant development to PSE, and other psychometric limitations. This article presents sound psychometric data for a new measure of PSE, the Assessment of Parenting Tool (APT). The APT includes task-level items on the Domain-Specific subscale (APT-DS) for each age-referenced version of the measure as well as a domain-general subscale that taps overall PSE within the first 24 months' postpartum. Initial construct validity of the measure is established, particularly for parents of infants aged 3 months and older. A stable, three-factor structure for the domain-general subscale includes "coping with being a parent," "attuned parenting," and "self-perceived model parenting." Future directions for the APT, including a revised checklist format for the domain-specific subscale, are included. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Infant massage improves attitudes toward childbearing, maternal satisfaction and pleasure in parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Sónia; Veríssimo, Manuela; Diniz, Eva

    2017-11-01

    The first year of motherhood is a period of growth and adaptation in women's lives with several challenges such as identifying the baby's needs and giving appropriate answers, so that mother and baby get to know each other and form a strong bond. Infant massage is one of the approaches that make an important contribution to the psychological and physiological wellbeing of both baby and mother, helping to form a harmonious relationship. This longitudinal study assessed the benefits of infant massage in the relationship between mother and baby, from birth to 12 months old. Comprising 194 dyads of mothers and their babies the subjects were divided into two groups of 97 dyads each. The Experimental group (EG) comprised mothers who undertook infant massage in a postnatal program with a physical therapist once a week. The Control group (CG) comprised mothers who did not attend any postnatal program and did not perform infant massage. Self-reported measures of attitudes concerning motherhood (CAQ-P), experience associated to motherhood (WBPB), parental satisfaction (PSS) and maternal separation anxiety (MSAS) were evaluated. Results showed that mothers in the experimental group were better adapted to motherhood, had greater confidence in their abilities and received more support from their mothers and husbands than mothers in the control group and were therefore more confident in their abilities. The EG group experienced a stronger relationship with their babies and described it as more positive than mothers in the control group. This longitudinal study suggests that mothers who learned how to perform infant massage had more positive attitudes towards the experience of motherhood in helping to increase the level of knowledge, regulation and proximity in the dyad. These findings can in turn help mothers to develop strategies that enable them to better cope with motherhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal affect and quality of parenting experiences are related to amygdala response to infant faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jennifer; Wonch, Kathleen E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Ali, Nida; Steiner, Meir; Hall, Geoffrey B; Fleming, Alison S

    2012-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in mood and anxiety in the early postpartum period are related to brain response to infant stimuli during fMRI, with particular focus on regions implicated in both maternal behavior and mood/anxiety, that is, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and the amygdala. At approximately 3 months postpartum, 22 mothers completed an affect-rating task (ART) during fMRI, where their affective response to infant stimuli was explicitly probed. Mothers viewed/rated four infant face conditions: own positive (OP), own negative (ON), unfamiliar positive (UP), and unfamiliar negative (UN). Mood and anxiety were measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Version (STAI-T); maternal factors related to parental stress and attachment were also assessed. Brain-imaging data underwent a random-effects analysis, and cluster-based statistical thresholding was applied to the following contrasts: OP-UP, ON-UN, OP-ON, and UP-UN. Our main finding was that poorer quality of maternal experience was significantly related to reduced amygdala response to OP compared to UP infant faces. Our results suggest that, in human mothers, infant-related amygdala function may be an important factor in maternal anxiety/mood, in quality of mothering, and in individual differences in the motivation to mother. We are very grateful to the staff at the Imaging Research Center of the Brain-Body Institute for their contributions to this project. This work was supported by an Ontario Mental Health Foundation operating grant awarded to Alison Fleming and a postdoctoral fellowship awarded to Jennifer Barrett.

  1. Parent opinion of sexuality education in a state with mandated abstinence education: does policy match parental preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kristin E; Gizlice, Ziya; Owen-O'Dowd, Judy; Foust, Evelyn; Leone, Peter A; Miller, William C

    2006-11-01

    Despite public debate about the content of sexuality education in schools, state and federal policy has increasingly financed and legislated abstinence-only education over the past decade. Although public schools strive to meet the needs of parents who, as taxpayers, fund the educational system, little is known about parental desires regarding sexuality education in states with mandated abstinence education. The objective of this study was to assess parental opinion about sexuality education in public schools in North Carolina, a state with mandated abstinence education. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted among 1306 parents of North Carolina public school students in grades K-12. Parental support for sexuality education in public schools and 20 sexuality education topics was measured. We defined comprehensive sexuality education as education that includes a discussion of how to use and talk about contraception with partners. Parents in North Carolina overwhelmingly support sexuality education in public schools (91%). Of these respondents, the majority (89%) support comprehensive sexuality education. Less than a quarter of parents oppose teaching any specific topic, including those typically viewed as more controversial, such as discussions about sexual orientation, oral sex, and anal sex. Parents' level of education was inversely related to support for specific sexuality education topics and comprehensive education, although these differences were small in magnitude. More than 90% of respondents felt that parents and public health professionals should determine sexuality education content and opposed the involvement of politicians. Current state-mandated abstinence sexuality education does not match parental preference for comprehensive sexuality education in North Carolina public schools.

  2. Early Childhood Education and Care Educators Supporting Parent-Child Relationships: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Amanda; Nolan, Andrea; Bergmeier, Heidi; Hooley, Merrilyn; Olsson, Craig; Cann, Warren; Williams-Smith, Janet; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Building strong relationships between children and parents is vital for children's social and emotional development. A majority of children attend early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings where they experience a range of relationships (educator-child, educator-parent, parent-child). Educators build relationships with children and…

  3. Parental Leave Policy as a Strategy to Improve Outcomes among Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Jennifer C; Klawetter, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    Although gains have been made in premature birth rates among racial and ethnic minority and low socioeconomic status populations, tremendous disparities still exist in both prematurity rates and health outcomes for preterm infants. Parental involvement is known to improve health outcomes for preterm babies. However, a gap in evidence exists around whether parental involvement can help ameliorate the disparities in both short- and long-term out-comes for their preterm children. Families more likely to experience preterm birth are also less likely to have access to paid leave and thus experience significant systemic barriers to involvement, especially when their newborns are hospitalized. This article describes the research gap in this area and explores pathways by which social workers may ameliorate disparities in preterm birth outcomes through practice, policy, and research.

  4. Intergenerational Education Transmission: Neighbourhood Quality and/or Parents' Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Patacchini, Eleonora; Zenou, Yves

    2004-01-01

    We develop a model that gives some microfoundation to the impact of residential neighborhood on children’s educational attainment and then test it using the UK National Child Development Study. We find that, for high-educated parents, the better the quality of the neighborhood in terms of human capital, the higher the parent’s involvement in children’s education, indicating cultural complementarity. For highly educated parents, we also find that both parents’ involvement in education and neig...

  5. A Content Analysis of Infant and Toddler Food Advertisements in Taiwanese Popular Pregnancy and Early Parenting Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Jung-Su; Gong, Yu-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Mothers who are exposed to formula advertisements (ads) are less likely to initiate breastfeeding and more likely to breastfeed for a shorter duration than other mothers. The purpose of this study was to examine infant and toddler food ads in pregnancy and early parenting magazines. A content analysis of infant and toddler food ads printed in 12 issues of 4 magazines published in 2011 was performed. Coding categories of ads included product category, advertisement category, marketing information, and advertising appeal. The target age and health-related message of each product were coded. The researchers identified 756 infant and toddler food ads in the magazines. Compared with complementary food ads, formula product ads used more marketing strategies such as antenatal classes and baby contests to influence consumers and promote products. Nutritional quality and child health benefits were the two most frequently used advertising appeals. In addition, this study identified 794 formula products and 400 complementary food products; 42.8% of the complementary food products were intended for 4-month-old infants. Furthermore, 91.9% of the ads for formula products and 81% of the ads for complementary food products contained claims concerning health function or nutrient content. Taiwanese pregnancy and early parenting magazines contain numerous infant and toddler food ads. These ads generally use health-related claims regarding specific nutrient content and health functions to promote infant and toddler foods. Health professionals should provide more information to parents on the differences between breast milk and formula milk, and they should be aware of the potential effect of infant and toddler food ads on parents' infant feeding decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Parents and carers' choice of drinks for infants and toddlers, in areas of social and economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnutt, I G; Murdoch, C; Robson, K F

    2003-09-01

    Sugar rich drinks are a recognised risk factor in early childhood caries. Currently, in depth knowledge of factors influencing parents' choice of infant drinks is incomplete. This study investigated parents and carers understanding of feeding practices potentially detrimental to oral health; barriers to adopting safe feeding practices and commercial factors influencing feeding bottle and cup contents. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was employed. Interviews were conducted by an experienced researcher and tape recorded. Following full transcription, emerging themes were identified, systematically explored and validated within the verbatim accounts. Thirty-three parents/carers of children aged three years and under, resident in areas of high caries prevalence in Cardiff, Wales, were interviewed. Overall understanding of the prolonged effect of exposure to sugared drinks in feeding bottles and cups was poor. Greater concern was expressed over the use of bottles on the development of the occlusion. Milk was viewed as a food rather than as a drink. Many barriers to giving water were described: children reject it; mothers don't like it; it was 'cruel' to offer water instead of sweet drinks; water in feeding bottles or cups was seen as a sign of poverty. Commercial influences on choices were strong. Products offered by baby food manufacturers were viewed as safe, but a recently marketed "Toothsafe" drink was viewed with suspicion. There are significant barriers to adopting the traditional oral health education message, that only milk and water are truly safe for teeth. Future oral health education and promotion programmes must recognise and account for these factors.

  7. Parental decision-making for medically complex infants and children: an integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kimberly A

    2014-09-01

    Many children with life-threatening conditions who would have died at birth are now surviving months to years longer than previously expected. Understanding how parents make decisions is necessary to prevent parental regret about decision-making, which can lead to psychological distress, decreased physical health, and decreased quality of life for the parents. The aim of this integrated literature review was to describe possible factors that affect parental decision-making for medically complex children. The critical decisions included continuation or termination of a high-risk pregnancy, initiation of life-sustaining treatments such as resuscitation, complex cardiothoracic surgery, use of experimental treatments, end-of-life care, and limitation of care or withdrawal of support. PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO were searched using the combined key terms 'parents and decision-making' to obtain English language publications from 2000 to June 2013. The findings from each of the 31 articles retained were recorded. The strengths of the empirical research reviewed are that decisions about initiating life support and withdrawing life support have received significant attention. Researchers have explored how many different factors impact decision-making and have used multiple different research designs and data collection methods to explore the decision-making process. These initial studies lay the foundation for future research and have provided insight into parental decision-making during times of crisis. Studies must begin to include both parents and providers so that researchers can evaluate how decisions are made for individual children with complex chronic conditions to understand the dynamics between parents and parent-provider relationships. The majority of studies focused on one homogenous diagnostic group of premature infants and children with complex congenital heart disease. Thus comparisons across other child

  8. Autobiographical memories of childhood and sources of subjectivity in parents' perceptions of infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manczak, Erika M; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; McAdams, Dan P; Wong, Maria S; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined whether autobiographical memories from parents' own childhoods, prebirth expectations, and personality traits contributed to their perceptions of their infants' temperament. It also investigated whether mothers and fathers differed in the extent to which these three sources of subjectivity predicted their perceptions. During the third trimester of pregnancy, expectant mothers and fathers in 96 families completed assessments of their personality traits and expectations for their children's temperament, as well as provided characteristic memories of their relationships with their own caregivers as children. Memories were then coded for themes of growth versus safety and compared to parents' ratings of perceived child temperament 15 months later. Analyses revealed that, for both parents, prebirth expectations predicted perceptions of positive temperament behaviors. Moreover, fathers who described childhoods characterized by exploration and opportunities for growth also perceived their children as displaying more positive temperamental behaviors, whereas those who described greater safety focus in memories and who had higher levels of negative affectivity reported more negative temperamental behaviors. These findings suggest that mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their children are differently related to psychological variables, including autobiographical memories. In turn, it is possible that these subjective perceptions may affect the parenting environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of Oxytocin and Parental Prefrontal Activation during Reunion with Infant: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have revealed the role of oxytocin (OT in parental behavior, the role of OT has not been investigated through the direct assessment of prefrontal brain activation during parenting. By using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we aimed to show the relationship between parental [maternal (N = 15 and paternal (N = 21] OT levels and the activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, while holding their infants after separation. Baseline OT levels were measured in the subjects’ saliva samples before the experiment. Prefrontal brain activation was assessed in participants sitting alone on a chair (i.e., separation from their infant for 120 s and during the target period (i.e., holding their infant for 45 s, which was done in triplicate. The oxygen hemoglobin (oxy-Hb dissociation curve significantly increased in 9 out of 22 channels on the PFC when maternal and paternal samples were combined. However, only the fathers showed a correlation between salivary OT and oxy-Hb signal. Furthermore, while holding their infants, high-OT fathers showed left hemispheric dominance compared to low-OT fathers, while high-OT mothers showed right hemispheric dominance compared to low-OT mothers. This study showed that fathers with high-OT levels showed neural activation with left hemispheric dominance, while holding their infants, suggesting that increase of OT level might activate paternal PFC related to parenting behavior, although the same is not true for mothers.

  10. The Tromso Infant Faces Database (TIF): Development, Validation and Application to Assess Parenting Experience on Clarity and Intensity Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maack, Jana K; Bohne, Agnes; Nordahl, Dag; Livsdatter, Lina; Lindahl, Åsne A W; Øvervoll, Morten; Wang, Catharina E A; Pfuhl, Gerit

    2017-01-01

    Newborns and infants are highly depending on successfully communicating their needs; e.g., through crying and facial expressions. Although there is a growing interest in the mechanisms of and possible influences on the recognition of facial expressions in infants, heretofore there exists no validated database of emotional infant faces. In the present article we introduce a standardized and freely available face database containing Caucasian infant face images from 18 infants 4 to 12 months old. The development and validation of the Tromsø Infant Faces (TIF) database is presented in Study 1. Over 700 adults categorized the photographs by seven emotion categories (happy, sad, disgusted, angry, afraid, surprised, neutral) and rated intensity, clarity and their valance. In order to examine the relevance of TIF, we then present its first application in Study 2, investigating differences in emotion recognition across different stages of parenthood. We found a small gender effect in terms of women giving higher intensity and clarity ratings than men. Moreover, parents of young children rated the images as clearer than all the other groups, and parents rated "neutral" expressions as more clearly and more intense. Our results suggest that caretaking experience provides an implicit advantage in the processing of emotional expressions in infant faces, especially for the more difficult, ambiguous expressions.

  11. Parents as Teachers Health Literacy Demonstration project: integrating an empowerment model of health literacy promotion into home-based parent education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lauren N; Smith, Sandra A; Thomson, Nicole R

    2015-03-01

    The Parents as Teachers (PAT) Health Literacy Demonstration project assessed the impact of integrating data-driven reflective practices into the PAT home visitation model to promote maternal health literacy. PAT is a federally approved Maternal, Infant, Early Childhood Home Visiting program with the goal of promoting school readiness and healthy child development. This 2-year demonstration project used an open-cohort longitudinal design to promote parents' interactive and reflective skills, enhance health education, and provide direct assistance to personalize and act on information by integrating an empowerment paradigm into PAT's parent education model. Eight parent educators used the Life Skills Progression instrument to tailor the intervention to each of 103 parent-child dyads. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t tests, and logistic regression combined with qualitative data demonstrated that mothers achieved overall significant improvements in health literacy, and that home visitors are important catalysts for these improvements. These findings support the use of an empowerment model of health education, skill building, and direct information support to enable parents to better manage personal and child health and health care. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. Parental Authority over Education and the Right to Invite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Bryan R. Warnick explores parents' authority to make educational decisions for their children. In philosophical debates, three types of arguments are typically invoked to justify parents' rights: arguments based on the welfare interests of children, arguments based on the expressive interests of parents, and arguments based on the…

  13. Parental Involvement as a Important Factor for Successful Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ðurišic, Maša; Bunijevac, Mila

    2017-01-01

    To comply with the system of integrated support for their students, schools need to build partnership with parents and develop mutual responsibility for children's success in the educational system. In this way, parental involvement are increased, parents' effort to support schools are encouraged, and they are directly making a positive impact to…

  14. Perceptions of Elementary School Children's Parents Regarding Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Christine M.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Glassman, Tavis

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the preferences of parents of elementary school-aged children regarding when sexuality topics should be discussed in school and at home. The survey was mailed to a national random sample of parents of elementary school age children. Overall, 92% of parents believed that sexuality education should be taught in schools.…

  15. Parents' Attitudes toward Comprehensive and Inclusive Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Christina R.; Tasker, Timothy B.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Parents are sometimes perceived as barriers to providing comprehensive and inclusive sexuality education to young people. However, little is known about parents' actual attitudes towards providing such broad information to young people. The purpose of this paper is to examine two different approaches to measuring parents' attitudes…

  16. A Case Study of a Parent's Educational Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldron, John; Boulton, Pam

    1999-01-01

    Examines a parent's ("Sarah") educational practice and provides a description of her family. Focuses on how Sarah began her educational practice before her children were born, her conception of education and educational success, how she makes decisions in a context of uncertainty, and the role of emotions in her educational practice. (CMK)

  17. Parenting with Mild Intellectual Deficits: Parental Expectations and the Educational Attainment of their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how educational expectations parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children’s attainment, and how parents’ own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study that followed participants from ages 18 to 64. Compared to the norm, parents with mild intellectual deficits expected thei...

  18. Parents bereaved by infant death: sex differences and moderation in PTSD, attachment, coping and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Dorte M; Olff, Miranda; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Parents bereaved by infant death experience a wide range of symptomatology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that may persist for years after the loss. Little research has been conducted on PTSD in fathers who have lost an infant. Mothers report most symptoms to a greater extent than fathers, but not much is known about other sex differences following infant death. The present cross-sectional study examined sex differences in PTSD and sex differences in the relationship between PTSD severity and related variables. Subjects were 361 mothers and 273 fathers who had lost an infant either late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life. Participants filled out questionnaires between 1.2 months and 18 years after the loss (M = 3.4 years). Mothers reported significantly more PTSD symptoms, attachment anxiety, emotion-focused coping and feeling let down, but significantly lower levels of attachment avoidance than fathers. Attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance and emotion-focused coping were significantly more strongly associated with PTSD severity in mothers than fathers, but only when examined alone. When all variables and time since the loss were examined together, there were no longer any significant moderation effects of sex. Persistent posttraumatic symptomatology exists in both mothers and fathers long after the loss. There are several sex differences in severity and correlates of PTSD, and a few moderation effects were identified for attachment and emotion-focused coping. Overall, more similarities than differences were found between mothers and fathers in the associations between PTSD and covariates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Breastfeeding, infant formula supplementation, and Autistic Disorder: the results of a parent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Stephen T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Autistic Disorder is associated with several congenital conditions, the cause for most cases is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine whether breastfeeding or the use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid is associated with Autistic Disorder. The hypothesis is that breastfeeding and use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid are protective for Autistic Disorder. Methods This is a case-control study using data from the Autism Internet Research Survey, an online parental survey conducted from February to April 2005 with results for 861 children with Autistic Disorder and 123 control children. The analyses were performed using logistic regression. Results Absence of breastfeeding when compared to breastfeeding for more than six months was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.42, 4.35 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01, 3.78. Use of infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid supplementation versus exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a significant increase in the odds of autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.24, 15.7 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 12.96, 95% CI 1.27, 132. Conclusion The results of this preliminary study indicate that children who were not breastfed or were fed infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid supplementation were significantly more likely to have autistic disorder.

  20. Parental decision-making for medically complex infants and children: An integrated literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many children with life-threatening conditions who would have died at birth are now surviving months to years longer than previously expected. Understanding how parents make decisions is necessary to prevent parental regret about decision-making, which can lead to psychological distress, decreased physical health, and decreased quality of life for the parents. Objective The aim of this integrated literature review was to describe possible factors that affect parental decision-making for medically complex children. The critical decisions included continuation or termination of a high-risk pregnancy, initiation of life-sustaining treatments such as resuscitation, complex cardiothoracic surgery, use of experimental treatments, end-of-life care, and limitation of care or withdrawal of support. Design PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO were searched using the combined key terms ‘parents and decision-making’ to obtain English language publications from 2000 to June 2013. Results The findings from each of the 31 articles retained were recorded. The strengths of the empirical research reviewed are that decisions about initiating life support and withdrawing life support have received significant attention. Researchers have explored how many different factors impact decision-making and have used multiple different research designs and data collection methods to explore the decision-making process. These initial studies lay the foundation for future research and have provided insight into parental decision-making during times of crisis. Conclusions Studies must begin to include both parents and providers so that researchers can evaluate how decisions are made for individual children with complex chronic conditions to understand the dynamics between parents and parent–provider relationships. The majority of studies focused on one homogenous diagnostic group of premature infants and children with complex congenital

  1. Path Analysis: Health Promotion Information Access of Parent Caretaking Pattern through Parenting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarsih, Tri; Murti, Bhisma; Anantanyu, Sapja; Wijaya, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Parents often inhibit learning process organized by education, due to their ignorance about how to educate child well. Incapability of dealing with those changes leads to dysfunctional families, and problematic children. This research aimed: to analyzed the health promotion information access pattern of parent caretaking pattern through parenting…

  2. Competing Paradigms of Educational Justice: Parent Organizing for Educational Equity in a Neoliberal Reform Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygreen, Kysa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a grassroots parent organizing effort in a large, high-poverty, urban school district. Drawing from ethnographic field research at a community-based popular education organization, the study describes how parent organizers worked to educate and mobilize Latina/o immigrant parents on issues of educational justice and equity.…

  3. Do Parent Education Programs Promote Healthy Post-Divorce Parenting? Critical Distinctions and a Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Amanda; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene; Braver, Sanford

    2009-01-01

    Most parent education programs are designed to improve child well-being following divorce by changing some aspect of parenting. However, there has been relatively little discussion of what aspects of parenting are most critical and the effectiveness of programs to change different aspects of parenting. This paper addresses these issues by: 1. Distinguishing three aspects of post-divorce parenting that have been targeted in parent education programs; 2. Reviewing evidence of the relations between each aspect of parenting and the well-being of children and; 3. Critically reviewing evidence that parent education programs have been successful in changing each aspect of post-divorce parenting. PMID:21552360

  4. Ecologies of Parental Engagement in Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Angela Calabrese; Drake, Corey; Perez, Jose Gustavo; St. Louis, Kathleen; George, Magnia

    2004-01-01

    What we know about parental involvement in schools cuts across two areas: how and why parental involvement is important and the structural barriers that impede parental participation. However, it has been difficult to construct an account of parental involvement, grounded in everyday practice that goes beyond a laundry list of things that good…

  5. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  6. Association of the Type of Toy Used During Play With the Quantity and Quality of Parent-Infant Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Anna V

    2016-02-01

    The early language environment of a child influences language outcome, which in turn affects reading and academic success. It is unknown which types of everyday activities promote the best language environment for children. To investigate whether the type of toy used during play is associated with the parent-infant communicative interaction. Controlled experiment in a natural environment of parent-infant communication during play with 3 different toy sets. Participant recruitment and data collection were conducted between February 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014. The volunteer sample included 26 parent-infant (aged 10-16 months) dyads. Fifteen-minute in-home parent-infant play sessions with electronic toys, traditional toys, and books. Numbers of adult words, child vocalizations, conversational turns, parent verbal responses to child utterances, and words produced by parents in 3 different semantic categories (content-specific words) per minute during play sessions. Among the 26 parent-infant dyads, toy type was associated with all outcome measures. During play with electronic toys, there were fewer adult words (mean, 39.62; 95% CI, 33.36-45.65), fewer conversational turns (mean, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.12-2.19), fewer parental responses (mean, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.87-1.77), and fewer productions of content-specific words (mean, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.49-2.35) than during play with traditional toys or books. Children vocalized less during play with electronic toys (mean per minute, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.16-3.69) than during play with books (mean per minute, 3.91; 95% CI, 3.09-4.68). Parents produced fewer words during play with traditional toys (mean per minute, 55.56; 95% CI, 46.49-64.17) than during play with books (mean per minute, 66.89; 95% CI, 59.93-74.19) and use of content-specific words was lower during play with traditional toys (mean per minute, 4.09; 95% CI, 3.26-4.99) than during play with books (mean per minute, 6.96; 95% CI, 6.07-7.97). Play with electronic toys is associated with

  7. Gift and sacrifice: parental involvement in Latino adolescents' education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Maurizi, Laura K; Suarez, Gloria A; Aretakis, Maria T

    2014-01-01

    Although myriad studies document the benefits of parental involvement in education on various indicators of children's academic performance, less research examines parental involvement among adolescents in low-income Latino families. Incorporating a multidimensional conceptualization of parental involvement, this study examined the relation between parental involvement and academic outcomes in a sample of 223 low-income, Latino adolescents. Results indicated that three types of parental involvement (gift/sacrifice, future discussions/academic socialization, and school involvement) had significant, positive associations with academic outcomes. Moreover, our results suggest that parents' stories about struggles with poverty and immigration are an important component of parental involvement, contributing to adolescents' desire to succeed academically and "give back" to parents. Additionally, our findings indicated that the positive relations between parental involvement and academic outcomes were stronger for immigrant youth and for those with higher endorsements of the Latino cultural value of respeto (respect).

  8. Parental Education and Frequency of Food Consumption in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Mouratidou, Theodora; Bammann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    years. Results: Parental education level affected the intake of obesity-related foods in children. Children in the low and medium parental education level groups had lower odds of more frequently eating low-sugar and low-fat foods (vegetables, fruits, pasta/noodles/rice and wholemeal bread) and higher...

  9. An Earthquake Education Program with Parent Participation for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, Hulya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the earthquake education program which was prepared for 5 to 6 year old children and to draw attention to the importance of parent participation. The earthquake education program was applied to 93 children and 31 parents in the province of Denizli situated in the first degree seismic zone…

  10. Community Education Parenting Resource Guide. Bulletin 1982, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradwell, John; And Others

    Designed for use by community education coordinators, elementary classroom teachers, PTA workers, school volunteers, and parents, this guide offers suggestions about ways to unite the school and the home in efforts to help children learn. The first section discusses the expanded role of the community education coordinator in parenting programs and…

  11. Understanding How Participation in Education Changes Mothers' Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jessica F.; Morris, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    This research explores whether low-income mothers' participation in education influences a constellation of different parenting practices that are related to young children's academic outcomes. Importantly, understanding whether maternal participation in education influences mothers' parenting practices can illuminate a pathway by which increases…

  12. Barriers to Parental Involvement in Education: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Garry; Blackwell, Ian

    2018-01-01

    The article on barriers to parental involvement in education that was published in "Educational Review" in 2011 has been surprisingly widely read and cited. The article was prompted by concern over the apparent gap between the rhetoric and reality of parental involvement evident in preceding years. It presented a model which discussed…

  13. Education, Parenting and Family: The Social Geographies of Family Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Emma; Marandet, Elodie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between education, parenting and family through the prism and particularities of family learning. Family learning is an example of an educational initiative, primarily aimed at parents and linked to wider policy concerns, which can be explored through a mapping of its social geographies; family learning is…

  14. Impact of the Diagnostic Process on Parents of Infants and Preschool Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Terrence N.; Hanson, Janice L.

    In an investigation of the impact of the psychological/educational diagnostic process on the parents of young children at risk for developmental delay, 18 families completed questionnaires and were interviewed concerning their child's evaluation. Transcribed interviews conducted 1-2 weeks after the evaluation and 4 months after the evaluations…

  15. Maternal Education Level Predicts Cognitive, Language, and Motor Outcome in Preterm Infants in the Second Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kousiki; Greene, Michelle M; Patel, Aloka L; Meier, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Objective To evaluate the relative impact of maternal education level (MEL) on cognitive, language, and motor outcomes at 20 months' corrected age (CA) in preterm infants. Study Design A total of 177 preterm infants born between 2008 and 2010 were tested at 20 months' CA using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III. Multiple regression analyses were done to determine the relative impact of MEL on cognitive, language, and motor scores. Results Infants born to mothers with high school MEL were 3.74 times more likely to have a subnormal motor index, while those born to mothers with some college and graduate school MEL had reduced odds (0.36 and 0.12, respectively) of having subnormal language index at 20 months. In linear regression, MEL was the strongest predictor of cognitive, language, and motor scores, and graduate school MEL was associated with increases in cognitive, motor, and language scores of 8.49, 8.23, and 15.74 points, respectively. Conclusions MEL is the most significant predictor of cognitive, language, and motor outcome at 20 months' CA in preterm infants. Further research is needed to evaluate if targeted interventions that focus on early childhood learning and parenting practices can ameliorate the impact of low MEL. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. The Role of Parent Education and Parenting Knowledge in Children's Language and Literacy Skills among White, Black, and Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Denmark, Nicole; Harden, Brenda Jones; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of parenting knowledge of infant development in children's subsequent language and pre-literacy skills among White, Black and Latino families of varying socioeconomic status. Data come from 6,150 participants in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Mothers' knowledge of infant development was…

  17. Parental misclassification of child overweight/obese status: The role of parental education and parental weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, John; Cawley, John

    2017-02-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health challenge for policymakers in many countries. As the most common supervisors of children's activities, parents have a potentially important role to play in obesity prevention. However, a precondition for parents to improve their children's diets, encourage them to be more physically active, or take them to see a doctor about their weight is for the parent to first recognize that their child is overweight or obese. This paper examines the extent of parental misclassification of child weight status, and its correlates, focusing on the role of parental education and the parent's own obesity status. We find evidence that, among non-obese parents, those who are better-educated report their child's weight status more accurately, but among obese parents, the better-educated are 45.18% more likely than parents with lower secondary education to give a false negative report of their child's overweight/obesity; this may reflect social desirability bias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Suitability Assessment of Printed Dietary Guidelines for Pregnant Women and Parents of Infants and Toddlers From 7 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa Maria; Dolvik, Stina; Frisvold, Cathrine; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate selected European printed dietary guidelines for pregnant women and parents of infants and toddlers using the suitability assessment of materials (SAM) method. A descriptive study to determine the suitability of 14 printed dietary guidelines from 7 European countries based on deductive quantitative analyses. Materials varied greatly in format and content: 35.7% of materials were rated superior and 64.3% were rated adequate according to the overall SAM score for patient education material. None of the materials were scored not suitable. Among the categories, the highest average scores were for layout and typography and the lowest average scores were for cultural appropriateness and learning stimulation and motivation. Interrater reliability ranged from Cohen's kappa of 0.37 to 0.62 (mean, 0.41), indicating fair to moderate agreement among the 3 investigators. Overall, the suitability of the assessed printed dietary guidelines was adequate. Based on the SAM methodology, printed dietary guidelines may increase in suitability by emphasizing aspects related to health literacy and accommodating the needs of different food cultures within a population. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Parenting stress and parent support among mothers with high and low education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Current theorizing and evidence suggest that parenting stress might be greater among parents from both low and high socioeconomic positions (SEP) compared with those from intermediate levels because of material hardship among parents of low SEP and employment demands among parents of high SEP. However, little is known about how this socioeconomic variation in stress relates to the support that parents receive. This study explored whether variation in maternal parenting stress in a population sample was associated with support deficits. To obtain a clearer understanding of support deficits among mothers of high and low education, we distinguished subgroups according to mothers' migrant and single-parent status. Participants were 5,865 mothers from the Growing Up in Scotland Study, who were interviewed when their children were 10 months old. Parenting stress was greater among mothers with either high or low education than among mothers with intermediate education, although it was highest for those with low education. Support deficits accounted for around 50% of higher stress among high- and low-educated groups. Less frequent grandparent contact mediated parenting stress among both high- and low-educated mothers, particularly migrants. Aside from this common feature, different aspects of support were relevant for high- compared with low-educated mothers. For high-educated mothers, reliance on formal childcare and less frequent support from friends mediated higher stress. Among low-educated mothers, smaller grandparent and friend networks and barriers to professional parent support mediated higher stress. Implications of differing support deficits are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  1. Parental psychological distress and quality of life after a prenatal or postnatal diagnosis of congenital anomaly: a controlled comparison study with parents of healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana; Nazaré, Bárbara; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2012-04-01

    Parental early adjustment to a prenatal or postnatal diagnosis of congenital anomaly has been studied mainly within a pathological and deterministic perspective, giving us an inadequate view of the impact of the diagnosis. Adopting a comprehensive approach on parental adjustment, we aimed to characterise the impact of the diagnosis on psychological distress and quality of life, in the early postdiagnosis stage. The effects of gender and the timing of the diagnosis were also examined. In this cross-sectional study, 42 couples with healthy infants and 42 couples whose infants were prenatal or postnatally diagnosed with a congenital anomaly responded to the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and to the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief instrument. In the early postdiagnosis stage, parents whose infants were diagnosed with a congenital anomaly presented higher levels of psychological distress than did the parents of healthy infants (F(2,79) = 6.23, p = .003), although they displayed similar levels of quality of life (F(4,78) = 0.62, p = .647). Mothers reported more adjustment difficulties than fathers in both groups. Receiving the diagnosis in the prenatal period was associated with higher maternal psychological quality of life (Z = -2.00, p = .045). The occurrence of a diagnosis of congenital anomaly during the transition to parenthood adds to an accumulation of stress-inducing events and manifests itself in psychopathological symptoms. Maintaining a positive evaluation of well-being may be understood as a parental resource to deal with the diagnosis. The importance of adopting a comprehensive perspective on parental adjustment is highlighted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Parents' and Teachers' Reflections on the Process of Daily Transitions in an Infant and Toddler Laboratory School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traum, Linda C.; Moran, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study considered values, beliefs, perspectives, and meanings of 7 parents and 3 teachers within the context of daily home-to-child care transitions in one infant-toddler center in an early childhood laboratory school. Sociocultural and attachment theories anchored the study and the developmental niche framework informed…

  3. Very pre-term infants' behaviour at 1 and 2 years of age and parental stress following basic developmental care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, S.M. van der; Maguire, C.M.; Bruil, J.; Cessie, S. le; Zwieten, P. van; Veen, S.; Wit, J.M.; Walther, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at I and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard

  4. Parental Involvement as a Important Factor for Successful Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Đurišić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To comply with the system of integrated support for their students’, schools need to build partnership with parents and develop mutual responsibility for childrens’ success in the educational system. In this way, parental involement are increased, parents’ effort to support schools are encouraged, and they are directly making a positive impact to a successful educational system. Considering the importance of parents’ participation and involvement in school activities, in this paper, we will analyse the positive effects of parental involvement, summarize leading principles for the successful partnership of parents and school and present six factors (Parenting, Communicating, Volunteering, Learning at home, Decision-making and Collaborating with the community and six models (Protective Model, Expert Model, Transmission Model, Curriculum-Enrichment Model, Consumer Model and Partnership Model of parental involvement. In addition, we will draw conclusions and make recommendations that are important for planning programs that are focused on the improvement of parent involvement.

  5. Measuring parental stress in mothers of infants: A Rasch-based construct validity study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Pontoppidan, Maiken; Kristensen, Ingeborg Hedegaard

    of the Danish language version of the PSS in a community sample of 1110 mothers of children aged 0 to 12 months employing the Rasch family of IRT models, and emphasizing the issues of unidimensionality and equal item functioning (no DIF) relative to the age and educational levels of the mothers. No adequate fit......) were found each to fit so-called graphical loglinear Rasch models: The parental stress subscale fit a model adjusted for local response dependence between some item pairs, as well as DIF for one item relative to mothers’ level of education and DIF for another item relative to age and educational level...... of the mothers. The parental satisfaction subscale fit a model adjusted only for local response dependence. The findings are in line with the original interpretation of the PSS. We recommend that the scoring of the PSS is changed to reflect the two subscales and the dichotomization of response categories...

  6. Natural variations in maternal and paternal care are associated with systematic changes in oxytocin following parent-infant contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Gordon, Ilanit; Schneiderman, Inna; Weisman, Omri; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna

    2010-09-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) plays a critical role in processes of parent-infant bonding through mechanisms of early parental care, particularly maternal grooming and contact. Yet, the involvement of OT in human parenting remains poorly understood, no data are available on the role of OT in the development of human fathering, and the links between patterns of parental care and the OT response have not been explored in humans. One hundred and twelve mothers and fathers engaged in a 15-min play-and-contact interaction with their 4-6-month-old infants and interactions were micro-coded for patterns of parental touch. Results showed that baseline levels of plasma and salivary OT in mothers and fathers were similar, OT levels in plasma and saliva were inter-related, and OT was associated with the parent-specific mode of tactile contact. Human mothers who provided high levels of affectionate contact showed an OT increase following mother-infant interaction but such increase was not observed among mothers displaying low levels of affectionate contact. Among fathers, only those exhibiting high levels of stimulatory contact showed an OT increase. These results demonstrate consistency in the neuroendocrine basis of human parental interactions with those seen in other mammals. The findings underscore the need to provide opportunities for paternal care to trigger the biological basis of fatherhood and suggest that interventions that permit social engagement may be recommended in conditions of diminished maternal-infant contact, such as prematurity or postpartum depression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program as a universal prevention intervention for parents of infants in Denmark: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken W.

    2015-01-01

    support parents in providing sensitive and responsive care, and reinforce healthy development for their infants. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the Incredible Years™ Parents and Babies Program in a universal setting for parents with infants. Methods/Design: This is a pragmatic, two......-arm, parallel, pilot, randomized controlled trial (RCT) where 128 families with newborn infants up to four-months-old are recruited in two municipalities in Denmark. Families are randomized to the Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program or usual care with a 2:1 allocation ratio. The primary outcome....... Discussion: This is the first RCT of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program, and one of the first rigorous evaluations of a universally offered preventive intervention for parents with infants. The trial will provide important information on the effectiveness of a relatively brief, universally...

  8. The interventions of nutritional education on malnutrition infants mothers in Wonokromo Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Afridah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Mother’s knowledge has great affect to the nutritional status of the infants, because mother has a big role in providing the food in the family. That Knowledge was heavily influenced by social circumstances of the family's such as lack of family income that may affect the mother's in providing the food in the family. The research objective is to examine the effect of nutrition education intervention on body weight of malnutrition infants in RW 07 Wonokromo, Surabaya.This study uses a pre-experimental study design with pre-post test type approach. The subjects were children aged six months to five years who are malnutrition and poor nutrition, with indexes BW/U is less than Z score, located in Wonokromo Village, Surabaya. Sampling techniques in a study conducted by simple random sampling. Analysis of differences nutritional status of children before and after giving of nutrition education were tested by paired t test (paired t test and differences of mother’s knowledge before and after giving of nutrition education were tested by Wilcoxon signed rank test.Results of statistically tests by using a paired t-test obtained P Value (0.108 > α (0.05 means there is no different on giving of nutrition education intervention on weight infants in the RW. 07 Wonokromo Village, Surabaya. Results of statistically tests by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test obtained P Value (0.157 > α (0.05 means there is no different on giving of nutrition education intervention on parent’s knowledge level of a toddler in the RW. 07 Wonokromo Village Surabaya.Required planning and strategies to change behavior and awareness of nutrition and health. Using 4P concept for viewpoint of trainers/educators and 4C for viewpoint of participants or trained, and performed by ABC approach (Advocacy, Situation control and the Movement Atmosphere/mobilization. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style

  9. Recall and decay of consent information among parents of infants participating in a randomized controlled clinical trial using an audio-visual tool in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboizi, Robert B; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okoye, Michael; Kampmann, Beate; Roca, Anna; Idoko, Olubukola T

    2017-09-02

    Communicating essential research information to low literacy research participants in Africa is highly challenging, since this population is vulnerable to poor comprehension of consent information. Several supportive materials have been developed to aid participant comprehension in these settings. Within the framework of a pneumococcal vaccine trial in The Gambia, we evaluated the recall and decay of consent information during the trial which used an audio-visual tool called 'Speaking Book', to foster comprehension among parents of participating infants. The Speaking Book was developed in the 2 most widely spoken local languages. Four-hundred and 9 parents of trial infants gave consent to participate in this nested study and were included in the baseline assessment of their knowledge about trial participation. An additional assessment was conducted approximately 90 d later, following completion of the clinical trial protocol. All parents received a Speaking Book at the start of the trial. Trial knowledge was already high at the baseline assessment with no differences related to socio-economic status or education. Knowledge of key trial information was retained at the completion of the study follow-up. The Speaking Book (SB) was well received by the study participants. We hypothesize that the SB may have contributed to the retention of information over the trial follow-up. Further studies evaluating the impact of this innovative tool are thus warranted.

  10. Parent Education: A Perspective on Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Jean

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews ways in which parents of handicapped children can become involved with the schools, and two models (an oral program for deaf students in which parents are trained to provide language stimulation, and a program for autistic children involving parents in behavioral treatment) are described. (CL)

  11. Affect recognition and the quality of mother-infant interaction: understanding parenting difficulties in mothers with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sarah J; Lewin, Jona; Butler, Stephen; Vaillancourt, Kyla; Seth-Smith, Fiona

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the quality of mother-infant interaction and maternal ability to recognise adult affect in three study groups consisting of mothers with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, mothers with depression and healthy controls. Sixty-four mothers were recruited from a Mother and Baby Unit and local children's centres. A 5-min mother-infant interaction was coded on a number of caregiving variables. Affect recognition and discrimination abilities were tested via a series of computerised tasks. Group differences were found both in measures of affect recognition and in the mother-infant interaction. Mothers with schizophrenia showed consistent impairments across most of the parenting measures and all measures of affect recognition and discrimination. Mothers with depression fell between the mothers with schizophrenia and healthy controls on most measures. However, depressed women's parenting was not significantly poorer than controls on any of the measures, and only showed trends for differences with mothers with schizophrenia on a few measures. Regression analyses found impairments in affect recognition and a diagnosis of schizophrenia to predict the occurrence of odd or unusual speech in the mother-infant interaction. Results add to the growing body of knowledge on the mother-infant interaction in mothers with schizophrenia and mothers with depression compared to healthy controls, suggesting a need for parenting interventions aimed at mothers with these conditions. While affect recognition impairments were not found to fully explain differences in parenting among women with schizophrenia, further research is needed to understand the psychopathology of parenting disturbances within this clinical group.

  12. The influence of maternal optimality and infant temperament on parenting stress at 12 months among mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  13. Parents need support to find ways to optimise their own sleep without seeing their preterm infant's sleeping patterns as a problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Ylva Thernström; Nyqvist, Kerstin Hedberg; Rubertsson, Christine; Funkquist, Eva-Lotta

    2017-02-01

    This study described how parents perceived their own sleep, and their infants', during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and after discharge. It also explored the infants' sleeping location at home. The study was conducted in the NICUs of two Swedish university hospitals. The parents of 86 infants - 86 mothers and 84 fathers - answered questionnaires during their infants' hospital stay, at discharge and at the infants' corrected ages of two, six and 12 months. The parents' own sleep was explored with the Insomnia Severity Index. Mothers reported more severe insomnia than fathers during their infants' hospitalisation, and these higher insomnia severity scores were associated with more severe infant sleep problems at discharge (p = 0.027) and at two months (p = 0.006) and 12 months (p = 0.002) of corrected age. During the study period, 4%-10% of the parents reported severe or very severe infant sleeping problems. The bed-sharing rate was 75% after discharge and about 60% at the corrected age of 12 months. Maternal insomnia during an infant's hospital stay was associated with later perceptions of sleep problems in their children. Parents need support to find solutions for optimal sleep without seeing their child's sleeping patterns as a problem. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Policies and practices of parental involvement and parent-teacher relations in Irish primary education: a critical discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Brigid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a critical discourse analysis of policies of parental involvement in Irish education from the past decade. It explores three questions: Do discourses of parental involvement and teacher professionalism construct parent-teacher relations in Irish primary education?; What implications do these constructions have for policies and practices of parent-teacher relationships, particularly parent-teacher partnerships, in Irish primary education?; How can these constructions be ch...

  15. Effects of maternal education on infant mortality and stillbirths in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O; Madsen, Mette

    1999-01-01

    and has increased in the lowest educational group. In conclusion, social inequality in infant mortality in Denmark is pronounced and cannot be explained by differences in smoking habits. The social gap between different educational groups has widened during the last decade, but may partly be explained......,814 births. When adjusted for mother's age, parity, and smoking, the stillbirth rate was independent of mother's educational level, but a clear social gradient in infant mortality was observed. Compared with a similar study in 1982-83, infant mortality has decreased most in the highest educational group...

  16. From child to parent? The significance of children's education for their parents' longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torssander, Jenny

    2013-04-01

    In addition to own education and other socioeconomic resources, the education of one's children may be important for individual health and longevity. Mothers and fathers born between 1932 and 1941 were analyzed by linking them to their children in the Swedish Multi-generation Register, which covers the total population. Controlling for parents' education, social class, and income attenuates but does not remove the association between children's education and parents' mortality risk. Shared but unmeasured familial background characteristics were addressed by comparing siblings in the parental generation. In these fixed-effects analyses, comparing parents whose children had tertiary education with parents whose children completed only compulsory schooling (the reference group) yields a hazard ratio of 0.79 (95 % CI: 0.70-0.89) when the socioeconomic position of both parents is controlled for. The relationship is certainly not purely causal, but part of it could be if, for example, well-educated adult children use their resources to find the best available health care for their aging parents. I therefore introduce the concept of "social foreground" and suggest that children's socioeconomic resources may be an important factor in trying to further understand social inequalities in health.

  17. A quality of life quandary: a framework for navigating parental refusal of treatment for co-morbidities in infants with underlying medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sarah N; McAdams, Ryan M; Diekema, Douglas S; Opel, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Parental refusal of a recommended treatment is not an uncommon scenario in the neonatal intensive care unit. These refusals may be based upon the parents' perceptions of their child's projected quality of life. The inherent subjectivity of quality of life assessments, however, can exacerbate disagreement between parents and healthcare providers. We present a case of parental refusal of surgical intervention for necrotizing enterocolitis in an infant with Bartter syndrome and develop an ethical framework in which to consider the appropriateness of parental refusal based upon an infant's projected quality of life. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with parent support for condom education and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A

    2014-04-01

    Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in efforts to implement such programs. A representative statewide sample of households with children (N = 1,093) in California was employed to examine parent support for CEA and the potential influences of demographics (gender, age, and Hispanic ethnicity), sociodemographics (education, religious affiliation, religious service attendance, and political ideology), and condom-related beliefs (belief in condom effectiveness and belief that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible) on parent support for CEA. The parents in our sample reported a high level of support for CEA (M = 3.23 on a 4-point scale) and believing in a high level of condom effectiveness (M = 3.36 on a 4-point scale). In addition, 84% of the parents agreed that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that parents who were younger, Hispanic, with a lower educational attainment, without a religious affiliation, less religiously observant, and politically liberal were more supportive of CEA. After controlling for these demographic and sociodemographic factors, condom effectiveness and responsibility beliefs each added independently to the predictability of parent support for CEA. These findings suggest that parent education related to condom effectiveness could help increase support for school-based CEA programs.

  19. Evaluation of a parent-designed programme to support tooth brushing of infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, C E; Milgrom, P

    2015-02-01

    This study developed and tested an intervention to help parents establish a routine of brushing their young children's teeth twice a day. Community-based participatory research methods were used to engage parents in the design of the intervention to maximize its relevance and acceptability to others. Input was obtained by interviews and focus groups. The resulting intervention was four 90-min small-group sessions that provided educational information, direct instruction, practice and peer-to-peer problem-solving. A pre- to post-non-randomized design was used to evaluate the intervention's effect to increase or maintain parents' twice daily brushing. Intervention participants were 67 primary caregivers of children under six years of age. Of the 67 initial participants, 50 completed a post-intervention questionnaire administered 4 to 8 weeks following the intervention. The proportion of parents who reported brushing their young children's teeth twice a day increased significantly from 59 per cent prior to the intervention to 89 per cent post-intervention (McNemar's X(2)  = 10.71, P = 0.002). There were concomitant and statistically significant increases over the study period in parents' confidence for brushing twice a day, attitudes about the importance of brushing and their self-efficacy for tooth brushing. Parents' knowledge of children's oral health, assessed by a 15-item scale developed for this study ('Things to Know About Baby Teeth'), also increased significantly. Twice daily tooth brushing is a low-cost, effective strategy to reduce the risk of childhood caries. As demonstrated here, community-based efforts can help parents achieve this important health behaviour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. #Cleft: The use of Social Media Amongst Parents of Infants with Clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouri, Joseph S; McCheyne, Melisande J; Morrison, Clinton S

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Many societies and organizations are using social media to reach their target audience. The extent to which parents of patients with craniofacial anomalies use social media has yet to be determined. The goal of this study is to characterize and describe the use of social media by the parents of children with cleft lip and palate as it pertains to the care of their child. Materials and Methods Parents or guardian of all patients presenting for initial consultation regarding a child's congenital cleft anomaly were contacted by phone or mail to complete a survey regarding their use of social media vis-à-vis their child's cleft anomaly. Participants were asked to answer a 19-question survey. Results Thirty-two families were contacted and 25 surveys were completed. Ninety-two percent of respondents used social media to learn about their child's diagnosis. Facebook (76%) and blogs (24%) were the most commonly accessed social media outlets, followed by Instagram (8%). Education about the diagnosis and treatment of cleft pathology (87%) was the most common reason for accessing social media, followed by companionship and support (56%), and advice about perioperative care (52%). Almost half (43%) of parents used social media to obtain information on their caregiver and treatment team, and 26% of parents used information gained on social media to guide their decision on where to seek care. Conclusion Social media is a readily available resource, one that will certainly shape the experiences of our patients and families for years to come.

  1. Parenting and Infant Temperament amongst Pakistani Women Living in the UK According to Country of Birth: Results from the Born in Bradford Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prady, Stephanie L.; Kiernan, Kathleen; Fairley, Lesley; Wright, John

    2013-01-01

    Some parenting behaviours and child characteristics can result in future behavioural problems. Relatively little is known about parenting behaviours in Pakistani-origin women, and how the timing of migration to the United Kingdom might affect such behaviours. We analysed differences in parenting behaviours and six-month infant temperament by…

  2. Parental Involvement in Education during Middle School: Perspectives of Ethnically Diverse Parents, Teachers, and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nancy E.; Witherspoon, Dawn P.; Bartz, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining productive partnerships between families and schools is more complex when youth enter middle school. A systematic and inclusive understanding of the strategies parents use, youth want and need, and teachers' desire is needed to broaden our conceptualization and deepen our understanding of parental involvement in education. The authors…

  3. Educational achievements of children of parents with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Julie Yoon; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, N.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of parental multiple sclerosis (MS) on offspring’s educational attainment. The objective of the study was to examine educational achievements in offspring of parents with MS compared with matched children of parents without MS in a nationwide register-based cohort...... from the Civil Registration System without parental MS matched 8:1 to the MS offspring by sex and year of birth. Information about education was linked to the cohorts from nationwide educational registries. We included 4177 children of MS parents and 33,416 reference persons. Children of MS parents.......20). There was a trend toward more MS offspring attaining health-related educations (OR 1.10; 95 % CI 1.00–1.21; p = 0.06). In conclusion, children of MS parents showed a small advantage in grade point average in final examinations in basic school, and they more often tended toward health-related educations. This study...

  4. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Perceived Infant Outcomes at 18–24 Months: Neural and Psychological Correlates of Parental Thoughts and Actions Assessed during the First Month Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Rigo, Paola; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Cole, Pamela M.; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The first postpartum months constitute a critical period for parents to establish an emotional bond with their infants. Neural responses to infant-related stimuli have been associated with parental sensitivity. However, the associations among these neural responses, parenting, and later infant outcomes for mothers and fathers are unknown. In the current longitudinal study, we investigated the relationships between parental thoughts/actions and neural activation in mothers and fathers in the neonatal period with infant outcomes at the toddler stage. At the first month postpartum, mothers (n = 21) and fathers (n = 19) underwent a neuroimaging session during which they listened to their own and unfamiliar baby’s cry. Parenting-related thoughts/behaviors were assessed by interview twice at the first month and 3–4 months postpartum and infants’ socioemotional outcomes were reported by mothers and fathers at 18–24 months postpartum. In mothers, higher levels of anxious thoughts/actions about parenting at the first month postpartum, but not at 3–4 months postpartum, were associated with infant’s low socioemotional competencies at 18–24 months. Anxious thoughts/actions were also associated with heightened responses in the motor cortex and reduced responses in the substantia nigra to own infant cry sounds. On the other hand, in fathers, higher levels of positive perception of being a parent at the first month postpartum, but not at 3–4 months postpartum, were associated with higher infant socioemotional competencies at 18–24 months. Positive thoughts were associated with heightened responses in the auditory cortex and caudate to own infant cry sounds. The current study provides evidence that parental thoughts are related to concurrent neural responses to their infants at the first month postpartum as well as their infant’s future socioemotional outcome at 18–24 months. Parent differences suggest that anxious thoughts in mothers and positive thoughts in

  5. Acceptability of early infant male circumcision among chinese parents: strategy implications of HIV prevention for china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Lianjun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence has confirmed that circumcision can be performed as a preventive strategy for HIV and early infant male circumcision (EIMC is regarded to be safer than circumcision in adulthood; however, limited data are available in the literature about EIMC in China. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the willingness and attitudes of Chinese parents on newborn male circumcision so as to provide data for exploring the feasibility of implementing EIMC as an HIV prevention strategy in China. Methods Simple random sampling was used to draw participants from parents who had a newborn son delivered at Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, which is affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, between March and December 2010. A questionnaire was used to determine general medical knowledge or information about circumcision, attitudes about EIMC, and level of decision-making on circumcision for the newborn son. Results Data derived from 558 responses were analyzed and the ratio of respondents was 56.3% for fathers and 43.6% for mothers. Of the respondents, 34.4% agreed to circumcise their newborn son, and the level of agreement was 3.25 ± 1.17 (range, 1–5 with “1” being “reluctantly agree” and “5” being “very strongly agree”. The major reason for EIMC was for health (44.8%, followed by doctor’s advice (31.2%. The major reason not to agree to EIMC was concern about pain (50.5%, followed by the risk of the procedure (23.5%. Conclusion The willingness and acceptability of EIMC in China is low and the parents of newborn sons are usually not very affirmative when making a decision on such a procedure, suggesting that significant effort will be needed if EIMC is to be implemented as an HIV prevention strategy for China.

  6. Parenting educational styles in Slovenia and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sevčnikar, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life the subject of parenting and child upbringing is often discussed among people who find themselves in the role of parents, babysitters and grandparents striving for best results (Peček Čuk and Lesar, 2009). My thesis focuses on parenting styles of mothers and fathers in Slovenia and in Finland. In the first, theoretical part, I have explained the concepts of socialization and parenting. I have defined the meaning of the term family and different family types. I have also c...

  7. Analyzing Parental Involvement Dimensions in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulmus, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    The importance of parental involvement in children's academic and social development has been widely accepted. For children's later school success, the first years are crucial. Majority of the research focuses on enhancing and supporting parental involvement in educational settings. The purpose of this study was to analyze dimensions of parental…

  8. Parent Participation in Early Childhood Education in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-12-17

    Dec 17, 2012 ... Key Words: Early childhood education; school-parents relations; parent ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2012 .... employed in positions with higher pay and power than those who do not ..... on Cognitive Development among East-African Pre-School Children A Flexibly.

  9. Parental Strains and Rewards among Mothers: The Role of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Brown, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,198), this study examines the associations between education and parental strains and rewards among mothers of young children. Findings indicate that a college degree or more is related to less parenting anxiety, but more role captivity, and less new life meaning from…

  10. Parental Perspectives and Challenges in Inclusive Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Meng Ee; Poon, Kenneth K.; Kaur, Sarinajit; Ng, Zi Jia

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little work has focused on inclusive education in Singapore. This study examines the experiences and perceptions of parents whose children with disabilities are attending mainstream secondary schools in Singapore. Data was drawn from interviews with 13 parents of children with mild disabilities. Our findings reveal that parental…

  11. Regional Queensland Parents' Views of Science Education: Some Unexpected Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen J.

    2012-01-01

    Low post-compulsory science enrolments for secondary students have been a growing concern across the Western world. Research has examined factors relating to science curricula and students' attitudes about science, but parental views of science education remain largely unexplored in Australia. Because parents have a strong role in shaping their…

  12. Parents' Perceptions of HIV and AIDS Education among their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to establish Zimbabwean parents' views on HIV and AIDS Education among their children attending secondary schools in Masvingo. A qualitative design was used. An open ended questionnaire was used to collect data from twenty conveniently selected parents with children attending secondary schools ...

  13. Parents' Education, Personality, and Their Children's Disruptive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to understand the effects of parents' education and personality aspects on child disruptive behavior, (2) to know the correlation between the parents' personality aspects (N-Deference, N-Succorance, N-Dominance and N-Aggression) and the children' disruptive behavior. A quantitative approach to the correlational…

  14. Variations in Chinese Parental Perceptions of Early Childhood Education Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Zhou, Yisu; Li, Kejian

    2017-01-01

    As consumers of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), Chinese parents play a crucial role in the ongoing process of monitoring, evaluating, and improving the quality of ECEC in China. This study used questionnaires to solicit parental feedback on the importance of, and their quality ratings for, aspects of ECEC. The researchers used a random…

  15. Influence of parental involvement on their children's education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of parental involvement on their children's education and their ... The data gathered was analysed using Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Analysis. ... school work at home, children academic achievement is likely to be high.

  16. Parental modeling, education and children's sports and TV time: The ENERGY-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Alvira, J.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Singh, A.S.; Jimenez-Pavon, D.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Bere, E.; Manios, Y.; Kovacs, E.; Jan, N.; Moreno, L.A.; Brug, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We assessed whether differences in children's sports participation and television time according to parental education were mediated by parental modeling. Moreover, we explored the differences between parental and child reports on parental sports participation and television time as

  17. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  18. Educated parent as a key member of rehabilitation team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikelić, Valentina Matijević; Bartolović, Jelena; Kosicek, Tena; Crnković, Maja

    2011-12-01

    Involvement of children with minor motor impairments in early intervention programs is becoming a positive trend. Rehabilitation of young children is usually performed in family environment with continuous monitoring by a team of experts including a physiatrist, speech therapist, psychologist, and rehabilitator. For this reason, it is important to educate parents in proper procedures designed to encourage the child's global and language development. Parental competence in encouraging the child's language development and providing home learning environment is associated with the level of parental education. We performed a retrospective analysis of data on 50 children aged 1-3 years, hospitalized during 2010 at Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation, University Department of Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center in Zagreb. The aim was to determine the percentage of children included in an early intervention program according to the level of parental education and to assess the impact of the program on the children's language development. The results showed a higher percentage of parents to have high school education and a smaller percentage of parents to have university degree. These data indicated the need of educational programs for parents on the procedures of encouraging child development, including language development.

  19. Sibling Rivalry: A Parent Education Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calladine, Carole E.

    1983-01-01

    Identifies three styles of sibling rivalry and three parent leadership styles, discussing parental mediation of sibling disputes through contracting and providing examples of group discipline techniques that facilitate development of less negative forms of rivalry and that support positive sibling bonding. (RH)

  20. Parent Education: Going from Defense to Offense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a Pennsylvania elementary school's efforts to enhance school-community partnerships and thereby garner support for innovative programs such as whole language, cooperative learning, process writing, and authentic assessment. The keys to success were improved home-school communication and parent involvement. Parents were encouraged to…

  1. Assessing an Infant Feeding Web Site as a Nutrition Education Tool for Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alena; Anderson, Jennifer; Adams, Elizabeth; Baker, Susan; Barrett, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Determine child care providers' infant feeding knowledge, attitude and behavior changes after viewing the infant feeding Web site and determine the effectiveness of the Web site and bilingual educational materials. Design: Intervention and control groups completed an on-line pretest survey, viewed a Web site for 3 months, and completed…

  2. New evidence: data documenting parental support for earlier sexuality education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Elissa M; Moore, Michele J; Johnson, Tammie; Forrest, Jamie; Jordan, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies document support for sexuality education to be taught in high school, and often, in middle school. However, little research has been conducted addressing support for sexuality education in elementary schools. As part of the state Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Survey administration, the Florida Department of Health conducted the Florida Child Health Survey (FCHS) by calling back parents who had children in their home and who agreed to participate (N = 1715). Most parents supported the following sexuality education topics being taught specifically in elementary school: communication skills (89%), human anatomy/reproductive information (65%), abstinence (61%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (53%), and gender/sexual orientation issues (52%). Support was even greater in middle school (62-91%) and high school (72-91%) for these topics and for birth control and condom education. Most parents supported comprehensive sexuality education (40.4%), followed by abstinence-plus (36.4%) and abstinence-only (23.2%). Chi-square results showed significant differences in the type of sexuality education supported by almost all parent demographic variables analyzed including sex, race, marital status, and education. Results add substantial support for age-appropriate school-based sexuality education starting at the elementary school level, the new National Sexuality Education Standards, and funding to support evidence-based abstinence-plus or comprehensive sexuality education. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  3. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Self-reported maternal parenting style and confidence and infant temperament in a multi-ethnic community: results from the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prady, Stephanie L; Kiernan, Kathleen; Fairley, Lesley; Wilson, Sarah; Wright, John

    2014-03-01

    Ethnic minority children in the United Kingdom often experience health disadvantage. Parenting influences children's current and future health, but little is known about whether parenting behaviours and mother's perception of her infant vary by ethnicity. Using the Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort, which is located in an ethnically diverse and economically deprived UK city, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of mother's self-reported parenting confidence, self-efficacy, hostility and warmth, and infant temperament at six months of age. We examined responses from women of Pakistani (N = 554) and White British (N = 439) origin. Pakistani mothers reported feeling more confident about their abilities as a parent. Significantly fewer Pakistani women adopted a hostile approach to parenting, an effect that was attenuated after adjustment for socioeconomic status and mental health. Overall, women with more self-efficacious, warm and less hostile parenting styles reported significantly fewer problems with their infant's temperaments. Of women with higher self-efficacy parenting styles, Pakistani mothers were significantly more likely than White British mothers to report more problematic infant temperaments, although absolute differences were small. It is unlikely that the ethnic variation seen in children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes in childhood is attributable to differences in parenting or infant characteristics reported at six months.

  5. Adolescents' prospective screen time by gender and parental education, the mediation of parental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totland, Torunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Lien, Nanna; Bergh, Ingunn H; Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Grydeland, May; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Andersen, Lene F

    2013-07-06

    The present study investigated associations in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' time spent on television and video viewing (TV/DVD), and computer and electronic game use (PC/games) at the ages of 11 and 13 years. Possible mediating effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD and PC/game time were further examined. A total of 908 adolescents, participating at both ages 11 and 13 years in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-2009), were included in the analyses. Data on adolescents', mothers' and fathers' self reported time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games were measured at both time points by questionnaires. Correlation coefficients were used to examine gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' reports. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated possible mediation effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games between the ages of 11 and 13 years. Correlations of screen time behaviours in gender dyads of parents and adolescents showed significant associations in time spent on TV/DVD at the age of 11 and 13 years. Associations between mothers and sons and between fathers and daughters were also observed in time spent on PC/games at the age of 11 years. Maternal and paternal modelling was further found to mediate the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD time between the ages of 11 and 13 years. No mediation effect was observed for parental regulation, however a decrease in both maternal and paternal regulation at the age of 11 years significantly predicted more TV/DVD time among adolescents at the age of 13 years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships were observed in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' screen time behaviours at the ages of 11 and 13 years, and further

  6. Parents' Education and their Adult Offspring's Other-Regarding Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Haagen

    Does socioeconomic background when measured by parental educational attainment explain the heterogeneity in adults' other-regarding preferences? I test this by using data from two online experiments -- a Dictator Game and a Trust Game that were conducted with a broad sample of the Danish adult...... population. I match the experimental data with high-quality data from the Danish population registers about my subjects and their parents. Whereas previous studies have found socioeconomic status, including parental educational attainment, to be predictive for children's generosity, I find no such evidence...... among adults. This result is robust across age groups and genders. I provide two explanations for this. First, sociodemographic characteristics in general appear to be poor predictors of adults' other-regarding behavior. Second, by using Danish survey data, I find that Danish parents' educational...

  7. Is Mommy Talking to Daddy or to Me? Exploring Parental Estimates of Child Language Exposure Using the Multilingual Infant Language Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liquan; Kager, René

    2017-01-01

    Language input is a key factor in bi-/multilingual research. It roots in the definition of bi-/multilingualism and influences infant cognitive development since and even before birth. The methods used to assess language exposure among bi-/multilingual infants vary across studies. This paper discusses the parental report patterns of the…

  8. Facilitator and Participant Use of Facebook in a Community-Based Intervention for Parents: The InFANT Extend Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine L; Campbell, Karen J; van der Pligt, Paige; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2017-12-01

    Social networking sites such as Facebook afford new opportunities for behavior-change interventions. Although often used as a recruitment tool, few studies have reported the use of Facebook as an intervention component to facilitate communication between researchers and participants. The aim of this study was to examine facilitator and participant use of a Facebook component of a community-based intervention for parents. First-time parent groups participating in the intervention arm of the extended Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend) Program were invited to join their own private Facebook group. Facilitators mediated the Facebook groups, using them to share resources with parents, arrange group sessions, and respond to parent queries. Parents completed process evaluation questionnaires reporting on the usefulness of the Facebook groups. A total of 150 parents (from 27 first-time parent groups) joined their private Facebook group. There were a mean of 36.9 (standard deviation 11.1) posts/group, with the majority being facilitator posts. Facilitator administration posts (e.g., arranging upcoming group sessions) had the highest average comments (4.0), followed by participant health/behavior questions (3.5). The majority of participants reported that they enjoyed being a part of their Facebook group; however, the frequency of logging on to their groups' page declined over the 36 months of the trial, as did their perceived usefulness of the group. Facebook appears to be a useful administrative tool in this context. Parents enjoyed being part of their Facebook group, but their reported use of and engagement with Facebook declined over time.

  9. The development of parents-infant relationship in high-risk pregnancies and preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Pisoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of human attachment, developed in 1951 by John Bowlby, has been widely applied across psychological, medical and social disciplines, especially in the context of developmental psychology; more recently it has been studied in the obstetric and neonatal fields. Numerous studies suggest that attachment patterns have an impact on the social, cognitive and emotional development of the off-spring, and are also believed to influence the individual’s psychosocial trajectories across the lifespan. Starting from empirical study of attachment, the psychological analysis of the experience of pregnancy allowed to introduce the concept of prenatal attachment, considered as the earlier internalized representation of the fetus that both parents acquire and elaborate during pregnancy. Recent studies have attempted to investigate how prenatal attachment develops in conditions of hazard, as for example in women hospitalized for a high-risk pregnancy or preterm birth. Literature showed that these clinical conditions may represent risk factors that, along with psychological distress and lack of familiar and social support, may adversely affect the mother-child relationship, with consequences on the psycosocial development of the off-spring. During pregnancy, medical team should assess mothers’ distress and attachment, perform procedures to positively develop attachment, and direct parents with low attachment scores to receive a professional, specific counseling. In the premature birth context, it is important to closely support mother-infant contact and to decrease maternal stress in every possible way during hospitalization and after discharge. Promotion of psychological wellbeing and attachment during pregnancy and after birth may serve as a crucial opportunity of improving maternal health practices, perinatal health and neonatal outcomes. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014

  10. [Educational project for raising awareness of food hygiene in infant schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Dimitri; Malinic, Caroline; Menoud, Mathilde; Rousseau, Aurore; Savoy, Camille

    2018-01-01

    Five students from a nursing training institute designed an educational initiative aimed at infant school pupils. The objective of this primary prevention intervention was to raise children's awareness of food hygiene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Parental socialization styles, parents' educational level, and sexist attitudes in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Aliri, Jone

    2012-07-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the differences in the mothers' and fathers' socialization styles depending on their children's sex; whether there are differences in hostile, benevolent, and ambivalent sexism, and neosexism as a function of both parents' socialization styles; and whether the parents' educational level affects their level of sexism and their children's sexism. The sample included 1,455 adolescents and their parents (764 mothers and 648 fathers). The results showed no differences in the socialization style of the father with his children's sexism, but the mother used a more authoritarian style with her daughters. The parents' socialization style had little influence on their children's sexism, although it had a higher impact on the sons' sexism. The father's style had less influence than the mother's on their sons' sexism, and it had no influence on their daughters' sexism. The indulgent style of both parents had the highest relation with a low level of sexism. Moreover, a negative correlation was found between the parents' educational level and their level of sexism, as well as between the mother's educational level and her daughters' sexism. To conclude, the indulgent style and the mother's high educational level promote fewer sexist attitudes.

  12. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child…

  13. A Parent Education Program for Parents of Chinese American Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a parent education program on decreasing parenting stress and increasing parental confidence and quality of life in parents of Chinese American children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A pre-, posttest group design was used in this study. A total of nine families of Chinese American…

  14. Determination of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in tears and blood serum of infants and parents by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksari, Maryam; Mazzoleni, Lynn R; Ruan, Chunhai; Kennedy, Robert T; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2017-02-01

    Tears serve as a viable diagnostic fluid with advantages including less invasive sample to collect and less complex to prepare for analysis. Several water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins were detected and quantified in human tears and compared with blood serum levels. Samples from 15 family pairs, each pair consisting of a four-month-old infant and one parent were analyzed; vitamin concentrations were compared between tears and blood serum for individual subjects, between infants and parents, and against self-reported dietary intakes. Water-soluble vitamins B 1 , B 2 , B 3 (nicotinamide), B 5 , B 9 and fat-soluble vitamin E (α-tocopherol) were routinely detected in tears and blood serum while fat-soluble vitamin A (retinol) was detected only in blood serum. Water-soluble vitamin concentrations measured in tears and blood serum of single subjects were comparable, while higher concentrations were measured in infants compared to their parents. Fat-soluble vitamin E concentrations were lower in tears than blood serum with no significant difference between infants and parents. Serum vitamin A concentrations were higher in parents than infants. Population trends were compiled and quantified using a cross correlation factor. Strong positive correlations were found between tear and blood serum concentrations of vitamin E from infants and parents and vitamin B 3 concentrations from parents, while slight positive correlations were detected for infants B 3 and parents B 1 and B 2 concentrations. Correlations between infants and parents were found for the concentrations of B 1 , B 2 , B 3 , and E in tears, and the concentrations of B 2, A, and E in blood serum. Stronger vitamin concentration correlations were found between infants and parents for the breast-fed infants, while no significant difference was observed between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. This work is the first to demonstrate simultaneous vitamin A, B, and E detection and to quantify correlations between

  15. Educational Expectations, Parental Social Class, Gender, and Postsecondary Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesley, Andres; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Yoon, Ee-Seul

    2007-01-01

    1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence analysis, they demonstrate that graduates leave high school with educ...

  16. Parental Attitudes Regarding School-Based Sexuality Education in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Mindy; Crookston, Benjamin; Page, Randy; Hall, Cougar

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education programs can be broadly categorized as either risk-avoidance or risk-reduction approaches. Health educators in Utah public schools must teach a state mandated risk-avoidance curriculum which prohibits the advocacy or encouragement of contraception. Multiple national surveys indicate that parents prefer a risk-reduction approach…

  17. Investments into education - Doing as the parents did

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that parents with higher levels of education generally attach a higher importance to the education of their children. This implies an intergenerational chain transmitting the attitude towards the formation of human capital from one generation to the next. We incorporat...

  18. What Do Parents Want?: An Analysis of Education-Related Comments Made by Parents of Children with Different Genetic Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Deborah J.; Lawson, John E.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of educational desires found parents of children with Down syndrome (n=39) wanted changes in speech therapy and reading services, parents of children with Prader-Willi syndrome (n=25) wanted increases in adaptive physical education services, and parents of children with Williams syndrome (n=26) wanted increases in music services and…

  19. Taking on the Perspective of the Other: Understanding Parents' and Teachers' Perceptions of Parent Involvement in Students' Educational Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rene M.

    2011-01-01

    Parent involvement is considered a vital educational factor that is associated with students' academic success. Engaging parents in the educational process is a challenge confronting many school districts across the United States. This is a significant problem for schools in low socioeconomic communities where lack of resources for parents and…

  20. Standardized education and parental awareness are lacking for testicular torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ariella A; Ahmed, Haris; Gitlin, Jordan S; Palmer, Lane S

    2016-06-01

    Testicular torsion leads to orchiectomy in 30-50% of cases, which may cause psychological upset and parental guilt over a potentially avertable outcome. Presentation delay is an important modifiable cause of orchiectomy; yet, families are not routinely educated about torsion or its urgency. The present study assessed parental knowledge regarding acute scrotal pain. An anonymous survey was distributed to parents in Urology and ENT offices, asking about their children's gender and scrotal pain history, urgency of response to a child's acute scrotal pain, and familiarity with testicular torsion. Surveys of 479 urology and 59 ENT parents were analyzed. The results between the two were not statistically different. Among the urology parents, 34% had heard of testicular twisting/torsion, most commonly through friends, relatives or knowing someone with torsion (35%); only 17% were informed by pediatricians (Summary Figure). Parents presenting for a child's scrotal pain were significantly more likely to have heard of torsion (69%) than those presenting for other reasons (30%, OR 5.24, P parents of boys had spoken with their children about torsion. Roughly three quarters of them would seek emergent medical attention - by day (75%) or night (82%) - for acute scrotal pain. However, urgency was no more likely among those who knew about torsion. This was the first study to assess parental knowledge of the emergent nature of acute scrotal pain in a non-urgent setting, and most closely approximating their level of knowledge at the time of pain onset. It also assessed parents' hypothetical responses to the scenario, which was markedly different than documented presentation times, highlighting a potential area for improvement in presentation times. Potential limitations included lack of respondent demographic data, potential sampling bias of a population with greater healthcare knowledge or involvement, and assessment of parents only. Parental knowledge of testicular torsion was

  1. Educational styles, parenting stressors and psychopathological symptoms in parents of adolescents with high-risk behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Ituráin, Sonia; López-Goñi, José Javier; Arteaga Olleta, Alfonso; Deusto, Corina; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The main goal of this study was to determine the characteristics of parents who sought help from two prevention programmes due to having an adolescent child who presents highrisk behaviours. Methods: The sample was composed of 374 parents (169 fathers and 205 mothers). Information on socio-demographic characteristics, psychopathological symptoms, emotional states, educational styles and maladjustment to everyday life was collected. Findings: The results show statistically...

  2. NON-FORMAL EDUCATION WITHIN THE FUNCTION OF RESPONSIBLE PARENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Bogavac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to discover to what degree parental non-formal education is present within the function of responsible parenting. The questionnaire research method was used in the survey. For the purpose of this research a questionnaire of 13 questions was constructed relating to the forms of non-formal education, and another questionnaire of 10 questions relating to the parents’ expectations of non-formal education. The sample included 198 parents. Examination of the scores concerning the presence of certain forms of parental non-formal education realized in cooperation with the school leads to the conclusion that the parents possess a positive attitude towards non-formal education. The analysis showed that the parents’ expectations were not on a satisfactory level. According to the results, the fathers displayed a greater interest towards non-formal education (7.72±1.35 than the mothers (6.93±1.85, (p<0.05. Unemployed parents had a greater score (7.85±1.30 than the employed parents (7.22±1.71, (p<0.05. A difference in the acceptance of non-formal education in accordance with the level of formal education was also noticeable (p<0.001. Respondents with a high school degree displayed the highest level of acceptance (7.97±0.78, while the lowest interest was seen in respondents with an associate degree (6.41±2.29. Univariate linear regression analysis showed that statistically important predictors were: gender (OR: -0.23 (-1.24 – -0.33, p< 0.001, work status (OR: -0.14 (-1.24 – -0.01, < 0.05 and the level of formal education (OR: -0.33 (-0.81 – -0.34, p< 0.001. The final results lead to the conclusion that parental non-formal education supports the concept of lifelong education.

  3. Evaluation of a parent-designed programme to support tooth brushing of infants and young children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, CE; Milgrom, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study developed and tested an intervention to help parents establish a routine of brushing their young children’s teeth twice a day. Methods Community-based participatory research methods were used to engage parents in the design of the intervention to maximize its relevance and acceptability to others. Input was obtained by interviews and focus groups. The resulting intervention was four 90-min small-group sessions that provided educational information, direct instruction, practice and peer-to-peer problem-solving. A pre- to post-non-randomized design was used to evaluate the intervention’s effect to increase or maintain parents’ twice daily brushing. Results Intervention participants were 67 primary caregivers of children under six years of age. Of the 67 initial participants, 50 completed a post-intervention questionnaire administered 4 to 8 weeks following the intervention. The proportion of parents who reported brushing their young children’s teeth twice a day increased significantly from 59 per cent prior to the intervention to 89 per cent post-intervention (McNemar’s X2 = 10.71, P = 0.002). There were concomitant and statistically significant increases over the study period in parents’ confidence for brushing twice a day, attitudes about the importance of brushing and their self-efficacy for tooth brushing. Parents’ knowledge of children’s oral health, assessed by a 15-item scale developed for this study (‘Things to Know About Baby Teeth’), also increased significantly. Conclusions Twice daily tooth brushing is a low-cost, effective strategy to reduce the risk of childhood caries. As demonstrated here, community-based efforts can help parents achieve this important health behaviour. PMID:25070036

  4. Parents who influence their children to become scientists: effects of gender and parental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we report on testing the 'role-model' and 'opportunity-structure' hypotheses about the parents whom scientists mentioned as career influencers. According to the role-model hypothesis, the gender match between scientist and influencer is paramount (for example, women scientists would disproportionately often mention their mothers as career influencers). According to the opportunity-structure hypothesis, the parent's educational level predicts his/her probability of being mentioned as a career influencer (that is, parents with higher educational levels would be more likely to be named). The examination of a sample of American scientists who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships resulted in rejecting the role-model hypothesis and corroborating the opportunity-structure hypothesis. There were a few additional findings. First, women scientists were more likely than men scientists to mention parental influencers. Second, fathers were more likely than mothers to be mentioned as influencers. Third, an interaction was found between the scientist's gender and parental education when predicting a parent's nomination as influencer.

  5. Educational Access Is Educational Quality: Indigenous Parents' Perceptions of Schooling in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara-Brito, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings and implications of a qualitative study conducted in Guatemala, which focused on rural, indigenous parents' perceptions of their children's schooling and educational quality. For these parents, the simple fact that their children had improved access to school signifies a satisfactory educational accomplishment;…

  6. Integrating couple relationship education in antenatal education - A study of perceived relevance among expectant Danish parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Due, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about which elements antenatal education should encompass to meet the needs of parents today. Psycho-social aspects relating to couple- and parenthood have generally not been covered in Danish antenatal education, although studies suggest that parents need this information. The aim...

  7. Parents and School Proprietors Frustrating National Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Educational Policies are intended to encourage an education system that will be in keeping with the philosophy of national development. The paper employed an analytical approach to x-ray the flagrant violation of the National Policy on ...

  8. Implementation of inclusive education: Do parents really matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Olusegun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has long been ascertained that the application of a family centered perspectives to learning is a positive strategy toward implementation of inclusive education worldwide. Similarly, research also confirmed that meaningful parent's involvement is highly recognized as the most important ingredient for successful inclusive practice. This article critically explores and reviews research literature on the relevance and usefulness of family involvement to the implementation of inclusive education. The article planned to increase our knowledge and understanding of the crucial role that engaging families of learners with special needs might have on their learning, and look at earlier studies relating to the major effects of parental involvement in inclusion. Moreover, the article also paid particular attention to how culture, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, and family characteristics influence the level of school - parent partnership in inclusive settings. Finally, findings revealed parents as social actors whose involvement is related to positive outcomes of learners with exceptional needs in inclusive settings.

  9. Balancing preterm infants' developmental needs with parents' readiness for skin-to-skin care: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymre, Ingjerd Gåre; Bondas, Terese

    2013-07-11

    The aim of this article is to articulate the essence and constituents of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses' experiences in enacting skin-to-skin care (SSC) for preterm newborns and their parents. SSC is commonly employed in high-tech NICUs, which entails a movement from maternal-infant separation. Parents' opportunities for performing the practice have been addressed to NICU staff, with attitude and environment having crucial influence. The study was carried out with a reflective lifeworld research approach. Data were collected in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by open-dialogue interviews with a purposive sample of 18 NICU nurses to achieve the essence of and variation within the phenomenon. NICU nurses experience balancing what they consider preterm newborns' current and developmental needs, with readiness in both parents for SSC. They share an experience of a change in the history of NICU care to increased focus on the meaning of proximity and touch for the infants' development. The phenomenon of enacting SSC is characterized by a double focus with steady attention to signals from both parents and newborns. Thereby, a challenge emerges from the threshold of getting started as the catalyst to SSC.

  10. Variations in Perceived Parenting Education Preferences: A Person-Centred Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YaeBin

    2015-01-01

    Parenting education needs assessment surveys were collected from a large group of the parents or caregivers of 698 0-5-year-old children in southern Nevada. Survey questions addressed parenting education interests, family characteristics, and preferred delivery methods of parenting education. Cluster analysis was used to empirically determine if…

  11. Parenting and mother-infant interactions in the context of maternal postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder: Effects of obsessional symptoms and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challacombe, Fiona L; Salkovskis, Paul M; Woolgar, Matthew; Wilkinson, Esther L; Read, Julie; Acheson, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Maternal mental illness is associated with negative effects on the infant and child. Increased attention has been paid to the effects of specific perinatal disorders on parenting and interactions as an important mechanism of influence. OCD can be a debilitating disorder for the sufferer and those around them. Although OCD is a common perinatal illness, no previous studies have characterized parenting and mother infant interactions in detail for mothers with OCD. 37 mothers with postpartum OCD and a 6 month old infant were compared with 37 community control dyads on a variety of measures of psychological distress and parenting. Observed mother-infant interactions were assessed independently. Obsessions and compulsions were reported in both groups, although they did not cause interference in the control group. Mothers with OCD were troubled by their symptoms for a mean of 9.6 hours/day. Mothers with OCD were less confident, reported more marital distress and less social support than healthy peers and were less likely to be breastfeeding. Infant temperament ratings did not differ. Mothers with OCD were rated as less sensitive in interactions than the comparison group, partly attributable to levels of concurrent depression. Maternal postpartum OCD is a disorder that can affect experiences of parenting and mother-infant interactions although this may not be driven by OCD symptoms. Longitudinal studies are required to assess the trajectory and impact of maternal difficulties as the infant develops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Albinism: Educational Techniques for Parents and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Julia R.; Cates, Dennis L.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of teachers of the visually impaired and adults with albinism or parents of children with albinism (total responses=144) found no use of Braille by the adults or children with albinism, awareness of the condition by almost all teachers, support for mainstreaming by all, and specific teaching suggestions from teachers. (DB)

  13. Focus Groups to Reveal Parents' Needs for Prenatal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Louise

    2002-01-01

    Focus group interviews are a useful qualitative research technique to obtain data from small groups about their opinions, attitudes, and/or feelings on a given subject. This particular technique has been used in Western Quebec in order to reveal the opinions, needs, and feelings of health professionals and future parents concerning prenatal education. As part of the region's priorities for 2002, all future parents in this part of the province were to be offered prenatal, government-paid, comm...

  14. Vaccine Education During Pregnancy and Timeliness of Infant Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasingam, Priya; Grant, Cameron C; Chelimo, Carol; Philipson, Kathryn; Gilchrist, Catherine A; Berry, Sarah; Carr, Polly Atatoa; Camargo, Carlos A; Morton, Susan

    2017-09-01

    Pregnant women routinely receive information in support of or opposing infant immunization. We aimed to describe immunization information sources of future mothers' and determine if receiving immunization information is associated with infant immunization timeliness. We analyzed data from a child cohort born 2009-2010 in New Zealand. Pregnant women ( N = 6822) at a median gestation of 39 weeks described sources of information encouraging or discouraging infant immunization. Immunizations received by cohort infants were determined through linkage with the National Immunization Register ( n = 6682 of 6853 [98%]). Independent associations of immunization information received with immunization timeliness were described by using adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Immunization information sources were described by 6182 of 6822 (91%) women. Of these, 2416 (39%) received information encouraging immunization, 846 (14%) received discouraging information, and 565 (9%) received both encouraging and discouraging information. Compared with infants of women who received no immunization information (71% immunized on-time), infants of women who received discouraging information only (57% immunized on time, OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.38-0.64) or encouraging and discouraging information (61% immunized on time, OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.42-0.63) were at decreased odds of receiving all immunizations on time. Receipt of encouraging information only was not associated with infant immunization timeliness (73% immunized on time, OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.87-1.15). Receipt, during pregnancy, of information against immunization was associated with delayed infant immunization regardless of receipt of information supporting immunization. In contrast, receipt of encouraging information is not associated with infant immunization timeliness. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Evaluation of the parents as primary sexuality educators program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jonathan D; Sabaratnam, Premini; Pazos, Beatriz; Auerbach, Melissa Matos; Havens, Caryn Graff; Brach, Mary Jo

    2005-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a sexuality education program designed to help parents become more confident and competent in communicating with their children about sex and sexuality. Parents attending a four- to five-part workshop series between February 2001 and April 2002 were recruited to participate. A total of 27 workshop series were conducted at various sites in neighborhoods with high teen pregnancy and STD rates. For each series, program staff administered written pre- and post-workshop surveys to parents and parent surrogates. A follow-up telephone survey was conducted with participants 10 weeks after the last workshop. Matched pre-workshop and follow-up surveys were obtained from 174 participants. Comparison of follow-up to pre-workshop responses revealed that more participants thought discussing sexuality with their children was very important (83% vs. 75%; p Parents as Primary Sexuality Educators program may be an effective way to increase parent-child communication about health, sexuality, and values. Enhancing parents' ability to communicate expectations and values about sexuality may help support children in making healthy decisions about sexual behavior as adolescents.

  16. Adolescents’ prospective screen time by gender and parental education, the mediation of parental influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study investigated associations in gender dyads of parents’ and adolescents’ time spent on television and video viewing (TV/DVD), and computer and electronic game use (PC/games) at the ages of 11 and 13 years. Possible mediating effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the relationship between parental education and adolescents’ prospective TV/DVD and PC/game time were further examined. Methods A total of 908 adolescents, participating at both ages 11 and 13 years in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007–2009), were included in the analyses. Data on adolescents’, mothers’ and fathers’ self reported time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games were measured at both time points by questionnaires. Correlation coefficients were used to examine gender dyads of parents’ and adolescents’ reports. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated possible mediation effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents’ time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games between the ages of 11 and 13 years. Results Correlations of screen time behaviours in gender dyads of parents and adolescents showed significant associations in time spent on TV/DVD at the age of 11 and 13 years. Associations between mothers and sons and between fathers and daughters were also observed in time spent on PC/games at the age of 11 years. Maternal and paternal modelling was further found to mediate the relationship between parental education and adolescents’ prospective TV/DVD time between the ages of 11 and 13 years. No mediation effect was observed for parental regulation, however a decrease in both maternal and paternal regulation at the age of 11 years significantly predicted more TV/DVD time among adolescents at the age of 13 years. Conclusion Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships were observed in gender dyads of parents’ and adolescents

  17. Comprehensive Early Stimulation Program for Infants. Instruction Manual [and] Early Interventionist's Workbook [and] Parent/Caregiver Workbook. William Beaumont Hospital Speech and Language Pathology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Altagracia A.; Bottino, Patti M.

    This early intervention kit includes a Comprehensive Early Stimulation Program for Infants (CESPI) instruction manual, an early interventionist workbook, and ten parent/caregiver workbooks. The CESPI early intervention program is designed to provide therapists, teachers, other health professionals, and parents with a common-sense, practical guide…

  18. Infant Signs as Intervention? Promoting Symbolic Gestures for Preverbal Children in Low-Income Families Supports Responsive Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire D.

    2012-01-01

    Gestures are a natural form of communication between preverbal children and parents which support children's social and language development; however, low-income parents gesture less frequently, disadvantaging their children. In addition to pointing and waving, children are capable of learning many symbolic gestures, known as "infant signs," if…

  19. Supporting parents in taking care of their infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit: a prospective cohort pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardo, Giuseppe; Svelto, Maria; Giordano, Maurizio; Sordino, Desiree; Riccitelli, Marina

    2017-04-17

    Family-Centred Care (FCC) is recognized as an important component of all paediatric care, including neonatal care, although practical clinical guidelines to support this care model are still needed in Italy. The characteristics and services for families in Italian NICUs show a lack of organization and participation. The first aim was to compare satisfaction and stress levels in two groups of parents: an FCC group and a non-FCC group (NFCC). The second aim was to evaluate body weight gain in the newborns enrolled. This non-randomized, prospective cohort pilot study was conducted in a single level III NICU at a hospital in Naples, Italy. A cohort of newborns in the NICU, with their parents were enrolled between March 2014 and April 2015 and they were divided into two groups: the FCC group (enrolled between October 2014 and April 2015) remained in the NICU for 8 h a day with FCC model; the NFCC group (enrolled between March 2014 and September 2014) was granted access to the NICU for only 1 hour per day. At discharge, both parent groups completed the Parental Stressor Scale (PSS)-NICU and a questionnaire to assess their satisfaction. In addition, we compared scores from the mothers and fathers within and between groups and the body weights of the newborns in the two groups at 60 days. Parents participating in the FCC group were more satisfied and less stressed than those in the NFCC group. Infants in the FCC group also showed increased body weight after 60 days of hospital stay. Despite our small population, we confirm that routine adoption of a procedure designed to apply a FCC model can contribute to improving satisfaction and distress among preterm infants' parents. Future multi-centre, randomized, controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  20. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Lynch, John W.; Smithers, Lisa G.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into ‘easy’ and ‘difficult’. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament. PMID:27027637

  1. How Important is Parental Education for Child Nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Harold; Headey, Derek D

    2017-06-01

    Existing evidence on the impacts of parental education on child nutrition is plagued by both internal and external validity concerns. In this paper we try to address these concerns through a novel econometric analysis of 376,992 preschool children from 56 developing countries. We compare a naïve least square model to specifications that include cluster fixed effects and cohort-based educational rankings to reduce biases from omitted variables before gauging sensitivity to sub-samples and exploring potential explanations of education-nutrition linkages. We find that the estimated nutritional returns to parental education are: (a) substantially reduced in models that include fixed effects and cohort rankings; (b) larger for mothers than for fathers; (c) generally increasing, and minimal for primary education; (d) increasing with household wealth; (e) larger in countries/regions with higher burdens of undernutrition; (f) larger in countries/regions with higher schooling quality; and (g) highly variable across country sub-samples. These results imply substantial uncertainty and variability in the returns to education, but results from the more stringent models imply that even the achievement of very ambitious education targets would only lead to modest reductions in stunting rates in high-burden countries. We speculate that education might have more impact on the nutritional status of the next generation if school curricula focused on directly improving health and nutritional knowledge of future parents.

  2. A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne inFANT program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2012-08-28

    The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children's habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent's own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as well. To assess the effect of a parent-focused early childhood obesity prevention intervention on first-time mothers' diets, physical activity and TV viewing time. The Melbourne InFANT Program is a cluster-randomized controlled trial which involved 542 mothers over their newborn's first 18 months of life. The intervention focused on parenting skills and strategies, including parental modeling, and aimed to promote development of healthy child and parent behaviors from birth, including healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing time. Data regarding mothers' diet (food frequency questionnaire), physical activity and TV viewing times (self-reported questionnaire) were collected using validated tools at both baseline and post-intervention. Four dietary patterns were derived at baseline using principal components analyses including frequencies of 55 food groups. Analysis of covariance was used to measure the impact of the intervention. The scores of both the "High-energy snack and processed foods" and the "High-fat foods" dietary patterns decreased more in the intervention group: -0.22 (-0.42;-0.02) and -0.25 (-0.50;-0.01), respectively. No other significant intervention vs. control effects were observed regarding total physical activity, TV viewing time, and the two other dietary patterns, i.e. "Fruits and vegetables" and "Cereals and sweet foods". These findings suggest that supporting first-time mothers to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in their infants impacts maternal

  3. Early skin-to-skin contact between healthy late preterm infants and their parents: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Rosenblad, Andreas; Volgsten, Helena; Funkquist, Eva-Lotta; Mattsson, Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is an important factor to consider in the care of late preterm infants (born between 34 0/7 and 36 6/7 completed weeks of gestation). The literature suggests that SSC between preterm infants and their mothers facilitates breastfeeding. However, more studies are needed to explore potential dose-response effects between SSC and breastfeeding as well as studies that explicitly investigate SSC by fathers among late preterm infants. The aim was to investigate the duration of healthy late preterm infants' SSC with the mother and father, respectively, during the first 48 h after birth and the associations with breastfeeding (exclusive/partial at discharged), clinical and demographic variables. This was an observational cohort study in which parents to healthy late preterm infants, born between 34 5/7 and 36 6/7 completed weeks of gestation, recorded duration of SSC provided by mother and father, respectively. Demographic and clinical variables were retrieved from the medical records and were used as predictors. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between the predictors and the outcome, SSC (hours), separately for mothers and fathers. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) time per day spent with SSC with mothers ( n  = 64) and fathers ( n  = 64), was 14.7 (5.6) and 4.4 (3.3) hours during the first day (24 h) after birth and 9.2 (7.1) and 3.1 (3.3) hours during the second day (24 h), respectively. Regarding SSC with mothers, no variable was significantly associated with SSC during the first day, while the mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) time of SSC during the second day was 6.9 (1.4-12.4) hours shorter for each additional kg of birthweight ( p  = 0.014). Concerning SSC with fathers, the mean (95% CI) time of SSC during the first day was 2.1 (0.4-3.7) hours longer for infants born at night ( p  = 0.015), 1.7 (0.1-3.2) hours longer for boys ( p  = 0.033), 3.2 (1.2-5.2) hours longer for infants born by

  4. Infant Reflux in the Primary Care Setting: A Brief Educational Intervention and Management Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Brendan Ryan; Bennett, William E

    2018-07-01

    There has been a significant increase in prescription of acid suppression therapy to infants despite limited support for efficacy and safety. Prior studies have shown that educational interventions can improve clinician practices. Our aim is to implement an educational module with high-yield evidence to decrease the rate of prescribing these medications. Chart review of infants seen by residents after completing module was performed. Twelve clinic sessions before and after intervention were examined. 28 residents completed the intervention and required clinics. Before implementation, 1.8% of infants seen were prescribed acid suppression with none receiving proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). After completion, 0.8% of infants were prescribed acid suppression and 1 patient received PPI. This was not a significant change. The study was unsuccessful in effecting changes in provider prescribing practices. Although, this is not the outcome expected, it is encouraging to have a low initial rate of PPI therapy prescribed patients.

  5. Parenting, discipline, and educational preferences for children on the autism spectrum – a survey of parental attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, Damian

    2012-01-01

    This paper presentation reports upon a pilot project involving a self-completion questionnaire aimed at measuring if there is any correlation between parenting style and educational ideologies parents have regarding the education of their children on the autistic spectrum. This research aim is also accompanied by the wider objective of finding out which educational methods are preferred by parents and the reasons given for these choices. This pilot study is part of piloting a variety of resea...

  6. Questioning the parental right to educational authority - arguments for a pluralist public education system

    OpenAIRE

    Englund, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    What could the principle of a parental right to educational authority mean for democracy in the long run? Taking its starting point in three models of educational authority, this article questions the current permissive attitude to a parental right in this area. It does so in the light of the shortcomings of such a right with regard to pluralism in education for each child and a development towards a democracy with deliberative qualities, which is used here as a normative point of reference. ...

  7. Questioning the parental right to educational authority – arguments for a pluralist public education system1

    OpenAIRE

    Englund, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    What could the principle of a parental right to educational authority mean for democracy in the long run? Taking its starting point in three models of educational authority, this article questions the current permissive attitude to a parental right in this area. It does so in the light of the shortcomings of such a right with regard to pluralism in education for each child and a development towards a democracy with deliberative qualities, which is used here as a normative point of reference. ...

  8. Comparison of methods for recruiting and engaging parents in online interventions: study protocol for the Cry Baby infant sleep and settling program

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Fallon; Seymour, Monique; Giallo, Rebecca; Cann, Warren; Nicholson, Jan M.; Green, Julie; Hiscock, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Background Anticipatory guidance around the management of sleep and crying problems in early infancy has been shown to improve both infant behaviour and parent symptoms of postnatal depression. Digital technology offers platforms for making such programs widely available in a cost-efficient manner. However, it remains unclear who accesses online parenting advice and in particular, whether the parents who would most benefit are represented amongst users. It is also unknown whether the uptake o...

  9. The effect of parents' joint work schedules on infants' behavior over the first two years of life: evidence from the ECLSB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Emily; Morett, Christopher R

    2009-11-01

    We test whether infants living with employed, co-resident parents where at least one parent works a non-standard work shift exhibit significantly more behavior problems than children whose parents both work traditional day shifts. We use a sample of infants living with employed, co-resident parents and two waves of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Birth Cohort (ECLSB) to test whether infants' scores on the Infant-Toddler Symptom Checklist (ITSC) at the second wave (average age of 24.3 months) is affected by parents' shift work at the baseline (average age 10.3 months). Infants with at least one parent who works nonstandard hours have significantly more behavior problems than do infants with parents who both work regular day shifts. This relationship is partly accounted for by shift work's negative association with father-child interaction, marital quality, the frequency of shared family dinners, and parental health, including paternal depression. The results also indicate that shift work has larger effects on children's behavior when mothers, rather than fathers, work nonstandard shifts, and when mothers' day shifts regularly oppose fathers' evenings/night shifts. Policy should focus on giving individuals more choice in their work shift as well as more flexibility in when they start and stop working for the day. Given the importance of mediating factors, we should also focus on ameliorating the negative impacts of shift work when they do arise. This includes addressing issues of employee health and stress, and relationship conflict within couples where one or both partners work a non-standard shift.

  10. Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rashmi; Melanson, Stella; Levin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Youth from single-parent families report lower educational aspirations than those from two-parent families. This study explored the influence of background factors (gender, grade, parental education and SES), parental involvement with education, academic self-concept, and peer influences on educational aspirations. The participants were Canadian…

  11. Resources for Childbirth Educators and Expectant Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Shilling, Teri

    2006-01-01

    In this column, reviewers offer perspectives and comments on Hit the Ground Crawling: The Essential Guide for New Fathers, a book by Greg Bishop; The Simple Guide to Having a Baby, a book by Janet Whalley, Penny Simkin, and Ann Keppler; Preparing for Multiples—The Family Way, a book by Cindy Carter, with Jeanne Green and Debby Amis; Hospital to Home: A Security Blanket for New Parents, a DVD released by Injoy Videos; When Survivors Give Birth: Understanding and Healing the Effects of Early Se...

  12. Relationship between parent–infant attachment and parental satisfaction with supportive nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ghadery-Sefat

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the study showed that mother–infant attachment improved by increasing mothers' satisfaction of supportive nursing care. Therefore, it seems necessary to increase maternal satisfaction through given nursing care support, in order to promote mother–infant attachment.

  13. No Parent Left Behind: Predicting Parental Involvement in Adolescents' Education within a Sociodemographically Diverse Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sira; Holloway, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the utility of the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (HDS) model for predicting parents' involvement in students' education. Yet, the model has yet to be thoroughly evaluated with respect to youth who are (a) in high school and (b) from sociodemographically diverse families. Using a nationally representative sample of…

  14. Parental Choice without Parents: Families, Education and Class in a South African Township

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mark

    2017-01-01

    From the 1980s and 1990s, governments around the world began to champion "parental choice" over schooling. Much of the existing scholarship has been based on examples taken from the global North. In such settings, where nuclear families are common, a major theme has been the privileged educational strategies and outcomes of middle-class…

  15. Paternal education status significantly influences infants' measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi; Fernandez, Renae C

    2012-05-08

    Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent's age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  16. A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne infant program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioret Sandrine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children’s habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent’s own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as well. Objective To assess the effect of a parent-focused early childhood obesity prevention intervention on first-time mothers’ diets, physical activity and TV viewing time. Methods The Melbourne InFANT Program is a cluster-randomized controlled trial which involved 542 mothers over their newborn’s first 18 months of life. The intervention focused on parenting skills and strategies, including parental modeling, and aimed to promote development of healthy child and parent behaviors from birth, including healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing time. Data regarding mothers’ diet (food frequency questionnaire, physical activity and TV viewing times (self-reported questionnaire were collected using validated tools at both baseline and post-intervention. Four dietary patterns were derived at baseline using principal components analyses including frequencies of 55 food groups. Analysis of covariance was used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results The scores of both the "High-energy snack and processed foods" and the "High-fat foods" dietary patterns decreased more in the intervention group: -0.22 (−0.42;-0.02 and −0.25 (−0.50;-0.01, respectively. No other significant intervention vs. control effects were observed regarding total physical activity, TV viewing time, and the two other dietary patterns, i.e. “Fruits and vegetables” and “Cereals and sweet foods”. Conclusions These findings suggest that

  17. COMMUNICATION WITH PARENTS PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION VIA MODERN TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    KOZLOVÁ, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    My bachelor thesis address the question of communication with parents in the pre-school education using modern technologies in our and other countries. In this thesis I tried to determine the real state of usage of modern communication technologies at chosen pre-school education facilities by interview research. Based on this research I suggest the optimal solution of this communication problem on the level of current modern communication technologies.

  18. Parental Involvement in Children's Education : A Gendered Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Stanikzai, Razia

    2013-01-01

    The importance of parental involvement as an enabling factor in children’s education is well evidenced. Teachers have a critical role in facilitating or hindering parents’ involvement in their children’s learning. The research project provides an analysis of what teachers view as parents’ role in their children’s education with an emphasis on gender-differentiated involvement. It also discusses the barriers to parents’ involvement as well as explores whether teachers understand the importance...

  19. Real-World Usage of Educational Media Does Not Promote Parent-Child Cognitive Stimulation Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jason H; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Weisleder, Adriana; Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Canfield, Caitlin; Seery, Anne; Dreyer, Benard P; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether educational media as actually used by low-income families promote parent-child cognitive stimulation activities. We performed secondary analysis of the control group of a longitudinal cohort of mother-infant dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Educational media exposure (via a 24-hour recall diary) and parent-child activities that may promote cognitive stimulation in the home (using StimQ) were assessed at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months. Data from 149 mother-child dyads, 93.3% Latino, were analyzed. Mean (standard deviation) educational media exposure at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months was, respectively, 25 (40), 42 (58), 39 (49), and 39 (50) minutes per day. In multilevel model analyses, prior educational media exposure had small positive relationship with subsequent total StimQ scores (β = 0.11, P = .03) but was nonsignificant (β = 0.08, P = .09) after adjusting for confounders (child: age, gender, birth order, noneducational media exposure, language; mother: age, ethnicity, marital status, country of origin, language, depressive symptoms). Educational media did predict small increases in verbal interactions and toy provision (adjusted models, respectively: β = 0.13, P = .02; β = 0.11; P = .03). In contrast, more consistent relationships were seen for models of the relationship between prior StimQ (total, verbal interactions and teaching; adjusted models, respectively: β = 0.20, P = .002; β = 0.15, P = .006; β = 0.20, P = .001) and predicted subsequent educational media. Educational media as used by this sample of low-income families does not promote cognitive stimulation activities important for early child development or activities such as reading and teaching. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of methods for recruiting and engaging parents in online interventions: study protocol for the Cry Baby infant sleep and settling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Fallon; Seymour, Monique; Giallo, Rebecca; Cann, Warren; Nicholson, Jan M; Green, Julie; Hiscock, Harriet

    2015-11-10

    Anticipatory guidance around the management of sleep and crying problems in early infancy has been shown to improve both infant behaviour and parent symptoms of postnatal depression. Digital technology offers platforms for making such programs widely available in a cost-efficient manner. However, it remains unclear who accesses online parenting advice and in particular, whether the parents who would most benefit are represented amongst users. It is also unknown whether the uptake of online programs can be improved by health professional recommendations, or whether parents require additional prompts and reminders to use the program. In this study we aim to: (1) determine whether weekly email prompts increase engagement with and use of a brief online program about infant sleeping and crying, (2) determine whether encouragement from a maternal and child health nurse promotes greater engagement with and use of the program, (3) examine who uses a brief online program about infant sleeping and crying; and, (4) examine the psychosocial characteristics of participants. This study is a randomised, parallel group, superiority trial, with all participating primary carers of infants aged 2 to 12 weeks, receiving access to the online program. Two modes of recruitment will be compared: recruitment via an online notice published on a non-commercial, highly credible and evidence-based website for parents and carers and via the parent's Maternal and Child Health nurse. After baseline assessment, parents will be randomised to one of two support conditions: online program alone or online program plus weekly email prompts. Follow up data will be collected at 4 months of infant age. Results from this trial will indicate whether involvement from a health professional, and/or ongoing email contact is necessary to engage parents in a brief online intervention, and promote parental use of strategies suggested within the program. Results of this trial will inform the development of

  1. INFLUENCE OF IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS FOR PARENTS ON THEIR ATTITUDES ABOUT EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sunko, Esmeralda

    2008-01-01

    Uncertainty in parental roles and clumsiness in family relations showed parents needs for education for quality parenting. Long life learning is the frame for quality parents where needs for knowledge and skills are satisfied. Education workshops for parenthood helped and implemented quality relation between adults and children. In this paper we tested existing differences between attitudes of parents of pupils towards family relations, between two groups of examines, which attended education...

  2. Gender Differences in How Family Income and Parental Education Relate to Reading Achievement in China: The Mediating Role of Parental Expectation and Parental Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of social economic status (SES on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1 home monitoring; (2 parent-child communication; and (3 parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.

  3. Gender Differences in How Family Income and Parental Education Relate to Reading Achievement in China: The Mediating Role of Parental Expectation and Parental Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaolin; Lv, Bo; Zhou, Huan; Liu, Chunhui; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Kexin; Luo, Liang

    2018-01-01

    The impact of social economic status (SES) on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls) in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1) home monitoring; (2) parent-child communication; and (3) parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.

  4. Social withdrawal behavior in infants with cleft lip and palate: the psychological impact of the malformation on parents and on parents-infant relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Martínez, Carla

    2017-01-01

    La malformación de labio y paladar hendido (CL/P) es una de las malformaciones cráneo-faciales más frecuentes en humanos. Aunque esta condición médica no es una de las principales causas de mortalidad en los países desarrollados, conlleva una considerable morbilidad al paciente e impone una carga sustancial sobre la salud, la calidad de vida y el bienestar socioeconómico de los infantes y sus familias. En la actualidad, ningún protocolo genérico ha sido reconocido por toda la comunidad méd...

  5. Influence of Parental Level of Education and Occupation on Truant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the influence of parental level of education and occupation on truant behaviour among primary school pupils in Jalingo metropolis. In the study, 150 truants and 150 non-truants were selected from primary schools. Truant Behaviour Questionnaire was developed to measure the variables under study.

  6. Impact of parental sex education on child sexual abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... reduce shame, stigma, and self-blame for youth who have experienced sexual abuse6. ... tional level of parents, sex education and child sexual abuse among ..... Jean R. Changes in self-esteem during the middle school ...

  7. Unequal Advantages: The Intergenerational Effects of Parental Educational Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers argue that expanding college access is one way to increase opportunities for students who would become the first in their families to enroll in a postsecondary institution. This article uses measures of educational attainment in the previous two generations to consider whether parents' own histories of educational…

  8. Turning Lightning into Electricity: Organizing Parents for Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Families are the primary clients of public schools, but they are one of many constituencies who have a say in how schools actually operate. In all the technocratic fervor around "education reform"--the broad effort to implement standards and accountability, reform teacher tenure and evaluation, and increase parental choice--it is easy to…

  9. Students, Parents, Educators: An Approach to Conflict of Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsino, Romulo F.

    1982-01-01

    Attempts by courts in the United States and Canada to define the rights of children, parents, and educators are described, and their shortcomings and contradictions are pointed out. The author suggests another approach based on utilitarian values and pre-suppositions presented in works by John Stuart Mill. (PP)

  10. The partnership of parents, educators and principles in creating a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the partnership of parents, educators, and principals in creating a culture of teaching and learning in schools. To this end, a Culture of Learning and Teaching Partnership Scale (COLTPS) and Factors Contributing to the Decline of a Culture of Learning and Teaching Scale (FCDCOLTS) were used.

  11. Final Year Faculty of Education Students' Views Concerning Parent Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, E. Nihal

    2014-01-01

    This study has aimed to determine the knowledge, skills, and views held by pre-service teachers attending different teacher training programs about parent involvement. A total of 520 4th year students receiving education in primary school teaching and in branch teaching programs participated in the study. Data were collected by the "Parent…

  12. Pregnancy, Education, and Parenting: Evaluation Findings, 1990-91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Trina L.

    Support services for parenting teenagers which allow and encourage them to finish their education are a very real need that is only recently receiving greater attention. It is estimated that two thirds of all teenage mothers drop out of school. When these mothers do not receive the necessary basic skills to get a good job, many of these families…

  13. Talking with Kids: A Parent's Guide to Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This guide is designed to help parents determine what is being taught to their children about sex education in school, offering tips on how to talk to children about these issues. The first section presents pointers from the "Talking with Kids" campaign: start early; initiate conversations; talk about sex and relationships; create an open…

  14. Parental media socialization and educational attainment: Resource or disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children's educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level

  15. Parental media socialization and educational attainment : resource or disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children’s educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level

  16. A Strength-Based Approach to Parent Education for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman

    2011-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous nature of parent education in autism treatment, relatively few studies directly address "how" parent education should be conducted. Given that the literature on parental well-being suggests that treatments that facilitate positive parental adaptation to their child's disability may be beneficial, this study…

  17. Knowledge translation of the HELPinKIDS clinical practice guideline for managing childhood vaccination pain: usability and knowledge uptake of educational materials directed to new parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddio, Anna; Shah, Vibhuti; Leung, Eman; Wang, Jane; Parikh, Chaitya; Smart, Sarah; Hetherington, Ross; Ipp, Moshe; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Sgro, Michael; Jovicic, Aleksandra; Franck, Linda

    2013-02-08

    Although numerous evidence-based and feasible interventions are available to treat pain from childhood vaccine injections, evidence indicates that children are not benefitting from this knowledge. Unrelieved vaccination pain puts children at risk for significant long-term harms including the development of needle fears and subsequent health care avoidance behaviours. Parents report that while they want to mitigate vaccination pain in their children, they lack knowledge about how to do so. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for managing vaccination pain was recently developed in order to address this knowledge-to-care gap. Educational tools (pamphlet and video) for parents were included to facilitate knowledge transfer at the point of care. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usability and effectiveness in terms of knowledge acquisition from the pamphlet and video in parents of newly born infants. Mixed methods design. Following heuristic usability evaluation of the pamphlet and video, parents of newborn infants reviewed revised versions of both tools and participated in individual and group interviews and individual knowledge testing. The knowledge test comprised of 10 true/false questions about the effectiveness of various pain management interventions, and was administered at three time points: at baseline, after review of the pamphlet, and after review of the video. Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews regarding usability of these educational tools: receptivity to learning, accessibility to information, and validity of information. Parents' performance on the knowledge test improved (p≤0.001) from the baseline phase to after review of the pamphlet, and again from the pamphlet review phase to after review of the video. Using a robust testing process, we demonstrated usability and conceptual knowledge acquisition from a parent-directed educational pamphlet and video about management of vaccination pain. Future studies

  18. Predictors of Parent Involvement and Their Impact on Access of Postsecondary Education Facilitators among White and American Indian Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhoshi, Gerta; Duncan, Kelly; Schweinle, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This study examined demographic factors as predictors of parent involvement (engagement with school, support of learning, support of child) among parents of children that attended a school implementing a college access program. The authors also examined whether involvement predicted access of postsecondary education facilitators in parents, when…

  19. A Descriptive Study: Parental Opinion and Teacher-Student Perceptions Regarding Parents' Involvement in Their Children's Education and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Maria A.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Using surveys and data from the Dallas Public School District (Texas), this study examined the perceptions of parents, students, and teachers about parents' involvement in their children's education and development. In addition, academic achievement at the two study schools was examined. At one school (School A), 63 of 100 parents surveyed…

  20. What Do Parents Teach Their Children?--The Effects of Parental Involvement on Student Performance in Dutch Compulsory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabus, Sofie J.; Ariës, Roel J.

    2017-01-01

    Theory and evidence indicate that, if family size grows, the younger children will get less parental involvement than the older children. These differences in parental involvement through birth order may impact academic achievement if, and only if, parental involvement is an important determinant of children's educational attainment. The oldest…

  1. Psychological Stress and Parenting Behavior among Chinese Families: Findings from a Study on Parent Education for Economically Disadvantaged Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ching Man

    2011-01-01

    With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child's life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation. A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was…

  2. The Parents' Parenting Patterns, Education, Jobs, and Assistance to Their Children in Watching Television, and Children's Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this present is to test the effects of the parents' parenting patterns, education, jobs, and assistance to children in watching television on the children's aggressive behavior. This present research employed a quantitative approach with an ex-post factor design. The data were collected from 175 parents of which the children…

  3. Involvement of Roma Parents in Children's Education in Croatia: A Comparative Study

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    Pahic, Tea; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek; Miljevic-Ridicki, Renata

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Roma and mainstream parents' involvement in the education of their children, based on Epstein's six-dimensional model of parent-school partnership. The survey was conducted in Croatia on two sub-samples: 60 Roma parents and 908 mainstream parents. Results suggest that Roma parents show lower interest in participating in…

  4. Family Support and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lou Ann

    2013-01-01

    Family involvement is essential to the developmental outcome of infants born into Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). In this article, evidence has been presented on the parent's perspective of having an infant in the NICU and the context of family. Key points to an educational assessment are also reviewed. Throughout, the parent's concerns and…

  5. Making It Visible: An Exploration of How Adult Education Participation Informs Parent Involvement in Education for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connections between adult education participation and parent involvement in children's education--connections identified during an exploratory case study of parents transitioning into the workforce in compliance with welfare requirements. Data sources included interviews with parents, adult educators, and elementary…

  6. Configurations of Parental Preferences Concerning Sources of Sex Education for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Roger W.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The research purpose of this study was not merely parental preferences concerning sources of sex education for adolescents, but more importantly, parental preferences of combinations of social institutions as sources of sex education. (Author)

  7. Educational Encouragement, Parenting Styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Current study examines the predictors of academic achievement: role of parenting styles, educational encouragement, gender and ethnicity among special education students. Participants of this study consisted 200 special education students (N = 105 boys and N = 95 girls) age varies 14 to 19 years from one school located at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.…

  8. Spillovers of health education at school on parents' physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berniell, Lucila; de la Mata, Dolores; Valdés, Nieves

    2013-09-01

    This paper exploits state health education (HED) reforms as quasi-natural experiments to estimate the causal impact of HED received by children on their parents' physical activity. We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for the period 1999-2005 merged with data on state HED reforms from the National Association of State Boards of Education Health Policy Database and the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. To identify the spillover effects of HED requirements on parents' behavior, we use several methodologies (triple differences, changes in changes, and difference in differences) in which we allow for different types of treatments. We find a positive effect of HED reforms at the elementary school on the probability of parents doing light physical activity. Introducing major changes in HED increases the probability of fathers engaging in physical activity by between 6.3 and 13.7 percentage points, whereas on average, this probability for mothers does not seem to be affected. We analyze several heterogeneous impacts of the HED reforms to unveil the mechanisms behind these spillovers. We find evidence consistent with hypotheses such as gender specialization of parents in childcare activities or information sharing between children and parents. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Parental Beliefs Concerning Development and Education, Family Educational Practices and Children's Intellectual and Academic Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazouti, Youssef; Malarde, Amelie; Michea, Aurelie

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the relationships between parental beliefs relating to development and education, parenting practices, and the intellectual and academic performances of children. Data were collected for 128 families with a child in the second or third year of primary school. Investigations of the factors affecting the children's…

  10. Influence of Parental Education and Family Income on Children's Education in Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drajea, Alice J.; O'Sullivan, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of parents' literacy levels and family income in Uganda on the quality and nature of parents' involvement in their children's primary education. A mixed-methods study with an ethnographic element was employed to explore the views and opinions of 21 participants through a qualitative approach. Methods for data…

  11. The Role of Parents' Educational Level and Centre Type in Parent Satisfaction with Early Childhood Care Centres: A Study in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelesidou, Sofia; Chatzikou, Maria; Tsiamagka, Evmorfia; Koutra, Evangelia; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Tseliou, Eleftheria

    2017-01-01

    This research examines specific facets of parent satisfaction with childcare centres, namely satisfaction with parent-centre communication and the educational services they provide, as well as respective parent beliefs. These were investigated in relation to centre type (private vs public) and parents' education. Parents of different educational…

  12. Early skin-to-skin contact between healthy late preterm infants and their parents: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin H. Nyqvist

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Skin-to-skin contact (SSC is an important factor to consider in the care of late preterm infants (born between 34 0/7 and 36 6/7 completed weeks of gestation. The literature suggests that SSC between preterm infants and their mothers facilitates breastfeeding. However, more studies are needed to explore potential dose-response effects between SSC and breastfeeding as well as studies that explicitly investigate SSC by fathers among late preterm infants. The aim was to investigate the duration of healthy late preterm infants’ SSC with the mother and father, respectively, during the first 48 h after birth and the associations with breastfeeding (exclusive/partial at discharged, clinical and demographic variables. Methods This was an observational cohort study in which parents to healthy late preterm infants, born between 34 5/7 and 36 6/7 completed weeks of gestation, recorded duration of SSC provided by mother and father, respectively. Demographic and clinical variables were retrieved from the medical records and were used as predictors. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between the predictors and the outcome, SSC (hours, separately for mothers and fathers. Results The mean (standard deviation [SD] time per day spent with SSC with mothers (n = 64 and fathers (n = 64, was 14.7 (5.6 and 4.4 (3.3 hours during the first day (24 h after birth and 9.2 (7.1 and 3.1 (3.3 hours during the second day (24 h, respectively. Regarding SSC with mothers, no variable was significantly associated with SSC during the first day, while the mean (95% confidence interval [CI] time of SSC during the second day was 6.9 (1.4–12.4 hours shorter for each additional kg of birthweight (p = 0.014. Concerning SSC with fathers, the mean (95% CI time of SSC during the first day was 2.1 (0.4–3.7 hours longer for infants born at night (p = 0.015, 1.7 (0.1–3.2 hours longer for boys (p = 0.033, 3.2 (1.2–5.2 hours

  13. The correlation between parents' educational attitudes and ethnocentrism among adolescents

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    Pavićević Miljana S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the contribution that family upbringing has on the development of ethnocentrism among adolescents. This study included 345 respondents from Kosovo and Metohija of Serbian nationality. The following instruments were used for data collection: a scale for assessing educational attitudes of parents (Kodžopeljić, 2009 and the Scale for the assessment of ethnocentrism (SRAM, 2010. The research results show that adolescents exhibiting the highest level of national homogenization, and that according to their procenidominantan educational attitude of their parents cold-limiting. Correlation analysis is utvrđena najveća association (r = is 0. 35 between the confining upbringing father and national superiority or bias and ethnic exclusion and prejudice. On the other hand, the highest correlation (r = is 0. 37 was found between mothers and cold upbringing national homogenization, as well as between confining education of mothers and ethnic exclusion and prejudice. Also, the correlation of medium intensity (r = is 0. 30 = r is 0. 49 exist between a cold upbringing mothers and ethnic exclusion and prejudice (r = is 0. 30; mothers and permissive upbringing national homogenization (r = is 0. 35; confining education of mothers and national superiority or bias (r = is 0. 35. In addition, regression analysis showed that parental attitudes mother significant predictors of all four aspects of ethnocentrism, while the educational attitude father a significant predictor only one aspect of ethnocentrism and national superiority or bias.

  14. Management Strategies in Basic Education and Participation of Parents

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    Johel Furguerle-Rangel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the educational process it is necessary to use management paradigms and active participation of parents. The objective was to determine the use of management strategies by the director of basic education and participation of parents in the educational process. It is a descriptive, transversal and field study, whose instrument was a questionnaire of 26 closed-questions.   The sample comprised 16 directors, 52 teachers and 62 parents. For most managers and faculty the technique of brainstorming, involvement in decision-making, continues knowledge management and radical change are crucial in the educational process of children.   But mothers and fathers believe that managerial groups do not use strategies properly except for reengineering.   The mother and fathers are mainly involved in education management but not in the learning process. It is recommended the deepening of policy management training teaching force, through continuous training provided by the government and the promotion of family participation in the teaching-learning process of children.

  15. Treatment of infants with atopic eczema with pimecrolimus cream 1% improves parents' quality of life: a multicenter, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Doris; Kaufmann, Roland; Bräutigam, Matthias; Wahn, Ulrich

    2005-09-01

    Atopic eczema begins primarily in infancy or early childhood, and sleep loss due to night-time pruritus can have a considerable impact on patients' and parents' quality of life (QoL). In this study, infants (n = 196) with mild to severe atopic eczema were randomized 2:1, double-blind, to receive either pimecrolimus cream 1% (Elidel, Novartis Pharma, Nürnberg, Germany) or the corresponding vehicle bid for 4 wk, followed by a 12 wk, open-label phase and a 4 wk, treatment-free, follow-up period. The parents' QoL was measured at baseline and at the end of the double-blind phase, using the questionnaire 'QoL in Parents of Children with Atopic Dermatitis' (PQoL-AD), thus data presented here refer to the initial 4-wk treatment phase only. After 4 wk of double-blind treatment, an increase in the mean percentage change from baseline in eczema area and severity index of 71.5% was observed with pimecrolimus, compared with 19.4% with vehicle. The increase in efficacy was paralleled by the following mean percentage changes from baseline in the five domains of the questionnaire in pimecrolimus and vehicle, respectively: psychosomatic well-being: 14.6% vs. 6.2%; effects on social life: 6.7% vs. 2.3%; confidence in medical treatment: 10.0% vs. 3.7%; emotional coping: 16.1% vs. 6.5%; acceptance of disease: 19.6% vs. 7.0%. Analysis (ancova) of the dependent variable difference from baseline and the covariate baseline value revealed values of p eczema in infants achieved by treatment with pimecrolimus have a significant beneficial effect on the QoL of parents.

  16. An Exploration of Parenting Behaviours and Attitudes during Early Infancy: Association with Maternal and Infant Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, B.; Brown, A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of warm and democratic parenting styles for optimal social, emotional and cognitive outcomes in children over the age of five is well established. However, there is a dearth of literature exploring variations in parenting styles during infancy, despite many popular parenting books aimed at this period. The primary aim of this study…

  17. Use of social networking sites by parents of very low birth weight infants: experiences and the potential of a dedicated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbert, Tatjana I; Metze, Boris; Bührer, Christoph; Garten, Lars

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to study the experiences of parents of preterm infants who use social networking sites and the potential of such sites for gathering information and facilitating personal exchange. An anonymous self-reporting questionnaire was administered to parents of infants below 1,500 g birth weight born between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 in two tertiary neonatal intensive care units. Of the 278 families who were sent a questionnaire, 141 responded; 53.6 % of respondents claimed to be presently members of online social networking sites. However, only 10.7 and 18.6 % used the Internet to exchange information about their infants during the NICU stay and after discharge, respectively. Most (64.0 %) responding parents considered that currently available commercial Internet sites inadequately met their need to exchange information as parents of preterm infants. Overall, 79.1 % of respondents reported that they would be interested in joining a native-language online networking site providing (1) general information on prematurity, (2) explanations of abbreviations commonly used in a hospital setting, and (3) details of common medical problems and the treatment thereof, including the availability of local therapists and follow-up services. Also, parents wanted to engage in personal exchange online not only with other parents but also with medical staff. The support of parents of hospitalized preterm infants by neonatal nurses and doctors could be extended by developing an expert-controlled, online networking site providing reliable and updated information and facilitating personal exchange among parents.

  18. Predictors of maternal language to infants during a picture book task in the home: Family SES, child characteristics and the parenting environment☆

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Pancsofar, Nadya; Willoughby, Mike; Odom, Erica; Quade, Alison; Cox, Martha

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of child characteristics and parenting environment to the relationship between family SES/demographic characteristics and maternal language to infants.1157 children were drawn from a representative sample of 1292 infants born to mothers in rural Appalachian counties and rural counties in southern minority U.S. communities. Mothers and their 6–8 month old babies were videotaped at home while talking about a wordless picture book. Mothers' language outpu...

  19. TEMPERAMENTAL ADAPTABILITY, PERSISTENCE, AND REGULARITY: PARENTAL RATINGS OF NORWEGIAN INFANTS AGED 6 TO 12 MONTHS, WITH SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR PREVENTIVE PRACTICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Torgersen, Anne Mari; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Smith, Lars; Moe, Vibeke

    2018-03-01

    There is a need for standardized measures of infant temperament to strengthen current practices in prevention and early intervention. The present study provides Norwegian data on the Cameron-Rice Infant Temperament Questionnaire (CRITQ; J.R. Cameron & D.C. Rice, 1986a), which comprises 46 items and is used within a U.S. health maintenance organization. The CRITQ was filled out by mothers and fathers at 6 and again at 12 months as part of a longitudinal study of mental health during the first years of life (the "Little in Norway" study, N = 1,041 families enrolled; V. Moe & L. Smith, 2010). Results showed that internal consistencies were comparable with U.S. The temperament dimensions of persistence, adaptability, and regularity had acceptable or close-to-acceptable reliabilities in the U.S. study as well as in this study, and also were unifactorial in confirmatory factor analysis. These dimensions are the focus in this article. Findings concerning parents' differential ratings of their infants on the three dimensions are reported, as is the stability of parents' ratings of temperament from 6 to 12 months. In addition, results on the relation between temperament and parenting stress are presented. The study suggests that temperamental adaptability, persistence, and regularity may be relevant when assessing infant behavior, and may be applied in systematic prevention trials for families with infants. The inclusion of concepts related to individual differences in response tendencies and regulatory efforts may broaden the understanding of parent-infant transactions, and thus enrich prevention and sensitizing interventions with the aim of assisting infants' development. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. The Role of Infant Pain Behaviour in Predicting Parent Pain Ratings

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    Rebecca Pillai Riddell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research investigating how observers empathize or form estimations of an individual experiencing pain suggests that both characteristics of the observer (‘top down’ and characteristics of the individual in pain (‘bottom up’ are influential. However, experts have opined that infant behaviour should serve as a crucial determinant of infant pain judgment due to their inability to self-report.

  1. Look! Listen! Learn! Parent Narratives and Grounded Theory Models of Parent Voice, Presence, and Engagement in K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maria K.; Millen, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Educators' expectations and understandings of parental involvement in our nation's schools are often disconnected from the reality of students' home lives. This qualitative study purports that educators often lose opportunities to more fully understand and serve students, particularly when perceptions of parental involvement and…

  2. Parent Feedback about Individualized Education Program Team Meetings for Students in Kindergarten through Grade 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Martin, Elizabeth; Wilson, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents parent feedback from a study that focused on experiences at Individualized Education Program (IEP) team meetings and also explored parent satisfaction with delivery of special education services. The study included all parents of Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) students who had educational disabilities, were…

  3. Depressive symptoms and compromised parenting in low-income mothers of infants and toddlers: distal and proximal risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeber, Linda S; Schwartz, Todd A; Martinez, Maria I; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Bledsoe, Sarah E; Canuso, Regina; Lewis, Virginia S

    2014-08-01

    Low-income mothers develop depressive symptoms at higher rates than the general population, adding to the existing risk that economic hardship places on their infants and toddlers. Emphasizing a few key intervention targets, an approach that is especially relevant to mothers when depressive symptoms compromise their energy and concentration, can improve interventions with populations facing adversity. The goal of this study was to identify contextual risk factors that significantly contributed to depressive symptoms and that, in combination with depressive symptoms, were associated with compromised parenting. Using baseline data from 251 ethnically diverse mothers from six Early Head Start programs in the Northeastern and Southeastern US, who were recruited for a clinical trial of an in-home intervention, Belsky's ecological framework of distal to proximal levels of influence was used to organize risk factors for depressive symptoms in hierarchical regression models. Under stress, mothers of toddlers reported more severe depressive symptoms than mothers of infants, supporting the need for depressive symptom screening and monitoring past the immediate postpartum period. Multivariate models revealed intervention targets that can focus depression prevention and intervention efforts, including helping mothers reduce chronic day-to-day stressors and conflicts with significant others, and to effectively handle challenging toddler behaviors, especially in the face of regional disciplinary norms. Presence of a live-in partner was linked to more effective parenting, regardless of participants' depressive symptom severity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Parents' perception, students' and teachers' attitude towards school sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Assefa, Tsion; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Ambaw, Fentie

    2012-07-01

    Sex education is described as education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, abstinence, contraception, family planning, body image, sexual orientation, sexual pleasure, values, decision making, communication, dating, relationships, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how to avoid them, and birth control methods. This study was conducted to explore perception of parents about school sex education and assess the attitude of teachers and students towards school sex education. A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative study was conducted on randomly selected 386 students, total census of 94 teachers and 10 parents in Merawi Town from March 13-27, 2011. Data were collected using self-administered structured questionnaire and in-depth interview guideline. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed using total score to determine the effect of the independent variables on the outcome variable and thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. All study participants have favourable attitude towards the importance of school sex education. They also agreed that the content of school sex education should include abstinence-only and abstinence-plus based on mental maturity of the students. That means at early age (Primary school) the content of school sex education should be abstinence-only and at later age (secondary school) the content of school sex education should be added abstinence-plus. The students and the teachers said that the minimum and maximum introduction time for school sex education is 5 year and 25 year with mean of 10.97(SD±4.3) and 12.36(SD±3.7) respectively. Teacher teaching experiences and field of studies have supportive idea about the starting of school sex education. Watching romantic movies, reading romantic materials and listening romantic radio programs appear to have a contribution on the predictor of

  5. The effect of self-esteem on parenting attitudes of mothers with infants-For developing self-esteem in children-

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 悠; 中島, 美那子; Kato, Haruka; Nakajima, Minako; 日本労働者協同組合連合会センター事業団 特定非営利活動法人ワーカーズコープ; 茨城キリスト教大学

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to illuminate the relationship to levels of self-esteem and parenting attitudes in mothers with infants. Mothers (N=81) completed the self-esteem scale (10 items) and the parenting attitudes scale (30 items). As a part of the results, the higher group of self-esteem indicated the higher level of parenting attitudes. Other results were that homemaker mothers tended toward lower degree of self-esteem and also indicated lower level of parenting attitudes in comparison with m...

  6. Participatory action research: involving students in parent education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Cathrine; Wu, Cynthia; Lam, Winsome

    2014-01-01

    Competition for scarce clinical placements has increased requiring new and innovative models to be developed to meet the growing need. A participatory action research project was used to provide a community nursing clinical experience of involvement in parent education. Nine Hong Kong nursing students self-selected to participate in the project to implement a parenting program called Parenting Young Children in a Digital World. Three project cycles were used: needs identification, skills development and program implementation. Students were fully involved in each cycle's planning, action and reflection phase. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected to inform the project. The overall outcome of the project was the provision of a rich and viable clinical placement experience that created significant learning opportunities for the students and researchers. This paper will explore the student's participation in this PAR project as an innovative clinical practice opportunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental separation and behaviours that influence the health of infants aged 7-11 months: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacenelenbogen, Nadine; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Schetgen, M; Roland, M

    2014-07-22

    Analyse the parental behaviours that are recognised as influencing the health of very young children based on family structure (parents separated or not). Cross-sectional study. Free preventive medicine consultations in the French Community of Belgium. Examination of 79 701 infants aged 7-11 months as part of a free preventive medicine consultation. The data came from an assessment conducted 7-11 months after birth during which information was collected, namely about the parents' use of tobacco, the infant's type of nutrition and adherence to vaccination schedules. Parental behaviours: smoking, nutrition and compliance with vaccination schedule. The percentage of infants whose parents were separated was 6.6%. After adjusting for the cultural and socioeconomic environment as well as for other potential confounders, in the event of separation as compared with non-separated parents, the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were as follows: 1.5 (1.3 to 1.7) for the infant's exposure to tobacco; 1.3 (1.2 to 1.4) for total lack of exclusive breast feeding; 1.3 (1.1 to 1.4) and 1.2 (1.1 to 1.2) for breast feeding for a duration of less than 3 and 6 months, respectively; 1.2 (1.1 to 1.4) for non-compliance with the vaccination schedule against rotavirus. The duration of exclusive breast feeding was shorter when parents were separated (pparental separation is independently associated with certain parental at-risk behaviours regarding the children's health. This observation should be verified because this could result in major consequences for the work of family doctors, in particular in terms of parent information and targeted prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. A PEX6-defective peroxisomal biogenesis disorder with severe phenotype in an infant, versus mild phenotype resembling Usher syndrome in the affected parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Wanders, Ronald J A; Mooijer, Petra A W; Gootjes, Jeannette; Waterham, Hans R; Gutman, Alisa; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Naomi; Eshel, Gideon; Espeel, Marc; Roels, Frank; Korman, Stanley H

    2002-04-01

    Sensorineural deafness and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are the hallmarks of Usher syndrome (USH) but are also prominent features in peroxisomal biogenesis defects (PBDs); both are autosomal recessively inherited. The firstborn son of unrelated parents, who both had sensorineural deafness and RP diagnosed as USH, presented with sensorineural deafness, RP, dysmorphism, developmental delay, hepatomegaly, and hypsarrhythmia and died at age 17 mo. The infant was shown to have a PBD, on the basis of elevated plasma levels of very-long- and branched-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs and BCFAs), deficiency of multiple peroxisomal functions in fibroblasts, and complete absence of peroxisomes in fibroblasts and liver. Surprisingly, both parents had elevated plasma levels of VLCFAs and BCFAs. Fibroblast studies confirmed that both parents had a PBD. The parents' milder phenotypes correlated with relatively mild peroxisomal biochemical dysfunction and with catalase immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrating mosaicism and temperature sensitivity in fibroblasts. The infant and both of his parents belonged to complementation group C. PEX6 gene sequencing revealed mutations on both alleles, in the infant and in his parents. This unique family is the first report of a PBD with which the parents are themselves affected individuals rather than asymptomatic carriers. Because of considerable overlap between USH and milder PBD phenotypes, individuals suspected to have USH should be screened for peroxisomal dysfunction.

  9. Knowledge translation of the HELPinKIDS clinical practice guideline for managing childhood vaccination pain: usability and knowledge uptake of educational materials directed to new parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taddio Anna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although numerous evidence-based and feasible interventions are available to treat pain from childhood vaccine injections, evidence indicates that children are not benefitting from this knowledge. Unrelieved vaccination pain puts children at risk for significant long-term harms including the development of needle fears and subsequent health care avoidance behaviours. Parents report that while they want to mitigate vaccination pain in their children, they lack knowledge about how to do so. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for managing vaccination pain was recently developed in order to address this knowledge-to-care gap. Educational tools (pamphlet and video for parents were included to facilitate knowledge transfer at the point of care. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usability and effectiveness in terms of knowledge acquisition from the pamphlet and video in parents of newly born infants. Methods Mixed methods design. Following heuristic usability evaluation of the pamphlet and video, parents of newborn infants reviewed revised versions of both tools and participated in individual and group interviews and individual knowledge testing. The knowledge test comprised of 10 true/false questions about the effectiveness of various pain management interventions, and was administered at three time points: at baseline, after review of the pamphlet, and after review of the video. Results Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews regarding usability of these educational tools: receptivity to learning, accessibility to information, and validity of information. Parents’ performance on the knowledge test improved (p≤0.001 from the baseline phase to after review of the pamphlet, and again from the pamphlet review phase to after review of the video. Conclusions Using a robust testing process, we demonstrated usability and conceptual knowledge acquisition from a parent-directed educational

  10. In an idealized world: can discrepancies across self-reported parental care and high betrayal trauma during childhood predict infant attachment avoidance in the next generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rosemary E; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Musser, Erica D; Measelle, Jeffery R; Ablow, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    Adult caregivers' idealization of their parents as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview is a risk factor for the intergenerational transmission of the insecure-avoidant attachment style. This study evaluated a briefer screening approach for identifying parental idealization, testing the utility of prenatal maternal self-report measures of recalled betrayal trauma and parental care in childhood to predict observationally assessed infant attachment avoidance with 58 mother-infant dyads 18 months postpartum. In a logistic regression that controlled for maternal demographics, prenatal psychopathology, and postnatal sensitivity, the interaction between women's self-reported childhood high betrayal trauma and the level of care provided to them by their parents was the only significant predictor of 18-month infant security versus avoidance. Results suggest that betrayal trauma and recalled parental care in childhood can provide a means of identifying caregivers whose infant children are at risk for avoidant attachment, potentially providing an efficient means for scientific studies and clinical intervention aimed at preventing the intergenerational transmission of attachment problems.

  11. Transition from hospital to home: Parents' perception of their preparation and readiness for discharge with their preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydon, Laurene; Hauck, Yvonne; Murdoch, Jamee; Siu, Daphne; Sharp, Mary

    2018-01-01

    To explore the experiences of parents with babies born between 28-32 weeks' gestation during transition through the neonatal intensive care unit and discharge to home. Following birth of a preterm baby, parents undergo a momentous journey through the neonatal intensive care unit prior to their arrival home. The complexity of the journey varies on the degree of prematurity and problems faced by each baby. The neonatal intensive care unit environment has many stressors and facilitating education to assist parents to feel ready for discharge can be challenging for all health professionals. Qualitative descriptive design. The project included two phases, pre- and postdischarge, to capture the experiences of 20 couples (40 parents), whilst their baby was a neonatal intensive care unit inpatient and then after discharge. Face-to-face interviews, an online survey and telephone interviews were employed to gather parent's experiences. Constant comparative analysis was used to identify commonalities between experiences. Recruitment and data collection occurred from October 2014-February 2015. Overlapping themes from both phases revealed three overarching concepts: effective parent staff communication; feeling informed and involved; and being prepared to go home. Our findings can be used to develop strategies to improve the neonatal intensive care unit stay and discharge experience for parents. Proposed strategies would be to improve information transfer, promote parental contact with the multidisciplinary team, encourage input from fathers to identify their needs and facilitate parental involvement according to individual needs within families. Providing information to parents during their time in hospital, in a consistent and timely manner is an essential component of their preparation when transitioning to home. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Parental leave policies in graduate medical education: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Laura S; Lyon, Sarah; Garza, Rebecca; Butz, Daniel R; Lemelman, Benjamin; Park, Julie E

    2017-10-01

    A thorough understanding of attitudes toward and program policies for parenthood in graduate medical education (GME) is essential for establishing fair and achievable parental leave policies and fostering a culture of support for trainees during GME. A systematic review of the literature was completed. Non-cohort studies, studies completed or published outside of the United States, and studies not published in English were excluded. Studies that addressed the existence of parental leave policies in GME were identified and were the focus of this study. Twenty-eight studies addressed the topic of the existence of formal parental leave policies in GME, which was found to vary across time and ranged between 22 and 90%. Support for such policies persisted across time. Attention to formal leave policies in GME has traditionally been lacking, but may be increasing. Negative attitudes towards parenthood in GME persist. Active awareness of the challenges faced by parent-trainees combined with formal parental leave policy implementation is important in supporting parenthood in GME. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Becoming a client of the Danish social service system increases stress in parents of disabled infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Skov, Lotte; Andersen, John Sahl

    2011-01-01

    parents of a severely disabled young child during the first two years after the diagnosis of the child's disabilities. Data were analysed using grounded theory. RESULTS: We found that the encounter with the social services increased stress in the families. Parental expectations were not met, especially......INTRODUCTION: Parents of a young child with severe disabilities are facing a large range of new challenges; furthermore, most of these families have extended social needs regarding information, financial support, day care facilities, disability aids, etc. Many parents with disabled children have...

  14. Realizing the American Dream: A Parent Education Program Designed to Increase Latino Family Engagement in Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joan M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler's parent involvement process model, the Realizing the American Dream (RAD) parent education program targets Latino parents' involvement beliefs and knowledge to enhance their involvement behaviors. Comparison of more than 2,000 parents' self-reported beliefs, knowledge, and behavior before and after RAD…

  15. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  16. Is the association between offspring intelligence and parents' educational attainment influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Aja Neergaard; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    for developing schizophrenia. Based on these findings, we aim to investigate if the association between educational achievement in parents and intelligence in their offspring is influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents. In a large population-based sample of young adult male conscripts (n = 156......,531) the presence of a mental disorder in the parents were associated with significantly lower offspring scores on a test of general intelligence, the Børge Priens Prøve (BPP), and higher educational attainment in parents was significantly associated with higher BPP test scores in offspring. A significant...... interaction suggested that the positive association between maternal education and offspring intelligence was stronger in offspring of mothers with schizophrenia compared to the control group (p = 0.03). The associations between parental education and offspring intelligence are also observed when restricting...

  17. Making Agency Matter: Rethinking Infant and Toddler Agency in Educational Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhn, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This article engages critically with the concept of agency in infant and toddler educational discourse. It is argued that agency, when conceptualised with emphasis on individuality and the autonomous self, poses a conceptual "dead end" for those who are not-yet-in-language, such as babies and toddlers. In considering agency as an aspect…

  18. Efforts and Models of Education for Parents: the Danish Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosendal Jensen, Niels

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The report examines the relationship between day care institutions, schools and so called “parents unfamiliar to education” as well as the relationship between the institutions. With in Danish public and professional discourse concepts like parents unfamiliar to education are usually referring to environments, parents or families with either no or just very restricted experience of education except for the basic school (folkeskole. The “grand old man” of Danish educational research, Prof. Em. Erik Jørgen Hansen, defines the concept as follows: Parents who are distant from or not familiar with education, are parents without tradition of education and by that fact they are not able to contribute constructively in order to back up their own children during their education. Many teachers and pedagogues are not used to that term; they rather prefer concepts like “socially exposed” or “socially disadvantaged” parents or social classes or strata. The report does not only focus on parents who are not capable to support the school achievements of their children, since a low level of education is usually connected with social disadvantage. Such parents are often not capable of understanding and meeting the demands from side of the school when sending their children to school. They lack the competencies or the necessary competence of action. For the moment being much attention is done from side of the Ministries of Education and Social Affairs (recently renamed Ministry of Welfare in order to create equal possibilities for all children. Many kinds of expertise (directions, counsels, researchers, etc. have been more than eager to promote recommendations aiming at achieving the ambitious goal: 2015 95% of all young people should complement a full education (classes 10.-12.. Research results are pointing out the importance of increased participation of parents. In other word the agenda is set for ‘parents’ education’. It seems necessary

  19. Infant and Child Oral Health Risk Status Correlated to Behavioral Habits of Parents or Caregivers: A Survey in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozza, Iole; Capasso, Francesca; Marrese, Elisa; Polimeni, Antonella; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of parents and caregivers about potential oral health risk factors for their children in their first months of life (3-30 months). The participation to the survey was proposed to all parents or caregivers of children attending the public consulting service in Latina for mandatory vaccinations during the period of June to August 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was completed to obtain information regarding demographic variables, infant feeding practice, maternal oral health during and after pregnancy, children's oral hygiene habits and risk behaviors (e.g., sharing cutlery, tasting of baby food, nightly using of baby bottles with sugared beverages, or sugared pacifier), and knowledge about caries and its transmission. The analysis of the data was performed using SPSS 14.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The variance analysis and chi-square test were used to investigate the relationship between the variables. Overall, the parents of 304 children consented to fill the questionnaire. Data analysis showed that about 50% of respondents considered dental caries an infectious disease, however, 53.6% was not aware of the potential vertical transmissibility of cariogenic bacteria through contaminated saliva. It is a common trend in the early stages of weaning to taste the baby food (53%) and sharing cutlery (38.5%). With regard to children oral health care, parents reported no toothbrushing for 53.1% of the children in their first 3 years of life. The relationship between the two variables concerning caries transmissibility and tools sharing carried out on through Pearson chi-square test identified P = 0.32. From this survey, the need for parental oral health promoting program emerged to control children oral health risk status.

  20. The influence of parents, older siblings, and non-parental care on infant development at nine months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Cruise, Sharon; O'Reilly, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of research examining the influence of social environment on early child development suggests benefits to two-parent households, but contradictory evidence for the effects of siblings. The aims of the present study were to examine the influence of the child's proximal social environment, and the effects of interactions between socioeconomic status and social environment on developmental outcomes.Methods: Primary caregivers of a representative sample of 10,748 nine-mon...